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Sample records for sequential explanatory mixed

  1. The facilitators and barriers to nurses' participation in continuing education programs: a mixed method explanatory sequential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2014-11-30

    Since several factors affect nurses' participation in Continuing Education, and that nurses' Continuing Education affects patients' and community health status, it is essential to know facilitators and barriers of participation in Continuing Education programs and plan accordingly. This mixed approach study aimed to investigate the facilitators and barriers of nurses' participation, to explore nurses' perception of the most common facilitators and barriers. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design with follow up explanations variant were used, and it involved collecting quantitative data (361 nurses) first and then explaining the quantitative results with in-depth interviews during a qualitative study. The results showed that the mean score of facilitators to nurses' participation in Continuing Education was significantly higher than the mean score of barriers (61.99 ± 10.85 versus 51.17 ± 12.83; pEducation was related to "Update my knowledge". By reviewing the handwritings in qualitative phase, two main levels of updating information and professional skills were extracted as the most common facilitators and lack of support as the most common barrier to nurses' participation in continuing education program. According to important role Continuing Education on professional skills, nurse managers should facilitate the nurse' participation in the Continues Education.

  2. Exploring selection and recruitment processes for newly qualified nurses: a sequential-explanatory mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; Chandler, Val; Morris-Thomson, Trish; Sayer, Jane; Burke, Linda

    2015-01-01

    To map current selection and recruitment processes for newly qualified nurses and to explore the advantages and limitations of current selection and recruitment processes. The need to improve current selection and recruitment practices for newly qualified nurses is highlighted in health policy internationally. A cross-sectional, sequential-explanatory mixed-method design with 4 components: (1) Literature review of selection and recruitment of newly qualified nurses; and (2) Literature review of a public sector professions' selection and recruitment processes; (3) Survey mapping existing selection and recruitment processes for newly qualified nurses; and (4) Qualitative study about recruiters' selection and recruitment processes. Literature searches on the selection and recruitment of newly qualified candidates in teaching and nursing (2005-2013) were conducted. Cross-sectional, mixed-method data were collected from thirty-one (n = 31) individuals in health providers in London who had responsibility for the selection and recruitment of newly qualified nurses using a survey instrument. Of these providers who took part, six (n = 6) purposively selected to be interviewed qualitatively. Issues of supply and demand in the workforce, rather than selection and recruitment tools, predominated in the literature reviews. Examples of tools to measure values, attitudes and skills were found in the nursing literature. The mapping exercise found that providers used many selection and recruitment tools, some providers combined tools to streamline process and assure quality of candidates. Most providers had processes which addressed the issue of quality in the selection and recruitment of newly qualified nurses. The 'assessment centre model', which providers were adopting, allowed for multiple levels of assessment and streamlined recruitment. There is a need to validate the efficacy of the selection tools. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Practical Framework for Evaluating Health Services Management Educational Program: The Application of The Mixed-Method Sequential Explanatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazrafshan Azam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Health services managers are responsible for improving the efficiency and quality in delivering healthcare services. In this regard, Health Services Management (HSM programs have been widely established to provide health providers with skilled, professional managers to address those needs. It is therefore important to ascertain the quality of these programs. The purpose of this study was to synthesize and develop a framework to evaluate the quality of the Health Services Management (HSM program at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study followed a mixed-method sequential explanatory approach in which data were collected through a CIPP survey and semi-structured interviews. In phase 1, participants included 10 faculty members, 64 students and 90 alumni. In phase 2, in-depth semi-structured interviews and purposeful sampling were conducted with 27 participants to better understand their perceptions of the HSM program. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. NVivo N8 was used to analyze the qualitative data and extract the themes. Results: The data analysis revealed both positive and negative attitudes toward the HSM program. According to the CIPP survey, program objectives (74%, curriculum content (59.5% and graduate skills (79% were the major sources of dissatisfaction. However, most respondents (n=48 reported that the classes are well equipped and learning resources are well prepared (n=41. Most respondents (n=41 reported that the students are actively involved in classroom activities. The majority of respondents (n=43 pointed out that the instructors implemented appropriate teaching strategies. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed that a regular community needs assessment, content revision and directing attention to graduate skills and expertise are the key solutions to improve the program’s quality.Conclusion: This study revealed to what extent the HSM program objectives is being

  4. How and Why Digital Generation Teachers Use Technology in the Classroom: An Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Worch, Eric; Zhou, YuChun; Aguiton, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    While teachers' conservative attitude toward technology has been identified as a barrier to effective technology integration in classrooms, it is often optimistically assumed that this issue will resolve when the digital generation enters the teaching profession (Morris, 2012). Using a mixed methodology approach, this study aimed to examine the…

  5. Effects of a self-management education program on self-efficacy in patients with COPD: a mixed-methods sequential explanatory designed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai I; Smith, Graeme Drummond

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-management education programs (SMEPs) are potentially effective in the symptomatic management of COPD. Little is presently known about the effectiveness of these programs in Chinese COPD patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a specifically designed SMEP on levels of self-efficacy in Chinese patients with COPD. Materials and methods Based on the Medical Research Council framework for evaluating complex interventions, an exploratory phase randomized controlled trial was employed to examine the effects of an SMEP. Self-efficacy was the primary outcome using the COPD Self-efficacy Scale, measured at baseline and 6 months after the program. Qualitative data were sequentially collected from these patients via three focus groups to supplement the quantitative findings. Results The experimental group displayed significant improvement in their general self-efficacy (Z =−2.44, P=0.015) and specifically in confronting 1) physical exertion (Z =−2.57, P=0.01), 2) weather/environment effects (Z =−2.63, PChinese patients with COPD. Further attention should be given to cultural considerations when developing this type of intervention in Chinese populations with COPD and other chronic diseases. PMID:28790816

  6. The Use of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in Music Therapy: A Sequential Explanatory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwalek, Carolyn M; McKinney, Cathy H

    2015-01-01

    There are published examples of how dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and music therapy are effectively being used as separate therapies in the treatment of individuals with a variety of mental health disorders. However, research examining DBT-informed music therapy is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine whether music therapists working in mental health settings are implementing components of DBT in their work, and if so, how and why; and if not, why not and what is their level of interest in such work. We used a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research design implemented in two phases. Phase 1 was a quantitative survey of board-certified music therapists (n=260). Due to a low survey response rate (18%), and to enhance the validity of the findings, Phase 2, an embedded qualitative procedure in the form of interviews with clinicians experienced in the DBT approach, was added to the study. Both survey and interviews inquired about DBT training, use of DBT-informed music therapy, music therapy experiences used to address DBT skills, and experiences of implementing DBT-informed music therapy. Respondents indicating they implement DBT-informed music therapy (38.3%) are using components and adaptations of the standard DBT protocol. Advantages of implementing DBT-informed music therapy were identified, and more than half of the respondents who do not implement DBT in their music therapy practice also perceived this work as at least somewhat important. Disadvantages were also identified and support the need for further research. Components of DBT are used in music therapy and are valued, but there is a lack of empirical evidence to inform, refine, and guide practice. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Using case study within a sequential explanatory design to evaluate the impact of specialist and advanced practice roles on clinical outcomes: the SCAPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Joan G; Casey, Dympna; Elliott, Naomi; Coyne, Imelda; Comiskey, Catherine; Higgins, Agnes; Murphy, Kathy; Devane, Declan; Begley, Cecily

    2013-04-08

    The role of the clinical nurse/midwife specialist and advanced nurse/midwife practitioner is complex not least because of the diversity in how the roles are operationalised across health settings and within multidisciplinary teams. This aim of this paper is to use The SCAPE Study: Specialist Clinical and Advanced Practitioner Evaluation in Ireland to illustrate how case study was used to strengthen a Sequential Explanatory Design. In Phase 1, clinicians identified indicators of specialist and advanced practice which were then used to guide the instrumental case study design which formed the second phase of the larger study. Phase 2 used matched case studies to evaluate the effectiveness of specialist and advanced practitioners on clinical outcomes for service users. Data were collected through observation, documentary analysis, and interviews. Observations were made of 23 Clinical Specialists or Advanced Practitioners, and 23 matched clinicians in similar matched non-postholding sites, while they delivered care. Forty-one service users, 41 clinicians, and 23 Directors of Nursing or Midwifery were interviewed, and 279 service users completed a survey based on the components of CS and AP practice identified in Phase 1. A coding framework, and the generation of cross tabulation matrices in NVivo, was used to make explicit how the outcome measures were confirmed and validated from multiple sources. This strengthened the potential to examine single cases that seemed 'different', and allowed for cases to be redefined. Phase 3 involved interviews with policy-makers to set the findings in context. Case study is a powerful research strategy to use within sequential explanatory mixed method designs, and adds completeness to the exploration of complex issues in clinical practice. The design is flexible, allowing the use of multiple data collection methods from both qualitative and quantitative paradigms. Multiple approaches to data collection are needed to evaluate the impact

  8. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for ... show the effectiveness of the research method. ... qualitative data before quantitative datasets ..... whereby both types of data are collected simultaneously.

  9. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for investigating complex problems, but it has not been extensively used in construction management research. In South Africa, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital responsibility since the government called upon the ...

  10. Breaking from binaries - using a sequential mixed methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Patricia Mary; Begley, Cecily Marion; Devane, Declan

    2014-03-01

    To outline the traditional worldviews of healthcare research and discuss the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods approaches in contributing to the development of nursing and midwifery knowledge. There has been much debate about the contribution of mixed methods research to nursing and midwifery knowledge in recent years. A sequential exploratory design is used as an exemplar of a mixed methods approach. The study discussed used a combination of focus-group interviews and a quantitative instrument to obtain a fuller understanding of women's experiences of childbirth. In the mixed methods study example, qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and quantitative data using regression analysis. Polarised debates about the veracity, philosophical integrity and motivation for conducting mixed methods research have largely abated. A mixed methods approach can contribute to a deeper, more contextual understanding of a variety of subjects and experiences; as a result, it furthers knowledge that can be used in clinical practice. The purpose of the research study should be the main instigator when choosing from an array of mixed methods research designs. Mixed methods research offers a variety of models that can augment investigative capabilities and provide richer data than can a discrete method alone. This paper offers an example of an exploratory, sequential approach to investigating women's childbirth experiences. A clear framework for the conduct and integration of the different phases of the mixed methods research process is provided. This approach can be used by practitioners and policy makers to improve practice.

  11. The Obstacles for the Teaching of 8th Grade TR History of Revolution and Kemalism Course According to the Constructivist Approach (An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Method Design)

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    Karademir, Yavuz; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the problems social studies teachers face in the teaching of topics covered in 8th grade TRHRK Course. The study was conducted in line with explanatory sequential mixed method design, which is one of the mixed research method, was used. The study involves three phases. In the first step, exploratory process…

  12. AN EXPLANATORY MIXED METHOD STUDY ON PRE-SERVICE LANGUAGE TEACHERS’ COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION TOWARDS THEIR INSTRUCTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan KAVANOZ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Promoting higher communication efficiency among teacher candidates and acting as models are among the main professional responsibilities of teacher educators. This makes the task of teachers even more important in language education classes where students are prospective language teachers and their development as language teachers highly depend on the way teacher educators teach and communicate (Wen & Clément, 2003. This sequential mixed-method study examined Communication Apprehension (CA levels of a convenience sample of pre-service language teachers at a state university with a particular focus on the influence of gender, year level, and achievement on CA towards lecturers. Given that CA is a psychological experience, a self-reported questionnaire, Communication Apprehension with the Lecturers Scale (CALS, (Eren-Gümüş, and Kolburan-Geçer, 2008 was considered appropriate for measuring the participants’ levels of communication apprehension with their instructors. In order to compare the CA levels of students at each level, a cross-sectional survey design was selected (Creswell, 2002. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and independent samples t-test. In addition to the quantitative data analysis, the researcher purposefully elicited open-ended written comments of pre-service language teachers in order to gain deeper insights into the phenomenon. The data obtained through open-ended survey questions were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that communication should have a greater role in teacher education and teacher educators should refrain from exhibiting behaviors that can prevent prospective teachers from communicating with them.

  13. Lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. A mixed method study

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    Valeria Markova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Refugees are at high risk for mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services to meet the needs of refugees from various regions, an understanding of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems is warranted. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway.Methods. The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria. Firstly, a survey study was performed among Somali refugees (n = 101. Respondents were asked to provide advice to the vignette character, completing the Cross-Cultural Depression Coping Inventory and the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Secondly, focus group interviews (n = 10 were done separately with males and females to examine the relationship between the explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies.Results. The participants showed a strong preference for coping with depression by religious practices and reliance on family, friends, and their ethnic/religious community rather than seeking professional treatment from public health services (e.g., medical doctors, psychologists. Depressive symptoms were conceptualized as a problem related to cognition (thinking too much and emotion (sadness, but not with biological mechanisms, and were thought to result from spiritual possessions, stress from social isolation, and/or past trauma. Independent of time in exile, the participants showed a strong identification with their ethnic origin and associated values. As participants emphasized the need to obey and follow the viewpoint of elders, fathers, and spiritual leaders, these authorities seemed to be gatekeepers for access to mental health services. Conclusion. The results highlight that mental health programs for Somali refugees

  14. Herbage intake of dairy cows in mixed sequential grazing with breeding ewes as followers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rosales, Juan Daniel; Améndola-Massiotti, Ricardo Daniel; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan Andrés; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Topete-Pelayo, Pedro; Huerta-Bravo, Maximino

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that mixed sequential grazing of dairy cows and breeding ewes is beneficial. During the seasons of spring-summer 2013 and autumn-winter 2013-2014, 12 (spring-summer) and 16 (autumn-winter) Holstein Friesian cows and 24 gestating (spring-summer) and lactating (autumn-winter) Pelibuey ewes grazed on six (spring-summer) and nine (autumn-winter) paddocks of alfalfa and orchard grass mixed pastures. The treatments "single species cow grazing" (CowG) and "mixed sequential grazing with ewes as followers of cows" (MixG) were evaluated, under a completely randomized design with two replicates per paddock. Herbage mass on offer (HO) and residual herbage mass (RH) were estimated by cutting samples. The estimate of herbage intake (HI) of cows was based on the use of internal and external markers; the apparent HI of ewes was calculated as the difference between HO (RH of cows) and RH. Even though HO was higher in CowG, the HI of cows was higher in MixG during spring-summer and similar in both treatments during autumn-winter, implying that in MixG the effects on the cows HI of higher alfalfa proportion and herbage accumulation rate evolving from lower residual herbage mass in the previous cycle counteracted that of a higher HO in CowG. The HI of ewes was sufficient to enable satisfactory performance as breeding ewes. Thus, the benefits of mixed sequential grazing arose from higher herbage accumulation, positive changes in botanical composition, and the achievement of sheep production without negative effects on the herbage intake of cows.

  15. Self-Perceived Traits of Servant Leadership in AmeriCorps Volunteers: A Mixed Method Concurrent Explanatory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karen F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the tenets of modern servant leadership originated by Greenleaf (1970) have long been applied to service enterprise, no known research has applied the principles to the self-perception of AmeriCorps volunteers who commit to one year of service. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine whether volunteers who commit to one…

  16. Removal of toluene by sequential adsorption-plasma oxidation: Mixed support and catalyst deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Caihong; Huang, Xuemin; Zhao, Junjie; Huang, Jiayu; Kang, Zhongli; Dang, Xiaoqing

    2017-07-15

    A sequential adsorption-plasma oxidation system was used to remove toluene from simulated dry air using γ-Al 2 O 3 , HZSM-5, a mixture of the two materials or their supported Mn-Ag catalyst as adsorbents under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. After 120min of plasma oxidation, γ-Al 2 O 3 had a better carbon balance (∼75%) than HZSM-5, but the CO 2 yield of γ-Al 2 O 3 was only ∼50%; and there was some desorption of toluene when γ-Al 2 O 3 was used. When a mixture of HZSM-5 and γ-Al 2 O 3 with a mass ratio of 1/2 was used, the carbon balance was up to 90% and 82% of this was CO 2 . The adsorption performance and electric discharge characteristics of the mixed supports were tested in order to rationalize this high CO x yield. After seven cycles of sequential adsorption-plasma oxidation, support and Mn-Ag catalyst deactivation occurred. The support and catalyst were characterized before and after deactivation by SEM, a BET method, XRD, XPS and GC-MS in order to probe the mechanism of their deactivation. 97.6% of the deactivated supports and 76% of the deactivated catalysts could be recovered by O 2 temperature-programmed oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Realist explanatory theory building method for social epidemiology: a protocol for a mixed method multilevel study of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    A recent criticism of social epidemiological studies, and multi-level studies in particular has been a paucity of theory. We will present here the protocol for a study that aims to build a theory of the social epidemiology of maternal depression. We use a critical realist approach which is trans-disciplinary, encompassing both quantitative and qualitative traditions, and that assumes both ontological and hierarchical stratification of reality. We describe a critical realist Explanatory Theory Building Method comprising of an: 1) emergent phase, 2) construction phase, and 3) confirmatory phase. A concurrent triangulated mixed method multilevel cross-sectional study design is described. The Emergent Phase uses: interviews, focus groups, exploratory data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, and multilevel Bayesian spatial data analysis to detect and describe phenomena. Abductive and retroductive reasoning will be applied to: categorical principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, coding of concepts and categories, constant comparative analysis, drawing of conceptual networks, and situational analysis to generate theoretical concepts. The Theory Construction Phase will include: 1) defining stratified levels; 2) analytic resolution; 3) abductive reasoning; 4) comparative analysis (triangulation); 5) retroduction; 6) postulate and proposition development; 7) comparison and assessment of theories; and 8) conceptual frameworks and model development. The strength of the critical realist methodology described is the extent to which this paradigm is able to support the epistemological, ontological, axiological, methodological and rhetorical positions of both quantitative and qualitative research in the field of social epidemiology. The extensive multilevel Bayesian studies, intensive qualitative studies, latent variable theory, abductive triangulation, and Inference to Best Explanation provide a strong foundation for Theory

  18. Alternative perspectives of safety in home delivered health care: a sequential exploratory mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discover and describe how patients, carers and case management nurses define safety and compare it to the traditional risk reduction and harm avoidance definition of safety. Care services are increasingly being delivered in the home for patients with complex long-term conditions. However, the concept of safety remains largely unexplored. A sequential, exploratory mixed method design. A qualitative case study of the UK National Health Service case management programme in the English UK National Health Service was deployed during 2012. Thirteen interviews were conducted with patients (n = 9) and carers (n = 6) and three focus groups with nurses (n = 17) from three community care providers. The qualitative element explored the definition of safety. Data were subjected to framework analysis and themes were identified by participant group. Sequentially, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2013 in a fourth community care provider (patient n = 35, carer n = 19, nurse n = 26) as a form of triangulation. Patients and carers describe safety differently to case management nurses, choosing to focus on meeting needs. They use more positive language and recognize the role they have in safety in home-delivered health care. In comparison, case management nurses described safety similarly to the definitions found in the literature. However, when offered the patient and carer definition of safety, they preferentially selected this definition to their own or the literature definition. Patients and carers offer an alternative perspective on patient safety in home-delivered health care that identifies their role in ensuring safety and is more closely aligned with the empowerment philosophy of case management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mixing modes in a population-based interview survey: comparison of a sequential and a concurrent mixed-mode design for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauz, Elvira; von der Lippe, Elena; Allen, Jennifer; Schilling, Ralph; Müters, Stephan; Hoebel, Jens; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Lange, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    Population-based surveys currently face the problem of decreasing response rates. Mixed-mode designs are now being implemented more often to account for this, to improve sample composition and to reduce overall costs. This study examines whether a concurrent or sequential mixed-mode design achieves better results on a number of indicators of survey quality. Data were obtained from a population-based health interview survey of adults in Germany that was conducted as a methodological pilot study as part of the German Health Update (GEDA). Participants were randomly allocated to one of two surveys; each of the surveys had a different design. In the concurrent mixed-mode design ( n  = 617) two types of self-administered questionnaires (SAQ-Web and SAQ-Paper) and computer-assisted telephone interviewing were offered simultaneously to the respondents along with the invitation to participate. In the sequential mixed-mode design ( n  = 561), SAQ-Web was initially provided, followed by SAQ-Paper, with an option for a telephone interview being sent out together with the reminders at a later date. Finally, this study compared the response rates, sample composition, health indicators, item non-response, the scope of fieldwork and the costs of both designs. No systematic differences were identified between the two mixed-mode designs in terms of response rates, the socio-demographic characteristics of the achieved samples, or the prevalence rates of the health indicators under study. The sequential design gained a higher rate of online respondents. Very few telephone interviews were conducted for either design. With regard to data quality, the sequential design (which had more online respondents) showed less item non-response. There were minor differences between the designs in terms of their costs. Postage and printing costs were lower in the concurrent design, but labour costs were lower in the sequential design. No differences in health indicators were found between

  20. Mixed mode and sequential oscillations in the cerium-bromate-4-aminophenol photoreaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Jeffrey G.; Wang Jichang [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2013-09-15

    Cerium was introduced to the bromate-aminophenol photochemical oscillator to implement coupled autocatalytic feedbacks. Mixed mode and sequential oscillations emerged in the studied system, making it one of the few chemical oscillators known to support consecutive bifurcations in a batch system. The complex reaction behavior showed a strong dependence on the intensity of illumination supplied to the system. Removal of illumination during an oscillatory window affected both the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation but did not fully extinguish them, indicating that the cerium-bromate-4-aminophenol oscillator was photosensitive rather than photo-controlled. A moderate light intensity allowed for a slow evolution of the system, which proved to be critical for the emergence of transient complex oscillations. Variation of individual reaction parameters was carried out, which indicated that the development of complex oscillations occur in a narrow region and a phase diagram in the 4-aminophenol and sulfuric acid plane demonstrated this. Simulations provide strong support that transient complex oscillations observed experimentally arise from the coupling of two autocatalytic cycles.

  1. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participato...

  2. Haemodialysis work environment contributors to job satisfaction and stress: a sequential mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Bonner, Ann; Douglas, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Haemodialysis nurses form long term relationships with patients in a technologically complex work environment. Previous studies have highlighted that haemodialysis nurses face stressors related to the nature of their work and also their work environments leading to reported high levels of burnout. Using Kanters (1997) Structural Empowerment Theory as a guiding framework, the aim of this study was to explore the factors contributing to satisfaction with the work environment, job satisfaction, job stress and burnout in haemodialysis nurses. Using a sequential mixed-methods design, the first phase involved an on-line survey comprising demographic and work characteristics, Brisbane Practice Environment Measure (B-PEM), Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS), Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The second phase involved conducting eight semi-structured interviews with data thematically analyzed. From the 417 nurses surveyed the majority were female (90.9 %), aged over 41 years of age (74.3 %), and 47.4 % had worked in haemodialysis for more than 10 years. Overall the work environment was perceived positively and there was a moderate level of job satisfaction. However levels of stress and emotional exhaustion (burnout) were high. Two themes, ability to care and feeling successful as a nurse, provided clarity to the level of job satisfaction found in phase 1. While two further themes, patients as quasi-family and intense working teams, explained why working as a haemodialysis nurse was both satisfying and stressful. Nurse managers can use these results to identify issues being experienced by haemodialysis nurses working in the unit they are supervising.

  3. Prevalence and experiences of intimate partner violence against women with disabilities in Bangladesh: results of an explanatory sequential mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Tanvir; Muhaddes, Tisa; Camellia, Suborna; Selim, Nasima; Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of 226 women with disabilities living in four different districts of Bangladesh. It also explored the physical and psychological suffering of women experiencing violence and their various coping strategies. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 226 women with disabilities to measure the prevalence of IPV, and 16 in-depth interviews were conducted to document in detail the experiences of violence encountered by the abused women. Among the 226 women interviewed in the survey, about 84% reported ever having experienced at least one act of emotional abuse, physical, or sexual violence from their partner during their lifetime. Women who were older (aged above 32 years), separated, and members of economic/savings group were more likely to report ever having experienced any IPV than women with disabilities who were younger (aged 32 years and less), married, and not members of economic/savings group. Most of the women experiencing violence reported sufferings from physical and psychological problems. Of all the women who experienced violence, less than half (45%) reported seeking support to minimize or avoid violence experiences. However, seeking support from informal network such as family and relatives was commonly reported by many (81.4%) of them. Study findings suggest that women with disabilities who possess poor socio-economic status coupled with economic dependency on husbands' income and wide-spread social stigma against disability make them vulnerable to IPV. Future interventions to address IPV against women with disabilities should include building community knowledge of disability and IPV, countering the pervasive social stigma against disabilities, and improving the socio-economic conditions of women with disabilities through education and employment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Explaining the Impact of Disabled Children's Engagement with Physical Activity on Their Parents' Smartphone Addiction Levels: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet; Tüfekçi, Sakir

    2018-01-01

    In this research, quantitative findings and qualitative follow-up themes were used to quantify, conceptualize and finally try to explain the impact of disabled children's engagement with physical activity on their parents' smartphone addiction levels. An initial phase of quantitative investigation was conducted with 116 parents. Analyses of…

  5. Design of an impact evaluation using a mixed methods model--an explanatory assessment of the effects of results-based financing mechanisms on maternal healthcare services in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Stephan; Muula, Adamson S; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Bärnighausen, Till; Sarker, Malabika; Mathanga, Don P; Bossert, Thomas; De Allegri, Manuela

    2014-04-22

    In this article we present a study design to evaluate the causal impact of providing supply-side performance-based financing incentives in combination with a demand-side cash transfer component on equitable access to and quality of maternal and neonatal healthcare services. This intervention is introduced to selected emergency obstetric care facilities and catchment area populations in four districts in Malawi. We here describe and discuss our study protocol with regard to the research aims, the local implementation context, and our rationale for selecting a mixed methods explanatory design with a quasi-experimental quantitative component. The quantitative research component consists of a controlled pre- and post-test design with multiple post-test measurements. This allows us to quantitatively measure 'equitable access to healthcare services' at the community level and 'healthcare quality' at the health facility level. Guided by a theoretical framework of causal relationships, we determined a number of input, process, and output indicators to evaluate both intended and unintended effects of the intervention. Overall causal impact estimates will result from a difference-in-difference analysis comparing selected indicators across intervention and control facilities/catchment populations over time.To further explain heterogeneity of quantitatively observed effects and to understand the experiential dimensions of financial incentives on clients and providers, we designed a qualitative component in line with the overall explanatory mixed methods approach. This component consists of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with providers, service user, non-users, and policy stakeholders. In this explanatory design comprehensive understanding of expected and unexpected effects of the intervention on both access and quality will emerge through careful triangulation at two levels: across multiple quantitative elements and across quantitative and qualitative elements

  6. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  7. Explanatory analytics in OLAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron, E.A.M.; Daniëls, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe a method to integrate explanatory business analytics in OLAP information systems. This method supports the discovery of exceptional values in OLAP data and the explanation of such values by giving their underlying causes. OLAP applications offer a support tool for

  8. Using qualitative repertory grid interviews to gather shared perspectives in a sequential mixed methods research design

    OpenAIRE

    Rojon, C; Saunders, M.N.K.; McDowall, Almuth

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we consider a specific example of applying mixed methods designs combining both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis approaches, giving particular attention to issues including reliability and validity. Human resource management (HRM) researchers, like others setting out to examine a novel or insufficiently defined research topic, frequently favour qualitative approaches to gather data during initial stages, to facilitate an in-depth exploration of indivi...

  9. Winery biomass waste degradation by sequential sonication and mixed fungal enzyme treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Avinash V; Dhamale, Vijay V; Morrison, Paul D; Beale, David J; Harding, Ian H; Palombo, Enzo A

    2017-05-01

    To increase the efficiency of winery-derived biomass biodegradation, grape pomace was ultrasonicated for 20min in the presence of 0.25M, 0.5Mand1.0MKOH and 1.0MNaOH. This was followed by treatment with a 1:1 (v/v) mix of crude enzyme preparation derived from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor for 18h and a further 18h treatment with a 60:14:4:2 percent ratio combination of enzymes derived from Aspergillus niger: Penicillium chrysogenum: Trichoderma harzianum: P. citrinum, repsectively. Process efficiency was evaluated by its comparison to biological only mixed fungal degradation over 16days. Ultrasonication treatment with 0.5MKOH followed by mixed enzyme treatment yielded the highest lignin degradation of about 13%. Cellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, laccase and lignin peroxidase activities of 77.9, 476, 5,390.5, 66.7 and 29,230.7U/mL, respectively, were observed during biomass degradation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the degraded material identified commercially important compounds such as gallic acid, lithocholic acid, glycolic acid and lactic acid which were generated in considerable quantities. Thus, the combination of sonication pre-treatment and enzymatic degradation has the potential to considerably improve the breakdown of agricultural biomass and produce commercially useful compounds in markedly less time (<40h) with respect to biological only degradation (16days). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It: "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  11. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  12. Organizational and provider level factors in implementation of trauma-informed care after a city-wide training: an explanatory mixed methods assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, April Joy; Gallo, Joseph; Leaf, Philip; Mendelson, Tamar

    2017-11-21

    While there is increasing support for training youth-serving providers in trauma-informed care (TIC) as a means of addressing high prevalence of U.S. childhood trauma, we know little about the effects of TIC training on organizational culture and providers' professional quality of life. This mixed-methods study evaluated changes in organizational- and provider-level factors following participation in a citywide TIC training. Government workers and nonprofit professionals (N = 90) who participated in a nine-month citywide TIC training completed a survey before and after the training to assess organizational culture and professional quality of life. Survey data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. A subset of participants (n = 16) was interviewed using a semi-structured format, and themes related to organizational and provider factors were identified using qualitative methods. Analysis of survey data indicated significant improvements in participants' organizational culture and professional satisfaction at training completion. Participants' perceptions of their own burnout and secondary traumatic stress also increased. Four themes emerged from analysis of the interview data, including "Implementation of more flexible, less-punitive policies towards clients," "Adoption of trauma-informed workplace design," "Heightened awareness of own traumatic stress and need for self-care," and "Greater sense of camaraderie and empathy for colleagues." Use of a mixed-methods approach provided a nuanced understanding of the impact of TIC training and suggested potential benefits of the training on organizational and provider-level factors associated with implementation of trauma-informed policies and practices. Future trainings should explicitly address organizational factors such as safety climate and morale, managerial support, teamwork climate and collaboration, and individual factors including providers' compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary

  13. Organizational and provider level factors in implementation of trauma-informed care after a city-wide training: an explanatory mixed methods assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Joy Damian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is increasing support for training youth-serving providers in trauma-informed care (TIC as a means of addressing high prevalence of U.S. childhood trauma, we know little about the effects of TIC training on organizational culture and providers’ professional quality of life. This mixed-methods study evaluated changes in organizational- and provider-level factors following participation in a citywide TIC training. Methods Government workers and nonprofit professionals (N = 90 who participated in a nine-month citywide TIC training completed a survey before and after the training to assess organizational culture and professional quality of life. Survey data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. A subset of participants (n = 16 was interviewed using a semi-structured format, and themes related to organizational and provider factors were identified using qualitative methods. Results Analysis of survey data indicated significant improvements in participants’ organizational culture and professional satisfaction at training completion. Participants’ perceptions of their own burnout and secondary traumatic stress also increased. Four themes emerged from analysis of the interview data, including “Implementation of more flexible, less-punitive policies towards clients,” “Adoption of trauma-informed workplace design,” “Heightened awareness of own traumatic stress and need for self-care,” and “Greater sense of camaraderie and empathy for colleagues.” Conclusion Use of a mixed-methods approach provided a nuanced understanding of the impact of TIC training and suggested potential benefits of the training on organizational and provider-level factors associated with implementation of trauma-informed policies and practices. Future trainings should explicitly address organizational factors such as safety climate and morale, managerial support, teamwork climate and collaboration, and

  14. A Mixed Methods Examination of the Influence of Dimensions of Support on Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Laura A.; Burkholder, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study was to explore how specific dimensions of supervisor support (mentoring, coaching, social support, and task support) influence the transfer of learned knowledge and skills to the job. Quantitative data were collected from employees (N = 48) who develop curriculum at an educational…

  15. The Effect of English Language Learning on Creative Thinking Skills: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehic, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed-methods case study was to investigate the effects of English language learning on creative thinking skills in the domains of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration as measured with the Alternate Uses Test. Unlike the previous research studies that investigated the links between English…

  16. Educating Linguistically Diverse Students: A Mixed Methods Study of Elementary Teachers' Coursework, Attitudes, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Renée A.

    2016-01-01

    This study followed a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design. Phase I involved the collection of quantitative data to examine inservice teachers' (N = 69) attitudes about language and linguistic diversity as well as their teacher education coursework. All participants were graduates from the same teacher education program. Phase II included…

  17. A Study on the Spatial Abilities of Prospective Social Studies Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyüp; Tünkler, Vural

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prospective social studies teachers' spatial abilities. It was conducted with 234 prospective teachers attending Social Studies Teaching departments at Education Faculties of two universities in Central and Southern Anatolia. This study, designed according to the explanatory-sequential design, is a mixed research method,…

  18. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  19. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  20. Attitudes toward Using Social Networking Sites in Educational Settings with Underperforming Latino Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith E.; Curwen, Margie Sauceda; Howard, Nicol R.; Colón-Muñiz, Anaida

    2015-01-01

    The researchers examined the online social networking attitudes of underperforming Latino high school students in an alternative education program that uses technology as the prime venue for learning. A sequential explanatory mixed methods study was used to cross-check multiple sources of data explaining students' levels of comfort with utilizing…

  1. Hypothetical identities : Explanatory problems for the explanatory argument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eronen, Markus I.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several philosophers have defended an explanatory argument that supposedly provides novel empirical grounds for accepting the type identity theory of phenomenal consciousness. They claim that we are justified in believing that the type identity thesis is true because it provides the best

  2. Exploring Student Use of Social Networking Services (SNS) Surrounding Moral Development, Gender, Campus Crime, Safety, and the Clery Act: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Haley

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory sequential mixed methods study was to explore college students' use of social networking services (SNS); examining how and why they communicate about campus safety information. This study took place at Stockton University, a regional state institution in NJ. Undergraduate students took part in an online quantitative…

  3. The Impact of Student Teaching Experience on Pre-Service Teachers' Readiness for Technology Integration: A Mixed Methods Study with Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes; Newby, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a two-phase explanatory sequential mixed methods research design, the current study examined the impact of student teaching experiences on pre-service teachers' readiness for technology integration. In phase-1 of quantitative investigation, 2-level growth curve models were fitted using online repeated measures survey data collected from…

  4. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.

  5. Yeast Monitoring of Wine Mixed or Sequential Fermentations Made by Native Strains from D.O. “Vinos de Madrid” Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Margarita; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Crespo, Julia; Cabellos, Juan M.; Arroyo, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing trend toward understanding the impact of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the winemaking process. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the predominant species at the end of fermentation, it has been recognized that the presence of non-Saccharomyces species during alcoholic fermentation can produce an improvement in the quality and complexity of the final wines. A previous work was developed for selecting the best combinations between S. cerevisiae and five non-Saccharomyces (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida stellata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and Lachancea thermotolorans) native yeast strains from D.O. “Vinos de Madrid” at the laboratory scale. The best inoculation strategies between S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains were chosen to analyze, by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) combined with the use of specific primers, the dynamics of inoculated populations throughout the fermentation process at the pilot scale using the Malvar white grape variety. The efficiency of the qPCR system was verified independently of the samples matrix, founding the inoculated yeast species throughout alcoholic fermentation. Finally, we can validate the positive effect of selected co-cultures in the Malvar wine quality, highlighting the sequential cultures of T. delbrueckii CLI 918/S. cerevisiae CLI 889 and C. stellata CLI 920/S. cerevisiae CLI 889 and, mixed and sequential cultures of L. thermotolerans 9-6C combined with S. cerevisiae CLI 889. PMID:29326669

  6. Yeast Monitoring of Wine Mixed or Sequential Fermentations Made by Native Strains from D.O. “Vinos de Madrid” Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing trend toward understanding the impact of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the winemaking process. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the predominant species at the end of fermentation, it has been recognized that the presence of non-Saccharomyces species during alcoholic fermentation can produce an improvement in the quality and complexity of the final wines. A previous work was developed for selecting the best combinations between S. cerevisiae and five non-Saccharomyces (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida stellata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and Lachancea thermotolorans native yeast strains from D.O. “Vinos de Madrid” at the laboratory scale. The best inoculation strategies between S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains were chosen to analyze, by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR combined with the use of specific primers, the dynamics of inoculated populations throughout the fermentation process at the pilot scale using the Malvar white grape variety. The efficiency of the qPCR system was verified independently of the samples matrix, founding the inoculated yeast species throughout alcoholic fermentation. Finally, we can validate the positive effect of selected co-cultures in the Malvar wine quality, highlighting the sequential cultures of T. delbrueckii CLI 918/S. cerevisiae CLI 889 and C. stellata CLI 920/S. cerevisiae CLI 889 and, mixed and sequential cultures of L. thermotolerans 9-6C combined with S. cerevisiae CLI 889.

  7. A multilingual, multicultural and explanatory music education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multilingual, multicultural and explanatory music education dictionary for South Africa - using Wiegand's metalexicography to establish its purposes, functions ... dictionary, it will have to contain elements of different types of dictionaries, such as explanatory dictionaries, translation dictionaries, and learner's dictionaries.

  8. Exploring the response process of culturally differing survey respondents with a response style: A sequential mixed-methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a mixed methods approach that integrates quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze why the four largest minorities in the Netherlands-Turks, Moroccans, Antilleans, and Surinamese-respond differently to items treating cultural topics. First, we conducted latent class

  9. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  10. Enhanced 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol production in sequential mixed fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii/Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a situation of synergistic interaction between two industrial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eRenault

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the volatile thiol productions of 2 industrial strains of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation (AF of Sauvignon Blanc must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. The results confirmed the inability of T. delbrueckii to release 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP and its low capacity to produce 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA, as already reported in previous studies. A synergistic interaction was observed between the two species, resulting in higher levels of 3SH (3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol and its acetate when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24 hours after T. delbrueckii, compared to the pure cultures. To elucidate the nature of the interactions between these 2 species, the yeast population kinetics were examined and monitored, as well as the production of 3SH, its acetate and their related non-odorous precursors: Glut-3SH (glutathionylated conjugate precursor and Cys-3SH (cysteinylated conjugate precursor. For the first time, it was suggested that, unlike, S. cerevisiae, which is able to metabolize the two precursor forms, T. delbrueckii was only able to metabolize the glutathionylated precursor. Consequently, the presence of T. delbrueckii during mixed fermentation led to an increase in Glut-3SH degradation and Cys-3SH production. This overproduction was dependent on the T. delbrueckii biomass. In sequential culture, thus favouring T. delbrueckii development, the higher availability of Cys-3SH throughout AF (alcoholic fermentation resulted in more abundant 3SH and 3SHA production by S. cerevisiae

  11. Enhanced 3-Sulfanylhexan-1-ol Production in Sequential Mixed Fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii/Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals a Situation of Synergistic Interaction between Two Industrial Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Philippe; Coulon, Joana; Moine, Virginie; Thibon, Cécile; Bely, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the volatile thiol productions of two industrial strains of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of Sauvignon Blanc must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. The results confirmed the inability of T. delbrueckii to release 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP) and its low capacity to produce 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), as already reported in previous studies. A synergistic interaction was observed between the two species, resulting in higher levels of 3SH (3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol) and its acetate when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24 h after T. delbrueckii, compared to the pure cultures. To elucidate the nature of the interactions between these two species, the yeast population kinetics were examined and monitored, as well as the production of 3SH, its acetate and their related non-odorous precursors: Glut-3SH (glutathionylated conjugate precursor) and Cys-3SH (cysteinylated conjugate precursor). For the first time, it was suggested that, unlike S. cerevisiae, which is able to metabolize the two precursor forms, T. delbrueckii was only able to metabolize the glutathionylated precursor. Consequently, the presence of T. delbrueckii during mixed fermentation led to an increase in Glut-3SH degradation and Cys-3SH production. This overproduction was dependent on the T. delbrueckii biomass. In sequential culture, thus favoring T. delbrueckii development, the higher availability of Cys-3SH throughout AF resulted in more abundant 3SH and 3SHA production by S. cerevisiae.

  12. Parent Predictors of Adolescents' Explanatory Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the prospective relations (6-month lag) between three aspects of the parent-child relationship at Time 1 (T1) and adolescents' explanatory styles at Time 2 (T2): caregiving behaviors, parents' explanatory style for their own negative events, and parents' explanatory style for their children's negative events. The sample…

  13. Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming for Aircraft Conflict Avoidance by Sequentially Applying Velocity and Heading Angle Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Cafieri , Sonia; Omheni , Riadh

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We consider the problem of aircraft conflict avoidance in Air Traffic Management systems. Given an initial configuration of a number of aircraft sharing the same airspace, the main goal of conflict avoidance is to guarantee that a minimum safety distance between each pair of aircraft is always respected during their flights. We consider aircraft separation achieved by heading angle deviations, and propose a mixed 0-1 nonlinear optimization model, that is then combined ...

  14. Production of DagA and ethanol by sequential utilization of sugars in a mixed-sugar medium simulating microalgal hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyi; Hong, Soon-Kwang; Chang, Yong Keun

    2015-09-01

    A novel two-step fermentation process using a mixed-sugar medium mimicking microalgal hydrolysate has been proposed to avoid glucose repression and thus to maximize substrate utilization efficiency. When DagA, a β-agarase was produced in one step in the mixed-sugar medium by using a recombinant Streptomyces lividans, glucose was found to have negative effects on the consumption of the other sugars and DagA biosynthesis causing low substrate utilization efficiency and low DagA productivity. To overcome such difficulties, a new strategy of sequential substrate utilization was developed. In the first step, glucose was consumed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae together with galactose and mannose producing ethanol, after which DagA was produced from the remaining sugars of xylose, rhamnose and ribose. Fucose was not consumed. By adopting this two-step process, the overall substrate utilization efficiency was increased approximately 3-fold with a nearly 2-fold improvement of DagA production, let alone the additional benefit of ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequential Condensation and Hydrodeoxygenation Reaction of Furfural-Acetone Adduct over Mix Catalysts Ni/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariyah Ulfa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sequential condensation and hydrodeoxygenation reaction were perform using autoclave batch reactor in the presence of water as a solvent. The condensation of furfural and acetone was performed using MgO catalyst followed by hydrodeoxygenation using mix catalyst Ni/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2. The catalyst was prepared by wet-impregnation method and analyzed by XRD, SEM-EDX as well as BET surface. Condensation of furfural and acetone in 1:2 mol ratio was carried out by reflux gave 4-(2-furyl-3-buten-2-one and 1,5-bis-(2-furanyl-1,4-pentadien-3-one. The condensation product was then subjected for hydrodeoxygenation using batch reactor, catalyzed by mixed Ni/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 at 150 and 180 °C for 2 h. The product identified as alkane derivatives with the conversion at 38.83 and 50.35%, respectively. The selectivity of hydrocarbon is 61.39% at 150 °C and 16.55% at 180 °C. Increasing the reaction temperature to 200 °C did not give any products except the recovery of the precursor. It showed that higher temperature enhanced the catalyst activity but the selectivity is controlled by low reaction temperature.

  16. Coping and Its Relation to Retention among Male Minority Nursing Students in an Associate Degree Nursing Program in a South Texas Community College: An Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Gwendolyn Smith

    2013-01-01

    In Texas, there is an increase in the enrollment of men of various ethnicities in nursing schools, especially Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs. As these men strive to complete the nursing education, they face many concerns that center on barriers that are encountered in what is still a predominately Caucasian and female environment. In…

  17. Direct Succinic Acid Production from Minimally Pretreated Biomass Using Sequential Solid-State and Slurry Fermentation with Mixed Fungal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerico Alcantara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bio-based succinic acid production involves anaerobic bacterial fermentation of pure sugars. This study explored a new route for directly producing succinic acid from minimally-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass via a consolidated bioprocessing technology employing a mixed lignocellulolytic and acidogenic fungal co-culture. The process involved a solid-state pre-fermentation stage followed by a two-phase slurry fermentation stage. During the solid-state pre-fermentation stage, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were co-cultured in a nitrogen-rich substrate (e.g., soybean hull to induce cellulolytic enzyme activity. The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown separately on carbon-rich birch wood chips to induce ligninolytic enzymes, rendering the biomass more susceptible to cellulase attack. The solid-state pre-cultures were then combined in a slurry fermentation culture to achieve simultaneous enzymatic cellulolysis and succinic acid production. This approach generated succinic acid at maximum titers of 32.43 g/L after 72 h of batch slurry fermentation (~10 g/L production, and 61.12 g/L after 36 h of addition of fresh birch wood chips at the onset of the slurry fermentation stage (~26 g/L production. Based on this result, this approach is a promising alternative to current bacterial succinic acid production due to its minimal substrate pretreatment requirements, which could reduce production costs.

  18. Developing management capacity building package to district health manager in northwest of Iran: A sequential mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Gholipour, Kamal; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Jahanbin, Hasan; Karamuz, Majid

    2016-11-01

    To assess districts health managers educational needs and develop management training programmes. This mixed-method study was carried out between August 2014 and August 2015 in Tabriz, Iran. Four focus group discussion sessions and three semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted among district health managers and experts of a health centre. Besides, 52 questionnaires were completed to weigh and finalise management education module and courses. Interviews and focus group discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed using content analysis method. Data was analysed using SPSS17. There were 52 participants, of whom 40(78.8%) were men and 12(21.2%) were women. All of the subjects (100%) took part in the quantitative phase, while 25(48.08%) participated in the qualitative phase. In the qualitative section, 11(44%) participants were heads of unit/departments in provincial health centre and 14(56%) were district health managers. In the quantitative phase, 30(57.7%) participants were district health managers and 8(28.8%) were heads of units/departments. Moreover, 33(63.4%) participants had medical education. The job experience of 3(5.8%) participants in the current position was below five years. Districts health management training programme consisted of 10modules with 53 educational topics. The normalised score out of a total of 100 for rules and ethics was 75.51, health information management 71.19, management and leadership 69.27, district management 68.08, human resources and organisational creativity 67.58,quality improvement 66.6, health resources management 62.37, planning and evaluation 61.87, research in health system 59.15, and community participation was 53.15. Considering district health managers' qualification in health and medicine, they had not been trained in basic management. Almost all the management and leadership courses were prioritised as most necessary.

  19. The early identification of risk factors on the pathway to school dropout in the SIODO study: a sequential mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theunissen Marie-José

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School dropout is a persisting problem with major socioeconomic consequences. Although poor health probably contributes to pathways leading to school dropout and health is likely negatively affected by dropout, these issues are relatively absent on the public health agenda. This emphasises the importance of integrative research aimed at identifying children at risk for school dropout at an early stage, discovering how socioeconomic status and gender affect health-related pathways that lead to dropout and developing a prevention tool that can be used in public health services for youth. Methods/design The SIODO study is a sequential mixed-methods study. A case–control study will be conducted among 18 to 24 year olds in the south of the Netherlands (n = 580. Data are currently being collected from compulsory education departments at municipalities (dropout data, regional public health services (developmental data from birth onwards and an additional questionnaire has been sent to participants (e.g. personality data. Advanced analyses, including cluster and factor analyses, will be used to identify children at risk at an early stage. Using the quantitative data, we have planned individual interviews with participants and focus groups with important stakeholders such as parents, teachers and public health professionals. A thematic content analysis will be used to analyse the qualitative data. Discussion The SIODO study will use a life-course perspective, the ICF-CY model to group the determinants and a mixed-methods design. In this respect, the SIODO study is innovative because it both broadens and deepens the study of health-related determinants of school dropout. It examines how these determinants contribute to socioeconomic and gender differences in health and contributes to the development of a tool that can be used in public health practice to tackle the problem of school dropout at its roots.

  20. Quality and Composition of Red Wine Fermented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe as Sole Fermentative Yeast, and in Mixed and Sequential Fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Palomero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the physiology of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (represented by strain 938 in the production of red wine, as the sole fermentative yeast, and in mixed and sequential fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 796. For further comparison, fermentations in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole fermentative yeast were also performed; in these fermentations a commercial lactic acid bacterium was used to perform malolactic fermentation once alcoholic fermentation was complete (unlike S. cerevisiae, the Sc. pombe performs maloalcoholic fermentation and therefore removes malic acid without such help. Relative density, acetic, malic and pyruvic acid concentrations, primary amino nitrogen and urea concentrations, and pH of the musts were measured over the entire fermentation period. In all fermentations in which Sc. pombe 938 was involved, nearly all the malic acid was consumed from an initial concentration of 5.5 g/L, and moderate acetic acid concentrations below 0.4 g/L were formed. The urea content of these wines was notably lower, showing a tenfold reduction when compared with those that were made with S. cerevisiae 796 alone. The sensorial properties of the different final wines varied widely. The wines fermented with Sc. pombe 938 had maximum aroma intensity and quality, and they were preferred by the tasters.

  1. Against explanatory minimalism in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eThornton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticised both as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation respectively and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of level of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  2. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  3. Perceptions and experiences of a gender gap at a Canadian research institute and potential strategies to mitigate this gap: a sequential mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Tricco, Andrea C; Hamid, Jemila; Daly, Caitlin; Bain, Julie; Jassemi, Sabrina; Kiran, Tara; Baxter, Nancy; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-01-01

    The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e.g., associate v. full-time) and research discipline. In phase 2, we conducted qualitative interviews to provide context for phase 1 data. Both purposive and snowball sampling were used for recruitment. The institute included 30.1% ( n = 62) women and 69.9% ( n = 144) men, indicating a 39.8% gender gap. Most full-time scientists (60.3%, n = 70) were clinicians; there were 54.2% more male than female clinician scientists. Ninety-five percent of basic scientists were men, indicating a 90.5% gap. Seven key themes emerged from 21 interviews, including perceived impact of the gender gap, factors perceived to influence the gap, recruitment trends, presence of institutional support, mentorship and suggestions to mitigate the gap. Several factors were postulated to contribute to the gender gap, including unconscious bias in hiring. A substantial gender gap exists within this research institute. Participants identified strategies to address this gap, such as establishing transparent search processes, providing opportunities for informal networking and mentorship of female scientists and establishing institutional support for work-life balance.

  4. The fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of multiple mini interview in an internationally diverse student population- a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Maureen E.; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P.; Murphy, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Background International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. Methods This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 we...

  5. Explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Sean E

    2013-01-01

    The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac offers explanatory material, supplemental information and detailed descriptions of the computational models and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, which is an annual publication prepared jointly by the US Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in the UK. Like The Astronomical Almanac, The Explanatory Supplement provides detailed coverage of modern positional astronomy. Chapters are devoted to the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, orbital ephemerides, precession, nutation, Earth rotation, and coordinate transformations. These topics have undergone substantial revisions since the last edition was published. Astronomical positions are intertwined with timescales and relativity in The Astronomical Almanac, so related chapters are provided in The Explanatory Supplement. The Astronomical Almanac also includes information on lunar and solar eclipses, physical ephemerides of solar system bodies, and calendars, so T...

  6. (CEPTSA) — Translating and Explanatory Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phases of the project, consisting of different translating and explanatory versions, are discussed. ... already published, namely the Dictionary category of the South African Translators' Institute (SATI) (2003), ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Applying Sparse Machine Learning Methods to Twitter: Analysis of the 2012 Change in Pap Smear Guidelines. A Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Courtney Rees; Godbehere, Andrew; Le, Gem; El Ghaoui, Laurent; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2016-06-10

    It is difficult to synthesize the vast amount of textual data available from social media websites. Capturing real-world discussions via social media could provide insights into individuals' opinions and the decision-making process. We conducted a sequential mixed methods study to determine the utility of sparse machine learning techniques in summarizing Twitter dialogues. We chose a narrowly defined topic for this approach: cervical cancer discussions over a 6-month time period surrounding a change in Pap smear screening guidelines. We applied statistical methodologies, known as sparse machine learning algorithms, to summarize Twitter messages about cervical cancer before and after the 2012 change in Pap smear screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). All messages containing the search terms "cervical cancer," "Pap smear," and "Pap test" were analyzed during: (1) January 1-March 13, 2012, and (2) March 14-June 30, 2012. Topic modeling was used to discern the most common topics from each time period, and determine the singular value criterion for each topic. The results were then qualitatively coded from top 10 relevant topics to determine the efficiency of clustering method in grouping distinct ideas, and how the discussion differed before vs. after the change in guidelines . This machine learning method was effective in grouping the relevant discussion topics about cervical cancer during the respective time periods (~20% overall irrelevant content in both time periods). Qualitative analysis determined that a significant portion of the top discussion topics in the second time period directly reflected the USPSTF guideline change (eg, "New Screening Guidelines for Cervical Cancer"), and many topics in both time periods were addressing basic screening promotion and education (eg, "It is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month! Click the link to see where you can receive a free or low cost Pap test.") It was demonstrated that machine learning

  8. Sequential Banking.

    OpenAIRE

    Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M

    1992-01-01

    The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...

  9. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-03-10

    Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one's needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety. Results generally did not vary by stage of

  10. Explanatory chapter: introducing exogenous DNA into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently introduce DNA into cells is essential for many experiments in biology. This is an explanatory chapter providing an overview of the various methods for introducing DNA into bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Explanatory Unification by Proofs in School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kotaro; Fujita, Taro; Jones, Keith; Naoki, Sue

    2018-01-01

    Kitcher's idea of 'explanatory unification', while originally proposed in the philosophy of science, may also be relevant to mathematics education, as a way of enhancing student thinking and achieving classroom activity that is closer to authentic mathematical practice. There is, however, no mathematics education research treating explanatory…

  12. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  13. How is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Andrea I.

    2013-07-01

    Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight insights from these investigations that are salient for pedagogical concerns. Perhaps most importantly, this essay argues that science teachers should be mindful of the normative and prescriptive components of explanatory discourse both in the classroom and in science more generally. Giving attention to this dimension of explanation not only will do justice to the nature of explanatory activity in science but also will support the development of robust reasoning skills in science students while helping them understand an important respect in which science is more than a straightforward collection of empirical facts, and consequently, science education involves more than simply learning them.

  14. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Articles were reviewed, analyzed, and coded through a qualitative content analysis approach. Overall trends are presented with respect to the entire collection of articles followed by an analysis of mixed methods research approaches identified in the subset of 55 studies. The most commonly used research approaches involved collecting data from people through interview, focus group, and survey methodologies. Content analysis was the second most commonly used approach whereby researchers use Facebook posts, Tweets (Twitter posts, YouTube videos, or other social media content as a data source. Many of the studies involving combinations of quantitative and qualitative data followed a design resembling Creswell and Plano Clark’s basic mixed methods typology (e.g., convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential.

  15. Explanatory factors for the association between depression and long-term physical disability after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerbe, Luis; Ayis, Salma A; Crichton, Siobhan; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-11-01

    To identify explanatory factors for the association between depression at 3 months after stroke and physical disability at 3 years. Data from the South London Stroke Register (1998-2013) were used. Patients (n = 3,612) were assessed at stroke onset. Follow-up at 3 months included assessment for depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (scores ≥ 7 = depression), physical disability (Barthel index) cognitive function, smoking habit, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use, perception of recovery and social support. Physical disability was reassessed at 3 years. The associations between depression at 3 months and physical disability at 3 years were estimated with multinomial regression adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, stroke severity and possible explanatory factors for the association (introduced in the models first individually and then sequentially): pre-stroke medical history and physical disability, cognitive function, smoking, SSRIs, perception of recovery and social support at 3 months. One thousand three hundred and seven survivors were assessed at 3 months, of which 418 (32.0%) had depression. Survivors with depression had a higher physical disability rate at 3 years. These associations remained significant after adjustment for individual explanatory factors but were not significant after adjustment for combined explanatory factors. Physical disability at 3 months was a relevant explanatory factor for this association. SSRIs were associated with severe, relative risk: 6.62 (2.92-15.02) P disability, relative risk: 3.45 (1.58-7.52) P = 0.002, at 3 years. The association between depression and physical disability appears to be multifactorial. The use of SSRIs after stroke requires further research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Use of Mixed Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii to Reduce Ethanol Content in Wine: Limited Aeration, Inoculum Proportions, and Sequential Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alonso-del-Real

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widespread microorganism responsible for wine alcoholic fermentation. Nevertheless, the wine industry is currently facing new challenges, some of them associate with climate change, which have a negative effect on ethanol content and wine quality. Numerous and varied strategies have been carried out to overcome these concerns. From a biotechnological point of view, the use of alternative non-Saccharomyces yeasts, yielding lower ethanol concentrations and sometimes giving rise to new and interesting aroma, is one of the trendiest approaches. However, S. cerevisiae usually outcompetes other Saccharomyces species due to its better adaptation to the fermentative environment. For this reason, we studied for the first time the use of a Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strain, CR85, for co-inoculations at increasing proportions and sequential inoculations, as well as the effect of aeration, to improve its fermentation performance in order to obtain wines with an ethanol yield reduction. An enhanced competitive performance of S. kudriavzevii CR85 was observed when it represented 90% of the cells present in the inoculum. Furthermore, airflow supply of 20 VVH to the fermentation synergistically improved CR85 endurance and, interestingly, a significant ethanol concentration reduction was achieved.

  17. Explanatory models for ecological response surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, H.I.; Overton, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding the spatial organization of ecological systems is a fundamental part of ecosystem study. While discovering the causal relationships of this organization is an important goal, our purpose of spatial description on a regional scale is best met by use of explanatory variables that are somewhat removed from the mechanistic causal level. Regional level understanding is best obtained from explanatory variables that reflect spatial gradients at the regional scale and from categorical variables that describe the discrete constituents of (statistical) populations, such as lakes. In this paper, we use a regression model to predict lake acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) based on environmental predictor variables over a large region. These predictions are used to produce model-based population estimates. Two key features of our modeling approach are that is honors the spatial context and the design of the sample data. The spatial context of the data are brought into the analysis of model residuals through the interpretation of residual maps and semivariograms. The sampling design is taken into account by including stratification variables from the design in the model. This ensures that the model applies to a real population of lakes (the target population), rather than whatever hypothetical population the sample is a random sample of

  18. Health risk behaviours amongst school adolescents: protocol for a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youness El Achhab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining risky behaviours of adolescents provides valuable information for designing appropriate intervention programmes for advancing adolescent’s health. However, these behaviours are not fully addressed by researchers in a comprehensive approach. We report the protocol of a mixed methods study designed to investigate the health risk behaviours of Moroccan adolescents with the goal of identifying suitable strategies to address their health concerns. Methods We used a sequential two-phase explanatory mixed method study design. The approach begins with the collection of quantitative data, followed by the collection of qualitative data to explain and enrich the quantitative findings. In the first phase, the global school-based student health survey (GSHS was administered to 800 students who were between 14 and 19 years of age. The second phase engaged adolescents, parents and teachers in focus groups and assessed education documents to explore the level of coverage of health education in the programme learnt in the middle school. To obtain opinions about strategies to reduce Moroccan adolescents’ health risk behaviours, a nominal group technique will be used. Discussion The findings of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study provide insights into the risk behaviours that need to be considered if intervention programmes and preventive strategies are to be designed to promote adolescent’s health in the Moroccan school.

  19. Explanatory Preferences Shape Learning and Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania

    2016-10-01

    Explanations play an important role in learning and inference. People often learn by seeking explanations, and they assess the viability of hypotheses by considering how well they explain the data. An emerging body of work reveals that both children and adults have strong and systematic intuitions about what constitutes a good explanation, and that these explanatory preferences have a systematic impact on explanation-based processes. In particular, people favor explanations that are simple and broad, with the consequence that engaging in explanation can shape learning and inference by leading people to seek patterns and favor hypotheses that support broad and simple explanations. Given the prevalence of explanation in everyday cognition, understanding explanation is therefore crucial to understanding learning and inference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835

  2. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  3. Design Research: Aesthetic Epistemology and Explanatory Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murphy

    Full Text Available The article explores the “what” and the “how” of design research. It discusses the epistemological assumptions of design and design research—the conception of true knowledge that underpins the quest to advance design knowledge through research. The article also examines the media and methods of doing design research—that is, the “how” of such research. As it developed over the past century, the design field has drawn extensively on three pivotal but often tacitly deployed epistemologies: the Platonic-Aristotelian, the pragmatic, and the postmodern. Platonic epistemology is latent in many commonplace design instruction texts. Pragmatic epistemology underscores the industrial-arts ethos of design. Postmodern epistemologies dominate in university programs—especially graduate and Ph.D. programs. The article considers how these competing epistemologies understand the role of imagination in the act of creation. The article then considers the role of explanation in the carrying out of research in creative design and arts fields. It addresses whether, and to what degree, design research ought to rely on explanatory words as its principal medium of research, or whether it is valid to substitute artifactual creation for intellectual explanation in the research process. Key words: Epistemology, Design, Imagination, Knowledge, Explanation, Practice-based research

  4. An explanatory model of underwater adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Colodro

    Full Text Available The underwater environment is an extreme environment that requires a process of human adaptation with specific psychophysiological demands to ensure survival and productive activity. From the standpoint of existing models of intelligence, personality and performance, in this explanatory study we have analyzed the contribution of individual differences in explaining the adaptation of military personnel in a stressful environment. Structural equation analysis was employed to verify a model representing the direct effects of psychological variables on individual adaptation to an adverse environment, and we have been able to confirm, during basic military diving courses, the structural relationships among these variables and their ability to predict a third of the variance of a criterion that has been studied very little to date. In this way, we have confirmed in a sample of professionals (N = 575 the direct relationship of emotional adjustment, conscientiousness and general mental ability with underwater adaptation, as well as the inverse relationship of emotional reactivity. These constructs are the psychological basis for working under water, contributing to an improved adaptation to this environment and promoting risk prevention and safety in diving activities.

  5. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Have an Exceptional Explanatory Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. D.; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated…

  6. Does Corporate Governance Affect Sustainability Disclosure? A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Mahmood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to understand the impact of corporate governance (CG on economic, social, and environmental sustainability disclosures. This paper adopted an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach. The data regarding corporate governance and sustainability disclosure were collected from top 100 companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSE for the period ranging from 2012 to 2015. In addition to the quantitative data, we collected qualitative data through interviews with five board members of different companies. Overall, our results indicate that CG elements enhance sustainability disclosures. This study concludes that a large board size consisting of a female director and a CSR committee (CSRC is better able to check and control management decisions regarding sustainability issues (be they economic, environment, or social and resulted in better sustainability disclosure. This paper, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, provides a methodological and empirical contribution to the literature on corporate governance and sustainability reporting in emerging and developing countries.

  7. Explanatory models of psychosis amongst British South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhikha, Aqeela; Farooq, Saeed; Chaudhry, Nasim; Naeem, Farooq; Husain, Nusrat

    2015-08-01

    A strong interest in the understanding, exploring, and extracting explanatory models of psychosis has recently arisen. Explanatory models (EMs) offer justifications and propose explanations when coping with and treating illnesses. Therefore, they may be important predictors of clinical outcome. Explanatory models of psychosis have been explored in many non-Western countries. However, very little research has examined EMs of psychosis in the UK. We therefore, aimed to elicit and describe explanatory models of psychosis amongst British South Asians, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. EMs of psychosis were examined using the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI) in a cross-sectional sample of 45 patients. Most patients (55.5%) attributed their illness to supernatural causes. Few patients cited a biological (4.4%) cause. Majority of patients held dual EMs of psychosis (77.7%), combining prescribed medication and seeing a traditional healer as a treatment method. Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) was not significantly associated with EMs of psychosis. The results suggest that patients hold multi-explanatory models in order to make sense of their illness and these stem from deep rooted traditional beliefs. This highlights the importance of educational intervention, culturally adapted psychological interventions and possibly working together with traditional healers in the UK to provide a positive support system. Further work is required in order to fully understand the relationship between EMs of psychosis and DUP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of cognitive ability measures as explanatory variables in regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Brian; Schofield, Lynne Steuerle; Taylor, Lowell J

    2012-12-01

    Cognitive ability measures are often taken as explanatory variables in regression analysis, e.g., as a factor affecting a market outcome such as an individual's wage, or a decision such as an individual's education acquisition. Cognitive ability is a latent construct; its true value is unobserved. Nonetheless, researchers often assume that a test score , constructed via standard psychometric practice from individuals' responses to test items, can be safely used in regression analysis. We examine problems that can arise, and suggest that an alternative approach, a "mixed effects structural equations" (MESE) model, may be more appropriate in many circumstances.

  9. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  10. Using Mixed Methods to Evaluate a Community Intervention for Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Bybee, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    This article reviews current epistemological and design issues in the mixed methods literature and then examines the application of one specific design, a sequential explanatory mixed methods design, in an evaluation of a community-based intervention to improve postassault care for sexual assault survivors. Guided by a pragmatist epistemological framework, this study collected quantitative and qualitative data to understand how the implementation of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program affected prosecution rates of adult sexual assault cases in a large midwestern community. Quantitative results indicated that the program was successful in affecting legal systems change and the qualitative data revealed the mediating mechanisms of the intervention's effectiveness. Challenges of implementing this design are discussed, including epistemological and practical difficulties that developed from blending methodologies into a single project. © The Author(s) 2011.

  11. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  12. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Urban, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    "The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac" (hereafter "The Explanatory Supplement") is a comprehensive reference book on the topic of positional astronomy, covering the theories and algorithms used to produce "The Astronomical Almanac" (AsA), an annual publication produced jointly by the Nautical Almanac Office of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) of the UK Hydrographic Office. The first edition of The Explanatory Supplement appeared in 1961 and was reprinted with amendments during the 1970s. The second edition was printed in 1992 and reprinted until 2006. Since the second edition, several changes have taken place in positional astronomy regarding reference systems and internationally accepted models, data sets, and computational methods; these have been incorporated into the AsA. Additionally, the data presented in the AsA have been modified over the years, with new tables being added and some being discontinued. Given these changes, a new edition of The Explanatory Supplement is appropriate. The third edition has been in development for the last few years and will be available in 2010. The book is organized similarly to the second (1991) edition, with each chapter written by subject matter experts. Authors from USNO and HMNAO contributed to the majority of the book, but there are authors from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Technical University of Dresden, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, University of Texas Austin, and University of Virginia. This paper will discuss this latest edition of the Explanatory Supplement.

  13. Explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and reported parental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, L A; Busch, E A; Warren, J E

    1996-12-01

    The relationship between two cognitive personality constructs (explanatory style and dispositional optimism) and retrospective self-reports of maternal and paternal behavior were investigated. College students (62 men and 145 women) completed the Life Orientation Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire, and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire in a single session. As predicted, dispositional optimism was positively correlated with reported maternal and paternal warmth/acceptance and negatively correlated with aggression/hostility, neglect/indifference, and undifferentiated rejection during middle childhood. Unexpectedly, explanatory style was found to be more strongly associated with retrospective reports of paternal as opposed to maternal behavior. The implications of these results for future research concerning the developmental antecedents of differences in explanatory style and dispositional optimism are discussed.

  14. Interdisciplinary and Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Explanatory Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Busch, Justin T A; Legare, Cristine H

    2015-10-01

    Natural and supernatural explanations are used to interpret the same events in a number of predictable and universal ways. Yet little is known about how variation in diverse cultural ecologies influences how people integrate natural and supernatural explanations. Here, we examine explanatory coexistence in three existentially arousing domains of human thought: illness, death, and human origins using qualitative data from interviews conducted in Tanna, Vanuatu. Vanuatu, a Melanesian archipelago, provides a cultural context ideal for examining variation in explanatory coexistence due to the lack of industrialization and the relatively recent introduction of Christianity and Western education. We argue for the integration of interdisciplinary methodologies from cognitive science and anthropology to inform research on explanatory coexistence. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Explanatory models of mental disorders and treatment practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Key Words: Explanatory models; Traditional healers; Mental illness; South AfricaIn many traditional belief systems in Africa, including South Africa, mental health problems may be attributed to the influence of ancestors or to bewitchment. Traditional healers are viewed as having the expertise to address these ...

  16. Divergent Explanatory Production (DEP): The Relationship between Resilience and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Óscar Sánchez; Méndez, Francisco Xavier; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to describe and analyze a new test and construct, Divergent Explanatory Production (DEP), defined as the ability to observe adverse situations from various points of view. At the theoretical level, it is a bridge between the reformulated model of learned helplessness (as a resilience model), and creative…

  17. Explanatory Model for Sound Amplification in a Stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, H.; Volfson, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we suggest an original physical explanatory model that explains the mechanism of the sound amplification process in a stethoscope. We discuss the amplification of a single pulse, a continuous wave of certain frequency, and finally we address the resonant frequencies. It is our belief that this model may provide students with…

  18. Reductionist Challenges to Explanatory Pluralism : Comment on McCauley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eronen, Markus I.

    2009-01-01

    In this comment, I first point out some problems in McCauley's defense of the traditional conception of general analytical levels. Then I present certain reductionist arguments against explanatory pluralism that are not based on the New Wave model of intertheoretic reduction, against which McCauley

  19. Does the Explanatory Constraint on Practical Reasons favour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some philosophers, notably Bernard Williams, have argued that the explanatory constraint favours internalism about reasons: for an agent to have a reason to x, it is at least a necessary condition that she would, after ideal deliberation, be motivated to x. Internalism suggests that naturalism about reasons is more plausible ...

  20. Categorization and Analysis of Explanatory Writing in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a scheme for coding and categorizing students' written explanations of mathematical problem-solving activities. The scheme was used successfully within a study project carried out to determine whether student problem-solving behaviour could be positively affected by writing explanatory strategies to…

  1. Sequential stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Cairoli, Renzo

    1996-01-01

    Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet

  2. The sequential trauma score - a new instrument for the sequential mortality prediction in major trauma*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber-Wagner S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several well established scores for the assessment of the prognosis of major trauma patients that all have in common that they can be calculated at the earliest during intensive care unit stay. We intended to develop a sequential trauma score (STS that allows prognosis at several early stages based on the information that is available at a particular time. Study design In a retrospective, multicenter study using data derived from the Trauma Registry of the German Trauma Society (2002-2006, we identified the most relevant prognostic factors from the patients basic data (P, prehospital phase (A, early (B1, and late (B2 trauma room phase. Univariate and logistic regression models as well as score quality criteria and the explanatory power have been calculated. Results A total of 2,354 patients with complete data were identified. From the patients basic data (P, logistic regression showed that age was a significant predictor of survival (AUCmodel p, area under the curve = 0.63. Logistic regression of the prehospital data (A showed that blood pressure, pulse rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, and anisocoria were significant predictors (AUCmodel A = 0.76; AUCmodel P + A = 0.82. Logistic regression of the early trauma room phase (B1 showed that peripheral oxygen saturation, GCS, anisocoria, base excess, and thromboplastin time to be significant predictors of survival (AUCmodel B1 = 0.78; AUCmodel P +A + B1 = 0.85. Multivariate analysis of the late trauma room phase (B2 detected cardiac massage, abbreviated injury score (AIS of the head ≥ 3, the maximum AIS, the need for transfusion or massive blood transfusion, to be the most important predictors (AUCmodel B2 = 0.84; AUCfinal model P + A + B1 + B2 = 0.90. The explanatory power - a tool for the assessment of the relative impact of each segment to mortality - is 25% for P, 7% for A, 17% for B1 and 51% for B2. A spreadsheet for the easy calculation of the sequential trauma

  3. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  4. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  5. Mining compressing sequential problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Compression based pattern mining has been successfully applied to many data mining tasks. We propose an approach based on the minimum description length principle to extract sequential patterns that compress a database of sequences well. We show that mining compressing patterns is NP-Hard and

  6. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  7. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  8. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  9. EXPLANATORY MODEL OF SPOT PRICE OF IRON ORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Enrique Villalva A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to construct an explanatory model of the spot price of iron ore in the international market. For this, the method of multiple linear regressions was used. As a dependent variable, the spot price of iron ore (62% Fe China Tianjin port was taken, between 2010 and 2013. As independents variables were taken seven variables of international iron ore market. The resulting model includes variables: Iron ore inventory in Chinese ports, Baltic Dry Index (BDI, Iron ore exports from Brazil & Australia and Chinese Rebar Steel Price, as explanatory variables of the behavior of the spot price of iron ore in the international market. The model has an adjusted coefficient of determination R2 of 0.90, and was validated by comparing its predictions vs. known values of 2014.

  10. Identifying the physical and anthropometric qualities explanatory of paddling adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Wade H; Leicht, Anthony S; Eady, Troy W; Marshall, Nick J; Woods, Carl T

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the physical and/or anthropometric qualities explanatory of adolescent surf lifesavers participating in paddling activities. Cross-sectional observational study. A total of 53 (14-18years) male participants were recruited and classified into two groups; paddlers (n=30; actively participating in paddling), non-paddlers (n=23; not actively participating in paddling). All participants completed a testing battery that consisted of 16 physical (isometric strength and muscular endurance) and anthropometric (height, mass, segment lengths and breadths) assessments. Binary logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic curves were built to identify the physical and/or anthropometric qualities most explanatory of paddling status (two levels: 1=paddlers, 0=non-paddlers). Significant between group differences were noted for 14 of the 16 assessments (Ptalent detection programs focused toward the recognition of performance potential in paddling-oriented sports. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mixing a Grounded Theory Approach with a Randomized Controlled Trial Related to Intimate Partner Violence: What Challenges Arise for Mixed Methods Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M.; Ciliska, Donna; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase. PMID:23577245

  12. Certified Nursing Assistants’ Explanatory Models of Nursing Home Resident Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Piven, Mary Lynn; Anderson, Ruth A.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we explored how Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) understood resident depression. Interviews with 18 CNAs, working in two nursing homes were guided by Kleinman’s Explanatory Models of Illness framework. Interview data were content analyzed and CNAs’ descriptions of depression were compared to the MDS 2.0 Mood Screen and to DSM-IV-TR Depression Criteria. CNAs identified causes, signs, and symptoms of depression, but they were unsure about the duration and normalcy of depressio...

  13. Explanatory models of depression and treatment adherence to antidepressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Johannessen, Helle; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    and medicine were not central. However, taking antidepressant medication was a meaningful part of being admitted to hospital, and the adoption of the rhetoric and practices of biomedicine strengthened patients' sense of control and hope for recovery. If medicine was ineffective, the explanatory models...... legitimised alternative strategies towards recovery, including non-adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The patients' reasons for adhering to antidepressants included a range of diverse psychosocial issues, and could be regarded as a central part of their common sense illness management....

  14. Statistical Dependence of Pipe Breaks on Explanatory Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Gómez-Martínez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging infrastructure is the main challenge currently faced by water suppliers. Estimation of assets lifetime requires reliable criteria to plan assets repair and renewal strategies. To do so, pipe break prediction is one of the most important inputs. This paper analyzes the statistical dependence of pipe breaks on explanatory variables, determining their optimal combination and quantifying their influence on failure prediction accuracy. A large set of registered data from Madrid water supply network, managed by Canal de Isabel II, has been filtered, classified and studied. Several statistical Bayesian models have been built and validated from the available information with a technique that combines reference periods of time as well as geographical location. Statistical models of increasing complexity are built from zero up to five explanatory variables following two approaches: a set of independent variables or a combination of two joint variables plus an additional number of independent variables. With the aim of finding the variable combination that provides the most accurate prediction, models are compared following an objective validation procedure based on the model skill to predict the number of pipe breaks in a large set of geographical locations. As expected, model performance improves as the number of explanatory variables increases. However, the rate of improvement is not constant. Performance metrics improve significantly up to three variables, but the tendency is softened for higher order models, especially in trunk mains where performance is reduced. Slight differences are found between trunk mains and distribution lines when selecting the most influent variables and models.

  15. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis

    In this thesis we describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon codes with non-uniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance...... is possible as low as Eb/No=0.6 dB, which is about 1.7 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio that marks the cut-off rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability...... of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first Reed-Solomon word is decoded after C computations are presented. This is supported by simulation results that are also extended to other parameters....

  16. Sequential Power-Dependence Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, Vincent; Rijt, Arnout van de

    2008-01-01

    Existing methods for predicting resource divisions in laboratory exchange networks do not take into account the sequential nature of the experimental setting. We extend network exchange theory by considering sequential exchange. We prove that Sequential Power-Dependence Theory—unlike

  17. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  18. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon (RS) codes with nonuniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is possible as low...... as Eb/N0=0.6 dB, which is about 1.25 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that marks the cutoff rate for the full system. Accounting for about 0.45 dB due to the outer codes, sequential decoding takes place at about 1.7 dB below the SNR cutoff rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since...... the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first RS word is decoded after C computations are presented. These results are supported...

  19. Sequential decay of Reggeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshihiro

    1981-01-01

    Probabilities of meson production in the sequential decay of Reggeons, which are formed from the projectile and the target in the hadron-hadron to Reggeon-Reggeon processes, are investigated. It is assumed that pair creation of heavy quarks and simultaneous creation of two antiquark-quark pairs are negligible. The leading-order terms with respect to ratio of creation probabilities of anti s s to anti u u (anti d d) are calculated. The production cross sections in the target fragmentation region are given in terms of probabilities in the initial decay of the Reggeons and an effect of manyparticle production. (author)

  20. An illustration of the explanatory and discovery functions of proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael de Villiers

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an illustration of the explanatory and discovery functions of proof with an original geometric conjecture made by a Grade 11 student. After logically explaining (proving the result geometrically and algebraically, the result is generalised to other polygons by further reflection on the proof(s. Different proofs are given, each giving different insights that lead to further generalisations. The underlying heuristic reasoning is carefully described in order to provide an exemplar for designing learning trajectories to engage students with these functions of proof.

  1. Preliminary heat flow map of Europe. Explanatory text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermak, V.; Hurtig, E.

    1977-08-08

    A preliminary heat flow map of Europe was prepared, based on data contained in 401 references. The map was prepared on a scale of 1:5,000,000 and shows broad-scale geological structure (e.g., platforms, shields, foredeeps) and specialized rock suites (ophiolites, volcanites). Primary faults and thrust faults are indicated, and contours showing the depth of crystalline basement are given. Heat flow is plotted using 10.0 mW/m/sup 2/ isotherms. The accompanying explanatory text describes data acquisition and techniques of correction, and discusses some implications of the results.

  2. A mixed study systematic review of social media in nursing and midwifery education: Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Jolliffe, Sarah; Stanmore, Emma; Renwick, Laoise; Schmitt, Terri; Booth, Richard

    2017-08-01

    To synthesize evidence on the use of social media in nursing and midwifery education. Social media is one type of online platform that is being explored to determine if there is value in using interactive, digital communication tools to support how nurses and midwives learn in a variety of settings. A sequential explanatory synthesis approach will be used for this mixed study review. Five bibliographic databases; PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, and ERIC will be searched using a combination of keywords relevant to social networking and social media, nursing and midwifery, and education. The search will not be limited by year of publication. Titles, abstracts, and full papers will be screened by two independent reviewers against inclusion and exclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved via a third reviewer. Selected studies will undergo quality assessment and data extraction. Data synthesis will occur in three sequential phases, with quantitative and qualitative data analysed separately and then integrated where possible to provide a conceptual framework illustrating learning via social media. Funding for this review was confirmed in May 2016 by Sigma Theta Tau International and the National League for Nursing. The mixed study systematic review will produce the first rigorous synthesis on the use of social media in nursing and midwifery education and will have important implications for educators as well as students. It will also highlight knowledge gaps and make recommendations on the use of this novel technology in higher and continuing education. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  4. Exploring Self-regulation of More or Less Expert College-Age Video Game Players: A Sequential Explanatory Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Soylu, Meryem; Bruning, Roger H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined differences in self-regulation among college-age expert, moderately expert, and non-expert video game players in playing video games for fun. Winne's model of self-regulation (Winne, 2001) guided the study. The main assumption of this study was that expert video game players used more processes of self-regulation than the less-expert players. We surveyed 143 college students about their game playing frequency, habits, and use of self-regulation. Data analysis indicated that while playing recreational video games, expert gamers self-regulated more than moderately expert and non-expert players and moderately expert players used more processes of self-regulation than non-experts. Semi-structured interviews also were conducted with selected participants at each of the expertise levels. Qualitative follow-up analyses revealed five themes: (1) characteristics of expert video gamers, (2) conditions for playing a video game, (3) figuring out a game, (4) how gamers act and, (5) game context. Overall, findings indicated that playing a video game is a highly self-regulated activity and that becoming an expert video game player mobilizes multiple sets of self-regulation related skills and processes. These findings are seen as promising for educators desiring to encourage student self-regulation, because they indicate the possibility of supporting students via recreational video games by recognizing that their play includes processes of self-regulation.

  5. Exploring Self-regulation of More or Less Expert College-Age Video Game Players: A Sequential Explanatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Soylu, Meryem; Bruning, Roger H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined differences in self-regulation among college-age expert, moderately expert, and non-expert video game players in playing video games for fun. Winne's model of self-regulation (Winne, 2001) guided the study. The main assumption of this study was that expert video game players used more processes of self-regulation than the less-expert players. We surveyed 143 college students about their game playing frequency, habits, and use of self-regulation. Data analysis indicated that while playing recreational video games, expert gamers self-regulated more than moderately expert and non-expert players and moderately expert players used more processes of self-regulation than non-experts. Semi-structured interviews also were conducted with selected participants at each of the expertise levels. Qualitative follow-up analyses revealed five themes: (1) characteristics of expert video gamers, (2) conditions for playing a video game, (3) figuring out a game, (4) how gamers act and, (5) game context. Overall, findings indicated that playing a video game is a highly self-regulated activity and that becoming an expert video game player mobilizes multiple sets of self-regulation related skills and processes. These findings are seen as promising for educators desiring to encourage student self-regulation, because they indicate the possibility of supporting students via recreational video games by recognizing that their play includes processes of self-regulation. PMID:27729881

  6. Exploring Self-Regulation of More or Less Expert College-Age Video Game Players: A Sequential Explanatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem YILMAZ SOYLU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in self-regulation among college-age expert, moderately expert, and non-expert video game players in playing video games for fun. Winne’s model of self-regulation (Winne, 2001 guided the study. Main assumption of this study was that expert video game players used more processes of self-regulation than the less-expert players. We surveyed 143 college students about their game playing frequency, habits, and use of self-regulation. Data analysis indicated that while playing recreational video games, expert gamers self-regulated more than moderately expert and non-expert players and moderately expert players used more processes of self-regulation than non-experts. Semi-structured interviews also were conducted with selected participants at each of the expertise levels. Qualitative follow-up analyses revealed five themes: 1 characteristics of expert video gamers, 2 conditions for playing a video game, 3 figuring out a game, 4 how gamers act and, 5 game context. Overall, findings indicated that playing a video game is a highly self-regulated activity and that becoming an expert video game player mobilizes multiple sets of self-regulation related skills and processes. These findings are seen as promising for educators desiring to encourage student self-regulation, because they indicate the possibility of supporting students via recreational video games by recognizing that their play includes processes of self-regulation.

  7. Individual Differences and Intervention Flaws: A Sequential Explanatory Study of College Students' Copy-and-Paste Note Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igo, L. Brent; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Bruning, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this study, qualitative themes and quantitative findings from previous research were used to justify the exploration of four experimental, note-taking conditions and the impact of those conditions on student learning from Web-based text. However, puzzling results obtained from dependent measures of student learning were quite inconsistent with…

  8. Counterfactuals and unphysical ceteris paribus: An explanatory fallacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Milan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I reconsider a type of counterfactual argument often used in historical sciences on a recent widely discussed example of the so-called “rare Earth” hypothesis in planetary sciences and astrobiology. The argument is based on the alleged “rarity” of some crucial ingredient for the planetary habitability, which is, in Earth’s case, provided by contingent evolutionary development. For instance, the claim that a contingent fact of history which has created planet Jupiter enables shielding of Earth from most dangerous impact catastrophes, thus increasing Earth’s habitability, leads often to the conclusion that such state-of-affairs must be rare in the Galaxy. I argue that this reasoning is deeply flawed, for several closely related reasons. In addition, the relevance of the philosophical problem of transworld identity for this kind of historical reasoning in science is put forward. This highlights many explanatory problems one faces when using historical counterfactuals in study of complex, nonlinear dynamical systems - and bolsters the relevance of philosophy for evaluation of scientific explanatory claims. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON176021 i br. ON 179048

  9. Inconsistency prevents the valuable synergism of explanatory and pragmatic trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luis C L; Correia, Vitor C A; Souza, Thiago M B; Cerqueira, Antonio Maurício S; Alexandre, Felipe K B; Garcia, Guilherme; Ferreira, Felipe R M; Lopes, Fernanda O A

    2018-05-01

    To assess review articles on pragmatic trials in order to describe how authors define the aim of this type of study, how comprehensive methodological topics are covered, and which topics are most valued by authors. Review articles were selected from Medline Database, based on the expression "pragmatic trial" in the titles. Five trained medical students evaluated the articles, based on a list of 15 self-explanatory methodological topics. Each article was evaluated regarding topics covered. Baseline statements on the aim of pragmatic trials were derived. Among 22 articles identified, there was general agreement that the aim of a pragmatic trial is to evaluate if the intervention works under real-world conditions. The mean number of methodological topics addressed by each article was 7.6 ± 3.1. Only one article covered all 15 topics, three articles (14%) responded to at least 75% of topics and 13 articles (59%) mentioned at least 50% of the topics. The relative frequency each of the 15 topics was cited by articles had a mean of 50% ± 25%. No topic was addressed by all articles, only three (20%) were addressed by more than 75% of articles. There is agreement on the different aims of explanatory and pragmatic trials. But there is a large variation on methodological topics used to define a pragmatic trial, which led to inconsistency in defining the typical methodology of a pragmatic trial. © 2018 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Managerial adjustment and its limits: sequential fault in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Cunha Rezende

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on explanations for sequential faults in administrative reform. It deals with the limits of managerial adjustment in an approach that attempts to connect theory and empirical data, articulating three levels of analysis. The first level presents comparative evidence of sequential fault within reforms in national governments through a set of indicators geared toward understanding changes in the role of the state. In light of analyses of a representative set of comparative studies on reform implementation, the second analytical level proceeds to identify four typical mechanisms that are present in explanations on managerial adjustment faults. In this way, we seek to configure an explanatory matrix for theories on sequential fault. Next we discuss the experience of management reform in the Brazilian context, conferring special attention on one of the mechanisms that creates fault: the control dilemma. The major hypotheses that guide our article are that reforms lead to sequential fault and that there are at least four causal mechanisms that produce reforms: a transactions costs involved in producing reforms; b performance legacy; c predominance of fiscal adjustment and d the control dilemma. These mechanisms act separately or in concert, and act to decrease chances for a transformation of State managerial patterns. Major evidence that is analyzed in these articles lend consistency to the general argument that reforms have failed in their attempts to reduce public expenses, alter patterns of resource allocation, reduce the labor force and change the role of the State. Our major conclusion is that reforms fail sequentially and managerial adjustment displays considerable limitations, particularly those of a political nature.

  11. Child maltreatment among Asian Americans: characteristics and explanatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhua Zhai; Qin Gao

    2009-05-01

    This article systematically reviews the characteristics of child maltreatment among Asian Americans and provides a theoretical explanatory framework. The reported rate of child maltreatment among Asian Americans is disproportionately low. A high rate of physical abuse and low rates of neglect and sexual abuse are found among Asian American victims. Some protective factors (e.g., the emphasis on family harmony and reputation and the indulgence to infants and toddlers) may lead to low probability of child maltreatment among Asian Americans. Some others (e.g., parental authority and beliefs in physical punishment) may be risk factors of child maltreatment, especially physical abuse. Meanwhile, many other coexisting factors (e.g., children's obedience to parents and families' invisibility to authorities) may prohibit child maltreatment from being disclosed. Therefore, the overall low reported rate of child maltreatment among Asian Americans may be a combination of low incidence and underreporting. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  12. Explanatory IRT Analysis Using the SPIRIT Macro in SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiTrapani, Jack

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Item Response Theory (IRT is a modeling framework that can be applied to a large variety of research questions spanning several disciplines. To make IRT models more accessible for the general researcher, a free tool has been created that can easily conduct one-parameter logistic IRT (1PL analyses using the convenient point-and-click interface in SPSS without any required downloads or add-ons. This tool, the SPIRIT macro, can fit 1PL models with person and item covariates, DIF analyses, multidimensional models, multigroup models, rating scale models, and several other variations. Example explanatory models are presented with an applied dataset containing responses to an ADHD rating scale. Illustrations of how to fit basic 1PL models as well as two more complicated analyses using SPIRIT are given.

  13. An Explanatory Model of Self-Service on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Dave; Livermore, Celia Romm; Farag, Neveen Awad

    This chapter describes research that identifies and classifies the dimensions of self-service activity enabled through the Internet. Self-service is effected by organizations providing ways and means whereby customers perform tasks related to the procurement of goods and services. We describe how an instrument used to measure Internet-based self-service was developed, validated and applied. The results from applying the instrument to a large number of Web sites, covering a range of industries, countries and cultures, are analyzed and discussed. The study presents a model in which type of industry, level of technological development, income and cultural factors are proposed as explanatory variables for Web-based self-service. We conclude with an assessment of this program of research’s achievements so far.

  14. Developing explanatory models of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term aim is to determine optimum interventions to reduce dental caries in children in disadvantaged communities and minimise the effects of exclusion from health care systems, of ethnic diversity, and health inequalities. DESIGN: Generation of initial explanatory models, study...... in developing and delivering this multi-centre study. Experience gained will support the development of substantive trials and longitudinal studies to address the considerable international health disparity of childhood dental caries....... protocol and development of two standardised measures. First, to investigate how parental attitudes may impact on their children's oral health-related behaviours and second, to assess how dentists' attitudes may impact on the provision of dental care. SUBJECTS: Core research team, lead methodologists, 44...

  15. Customer satisfaction from private utility companies: An explanatory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni-Plousia Kosteroglou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The present study examines the factors that have an impact on "customer satisfaction" in the context of private utility companies. The main purpose of the study is accomplished through the development and the empirical testing of a conceptual frame-work (research model. The proposed framework includes six dimensions (research factors: (a tangibles, (b reliability, (c responsiveness, (d assurance, (e empathy, and (f customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – The present study adopted the SERVQUAL approach (model, only after analytically testing its suitability for use within the investigated area. In that direction, the focus group methodology was used. Finally, the proposed con-ceptual framework was tested on a random sample of gas consumers residing in the area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The final sample consisted of 437 adult consumers. The reliability and the validity of the questionnaire were thoroughly examined. Empirical data were analysed using the “Structural Equation Modelling” (SEM technique. The present study is empirical, explanatory, deductive and, mainly, quantitative. Findings – Empirical results indicate that "reliability" has the highest impact on "customer satisfaction", while "empathy" has no impact at all. More specifically, the impact of "reliability" on "customer satisfaction" is indirect, mediated through three other di-mensions of the conceptual framework (namely, "tangibles", "responsiveness" and "empathy". Research limitations/implications – A limitation stemming from the implemented methodology is the use of self-reported scales for the measurement of the six research factors. Moreover, the paper lacks a longitudinal approach. Finally, the empirical research (survey is focused on one organisation and, therefore, offers relatively limited generalizability. Originality/value – Very few studies have utilised the SERVQUAL approach in the context of an explanatory research. This approach

  16. The Motivating Language of Principals: A Sequential Transformative Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, William Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This study implemented a Sequential Transformative Mixed Methods design with teachers (as recipients) and principals (to give voice) in the examination of principal talk in two different school accountability contexts (Continuously Improving and Continuously Zigzag) using the conceptual framework of Motivating Language Theory. In phase one,…

  17. Investigation of the sequential validity of quality improvement team ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Self-assessment is widely used in the health care improvement collaboratives quality improvement (QI) teams' to assess their own performance. There is mixed evidence on the validity of this approach. This study investigated sequential validity of self-assessments in a QI HIV collaborative in Tanzania.

  18. Adaptive sequential controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  19. Adaptive sequential controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  20. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  1. Quantum Inequalities and Sequential Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelpergher, B.; Grandouz, T.; Rubinx, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the peculiar context of sequential measurements is chosen in order to analyze the quantum specificity in the two most famous examples of Heisenberg and Bell inequalities: Results are found at some interesting variance with customary textbook materials, where the context of initial state re-initialization is described. A key-point of the analysis is the possibility of defining Joint Probability Distributions for sequential random variables associated to quantum operators. Within the sequential context, it is shown that Joint Probability Distributions can be defined in situations where not all of the quantum operators (corresponding to random variables) do commute two by two. (authors)

  2. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  3. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  4. Framework for sequential approximate optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Etman, L.F.P.; Keulen, van F.; Rooda, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    An object-oriented framework for Sequential Approximate Optimization (SAO) isproposed. The framework aims to provide an open environment for thespecification and implementation of SAO strategies. The framework is based onthe Python programming language and contains a toolbox of Python

  5. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  6. Explanatory and illustrative visualization of special and general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Daniel; Borchers, Marc; Ertl, Thomas; Falk, Martin; Fechtig, Oliver; Frank, Regine; Grave, Frank; King, Andreas; Kraus, Ute; Müller, Thomas; Nollert, Hans-Peter; Rica Mendez, Isabel; Ruder, Hanns; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Schär, Sonja; Zahn, Corvin; Zatloukal, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes methods for explanatory and illustrative visualizations used to communicate aspects of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity, their geometric structure, and of the related fields of cosmology and astrophysics. Our illustrations target a general audience of laypersons interested in relativity. We discuss visualization strategies, motivated by physics education and the didactics of mathematics, and describe what kind of visualization methods have proven to be useful for different types of media, such as still images in popular science magazines, film contributions to TV shows, oral presentations, or interactive museum installations. Our primary approach is to adopt an egocentric point of view: The recipients of a visualization participate in a visually enriched thought experiment that allows them to experience or explore a relativistic scenario. In addition, we often combine egocentric visualizations with more abstract illustrations based on an outside view in order to provide several presentations of the same phenomenon. Although our visualization tools often build upon existing methods and implementations, the underlying techniques have been improved by several novel technical contributions like image-based special relativistic rendering on GPUs, special relativistic 4D ray tracing for accelerating scene objects, an extension of general relativistic ray tracing to manifolds described by multiple charts, GPU-based interactive visualization of gravitational light deflection, as well as planetary terrain rendering. The usefulness and effectiveness of our visualizations are demonstrated by reporting on experiences with, and feedback from, recipients of visualizations and collaborators.

  7. The explanatory value of the idea of reincarnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, I

    1977-05-01

    The idea of reincarnation is presented as having considerable explanatory value for several features of human personality and biology that currently accepted theories do not adequately clarify. Reincarnation is not offered as a substitute for present knowledge derived from genetics and understanding of environmental influences; it may, however, usefully supplement such knowledge. The present paper does not present evidence from cases suggestive of reincarnation. It does, however, cite cases of subjects who have claimed to remember previous lives, most of whose statements have been verified in the course of detailed investigations. For each case, a reference is provided to a detailed published case report furnishing the evidence in that case. The idea of reincarnation may contribute to an improved understanding of such diverse matters as: phobias and philias of childhood; skills not learned in early life; abnormalities of child-parent relationships; vendettas and bellicose nationalism; childhood sexuality and gender identity confusion; birthmarks, congenital deformities, and internal diseases; differences between members of monozygotic twin pairs; and abnormal appetites during pregnancy. Empirical studies of cases of the reincarnation type have so far not provided any evidence that justifies using reincarnation as an explanation for the occurrence of child prodigies of the large inequities in socioeconomic conditions of humans at birth.

  8. Conceptual Resources in Self-Developed Explanatory Models: The Importance of Integrating Conscious and Intuitive Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Brown, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the spontaneous explanatory models children construct, critique, and revise in the context of tasks in which children need to predict, observe, and explain phenomena involving magnetism. It further investigates what conceptual resources students use, and in what ways they use them, to construct explanatory models, and the…

  9. Academic Judgment and Institutional Evaluation Made by Teachers According to Pupils' Explanatory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffre, Stephane; Py, Jacques; Somat, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The influence of sixth-graders' explanatory activity was studied on their teachers' academic judgment. Concerning the pupils' explanatory activity, trait-related internal explanations were chosen more to explain positive events than negative ones, whereas the reverse was observed for effort/intention-related internal explanations. In response to…

  10. An evolving approach to delirium: A mixed-methods process evaluation of a hospital-wide delirium program in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaidari, Abdullah Ao; Allen-Narker, Rosalind Ac

    2017-06-01

    A process evaluation was carried out to assess and potentially improve the design and implementation of a hospital-wide delirium program. A mixed-methods sequential-explanatory design was used; retrospective chart reviews for 100 older (75+) medical inpatients were conducted to measure nurses', doctors' and coders' adherence to key program processes following which interviews were conducted to identify potential barriers to implementation. Delirium occurred in 49% of patients. Chart reviews revealed suboptimal adherence to the delirium risk assessment (66%), the Short Confusion Assessment Method (50% on admission, 58% during admission), documentation of delirium in clinical records (80%) and discharge letters (38%) and coding for delirium (49%). The major barriers to implementation identified were failure to recruit non-nursing staff, unclear goals and instructions, difficulties using the Short-CAM, time constraints with competing priorities and lack of outcome expectancy. A new delirium program was needed based on these findings. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  11. Social inequalities in mental health in Norway: possible explanatory factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalgard Odd

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that there is a social gradient in mental health, the prevalence of mental disorders stepwise increasing by lower social status. The reason for this, however, is not clear, and the purpose of the present study was to explore possible mediating factors between social status and mental health. Methods The study has a cross-sectional design, and was based on a nationwide survey in Oslo, Norway, counting 12 310 people in the age of 30–60 years. Immigrants from non-western countries were excluded. Socio-demographic data were gathered from existing registers, whereas data on health, psychosocial variables and life style were gathered by structured interview. As indicator of mental health was used a 10-items version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist, measuring psychological distress. Measures of general self-efficacy and sense of powerlessness was used as indicators of control of own life situation. Results A strong social gradient in mental health was found, the prevalence of psychological distress increasing by decreasing social status. Psychosocial factors, including self-efficacy, sense of powerlessness, control of work, social support and negative life events, in particular economic problems, as well as life style factors (physical exercise, BMI, smoking and somatic health, likewise showed a social gradient, all risk factors increasing by decreasing social status. When adjusting for the risk factors in multivariate statistical analyses, the social gradient in mental health was eliminated. Low self-efficacy and sense of powerlessness emerged as important explanatory factors, alongside with poor social support, economic problems, smoking and somatic disorder. Conclusion Both individual characteristics, supposedly linked to the personality, like low self-efficacy, and factors related to the actual life situation, like economic problems and a feeling of powerlessness, contribute to the social gradient in mental health

  12. Remarks on sequential designs in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidenfeld, T.

    1982-01-01

    The special merits of sequential designs are reviewed in light of particular challenges that attend risk assessment for human population. The kinds of ''statistical inference'' are distinguished and the problem of design which is pursued is the clash between Neyman-Pearson and Bayesian programs of sequential design. The value of sequential designs is discussed and the Neyman-Pearson vs. Bayesian sequential designs are probed in particular. Finally, warnings with sequential designs are considered, especially in relation to utilitarianism

  13. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  14. Sequential versus simultaneous market delineation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Møllgaard, Peter; Kastberg Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and geographical markets. Using a unique data setfor prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodologyfor simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that comparedto a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.JEL: C3, K21, L41, Q22Keywords: Relevant market, econometric delineation......Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrustcases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product marketis delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographicaldimension...

  15. Sequential logic analysis and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanagh, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Until now, there was no single resource for actual digital system design. Using both basic and advanced concepts, Sequential Logic: Analysis and Synthesis offers a thorough exposition of the analysis and synthesis of both synchronous and asynchronous sequential machines. With 25 years of experience in designing computing equipment, the author stresses the practical design of state machines. He clearly delineates each step of the structured and rigorous design principles that can be applied to practical applications. The book begins by reviewing the analysis of combinatorial logic and Boolean a

  16. Evaluation Using Sequential Trials Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E.; Ralls, Stephen A.

    1986-01-01

    Although dental school faculty as well as practitioners are interested in evaluating products and procedures used in clinical practice, research design and statistical analysis can sometimes pose problems. Sequential trials methods provide an analytical structure that is both easy to use and statistically valid. (Author/MLW)

  17. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  18. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming - activating supportive representations of attachment security - on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed.

  19. Coping strategies as mediator variables between explanatory styles and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sanjuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to analyze the relationships among explanatory styles, coping strategies and depressive symptoms. Path analyses conducted with data of 234 individuals showed that Negative Explanatory Style (tendency to explain negative outcomes through internal, stable, and global causes had both a positive direct effect on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect on them through the use of avoidant strategies. On the contrary, Enhancing Explanatory Style (tendency to explain positive outcomes through internal, stable, and global causes had negative direct and indirect effects on these symptoms, but in this case, the indirect effect occurs through the use of problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring coping and the non-use of avoidant strategies. As a whole, the results suggest that to prevent the onset of depressive symptoms or to reduce them once they appear, enhancing explanatory style and problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring strategies should be promoted.

  20. Pragmatic trial design elements showed a different impact on trial interpretation and feasibility than explanatory elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Joost B.; Irving, Elaine; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lloyd, Emily; Goetz, Iris; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Stolk, Pieter; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Zuidgeest, Mira G P

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illustrate how pragmatic trial design elements, or inserting explanatory trial elements in pragmatic trials affect validity, generalizability, precision and operational feasibility. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: From illustrative examples identified through the IMI Get Real Consortium, we

  1. Group support system and explanatory feedback: An experimental study of mitigating halo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyas Utami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment potentially leads to halo effect that will affect accuracy of auditors decision-making process. Biased initial audit decision will potentially influence final audit decision. It is there-fore necessary to mitigate halo effect that is the consequence of auditors good impression on clients initial condition. This re-search aims to empirically show that halo effect can be mitigated by explanatory feedback and Group Support System (GSS. The researchers experimentally mani-pulate explanatory feedback and GSS using online web-site. The subjects are stu-dents who have already taken auditing courses. The results show that: 1 explanato-ry feedback can mitigate halo effect so that audit decision will be more accurate 2 GSS can also mitigate halo effect 3 explanatory feedback and GSS are the best me-thods to mitigate halo effect.

  2. Self-Explanation and Explanatory Feedback in Games: Individual Differences, Gameplay, and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Killingsworth, Stephen; Clark, Douglas; Adams, Deanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of two explanation-based approaches for increasing learning in educational games. The first involves asking students to explain their answers (self-explanation) and the second involves providing correct explanations (explanatory feedback). This study (1) compared self-explanation and explanatory feedback features embedded into a game designed to teach Newtonian dynamics and (2) investigated relationships between learning and individual differenc...

  3. Determinants of Judgments of Explanatory Power: Credibility, Generality, and Statistical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Matteo; Bucher, Leandra; Sprenger, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Explanation is a central concept in human psychology. Drawing upon philosophical theories of explanation, psychologists have recently begun to examine the relationship between explanation, probability and causality. Our study advances this growing literature at the intersection of psychology and philosophy of science by systematically investigating how judgments of explanatory power are affected by (i) the prior credibility of an explanatory hypothesis, (ii) the causal framing of the hypothesis, (iii) the perceived generalizability of the explanation, and (iv) the relation of statistical relevance between hypothesis and evidence. Collectively, the results of our five experiments support the hypothesis that the prior credibility of a causal explanation plays a central role in explanatory reasoning: first, because of the presence of strong main effects on judgments of explanatory power, and second, because of the gate-keeping role it has for other factors. Highly credible explanations are not susceptible to causal framing effects, but they are sensitive to the effects of normatively relevant factors: the generalizability of an explanation, and its statistical relevance for the evidence. These results advance current literature in the philosophy and psychology of explanation in three ways. First, they yield a more nuanced understanding of the determinants of judgments of explanatory power, and the interaction between these factors. Second, they show the close relationship between prior beliefs and explanatory power. Third, they elucidate the nature of abductive reasoning. PMID:28928679

  4. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well

  5. Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…

  6. Sequential Probability Ration Tests : Conservative and Robust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Shi, Wen

    2017-01-01

    In practice, most computers generate simulation outputs sequentially, so it is attractive to analyze these outputs through sequential statistical methods such as sequential probability ratio tests (SPRTs). We investigate several SPRTs for choosing between two hypothesized values for the mean output

  7. Random sequential adsorption of cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Kubala, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Random packings built of cubes are studied numerically using a random sequential adsorption algorithm. To compare the obtained results with previous reports, three different models of cube orientation sampling were used. Also, three different cube-cube intersection algorithms were tested to find the most efficient one. The study focuses on the mean saturated packing fraction as well as kinetics of packing growth. Microstructural properties of packings were analyzed using density autocorrelation function.

  8. Validation of an explanatory tool for data-fused displays for high-technology future aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Georgina C. L.; Shanks, Craig R.; Selcon, Stephen J.

    1996-05-01

    As the number of sensor and data sources in the military cockpit increases, pilots will suffer high levels of workload which could result in reduced performance and the loss of situational awareness. A DRA research program has been investigating the use of data-fused displays in decision support and has developed and laboratory-tested an explanatory tool for displaying information in air combat scenarios. The tool has been designed to provide pictorial explanations of data that maintain situational awareness by involving the pilot in the hostile aircraft threat assessment task. This paper reports a study carried out to validate the success of the explanatory tool in a realistic flight simulation facility. Aircrew were asked to perform a threat assessment task, either with or without the explanatory tool providing information in the form of missile launch success zone envelopes, while concurrently flying a waypoint course within set flight parameters. The results showed that there was a significant improvement (p less than 0.01) in threat assessment accuracy of 30% when using the explanatory tool. This threat assessment performance advantage was achieved without a trade-off with flying task performance. Situational awareness measures showed no general differences between the explanatory and control conditions, but significant learning effects suggested that the explanatory tool makes the task initially more intuitive and hence less demanding on the pilots' attentional resources. The paper concludes that DRA's data-fused explanatory tool is successful at improving threat assessment accuracy in a realistic simulated flying environment, and briefly discusses the requirements for further research in the area.

  9. Sequential feeding using whole wheat and a separate protein-mineral concentrate improved feed efficiency in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Même, N; Rideau, N; Roffidal, L; Tukur, H M; Bastianelli, D; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P

    2010-04-01

    The effect of feeding nutritionally different diets in sequential or loose-mix systems on the performance of laying hen was investigated from 16 to 46 wk of age. Equal proportions of whole wheat grain and protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) were fed either alternatively (sequential) or together (loose-mix) to ISA Brown hens. The control was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained 5 birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per d) and distributed twice (4 and 11 h after lights-on). In the sequential treatment, only wheat was fed at first distribution, followed by balancer diet at the second distribution. In loose-mix, the 2 rations were mixed and fed together during the 2 distributions. Leftover feed was always removed before the next distribution. Sequential feeding reduced total feed intake when compared with loose-mix and control. It had lower wheat (-9 g/bird per d) but higher balancer (+1.7 g/bird per d) intakes than loose-mix. Egg production, egg mass, and egg weight were similar among treatments. This led to an improvement in efficiency of feed utilization in sequential compared with loose-mix and control (10 and 5%, respectively). Birds fed sequentially had lower calculated ME (kcal/bird per d) intake than those fed in loose-mix and control. Calculated CP (g/bird per d) intake was reduced in sequential compared with loose-mix and control. Sequentially fed hens were lighter in BW. However, they had heavier gizzard, pancreas, and liver. Similar liver lipid was observed among treatments. Liver glycogen was higher in loose-mix than the 2 other treatments. It was concluded that feeding whole wheat and balancer diet, sequentially or loosely mixed, had no negative effect on performance in laying hens. Thus, the 2 systems are alternative to conventional feeding. The increased efficiency of feed utilization in sequential feeding is an added

  10. Explanatory model of psychosis: impact on perception of self-stigma by patients in three sub-saharan African cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, Victor; Esan, Yomi; Oladeji, Bibilola; Kola, Lola; Appiah-Poku, John; Harris, Benjamin; Othieno, Caleb; Price, Leshawndra; Seedat, Soraya; Gureje, Oye

    2016-12-01

    Most cultures in sub-Saharan Africa subscribe to the belief that the root cause of psychosis is supernatural. Individuals in the community who hold a religiomagical explanatory model of causation have been shown to exhibit more stigmatizing attitudes towards people with psychosis. Self-stigma among individuals with psychosis is less frequently studied. We used a mixed-method approach, consisting of key informant's interviews to elicit information on explanatory models of causation of psychosis and questionnaire assessment of internalized stigma with an adapted version of the Scale for Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness. Twenty-four, 31, and 30 subjects with recent experience of utilizing the service of traditional or faith healers for severe mental disorders in Ibadan (Nigeria), Kumasi (Ghana), and Nairobi (Kenya), respectively, were interviewed. About 44 % (42.1 %) of the Nigerian respondents had a high (severe) level of self-stigma with the respective proportions among Ghanaian and Kenyan respondents being 20.7 and 37.5 %. Compared with 4 out of a total of 12 respondents (33.3 %) who reported low self-stigma reported supernatural attribution, 14 out of 20 respondents (70 %) with the highest level of self-stigma reported supernatural attribution across the three sites. When low scorers ascribed supernatural causation, it was often with a religious focus. There is a greater tendency for persons with high levels of self-stigma than those with low levels to ascribe supernatural attribution to their experience of a severe mental health condition.

  11. Joint perceptual decision-making: A case study in explanatory pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Hamilton Abney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally different approaches to the study of cognition have been viewed as competing explanatory frameworks. An alternative view, explanatory pluralism, regards different approaches to the study of cognition as complementary ways of studying the same phenomenon, at specific temporal and spatial scales, using appropriate methodological tools. Explanatory pluralism has been often described abstractly, but has rarely been applied to concrete cases. We present a case study of explanatory pluralism. We discuss three separate ways of studying the same phenomenon: a perceptual decision- making task (Bahrami et al., 2010, where pairs of subjects share information to jointly individuate an oddball stimulus among a set of distractors. Each approach analyzed the same corpus but targeted different units of analysis at different levels of description: decision-making at the behavioral level, confidence sharing at the linguistic level, and acoustic energy at the physical level. We discuss the utility of explanatory pluralism for describing this complex, multiscale phenomenon, show ways in which this case study sheds new light on the concept of pluralism, and highlight good practices to critically assess and complement approaches.

  12. Using mixed-methods research to study the quality of life of coeliac women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Almagro, Julián; Hernández Martínez, Antonio; Solano Ruiz, María Carmen; Siles González, José

    2017-04-01

    To research the quality of life of Spanish women with coeliac disease. Women with coeliac disease express lower quality of life than men with coeliac disease. Explanatory sequential approach using mixed methods and with a gender perspective. The research was carried out between May and July 2015. In its quantitative stage, it aimed to determine the health-related quality of life in a representative sample (n = 1097) of Spanish adult women with coeliac disease using a specific questionnaire named Coeliac Disease-Quality of Life. In its qualitative phase, it aimed to describe the life experiences of a woman with coeliac disease in a qualitative manner by means of interviews (n = 19) with a semistructured script. Quantitative data were analysed using spss version 20 and presented in descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analysed using the directed content analysis. The quantitative process gave us the values on the four aspects studied: dysphoria, disease limitations, health problems and inadequate treatment. These aspects allowed us to create a qualitative process, based on which we generated an interview, from which four larger categories emerged. These categories were feelings at diagnosis, limitations in day-to-day life, social perceptions of the disease and personal meanings of coeliac disease. Thus, both phases of our project are totally connected. There was a high level of congruence between quantitative scores and narratives. This study shows us the strong points of mixed-methods strategy in health sciences. The mixed-methods strategy gave us a wider view of the experience of women living with coeliac disease. In our case, a strength and not a limitation is having performed the quality of life study in women with coeliac disease using a mixed methodology, approaching the experience of being a woman with coeliac disease in Spain in two different but complementary ways. The quantitative and qualitative data allowed us to interpret the experiences of

  13. Joint perceptual decision-making: A case study in explanatory pluralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abney, Drew; Dale, Rick; Yoshimi, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    and spatial scales, using appropriate methodological tools. Explanatory pluralism has been often described abstractly, but has rarely been applied to concrete cases. We present a case study of explanatory pluralism. We discuss three separate ways of studying the same phenomenon: a perceptual decision- making...... task (Bahrami et al., 2010), where pairs of subjects share information to jointly individuate an oddball stimulus among a set of distractors. Each approach analyzed the same corpus but targeted different units of analysis at different levels of description: decision-making at the behavioral level......, confidence sharing at the linguistic level, and acoustic energy at the physical level. We discuss the utility of explanatory pluralism for describing this complex, multiscale phenomenon, show ways in which this case study sheds new light on the concept of pluralism, and highlight good practices to critically...

  14. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Shanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131 were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5% patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4% achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context

  15. Sequential series for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Ko

    1975-01-01

    A new time-dependent treatment of nuclear reactions is given, in which the wave function of compound nucleus is expanded by a sequential series of the reaction processes. The wave functions of the sequential series form another complete set of compound nucleus at the limit Δt→0. It is pointed out that the wave function is characterized by the quantities: the number of degrees of freedom of motion n, the period of the motion (Poincare cycle) tsub(n), the delay time t sub(nμ) and the relaxation time tausub(n) to the equilibrium of compound nucleus, instead of the usual quantum number lambda, the energy eigenvalue Esub(lambda) and the total width GAMMAsub(lambda) of resonance levels, respectively. The transition matrix elements and the yields of nuclear reactions also become the functions of time given by the Fourier transform of the usual ones. The Poincare cycles of compound nuclei are compared with the observed correlations among resonance levels, which are about 10 -17 --10 -16 sec for medium and heavy nuclei and about 10 -20 sec for the intermediate resonances. (auth.)

  16. Phenomenology of the next sequential lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    We consider the phenomenology of a sequential, charged lepton in the mass range 6 --13 GeV. We find the semileptonic branching ratio of such a lepton to be approx. 13%; the dominant two-body modes are found to include the decay L → ν/sub L/F* with a branching ratio approx. 6%. In this analysis we assume that the mass of the lepton under consideration is lighter than the t quark such that decays such as L → ν/sub L/t-barq, where q= (d, s, or b) are kinematically forbidden. We also find that decays such as L → ν/sub L/B* (c-barb) can also be as large as approx. 6% depending on the mixing angles; the lifetime of such a lepton is found to be approx. 2.6 x 10 -12 M/sub L/ -5 sec, where M/sub L/ is in GeV

  17. Exploring the sequential lineup advantage using WITNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Charles A; Gronlund, Scott D; Carlson, Curt A

    2010-12-01

    Advocates claim that the sequential lineup is an improvement over simultaneous lineup procedures, but no formal (quantitatively specified) explanation exists for why it is better. The computational model WITNESS (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) was used to develop theoretical explanations for the sequential lineup advantage. In its current form, WITNESS produced a sequential advantage only by pairing conservative sequential choosing with liberal simultaneous choosing. However, this combination failed to approximate four extant experiments that exhibited large sequential advantages. Two of these experiments became the focus of our efforts because the data were uncontaminated by likely suspect position effects. Decision-based and memory-based modifications to WITNESS approximated the data and produced a sequential advantage. The next step is to evaluate the proposed explanations and modify public policy recommendations accordingly.

  18. Sequential lineup presentation: Patterns and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, R C L; Mansour, Jamal K; Beaudry, J L; Leach, A-M; Bertrand, M I

    2009-01-01

    Sequential lineups were offered as an alternative to the traditional simultaneous lineup. Sequential lineups reduce incorrect lineup selections; however, the accompanying loss of correct identifications has resulted in controversy regarding adoption of the technique. We discuss the procedure and research relevant to (1) the pattern of results found using sequential versus simultaneous lineups; (2) reasons (theory) for differences in witness responses; (3) two methodological issues; and (4) im...

  19. The Bacterial Sequential Markov Coalescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Nicola; Wilson, Daniel J

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria can exchange and acquire new genetic material from other organisms directly and via the environment. This process, known as bacterial recombination, has a strong impact on the evolution of bacteria, for example, leading to the spread of antibiotic resistance across clades and species, and to the avoidance of clonal interference. Recombination hinders phylogenetic and transmission inference because it creates patterns of substitutions (homoplasies) inconsistent with the hypothesis of a single evolutionary tree. Bacterial recombination is typically modeled as statistically akin to gene conversion in eukaryotes, i.e. , using the coalescent with gene conversion (CGC). However, this model can be very computationally demanding as it needs to account for the correlations of evolutionary histories of even distant loci. So, with the increasing popularity of whole genome sequencing, the need has emerged for a faster approach to model and simulate bacterial genome evolution. We present a new model that approximates the coalescent with gene conversion: the bacterial sequential Markov coalescent (BSMC). Our approach is based on a similar idea to the sequential Markov coalescent (SMC)-an approximation of the coalescent with crossover recombination. However, bacterial recombination poses hurdles to a sequential Markov approximation, as it leads to strong correlations and linkage disequilibrium across very distant sites in the genome. Our BSMC overcomes these difficulties, and shows a considerable reduction in computational demand compared to the exact CGC, and very similar patterns in simulated data. We implemented our BSMC model within new simulation software FastSimBac. In addition to the decreased computational demand compared to previous bacterial genome evolution simulators, FastSimBac provides more general options for evolutionary scenarios, allowing population structure with migration, speciation, population size changes, and recombination hotspots. FastSimBac is

  20. Biased lineups: sequential presentation reduces the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, R C; Lea, J A; Nosworthy, G J; Fulford, J A; Hector, J; LeVan, V; Seabrook, C

    1991-12-01

    Biased lineups have been shown to increase significantly false, but not correct, identification rates (Lindsay, Wallbridge, & Drennan, 1987; Lindsay & Wells, 1980; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Lindsay and Wells (1985) found that sequential lineup presentation reduced false identification rates, presumably by reducing reliance on relative judgment processes. Five staged-crime experiments were conducted to examine the effect of lineup biases and sequential presentation on eyewitness recognition accuracy. Sequential lineup presentation significantly reduced false identification rates from fair lineups as well as from lineups biased with regard to foil similarity, instructions, or witness attire, and from lineups biased in all of these ways. The results support recommendations that police present lineups sequentially.

  1. Learned Social Hopelessness: The Role of Explanatory Style in Predicting Social Support during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Almost no research has examined the impact of explanatory style on social adjustment. We hypothesised that adolescents with a pessimistic style would be less likely to develop and maintain social support networks. Methods: Seven hundred and nineteen students (351 males and 366 females; 2 unknown; M[subscript AGE] = 12.28, SD = 0.49)…

  2. Assessment of explanatory models of mental illness: effects of patient and interviewer characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghane, S.; Kolk, A.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Explanatory models (EMs) refer to patients’ causal attributions of illness and have been shown to affect treatment preference and outcome. Reliable and valid assessment of EMs may be hindered by interviewer and respondent disparities on certain demographic characteristics, such as

  3. Sensitivity analysis of an explanatory crop model at the regional scale using geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Explanatory, or process-based, crop models are computational tools that have been developed for a wide range of applications, such as optimizing crop production and simulating the effects of climate change. Crop models rely on a diverse set of input variables for predicting outcomes such as crop yie...

  4. Self-Explanation and Explanatory Feedback in Games: Individual Differences, Gameplay, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Stephen S.; Clark, Douglas B.; Adams, Deanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of two explanation-based approaches for increasing learning in educational games. The first involves asking students to explain their answers (self-explanation) and the second involves providing correct explanations (explanatory feedback). This study (1) compared self-explanation and explanatory…

  5. Objective List Theory of Well-Being as an Explanatory Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aislã Gonçalves Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2015v14n3p451 Generally it is argued that the Objective List Theory (OLT cannot support an explanatory view of what well-being is because OLT cannot identify one single good-maker property that it is responsible for unifying all the element that compose well-being. Then, Objective List Theory only can be an enumerative view of well-being. In this paper, I aim hold that we may offer an explanatory view of well-being even without identify a single good-maker property that is shared by all the elements that compose well-being. I hold that the OLT is still explanatory, because it is possible to identify each good-maker property in each element that is supposed to compose the list that is responsible for defining what well-being is. In addition, I hold that in order to have a full explanation about the concept of well-being we need to keep separate two question: 1 why something is good intrinsically and; 2 How the things that are good intrinsically could benefit us. My conclusion is that we may conceive one explanatory and pluralistic list that having constitutive elements of well-being and that a good explanation of well-being should keep separating the two question listed above.

  6. Construction management research at the interface of design and explanatory science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to characterize construction management research at the interface of explanatory science and design science. Design/methodology/approach – The dual nature of construction management research is analyzed by relating this field of research to natural science,

  7. Parental Explanatory Models of Child's Intellectual Disability: A Q Methodology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Montgomery, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This study with families caring for an individual with an intellectual disability in a mid-sized Indian city explored the diverse explanatory models that parents constructed of causes, preferred treatment approaches and perceived social effects of their child's intellectual disability. Seventeen mothers and three fathers rank ordered 48 disability…

  8. School District Information Technology Disaster Recovery Planning: An Explanatory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shaun L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite research and practitioner articles outlining the importance information technology disaster plans (ITDRPs) to organizational success, barriers have impeded the process of disaster preparation for Burlington County New Jersey school districts. The purpose of this explanatory qualitative case study was to understand how technology leader…

  9. Learning Molecular Behaviour May Improve Student Explanatory Models of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sara E.; Gold, Anne U.

    2018-01-01

    We assessed undergraduates' representations of the greenhouse effect, based on student-generated concept sketches, before and after a 30-min constructivist lesson. Principal component analysis of features in student sketches revealed seven distinct and coherent explanatory models including a new "Molecular Details" model. After the…

  10. Predictive and Explanatory Relationship Model between Procrastination, Motivation, Anxiety and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpur, Ugur

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the predictive and explanatory relationship model between procrastination, motivation, anxiety and academic achievement of university students. Research Methods: In this study, a causal research design was used. The study group consisted of 211 participants. In order to determine their motivation…

  11. Improving the explanatory power of bargaining models - New evidence from European Union studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selck, TJ

    Focusing on recent studies of European Union legislative decision-making, this research note evaluates the current literature that attempts to improve the explanatory power of bargaining models by integrating game-theoretic spatial models with micro-level data gained from expert interviews or from

  12. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  13. Random and cooperative sequential adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. W.

    1993-10-01

    Irreversible random sequential adsorption (RSA) on lattices, and continuum "car parking" analogues, have long received attention as models for reactions on polymer chains, chemisorption on single-crystal surfaces, adsorption in colloidal systems, and solid state transformations. Cooperative generalizations of these models (CSA) are sometimes more appropriate, and can exhibit richer kinetics and spatial structure, e.g., autocatalysis and clustering. The distribution of filled or transformed sites in RSA and CSA is not described by an equilibrium Gibbs measure. This is the case even for the saturation "jammed" state of models where the lattice or space cannot fill completely. However exact analysis is often possible in one dimension, and a variety of powerful analytic methods have been developed for higher dimensional models. Here we review the detailed understanding of asymptotic kinetics, spatial correlations, percolative structure, etc., which is emerging for these far-from-equilibrium processes.

  14. The Complexities of Family Caregiving at Work: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Joseph E; Pestka, Deborah L; Davila, Heather; Sales, Rebecca; Owen, Greg; Baumgartner, Sarah A; Shook, Rocky; Cunningham, Jane; Kenney, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    The current project examined the impact of caregiving and caregiving-work conflict on employees' well-being. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods design (QUAN→qual) was utilized, and a total of 880 employees from a large health-care plan employer completed an online survey. Forty-five caregivers who completed the survey also participated in one of the five focus groups held 1 to 2 months later. Employed caregivers were significantly ( p < .05) more likely to indicate poorer physical and mental health than noncaregivers; among caregivers ( n = 370), caregiving-work conflict emerged as the most significant predictor of well-being and fully mediated the empirical relationship between burden and well-being. The focus group findings complemented the quantitative results; many of the challenges employed caregivers experience stem from their ability or inability to effectively balance their employment and caregiving roles. The results suggest the need to focus on caregiving-work conflict when constructing new or translating existing evidence-based caregiver interventions.

  15. Understanding Adolescent–Parent Interpersonal Relationships in Youth Sports: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Lisinskiene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in youth sport and adolescent–parent attachment. A mixed-method explanatory sequential study design was applied. In the first phase, 648 adolescent athletes and non-athletes completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment–Revised (IPPA–R. In the second phase, 15 adolescent athletes took part in semi-structured interviews. In the first, quantitative phase, three factors were predictors of adolescents’ attachment to parents and peers: trust, communication, and alienation. In the qualitative follow-up, three themes emerged: adolescents’ attachment to the sport; adolescent–parent attachment; adolescents’ thoughts about parents. The analysis of the adolescent–parent interpersonal relationship revealed that athlete adolescents’ relations and attachment to parents compared to non-athlete adolescents are more intensively expressed in all scales: trust, communication and alienation. Interviews with adolescent athletes revealed that parent–adolescent interpersonal relationship and attachment to parents is more important at the early period of sporting life, and becomes less appreciable or unwelcome when children gain sporting experience. The study indicated that the form and degree of parental involvement in children’s sporting activities impacts the effectiveness of parent–athlete interpersonal relationships. The degree and the form of parental involvement in children’s sports chosen by the parents are not always appropriate and encouraging, and they are not always supportive of adolescents’ opinions.

  16. Exercise therapy in oncology rehabilitation in Australia: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Amy M; Peiris, Casey L; Shields, Nora; Morgan, Delwyn; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-10-01

    Oncology rehabilitation improves outcomes for cancer survivors but little is known about program availability in Australia. The aims of this study were: to describe oncology rehabilitation programs in Australia: determine whether the exercise component of programs is consistent with guidelines: and to explore barriers and facilitators to program implementation. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods study was completed in two phases: (1) a survey of Australian oncology rehabilitation programs; and (2) purposively sampled follow-up semistructured interviews with senior clinicians working in oncology rehabilitation who were involved with exercise prescription. Hospitals and/or cancer centers from 42 public hospital health networks (representing 163 hospitals) and 39 private hospitals were contacted to identify 31 oncology rehabilitation programs. All 31 surveys were returned (100% response rate). Programs were typically multidisciplinary, ran twice weekly, provided education and exercise and included self-management strategies. Exercise prescription and progression was patient centered and included a combination of resistance and aerobic training supplemented by balance, pelvic floor, and core stability exercises. Challenges to implementation included a lack of awareness of programs in the community and organizational barriers such as funding. Strong links with oncologists facilitated program referrals. Despite evidence to support oncology rehabilitation, there are few programs in Australia and there are challenges that limit it becoming part of standard practice. Programs that exist are multidisciplinary with a focus on exercise with the majority of programs following a cardiac rehabilitation model of care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. A salutogenic approach to prevention of metabolic syndrome: a mixed methods population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettola, Juhani; Viljanen, Anna Maria

    2014-12-01

    To find a salutogenic approach for prevention of metabolic syndrome in primary care practice. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods procedure was used to find salutogenic approaches for lifestyle change by assessing individual need, potential, and personal motivation. Data from a population health survey and interviews that focused on a sense of coherence were analysed. Altogether 480 Finnish subjects participated in a population health survey, and 43 of them were interviewed. The 43 interviewees' data were included in the final analysis. With the health survey participants' liability for MetS was assessed, and the objective need for lifestyle intervention was determined. Through the focused interviews potential and personal motivation for lifestyle modification were explored. Finally the data of the 43 interviewed subjects were merged. Four possible lifestyle intervention approaches were identified for specific intervention. First, subjects with a strong sense of coherence only need encouragement to maintain a healthy lifestyle; second, professional support was found important for subjects with gaps in health awareness to improve health understanding; third, strengthening of social support for lifestyle change is necessary for subjects with various practical constraints in their everyday life; and fourth, strengthening of stress adaptation is important for subjects with redundant concerns about their health. Salutogenic client-centred lifestyle modification approaches should be part of primary care practice. Further, a cross-disciplinary approach is needed in primary care research and practice to combat the exploding lifestyle illnesses.

  18. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  19. Extended Mixed-Efects Item Response Models with the MH-RM Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, R. Philip

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-effects item response theory (IRT) model is presented as a logical extension of the generalized linear mixed-effects modeling approach to formulating explanatory IRT models. Fixed and random coefficients in the extended model are estimated using a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) stochastic imputation algorithm to accommodate for…

  20. From linear to generalized linear mixed models: A case study in repeated measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to traditional linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) can offer better correspondence between response variables and explanatory models, yielding more efficient estimates and tests in the analysis of data from designed experiments. Using proportion data from a designed...

  1. Sequential lineup laps and eyewitness accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steblay, Nancy K; Dietrich, Hannah L; Ryan, Shannon L; Raczynski, Jeanette L; James, Kali A

    2011-08-01

    Police practice of double-blind sequential lineups prompts a question about the efficacy of repeated viewings (laps) of the sequential lineup. Two laboratory experiments confirmed the presence of a sequential lap effect: an increase in witness lineup picks from first to second lap, when the culprit was a stranger. The second lap produced more errors than correct identifications. In Experiment 2, lineup diagnosticity was significantly higher for sequential lineup procedures that employed a single versus double laps. Witnesses who elected to view a second lap made significantly more errors than witnesses who chose to stop after one lap or those who were required to view two laps. Witnesses with prior exposure to the culprit did not exhibit a sequential lap effect.

  2. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.

    2014-12-15

    This paper considers multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing and presents a framework for strategic learning in sequential games with explicit consideration of both temporal and spatial coordination. The associated Bayes risk functions explicitly incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well-defined value functions with respect to (a) the belief states for the case of conditional independent private noisy measurements that are also assumed to be independent identically distributed over time, and (b) the information states for the case of correlated private noisy measurements. A sequential investment game of strategic coordination and delay is also discussed as an application of the proposed strategic learning rules.

  3. Sequential Product of Quantum Effects: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-12-01

    This article presents an overview for the theory of sequential products of quantum effects. We first summarize some of the highlights of this relatively recent field of investigation and then provide some new results. We begin by discussing sequential effect algebras which are effect algebras endowed with a sequential product satisfying certain basic conditions. We then consider sequential products of (discrete) quantum measurements. We next treat transition effect matrices (TEMs) and their associated sequential product. A TEM is a matrix whose entries are effects and whose rows form quantum measurements. We show that TEMs can be employed for the study of quantum Markov chains. Finally, we prove some new results concerning TEMs and vector densities.

  4. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Tempone, Raul; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros

    2016-08-29

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Sequential Scintigraphy in Renal Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, K. zum; Harbst, H.; Schenck, P.; Franz, H. E.; Ritz, E.; Roehl, L.; Ziegler, M.; Ammann, W.; Maier-Borst, W. [Institut Fuer Nuklearmedizin, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-05-15

    Based on experience gained from more than 1600 patients with proved or suspected kidney diseases and on results on extended studies with dogs, sequential scintigraphy was performed after renal transplantation in dogs. After intravenous injection of 500 {mu}Ci. {sup 131}I-Hippuran scintiphotos were taken during the first minute with an exposure time of 15 sec each and thereafter with an exposure of 2 min up to at least 16 min.. Several examinations were evaluated digitally. 26 examinations were performed on 11 dogs with homotransplanted kidneys. Immediately after transplantation the renal function was almost normal arid the bladder was filled in due time. At the beginning of rejection the initial uptake of radioactive Hippuran was reduced. The intrarenal transport became delayed; probably the renal extraction rate decreased. Corresponding to the development of an oedema in the transplant the uptake area increased in size. In cases of thrombosis of the main artery there was no evidence of any uptake of radioactivity in the transplant. Similar results were obtained in 41 examinations on 15 persons. Patients with postoperative anuria due to acute tubular necrosis showed still some uptake of radioactivity contrary to those with thrombosis of the renal artery, where no uptake was found. In cases of rejection the most frequent signs were a reduced initial uptake and a delayed intrarenal transport of radioactive Hippuran. Infarction could be detected by a reduced uptake in distinct areas of the transplant. (author)

  7. Sequential provisional implant prosthodontics therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Ira D; Markovits, Stanley; Jansen, Curtis E; Reid, Patrick E; Schnader, Yale E; Shapiro, Herbert J

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication and long-term use of first- and second-stage provisional implant prostheses is critical to create a favorable prognosis for function and esthetics of a fixed-implant supported prosthesis. The fixed metal and acrylic resin cemented first-stage prosthesis, as reviewed in Part I, is needed for prevention of adjacent and opposing tooth movement, pressure on the implant site as well as protection to avoid micromovement of the freshly placed implant body. The second-stage prosthesis, reviewed in Part II, should be used following implant uncovering and abutment installation. The patient wears this provisional prosthesis until maturation of the bone and healing of soft tissues. The second-stage provisional prosthesis is also a fail-safe mechanism for possible early implant failures and also can be used with late failures and/or for the necessity to repair the definitive prosthesis. In addition, the screw-retained provisional prosthesis is used if and when an implant requires removal or other implants are to be placed as in a sequential approach. The creation and use of both first- and second-stage provisional prostheses involve a restorative dentist, dental technician, surgeon, and patient to work as a team. If the dentist alone cannot do diagnosis and treatment planning, surgery, and laboratory techniques, he or she needs help by employing the expertise of a surgeon and a laboratory technician. This team approach is essential for optimum results.

  8. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, J

    1982-03-01

    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  9. Explanatory Resources on Energy in High School Physics Classes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Domínguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and reflects on the explanatory resources that are used in high school physics classes for studying the topic of energy. Explanatory resources are a means of constructing and negotiating meaning. The research is an instrumental case study focusing on four years of high school physics classes on energy. The theoretical principles of sociocultural approaches and conversation analysis are taken as benchmarks for understanding how we construct and reconstruct meanings (on energy. The identification of the resources used in the process of meaning construction is of importance for understanding certain scientific phenomena addressed in the curricula. Among the resources most commonly employed to enhance explanation were definitions and the causes of phenomena. We also found that teachers’ interventions, either through verbal explanations or instructional proposals, were crucial for certain kinds of explanations and for the presence or absence of other resources associated with explanations.

  10. Energy and water uses and their performance explanatory indicators in hotels in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper firstly presents a case study on analyzing the electrical load profiles recorded in a Hong Kong hotel over a period of 12 months to examine the potential energy saving opportunities (ESOs) in its building services installations. The case study is followed by a report of the survey results of energy and water use in 36 quality hotels in Hong Kong. Finally, a regression analysis where the surveyed energy and water use data were correlated to a number of hotel background or operational parameters to search for suitable energy and water use performance explanatory indicators is presented. The survey results depict a diversified energy and water use situation in Hong Kong's hotels, but the regression analysis indicates that, while some of the correlations obtained are weak, there do exist a few strong energy and water explanatory indicators. (author)

  11. Identification and analysis of explanatory variables for a multi-factor productivity model of passenger airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Henriques de Araújo Jr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to identify and analyze the explanatory variables for airlines productivity during 2000 2005, by testing the Pearson correlation between the single factor productivity capital, energy and labor of a sample of 45 selected international airlines (4 Brazilian carriers among them and their productivity explanatory variables like medium stage length, aircraft load factor, hours flown and cruise speed for selected routes besides aircraft seat configuration and airlines number of employees. The research demonstrated, that a set of variables can explain differences in productivity for passenger airlines, such as: investment in personnel training processes, automation, airplane seat density, occupation of aircraft, average flight stage length, density and extension of routes, among others.

  12. Exploring the post-genomic world: differing explanatory and manipulatory functions of post-genomic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christina; Carlson, Siobhan M; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-01-02

    Richard Lewontin proposed that the ability of a scientific field to create a narrative for public understanding garners it social relevance. This article applies Lewontin's conceptual framework of the functions of science (manipulatory and explanatory) to compare and explain the current differences in perceived societal relevance of genetics/genomics and proteomics. We provide three examples to illustrate the social relevance and strong cultural narrative of genetics/genomics for which no counterpart exists for proteomics. We argue that the major difference between genetics/genomics and proteomics is that genomics has a strong explanatory function, due to the strong cultural narrative of heredity. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of proteomics conferences, we suggest that the nature of proteins, lack of public understanding, and theoretical complexity exacerbates this difference for proteomics. Lewontin's framework suggests that social scientists may find that omics sciences affect social relations in different ways than past analyses of genetics.

  13. An explanatory model of women’s entrepreneur intention within a government funded entrepreneurship program

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Araya Jofré

    2017-01-01

    This study consists in an explanatory model of the entrepreneur intention (EI) of a group of women participating in the Learning to Undertake Project (LTU) financed by PRODEMU (Women’s Promotion and Development Fund) in 2014. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) variables, as well as socio personal variables were studied to determine the impact upon the subject’s entrepreneur conduct. Since the study found that there is a positive correlation between EI and age; and a negative correlation bet...

  14. Explanatory item response modelling of an abstract reasoning assessment: A case for modern test design

    OpenAIRE

    Helland, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Assessment is an integral part of society and education, and for this reason it is important to know what you measure. This thesis is about explanatory item response modelling of an abstract reasoning assessment, with the objective to create a modern test design framework for automatic generation of valid and precalibrated items of abstract reasoning. Modern test design aims to strengthen the connections between the different components of a test, with a stress on strong theory, systematic it...

  15. Explanatory factors of CO2 per capita emission inequality in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, Emilio; Duro, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The design of European mitigation policies requires a detailed examination of the factors explaining the unequal emissions in the different countries. This research analyzes the evolution of inequality in CO 2 emissions per capita in the European Union (EU-27) in the period 1990–2009 and its explanatory factors. For this purpose, we decompose the Theil index of inequality into the contributions of the different Kaya factors. The decomposition is also applied to the inequality between and within groups of countries (North Europe, South Europe, and East Europe). The analysis shows an important reduction in inequality, to a large extent due to the smaller differences between groups and because of the lower contribution of the energy intensity factor. The importance of the GDP per capita factor increases and becomes the main explanatory factor. However, within the different groups of countries the carbonization index appears to be the most relevant factor in explaining inequalities. The policy implications of the results are discussed. - Highlights: • CO 2 inequality in EU-27 (Theil index) is decomposed into explanatory (Kaya) factors. • It decreases more between than within regions (North, South, East). • Energy intensity contribution falls and turns negative. GDP pc becomes main factor. • Carbonization makes most relevant contribution to inequality within groups. • Policy implications on feasibility of agreements and mitigation policy are discussed

  16. Level of paranormal beliefs and its relationship with explanatory models, treatment adherence and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushad Ram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paranormal beliefs are common among patients with mental illness. Such beliefs may mediate conceptualization of illness, treatment satisfaction and medication adherence. Objective To study the level of paranormal beliefs and its relationship with explanatory models, treatment adherence and satisfaction using standardized assessment tool. Methods Eighty nine patients with mental illness in remission were assessed with Sociodemographic proforma, Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS, Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire (MMAS, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS and Short Assessment of Patient Satisfaction (SAPS. Results Results revealed a high level of paranormal beliefs on RPBS (Mean 83.96, SD ± 23.91. Variables that had a statistically significant group difference on the score of RPBS were domicile status (p < 05, diagnosis (p < 001, method of treatment sought before (p < 001. In a linear regression analysis four variables explained 35.4% of the variance (R2 = .38, R2Adjusted = .35, F = 13.04, p < .001 in RPBS Score. These variables were total score of MDEMQ (Beta = .308, t = 3.435, p < .001, total score of MMAS (beta = .357, t = 3. 716, p < .001 and magico-religious treatment received earlier (beta = .306, t = 3.52, p < .001 and SAPS. Discussion Based on the finding of this study, it may be concluded that the level of paranormal beliefs may vary with some demographic variables. Levels of paranormal beliefs is positively associated with explanatory models and adherence in patients with mental illness in remission.

  17. Explanatory models concerning the effects of small-area characteristics on individual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtländer, Sven; Vogt, Verena; Mielck, Andreas; Razum, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    Material and social living conditions at the small-area level are assumed to have an effect on individual health. We review existing explanatory models concerning the effects of small-area characteristics on health and describe the gaps future research should try to fill. Systematic literature search for, and analysis of, studies that propose an explanatory model of the relationship between small-area characteristics and health. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Using various theoretical approaches, almost all of the models are based on a three-tier structure linking social inequalities (posited at the macro-level), small-area characteristics (posited at the meso-level) and individual health (micro-level). No study explicitly defines the geographical borders of the small-area context. The health impact of the small-area characteristics is explained by specific pathways involving mediating factors (psychological, behavioural, biological). These pathways tend to be seen as uni-directional; often, causality is implied. They may be modified by individual factors. A number of issues need more attention in research on explanatory models concerning small-area effects on health. Among them are the (geographical) definition of the small-area context; the systematic description of pathways comprising small-area contextual as well as compositional factors; questions of direction of association and causality; and the integration of a time dimension.

  18. Consumer-operated service program members' explanatory models of mental illness and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Janet M

    2014-10-01

    Incorporating individuals' understandings and explanations of mental illness into service delivery offers benefits relating to increased service relevance and meaning. Existing research delineates explanatory models of mental illness held by individuals in home, outpatient, and hospital-based contexts; research on models held by those in peer-support contexts is notably absent. In this article, I describe themes identified within and across explanatory models of mental illness and recovery held by mental health consumers (N = 24) at one peer center, referred to as a consumer-operated service center (COSP). Participants held explanatory models inclusive of both developmental stressors and biomedical causes, consistent with a stress-diathesis model (although no participant explicitly referenced such). Explicit incorporation of stress-diathesis constructs into programming at this COSP offers the potential of increasing service meaning and relevance. Identifying and incorporating shared meanings across individuals' understandings of mental illness likewise can increase relevance and meaning for particular subgroups of service users. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. 'Hypotheses, everywhere only hypotheses!': on some contexts of Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feest, Uljana

    2007-03-01

    In 1894, Wilhelm Dilthey published an article in which he formulated a critique of what he called 'explanatory psychology', contrasting it with his own conception of 'descriptive psychology'. Dilthey's descriptive psychology, in turn, was to provide the basis for Dilthey's specific philosophy of the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften). In this paper, I contextualize Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology. I show that while this critique comes across as very broad and sweeping, he in fact had specific opponents in mind, namely, scholars who, like him, attempted to theorize about the relationship between the individual and society, between psychology and the other human sciences. Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology is the flipside of his critique of sociology, which he had already formulated. He challenged both because he felt that they gave the wrong kind of answer to the task of overcoming metaphysics within the human sciences. In particular, I identify the founders of Völkerpsychologie, Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal, and (more importantly) their student, Georg Simmel, as Dilthey's targets. I provide textual and historical evidence for this thesis.

  20. Tradable permit allocations and sequential choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Ian A. [Centre for Economic Research, ETH Zuerich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigates initial allocation choices in an international tradable pollution permit market. For two sovereign governments, we compare allocation choices that are either simultaneously or sequentially announced. We show sequential allocation announcements result in higher (lower) aggregate emissions when announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). Whether allocation announcements are strategic substitutes or complements depends on the relationship between the follower's damage function and governments' abatement costs. When the marginal damage function is relatively steep (flat), allocation announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). For quadratic abatement costs and damages, sequential announcements provide a higher level of aggregate emissions. (author)

  1. Sequential Generalized Transforms on Function Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Gil Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define two sequential transforms on a function space Ca,b[0,T] induced by generalized Brownian motion process. We then establish the existence of the sequential transforms for functionals in a Banach algebra of functionals on Ca,b[0,T]. We also establish that any one of these transforms acts like an inverse transform of the other transform. Finally, we give some remarks about certain relations between our sequential transforms and other well-known transforms on Ca,b[0,T].

  2. Investigating First Year College Student Locus of Control in Relation to Retention: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Institutions of higher education place a high priority on retaining students. With orientation programming, tutoring, learning communities, peer mentoring, and other efforts, institutions dedicate the resources necessary to increase the academic success of their students because academic success has a positive relationship with retention. Through…

  3. Microwave Ablation: Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Activation of Multiple Antennas in Liver Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Colin M; Magagna, Michelle; Bedoya, Mariajose; Lee, Fred T; Lubner, Meghan G; Hinshaw, J Louis; Ziemlewicz, Timothy; Brace, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    To compare microwave ablation zones created by using sequential or simultaneous power delivery in ex vivo and in vivo liver tissue. All procedures were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Microwave ablations were performed in both ex vivo and in vivo liver models with a 2.45-GHz system capable of powering up to three antennas simultaneously. Two- and three-antenna arrays were evaluated in each model. Sequential and simultaneous ablations were created by delivering power (50 W ex vivo, 65 W in vivo) for 5 minutes per antenna (10 and 15 minutes total ablation time for sequential ablations, 5 minutes for simultaneous ablations). Thirty-two ablations were performed in ex vivo bovine livers (eight per group) and 28 in the livers of eight swine in vivo (seven per group). Ablation zone size and circularity metrics were determined from ablations excised postmortem. Mixed effects modeling was used to evaluate the influence of power delivery, number of antennas, and tissue type. On average, ablations created by using the simultaneous power delivery technique were larger than those with the sequential technique (P Simultaneous ablations were also more circular than sequential ablations (P = .0001). Larger and more circular ablations were achieved with three antennas compared with two antennas (P simultaneous power delivery creates larger, more confluent ablations with greater temperatures than those created with sequential power delivery. © RSNA, 2015.

  4. Using Students' Explanatory Models as Sources of Feedback: Conceptualizing Ocean Acidification and Its Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, A.; Stapleton, M.; Wolfson, J.

    2017-12-01

    This qualitative study focuses on students evidence-based explanatory models on how ocean acidification impacts oysters. Explanatory models are the crucial components of scientific endeavors as it helps scientists explain how the natural world functions and the reasons for the ways it functions. Moreover, these models assemble individual practices to understand how they work together to reach clear conclusions through scientific investigations. Due to their critical roles in making sense of authentic science, recent studies in science education suggest that these models should be part of the curriculum aligned with new science standards, i.e. Next Generation Science Standards, which stress the importance of engaging students in scientific practices. By collecting data from 400 secondary school students in Maryland, we aim to respond to the question: How can we use secondary school students' explanatory models to provide students with constructive feedback for more comprehensive learning of ocean acidification (the related evidence, causes and impact)? The data were analyzed through discourse analysis method. We highlighted and coded students' inscriptions (e.g., drawings, writings, and representations) that are signs of students' understanding (or lack thereof) of ocean acidification. These signs included explanations of pH levels, drawings of oyster growth, and inclusions of relevant data. The findings showed that the explanatory models can be critical forms of feedback as they reveal a) students' alternative conceptions on how ocean acidification impacts oysters or how acidification works in general; b) students' interpretations of oceans' (non)connectedness to Earth system; c) the choice of scientific representations and their sources; and d) the way students' integrate evidence or data from the investigations. Our work tackles an understanding of one of the most vital signs of modern climatic changes. Recent scientific evidence shows that if the change in ocean

  5. Sequential blind identification of underdetermined mixtures using a novel deflation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjian; Yu, Simin; Wei, Gang

    2013-09-01

    In this brief, we consider the problem of blind identification in underdetermined instantaneous mixture cases, where there are more sources than sensors. A new blind identification algorithm, which estimates the mixing matrix in a sequential fashion, is proposed. By using the rank-1 detecting device, blind identification is reformulated as a constrained optimization problem. The identification of one column of the mixing matrix hence reduces to an optimization task for which an efficient iterative algorithm is proposed. The identification of the other columns of the mixing matrix is then carried out by a generalized eigenvalue decomposition-based deflation method. The key merit of the proposed deflation method is that it does not suffer from error accumulation. The proposed sequential blind identification algorithm provides more flexibility and better robustness than its simultaneous counterpart. Comparative simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed algorithm over the simultaneous blind identification algorithm.

  6. Efficacy of premixed versus sequential administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sequential administration in separate syringes on block characteristics, haemodynamic parameters, side effect profile and postoperative analgesic requirement. Trial design: This was a prospective, randomised clinical study. Method: Sixty orthopaedic patients scheduled for elective lower limb surgery under spinal ...

  7. Linear mixed models for longitudinal data

    CERN Document Server

    Molenberghs, Geert

    2000-01-01

    This paperback edition is a reprint of the 2000 edition. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of linear mixed models for continuous longitudinal data. Next to model formulation, this edition puts major emphasis on exploratory data analysis for all aspects of the model, such as the marginal model, subject-specific profiles, and residual covariance structure. Further, model diagnostics and missing data receive extensive treatment. Sensitivity analysis for incomplete data is given a prominent place. Several variations to the conventional linear mixed model are discussed (a heterogeity model, conditional linear mixed models). This book will be of interest to applied statisticians and biomedical researchers in industry, public health organizations, contract research organizations, and academia. The book is explanatory rather than mathematically rigorous. Most analyses were done with the MIXED procedure of the SAS software package, and many of its features are clearly elucidated. However, some other commerc...

  8. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  9. Nature differences of humic acids fractions induced by extracted sequence as explanatory factors for binding characteristics of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenjing; Lü, Changwei; He, Jiang; En, He; Gao, Manshu; Zhao, Boyi; Zhou, Bin; Zhou, Haijun; Liu, Hualin; Zhang, Yu

    2018-06-15

    The composition and structure of Humic acid (HA) is so heterogeneous that it brings significant barriers to investigate the interaction between HA and heavy metal ions. The isolation of HA with relatively homogeneity is a key to reveal the binding mechanisms between HA and heavy metals. In this work, ten HA fractions (HAs) were obtained by sequential alkali extraction procedure and nature differences of the extracted HAs were considered as explanatory factors for binding characteristics of Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . The results indicate that more large molecular weight (MW) HA subunits, less carboxyl and phenolic group contents, weaker aromaticity and polarity were measured with increasing extractions, inducing weaker binding capacity of HAs. Ligand binding and bi-Langmuir models indicated that the sorption capacity and binding affinity of earlier extracted HAs were higher than the latter ones. The peak area changes at 3427, 1599, and 619 cm -1 pre- and post-adsorption in FTIR spectra suggested carboxyl, phenolic and nitrogen-containing groups were involved in the adsorption process. At the same time, the peak area difference between HAs and HAs-metal (ΔS) of phenolic groups were 8.22-20.50, 6.81-21.11 and 10.66-19.80% for Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ , respectively, ΔS of carboxyl groups 6.64-17.03, 8.96-16.82 and 9.45-17.85% for Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ , respectively, ΔS of nitrogen-containing groups 0.33-0.48, 0.20-1.38 and 0.31-0.59% for Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ , respectively. ΔS of phenolic and carboxyl groups were larger than those of nitrogen-containing groups, implying that these two groups were the predominant binding sites suppliers for metal ions, which were also supported by the results of correlation analysis. This work is helpful to insight the environmental impacts of natural organic matter and the fate of heavy metals in natural environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sneutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Y.

    1997-10-01

    In supersymmetric models with nonvanishing Majorana neutrino masses, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix. The conditions under which this mixing is experimentally observable are studied, and mass-splitting of the sneutrino mass eigenstates and sneutrino oscillation phenomena are analyzed

  11. Conflict resolution patterns and violence perpetration in adolescent couples: A gender-sensitive mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernet, Mylène; Hébert, Martine; Paradis, Alison

    2016-06-01

    This study used a sequential two-phase explanatory design. The first phase of this mixed-methods design aimed to explore conflict resolution strategies in adolescent dating couples, and the second phase to document, from both the perspective of the individual and of the couple, dyadic interaction patterns distinguishing youth inflicting dating violence from those who do not. A sample of 39 heterosexual couples (mean age 17.8 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and were observed during a 45 min dyadic interaction. At phase 1, qualitative analysis revealed three main types of conflict resolution strategies: 1) negotiating expectations and individual needs; 2) avoiding conflicts or their resolution; 3) imposing personal needs and rules through the use of violence. At phase 2, we focused on couples with conflictive patterns. Results indicate that couples who inflict violence differ from nonviolent couples by their tendency to experience conflicts when in disagreement and to resort to negative affects as a resolution strategy. In addition, while at an individual level, they show a tendency to withdraw from conflict and to use less positive affect, at a dyadic level they present less symmetry. Results offer important insights for prevention programs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Food and beverage price discounts to improve health in remote Aboriginal communities: mixed method evaluation of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; Holden, Stacey; Miles, Eddie; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-02-01

    Retrospectively evaluate food price discounts in remote Aboriginal community stores. Four price discount strategies of 10% were designed in 2010, aiming to influence grocery, fruit, vegetables and diet soft-drink sales. This natural experiment across a group of stores was evaluated using an explanatory, sequential mixed method design through analysis of store point-of-sale, document, observation and interview data. The outcome was measured by change in: 1) percentage of grocery sales to total food and beverage; 2) fruit and vegetable sales; and 3) diet soft-drink sales. Qualitative data enabled the interpretation of outcomes through understanding perceived success and benefits, and enablers and barriers to implementation. Eighteen community stores and 54 informants participated. While targeted price discounts were considered important to improving health, no discernible effect was evident, due to inadequate design and communication of discount promotion, and probably inadequate magnitude of discount. Strategy impact on food and beverage sales was limited by promotion and magnitude of discount. Implication for Public Health: This study demonstrates key factors and commitment required to design, communicate, implement and monitor strategies to improve health in this challenging remote retail context. Evaluation of natural experiments can contribute evidence to policy-making. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Explanatory Variables Associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli Concentrations on Broiler Chicken Carcasses during Processing in Two Slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover,

  14. Explanatory variables associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses during processing in two slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover,

  15. The importance of examining movements within the US health care system: sequential logit modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chioun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilization of specialty care may not be a discrete, isolated behavior but rather, a behavior of sequential movements within the health care system. Although patients may often visit their primary care physician and receive a referral before utilizing specialty care, prior studies have underestimated the importance of accounting for these sequential movements. Methods The sample included 6,772 adults aged 18 years and older who participated in the 2001 Survey on Disparities in Quality of Care, sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund. A sequential logit model was used to account for movement in all stages of utilization: use of any health services (i.e., first stage, having a perceived need for specialty care (i.e., second stage, and utilization of specialty care (i.e., third stage. In the sequential logit model, all stages are nested within the previous stage. Results Gender, race/ethnicity, education and poor health had significant explanatory effects with regard to use of any health services and having a perceived need for specialty care, however racial/ethnic, gender, and educational disparities were not present in utilization of specialty care. After controlling for use of any health services and having a perceived need for specialty care, inability to pay for specialty care via income (AOR = 1.334, CI = 1.10 to 1.62 or health insurance (unstable insurance: AOR = 0.26, CI = 0.14 to 0.48; no insurance: AOR = 0.12, CI = 0.07 to 0.20 were significant barriers to utilization of specialty care. Conclusions Use of a sequential logit model to examine utilization of specialty care resulted in a detailed representation of utilization behaviors and patient characteristics that impact these behaviors at all stages within the health care system. After controlling for sequential movements within the health care system, the biggest barrier to utilizing specialty care is the inability to pay, while racial, gender, and educational disparities

  16. Developmental changes in reading do not alter the development of visual processing skills: An application of explanatory item response models in grades K-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Santi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual processing has been widely studied in regard to its impact on a students’ ability to read. A less researched area is the role of reading in the development of visual processing skills. A cohort-sequential, accelerated-longitudinal design was utilized with 932 kindergarten, first, and second grade students to examine the impact of reading acquisition on the processing of various types of visual discrimination and visual motor test items. Students were assessed four times per year on a variety of reading measures and reading precursors and two popular measures of visual processing over a three-year period. Explanatory item response models were used to examine the roles of person and item characteristics on changes in visual processing abilities and changes in item difficulties over time. Results showed different developmental patterns for five types of visual processing test items, but most importantly failed to show consistent effects of learning to read on changes in item difficulty. Thus, the present study failed to find support for the hypothesis that learning to read alters performance on measures of visual processing. Rather, visual processing and reading ability improved together over time with no evidence to suggest cross-domain influences from reading to visual processing. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories of visual processing and brain-based research on the role of visual skills in learning to read.

  17. What is the explanatory power of space syntax theory? the application of modal logics from theory of science

    OpenAIRE

    van Nes, A.

    2017-01-01

    This contribution shows various approaches from the theory of science for revealing the explanatory power of the Space Syntax. In this contribution Bhaskar's critical realistic model of science and Georg Henrik von Wright's account of explanation and understanding are used to assess the explanatory power of Space Syntax research. In essence subsequent considerations distinguishes between a theory able to offer an explanation of phenomena and a theory proposing an understanding thereof. It wil...

  18. The sequential pathway between trauma-related symptom severity and cognitive-based smoking processes through perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies among trauma exposed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Cheema, Mina K; Otal, Tanveer K; Schmidt, Norman B; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model. Methods The present study utilized a sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed smokers (n = 363; 49.0% female) to examine perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies for smoking as potential sequential explanatory variables linking trauma-related symptom severity and nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of withdrawal-related problems and symptoms during past quit attempts. As hypothesized, perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies had a significant sequential indirect effect on trauma-related symptom severity and criterion variables. Findings further elucidate the complex pathways through which trauma-related symptoms contribute to smoking behavior and cognitions, and highlight the importance of addressing perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies in smoking cessation programs among trauma-exposed individuals. (Am J Addict 2016;25:565-572). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Explanatory models and distress in primary caregivers of patients with acute psychotic presentations: A study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Deepa S; Manoranjitham, S D; Samuel, P; Jacob, K S

    2017-11-01

    Emotional distress among caregivers of people with mental illness is common, changes overtime and requires appropriate coping strategies to prevent long-term disability. Explanatory models, which underpin understanding of disease and illness, are crucial to coping. To study the association of explanatory models and distress among caregivers of people with acute psychotic illness. A total of 60 consecutive patients and their primary caregivers who presented to the Department of Psychiatry, Christian Medical College, Vellore, were recruited for the study. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI) and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) were used to assess severity of psychosis, explanatory models of illness and emotional distress. Standard bivariate and multivariable statistics were employed. Majority of the caregivers simultaneously held multiple models of illness, which included medical and non-medical perspectives. The GHQ-12 score were significantly lower in people who held multiple explanatory models of illness when compared to the caregivers who believed single explanations. Explanatory models affect coping in caregivers of patients with acute psychotic presentations. There is a need to have a broad-based approach to recovery and care.

  20. The role of patients' explanatory models and daily-lived experience in hypertension self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhour, Barbara G; Cohn, Ellen S; Cortés, Dharma E; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Fix, Gemmae M; Elwy, A Rani; Mueller, Nora; Katz, Lois A; Haidet, Paul; Green, Alexander R; Borzecki, Ann M; Kressin, Nancy R

    2012-12-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension remains a significant problem for many patients. Few interventions to improve patients' hypertension self-management have had lasting effects. Previous work has focused largely on patients' beliefs as predictors of behavior, but little is understood about beliefs as they are embedded in patients' social contexts. This study aims to explore how patients' "explanatory models" of hypertension (understandings of the causes, mechanisms or pathophysiology, course of illness, symptoms and effects of treatment) and social context relate to their reported daily hypertension self-management behaviors. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with a diverse group of patients at two large urban Veterans Administration Medical centers. PARTICIPANTS (OR PATIENTS OR SUBJECTS): African-American, white and Latino Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care patients with uncontrolled blood pressure. We conducted thematic analysis using tools of grounded theory to identify key themes surrounding patients' explanatory models, social context and hypertension management behaviors. Patients' perceptions of the cause and course of hypertension, experiences of hypertension symptoms, and beliefs about the effectiveness of treatment were related to different hypertension self-management behaviors. Moreover, patients' daily-lived experiences, such as an isolated lifestyle, serious competing health problems, a lack of habits and routines, barriers to exercise and prioritizing lifestyle choices, also interfered with optimal hypertension self-management. Designing interventions to improve patients' hypertension self-management requires consideration of patients' explanatory models and their daily-lived experience. We propose a new conceptual model - the dynamic model of hypertension self-management behavior - which incorporates these key elements of patients' experiences.

  1. Group sequential designs for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayling, Michael J; Wason, James Ms; Mander, Adrian P

    2017-10-01

    The stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial design has received substantial attention in recent years. Although various extensions to the original design have been proposed, no guidance is available on the design of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. In an individually randomised trial setting, group sequential methods can provide notable efficiency gains and ethical benefits. We address this by discussing how established group sequential methodology can be adapted for stepped-wedge designs. Utilising the error spending approach to group sequential trial design, we detail the assumptions required for the determination of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. We consider early stopping for efficacy, futility, or efficacy and futility. We describe first how this can be done for any specified linear mixed model for data analysis. We then focus on one particular commonly utilised model and, using a recently completed stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, compare the performance of several designs with interim analyses to the classical stepped-wedge design. Finally, the performance of a quantile substitution procedure for dealing with the case of unknown variance is explored. We demonstrate that the incorporation of early stopping in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designs could reduce the expected sample size under the null and alternative hypotheses by up to 31% and 22%, respectively, with no cost to the trial's type-I and type-II error rates. The use of restricted error maximum likelihood estimation was found to be more important than quantile substitution for controlling the type-I error rate. The addition of interim analyses into stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials could help guard against time-consuming trials conducted on poor performing treatments and also help expedite the implementation of efficacious treatments. In future, trialists should consider incorporating early stopping of some kind into

  2. EXPLANATORY METHODS OF MARKETING DATA ANALYSIS – THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia GABOR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory methods of data analysis – also named by some authors supervised learning methods - enable researchers to identify and analyse configurations of relations between two or several variables, most of them with a high accuracy, as there is possibility of testing statistic significance by calculating the confidence level associated with validation of relation concerned across the entire population and not only the surveyed sample. The paper shows some of these methods, respectively: variance analysis, covariance analysis, segmentation and discriminant analysis with the mention - for every method – of applicability area for marketing research.

  3. Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Luchyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography The article proves the necessity and possibility of compiling dictionaries with intermediate existence status glossary units, to which the word equivalents belong. In order to form the Ukrainian-Polish dictionary glossary of this type the form and meaning analysis of Ukrainian and Polish word equivalents is done, the common and distinctive features of these language system elements are described, the compiling principles of such dictionary are clarified.

  4. The effects of the sequential addition of synthesis parameters on the performance of alkali activated fly ash mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mawulé Dassekpo

    Full Text Available Geopolymer is an energy efficient and sustainable material that is currently used in construction industry as an alternative for Portland cement. As a new material, specific mix design method is essential and efforts have been made to develop a mix design procedure with the main focus on achieving better compressive strength and economy. In this paper, a sequential addition of synthesis parameters such as fly ash-sand, alkaline liquids, plasticizer and additional water at well-defined time intervals was investigated. A total of 4 mix procedures were used to study the compressive performance on fly ash-based geopolymer mortar and the results of each method were analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the sequential addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, sodium silicate (Na2SiO3, plasticizer (PL, followed by adding water (WA increases considerably the compressive strengths of the geopolymer-based mortar. These results clearly demonstrate the high significant influence of sequential addition of synthesis parameters on geopolymer materials compressive properties, and also provide a new mixing method for the preparation of geopolymer paste, mortar and concrete. Keywords: Mixing method, Sequential addition, Synthesis parameters, Fly ash-based geopolymer mortar, Compressive properties

  5. Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC sup TM ) of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; O' Keefe, D.M.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Owens, J.M. (Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (US)); Legrand, R. (Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas (US))

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic high-solids digestion (anaerobic composting) is an attractive option for treatment of organic wastes. The main advantages of anaerobic composting are the lack of aeration requirements and production of methane. An anaerobic composting design, sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC{sup TM}), has been developed and demonstrated at the pilot scale which has proven to be stable and effective for treatment of the non-yeard waste and yard waste organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). The design employs leachate recycle for wetting, inoculation, and removal of volatile organic acids during startup. Performance is similar to that of other designs requiring heavy solids inoculation and mixing and which do not have a mechanism for volatile organic acid removal during imbalance. (au) (12 refs.).

  6. Sequential Service Restoration for Unbalanced Distribution Systems and Microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bo; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jianhui; Butler-Purry, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    The resilience and reliability of modern power systems are threatened by increasingly severe weather events and cyber-physical security events. An effective restoration methodology is desired to optimally integrate emerging smart grid technologies and pave the way for developing self-healing smart grids. In this paper, a sequential service restoration (SSR) framework is proposed to generate restoration solutions for distribution systems and microgrids in the event of large-scale power outages. The restoration solution contains a sequence of control actions that properly coordinate switches, distributed generators, and switchable loads to form multiple isolated microgrids. The SSR can be applied for three-phase unbalanced distribution systems and microgrids and can adapt to various operation conditions. Mathematical models are introduced for three-phase unbalanced power flow, voltage regulators, transformers, and loads. Furthermore, the SSR problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model, and its effectiveness is evaluated via the modified IEEE 123 node test feeder.

  7. Sequential dependencies in magnitude scaling of loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt

    2013-01-01

    Ten normally hearing listeners used a programmable sone-potentiometer knob to adjust the level of a 1000-Hz sinusoid to match the loudness of numbers presented to them in a magnitude production task. Three different power-law exponents (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60) and a log-law with equal steps in d......B were used to program the sone-potentiometer. The knob settings systematically influenced the form of the loudness function. Time series analysis was used to assess the sequential dependencies in the data, which increased with increasing exponent and were greatest for the log-law. It would be possible......, therefore, to choose knob properties that minimized these dependencies. When the sequential dependencies were removed from the data, the slope of the loudness functions did not change, but the variability decreased. Sequential dependencies were only present when the level of the tone on the previous trial...

  8. Azúcar y nervios: explanatory models and treatment experiences of Hispanics with diabetes and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Hansen, Marissa C; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Ell, Kathleen

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the explanatory models of depression, perceived relationships between diabetes and depression, and depression treatment experiences of low-income, Spanish-speaking, Hispanics with diabetes and depression. A purposive sample (n=19) was selected from participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Los Angeles, California (United States) testing the effectiveness of a health services quality improvement intervention. Four focus groups followed by 10 in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using the methodology of coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison, an analytical strategy rooted in grounded theory. Depression was perceived as a serious condition linked to the accumulation of social stressors. Somatic and anxiety-like symptoms and the cultural idiom of nervios were central themes in low-income Hispanics' explanatory models of depression. The perceived reciprocal relationships between diabetes and depression highlighted the multiple pathways by which these two illnesses impact each other and support the integration of diabetes and depression treatments. Concerns about depression treatments included fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications. This study provides important insights about the cultural and social dynamics that shape low-income Hispanics' illness and treatment experiences and support the use of patient-centered approaches to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and depression.

  9. Explanatory Versus Pragmatic Trials: An Essential Concept in Study Design and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Zamir; Wilson, Jefferson R

    2017-11-01

    Randomized clinical trials often represent the highest level of clinical evidence available to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention in clinical medicine. Although the process of randomization serves to maximize internal validity, the external validity, or generalizability, of such studies depends on several factors determined at the design phase of the trial including eligibility criteria, study setting, and outcomes of interest. In general, explanatory trials are optimized to demonstrate the efficacy of an intervention in a highly selected patient group; however, findings from these studies may not be generalizable to the larger clinical problem. In contrast, pragmatic trials attempt to understand the real-world benefit of an intervention by incorporating design elements that allow for greater generalizability and clinical applicability of study results. In this article we describe the explanatory-pragmatic continuum for clinical trials in greater detail. Further, a well-accepted tool for grading trials on this continuum is described, and applied, to 2 recently published trials pertaining to the surgical management of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis.

  10. Explanatory models of diabetes in urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Awuah, Raphael Baffour; Pera, Tuula Anneli; Mendez, Montserrat; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine explanatory models of diabetes and diabetes complications among urban poor Ghanaians living with diabetes and implications for developing secondary prevention strategies. Twenty adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from three poor communities in Accra. Qualitative data were obtained using interviews that run between 40 and 90 minutes. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed thematically, informed by the 'explanatory model of disease' concept. Respondents associated diabetes and its complications with diet, family history, lifestyle factors (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity), psychological stress and supernatural factors (witchcraft and sorcery). These associations were informed by biomedical and cultural models of diabetes and disease. Subjective experience, through a process of 'body-listening,' constituted a third model on which respondents drew to theorise diabetes complications. Poverty was an important mediator of poor self-care practices, including treatment non-adherence. The biomedical model of diabetes was a major source of legitimate information for self-care practices. However, this was understood and applied through a complex framework of cultural theories of chronic disease, the biopsychological impact of everyday illness experience and the disempowering effects of poverty. An integrated biopsychosocial approach is proposed for diabetes intervention in this research community.

  11. The explanatory structure of unexplainable events: Causal constraints on magical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Morgan, Caitlin

    2017-10-01

    A common intuition, often captured in fiction, is that some impossible events (e.g., levitating a stone) are "more impossible" than others (e.g., levitating a feather). We investigated the source of this intuition, hypothesizing that graded notions of impossibility arise from explanatory considerations logically precluded by the violation at hand but still taken into account. Studies 1-4 involved college undergraduates (n = 357), and Study 5 involved preschool-aged children (n = 32). In Studies 1 and 2, participants saw pairs of magical spells that violated one of 18 causal principles-six physical, six biological, and six psychological-and were asked to indicate which spell would be more difficult to learn. Both spells violated the same causal principle but differed in their relation to a subsidiary principle. Participants' judgments of spell difficulty honored the subsidiary principle, even when participants were given the option of judging the two spells equally difficult. Study 3 replicated those effects with Likert-type ratings; Study 4 replicated them in an open-ended version of the task in which participants generated their own causal violations; and Study 5 replicated them with children. Taken together, these findings suggest that events that defy causal explanation are interpreted in terms of explanatory considerations that hold in the absence of such violations.

  12. History-based Explanatory Framework for Procreative Behaviour of Aboriginal People of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatole Romaniuk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from traditional high to modern low fertility is in the forefront of empirical and theoretical investigations in contemporary aboriginal demography. The challenging question therein remains why its fertility has started to decline a century or so after the rest of Canada, and why it continues to trail the latter by a considerable lag. The objective of this paper is to present a history-based explanatory framework of the childbearing behaviour of Canadian aboriginal peoples, as it has evolved over time from the very first contact with Europeans to our day. Turning to existing theories for possible elucidation of these idiosyncrasies, we find that while accounting for certain aspects, they leave others unexplained. History provides a more satisfying explanation when we cast an eye not on the “abstract” population, “ideal-type” or what we today like to call “model”, but on real population, or family thereof, in its spatio-temporal context. The “between-two-cultures” paradigm presented here, based on ethnocentricity and dependency, could be seen as a an explanatory paradigm of competing forces on the Canadian aboriginals: on the one hand, those pushing toward modern norms of childbearing; and on the other, traditional values and structures, as shattered as they are, with their pro-natalist ideologies resisting normative changes.

  13. Dihydroazulene photoswitch operating in sequential tunneling regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Thisted, Christine Lindbjerg

    2012-01-01

    to electrodes so that the electron transport goes by sequential tunneling. To assure weak coupling, the DHA switching kernel is modified by incorporating p-MeSC6H4 end-groups. Molecules are prepared by Suzuki cross-couplings on suitable halogenated derivatives of DHA. The synthesis presents an expansion of our......, incorporating a p-MeSC6H4 anchoring group in one end, has been placed in a silver nanogap. Conductance measurements justify that transport through both DHA (high resistivity) and VHF (low resistivity) forms goes by sequential tunneling. The switching is fairly reversible and reenterable; after more than 20 ON...

  14. Asynchronous Operators of Sequential Logic Venjunction & Sequention

    CERN Document Server

    Vasyukevich, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to new mathematical instruments assigned for logical modeling of the memory of digital devices. The case in point is logic-dynamical operation named venjunction and venjunctive function as well as sequention and sequentional function. Venjunction and sequention operate within the framework of sequential logic. In a form of the corresponding equations, they organically fit analytical expressions of Boolean algebra. Thus, a sort of symbiosis is formed using elements of asynchronous sequential logic on the one hand and combinational logic on the other hand. So, asynchronous

  15. Eyewitness confidence in simultaneous and sequential lineups: a criterion shift account for sequential mistaken identification overconfidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobolyi, David G; Dodson, Chad S

    2013-12-01

    Confidence judgments for eyewitness identifications play an integral role in determining guilt during legal proceedings. Past research has shown that confidence in positive identifications is strongly associated with accuracy. Using a standard lineup recognition paradigm, we investigated accuracy using signal detection and ROC analyses, along with the tendency to choose a face with both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We replicated past findings of reduced rates of choosing with sequential as compared to simultaneous lineups, but notably found an accuracy advantage in favor of simultaneous lineups. Moreover, our analysis of the confidence-accuracy relationship revealed two key findings. First, we observed a sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect: despite an overall reduction in false alarms, confidence for false alarms that did occur was higher with sequential lineups than with simultaneous lineups, with no differences in confidence for correct identifications. This sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect is an expected byproduct of the use of a more conservative identification criterion with sequential than with simultaneous lineups. Second, we found a steady drop in confidence for mistaken identifications (i.e., foil identifications and false alarms) from the first to the last face in sequential lineups, whereas confidence in and accuracy of correct identifications remained relatively stable. Overall, we observed that sequential lineups are both less accurate and produce higher confidence false identifications than do simultaneous lineups. Given the increasing prominence of sequential lineups in our legal system, our data argue for increased scrutiny and possibly a wholesale reevaluation of this lineup format. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection...

  17. Enhancement of sequential zymography technique for the detection of thermophilic lipases and proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Hernández, Zully; Fernández, Marleny; Contreras, Lellys M; Kurz, Liliana

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of lipases and proteases present in cell-free fractions of thermophilic Bacillus sp. cultures were performed in an enhanced sequential zymography method. After the PAGE run, the gel was electrotransferred to another polyacrylamide gel containing a mixture of glycerol tributyrate, olive oil and gelatin. After transference, this substrate-mix gel was incubated for lipase detection, until bands appeared, and later stained with CBB for protease detection. Assets are, besides detecting two enzymes on a single gel, time and material saving.

  18. Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed

  19. Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question

  20. S.M.P. SEQUENTIAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CICIARELLI, V; LEONARD, JOSEPH

    A SEQUENTIAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM BEGINNING WITH THE BASIC FUNDAMENTALS ON THE FOURTH GRADE LEVEL IS PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE AN UNDERSTANDING OF OUR NUMBER SYSTEM, AND THE BASIC OPERATIONS OF WORKING WITH WHOLE NUMBERS--ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTIPLICATION, AND DIVISION. COMMON FRACTIONS ARE TAUGHT IN THE FIFTH, SIXTH, AND SEVENTH GRADES. A…

  1. Sequential and Simultaneous Logit: A Nested Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, J.C.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    1997-01-01

    A nested model is presented which has both the sequential and the multinomial logit model as special cases. This model provides a simple test to investigate the validity of these specifications. Some theoretical properties of the model are discussed. In the analysis a distribution function is

  2. Sensitivity Analysis in Sequential Decision Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet

    2017-02-01

    Sequential decision problems are frequently encountered in medical decision making, which are commonly solved using Markov decision processes (MDPs). Modeling guidelines recommend conducting sensitivity analyses in decision-analytic models to assess the robustness of the model results against the uncertainty in model parameters. However, standard methods of conducting sensitivity analyses cannot be directly applied to sequential decision problems because this would require evaluating all possible decision sequences, typically in the order of trillions, which is not practically feasible. As a result, most MDP-based modeling studies do not examine confidence in their recommended policies. In this study, we provide an approach to estimate uncertainty and confidence in the results of sequential decision models. First, we provide a probabilistic univariate method to identify the most sensitive parameters in MDPs. Second, we present a probabilistic multivariate approach to estimate the overall confidence in the recommended optimal policy considering joint uncertainty in the model parameters. We provide a graphical representation, which we call a policy acceptability curve, to summarize the confidence in the optimal policy by incorporating stakeholders' willingness to accept the base case policy. For a cost-effectiveness analysis, we provide an approach to construct a cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier, which shows the most cost-effective policy as well as the confidence in that for a given willingness to pay threshold. We demonstrate our approach using a simple MDP case study. We developed a method to conduct sensitivity analysis in sequential decision models, which could increase the credibility of these models among stakeholders.

  3. Sequential models for coarsening and missingness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.D.; Robins, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In a companion paper we described what intuitively would seem to be the most general possible way to generate Coarsening at Random mechanisms a sequential procedure called randomized monotone coarsening Counterexamples showed that CAR mechanisms exist which cannot be represented in this way Here we

  4. Sequential motor skill: cognition, perception and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, M.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Discrete movement sequences are assumed to be the building blocks of more complex sequential actions that are present in our everyday behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation address the (neuro)cognitive underpinnings of such movement sequences, in particular in relationship to the role

  5. Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity

  6. A framework for sequential multiblock component methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jong, S.de

    2003-01-01

    Multiblock or multiset methods are starting to be used in chemistry and biology to study complex data sets. In chemometrics, sequential multiblock methods are popular; that is, methods that calculate one component at a time and use deflation for finding the next component. In this paper a framework

  7. Classical and sequential limit analysis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Kondo, Djimédo; Morin, Léo; Remmal, Almahdi

    2018-04-01

    Classical limit analysis applies to ideal plastic materials, and within a linearized geometrical framework implying small displacements and strains. Sequential limit analysis was proposed as a heuristic extension to materials exhibiting strain hardening, and within a fully general geometrical framework involving large displacements and strains. The purpose of this paper is to study and clearly state the precise conditions permitting such an extension. This is done by comparing the evolution equations of the full elastic-plastic problem, the equations of classical limit analysis, and those of sequential limit analysis. The main conclusion is that, whereas classical limit analysis applies to materials exhibiting elasticity - in the absence of hardening and within a linearized geometrical framework -, sequential limit analysis, to be applicable, strictly prohibits the presence of elasticity - although it tolerates strain hardening and large displacements and strains. For a given mechanical situation, the relevance of sequential limit analysis therefore essentially depends upon the importance of the elastic-plastic coupling in the specific case considered.

  8. Sequential spatial processes for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette); V. Capasso

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects

  9. Sequential spatial processes for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Capasso, V.

    2009-01-01

    We give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects through a video

  10. Sequential Analysis: Hypothesis Testing and Changepoint Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-11

    maintains the flexibility of deciding sooner than the fixed sample size procedure at the price of some lower power [13, 514]. The sequential probability... markets , detection of signals with unknown arrival time in seismology, navigation, radar and sonar signal processing, speech segmentation, and the... skimming cruise missile can yield a significant increase in the probability of raid annihilation. Furthermore, usually detection systems are

  11. STABILIZED SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the motivation for, the current state-of-the-art in convergence results, and some open questions concerning the stabilized version of the sequential quadratic programming algorithm for constrained optimization. We also discuss the tools required for its local convergence analysis, globalization challenges, and extentions of the method to the more general variational problems.

  12. Truly costly sequential search and oligopolistic pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten C W; Moraga-González, José Luis; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    We modify the paper of Stahl (1989) [Stahl, D.O., 1989. Oligopolistic pricing with sequential consumer search. American Economic Review 79, 700-12] by relaxing the assumption that consumers obtain the first price quotation for free. When all price quotations are costly to obtain, the unique

  13. Zips : mining compressing sequential patterns in streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Calders, T.G.K.; Yang, J.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Chau, D.H.; Vreeken, J.; Leeuwen, van M.; Faloutsos, C.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a streaming algorithm, based on the minimal description length (MDL) principle, for extracting non-redundant sequential patterns. For static databases, the MDL-based approach that selects patterns based on their capacity to compress data rather than their frequency, was shown to be

  14. How to Read the Tractatus Sequentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kraft

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the unconventional features of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is its use of an elaborated and detailed numbering system. Recently, Bazzocchi, Hacker und Kuusela have argued that the numbering system means that the Tractatus must be read and interpreted not as a sequentially ordered book, but as a text with a two-dimensional, tree-like structure. Apart from being able to explain how the Tractatus was composed, the tree reading allegedly solves exegetical issues both on the local (e. g. how 4.02 fits into the series of remarks surrounding it and the global level (e. g. relation between ontology and picture theory, solipsism and the eye analogy, resolute and irresolute readings. This paper defends the sequential reading against the tree reading. After presenting the challenges generated by the numbering system and the two accounts as attempts to solve them, it is argued that Wittgenstein’s own explanation of the numbering system, anaphoric references within the Tractatus and the exegetical issues mentioned above do not favour the tree reading, but a version of the sequential reading. This reading maintains that the remarks of the Tractatus form a sequential chain: The role of the numbers is to indicate how remarks on different levels are interconnected to form a concise, surveyable and unified whole.

  15. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  16. Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2012-01-01

    The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…

  17. Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different

  18. Narrative insight in psychosis: The relationship with spiritual and religious explanatory frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Michael R; Thompson, Andrew R; Cockshutt, Graham; Rowse, Georgina

    2018-03-25

    When considering psychosis, the concept of narrative insight has been offered as an alternative to clinical insight in determining individuals' responses to their difficulties, as it allows for a more holistic and person-centred framework to be embraced within professional practice. This study aims to explore the validity of the narrative insight construct within a group of people who have experienced psychosis. Inductive qualitative methods were used to explore how eight participants utilized spiritual or religious explanatory frameworks for their experiences of psychosis and to consider these in relation to the construct of narrative insight. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with individuals who identified themselves as interested in spiritual or religious ideas and whose self-reported experiences which were identified as akin to psychosis by experienced academic clinicians. Transcriptions from these interviews were subject to interpretative phenomenological analysis within a broader research question; a selection of themes and data from the resultant phenomenological structure are explored here for their relevance to narrative insight. Participants discussed spiritual and biological explanations for their experiences and were able to hold alternative potential explanations alongside each other. They were reflective regarding the origins of their explanations and would describe a process of testing and proof in relation to them. These findings suggest that the narrative insight construct has the potential to be a valid approach to understanding experiences of psychosis, and challenge the dominance of the clinical insight construct within clinical practice. Clinicians should value the explanatory framework for experiences which are provided by individuals experiencing psychosis, and encourage them to develop a framework which is coherent to their own world view rather than predominantly pursuing a biomedical explanation. Assessments of psychosis should

  19. Upper ocean response to the passage of two sequential typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renhao; Li, Chunyan

    2018-02-01

    Two sequential typhoons, separated by five days, Chan-hom and Nangka in the summer of 2015, provided a unique opportunity to study the oceanic response and cold wake evolution. The upper ocean response to the passage of these two typhoons was investigated using multi-satellite, Argo float data and HYCOM global model output. The sea surface cooling (SSC) induced by Chan-hom was gradually enhanced along its track when the storm was intensified while moving over the ocean with shallow mixed layer. The location of maximum cooling of sea surface was determined by the storm's translation speed as well as pre-typhoon oceanic conditions. As a fast-moving storm, Chan-hom induced significant SSC on the right side of its track. Localized maximum cooling patches are found over a cyclonic eddy (CE). An analysis of data from Argo floats near the track of Chan-hom demonstrated that the mixed layer temperature (MLT) and mixed layer depth (MLD) had more variabilities on the right side than those on the left side of Chan-hom's track, while mixed layer salinity (MLS) response was different from those of MLT and MLD with an increase in salinity to the right side and a decrease in salinity to the left side of the track. Subsequently, because of the remnant effect of Chan-hom, the strong upwelling induced by Typhoon Nangka, the pre-existing CE as well as a slow translation speed (process. The enhancement of chlorophyll-a concentrations was also noticed at both the CE region and close to Chan-hom's track.

  20. Disrupted Cortical Connectivity as an Explanatory Model for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniefer Drude Borup

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the theory of Disrupted Cortical Connectivity and discuss whether or not it can integrate the following three theories: Theory of Mind, Executive Functioning, and Weak Central Coherence that dominate the field of autism spectrum disorder research. Due to a lack of existing literature discussing this potential integration, we have consequentially undertaken such an endeavour. In our opinion, integration appears to be possible since this explanatory model can account for difficulties in both social cognition and executive functioning commonly found in autism spectrum disorder. Moreover, the theory of Disrupted Cortical Connectivity could be described as an extension of the theory of Weak Central Coherence.

  1. An explanatory heuristic gives rise to the belief that words are well suited for their referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    The mappings between the words of a language and their meanings are arbitrary. There is, for example, nothing inherently dog-like about the word dog. And yet, building on prior evidence (e.g., Brook, 1970; Piaget, 1967), the six studies reported here (N=1062) suggest that both children and (at least to some extent) adults see a special "fit" between objects and their names, as if names were particularly suitable or appropriate for the objects they denote. These studies also provide evidence for a novel proposal concerning the source of these nominal fit beliefs. Specifically, beliefs about nominal fit may be a byproduct of the heuristic processes that people use to make sense of the world more generally (Cimpian & Salomon, 2014a). In sum, the present studies provide new insights into how people conceive of language and demonstrate that these conceptions are rooted in the processes that underlie broader explanatory reasoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Remotely sensed vegetation moisture as explanatory variable of Lyme borreliosis incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, J. M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Maes, P.; Clement, J.; Aerts, J. M.; Farifteh, J.; Lagrou, K.; Van Ranst, M.; Coppin, P.

    2012-08-01

    The strong correlation between environmental conditions and abundance and spatial spread of the tick Ixodes ricinus is widely documented. I. ricinus is in Europe the main vector of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen causing Lyme borreliosis (LB). Humidity in vegetated systems is a major factor in tick ecology and its effects might translate into disease incidence in humans. Time series of two remotely sensed indices with sensitivity to vegetation greenness and moisture were tested as explanatory variables of LB incidence. Wavelet-based multiresolution analysis allowed the examination of these signals at different temporal scales in study sites in Belgium, where increases in LB incidence were reported in recent years. The analysis showed the potential of the tested indices for disease monitoring, the usefulness of analyzing the signal in different time frames and the importance of local characteristics of the study area for the selection of the vegetation index.

  3. 'Individualism-collectivism' as an explanatory device for mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Chris; Foster, John; Caldwell, Kay

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is investigate whether the cross-cultural value paradigm 'individualism-collectivism' is a useful explanatory model for mental illness stigma on a cultural level. Using snowball sampling, a quantitative questionnaire survey of 305 individuals from four UK-based cultural groups (white-English, American, Greek/Greek Cypriot, and Chinese) was carried out. The questionnaire included the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness scale' and the 'vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism scale'. The results revealed that the more stigmatizing a culture's mental illness attitudes are, the more likely collectivism effectively explains these attitudes. In contrast, the more positive a culture's mental illness attitudes, the more likely individualism effectively explains attitudes. We conclude that a consideration of the individualism-collectivism paradigm should be included in any future research aiming to provide a holistic understanding of the causes of mental illness stigma, particularly when the cultures stigmatization levels are particularly high or low.

  4. An Explanatory Model of Dating Violence Risk Factors in Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpitarte, Alazne; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; Van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2017-12-01

    Dating violence is a serious public health issue that needs further understanding in terms of risk factors that may be involved in it. The main goal of this study was to test a mediational model of dating violence risk factors. The sample was composed of 477 secondary and college students from Spain (59% females). A dynamic developmental explanatory model considering aggressiveness, insecure attachment, interparental conflict, and peer dating violence was tested using a multigroup structural equation model. Aggressiveness partially mediated the relation between anxious attachment and dating violence and fully mediated the association between interparental conflict resolution and dating violence. Furthermore, perceived peer dating violence was a direct predictor of dating violence. Implications for prevention and intervention plans are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  5. Parents' explanatory models and hopes for outcomes of occupational therapy using a sensory integration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Ellen S; Kramer, Jessica; Schub, Jamie A; May-Benson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE. To describe parents' concerns and hopes for their children who would be receiving occupational therapy using a sensory integration approach. METHOD. Content analysis of 275 parental responses to three open-ended questions on developmental-sensory history intake forms. FINDINGS. Parents' descriptions of why they sought for their children were categorized into four overarching concerns about their children's challenges: self-regulation, interacting with peers, participating in skilled motor activities, and self-confidence. Parents often linked these concerns together, revealing explanatory models of how they make sense of potential relationships among their children's challenges and how these challenges affect occupational performance. Parents hoped occupational therapy would help their children develop self-understanding and frustration tolerance to self-regulate their behavior in socially acceptable ways. IMPLICATIONS. Assessment and intervention should explicitly focus on links among self-regulation, social participation, skills, and perceived competence to address parents' expectations. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. An Explanatory Model of Poverty from the Perspective of Social Psychology and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Muñoz, Alfonso; Chacón, Fernando; Martínez Arias, Rosario

    2015-12-09

    Poverty is a social problem, entailing not only an economical perspective but above all a human and social issue. Poverty is promoted, justified and maintained by unique individuals and groups by means of our own attitudes, interests and behavior, as well as with our social structures and social relationships. From this interactive, psychosocial and sociostructural perspective, and also considering poverty as a denial of basic human rights (UNDP, 1998), we carried out a study with the primary objective to design and verify an Explanatory Model of Poverty. This research may helps to increase the validity of diagnostics and the effectiveness of interventions. Most of the hypotheses were accepted during the analysis and verification of the Model (p poverty including its effects, processes and causes; (b) the need for everybody to accept the social responsibility in the prevention and solution to poverty; and (c) the need to conduct longitudinal interventions with scientific methodology and social participation.

  7. Obligatory Effort [Hishtadlut] as an Explanatory Model: A Critique of Reproductive Choice and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teman, Elly; Ivry, Tsipy; Goren, Heela

    2016-06-01

    Studies on reproductive technologies often examine women's reproductive lives in terms of choice and control. Drawing on 48 accounts of procreative experiences of religiously devout Jewish women in Israel and the US, we examine their attitudes, understandings and experiences of pregnancy, reproductive technologies and prenatal testing. We suggest that the concept of hishtadlut-"obligatory effort"-works as an explanatory model that organizes Haredi women's reproductive careers and their negotiations of reproductive technologies. As an elastic category with negotiable and dynamic boundaries, hishtadlut gives ultra-orthodox Jewish women room for effort without the assumption of control; it allows them to exercise discretion in relation to medical issues without framing their efforts in terms of individual choice. Haredi women hold themselves responsible for making their obligatory effort and not for pregnancy outcomes. We suggest that an alternative paradigm to autonomous choice and control emerges from cosmological orders where reproductive duties constitute "obligatory choices."

  8. Understanding University Students' Thoughts and Practices about Digital Citizenship: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate university students' thoughts and practices concerning digital citizenship. An explanatory mixed methods design was used, and it involved collecting qualitative data after a quantitative phase in order to follow up on the quantitative data in more depth. In the first quantitative phase of the study, a…

  9. Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students' language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program. A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed. Data analysis…

  10. Advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of daily negative and positive affect: trigger and maintenance coping action patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Ma, Denise; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C

    2014-01-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of coping action patterns that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (low) positive affect. One hundred ninety-six community adults completed measures of perfectionism, and then 6 months later completed questionnaires at the end of the day for 14 consecutive days to provide simultaneous assessments of appraisals, coping, and affect across different stressful situations in everyday life. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) supported complex explanatory conceptualizations that demonstrated (a) disengagement trigger patterns consisting of several distinct appraisals (e.g., event stress) and coping strategies (e.g., avoidant coping) that commonly operate together across many different stressors when the typical individual experiences daily increases in negative affect and drops in positive affect; and (b) disengagement maintenance patterns composed of different appraisal and coping maintenance factors that, in combination, can explain why individuals with higher levels of self-critical perfectionism have persistent daily negative affect and low positive mood 6 months later. In parallel, engagement patterns (triggers and maintenance) composed of distinct appraisals (e.g., perceived social support) and coping strategies (e.g., problem-focused coping) were linked to compensatory experiences of daily positive affect. These findings demonstrate the promise of using daily diary methodologies and MSEM to promote a shared understanding between therapists and clients of trigger and maintenance coping action patterns that explain what precipitates and perpetuates clients' difficulties, which, in turn, can help achieve the 2 overarching therapy goals of reducing clients' distress and bolstering resilience. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. The impact of death and dying on nursing students: an explanatory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo-Gual, Montserrat; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Bardallo-Porras, Dolores; Monforte-Royo, Cristina

    2014-12-01

    To explore nursing students' experiences of death and dying in clinical practice. The encounter with death constitutes one of the most stressful experiences reported by nursing students during their clinical training. In particular, it can be difficult for student nurses to cope with the patient's suffering, to provide postmortem care and to communicate with the patient and his/her family as death approaches. Although some research has been carried out in relation to this phenomenon, there remains a need to identify and understand the situations and experiences that are of most concern to students, those which may affect their ability to cope and, therefore, interfere with the care they are able to offer to the dying patient and his/her family. Qualitative descriptive and hermeneutic study. Semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted with nursing students. Data were collected in 2012-2013. Transcripts were analysed using Colaizzi's seven-step procedure. The analysis identified five themes: impact, training in end-of-life care, ethical issues, coping and learning/growth/healing connections. The central theme was the enormous impact the encounter with death had, while the other themes were a response to and/or modulators of this impact. An explanatory model was derived on the basis of the relationship between all these emergent themes. It is essential to understand nursing students' experience of death so as to minimise its impact. The explanatory model described here could be a useful tool for the design of training programmes on end-of-life care. Adequate training of this kind would help to ensure that future nurses offer high-quality care to patients and their families, minimising the impact of death and preventing emotional fatigue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Extending the explanatory utility of the EPPM beyond fear-based persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M

    2013-01-01

    In the 20 years since its inception, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has attracted much empirical support. Currently, and unsurprisingly, given that is a model of fear-based persuasion, the EPPM's explanatory utility has been based only upon fear-based messages. However, an argument is put forth herein that draws upon existing evidence that the EPPM may be an efficacious framework for explaining the persuasive process and outcomes of emotion-based messages more broadly when such messages are addressing serious health topics. For the current study, four different types of emotional appeals were purposefully devised and included a fear-, an annoyance/agitation-, a pride-, and a humor-based message. All messages addressed the serious health issue of road safety, and in particular the risky behavior of speeding. Participants (n = 551) were exposed to only one of the four messages and subsequently provided responses within a survey. A series of 2 (threat: low, high) × 2 (efficacy: low, high) analysis of variance was conducted for each of the appeals based on the EPPM's message outcomes of acceptance and rejection. Support was found for the EPPM with a number of main effects of threat and efficacy emerging, reflecting that, irrespective of emotional appeal type, high levels of threat and efficacy enhanced message outcomes via maximizing acceptance and minimizing rejection. Theoretically, the findings provide support for the explanatory utility of the EPPM for emotion-based health messages more broadly. In an applied sense, the findings highlight the value of adopting the EPPM as a framework when devising and evaluating emotion-based health messages for serious health topics.

  13. Coping with stress and types of burnout: explanatory power of different coping strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Montero-Marin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of 'overload', 'lack of development' and 'neglect', belonging to the 'frenetic', 'under-challenged' and 'worn-out' subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate the explanatory power of the different coping strategies on the development of burnout subtypes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey with a random sample of university employees, stratified by occupation (n = 429. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the 'Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire', with its three dimensions -overload, lack of development and neglect- as dependent variables, and the 'Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences', with its fifteen dimensions, as independent variables. Adjusted multiple determination coefficients and beta coefficients were calculated to evaluate and compare the explanatory capacity of the different coping strategies. RESULTS: The 'Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences' subscales together explained 15% of the 'overload' (p<0.001, 9% of the 'lack of development' (p<0.001, and 21% of the 'neglect' (p<0.001. 'Overload' was mainly explained by 'venting of emotions' (Beta = 0.34; p<0.001; 'lack of development' by 'cognitive avoidance' (Beta = 0.21; p<0.001; and 'neglect' by 'behavioural disengagement' (Beta = 0.40; p<0.001. Other interesting associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings further our understanding of the way in which the effectiveness of interventions for burnout may be improved, by influencing new treatments and preventive programmes using features of the strategies for handling stress in the workplace.

  14. Dragon boat racing and health-related quality of life of breast cancer survivors: a mixed methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Heather A; Verhoef, Marja J

    2013-08-05

    Breast cancer survivors who participate in physical activity (PA) are reported to experience improved health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, the quantitative research exploring the relationship between the team-based activity of dragon boat racing and the HRQOL of breast cancer survivors is limited. Given the rising number of breast cancer survivors, and their growing attraction to dragon boating, further exploration of the influence of this activity on HRQOL is warranted. This study is designed to: 1) quantitatively assess whether and how breast cancer survivors' participation in a season of dragon boat racing is related to HRQOL and 2) qualitatively explore the survivors' lived experience of dragon boating and how and why this experience is perceived to influence HRQOL. A mixed methods sequential explanatory design was used with the purpose of complementing quantitative findings with qualitative data. Quantitative data measuring HRQOL were collected at baseline and post-season (N=100); semi-structured qualitative interviews were used to elicit a personal account of the dragon boat experience (N=15). Statistically significant improvements were shown for HRQOL, physical, functional, emotional and spiritual well-being, breast cancer-specific concerns and cancer-related fatigue. A trend towards significance was shown for social/family well-being. Qualitative data elaborated on the quantitative findings, greatly enhancing the understanding of how and why dragon boat racing influences HRQOL. The use of a mixed methods design effectively captured the complex yet positive influence of dragon boating on survivor HRQOL. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature supporting the value of dragon boat racing as a viable PA intervention for enhancing survivor HRQOL.

  15. Understanding low uptake of contraceptives in resource-limited settings: a mixed-methods study in rural Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndayizigiye, M; Fawzi, M C Smith; Lively, C Thompson; Ware, N C

    2017-03-15

    Family planning can reduce deaths, improve health, and facilitate economic development in resource-limited settings. Yet, modern contraceptive methods are often underused. This mixed-methods study, conducted in rural Burundi, sought to explain low uptake of contraceptives by identifying utilization barriers. Results may inform development of family planning interventions in Burundi and elsewhere. We investigated uptake of contraceptives among women of reproductive age in two rural districts of Burundi, using an explanatory sequential, mixed-methods research design. We first assessed availability and utilization rates of modern contraceptives through a facility-based survey in 39 health clinics. Barriers to uptake of contraceptives were then explored through qualitative interviews (N = 10) and focus groups (N = 7). Contraceptives were generally available in the 39 clinics studied, yet uptake of family planning averaged only 2.96%. Greater uptake was positively associated with the number of health professionals engaged and trained in family planning service provision, and with the number of different types of contraceptives available. Four uptake barriers were identified: (1) lack of providers to administer contraception, (2) lack of fit between available and preferred contraceptive methods, (3) a climate of fear surrounding contraceptive use, and (4) provider refusal to offer family planning services. Where resources are scarce, availability of modern contraceptives alone will likely not ensure uptake. Interventions addressing multiple uptake barriers simultaneously have the greatest chance of success. In rural Burundi, examples are community distribution of contraceptive methods, public information campaigns, improved training for health professionals and community health workers, and strengthening of the health infrastructure.

  16. Using a mixed methods research design to investigate complementary alternative medicine (CAM) use among women with breast cancer in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Patricia; Butler, Michelle; Coughlan, Barbara; Murray, Mary; Boland, Noreen; Hanan, Terry; Murphy, Hilary; Forrester, Pauline; O' Brien, Marie; O' Sullivan, Nollaig

    2013-08-01

    To investigate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among women with breast cancer in Ireland using a mixed methods modified sequential explanatory design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with oncology professionals (n = 20) and CAM practitioners (n = 20) and this was followed by a survey of 406 women with breast cancer using the 'Use of Complementary and Alternative Therapies Survey' questionnaire (UCATS) (Lengacher et al., 2003). Follow up interviews were subsequently undertaken with a subset of this survey sample (n = 31). Over half of those surveyed (55.7%, n = 226) used some form of CAM since diagnosis. The most frequently used therapies were massage, herbal supplements (including herbs with oestrogenic properties), antioxidants, relaxation, counselling, health supplements, reflexology, reiki and support groups. Dietary interventions were used primarily to reduce symptoms and/or side effects while reduction of psychological stress was the primary reason for use of stress-reducing therapies. Most respondents reported that the CAM therapies they had used were helpful. The qualitative data elaborated on and provided clarification of the survey results. Similar to international studies, CAM is popular among women with breast cancer in Ireland. As such, the challenge for Irish oncology professionals is to identify low risk CAM therapies that are likely to benefit patients while educating patients and themselves on therapies which may be of concern. This study clearly illustrates the benefits of using a mixed methods approach to enhance our understanding of a complex clinical issue and thus we recommend that this method should be the method of choice when planning health services research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of professional education in developing compassionate practitioners: a mixed methods study exploring the perceptions xof health professionals and pre-registration students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lucy; O'Brien, Mary R; Kirton, Jennifer; Zubairu, Kate; Christiansen, Angela

    2014-03-01

    Compassionate practice is a public expectation and a core health professional value. However, in the face of growing public and professional unease about a perceived absence of compassion in health care it is essential that the role of education in developing compassionate practitioners is fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore qualified health professionals' and pre-registration students' understanding of compassion and the role of health professional education in promoting compassionate care. A sequential explanatory mixed methods study collected data using surveys and qualitative semi-structured interviews from qualified health professionals (n=155) and pre-registration students (n=197). Participants were from a range of health and social care disciplines and registered at a UK university. The findings indicate a high level of consensus in relation to participants' understanding of compassion in health care. Acting with warmth and empathy, providing individualised patient care and acting in a way you would like others to act towards you, were seen as the most common features of compassionate care. However, ambiguities and contradictions were evident when considering the role of health professional education in promoting compassionate practice. This study adds to the debate and current understanding of the role of education in fostering compassionate health care practice. © 2013.

  18. An exploratory sequential design to validate measures of moral emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Margarita G; Delgado, Ana R

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an exploratory and sequential mixed methods approach in validating measures of knowledge of the moral emotions of contempt, anger and disgust. The sample comprised 60 participants in the qualitative phase when a measurement instrument was designed. Item stems, response options and correction keys were planned following the results obtained in a descriptive phenomenological analysis of the interviews. In the quantitative phase, the scale was used with a sample of 102 Spanish participants, and the results were analysed with the Rasch model. In the qualitative phase, salient themes included reasons, objects and action tendencies. In the quantitative phase, good psychometric properties were obtained. The model fit was adequate. However, some changes had to be made to the scale in order to improve the proportion of variance explained. Substantive and methodological im-plications of this mixed-methods study are discussed. Had the study used a single re-search method in isolation, aspects of the global understanding of contempt, anger and disgust would have been lost.

  19. Impact of Diagrams on Recalling Sequential Elements in Expository Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Examines the instructional effectiveness of abstract diagrams on recall of sequential relations in social science textbooks. Concludes that diagrams assist significantly the recall of sequential relations in a text and decrease significantly the rate of order mistakes. (RS)

  20. A longitudinal, mixed methods investigation of newly qualified nurses' workplace stressors and stress experiences during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Yvonne; Terry, Louise M; Curzio, Joan

    2017-11-01

    To investigate transition in newly qualified nurses through an exploration of their stressors and stress experiences during their first 12 months postqualifying. Globally, thousands of new nurses qualify annually. They are crucial for the profession and healthcare service delivery. Work-related stress has multiple serious consequences, yet there is a lack of robust, empirical evidence that directly analyses newly qualified nurses and the stress they feel and experience in the workplace. Understanding what causes newly qualified nurses' stress is vital to retaining and nurturing this vital component of the workforce. Longitudinal, explanatory sequential mixed methods, cohort study. At the point of qualification (n = 288), 6 months postqualifying (n = 107) and 12 months postqualifying (n = 86), newly qualified nurses completed the Nursing Stress Scale, with 14 completing a one-to-one interview at 12 months postqualifying. Data were collected from 2010 - 2012. Inferential statistics, "thematic analysis" and "side-by-side comparisons in a discussion" were used for analysis. Workload was consistently the highest reported stressor with inadequate staffing and managing multiple role demands given as explanations. Incivility within the workplace was a noted stressor. Conversely, being part of "a good team" provided a civil, supportive, facilitative work environment. Entering nurse education with previous healthcare experience had a mediating effect on the reported frequency of stressors. Newly qualified nurses encounter multiple work-related stressors over their first 12 months postqualifying, which are intrinsically entwined with their transition. Employing organizations need to be more proactive in managing their workload and addressing workplace incivility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M

    2018-02-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  2. Stories of staying and leaving: A mixed methods analysis of biology undergraduate choice, persistence, and departure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah Adrienne

    Using a sequential, explanatory mixed methods design, this dissertation study compared students who persist in the biology major (persisters) with students who leave the biology major (switchers) in terms of how their pre-college experiences, college biology experiences, and biology performance figured into their choice of biology and their persistence in or departure from the biology major. This study combined (1) quantitative comparisons of biology persisters and switchers via a questionnaire developed for the study and survival analysis of a larger population of biology freshmen with (2) qualitative comparison of biology switchers and persisters via semi-structured life story interviews and homogenous focus groups. 319 students (207 persisters and 112 switchers) participated in the questionnaire and 36 students (20 persisters and 16 switchers) participated in life story and focus group interviews. All participants were undergraduates who entered The University of Texas at Austin as biology freshmen in the fall semesters of 2000 through 2004. Findings of this study suggest: (1) Regardless of eventual major, biology students enter college with generally the same suite of experiences, sources of personal encouragement, and reasons for choosing the biology major; (2) Despite the fact that they have also had poor experiences in the major, biology persisters do not actively decide to stay in the biology major; they simply do not leave; (3) Based upon survival analysis, biology students are most at-risk of leaving the biology major during the first two years of college and if they are African-American or Latino, women, or seeking a Bachelor of Arts degree (rather than a Bachelor of Science); (4) Biology switchers do not leave biology due to preference for other disciplines; they leave due to difficulties or dissatisfaction with aspects of the biology major, including their courses, faculty, and peers; (5) Biology performance has a differential effect on persistence in

  3. A Mixed Methods Study on the Effect of Flipping the Undergraduate Medical Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly W. Burak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The flipped classroom model is increasingly being adopted in healthcare education, despite the fact that recent systematic reviews in the nursing and medical education literature suggest that this method of instructional design is not inherently better or worse than the traditional classroom. In this study, we used a sequential, explanatory mixed methods design to assess the impact of flipping the hepatology classroom for preclinical medical students. Compared to students in the traditional classroom, students in the flipped classroom had significantly lower mean (SD ratings of their learning experiences (3.48 (1.10 vs. 4.50 (0.72, p < 0.001, d = 1.10, but better performance on the hepatology content of the end-of-course examination (78.0% (11.7% vs. 74.2 (15.1%, respectively, p < 0.01, d = 0.3. Based upon our qualitative data analyses, we propose that the flipped classroom induced a change in the learning process of students by requiring increased preparation for classroom learning and promoting greater learner autonomy, which resulted in better retention of learned material, but reduced enjoyment of the learning experience. This dissonance in outcomes is captured in the words of one flipped classroom student: “…I hated it while I was learning it, but boy did I remember it…”. Based upon our dissonant outcomes and the inconsistent findings in the literature, we feel that there is still equipoise regarding the effectiveness of the flipped classroom, and further studies are needed to describe ways of making the flipped classroom a more effective (±more enjoyable learning experience.

  4. Impact of Low Anorectal Malformation on Parenting Stress: A Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigander, Helena; Öjmyr-Joelsson, Maria; Frenckner, Björn; Wester, Tomas; Nisell, Margret

    2018-05-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate parenting stress among parents of children with low ARM. 1) Compare parenting stress among parents of children with low ARM, with parents of healthy children using questionnaires. 2) Identify subscales within the questionnaire which needed to be further explored. 3) Use semi-structured interviews with parents of children with low ARM, to explore parenting stress and to explain, expand and or support the quantitative findings. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used in this follow up study. The parents completed the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ), semi-structured interviews were conducted. Fifteen mothers and 13 fathers of children with low ARM age 8-18, returned completed questionnaires. A control group of 17 mothers and 6 fathers of healthy children age 8-18 that had visited the hospital for a minor procedure was recruited for comparison purposes. There were no significant differences found between index group and controls except in the subscale Incompetence, where parents of children with low ARM reported lower levels of stress compared to controls. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of children with low ARM. Qualitative content analysis was used and revealed three themes - Communication between parents, Expectations of parenthood, and Challenges concerning parenthood. Parents of children with low ARM did not report high levels of stress. When interviewed, they told about earlier experiences of emotional stress, feelings of guilt, and chaos at the time the child was born and during infancy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Is psychotherapy for functional somatic syndromes harmful? A mixed methods study on negative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsting, A F; Pedersen, H F; Rask, M T; Frostholm, L; Schröder, A

    2017-07-01

    Concern for negative effects of psychotherapy for functional somatic syndromes (FSS) has been expressed by clinicians and some patient associations, which may prevent patients from seeking treatment. Therefore, we sought to explore the occurrence and characteristics of negative effects from group-based psychotherapy as experienced by patients with severe or multiple FSS. An adapted version of the explanatory sequential mixed methods design was applied. We used data from an on-going pilot study on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Negative effects were measured by Inventory for the assessment of Negative Effects of Psychotherapy (INEP). In addition, telephone interviews were conducted with randomly chosen patients and patients who reported negative effects. The latter were asked to elaborate on their INEP response. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively while interview transcripts were explored by thematic analysis. Eighty patients responded to the questionnaire (89%). Negative effects to different extent (from 'slightly agree' to 'fully agree') were reported by 25 (31%). The most frequent negative effects were dependence on the therapist (12%), feeling down after therapy (6%) and insurance problems (7%). By exploring 27 participants' experiences of negative effects 3 main themes were identified: relations in therapy, outcome and transition from therapy to everyday life. Patients with FSS reported a few specific negative effects, all with low frequency. Generally, therapy was well-received. Some patients did however express negative effects both within and outside the therapeutic context. It is important to inform patients about potential negative effects prior to psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A one-sided sequential test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.; Lux, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1996-04-16

    The applicability of the classical sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT) for early failure detection problems is limited by the fact that there is an extra time delay between the occurrence of the failure and its first recognition. Chien and Adams developed a method to minimize this time for the case when the problem can be formulated as testing the mean value of a Gaussian signal. In our paper we propose a procedure that can be applied for both mean and variance testing and that minimizes the time delay. The method is based on a special parametrization of the classical SPRT. The one-sided sequential tests (OSST) can reproduce the results of the Chien-Adams test when applied for mean values. (author).

  7. Documentscape: Intertextuality, Sequentiality & Autonomy at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Rune; Bjørn, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of an ethnographic field study, this article introduces the concept of documentscape to the analysis of document-centric work practices. The concept of documentscape refers to the entire ensemble of documents in their mutual intertextual interlocking. Providing empirical data from...... a global software development case, we show how hierarchical structures and sequentiality across the interlocked documents are critical to how actors make sense of the work of others and what to do next in a geographically distributed setting. Furthermore, we found that while each document is created...... as part of a quasi-sequential order, this characteristic does not make the document, as a single entity, into a stable object. Instead, we found that the documents were malleable and dynamic while suspended in intertextual structures. Our concept of documentscape points to how the hierarchical structure...

  8. A minimax procedure in the context of sequential mastery testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master or a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random test item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory

  9. Applying the minimax principle to sequential mastery testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master, a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory (minimum

  10. Optimal Sequential Rules for Computer-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Hans J.

    1998-01-01

    Formulates sequential rules for adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to learning needs in the context of computer-based instruction. Topics include Bayesian decision theory, threshold and linear-utility structure, psychometric model, optimal sequential number of test questions, and an empirical example of sequential instructional…

  11. On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016

  12. Sequential pattern recognition by maximum conditional informativity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-45 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Keywords : Multivariate statistics * Statistical pattern recognition * Sequential decision making * Product mixtures * EM algorithm * Shannon information Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Sci ence Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/grim-0428565.pdf

  13. Comparing two Poisson populations sequentially: an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halteman, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado monitors each of its employees for radiation exposure. Excess exposure is detected by comparing the means of two Poisson populations. A sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is proposed as a replacement for the fixed sample normal approximation test. A uniformly most efficient SPRT exists, however logistics suggest using a truncated SPRT. The truncated SPRT is evaluated in detail and shown to possess large potential savings in average time spent by employees in the monitoring process

  14. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sequential Monte Carlo with Highly Informative Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Del Moral, Pierre; Murray, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods for sampling the posterior distribution of state-space models under highly informative observation regimes, a situation in which standard SMC methods can perform poorly. A special case is simulating bridges between given initial and final values. The basic idea is to introduce a schedule of intermediate weighting and resampling times between observation times, which guide particles towards the final state. This can always be done for continuous-...

  16. Sequential test procedures for inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.S.; Kern, E.A.; Emeigh, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    By means of a simulation study, we investigated the appropriateness of Page's and power-one sequential tests on sequences of inventory differences obtained from an example materials control unit, a sub-area of a hypothetical UF 6 -to-U 3 O 8 conversion process. The study examined detection probability and run length curves obtained from different loss scenarios. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Sequential neural models with stochastic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraccaro, Marco; Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Paquet, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    How can we efficiently propagate uncertainty in a latent state representation with recurrent neural networks? This paper introduces stochastic recurrent neural networks which glue a deterministic recurrent neural network and a state space model together to form a stochastic and sequential neural...... generative model. The clear separation of deterministic and stochastic layers allows a structured variational inference network to track the factorization of the model's posterior distribution. By retaining both the nonlinear recursive structure of a recurrent neural network and averaging over...

  18. Effect of pulsed dose in simultaneous and sequential irradiation of V-79 cells by 14.8-MeV neutrons and 60Co photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Gould, M.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of irradiating V-79 Chinese hamster cells with a mixture of 40% 14.8-MeV neutrons and 60% 69 Co photons with simultaneous or sequential exposures is investigated. Sample doses are obtained by irradiating cells with alternating 3-min pulses of neutrons and photons (in the sequential case) or with mixed neutrons and photons followed by equal beam-off periods to ensure equal total exposure times for sequential and simultaneous irradiations. Differences between the survival results under each beam configuration that are consistent with previous observations with nonpulsed irradiations are observed

  19. Glycerol production by Oenococcus oeni during sequential and simultaneous cultures with wine yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Cesar E; Farías, Marta E; Strasser de Saad, Ana M; Pasteris, Sergio E

    2014-07-01

    Growth and fermentation patterns of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kloeckera apiculata, and Oenococcus oeni strains cultured in grape juice medium were studied. In pure, sequential and simultaneous cultures, the strains reached the stationary growth phase between 2 and 3 days. Pure and mixed K. apiculata and S. cerevisiae cultures used mainly glucose, producing ethanol, organic acids, and 4.0 and 0.1 mM glycerol, respectively. In sequential cultures, O. oeni achieved about 1 log unit at 3 days using mainly fructose and L-malic acid. Highest sugars consumption was detected in K. apiculata supernatants, lactic acid being the major end-product. 8.0 mM glycerol was found in 6-day culture supernatants. In simultaneous cultures, total sugars and L-malic acid were used at 3 days and 98% of ethanol and glycerol were detected. This study represents the first report of the population dynamics and metabolic behavior of yeasts and O. oeni in sequential and simultaneous cultures and contributes to the selection of indigenous strains to design starter cultures for winemaking, also considering the inclusion of K. apiculata. The sequential inoculation of yeasts and O. oeni would enhance glycerol production, which confers desirable organoleptic characteristics to wines, while organic acids levels would not affect their sensory profile. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. What is the explanatory power of space syntax theory? the application of modal logics from theory of science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, A.

    2017-01-01

    This contribution shows various approaches from the theory of science for revealing the explanatory power of the Space Syntax. In this contribution Bhaskar's critical realistic model of science and Georg Henrik von Wright's account of explanation and understanding are used to assess the

  1. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Manniën, J.; van Stenus, C.M.V.; Wiegers, T.A.; Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Spelten, E.R.; Deville, W.L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status.

  2. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status.

  3. Self-Consciousness and Assertiveness as Explanatory Variables of L2 Oral Ability: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on current theories in personality, second-language (L2) oral ability, and psychometrics, this study investigates the extent to which self-consciousness and assertiveness are explanatory variables of L2 oral ability. Three hundred sixty first-year Japanese university students who were studying English as a foreign language participated in…

  4. Adolescent Fathers Who Are Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders: Explanatory Study of the Co-Occurrence of Two Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We identify explanatory risk variables associated with the co-occurrence of two problem behaviors: juvenile offending and adolescent fatherhood. Data were gathered from a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated juvenile offenders as they transitioned from youth correction facilities back into the community. Of the total sample,…

  5. Knowing the Limits of One's Understanding: The Development of an Awareness of an Illusion of Explanatory Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Candice M.; Keil, Frank C.

    2004-01-01

    Adults overestimate the detail and depth of their explanatory knowledge, but through providing explanations they recognize their initial illusion of understanding. By contrast, they are much more accurate in making self-assessments for other kinds of knowledge, such as for procedures, narratives, and facts. Two studies examined this "illusion of…

  6. Explanatory models of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from urban centers of central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Bruck M; Kebede, Tedla; Fenta, Teferi G; Boon, Heather

    2016-09-13

    Type 2 diabetes, which is increasing as a public health problem in the low resource settings of Africa has been associated with the high prevalence of micro-vascular complications and increasing levels of macro-vascular complications. There is evidence from the developed world that understanding patient perceptions of chronic illness is important to design effective strategies for helping patients manage these conditions. This study utilized Kleinman's model to explore the illness perceptions of type 2 diabetes patients attending treatment in Addis Ababa and Butajira (Ethiopia) and better understand how they manage their illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit the explanatory models of purposively sampled type 2 diabetes patients attending treatment in three hospitals in central Ethiopia until saturation of key emerging themes was achieved. Analysis of interview transcripts was guided by Kleinman's model. A total of 39 participants, 24 from Addis Ababa and the rest from Butajira took part in the study. This study revealed that patients' explanatory models were informed by both the traditional and biomedical models with emotional distress evident in some of the participants. The traditional model seemed to reflect the strong religious and cultural influences for the majority of study participants. The findings also revealed that symptoms played significant roles in how patients viewed their illness including assessment of its severity. Most were uncertain about the cause of their illness, with those expressing certainty citing factors over which they believed they had little or no control. This may have contributed to the perceptions about the use of religious healing and traditional medicines in a complementary or alternative manner to the biomedical regimen which could affect their adherence to recommended regimens and their health outcomes. This study suggests the need for a strong diabetes care program that is sensitive to patients' experiences

  7. Mixed parentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Appel, Helene; Singla, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increase in cross border intimate relationships and children of mixed parentage, there is little mention or scholarship about them in the area of childhood and migrancy in the Nordic countries. The international literature implies historical pathologisation, contestation and current...... of identity formation in the . They position themselves as having an “in-between” identity or “ just Danes” in their every day lives among friends, family, and during leisure activities. Thus a new paradigm is evolving away- from the pathologisation of mixed children, simplified one-sided categories...

  8. Chemical and sequential analysis of some metals in sediments from the North Coast of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad Martinez; Brenda Estanol; Miguel Angel Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Sediments collected from the North Coast of the Gulf of Mexico got carefully mixed, dried, and finally subjected to physical and chemical analysis. Metal concentration was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Sequential chemical analysis was performed by modified TESSIER technique. Results and statistical analysis (α = 0.05) show concentrations of most elements (excepting Mn, Ca, Ga, As and Pb) in the range of those of the earth crust's values, which set a sampling zone base line. Sequential extraction shows the potential risk of mobilization of metals sequestered in particulate phases by oxidation of anoxic sediments or intense organic matter degradation. (author)

  9. Production of microbial biomass protein by sequential culture fermentation of Arachniotus sp., and Candida utilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Ahmad, F.; Hashmi, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Sequential culture fermentation by Arachniotus sp. at 35 deg. C for 72 h and followed by Candida utilis fermentation at 35 deg. C for 72 h more resulted in higher production of microbial biomass protein. 6% (w/v) corn stover, 0.0075% CaCl/sub 2/.2H/sub 2/O, 0.005% MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, 0.01% KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, C:N ratio of 30:1 and 1% molasses gave higher microbial biomass protein production by the sequential culture fermentation of Arachniotus sp., and C. utilis. The mixed microbial biomass protein produced in the 75-L fermentor contained 16.41%, 23.51%, 10.9%, 12.11% and 0.12% true protein, crude protein, crude fiber, ash and RNA content, respectively. The amino acid profile of final mixed microbial biomass protein showed that it was enriched with essential amino acids. Thus, the potential utilization of corn stover can minimize the cost for growth of these microorganisms and enhance microbial biomass protein production by sequential culture fermentation. (author)

  10. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  11. Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    negative (right panel c) and the kinetic energy dissipation is larger than that expected from meterological forcing alone (right panel a). This is...10.1002/grl.50919. Shcherbina, A. et al., 2014, The LatMix Summer Campaign: Submesoscale Stirring in the Upper Ocean., Bull. American Meterological

  12. Explaining Participation: An Explanatory History of Select Gender Patterns in Undergraduate STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Michael Pasquale

    This explanatory study examines three focal periods in undergraduate STEM as related to the gender gap. Social, economic, and more general historical data are used to develop a clear and powerful explanation of baccalaureate trends in biology and engineering. Specifically, historical accounts are offered for 1) a ten-year period in undergraduate biology in which the number of baccalaureates awarded to men decreased 44 percent, while the number of baccalaureates awarded to women decreased one percent; 2) the start of a twenty-year period in which the number of bachelor's degrees awarded in the biological sciences increased 150 percent---from 36,068 degrees in 1989, to 90,003 bachelor's degrees in 2011; and 3) a ten year period in undergraduate engineering where female graduation rates septupled---this ten-year time period is the only instance of meaningful and noteworthy growth for women in undergraduate engineering over the past half century. Findings from each history reveal a common narrative underlying baccalaureate trends. Implications for undergraduate STEM are discussed.

  13. Analyzing the Impacts of Alternated Number of Iterations in Multiple Imputation Method on Explanatory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu KOÇAK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the effects of iteration numbers used in multiple iteration method, one of the methods used to cope with missing values, on the results of factor analysis. With this aim, artificial datasets of different sample sizes were created. Missing values at random and missing values at complete random were created in various ratios by deleting data. For the data in random missing values, a second variable was iterated at ordinal scale level and datasets with different ratios of missing values were obtained based on the levels of this variable. The data were generated using “psych” program in R software, while “dplyr” program was used to create codes that would delete values according to predetermined conditions of missing value mechanism. Different datasets were generated by applying different iteration numbers. Explanatory factor analysis was conducted on the datasets completed and the factors and total explained variances are presented. These values were first evaluated based on the number of factors and total variance explained of the complete datasets. The results indicate that multiple iteration method yields a better performance in cases of missing values at random compared to datasets with missing values at complete random. Also, it was found that increasing the number of iterations in both missing value datasets decreases the difference in the results obtained from complete datasets.

  14. Infection Elicited Autoimmunity and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: An Explanatory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Jonas; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Elfaitouri, Amal; Rizwan, Muhammad; Rosén, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) often also called chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common, debilitating, disease of unknown origin. Although a subject of controversy and a considerable scientific literature, we think that a solid understanding of ME/CFS pathogenesis is emerging. In this study, we compiled recent findings and placed them in the context of the clinical picture and natural history of the disease. A pattern emerged, giving rise to an explanatory model. ME/CFS often starts after or during an infection. A logical explanation is that the infection initiates an autoreactive process, which affects several functions, including brain and energy metabolism. According to our model for ME/CFS pathogenesis, patients with a genetic predisposition and dysbiosis experience a gradual development of B cell clones prone to autoreactivity. Under normal circumstances these B cell offsprings would have led to tolerance. Subsequent exogenous microbial exposition (triggering) can lead to comorbidities such as fibromyalgia, thyroid disorder, and orthostatic hypotension. A decisive infectious trigger may then lead to immunization against autoantigens involved in aerobic energy production and/or hormone receptors and ion channel proteins, producing postexertional malaise and ME/CFS, affecting both muscle and brain. In principle, cloning and sequencing of immunoglobulin variable domains could reveal the evolution of pathogenic clones. Although evidence consistent with the model accumulated in recent years, there are several missing links in it. Hopefully, the hypothesis generates testable propositions that can augment the understanding of the pathogenesis of ME/CFS. PMID:29497420

  15. Controlled but not cured: Structural processes and explanatory models of Chagas disease in tropical Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Dressler (2001:456) characterizes medical anthropology as divided between two poles: the constructivist, which focuses on the "meaning and significance that events have for people," and the structuralist, which emphasizes socioeconomic processes and relationships. This study synthesizes structuralist and constructivist perspectives by investigating how structural processes impact explanatory models of Chagas disease in a highly endemic area. The research took place from March-June 2013 through the Centro Medico Humberto Parra, a non-profit clinic servicing low income populations in Palacios, Bolivia and surrounding communities. Semistructured interviews (n = 68) and consensus analysis questionnaires (n = 48) were administered to people dealing with Chagas disease. In the interview narratives, respondents link Chagas disease with experiences of marginalization and rural poverty, and describe multilayered impediments to accessing treatment. They often view the disease as incurable, but this reflects inconsistent messages from the biomedical system. The consensus analysis results show strong agreement on knowledge of the vector, ethnomedical treatment, and structural factors related to Chagas disease. In interpreting Chagas disease, respondents account for the structural factors which place them at risk and impede access to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Steps in the construction and verification of an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to empirically test an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment during adolescence, with psychosocial adjustment during this stage being understood as a combination of school adjustment (or school engagement and subjective well-being. According to the hypothetic model, psychosocial adjustment depends on self-concept and resilience, which in turn act as mediators of the influence of perceived social support (from family, peers and teachers on this adjustment. Participants were 1250 secondary school students (638 girls and 612 boys aged between 12 and 15 years (Mean = 13.72; SD = 1.09. The results provided evidence of: (a the influence of all three types of perceived support on subject resilience and self-concept, with perceived family support being particularly important in this respect; (b the influence of the support received from teachers on school adjustment and support received from the family on psychological wellbeing; and (c the absence of any direct influence of peer support on psychosocial adjustment, although indirect influence was observed through the psychological variables studied. These results are discussed from an educational perspective and in terms of future research.

  17. Steps in the construction and verification of an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to empirically test an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment during adolescence, with psychosocial adjustment during this stage being understood as a combination of school adjustment (or school engagement and subjective well-being. According to the hypothetic model, psychosocial adjustment depends on self-concept and resilience, which in turn act as mediators of the influence of perceived social support (from family, peers and teachers on this adjustment. Participants were 1250 secondary school students (638 girls and 612 boys aged between 12 and 15 years (Mean = 13.72; SD = 1.09. The results provided evidence of: (a the influence of all three types of perceived support on subject resilience and self-concept, with perceived family support being particularly important in this respect; (b the influence of the support received from teachers on school adjustment and support received from the family on psychological wellbeing; and (c the absence of any direct influence of peer support on psychosocial adjustment, although indirect influence was observed through the psychological variables studied. These results are discussed from an educational perspective and in terms of future research

  18. A Middle-Range Explanatory Theory of Self-Management Behavior for Collaborative Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Amanda C

    2017-04-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of self-management behaviors. Self-management behaviors are typically associated with disease management, with frequent use by nurse researchers related to chronic illness management and by international health organizations for development of disease management interventions. A concept analysis was conducted within the context of Orem's self-care framework. Walker and Avant's eight-step concept analysis approach guided the analysis. Academic databases were searched for relevant literature including CIHAHL, Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews and Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, and SocINDEX. Literature using the term "self-management behavior" and published between April 2001 and March 2015 was analyzed for attributes, antecedents, and consequences. A total of 189 journal articles were reviewed. Self-management behaviors are defined as proactive actions related to lifestyle, a problem, planning, collaborating, and mental support, as well as reactive actions related to a circumstantial change, to achieve a goal influenced by the antecedents of physical, psychological, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics, as well as collaborative and received support. The theoretical definition and middle-range explanatory theory of self-management behaviors will guide future collaborative research and clinical practice for disease management. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Computer-mediated communication and interpersonal attraction: an experimental test of two explanatory hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2007-12-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the influence of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on interpersonal attraction and (b) to examine two underlying processes in the CMC-interpersonal attraction relationship. We identified two variables that may mediate the influence of CMC on interpersonal attraction: self-disclosure and direct questioning. Focusing on these potential mediating variables, we tested two explanatory hypotheses: the CMC-induced direct questioning hypothesis and the CMC-induced self-disclosure hypothesis. Eighty-one cross-sex dyads were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: text-only CMC, visual CMC, and face-to-face communication. We did not find a direct effect of CMC on interpersonal attraction. However, we did find two positive indirect effects of text-only CMC on interpersonal attraction: text-only CMC stimulated both self-disclosure and direct questioning, both of which in turn enhanced interpersonal attraction. Results are discussed in light of uncertainty reduction theory and CMC theories.

  20. The power of videogame-like experiences for explanatory storytelling in science, education, and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, D. A.; Hayes, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the last forty years, videogames have gone from a dot bouncing between two lines ("PONG", 1972), to sprawling $150 million enterprises that teams of hundreds work on for years, with fully-developed, novelistic stories and graphics that can be arrestingly realistic and engrossing. Video games - and now virtual reality - conjure superhero sagas, alien wars, and historic battlefields. Yet the game industry has given little thought to using this powerful storytelling medium to explain the many wondrous facets of regular old reality. The techniques and technologies of game design are offering an ever-more potent tool for explaining the processes of science. Want to explain fracking to someone unfamiliar with its strange mechanics? We did - we built a game-like graphic that asks learners to frack a well themselves, on an iPad. They use their fingergs to drill the well, inject the water and solvents, and gather the resulting oil and gas - not to mention seeing the potential environmental ramifications. How about explaining heart or brain surgery on a 3-month old child? Or showing students how a nerve cell works by allowing them to fly into it and build the proteins that enable the nerve to fire? We've done all these, and are continuing to add new dimensions to immersive teaching and explanatory storytelling. We'll share insights we've gathered along the way.

  1. How do Small Groups Promote Behaviour Change? An Integrative Conceptual Review of Explanatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Aleksandra J; Abraham, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Small groups are used to promote health, well-being, and personal change by altering members' perceptions, beliefs, expectations, and behaviour patterns. An extensive cross-disciplinary literature has articulated and tested theories explaining how such groups develop, function, and facilitate change. Yet these theoretical understandings are rarely applied in the development, description, and evaluation of health-promotion, group-based, behaviour-change interventions. Medline database, library catalogues, search engines, specific journals and reference lists were searched for relevant texts. Texts were reviewed for explanatory concepts or theories describing change processes in groups, which were integrated into the developing conceptual structure. This was designed to be a parsimonious conceptual framework that could be applied to design and delivery. Five categories of interacting processes and concepts were identified and defined: (1) group development processes, (2) dynamic group processes, (3) social change processes, (4) personal change processes, and (5) group design and operating parameters. Each of these categories encompasses a variety of theorised mechanisms explaining individual change in small groups. The final conceptual model, together with the design issues and practical recommendations derived from it, provides a practical basis for linking research and theory explaining group functioning to optimal design of group-based, behaviour-change interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  2. Probabilistic earthquake risk assessment as a tool to improve safety and explanatory adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoi, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains the concept of probabilistic earthquake risk assessment, mainly from the viewpoint as a tool to improve safety and explanatory adequacy. The definition of risk is the expected value of undesirable effect in an engineering meaning that is likely to occur in the future, and it is defined in risk management as the triplet of scenario (what can happen), frequency, and impact. As for the earthquake risk assessment of a nuclear power plant, the fragility of structure / system / component (SSC) against earthquake (so-called earthquake fragility) is assessed, and by combining with the earthquake hazard that has been separately obtained, the occurrence frequency and impact of the accident are obtained. From the view of the authors, earthquake risk assessment is for the purpose of decision-making, and is not intended to calculate the probability in a scientifically rigorous manner. For ensuring the quality of risk assessment, the table of 'Expert utilization standards for the evaluation of epistemological uncertainty' is used. Sole quantitative risk assessment is not necessarily sufficient for risk management. It would be important to find how to build the 'framework for comprehensive decision-making.' (A.O.)

  3. On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/kalina-0474065.pdf

  4. Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL SEQUENTIALLY-TIMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav LICHOROBIEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the development of the noninvasive use of explosives during the destruction of ice mass in river flows. The system of special sequentially-timed charges utilizes the increase in efficiency of cutting charges by covering them with bags filled with water, while simultaneously increasing the effect of the entire system of timed charges. Timing, spatial combinations during placement, and the linking of these charges results in the loosening of ice barriers on a frozen waterway, while at the same time regulating the size of the ice fragments. The developed charges will increase the operability and safety of IRS units.

  6. Pass-transistor asynchronous sequential circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R.; Maki, Gary K.

    1989-01-01

    Design methods for asynchronous sequential pass-transistor circuits, which result in circuits that are hazard- and critical-race-free and which have added degrees of freedom for the input signals, are discussed. The design procedures are straightforward and easy to implement. Two single-transition-time state assignment methods are presented, and hardware bounds for each are established. A surprising result is that the hardware realizations for each next state variable and output variable is identical for a given flow table. Thus, a state machine with N states and M outputs can be constructed using a single layout replicated N + M times.

  7. Estimation After a Group Sequential Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanzi, Elasma; Molenberghs, Geert; Alonso, Ariel; Kenward, Michael G; Tsiatis, Anastasios A; Davidian, Marie; Verbeke, Geert

    2015-10-01

    Group sequential trials are one important instance of studies for which the sample size is not fixed a priori but rather takes one of a finite set of pre-specified values, dependent on the observed data. Much work has been devoted to the inferential consequences of this design feature. Molenberghs et al (2012) and Milanzi et al (2012) reviewed and extended the existing literature, focusing on a collection of seemingly disparate, but related, settings, namely completely random sample sizes, group sequential studies with deterministic and random stopping rules, incomplete data, and random cluster sizes. They showed that the ordinary sample average is a viable option for estimation following a group sequential trial, for a wide class of stopping rules and for random outcomes with a distribution in the exponential family. Their results are somewhat surprising in the sense that the sample average is not optimal, and further, there does not exist an optimal, or even, unbiased linear estimator. However, the sample average is asymptotically unbiased, both conditionally upon the observed sample size as well as marginalized over it. By exploiting ignorability they showed that the sample average is the conventional maximum likelihood estimator. They also showed that a conditional maximum likelihood estimator is finite sample unbiased, but is less efficient than the sample average and has the larger mean squared error. Asymptotically, the sample average and the conditional maximum likelihood estimator are equivalent. This previous work is restricted, however, to the situation in which the the random sample size can take only two values, N = n or N = 2 n . In this paper, we consider the more practically useful setting of sample sizes in a the finite set { n 1 , n 2 , …, n L }. It is shown that the sample average is then a justifiable estimator , in the sense that it follows from joint likelihood estimation, and it is consistent and asymptotically unbiased. We also show why

  8. A sequential/parallel track selector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolino, F; Bressani, Tullio; Chiavassa, E; Costa, S; Dellacasa, G; Gallio, M; Musso, A

    1980-01-01

    A medium speed ( approximately 1 mu s) hardware pre-analyzer for the selection of events detected in four planes of drift chambers in the magnetic field of the Omicron Spectrometer at the CERN SC is described. Specific geometrical criteria determine patterns of hits in the four planes of vertical wires that have to be recognized and that are stored as patterns of '1's in random access memories. Pairs of good hits are found sequentially, then the RAMs are used as look-up tables. (6 refs).

  9. Boundary conditions in random sequential adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Ziff, Robert M.

    2018-04-01

    The influence of different boundary conditions on the density of random packings of disks is studied. Packings are generated using the random sequential adsorption algorithm with three different types of boundary conditions: periodic, open, and wall. It is found that the finite size effects are smallest for periodic boundary conditions, as expected. On the other hand, in the case of open and wall boundaries it is possible to introduce an effective packing size and a constant correction term to significantly improve the packing densities.

  10. Automatic synthesis of sequential control schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, I.

    1993-01-01

    Of all hard- and software developed for industrial control purposes, the majority is devoted to sequential, or binary valued, control and only a minor part to classical linear control. Typically, the sequential parts of the controller are invoked during startup and shut-down to bring the system into its normal operating region and into some safe standby region, respectively. Despite its importance, fairly little theoretical research has been devoted to this area, and sequential control programs are therefore still created manually without much theoretical support to obtain a systematic approach. We propose a method to create sequential control programs automatically. The main ideas is to spend some effort off-line modelling the plant, and from this model generate the control strategy, that is the plan. The plant is modelled using action structures, thereby concentrating on the actions instead of the states of the plant. In general the planning problem shows exponential complexity in the number of state variables. However, by focusing on the actions, we can identify problem classes as well as algorithms such that the planning complexity is reduced to polynomial complexity. We prove that these algorithms are sound, i.e., the generated solution will solve the stated problem, and complete, i.e., if the algorithms fail, then no solution exists. The algorithms generate a plan as a set of actions and a partial order on this set specifying the execution order. The generated plant is proven to be minimal and maximally parallel. For a larger class of problems we propose a method to split the original problem into a number of simple problems that can each be solved using one of the presented algorithms. It is also shown how a plan can be translated into a GRAFCET chart, and to illustrate these ideas we have implemented a planing tool, i.e., a system that is able to automatically create control schemes. Such a tool can of course also be used on-line if it is fast enough. This

  11. From sequential to parallel programming with patterns

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    To increase in both performance and efficiency, our programming models need to adapt to better exploit modern processors. The classic idioms and patterns for programming such as loops, branches or recursion are the pillars of almost every code and are well known among all programmers. These patterns all have in common that they are sequential in nature. Embracing parallel programming patterns, which allow us to program for multi- and many-core hardware in a natural way, greatly simplifies the task of designing a program that scales and performs on modern hardware, independently of the used programming language, and in a generic way.

  12. Sequential extraction of uranium metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, M.M.; Spitz, H.B.; Connick, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Samples of uranium contaminated dirt collected from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill were analyzed for uranium using a sequential extraction protocol involving a series of five increasingly aggressive solvents. The quantity of uranium extracted from the contaminated dirt by each reagent can aid in predicting the fate and transport of the uranium contamination in the environment. Uranium was separated from each fraction using anion exchange, electrodeposition and analyzed by alpha spectroscopy analysis. Results demonstrate that approximately 77 % of the uranium was extracted using NH 4 Ac in 25 % acetic acid. (author)

  13. Simultaneous optimization of sequential IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popple, Richard A.; Prellop, Perri B.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Santos, Jennifer F. de los; Duan, Jun; Fiveash, John B.; Brezovich, Ivan A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy often comprises two phases, in which irradiation of a volume at risk for microscopic disease is followed by a sequential dose escalation to a smaller volume either at a higher risk for microscopic disease or containing only gross disease. This technique is difficult to implement with intensity modulated radiotherapy, as the tolerance doses of critical structures must be respected over the sum of the two plans. Techniques that include an integrated boost have been proposed to address this problem. However, clinical experience with such techniques is limited, and many clinicians are uncomfortable prescribing nonconventional fractionation schemes. To solve this problem, we developed an optimization technique that simultaneously generates sequential initial and boost IMRT plans. We have developed an optimization tool that uses a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a high level programming language for technical computing. The tool uses the TPS to calculate the dose deposition coefficients (DDCs) for optimization. The DDCs were imported into external software and the treatment ports duplicated to create the boost plan. The initial, boost, and tolerance doses were specified and used to construct cost functions. The initial and boost plans were optimized simultaneously using a gradient search technique. Following optimization, the fluence maps were exported to the TPS for dose calculation. Seven patients treated using sequential techniques were selected from our clinical database. The initial and boost plans used to treat these patients were developed independently of each other by dividing the tolerance doses proportionally between the initial and boost plans and then iteratively optimizing the plans until a summation that met the treatment goals was obtained. We used the simultaneous optimization technique to generate plans that met the original planning goals. The coverage of the initial and boost target volumes in the simultaneously optimized

  14. Spatial generalised linear mixed models based on distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Oscar O; Mateu, Jorge; Melo, Carlos E

    2016-10-01

    Risk models derived from environmental data have been widely shown to be effective in delineating geographical areas of risk because they are intuitively easy to understand. We present a new method based on distances, which allows the modelling of continuous and non-continuous random variables through distance-based spatial generalised linear mixed models. The parameters are estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, which is a feasible and a useful technique. The proposed method depends on a detrending step built from continuous or categorical explanatory variables, or a mixture among them, by using an appropriate Euclidean distance. The method is illustrated through the analysis of the variation in the prevalence of Loa loa among a sample of village residents in Cameroon, where the explanatory variables included elevation, together with maximum normalised-difference vegetation index and the standard deviation of normalised-difference vegetation index calculated from repeated satellite scans over time. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Treatment needs and predictive capacity of explanatory variables of oral disease in young athletes with an intellectual disability in Europe and Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C; Descamps, I; Fabjanska, K; Kaschke, I; Marks, L

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the oral condition and treatment needs of young athletes with intellectual disability (ID) from 53 countries of Europe and Eurasia who participated in the Special Olympics European Games held in Antwerp, October 2014. A cross- sectional study was undertaken with data collected through standardised procedures from consenting athletes under 21 years of age. Oral hygiene habits, reports of oral pain and presence of gingival signs, sealants, untreated caries and missing teeth were recorded. Data analysis was performed in SPSS to produce descriptive statistics and explanatory variables for untreated decay, and gingival signs of disease were tested with Multilevel Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Five hundred three athletes participated in this study (mean age 17 yrs). Untreated decay was recorded in 33.4% of the participants and 38.7% of them had signs of gingival disease. Absence of untreated decay was associated with lower chances of gingival signs, while absence of sealants was related with higher chances of untreated decay. There is consistent evidence of persistent need for increased promotion of oral health, as well as preventive and restorative treatment in young athletes with ID in Europe and Eurasia. Due to the limited predictive capacity of the studied variables for oral disease, further studies including other related factors are needed.

  16. Parity mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The field of parity mixing in light nuclei bears upon one of the exciting and active problems of physics--the nature of the fundamental weak interaction. It is also a subject where polarization techniques play a very important role. Weak interaction theory is first reviewed to motivate the parity mixing experiments. Two very attractive systems are discussed where the nuclear physics is so beautifully simple that the experimental observation of tiny effects directly measures parity violating (PV) nuclear matrix elements which are quite sensitive to the form of the basic weak interaction. Since the measurement of very small analyzing powers and polarizations may be of general interest to this conference, some discussion is devoted to experimental techniques

  17. The Effects of Leaderâ member Exchange and Cognitive Style on Student Achievement: A Mixed Methods Case Study of Teacherâ student Dyads

    OpenAIRE

    Mosley, Chaney Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this embedded sequential explanatory case study with a quantitativeâ qualitative two-strand design of inquiry was to explain how the quality of teacher-student relationships and the gap of cognitive styles between teachers and students impact student achievement. The population for the quantitative strand of research was comprised of 11 career and technical education (CTE) teachers and 210 CTE students, representing six disciplines within CTE. The study occurred in a suburba...

  18. Comparison of Sequential and Variational Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Weerts, Albrecht

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation is a valuable tool to improve model state estimates by combining measured observations with model simulations. It has recently gained significant attention due to its potential in using remote sensing products to improve operational hydrological forecasts and for reanalysis purposes. This has been supported by the application of sequential techniques such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter which require no additional features within the modeling process, i.e. it can use arbitrary black-box models. Alternatively, variational techniques rely on optimization algorithms to minimize a pre-defined objective function. This function describes the trade-off between the amount of noise introduced into the system and the mismatch between simulated and observed variables. While sequential techniques have been commonly applied to hydrological processes, variational techniques are seldom used. In our believe, this is mainly attributed to the required computation of first order sensitivities by algorithmic differentiation techniques and related model enhancements, but also to lack of comparison between both techniques. We contribute to filling this gap and present the results from the assimilation of streamflow data in two basins located in Germany and Canada. The assimilation introduces noise to precipitation and temperature to produce better initial estimates of an HBV model. The results are computed for a hindcast period and assessed using lead time performance metrics. The study concludes with a discussion of the main features of each technique and their advantages/disadvantages in hydrological applications.

  19. Time scale of random sequential adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Radek; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    A simple multiscale approach to the diffusion-driven adsorption from a solution to a solid surface is presented. The model combines two important features of the adsorption process: (i) The kinetics of the chemical reaction between adsorbing molecules and the surface and (ii) geometrical constraints on the surface made by molecules which are already adsorbed. The process (i) is modeled in a diffusion-driven context, i.e., the conditional probability of adsorbing a molecule provided that the molecule hits the surface is related to the macroscopic surface reaction rate. The geometrical constraint (ii) is modeled using random sequential adsorption (RSA), which is the sequential addition of molecules at random positions on a surface; one attempt to attach a molecule is made per one RSA simulation time step. By coupling RSA with the diffusion of molecules in the solution above the surface the RSA simulation time step is related to the real physical time. The method is illustrated on a model of chemisorption of reactive polymers to a virus surface.

  20. Hybrid Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Group Sequential Design to Fully Sequential Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Lin, Haiyan; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST) have become two of the most popular modes in large-scale computer-based sequential testing. Though most designs of CAT and MST exhibit strength and weakness in recent large-scale implementations, there is no simple answer to the question of which design is better because different…

  1. Sequential and simultaneous choices: testing the diet selection and sequential choice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Esteban; Aw, Justine; Kacelnik, Alex

    2009-03-01

    We investigate simultaneous and sequential choices in starlings, using Charnov's Diet Choice Model (DCM) and Shapiro, Siller and Kacelnik's Sequential Choice Model (SCM) to integrate function and mechanism. During a training phase, starlings encountered one food-related option per trial (A, B or R) in random sequence and with equal probability. A and B delivered food rewards after programmed delays (shorter for A), while R ('rejection') moved directly to the next trial without reward. In this phase we measured latencies to respond. In a later, choice, phase, birds encountered the pairs A-B, A-R and B-R, the first implementing a simultaneous choice and the second and third sequential choices. The DCM predicts when R should be chosen to maximize intake rate, and SCM uses latencies of the training phase to predict choices between any pair of options in the choice phase. The predictions of both models coincided, and both successfully predicted the birds' preferences. The DCM does not deal with partial preferences, while the SCM does, and experimental results were strongly correlated to this model's predictions. We believe that the SCM may expose a very general mechanism of animal choice, and that its wider domain of success reflects the greater ecological significance of sequential over simultaneous choices.

  2. History-based Explanatory Framework for Procreative Behaviour of Aboriginal People of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk, Anatole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe transition from traditional high to modern low fertility is in the forefront of empirical and theoretical investigations in contemporary aboriginal demography.The challenging question therein remains why its fertility has started to decline a century or so after the rest of Canada, and why it continues to trail the latter by a considerable lag. The objective of this paper is to present a history-based explanatory framework of the childbearing behaviour of Canadian aboriginal peoples, as it has evolved over time from the very first contact with Europeans to our day. Turning to existing theories for possible elucidation of these idiosyncrasies, we find that while accounting for certain aspects, they leave others unexplained. History provides a more satisfying explanation when we cast an eye not on the “abstract” population, “ideal-type” or what we today like to call “model”, but on real population, or family thereof, in its spatio-temporal context. The “between-two-cultures” paradigm presented here, based on ethnocentricity and dependency, could be seen as a an explanatory paradigm of competing forces on the Canadian aboriginals: on the one hand, those pushing toward modern norms of childbearing; and on the other, traditional values and structures, as shattered as they are, with their pro-natalist ideologies resisting normative changes.FrenchLa transition de la fécondité de son niveau traditionnel élevé à son niveaumoderne faible est au centre même des préoccupations théoriques etempiriques de la démographie contemporaine des peoples autochtones duCanada. La question que se posent les démographes est de savoir pourquoi lafécondité autochtone a commencé son déclin avec plus ou moins un siècle deretard sur l’ensemble de la population canadienne et pourquoi elle accuse encoretoujours un retard sur cette dernière. Le but de cet article est de présenter uncadre exploratoire, basé sur l’histoire, des

  3. The effects of the sequential addition of synthesis parameters on the performance of alkali activated fly ash mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassekpo, Jean-Baptiste Mawulé; Zha, Xiaoxiong; Zhan, Jiapeng; Ning, Jiaqian

    Geopolymer is an energy efficient and sustainable material that is currently used in construction industry as an alternative for Portland cement. As a new material, specific mix design method is essential and efforts have been made to develop a mix design procedure with the main focus on achieving better compressive strength and economy. In this paper, a sequential addition of synthesis parameters such as fly ash-sand, alkaline liquids, plasticizer and additional water at well-defined time intervals was investigated. A total of 4 mix procedures were used to study the compressive performance on fly ash-based geopolymer mortar and the results of each method were analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the sequential addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), plasticizer (PL), followed by adding water (WA) increases considerably the compressive strengths of the geopolymer-based mortar. These results clearly demonstrate the high significant influence of sequential addition of synthesis parameters on geopolymer materials compressive properties, and also provide a new mixing method for the preparation of geopolymer paste, mortar and concrete.

  4. A mathematical programming approach for sequential clustering of dynamic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jonathan C.; Bennett, Laura; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.; Tsoka, Sophia

    2016-02-01

    A common analysis performed on dynamic networks is community structure detection, a challenging problem that aims to track the temporal evolution of network modules. An emerging area in this field is evolutionary clustering, where the community structure of a network snapshot is identified by taking into account both its current state as well as previous time points. Based on this concept, we have developed a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model, SeqMod, that sequentially clusters each snapshot of a dynamic network. The modularity metric is used to determine the quality of community structure of the current snapshot and the historical cost is accounted for by optimising the number of node pairs co-clustered at the previous time point that remain so in the current snapshot partition. Our method is tested on social networks of interactions among high school students, college students and members of the Brazilian Congress. We show that, for an adequate parameter setting, our algorithm detects the classes that these students belong more accurately than partitioning each time step individually or by partitioning the aggregated snapshots. Our method also detects drastic discontinuities in interaction patterns across network snapshots. Finally, we present comparative results with similar community detection methods for time-dependent networks from the literature. Overall, we illustrate the applicability of mathematical programming as a flexible, adaptable and systematic approach for these community detection problems. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.

  5. Combined search for the quarks of a sequential fourth generation

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; De Remigis, Paolo; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented from a search for a fourth generation of quarks produced singly or in pairs in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 inverse femtobarns recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2011. A novel strategy has been developed for a combined search for quarks of the up- and down-type in decay channels with at least one isolated muon or electron. Limits on the mass of the fourth-generation quarks and the relevant CKM matrix elements are derived in the context of a simple extension of the standard model with a sequential fourth generation of fermions. The existence of mass-degenerate fourth-generation quarks with masses below 685 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level for minimal off-diagonal mixing between the third- and the fourth-generation quarks. With a mass difference of 25 GeV between the quark masses, the obtained limit on the masses of the fourth-generation quarks shifts by about +/- 20 GeV. This result significantly reduces the allowed parameter space for a fourt...

  6. The sequential decontamination of an abandoned uranium fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.R.; Allen, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984, Congress authorized the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a decontamination research and development project at four sites, including a property in Colonie, New York, that was formerly owned by National Lead Industries (NLI) and is now referred to as the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS). The site covers 4,5 ha (11.2 acres) and includes the plant building [1,023 m 2 (11,000 ft 2 )] and two smaller storage buildings. As a result of NLI operations, the plant buildings, grounds, and vicinity properties became contaminated. The contaminants can be divided into four categories: asbestos, hazardous wastes, low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), and mixed LLRW. The decontamination of the site will be implemented in seven sequential phases and will be carried out under various authorities and with differing categories of response activity. The governing authorities for CISS include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper discusses the relationship between each phase of the proposed restoration activity and the collective requirements of NEPA, CERCLA, and RCRA. (author)

  7. Angry characters and frightened souls: Patients and family explanatory models of bipolar disorder in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yi-Feng Carol; Zelman, Diane C; Chao, Wen-Tao

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant proportion of Taiwanese individuals (Weissman et al., 1996; Yang, Yeh, & Hwu, 2012). Psychotropic medications are typically the mainstay of treatment for BD, and there is an abundance of international research on biological etiology and medication options. However, there is comparatively little research on psychosocial aspects of BD, including how it is understood and managed within families. As culture provides the context in which psychiatric disease is managed, there is a need to identify distinct Chinese psychosocial perspectives that might shed light on intervention options. This research explored how Taiwanese patients and family members comprehend and cope with BD. A sample of 42 participants, including 20 Taiwanese patients diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder-I (BD-I) for at least 4 years, and 22 family members, participated in separate interviews on explanatory models of illness. Qualitative thematic analysis focused on features that were distinct from those in current Western research literature. Five themes were identified that represented Taiwanese conceptualizations of BD, notions of etiology, views regarding treatment, and the difficulties in managing the disorder. Participants used Chinese language terms and descriptions of BD that reflected greater concerns about irritability, anger, and family conflict than about other symptoms, and participants also emphasized characterological trait descriptions of the condition. Their responses reflected their acceptance of lifelong family responsibility for caretaking, clashing beliefs regarding biomedical versus traditional Chinese medical and spiritual models of etiology and cure, profound concerns about the effects of psychiatric medication on the liver and kidney systems, and a focus on stress rather than genetic or biological models of etiology.

  8. EXPLANATORY ECONOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Constantin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper, entitled "Explanatory Econometric Method for the Analysis of the Behaviour Management in Organizations in Romania" reflects the wide opening of econometric modelling to quantify the Romanian management issues, representing a practical guidance on multiple recovery plans to fund the huge data collected as part COMOR project launched by the Scientific Society of Management in Romania to characterize the behaviour of managers in the Romanian economic organizations. Construction of these models offers possibilities for complex analysis, descriptive and factorial sequence of firms, counties, geographical areas, but comprehensive summary of studies on the macroeconomic level. Scientific knowledge through a comprehensive assessment of managerial behaviour in the most representative types of business organizations of all geographical areas of the country are, in the context of globalization, one way to prevent surprises market economy. Thus, the results of this exploratory research will provide economic environment, and not only strong argument for anticipating decisions in order to choose the best economic policies, with beneficial effects as conclusive and with as few undesirable implications. Research based on the opinions of thousands of respondents approved, processed through a variety of instruments subject of extensive econometric and interdisciplinary interpretation, psycho-socio-economic management, is a modest contribution to the affirmation of local scientific research that aim for theoretical and applied Romanian school of management by defining: - knowledge of behaviour management in all types of business organizations in Romania; - identifying the Romanian space dimensions of organizational culture as a reflection of the peculiarities of national culture and especially of the main ethnic-specific subcultures; - profile defining effective manager and leader of excellence in terms of character traits and their behaviour.

  9. The explanatory models of depression and anxiety in primary care: a qualitative study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gracy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biggest barrier to treatment of common mental disorders in primary care settings is low recognition among health care providers. This study attempts to explore the explanatory models of common mental disorders (CMD with the goal of identifying how they could help in improving the recognition, leading to effective treatment in primary care. Results The paper describes findings of a cross sectional qualitative study nested within a large randomized controlled trial (the Manas trial. Semi structured interviews were conducted with 117 primary health care attendees (30 males and 87 females suffering from CMD. Main findings of the study are that somatic phenomena were by far the most frequent presenting problems; however, psychological phenomena were relatively easily elicited on probing. Somatic phenomena were located within a biopsychosocial framework, and a substantial proportion of informants used the psychological construct of ‘tension’ or ‘worry’ to label their illness, but did not consider themselves as suffering from a ‘mental disorder’. Very few gender differences were observed in the descriptions of symptoms but at the same time the pattern of adverse life events and social difficulties varied across gender. Conclusion Our study demonstrates how people present their illness through somatic complaints but clearly link their illness to their psychosocial world. However they do not associate their illness to a ‘mental disorder’ and this is an important phenomenon that needs to be recognized in management of CMD in primary settings. Our study also elicits important gender differences in the experience of CMD.

  10. Structures and Relationships between the Business Executive and Information Technology Executive at the University: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Angela K.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses an explanatory mixed methods methodology to attempt to determine the reporting relationships between business and IT executives within the university. The study also explores IT and business executives thoughts on these relationships. Supporting research from organizational studies and business-IT alignment is combined in order to…

  11. Testing Faith: A Mixed Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Prayer and Test Anxiety amongst College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Drey

    2016-01-01

    Test anxiety is problem that affects college students. Explanatory mixed methods research was completed with the objective of understanding the interrelationship of prayer and test anxiety as well as the potential therapeutic effects of Christian prayer on test anxiety. It was hypothesized that Christian prayer would have significant effects on…

  12. Sequential probability ratio controllers for safeguards radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.L.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential hypothesis tests applied to nuclear safeguards accounting methods make the methods more sensitive to detecting diversion. The sequential tests also improve transient signal detection in safeguards radiation monitors. This paper describes three microprocessor control units with sequential probability-ratio tests for detecting transient increases in radiation intensity. The control units are designed for three specific applications: low-intensity monitoring with Poisson probability ratios, higher intensity gamma-ray monitoring where fixed counting intervals are shortened by sequential testing, and monitoring moving traffic where the sequential technique responds to variable-duration signals. The fixed-interval controller shortens a customary 50-s monitoring time to an average of 18 s, making the monitoring delay less bothersome. The controller for monitoring moving vehicles benefits from the sequential technique by maintaining more than half its sensitivity when the normal passage speed doubles

  13. The effectiveness of peer mentoring in promoting a positive transition to higher education for first-year undergraduate students: a mixed methods systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragher, Jean; McGaughey, Jennifer

    2016-04-22

    The global transfer of nursing and midwifery education to higher education institutes has led to student nurses and midwives experiencing challenges previously faced by traditional third-level students, including isolation, loneliness, financial difficulties and academic pressure. These challenges can contribute to increased stress and anxiety levels which may be detrimental to the successful transition to higher education, thus leading to an increase in attrition rates. Peer mentoring as an intervention has been suggested to be effective in supporting students in the transition to third-level education through enhancing a sense of belongingness and improving student satisfaction, engagement and retention rates. This proposed systematic review aims to determine the effectiveness of peer mentoring in enhancing levels of student engagement, sense of belonging and overall satisfaction of first-year undergraduate students following transition into higher education. MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO and CENTRAL databases will be searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies on the implementation of peer assessment strategies in higher education institutes (HEIs) or universities for full-time, first-year adult students (>17 years). Included studies will be limited to the English language. The quality of included studies will be assessed using a validated Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The findings will be presented as a narrative synthesis or meta-analysis as appropriate following sequential explanatory synthesis. The review will provide clear, non-biased evidence-based guidance to all third-level educators on the effectiveness of peer-mentoring programmes for first-year undergraduates. The review is necessary to help establish which type of peer mentoring is most effective. The evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies drawn from the international literature will be utilised to illustrate the best way

  14. Analysis of the Explanatory Variables of the Differences in Perceptions of Cyberbullying: A Role-Based-Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Antelo, Inmaculada; Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel

    2018-04-01

    The controversies that exist regarding the delimitation of the cyberbullying construct demonstrate the need for further research focused on determining the criteria that shape the structure of the perceptions that adolescents have of this phenomenon and on seeking explanations of this behavior. The objectives of this study were to (a) construct possible explanatory models of the perception of cyberbullying from identifying and relating the criteria that form this construct and (b) analyze the influence of previous cyber victimization and cyber aggression experiences in the construction of explanatory models of the perception of cyberbullying. The sample consisted of 2,148 adolescents (49.1% girls; SD = 0.5) aged from 12 to 16 years ( M = 13.9 years; SD = 1.2). The results have shown that previous cyber victimization and cyber aggression experiences lead to major differences in the explanatory models to interpret cyber-abusive behavior as cyberbullying episodes, or as social relationship mechanisms, or as a revenge reaction. We note that the aggressors' explanatory model is based primarily on a strong reciprocal relationship between the imbalance of power and intentionality, that it functions as a link promoting indirect causal relationships of the anonymity and repetition factors with the cyberbullying construct. The victims' perceptual structure is based on three criteria-imbalance of power, intentionality, and publicity-where the key factor in this structure is the intention to harm. These results allow to design more effective measures of prevention and intervention closely tailored to addressing directly the factors that are considered to be predictors of risk.

  15. Adolescent Leisure-Time Activity and Problem Behavior: The Integration of Three Major Explanatory Theories as a New

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, Gail

    1995-01-01

    Adolescence has in recent decades gained attention as being salient for study of social trends. Increases in youth social problems are seen nationally, statewide, and locally. They include substance abuse, precocious sexual activity, related consequences of pregnancy and STDs, suicide and depression, truancy, running away, crime against property, and violent crime against persons. This study integrates three major explanatory theories of adolescent behavior into a macro-synthesis. R. Jesser's...

  16. Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneo...

  17. Discrimination between sequential and simultaneous virtual channels with electrical hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberger, David; Galvin, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In cochlear implants (CIs), simultaneous or sequential stimulation of adjacent electrodes can produce intermediate pitch percepts between those of the component electrodes. However, it is unclear whether simultaneous and sequential virtual channels (VCs) can be discriminated. In this study, CI users were asked to discriminate simultaneous and sequential VCs; discrimination was measured for monopolar (MP) and bipolar + 1 stimulation (BP + 1), i.e., relatively broad and focused stimulation mode...

  18. C-quence: a tool for analyzing qualitative sequential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Starkey; Collier, Nicholson T

    2002-02-01

    C-quence is a software application that matches sequential patterns of qualitative data specified by the user and calculates the rate of occurrence of these patterns in a data set. Although it was designed to facilitate analyses of face-to-face interaction, it is applicable to any data set involving categorical data and sequential information. C-quence queries are constructed using a graphical user interface. The program does not limit the complexity of the sequential patterns specified by the user.

  19. Stuck in the past: negative bias, explanatory style, temporal order, and evaluative perspectives in life narratives of clinically depressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Ott, Lisa-M; Schubert, Merve; Schneider, Beatrix; Pate, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to replicate negative bias and depressive explanatory style in depression using life narratives. The two central aspects of narrative, temporal succession and evaluation, were also explored. These aspects were tested for the first time using entire life narratives of 17 depressed inpatients and non-depressed controls matched for sex and educational level. Negative bias and depressive explanatory style were replicated as typical for the depressed group. Life narratives of depressed patients also deviated more from a linear temporal order and compared less frequently the past with the present. Contrary to expectations, the depressed did not differ in the overall frequency of evaluations. However, they used more past than present evaluations and more experience-near evaluations than cognitive evaluations, suggesting that they are more immersed in past experiences. It is concluded that negative bias and depressive explanatory style can be found also in a naturalistic narrative measure, and that depression affects the two major aspects of narrative. It is argued that life narratives, as measures close to everyday clinical practice and as the most encompassing form of self-representation, should complement more experimental procedures in the study of cognitive and communicative processes in psychopathology. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Climate change benefits and energy supply benefits as determinants of acceptance of nuclear power stations: Investigating an explanatory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M.; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Several countries are currently discussing whether they will rebuild their nuclear power stations in order to continue this type of energy production in the future. The public, with its own opinion about nuclear power stations, has an influential voice in this discussion. As a result, policy makers and nuclear scientists are interested in the public's perception of nuclear power and in what determines this perception. We therefore examined an explanatory model of the public's acceptance of nuclear power based on a telephone survey among a representative sample in Switzerland. The model included such factors as risk perception, benefit perception, affective feelings, and social trust. Moreover, we distinguished between two types of benefit perception: benefit for the climate and a secure energy supply. The model fitted very well to our data and explained acceptance very well. Acceptance was mainly influenced by perceived benefits for a secure energy supply and, to a lesser extent, both by perceived benefits for the climate and by risk perception. Affective feelings about nuclear power appeared to be a central factor in the model. Implications for communication about nuclear power stations and for further research are discussed. - Highlights: → Explanatory model of determinants of nuclear power acceptance was studied in the representative survey. → Perceived benefits for a secure energy supply had the largest influence on acceptance. → Perceived benefits for the climate seemed less influential on acceptance. → Affect had a central role in the explanatory model. → Implications for communication about nuclear power plants are discussed.

  1. Climate change benefits and energy supply benefits as determinants of acceptance of nuclear power stations: Investigating an explanatory model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M., E-mail: vvisschers@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Consumer Behavior, Universitaetsstrasse 22 CHN J 75.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Consumer Behavior, Universitaetsstrasse 22 CHN J 75.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Several countries are currently discussing whether they will rebuild their nuclear power stations in order to continue this type of energy production in the future. The public, with its own opinion about nuclear power stations, has an influential voice in this discussion. As a result, policy makers and nuclear scientists are interested in the public's perception of nuclear power and in what determines this perception. We therefore examined an explanatory model of the public's acceptance of nuclear power based on a telephone survey among a representative sample in Switzerland. The model included such factors as risk perception, benefit perception, affective feelings, and social trust. Moreover, we distinguished between two types of benefit perception: benefit for the climate and a secure energy supply. The model fitted very well to our data and explained acceptance very well. Acceptance was mainly influenced by perceived benefits for a secure energy supply and, to a lesser extent, both by perceived benefits for the climate and by risk perception. Affective feelings about nuclear power appeared to be a central factor in the model. Implications for communication about nuclear power stations and for further research are discussed. - Highlights: > Explanatory model of determinants of nuclear power acceptance was studied in the representative survey. > Perceived benefits for a secure energy supply had the largest influence on acceptance. > Perceived benefits for the climate seemed less influential on acceptance. > Affect had a central role in the explanatory model. > Implications for communication about nuclear power plants are discussed.

  2. Discrimination between sequential and simultaneous virtual channels with electrical hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, David; Galvin, John J

    2011-09-01

    In cochlear implants (CIs), simultaneous or sequential stimulation of adjacent electrodes can produce intermediate pitch percepts between those of the component electrodes. However, it is unclear whether simultaneous and sequential virtual channels (VCs) can be discriminated. In this study, CI users were asked to discriminate simultaneous and sequential VCs; discrimination was measured for monopolar (MP) and bipolar + 1 stimulation (BP + 1), i.e., relatively broad and focused stimulation modes. For sequential VCs, the interpulse interval (IPI) varied between 0.0 and 1.8 ms. All stimuli were presented at comfortably loud, loudness-balanced levels at a 250 pulse per second per electrode (ppse) stimulation rate. On average, CI subjects were able to reliably discriminate between sequential and simultaneous VCs. While there was no significant effect of IPI or stimulation mode on VC discrimination, some subjects exhibited better VC discrimination with BP + 1 stimulation. Subjects' discrimination between sequential and simultaneous VCs was correlated with electrode discrimination, suggesting that spatial selectivity may influence perception of sequential VCs. To maintain equal loudness, sequential VC amplitudes were nearly double those of simultaneous VCs, presumably resulting in a broader spread of excitation. These results suggest that perceptual differences between simultaneous and sequential VCs might be explained by differences in the spread of excitation. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  3. Lineup composition, suspect position, and the sequential lineup advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curt A; Gronlund, Scott D; Clark, Steven E

    2008-06-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate in the simultaneous lineup, and no sequential lineup advantage was found. This led the authors to hypothesize that protection from a sequential lineup might emerge only when an innocent suspect stands out from the other lineup members. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a simultaneous or sequential lineup with either the guilty suspect or 1 of 3 innocent suspects. Lineup fairness was varied to influence the degree to which a suspect stood out. A sequential lineup advantage was found only for the unfair lineups. Additional analyses of suspect position in the sequential lineups showed an increase in the diagnosticity of suspect identifications as the suspect was placed later in the sequential lineup. These results suggest that the sequential lineup advantage is dependent on lineup composition and suspect position. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT mea......BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG...

  5. Quantitative Preparation in Doctoral Education Programs: A Mixed-Methods Study of Doctoral Student Perspectives on their Quantitative Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Ferguson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore student perceptions of their own doctoral-level education and quantitative proficiency. Background: The challenges of preparing doctoral students in education have been discussed in the literature, but largely from the perspective of university faculty and program administrators. The current study directly explores the student voice on this issue. Methodology: Utilizing a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research design, the present study seeks to better understand doctoral-level education students’ perceptions of their quantitative methods training at a large public university in the southwestern United States. Findings: Results from both phases present the need for more application and consistency in doctoral-level quantitative courses. Additionally, there was a consistent theme of internal motivation in the responses, suggesting students perceive their quantitative training to be valuable beyond their personal interest in the topic. Recommendations for Practitioners: Quantitative methods instructors should emphasize practice in their quantitative courses and consider providing additional support for students through the inclusion of lab sections, tutoring, and/or differentiation. Pre-testing statistical ability at the start of a course is also suggested to better meet student needs. Impact on Society: The ultimate goal of quantitative methods in doctoral education is to produce high-quality educational researchers who are prepared to apply their knowledge to problems and research in education. Results of the present study can inform faculty and administrator decisions in doctoral education to best support this goal. Future Research: Using the student perspectives presented in the present study, future researchers should continue to explore effective instructional strategies and curriculum design within education doctoral programs. The inclusion of student voice can strengthen

  6. Assessment of cognitive bias in decision-making and leadership styles among critical care nurses: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean Keng, Soon; AlQudah, Hani Nawaf Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    To raise awareness of critical care nurses' cognitive bias in decision-making, its relationship with leadership styles and its impact on care delivery. The relationship between critical care nurses' decision-making and leadership styles in hospitals has been widely studied, but the influence of cognitive bias on decision-making and leadership styles in critical care environments remains poorly understood, particularly in Jordan. Two-phase mixed methods sequential explanatory design and grounded theory. critical care unit, Prince Hamza Hospital, Jordan. Participant sampling: convenience sampling Phase 1 (quantitative, n = 96), purposive sampling Phase 2 (qualitative, n = 20). Pilot tested quantitative survey of 96 critical care nurses in 2012. Qualitative in-depth interviews, informed by quantitative results, with 20 critical care nurses in 2013. Descriptive and simple linear regression quantitative data analyses. Thematic (constant comparative) qualitative data analysis. Quantitative - correlations found between rationality and cognitive bias, rationality and task-oriented leadership styles, cognitive bias and democratic communication styles and cognitive bias and task-oriented leadership styles. Qualitative - 'being competent', 'organizational structures', 'feeling self-confident' and 'being supported' in the work environment identified as key factors influencing critical care nurses' cognitive bias in decision-making and leadership styles. Two-way impact (strengthening and weakening) of cognitive bias in decision-making and leadership styles on critical care nurses' practice performance. There is a need to heighten critical care nurses' consciousness of cognitive bias in decision-making and leadership styles and its impact and to develop organization-level strategies to increase non-biased decision-making. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers’ motivation for using classroom-based physical activity: study protocol for a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of physical activity for children’s health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers’ views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers’ motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. Methods and analysis The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases—a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers’ motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers’ internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers’ motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. Ethics and dissemination All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000–40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. Trial

  8. Understanding and scaffolding Danish schoolteachers' motivation for using classroom-based physical activity: study protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Louise Stjerne; Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers' views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers' motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers' internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers' motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000-40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. NCT02894346; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  9. Developing a Web Platform to Support a Community of Practice: A Mixed Methods Study in Pediatric Physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Gabrielle; Hurtubise, Karen; Rivard, Lisa; Berbari, Jade; Camden, Chantal

    2018-01-01

    Web platforms are increasingly used to support virtual interactions between members of communities of practice (CoP). However, little is known about how to develop these platforms to support the implementation of best practices for health care professionals. The aim of this article is to explore pediatric physiotherapists' (PTs) perspectives regarding the utility and usability of the characteristic of a web platform developed to support virtual communities of practice (vCoP). This study adopted an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. A web platform supporting the interactions of vCoP members was developed for PTs working with children with developmental coordination disorder. Specific strategies and features were created to support the effectiveness of the platform across three domains: social, information-quality, and system-quality factors. Quantitative data were collected from a cross-sectional survey (n = 41) after 5 months of access to the web platform. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Qualitative data were also collected from semistructured interviews (n = 9), which were coded, interpreted, and analyzed by using Boucher's Web Ergonomics Conceptual Framework. The utility of web platform characteristics targeting the three key domain factors were generally perceived positively by PTs. However, web platform usability issues were noted by PTs, including problems with navigation and information retrieval. Web platform aiming to support vCoP should be carefully developed to target potential users' needs. Whenever possible, users should co-construct the web platform with vCoP developers. Moreover, each of the developed characteristics (eg, newsletter, search function) should be evaluated in terms of utility and usability for the users.

  10. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2017-10-10

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  11. Clinical evaluation of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis

    2012-01-01

    In this study clinically relevant ultrasound images generated with synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is compared to images generated with a conventional technique. The advantage of SASB is the ability to produce high resolution ultrasound images with a high frame rate and at the same...... time massively reduce the amount of generated data. SASB was implemented in a system consisting of a conventional ultrasound scanner connected to a PC via a research interface. This setup enables simultaneous recording with both SASB and conventional technique. Eighteen volunteers were ultrasound...... scanned abdominally, and 84 sequence pairs were recorded. Each sequence pair consists of two simultaneous recordings of the same anatomical location with SASB and conventional B-mode imaging. The images were evaluated in terms of spatial resolution, contrast, unwanted artifacts, and penetration depth...

  12. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  13. Gleason-Busch theorem for sequential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Kieran; Barnett, Stephen M.; Croke, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Gleason's theorem is a statement that, given some reasonable assumptions, the Born rule used to calculate probabilities in quantum mechanics is essentially unique [A. M. Gleason, Indiana Univ. Math. J. 6, 885 (1957), 10.1512/iumj.1957.6.56050]. We show that Gleason's theorem contains within it also the structure of sequential measurements, and along with this the state update rule. We give a small set of axioms, which are physically motivated and analogous to those in Busch's proof of Gleason's theorem [P. Busch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 120403 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.120403], from which the familiar Kraus operator form follows. An axiomatic approach has practical relevance as well as fundamental interest, in making clear those assumptions which underlie the security of quantum communication protocols. Interestingly, the two-time formalism is seen to arise naturally in this approach.

  14. Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.

  15. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  16. Sequential Acral Lentiginous Melanomas of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Uehara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old Japanese woman had a lightly brown-blackish pigmented macule (1.2 cm in diameter on the left sole of her foot. She received surgical excision following a diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM, which was confirmed histopathologically. One month after the operation, a second melanoma lesion was noticed adjacent to the grafted site. Histopathologically, the two lesions had no continuity, but HMB-45 and cyclin D1 double-positive cells were detected not only on aggregates of atypical melanocytes but also on single cells near the cutting edge of the first lesion. The unique occurrence of a sequential lesion of a primary melanoma might be caused by stimulated subclinical field cells during the wound healing process following the initial operation. This case warrants further investigation to establish the appropriate surgical margin of ALM lesions.

  17. Dancing Twins: Stellar Hierarchies That Formed Sequentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2018-04-01

    This paper draws attention to the class of resolved triple stars with moderate ratios of inner and outer periods (possibly in a mean motion resonance) and nearly circular, mutually aligned orbits. Moreover, stars in the inner pair are twins with almost identical masses, while the mass sum of the inner pair is comparable to the mass of the outer component. Such systems could be formed either sequentially (inside-out) by disk fragmentation with subsequent accretion and migration, or by a cascade hierarchical fragmentation of a rotating cloud. Orbits of the outer and inner subsystems are computed or updated in four such hierarchies: LHS 1070 (GJ 2005, periods 77.6 and 17.25 years), HIP 9497 (80 and 14.4 years), HIP 25240 (1200 and 47.0 years), and HIP 78842 (131 and 10.5 years).

  18. Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay

    2016-01-05

    Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.

  19. Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford R Hirsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network's Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our thought process in approaching sequential therapy of mRCC and the use of real-world data to inform our approach. We also highlight the evolving literature that will impact practicing oncologists in the near future.

  20. Microstructure history effect during sequential thermomechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassar, Reza S.; Murphy, John; Burton, Christina; Horstemeyer, Mark F.; El kadiri, Haitham; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2008-01-01

    The key to modeling the material processing behavior is the linking of the microstructure evolution to its processing history. This paper quantifies various microstructural features of an aluminum automotive alloy that undergoes sequential thermomechanical processing which is comprised hot rolling of a 150-mm billet to a 75-mm billet, rolling to 3 mm, annealing, and then cold rolling to a 0.8-mm thickness sheet. The microstructural content was characterized by means of electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results clearly demonstrate the evolution of precipitate morphologies, dislocation structures, and grain orientation distributions. These data can be used to improve material models that claim to capture the history effects of the processing materials

  1. Prosody and alignment: a sequential perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepek Reed, Beatrice

    2010-12-01

    In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes and positive emotions. Lack of prosodic matching, and other specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as features of unsuccessful interactions, and negative emotions. This forum focuses on the article's analysis of the relation between interpersonal alignment, emotion and prosody. It argues that prosodic matching, and other prosodic linking practices, play a primarily sequential role, i.e. one that displays the way in which participants place and design their turns in relation to other participants' turns. Prosodic matching, rather than being a conversational action in itself, is argued to be an interactional practice (Schegloff 1997), which is not always employed for the accomplishment of `positive', or aligning actions.

  2. Monitoring sequential electron transfer with EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurnauer, M.C.; Feezel, L.L.; Snyder, S.W.; Tang, J.; Norris, J.R.; Morris, A.L.; Rustandi, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    A completely general model which treats electron spin polarization (ESP) found in a system in which radical pairs with different magnetic interactions are formed sequentially has been described. This treatment has been applied specifically to the ESP found in the bacterial reaction center. Test cases show clearly how parameters such as structure, lifetime, and magnetic interactions within the successive radical pairs affect the ESP, and demonstrate that previous treatments of this problem have been incomplete. The photosynthetic bacterial reaction center protein is an ideal system for testing the general model of ESP. The radical pair which exhibits ESP, P 870 + Q - (P 870 + is the oxidized, primary electron donor, a bacteriochlorophyll special pair and Q - is the reduced, primary quinone acceptor) is formed via sequential electron transport through the intermediary radical pair P 870 + I - (I - is the reduced, intermediary electron acceptor, a bacteriopheophytin). In addition, it is possible to experimentally vary most of the important parameters, such as the lifetime of the intermediary radical pair and the magnetic interactions in each pair. It has been shown how selective isotopic substitution ( 1 H or 2 H) on P 870 , I and Q affects the ESP of the EPR spectrum of P 870 + Q - , observed at two different microwave frequencies, in Fe 2+ -depleted bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26. Thus, the relative magnitudes of the magnetic properties (nuclear hyperfine and g-factor differences) which influence ESP development were varied. The results support the general model of ESP in that they suggest that the P 870 + Q - radical pair interactions are the dominant source of ESP production in 2 H bacterial reaction centers

  3. The Bible for children in a postmodern context: How do children form explanatory concepts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette H. Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A previous paper on methodological considerations in interpreting the Bible for childrenexplored the problem of the cognitive gap between biblical interpreter and child. Thisresearch is a follow-up as a result of recognition of necessary adjustments in the way that childevangelism is usually approached (via �original sin�. In our current context of postmodernism,the manner and consequences of biblical knowledge transfer between adult and child needto be explored. Recent research suggests that children are sensitive to the underlying causalstructure of the world and seek to form new causal representations at a much earlier age thanwe had previously supposed. �Intellectualists� in the anthropology of religion hold that religionis primarily concerned with providing explanatory theories, thus indicating that childrenneed help to achieve coherence between biblical and scientific views on creation. This articlepresents the rationale for an early intervention to avoid the cognitive dissonance that oftenarises as children grow up and find a lack of coherence between their early evangelisationand the latest scientific discoveries. To test this hypothesis a multilingual illustrated bookletin English, Afrikaans and isiXhosa was designed to be individually read by parents in eachlanguage group to their own 5�8-year-old children. Children�s Bible stories have alwaysbeen �pretexts for passing along values� and this booklet is no different. The purpose of thebooklet was to lay a foundation for children to find Christianity relevant even in the multiculturalcontext of vast scientific and technological advances. The subjects� responsivenesswas recorded by video camera, and afterwards the parents were individually interviewed andasked to assess the child�s level of interest and to comment on the booklet. Results of this pilotstudy indicated that the booklet was well received.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In today

  4. Parents' and speech and language therapists' explanatory models of language development, language delay and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Phillips, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Parental and speech and language therapist (SLT) explanatory models may affect engagement with speech and language therapy, but there has been dearth of research in this area. This study investigated parents' and SLTs' views about language development, delay and intervention in pre-school children with language delay. The aims were to describe, explore and explain the thoughts, understandings, perceptions, beliefs, knowledge and feelings held by: a group of parents from East Manchester, UK, whose pre-school children had been referred with suspected language delay; and SLTs working in the same area, in relation to language development, language delay and language intervention. A total of 24 unstructured interviews were carried out: 15 with parents whose children had been referred for speech and language therapy and nine with SLTs who worked with pre-school children. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using Atlas/ti. The data were analysed, subjected to respondent validation, and grounded theories and principled descriptions developed to explain and describe parents' and SLTs' beliefs and views. Parent and SLT data are presented separately. There are commonalities and differences between the parents and the SLTs. Both groups believe that language development and delay are influenced by both external and internal factors. Parents give more weight to the role of gender, imitation and personality and value television and videos, whereas the SLTs value the 'right environment' and listening skills and consider that health/disability and socio-economic factors are important. Parents see themselves as experts on their child and have varied ideas about the role of SLTs, which do not always accord with SLTs' views. The parents and SLTs differ in their views of the roles of imitation and play in intervention. Parents typically try strategies before seeing an SLT. These data suggest that parents' ideas vary and that, although parents and SLTs may share some

  5. Campbell and moment measures for finite sequential spatial processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe define moment and Campbell measures for sequential spatial processes, prove a Campbell-Mecke theorem, and relate the results to their counterparts in the theory of point processes. In particular, we show that any finite sequential spatial process model can be derived as the vector

  6. Simultaneous versus sequential penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken; Hayashi, Hideyuki

    2006-10-01

    To compare the surgical outcomes of simultaneous penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery with those of sequential surgery. Thirty-nine eyes of 39 patients scheduled for simultaneous keratoplasty and cataract surgery and 23 eyes of 23 patients scheduled for sequential keratoplasty and secondary phacoemulsification surgery were recruited. Refractive error, regular and irregular corneal astigmatism determined by Fourier analysis, and endothelial cell loss were studied at 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after combined surgery in the simultaneous surgery group or after subsequent phacoemulsification surgery in the sequential surgery group. At 3 and more months after surgery, mean refractive error was significantly greater in the simultaneous surgery group than in the sequential surgery group, although no difference was seen at 1 week. The refractive error at 12 months was within 2 D of that targeted in 15 eyes (39%) in the simultaneous surgery group and within 2 D in 16 eyes (70%) in the sequential surgery group; the incidence was significantly greater in the sequential group (P = 0.0344). The regular and irregular astigmatism was not significantly different between the groups at 3 and more months after surgery. No significant difference was also found in the percentage of endothelial cell loss between the groups. Although corneal astigmatism and endothelial cell loss were not different, refractive error from target refraction was greater after simultaneous keratoplasty and cataract surgery than after sequential surgery, indicating a better outcome after sequential surgery than after simultaneous surgery.

  7. Reading Remediation Based on Sequential and Simultaneous Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnison, Judy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The theory postulating a dichotomy between sequential and simultaneous processing is reviewed and its implications for remediating reading problems are reviewed. Research is cited on sequential-simultaneous processing for early and advanced reading. A list of remedial strategies based on the processing dichotomy addresses decoding and lexical…

  8. Induction of simultaneous and sequential malolactic fermentation in durian wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniasuri, Fransisca; Lee, Pin-Rou; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-08-02

    This study represented for the first time the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) induced by Oenococcus oeni and its inoculation strategies (simultaneous vs. sequential) on the fermentation performance as well as aroma compound profile of durian wine. There was no negative impact of simultaneous inoculation of O. oeni and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth and fermentation kinetics of S. cerevisiae as compared to sequential fermentation. Simultaneous MLF did not lead to an excessive increase in volatile acidity as compared to sequential MLF. The kinetic changes of organic acids (i.e. malic, lactic, succinic, acetic and α-ketoglutaric acids) varied with simultaneous and sequential MLF relative to yeast alone. MLF, regardless of inoculation mode, resulted in higher production of fermentation-derived volatiles as compared to control (alcoholic fermentation only), including esters, volatile fatty acids, and terpenes, except for higher alcohols. Most indigenous volatile sulphur compounds in durian were decreased to trace levels with little differences among the control, simultaneous and sequential MLF. Among the different wines, the wine with simultaneous MLF had higher concentrations of terpenes and acetate esters while sequential MLF had increased concentrations of medium- and long-chain ethyl esters. Relative to alcoholic fermentation only, both simultaneous and sequential MLF reduced acetaldehyde substantially with sequential MLF being more effective. These findings illustrate that MLF is an effective and novel way of modulating the volatile and aroma compound profile of durian wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential

  10. Dynamics-based sequential memory: Winnerless competition of patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliger, Philip; Tsimring, Lev S.; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a biologically motivated dynamical principle of sequential memory which is based on winnerless competition (WLC) of event images. This mechanism is implemented in a two-layer neural model of sequential spatial memory. We present the learning dynamics which leads to the formation of a WLC network. After learning, the system is capable of associative retrieval of prerecorded sequences of patterns

  11. Sequential, progressive, equal-power, reflective beam-splitter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Paul K.

    2017-11-01

    The equations to calculate equal-power reflectivity of a sequential series of beam splitters is presented. Non-sequential optical design examples are offered for uniform illumination using diode lasers. Objects created using Boolean operators and Swept Surfaces can create objects capable of reflecting light into predefined elevation and azimuth angles. Analysis of the illumination patterns for the array are also presented.

  12. The sequential price of anarchy for atomic congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jasper; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Liu, Tie-Yan; Qi, Qi; Ye, Yinyu

    2014-01-01

    In situations without central coordination, the price of anarchy relates the quality of any Nash equilibrium to the quality of a global optimum. Instead of assuming that all players choose their actions simultaneously, we consider games where players choose their actions sequentially. The sequential

  13. Quantum Probability Zero-One Law for Sequential Terminal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Wulf

    1980-07-01

    On the basis of the Jauch-Piron quantum probability calculus a zero-one law for sequential terminal events is proven, and the significance of certain crucial axioms in the quantum probability calculus is discussed. The result shows that the Jauch-Piron set of axioms is appropriate for the non-Boolean algebra of sequential events.

  14. Lineup Composition, Suspect Position, and the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curt A.; Gronlund, Scott D.; Clark, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate…

  15. Accounting for Heterogeneous Returns in Sequential Schooling Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamarro, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating returns to schooling that takes into account that returns may be heterogeneous among agents and that educational decisions are made sequentially.A sequential decision model is interesting because it explicitly considers that the level of education of each

  16. Organizational supports used by private child and family serving agencies to facilitate evidence use: a mixed methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen

    2017-04-08

    Challenges to evidence use are well documented. Less well understood are the formal supports-e.g., technical infrastructure, inter-organizational relationships-organizations may put in place to help overcome these challenges. This study will identify supports for evidence use currently used by private child and family serving agencies delivering publicly funded behavioral health and/or human services; examine contextual, organizational, and managerial factors associated with use of such supports; and determine how identified supports affect evidence use by staff at multiple levels of the organization. We will use a sequential explanatory mixed methods design, with study activities occurring in two sequential phases: In phase 1, quantitative survey data collected from managers of private child and family serving agencies in six states (CA, IN, KY, MO, PA, and WI) and analyzed using both regression and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) will identify organizational supports currently being used to facilitate evidence use and examine the contextual, organizational, and managerial factors associated with the use of such supports. In phase 2, data from phase 1 will be used to select a purposive sample of 12 agencies for in-depth case studies. In those 12 agencies, semi-structured interviews with key informants and managers, focus groups with frontline staff, and document analysis will provide further insight into agencies' motivation for investing in organizational supports for evidence use and the facilitators and barriers encountered in doing so. Semi-structured interviews with managers and focus groups with frontline staff will also assess whether and how identified supports affect evidence use at different levels of the organization (senior executives, middle managers, frontline supervisors, and frontline staff). Within- and between-case analyses supplemented by QCA will identify combinations of factors associated with the highest and lowest levels of staff

  17. Mixed Emotions and Coping: The Benefits of Secondary Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniecka, Anna; Trzebińska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461

  18. Conveyor belt biomantles: Centripetal bioturbation coupled with erosional downwasting -- an explanatory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Johnson, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Science advances on the strength of clarifying and unifying concepts, models, and methodologies that enhance and expand our explanatory paradigms. If valid, such structures allow us to accurately understand and appreciate how the world works. To aid in this task, new term-concepts must sometimes be coined and formalized. To understand certain ubiquitously occurring -- though as yet un-conceptualized -- surface processes that operate non-stop, and assessing their efficacies, is a desirable goal in landscape evolution studies. All near-surface processes are, of course, biological, chemical, and or physical in nature, and many if not most operate in combination. But of this triumvirate, biological processes, both biochemical and biomechanical (bioturbations), are perhaps least understood. Combinations of ubiquitously and semi-continuously occurring poorly understood processes that are both obscure and yet obvious have collectively produced Earth's biomantle. The biomantle occupies the uppermost Pedosphere, is a planet-wide layer, and unique to Earth. It thus functions as the biogenically habitable interface between the Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphere, and Lithosphere. The biomantle is defined as the organic-bearing bioturbated upper part of soil, including the topsoil, and of subaqueous substrates (lake, stream, ocean floor sediments) where most biota live, operate, move, wriggle, rest, sleep, estivate, seek food, eat, compete, fight, hide, reproduce, die, and assimilate. Its position and function in the uppermost soil layer of the Critical Zone must modulate and mediate much or most of what takes place above and below in ways yet to be established. In an attempt to increase understanding of this complicated biodynamic pedomembrane, and to identify the main processes that produce it, we present an iterative process model that pits ongoing cyclic bioturbation driven constructional processes against ongoing cyclic physically driven destructional processes. More

  19. Determination of uranium and plutonium by sequential potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Masao

    1976-01-01

    The determination of uranium and plutonium in mixed oxide fuels has been developed by sequential potentiometric titration. A weighed sample of uranium and plutonium oxides is dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids and the solution is fumed with sulfuric acid. After the reduction of uranium and plutonium to uranium(IV) and plutonium(III) by chromium(II) sulfate, 5 ml of buffer solution (KCl-HCl, pH 1.0) is added to the solution. Then the solution is diluted to 30 ml with water and the pH of the solution is adjusted to 1.0 -- 1.5 with 1 M sodium hydroxide. The solution is stirred until the oxidation of the excess of chromium(II) by air is completed. After the removal of dissolved oxygen by bubbling nitrogen through the solution for 10 minutes, uranium (IV) is titrated with 0.1 N cerium(IV) sulfate. Then, plutonium is titrated by 0.02 N cerium(IV) sulfate. When a mixture of uranium and plutonium is titrated with 0.1 N potassium dichromate potentiometrically, the potential change at the end point of plutonium is very small and the end point of uranium is also unclear when 0.1 N potassium permanganate is used as a titrant. In the present method, nitrate, fluoride and copper(II) interfere with the determination of plutonium and uranium. Iron interferes quantitatively with the determination of plutonium but not of uranium. Results obtained in applying the proposed method to 50 mg of mixtures of plutonium and uranium ((7.5 -- 50))% Pu were accurate to within 0.15 mg of each element. (auth.)

  20. Constrained treatment planning using sequential beam selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woudstra, E.; Storchi, P.R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is described for automated treatment plan generation. The algorithm aims at delivery of the prescribed dose to the target volume without violation of constraints for target, organs at risk and the surrounding normal tissue. Pre-calculated dose distributions for all candidate orientations are used as input. Treatment beams are selected in a sequential way. A score function designed for beam selection is used for the simultaneous selection of beam orientations and weights. In order to determine the optimum choice for the orientation and the corresponding weight of each new beam, the score function is first redefined to account for the dose distribution of the previously selected beams. Addition of more beams to the plan is stopped when the target dose is reached or when no additional dose can be delivered without violating a constraint. In the latter case the score function is modified by importance factor changes to enforce better sparing of the organ with the limiting constraint and the algorithm is run again. (author)

  1. The Origin of Sequential Chromospheric Brightenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M. S.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Jackiewicz, J.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2017-06-01

    Sequential chromospheric brightenings (SCBs) are often observed in the immediate vicinity of erupting flares and are associated with coronal mass ejections. Since their initial discovery in 2005, there have been several subsequent investigations of SCBs. These studies have used differing detection and analysis techniques, making it difficult to compare results between studies. This work employs the automated detection algorithm of Kirk et al. (Solar Phys. 283, 97, 2013) to extract the physical characteristics of SCBs in 11 flares of varying size and intensity. We demonstrate that the magnetic substructure within the SCB appears to have a significantly smaller area than the corresponding Hα emission. We conclude that SCBs originate in the lower corona around 0.1 R_{⊙} above the photosphere, propagate away from the flare center at speeds of 35 - 85 km s^{-1}, and have peak photosphere magnetic intensities of 148±2.9 G. In light of these measurements, we infer SCBs to be distinctive chromospheric signatures of erupting coronal mass ejections.

  2. Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2014-05-01

    Due to their ability to provide high data rates, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become increasingly popular. Decoding of these systems with acceptable error performance is computationally very demanding. In this paper, we employ the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity and vice versa for higher bias values. Numerical results are done that show moderate bias values result in a decent performance-complexity trade-off. We also attempt to bound the error by bounding the bias, using the minimum distance of a lattice. The variations in complexity with SNR have an interesting trend that shows room for considerable improvement. Our work is compared against linear decoders (LDs) aided with Element-based Lattice Reduction (ELR) and Complex Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz (CLLL) reduction. © 2014 IFIP.

  3. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schöbel

    Full Text Available People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  4. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

  5. Sequential acquisition of mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makishima, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in next-generation sequencing technologies allows us to discover frequent mutations throughout the coding regions of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), potentially providing us with virtually a complete spectrum of driver mutations in this disease. As shown by many study groups these days, such driver mutations are acquired in a gene-specific fashion. For instance, DDX41 mutations are observed in germline cells long before MDS presentation. In blood samples from healthy elderly individuals, somatic DNMT3A and TET2 mutations are detected as age-related clonal hematopoiesis and are believed to be a risk factor for hematological neoplasms. In MDS, mutations of genes such as NRAS and FLT3, designated as Type-1 genes, may be significantly associated with leukemic evolution. Another type (Type-2) of genes, including RUNX1 and GATA2, are related to progression from low-risk to high-risk MDS. Overall, various driver mutations are sequentially acquired in MDS, at a specific time, in either germline cells, normal hematopoietic cells, or clonal MDS cells.

  6. Building a Lego wall: Sequential action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amy; Wing, Alan M; Rotshtein, Pia

    2017-05-01

    The present study draws together two distinct lines of enquiry into the selection and control of sequential action: motor sequence production and action selection in everyday tasks. Participants were asked to build 2 different Lego walls. The walls were designed to have hierarchical structures with shared and dissociated colors and spatial components. Participants built 1 wall at a time, under low and high load cognitive states. Selection times for correctly completed trials were measured using 3-dimensional motion tracking. The paradigm enabled precise measurement of the timing of actions, while using real objects to create an end product. The experiment demonstrated that action selection was slowed at decision boundary points, relative to boundaries where no between-wall decision was required. Decision points also affected selection time prior to the actual selection window. Dual-task conditions increased selection errors. Errors mostly occurred at boundaries between chunks and especially when these required decisions. The data support hierarchical control of sequenced behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  8. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  9. Explanatory Variables Associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli Concentrations on Broiler Chicken Carcasses during Processing in Two Slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Lipman, Len J A; Havelaar, Arie H

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover, information on batch characteristics, slaughterhouse practices, process performance, and environmental variables was collected through questionnaires, observations, and measurements, resulting in data on 19 potential explanatory variables. Analysis was conducted separately in each slaughterhouse to identify which variables were related to changes in concentrations of Campylobacter and E. coli during the processing steps: scalding, defeathering, evisceration, and chilling. Associations with explanatory variables were different in the slaughterhouses studied. In the first slaughterhouse, there was only one significant association: poorer uniformity of the weight of carcasses within a batch with less decrease in E. coli concentrations after defeathering. In the second slaughterhouse, significant statistical associations were found with variables, including age, uniformity, average weight of carcasses, Campylobacter concentrations in excreta and ceca, and E. coli concentrations in excreta. Bacterial concentrations in excreta and ceca were found to be the most prominent variables, because they were associated with concentration on carcasses at various processing points. Although the slaughterhouses produced specific products and had different batch characteristics and processing parameters, the effect of the significant variables was not always the same for each slaughterhouse. Therefore, each slaughterhouse needs to determine its particular relevant measures for hygiene control and process management. This identification could be supported by monitoring changes in bacterial concentrations during processing in individual slaughterhouses. In addition, the possibility that management

  10. Environmental, morphological, and productive characterization of Sardinian goats and use of latent explanatory factors for population analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, G M; Paschino, P; Dettori, M L; Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Pazzola, M

    2016-09-01

    Dairy goat farming is practiced worldwide, within a range of different farming systems. Here we investigated the effects of environmental factors and morphology on milk traits of the Sardinian goat population. Sardinian goats are currently reared in Sardinia (Italy) in a low-input context, similar to many goat farming systems, especially in developing countries. Milk and morphological traits from 1,050 Sardinian goats from 42 farms were recorded. We observed a high variability regarding morphological traits, such as coat color, ear length and direction, horn presence, and udder shape. Such variability derived partly from the unplanned repeated crossbreeding of the native Sardinian goats with exotic breeds, especially Maltese goats. The farms located in the mountains were characterized by the traditional farming system and the lowest percentage of crossbred goats. Explanatory factors analysis was used to summarize the interrelated measured milk variables. The explanatory factor related to fat, protein, and energy content of milk (the "Quality" latent variable) explained about 30% of the variance of the whole data set of measured milk traits followed by the "Hygiene" (19%), "Production" (19%), and "Acidity" (11%) factors. The "Quality" and "Hygiene" factors were not affected by any of the farm classification items, whereas "Production" and "Acidity" were affected only by altitude and size of herds, respectively, indicating the adaptation of the local goat population to different environmental conditions. The use of latent explanatory factor analysis allowed us to clearly explain the large variability of milk traits, revealing that the Sardinian goat population cannot be divided into subpopulations based on milk attitude The factors, properly integrated with genetic data, may be useful tools in future selection programs.

  11. A comparison of the physical and anthropometric qualities explanatory of talent in the elite junior Australian football development pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Cripps, Ashley; Hopper, Luke; Joyce, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    To compare the physical and anthropometric qualities explanatory of talent at two developmental levels in junior Australian football (AF). Cross-sectional observational. From a total of 134 juniors, two developmental levels were categorised; U16 (n=50; 15.6±0.3 y), U18 (n=84; 17.4±0.5 y). Within these levels, two groups were a priori defined; talent identified (U16; n=25; 15.7±0.2 y; U18 n=42; 17.5±0.4 y), non-talent identified (U16; n=25; 15.6±0.4 y; U18; n=42; 17.3±0.6 y). Players completed seven physical and anthropometric assessments commonly utilised for talent identification in AF. Binary logistic regression models were built to identify the qualities most explanatory of talent at each level. A combination of standing height, dominant leg dynamic vertical jump height and 20m sprint time provided the most parsimonious explanation of talent at the U16 level (AICc=60.05). At the U18 level, it was a combination of body mass and 20m sprint time that provided the most parsimonious explanation of talent (AICc=111.27). Despite similarities, there appears to be distinctive differences in physical and anthropometric qualities explanatory of talent at the U16 and U18 level. Coaches may view physical and anthropometric qualities more (or less) favourably at different levels of the AF developmental pathway. Given these results, future work should implement a longitudinal design, as physical and/or anthropometric qualities may deteriorate (or emerge) as junior AF players develop. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  12. Unravelling the spirits’ message: a study of help-seeking steps and explanatory models among patients suffering from spirit possession in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As in many cultures, also in Uganda spirit possession is a common idiom of distress associated with traumatic experiences. In the DSM-IV and -5, possession trance disorders can be classified as dissociative disorders. Dissociation in Western countries is associated with complicated, time-consuming and costly therapies. Patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda, however, often report partial or full recovery after treatment by traditional healers. The aim of this study is to explore how the development of symptoms concomitant help-seeking steps, and explanatory models (EM) eventually contributed to healing of patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda. Illness narratives of 119 patients with spirit possession referred by traditional healers were analysed using a mixed-method approach. Treatments of two-thirds of the patients were unsuccessful when first seeking help in the medical sector. Their initially physical symptoms subsequently developed into dissociative possession symptoms. After an average of two help-seeking steps, patients reached a healing place where 99% of them found satisfactory EM and effective healing. During healing sessions, possessing agents were summoned to identify themselves and underlying problems were addressed. Often-mentioned explanations were the following: neglect of rituals and of responsibilities towards relatives and inheritance, the call to become a healer, witchcraft, grief, and land conflicts. The results demonstrate that traditional healing processes of spirit possession can play a role in restoring connections with the supra-, inter-, intra-, and extra-human worlds. It does not always seem necessary to address individual traumatic experiences per se, which is in line with other research in this field. The study leads to additional perspectives on treatment of trauma-related dissociation in Western countries and on developing effective mental health services in low -and middle-income countries. PMID:24940355

  13. Unravelling the spirits' message: a study of help-seeking steps and explanatory models among patients suffering from spirit possession in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijl, Marjolein; Kleijn, Wim; de Jong, Joop

    2014-01-01

    As in many cultures, also in Uganda spirit possession is a common idiom of distress associated with traumatic experiences. In the DSM-IV and -5, possession trance disorders can be classified as dissociative disorders. Dissociation in Western countries is associated with complicated, time-consuming and costly therapies. Patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda, however, often report partial or full recovery after treatment by traditional healers. The aim of this study is to explore how the development of symptoms concomitant help-seeking steps, and explanatory models (EM) eventually contributed to healing of patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda. Illness narratives of 119 patients with spirit possession referred by traditional healers were analysed using a mixed-method approach. Treatments of two-thirds of the patients were unsuccessful when first seeking help in the medical sector. Their initially physical symptoms subsequently developed into dissociative possession symptoms. After an average of two help-seeking steps, patients reached a healing place where 99% of them found satisfactory EM and effective healing. During healing sessions, possessing agents were summoned to identify themselves and underlying problems were addressed. Often-mentioned explanations were the following: neglect of rituals and of responsibilities towards relatives and inheritance, the call to become a healer, witchcraft, grief, and land conflicts. The results demonstrate that traditional healing processes of spirit possession can play a role in restoring connections with the supra-, inter-, intra-, and extra-human worlds. It does not always seem necessary to address individual traumatic experiences per se, which is in line with other research in this field. The study leads to additional perspectives on treatment of trauma-related dissociation in Western countries and on developing effective mental health services in low -and middle-income countries.

  14. The explanatory role of relationship power and control in domestic violence against women in Nicaragua: a feminist psychology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

    2014-08-01

    This study offers a feminist psychology analysis of various aspects of relationship power and control and their relative explanatory contribution to understanding physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women. Findings from structured interviews with 345 women from rural Nicaragua (M age = 44) overwhelmingly demonstrate that measures of power and control reflecting interpersonal relationship dynamics have the strongest predictive power for explaining violence when compared in multivariate analyses to several of the more commonly used measures. These findings have implications for future research and the evaluation of interventions designed to decrease levels of violence against women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Notions such as "truth" or "correspondence to the objective world" play no role in explanatory accounts of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausfeld, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (Psychonomic Review and Bulletin, 2015, in press) intend to show that perceptions are evolutionarily tuned to fitness rather than to truth. I argue, partly in accordance with their objective, that issues of 'truth' or 'veridicality' have no place in explanatory accounts of perception theory, and rather belong to either ordinary discourse or to philosophy. I regard, however, their general presumption that the evolutionary development of core achievements of the human perceptual system would be primarily determined by aspects of fitness and adaption as unwarranted in light of the evidence available.

  16. A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G.; Boyd, Stephen J.; Kopak, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies. PMID:22167325

  17. Comparison of ablation centration after bilateral sequential versus simultaneous LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jane-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Yu

    2005-01-01

    To compare ablation centration after bilateral sequential and simultaneous myopic LASIK. A retrospective randomized case series was performed of 670 eyes of 335 consecutive patients who had undergone either bilateral sequential (group 1) or simultaneous (group 2) myopic LASIK between July 2000 and July 2001 at the China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. The ablation centrations of the first and second eyes in the two groups were compared 3 months postoperatively. Of 670 eyes, 274 eyes (137 patients) comprised the sequential group and 396 eyes (198 patients) comprised the simultaneous group. Three months post-operatively, 220 eyes of 110 patients (80%) in the sequential group and 236 eyes of 118 patients (60%) in the simultaneous group provided topographic data for centration analysis. For the first eyes, mean decentration was 0.39 +/- 0.26 mm in the sequential group and 0.41 +/- 0.19 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .30). For the second eyes, mean decentration was 0.28 +/- 0.23 mm in the sequential group and 0.30 +/- 0.21 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .36). Decentration in the second eyes significantly improved in both groups (group 1, P = .02; group 2, P sequential group and 0.32 +/- 0.18 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .33). The difference of ablation center angles between the first and second eyes was 43.2 sequential group and 45.1 +/- 50.8 degrees in the simultaneous group (P = .42). Simultaneous bilateral LASIK is comparable to sequential surgery in ablation centration.

  18. Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the

  19. Analysis of membrane fusion as a two-state sequential process: evaluation of the stalk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Gabriel; Lentz, Barry R

    2007-06-01

    We propose a model that accounts for the time courses of PEG-induced fusion of membrane vesicles of varying lipid compositions and sizes. The model assumes that fusion proceeds from an initial, aggregated vesicle state ((A) membrane contact) through two sequential intermediate states (I(1) and I(2)) and then on to a fusion pore state (FP). Using this model, we interpreted data on the fusion of seven different vesicle systems. We found that the initial aggregated state involved no lipid or content mixing but did produce leakage. The final state (FP) was not leaky. Lipid mixing normally dominated the first intermediate state (I(1)), but content mixing signal was also observed in this state for most systems. The second intermediate state (I(2)) exhibited both lipid and content mixing signals and leakage, and was sometimes the only leaky state. In some systems, the first and second intermediates were indistinguishable and converted directly to the FP state. Having also tested a parallel, two-intermediate model subject to different assumptions about the nature of the intermediates, we conclude that a sequential, two-intermediate model is the simplest model sufficient to describe PEG-mediated fusion in all vesicle systems studied. We conclude as well that a fusion intermediate "state" should not be thought of as a fixed structure (e.g., "stalk" or "transmembrane contact") of uniform properties. Rather, a fusion "state" describes an ensemble of similar structures that can have different mechanical properties. Thus, a "state" can have varying probabilities of having a given functional property such as content mixing, lipid mixing, or leakage. Our data show that the content mixing signal may occur through two processes, one correlated and one not correlated with leakage. Finally, we consider the implications of our results in terms of the "modified stalk" hypothesis for the mechanism of lipid pore formation. We conclude that our results not only support this hypothesis but

  20. Neutrino mass and mixing with discrete symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F; Luhn, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This is a review paper about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of see-saw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mechanisms for flavon vacuum alignment and different model building strategies that have been proposed to generate the reactor angle. We then briefly review grand unified theories (GUTs) and how they may be combined with discrete family symmetry to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing. Finally, we discuss three model examples which combine an SU(5) GUT with the discrete family symmetries A 4 , S 4 and Δ(96). (review article)

  1. Sequential formation of subgroups in OB associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Lada, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    We reconsider the structure and formation of OB association in view of recent radio and infrared observations of the adjacent molecular clouds. As a result of this reexamination, we propose that OB subgroups are formed in a step-by-step process which involves the propagation of ionization (I) and shock (S) fronts through a molecular cloud complex. OB stars formed at the edge of a molecular cloud drive these I-S fronts into the cloud. A layer of dense neutral material accumulates between the I and S fronts and eventually becomes gravitationally unstable. This process is analyzed in detail. Several arguments concerning the temperature and mass of this layer suggest that a new OB subgroup will form. After approximately one-half million years, these stars will emerge from and disrupt the star-forming layer. A new shock will be driven into the remaining molecular cloud and will initiate another cycle of star formation.Several observed properties of OB associations are shown to follow from a sequential star-forming mechanism. These include the spatial separation and systematic differences in age of OB subgroups in a given association, the regularity of subgroup masses, the alignment of subgroups along the galactic plane, and their physical expansion. Detailed observations of ionization fronts, masers, IR sources, and molecular clouds are also in agreement with this model. Finally, this mechanism provides a means of dissipating a molecular cloud and exposing less massive stars (e.g., T Tauri stars) which may have formed ahead of the shock as part of the original cloud collapsed and fragmented

  2. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  3. Large-scale sequential quadratic programming algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldersveld, S.K.

    1992-09-01

    The problem addressed is the general nonlinear programming problem: finding a local minimizer for a nonlinear function subject to a mixture of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The methods studied are in the class of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms, which have previously proved successful for problems of moderate size. Our goal is to devise an SQP algorithm that is applicable to large-scale optimization problems, using sparse data structures and storing less curvature information but maintaining the property of superlinear convergence. The main features are: 1. The use of a quasi-Newton approximation to the reduced Hessian of the Lagrangian function. Only an estimate of the reduced Hessian matrix is required by our algorithm. The impact of not having available the full Hessian approximation is studied and alternative estimates are constructed. 2. The use of a transformation matrix Q. This allows the QP gradient to be computed easily when only the reduced Hessian approximation is maintained. 3. The use of a reduced-gradient form of the basis for the null space of the working set. This choice of basis is more practical than an orthogonal null-space basis for large-scale problems. The continuity condition for this choice is proven. 4. The use of incomplete solutions of quadratic programming subproblems. Certain iterates generated by an active-set method for the QP subproblem are used in place of the QP minimizer to define the search direction for the nonlinear problem. An implementation of the new algorithm has been obtained by modifying the code MINOS. Results and comparisons with MINOS and NPSOL are given for the new algorithm on a set of 92 test problems.

  4. Evaluating medical student engagement during virtual patient simulations: a sequential, mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Allgood, J Aaron; Bay, Curt; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2016-01-16

    Student engagement is an important domain for medical education, however, it is difficult to quantify. The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual patient simulations (VPS) for increasing medical student engagement. Our aims were specifically to investigate how and to what extent the VPS foster student engagement. This study took place at A.T. Still University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (ATSU-SOMA), in the USA. First year medical students (n = 108) worked in teams to complete a series of four in-class virtual patient case studies. Student engagement was measured, defined as flow, interest, and relevance. These dimensions were measured using four data collection instruments: researcher observations, classroom photographs, tutor feedback, and an electronic exit survey. Qualitative data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Triangulation of findings between the four data sources indicate that VPS foster engagement in three facets: 1) Flow. In general, students enjoyed the activities, and were absorbed in the task at hand. 2) Interest. Students demonstrated interest in the activities, as evidenced by enjoyment, active discussion, and humor. Students remarked upon elements that caused cognitive dissonance: excessive text and classroom noise generated by multi-media and peer conversations. 3) Relevance. VPS were relevant, in terms of situational clinical practice, exam preparation, and obtaining concrete feedback on clinical decisions. Researchers successfully introduced a new learning platform into the medical school curriculum. The data collected during this study were also used to improve new learning modules and techniques associated with implementing them in the classroom. Results of this study assert that virtual patient simulations foster engagement in terms of flow, relevance, and interest.

  5. What supports hospital pharmacist prescribing in Scotland? - A mixed methods, exploratory sequential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Kinnear, M; Reid, F; Souter, C; Stewart, D

    2018-05-01

    While approximately half of all qualified hospital pharmacist independent prescribers (PIPs) in Scotland are active prescribers, there are major differences in prescribing activity across geographical areas. This study aimed to explore, through focus groups, interviews and a questionnaire, hospital PIPs' perceptions of factors associated with prescribing activity and to investigate the infrastructure required to better support active prescribing by PIPs. Findings reinforced the perceived positive impact of supportive pharmacy leadership within the organisation, recognition that prescribing is integral to the clinical pharmacist role and a work environment conducive to prescribing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using a Sequential Exploratory Mixed-Method Design to Examine Racial Hyperprivilege in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2011-01-01

    Immediately after the election of a person of color to the presidency, the idea of being "postracial" seeped into the national media, essentially claiming that racism was over. According to this author, however, the United States is far from a "postracial" society. He contends that systemic racism continues to inequitably stratify society in favor…

  7. Analyzing Gender Differences in Black Faculty Marginalization through a Sequential Mixed-Methods Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Jessica C.; Harris, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how researchers can integrate qualitative and quantitative methods to gain a deeper understanding of the prevalence and nature of cultural taxation among black professors. In doing so, they show how the impact of cultural taxation on the experiences of black faculty in the academy is best captured using…

  8. An Efficient System Based On Closed Sequential Patterns for Web Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Utpala Niranjan; R.B.V. Subramanyam; V-Khana

    2010-01-01

    Sequential pattern mining, since its introduction has received considerable attention among the researchers with broad applications. The sequential pattern algorithms generally face problems when mining long sequential patterns or while using very low support threshold. One possible solution of such problems is by mining the closed sequential patterns, which is a condensed representation of sequential patterns. Recently, several researchers have utilized the sequential pattern discovery for d...

  9. “Azúcar y Nervios: Explanatory Models and Treatment Experiences of Hispanics with Diabetes and Depression”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marissa C; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Ell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the explanatory models of depression, perceived relationships between diabetes and depression, and depression treatment experiences of low-income, Spanish-speaking, Hispanics with diabetes and depression. A purposive sample (n =19) was selected from participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Los Angeles, California (US) testing the effectiveness of a health services quality improvement intervention. Four focus groups followed by 10 in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using the methodology of coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison, an analytical strategy rooted in grounded theory. Depression was perceived as a serious condition linked to the accumulation of social stressors. Somatic and anxiety-like symptoms and the cultural idiom of nervios were central themes in low-income Hispanics’ explanatory models of depression. The perceived reciprocal relationships between diabetes and depression highlighted the multiple pathways by which these two illnesses impact each other and support the integration of diabetes and depression treatments. Concerns about depression treatments included fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications. This study provides important insights about the cultural and social dynamics that shape low-income Hispanics’ illness and treatment experiences and support the use of patient-centered approaches to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and depression. PMID:18339466

  10. Understanding the Influence Career Paths Have on Community and Technical College Chief Business Officers' Satisfaction with Their Position: A Mixed Method Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, Carter L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to understand whether a community or technical college chief business officer's career line influenced the lived experience of job satisfaction. This mixed method study was conducted in a two-phase approach using the Explanatory Design: Participant Selection Model variant. An initial quantitative survey was conducted from…

  11. Sequential culture with Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and management of fermentation temperature to improve cherry wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu Yang; Gong, Han Sheng; Zhao, Yu Ping; Liu, Wen Li; Jin, Cheng Wu

    2016-04-01

    There has been limited research on the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts for the production of cherry wines. This work used an autochthonous Torulaspora delbrueckii strain 49 (TD49) in association with a commercial S. cerevisiae RC212 yeast, to investigate the effect of multi-starter culture (sequential inoculation and simultaneous inoculation) and fermentation temperature on the quality of cherry wines. Both TD49 and RC212 proliferated during alcoholic fermentation (AF) under sequential inoculation conditions, whereas in the case of simultaneous inoculation, TD49 increased slowly at first and then declined sharply near the fermentation end. The analytical profile showed that both mixed fermentations produced lower levels of volatile acidy and higher levels of aromatic compounds than those from RC212 mono-culture. During sensory analysis, wines from sequential fermentation obtained the highest score, mainly due to the higher intensity in 'fruity' and 'floral' characters. As for the influence of temperature, a low temperature (20 °C) enhanced TD49 persistence during AF, but the sensory quality decreased anyway; 30 °C resulted in decreases in most measured descriptors. Therefore, 25 °C was selected as the best culture temperature. TD49/RC212 sequential inoculation and fermentation at 25 °C significantly enhanced the cherry wine quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Sequential ensemble-based optimal design for parameter estimation: SEQUENTIAL ENSEMBLE-BASED OPTIMAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA

    2016-10-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been widely used in parameter estimation for hydrological models. The focus of most previous studies was to develop more efficient analysis (estimation) algorithms. On the other hand, it is intuitively understandable that a well-designed sampling (data-collection) strategy should provide more informative measurements and subsequently improve the parameter estimation. In this work, a Sequential Ensemble-based Optimal Design (SEOD) method, coupled with EnKF, information theory and sequential optimal design, is proposed to improve the performance of parameter estimation. Based on the first-order and second-order statistics, different information metrics including the Shannon entropy difference (SD), degrees of freedom for signal (DFS) and relative entropy (RE) are used to design the optimal sampling strategy, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthetic one-dimensional and two-dimensional unsaturated flow case studies. It is shown that the designed sampling strategies can provide more accurate parameter estimation and state prediction compared with conventional sampling strategies. Optimal sampling designs based on various information metrics perform similarly in our cases. The effect of ensemble size on the optimal design is also investigated. Overall, larger ensemble size improves the parameter estimation and convergence of optimal sampling strategy. Although the proposed method is applied to unsaturated flow problems in this study, it can be equally applied in any other hydrological problems.

  13. Further comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulacsy, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1997-05-23

    The Bayesian method for belief updating proposed in Racz (1996) is examined. The interpretation of the belief function introduced therein is found, and the method is compared to the classical binary Sequential Probability Ratio Testing method (SPRT). (author).

  14. Sequential lineups: shift in criterion or decision strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronlund, Scott D

    2004-04-01

    R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985) argued that a sequential lineup enhanced discriminability because it elicited use of an absolute decision strategy. E. B. Ebbesen and H. D. Flowe (2002) argued that a sequential lineup led witnesses to adopt a more conservative response criterion, thereby affecting bias, not discriminability. Height was encoded as absolute (e.g., 6 ft [1.83 m] tall) or relative (e.g., taller than). If a sequential lineup elicited an absolute decision strategy, the principle of transfer-appropriate processing predicted that performance should be best when height was encoded absolutely. Conversely, if a simultaneous lineup elicited a relative decision strategy, performance should be best when height was encoded relatively. The predicted interaction was observed, providing direct evidence for the decision strategies explanation of what happens when witnesses view a sequential lineup.

  15. Relations between the simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses the perturbative treatment of simultaneous and sequential two-nucleon transfer reactions with special regards to the DWBA. As examples the (t,p), (p,t), and (α,d) reactions are considered. (HSI)

  16. Retrieval of sea surface velocities using sequential Ocean Colour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    pended sediment dispersion patterns, in sequential two time lapsed images. .... face advective velocities consists essentially of iden- tifying the ... matrix is time consuming, a significant reduction .... Chauhan, P. 2002 Personal Communication.

  17. Process tomography via sequential measurements on a single quantum system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bassa, H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors utilize a discrete (sequential) measurement protocol to investigate quantum process tomography of a single two-level quantum system, with an unknown initial state, undergoing Rabi oscillations. The ignorance of the dynamical parameters...

  18. Generalized infimum and sequential product of quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan; Sun Xiuhong; Chen Zhengli

    2007-01-01

    The quantum effects for a physical system can be described by the set E(H) of positive operators on a complex Hilbert space H that are bounded above by the identity operator I. For A, B(set-membership sign)E(H), the operation of sequential product A(convolution sign)B=A 1/2 BA 1/2 was proposed as a model for sequential quantum measurements. A nice investigation of properties of the sequential product has been carried over [Gudder, S. and Nagy, G., 'Sequential quantum measurements', J. Math. Phys. 42, 5212 (2001)]. In this note, we extend some results of this reference. In particular, a gap in the proof of Theorem 3.2 in this reference is overcome. In addition, some properties of generalized infimum A sqcap B are studied

  19. Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda.

  20. The impact of eyewitness identifications from simultaneous and sequential lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B

    2007-10-01

    Recent guidelines in the US allow either simultaneous or sequential lineups to be used for eyewitness identification. This paper investigates how potential jurors weight the probative value of the different outcomes from both of these types of lineups. Participants (n=340) were given a description of a case that included some exonerating and some incriminating evidence. There was either a simultaneous or a sequential lineup. Depending on the condition, an eyewitness chose the suspect, chose a filler, or made no identification. The participant had to judge the guilt of the suspect and decide whether to render a guilty verdict. For both simultaneous and sequential lineups an identification had a large effect,increasing the probability of a guilty verdict. There were no reliable effects detected between making no identification and identifying a filler. The effect sizes were similar for simultaneous and sequential lineups. These findings are important for judges and other legal professionals to know for trials involving lineup identifications.

  1. Effect of pulsed dose in simultaneous and sequential irradiation of V-79 cells by 14.8 MeV neutrons and 60Co photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Gould, M.N.; Schell, M.C.; Pearson, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of irradiating V-79 Chinese hamster ovary cells with a mixture of 40% 14.8-MeV neutrons and 60% 60 Co photons with simultaneous or sequential exposures is investigated. Target doses are obtained by irradiating cell samples with 3-minute-long pulses of alternating neutrons and photons (in the sequential case) or with mixed neutrons and photons followed by equal beam-off periods to insure equal total-exposure times for sequenced and simultaneous irradiations. We observe qualitative differences between the survival results under each beam configuration that confirms earlier observations

  2. Concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik

    1995-01-01

    We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder......We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder...

  3. Multichannel, sequential or combined X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florestan, J.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray spectrometer qualities and defects are evaluated for sequential and multichannel categories. Multichannel X-ray spectrometer has time-coherency advantage and its results could be more reproducible; on the other hand some spatial incoherency limits low percentage and traces applications, specially when backgrounds are very variable. In this last case, sequential X-ray spectrometer would find again great usefulness [fr

  4. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives. Though there is a growing body of literature on this subject, little of it makes explicit under what circumstances special methods are needed to solve multi-obj...

  5. Configural and component processing in simultaneous and sequential lineup procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Flowe, HD; Smith, HMJ; Karoğlu, N; Onwuegbusi, TO; Rai, L

    2015-01-01

    Configural processing supports accurate face recognition, yet it has never been examined within the context of criminal identification lineups. We tested, using the inversion paradigm, the role of configural processing in lineups. Recent research has found that face discrimination accuracy in lineups is better in a simultaneous compared to a sequential lineup procedure. Therefore, we compared configural processing in simultaneous and sequential lineups to examine whether there are differences...

  6. Sequential weak continuity of null Lagrangians at the boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalamajska, A.; Kraemer, S.; Kružík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, 3/4 (2014), s. 1263-1278 ISSN 0944-2669 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : null Lagrangians * nonhomogeneous nonlinear mappings * sequential weak/in measure continuity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kruzik-sequential weak continuity of null lagrangians at the boundary.pdf

  7. A Trust-region-based Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    This technical note documents the trust-region-based sequential quadratic programming algorithm used in other works by the authors. The algorithm seeks to minimize a convex nonlinear cost function subject to linear inequalty constraints and nonlinear equality constraints.......This technical note documents the trust-region-based sequential quadratic programming algorithm used in other works by the authors. The algorithm seeks to minimize a convex nonlinear cost function subject to linear inequalty constraints and nonlinear equality constraints....

  8. Sequential bayes estimation algorithm with cubic splines on uniform meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossfeld, F.; Mika, K.; Plesser-Walk, E.

    1975-11-01

    After outlining the principles of some recent developments in parameter estimation, a sequential numerical algorithm for generalized curve-fitting applications is presented combining results from statistical estimation concepts and spline analysis. Due to its recursive nature, the algorithm can be used most efficiently in online experimentation. Using computer-sumulated and experimental data, the efficiency and the flexibility of this sequential estimation procedure is extensively demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  9. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K; De Mouy, E H; Lee, B E

    1994-04-01

    To determine the enhancement patterns of the penis at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sequential contrast material-enhanced MR images of the penis in a flaccid state were obtained in 16 volunteers (12 with normal penile function and four with erectile dysfunction). Subjects with normal erectile function showed gradual and centrifugal enhancement of the corpora cavernosa, while those with erectile dysfunction showed poor enhancement with abnormal progression. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging provides additional morphologic information for the evaluation of erectile dysfunction.

  10. Barriers and facilitators of Canadian quality and safety teams: a mixed-methods study exploring the views of health care leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White DE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Deborah E White,1 Jill M Norris,1 Karen Jackson,2 Farah Khandwala3 1Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, 2Workforce Research and Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, 3Cancer Care Services, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Background: Health care organizations are utilizing quality and safety (QS teams as a mechanism to optimize care. However, there is a lack of evidence-informed best practices for creating and sustaining successful QS teams. This study aimed to understand what health care leaders viewed as barriers and facilitators to establishing/implementing and measuring the impact of Canadian acute care QS teams.Methods: Organizational senior leaders (SLs and QS team leaders (TLs participated. A mixed-methods sequential explanatory design included surveys (n=249 and interviews (n=89. Chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical variables for region, organization size, and leader position. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed for constant comparison analysis.Results: Five qualitative themes overlapped with quantitative data: (1 resources, time, and capacity; (2 data availability and information technology; (3 leadership; (4 organizational plan and culture; and (5 team composition and processes. Leaders from larger organizations more often reported that clear objectives and physician champions facilitated QS teams (p<0.01. Fewer Eastern respondents viewed board/senior leadership as a facilitator (p<0.001, and fewer Ontario respondents viewed geography as a barrier to measurement (p<0.001. TLs and SLs differed on several factors, including time to meet with the team, data availability, leadership, and culture.Conclusion: QS teams need strong, committed leaders who align initiatives to strategic directions of the organization, foster a quality culture, and provide tools teams require for their work. There are excellent opportunities to create synergy across the country to address each

  11. A mixed-methods study on perceptions towards use of Rapid Ethical Assessment to improve informed consent processes for health research in a low-income setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addissie, Adamu; Davey, Gail; Newport, Melanie J; Addissie, Thomas; MacGregor, Hayley; Feleke, Yeweyenhareg; Farsides, Bobbie

    2014-05-02

    Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) is a form of rapid ethnographic assessment conducted at the beginning of research project to guide the consent process with the objective of reconciling universal ethical guidance with specific research contexts. The current study is conducted to assess the perceived relevance of introducing REA as a mainstream tool in Ethiopia. Mixed methods research using a sequential explanatory approach was conducted from July to September 2012, including 241 cross-sectional, self-administered and 19 qualitative, in-depth interviews among health researchers and regulators including ethics committee members in Ethiopian health research institutions and universities. In their evaluation of the consent process, only 40.2% thought that the consent process and information given were adequately understood by study participants; 84.6% claimed they were not satisfied with the current consent process and 85.5% thought the best interests of study participants were not adequately considered. Commonly mentioned consent-related problems included lack of clarity (48.1%), inadequate information (34%), language barriers (28.2%), cultural differences (27.4%), undue expectations (26.6%) and power imbalances (20.7%). About 95.4% believed that consent should be contextualized to the study setting and 39.4% thought REA would be an appropriate approach to improve the perceived problems. Qualitative findings helped to further explore the gaps identified in the quantitative findings and to map-out concerns related to the current research consent process in Ethiopia. Suggestions included, conducting REA during the pre-test (pilot) phase of studies when applicable. The need for clear guidance for researchers on issues such as when and how to apply the REA tools was stressed. The study findings clearly indicated that there are perceived to be correctable gaps in the consent process of medical research in Ethiopia. REA is considered relevant by researchers and stakeholders

  12. Sequential unconstrained minimization algorithms for constrained optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The problem of minimizing a function f(x):R J → R, subject to constraints on the vector variable x, occurs frequently in inverse problems. Even without constraints, finding a minimizer of f(x) may require iterative methods. We consider here a general class of iterative algorithms that find a solution to the constrained minimization problem as the limit of a sequence of vectors, each solving an unconstrained minimization problem. Our sequential unconstrained minimization algorithm (SUMMA) is an iterative procedure for constrained minimization. At the kth step we minimize the function G k (x)=f(x)+g k (x), to obtain x k . The auxiliary functions g k (x):D subset of R J → R + are nonnegative on the set D, each x k is assumed to lie within D, and the objective is to minimize the continuous function f:R J → R over x in the set C = D-bar, the closure of D. We assume that such minimizers exist, and denote one such by x-circumflex. We assume that the functions g k (x) satisfy the inequalities 0≤g k (x)≤G k-1 (x)-G k-1 (x k-1 ), for k = 2, 3, .... Using this assumption, we show that the sequence {(x k )} is decreasing and converges to f(x-circumflex). If the restriction of f(x) to D has bounded level sets, which happens if x-circumflex is unique and f(x) is closed, proper and convex, then the sequence {x k } is bounded, and f(x*)=f(x-circumflex), for any cluster point x*. Therefore, if x-circumflex is unique, x* = x-circumflex and {x k } → x-circumflex. When x-circumflex is not unique, convergence can still be obtained, in particular cases. The SUMMA includes, as particular cases, the well-known barrier- and penalty-function methods, the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), the proximal minimization algorithm of Censor and Zenios, the entropic proximal methods of Teboulle, as well as certain cases of gradient descent and the Newton–Raphson method. The proof techniques used for SUMMA can be extended to obtain related results

  13. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT mea......BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG...... assumed to be normally distributed, and sequential one-sided hypothesis tests on the population standard deviation of the differences against a hypothesised value of 1.5 were performed, employing an alpha spending function. The fixed-sample analysis (N = 45) was compared with the group-sequential analysis...... strategies comprising one (at N = 23), two (at N = 15, 30), or three interim analyses (at N = 11, 23, 34), respectively, which were defined post hoc. RESULTS: When performing interim analyses with one third and two thirds of patients, sufficient agreement could be concluded after the first interim analysis...

  14. Methamphetamine-alcohol interactions in murine models of sequential and simultaneous oral drug-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, Elissa K; Martin, Douglas L; Hudson, Courtney N; Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-08-01

    A high degree of co-morbidity exists between methamphetamine (MA) addiction and alcohol use disorders and both sequential and simultaneous MA-alcohol mixing increases risk for co-abuse. As little preclinical work has focused on the biobehavioral interactions between MA and alcohol within the context of drug-taking behavior, we employed simple murine models of voluntary oral drug consumption to examine how prior histories of either MA- or alcohol-taking influence the intake of the other drug. In one study, mice with a 10-day history of binge alcohol-drinking [5,10, 20 and 40% (v/v); 2h/day] were trained to self-administer oral MA in an operant-conditioning paradigm (10-40mg/L). In a second study, mice with a 10-day history of limited-access oral MA-drinking (5, 10, 20 and 40mg/L; 2h/day) were presented with alcohol (5-40% v/v; 2h/day) and then a choice between solutions of 20% alcohol, 10mg/L MA or their mix. Under operant-conditioning procedures, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited less MA reinforcement overall, than water controls. However, when drug availability was not behaviorally-contingent, alcohol-drinking mice consumed more MA and exhibited greater preference for the 10mg/L MA solution than drug-naïve and combination drug-experienced mice. Conversely, prior MA-drinking history increased alcohol intake across a range of alcohol concentrations. These exploratory studies indicate the feasibility of employing procedurally simple murine models of sequential and simultaneous oral MA-alcohol mixing of relevance to advancing our biobehavioral understanding of MA-alcohol co-abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors influencing trainee doctor emigration in a high income country: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Crowe, Sophie; Humphries, Niamh; Conroy, Ronan; O'Hare, Simon; Kavanagh, Paul; Brugha, Ruairi

    2017-09-25

    The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland. Using a partially mixed sequential dominant (quantitative) study design, a nationally representative sample of 893 trainee doctors was invited to complete an online survey. Of the 523 who responded (58.6% response rate), 423 were still in Ireland and responded to questions on factors influencing intention to practice medicine abroad and are the subjects of this study. Explanatory factors for intention to practice medicine in Ireland in the foreseeable future, the primary outcome, included demographic variables and experiences of working within the Irish health system. Associations were examined using univariable and multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for factors influencing the primary outcome. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 50 trainee doctors and analysed thematically, exploring issues associated with intention to practice medicine abroad. There were high levels of dissatisfaction among trainee doctors around working conditions, training and career progression opportunities in Ireland. However, most factors did not discriminate between intention to leave or stay. Factors that did predict intention to leave included dissatisfaction with one's work-life balance (odds ratio (OR) 2.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-4.10; P < 0.001); feeling that the quality of training in Ireland was poor (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.09-3.05; P = 0.002) and leaving for family or personal reasons (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.08-3.17; P = 0.027). Qualitative findings illustrated the stress of doing postgraduate

  16. Linking Classroom Environment with At-Risk Engagement in Science: A Mixed Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stephen Craig

    This explanatory sequential mixed-method study analyzed how the teacher created learning environment links to student engagement for students at-risk across five science classroom settings. The learning environment includes instructional strategies, differentiated instruction, positive learning environment, and an academically challenging environment. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered in the form of self-reporting surveys and a follow-up interview. The researcher aimed to use the qualitative results to explain the quantitative data. The general research question was "What are the factors of the teacher-created learning environment that were best suited to maximize engagement of students at-risk?" Specifically explaining, (1) How do the measured level of teacher created learning environment link to the engagement level of students at-risk in science class? and (2) What relationship exists between the student perception of the science classroom environment and the level of behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social engagement for students at-risk in science class? This study took place within a large school system with more than 20 high schools, most having 2000-3000 students. Participating students were sent to a panel hearing that determined them unfit for the regular educational setting, and were given the option of attending one of the two alternative schools within the county. Students in this alternative school were considered at-risk due to the fact that 98% received free and reduced lunch, 97% were minority population, and all have been suspended from the regular educational setting. Pairwise comparisons of the SPS questions between teachers using t-test from 107 students at-risk and 40 interviews suggest that each category of the learning environment affects the level of behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social engagement in science class for students at-risk in an alternative school setting. Teachers with higher student perceptions of

  17. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  18. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  19. Fluid mixing III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnby, N.

    1988-01-01

    Covering all aspects of mixing, this work presents research and developments in industrial applications, flow patterns and mixture analysis, mixing of solids into liquids, and mixing of gases into liquids

  20. Changes in physiotherapy students' knowledge and perceptions of EBP from first year to graduation: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Maureen P; Lewis, Lucy K; Luker, Julie

    2018-05-11

    Dedicated Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) courses are often included in health professional education programs. It is important to understand the effectiveness of this training. This study investigated EBP outcomes in entry-level physiotherapy students from baseline to completion of all EBP training (graduation). Mixed methods with an explanatory sequential design. Physiotherapy students completed two psychometrically-tested health professional EBP instruments at baseline and graduation. The Evidence-Based Practice Profile questionnaire collected self-reported data (Terminology, Confidence, Practice, Relevance, Sympathy), and the Knowledge of Research Evidence Competencies instrument collected objective data (Actual Knowledge). Focus groups with students were conducted at graduation to gain a deeper understanding of the factors impacting changes in students' EBP knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and competency. Descriptive statistics, paired t-tests, 95% CI and effect sizes (ES) were used to examine changes in outcome scores from baseline to graduation. Transcribed focus group data were analysed following a qualitative descriptive approach with thematic analysis. A second stage of merged data analysis for mixed methods studies was undertaken using side-by-side comparisons to explore quantitatively assessed EBP measures with participants' personal perceptions. Data were analysed from 56 participants who completed both instruments at baseline and graduation, and from 21 focus group participants. Large ES were reported across most outcomes: Relevance (ES 2.29, p ≤ 0.001), Practice (1.8, p ≤ 0.001), Confidence (1.67, p ≤ 0.001), Terminology (3.13, p ≤ 0.001) and Actual Knowledge (4.3, p ≤ 0.001). A medium ES was found for Sympathy (0.49, p = 0.008). Qualitative and quantitative findings mostly aligned but for statistical terminology, participants' self-reported understanding was disparate with focus group reported experiences. Qualitative

  1. Editorial Advocacy Frames Explanatory Model: An Analysis of Newspapers withdrawing from Presidential Endorsements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Campbell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, newspapers are increasingly withdrawing from endorsing a candidate in presidential elections. Our qualitative analysis of frames used by U.S. newspaper editorialists to justify their newspaper’s decision finds editorialists are guided by three professional values expressed through two professional practices. The professional values are civic responsibility, consequence, and credibility; the two professional practices are informing and influencing. We propose a guide, the “Editorial Advocacy Frames Explanatory Model,” that deconstructs their decisions and distinguishes the roles of journalists and editorialists in political discourse, particularly in presidential endorsements. The model illustrates how the work of editorialists differs, or should differ, from that of reporters. News pages seek to inform; editorial pages seek to influence. Thus, news pages use journalistic frames to inform; editorial pages use advocacy frames to inform and influence. Endorsements are advocacy frames. It is not a matter of newspapers taking positions, or making arguments; it is a matter of newspapers making sense of issues and political races and promoting what they think is best. Framing research shows that all journalistic content has frames, whether news stories or editorials, whether objective or not. To avoid making an endorsement is not to avoid communicating a frame that can influence voters. The greater abundance of and easier access to information and opinions, argued by some editorialists as a reason for no longer making presidential endorsements, may actually be a prime reason not to stop it. The no-endorsement trend seems to have begun largely when American newspapers sought to stay afloat and relevant in response to declining circulation brought on by advances in technology that created more ways to get news. It is understandable that abandoning presidential endorsements, which in today’s divided political climate in the U

  2. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  3. Full-Color LCD Microdisplay System Based on OLED Backlight Unit and Field-Sequential Color Driving Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Woo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a single-panel LCD microdisplay system using a field-sequential color (FSC driving method and an organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a backlight unit (BLU. The 0.76′′ OLED BLU with red, green, and blue (RGB colors was fabricated by a conventional UV photolithography patterning process and by vacuum deposition of small molecule organic layers. The field-sequential driving frequency was set to 255 Hz to allow each of the RGB colors to be generated without color mixing at the given display frame rate. A prototype FSC LCD microdisplay system consisting of a 0.7′′ LCD microdisplay panel and the 0.76′′ OLED BLU successfully exhibited color display and moving picture images using the FSC driving method.

  4. Explanatory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 2. ed. (as amended 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication is an updated version of the Second Edition of the Explanatory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1985 Edition) and replaces all previous versions of Safety Series No. 7. This publication includes the changes to Safety Series No. 7 contained in the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 Edition, Supplement 1988, as well as modifications adopted by the Review Panel that was convened in Vienna, 10-14 July 1989. For the convenience of the user, the old Safety Series style adopted in the original publication has been retained, although the old style has now been superseded by a new one, affecting the structure, the format and the cover of the Safety Series. It should be noted, however, that future editions will be published in the new style.

  5. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  6. Insight in Psychosis: An Indicator of Severity of Psychosis, an Explanatory Model of Illness, and a Coping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies related to insight, explanatory models (EMs) of illness and their relationship to outcome of psychosis are reviewed. The traditional argument that insight predicts outcome in psychosis is not supported by recent longitudinal data, which has been analyzed using multivariable statistics that adjust for severity and quality of illness. While all cognition will have a neurobiological representation, if “insight” is related to the primary psychotic process, then insight cannot be seen as an independent predictor of outcome but a part of the progression of illness. The evidence suggests insight, like all EMs, is belief which interacts with the trajectory of the person's illness and the local culture to produce a unique understanding of the illness for the particular individual and his/her family. PMID:27335513

  7. Simultaneous Versus Sequential Ptosis and Strabismus Surgery in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Karen E; Binenbaum, Gil; Li, Jonathan; Mills, Monte D; Katowitz, William R; Katowitz, James A

    The authors sought to compare the clinical outcomes of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery in children. Retrospective, single-center cohort study of children requiring both ptosis and strabismus surgery on the same eye. Simultaneous surgeries were performed during a single anesthetic event; sequential surgeries were performed at least 7 weeks apart. Outcomes were ptosis surgery success (margin reflex distance 1 ≥ 2 mm, good eyelid contour, and good eyelid crease); strabismus surgery success (ocular alignment within 10 prism diopters of orthophoria and/or improved head position); surgical complications; and reoperations. Fifty-six children were studied, 38 had simultaneous surgery and 18 sequential. Strabismus surgery was performed first in 38/38 simultaneous and 6/18 sequential cases. Mean age at first surgery was 64 months, with mean follow up 27 months. A total of 75% of children had congenital ptosis; 64% had comitant strabismus. A majority of ptosis surgeries were frontalis sling (59%) or Fasanella-Servat (30%) procedures. There were no significant differences between simultaneous and sequential groups with regards to surgical success rates, complications, or reoperations (all p > 0.28). In the first comparative study of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery, no advantage for sequential surgery was seen. Despite a theoretical risk of postoperative eyelid malposition or complications when surgeries were performed in a combined manner, the rate of such outcomes was not increased with simultaneous surgeries. Performing ptosis and strabismus surgery together appears to be clinically effective and safe, and reduces anesthesia exposure during childhood.

  8. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. Copyright © 2015

  9. Human visual system automatically encodes sequential regularities of discrete events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Schröger, Erich; Czigler, István; Ohira, Hideki

    2010-06-01

    For our adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment, an essential task of the brain is to automatically encode sequential regularities inherent in the environment into a memory representation. Recent studies in neuroscience have suggested that sequential regularities embedded in discrete sensory events are automatically encoded into a memory representation at the level of the sensory system. This notion is largely supported by evidence from investigations using auditory mismatch negativity (auditory MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the auditory sensory system. However, it is still largely unclear whether or not this notion can be generalized to other sensory modalities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the visual sensory system to the automatic encoding of sequential regularities using visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an ERP correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the visual sensory system. To this end, we conducted a sequential analysis of visual MMN in an oddball sequence consisting of infrequent deviant and frequent standard stimuli, and tested whether the underlying memory representation of visual MMN generation contains only a sensory memory trace of standard stimuli (trace-mismatch hypothesis) or whether it also contains sequential regularities extracted from the repetitive standard sequence (regularity-violation hypothesis). The results showed that visual MMN was elicited by first deviant (deviant stimuli following at least one standard stimulus), second deviant (deviant stimuli immediately following first deviant), and first standard (standard stimuli immediately following first deviant), but not by second standard (standard stimuli immediately following first standard). These results are consistent with the regularity-violation hypothesis, suggesting that the visual sensory system automatically encodes sequential

  10. CFD analysis for spacer grid mixing vane design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-Kew; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Eung-Jun; Jung, Yil-Sup; Suh, Jung-Min; Jeong, Ji-Hun

    2008-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis for a rod bundle with the larger scale model (6x6 array model) has been performed to develop the base shape of mixing vane in accordance with the hydraulic and thermal performance. Explanatory parameters are span pressure drop and span average heat transfer coefficient. The concern related to hot spot is also considered as a subsidiary criterion. Of the several candidates, the final candidate was determined by using the CFD analysis code, STAR-CD. And then, the optimization for it was performed using the response surface method (RSM) that the proper tolerance was considered under the two acceptance criteria such as lower span pressure drop while maintaining the span average heat transfer coefficient with respect to the current shape. The optimized mixing vane shape was verified by the CFD analysis including the effects of allowable tolerance. (author)

  11. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  12. Interpreting the concordance statistic of a logistic regression model: relation to the variance and odds ratio of a continuous explanatory variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2012-06-20

    When outcomes are binary, the c-statistic (equivalent to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve) is a standard measure of the predictive accuracy of a logistic regression model. An analytical expression was derived under the assumption that a continuous explanatory variable follows a normal distribution in those with and without the condition. We then conducted an extensive set of Monte Carlo simulations to examine whether the expressions derived under the assumption of binormality allowed for accurate prediction of the empirical c-statistic when the explanatory variable followed a normal distribution in the combined sample of those with and without the condition. We also examine the accuracy of the predicted c-statistic when the explanatory variable followed a gamma, log-normal or uniform distribution in combined sample of those with and without the condition. Under the assumption of binormality with equality of variances, the c-statistic follows a standard normal cumulative distribution function with dependence on the product of the standard deviation of the normal components (reflecting more heterogeneity) and the log-odds ratio (reflecting larger effects). Under the assumption of binormality with unequal variances, the c-statistic follows a standard normal cumulative distribution function with dependence on the standardized difference of the explanatory variable in those with and without the condition. In our Monte Carlo simulations, we found that these expressions allowed for reasonably accurate prediction of the empirical c-statistic when the distribution of the explanatory variable was normal, gamma, log-normal, and uniform in the entire sample of those with and without the condition. The discriminative ability of a continuous explanatory variable cannot be judged by its odds ratio alone, but always needs to be considered in relation to the heterogeneity of the population.

  13. REML/BLUP and sequential path analysis in estimating genotypic values and interrelationships among simple maize grain yield-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivoto, T; Nardino, M; Carvalho, I R; Follmann, D N; Ferrari, M; Szareski, V J; de Pelegrin, A J; de Souza, V Q

    2017-03-22

    Methodologies using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction (REML/BLUP) in combination with sequential path analysis in maize are still limited in the literature. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to use REML/BLUP-based procedures in order to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and genotypic values of simple maize hybrids, and ii) to fit stepwise regressions considering genotypic values to form a path diagram with multi-order predictors and minimum multicollinearity that explains the relationships of cause and effect among grain yield-related traits. Fifteen commercial simple maize hybrids were evaluated in multi-environment trials in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The environmental variance (78.80%) and genotype-vs-environment variance (20.83%) accounted for more than 99% of the phenotypic variance of grain yield, which difficult the direct selection of breeders for this trait. The sequential path analysis model allowed the selection of traits with high explanatory power and minimum multicollinearity, resulting in models with elevated fit (R 2 > 0.9 and ε analysis is effective in the evaluation of maize-breeding trials.

  14. Native Frames: Disentangling Sequential from Concerted Three-Body Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Severt, T.; Berry, Ben; Jochim, Bethany; Feizollah, Peyman; Kaderiya, Balram; Zohrabi, M.; Ablikim, U.; Ziaee, Farzaneh; Raju P., Kanaka; Rolles, D.; Rudenko, A.; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2018-03-01

    A key question concerning the three-body fragmentation of polyatomic molecules is the distinction of sequential and concerted mechanisms, i.e., the stepwise or simultaneous cleavage of bonds. Using laser-driven fragmentation of OCS into O++C++S+ and employing coincidence momentum imaging, we demonstrate a novel method that enables the clear separation of sequential and concerted breakup. The separation is accomplished by analyzing the three-body fragmentation in the native frame associated with each step and taking advantage of the rotation of the intermediate molecular fragment, CO2 + or CS2 + , before its unimolecular dissociation. This native-frame method works for any projectile (electrons, ions, or photons), provides details on each step of the sequential breakup, and enables the retrieval of the relevant spectra for sequential and concerted breakup separately. Specifically, this allows the determination of the branching ratio of all these processes in OCS3 + breakup. Moreover, we find that the first step of sequential breakup is tightly aligned along the laser polarization and identify the likely electronic states of the intermediate dication that undergo unimolecular dissociation in the second step. Finally, the separated concerted breakup spectra show clearly that the central carbon atom is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the laser field.

  15. Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2014-05-28

    Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.

  16. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  17. Characterizing the structure and content of nurse handoffs: A Sequential Conversational Analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joanna; Kannampallil, Thomas; Brenner, Corinne; Lopez, Karen D; Almoosa, Khalid F; Patel, Bela; Patel, Vimla L

    2016-02-01

    Effective communication during nurse handoffs is instrumental in ensuring safe and quality patient care. Much of the prior research on nurse handoffs has utilized retrospective methods such as interviews, surveys and questionnaires. While extremely useful, an in-depth understanding of the structure and content of conversations, and the inherent relationships within the content is paramount to designing effective nurse handoff interventions. In this paper, we present a methodological framework-Sequential Conversational Analysis (SCA)-a mixed-method approach that integrates qualitative conversational analysis with quantitative sequential pattern analysis. We describe the SCA approach and provide a detailed example as a proof of concept of its use for the analysis of nurse handoff communication in a medical intensive care unit. This novel approach allows us to characterize the conversational structure, clinical content, disruptions in the conversation, and the inherently phasic nature of nurse handoff communication. The characterization of communication patterns highlights the relationships underlying the verbal content of nurse handoffs with specific emphasis on: the interactive nature of conversation, relevance of role-based (incoming, outgoing) communication requirements, clinical content focus on critical patient-related events, and discussion of pending patient management tasks. We also discuss the applicability of the SCA approach as a method for providing in-depth understanding of the dynamics of communication in other settings and domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequentially optimized reconstruction strategy: A meta-strategy for perimetry testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Seda Kucur

    Full Text Available Perimetry testing is an automated method to measure visual function and is heavily used for diagnosing ophthalmic and neurological conditions. Its working principle is to sequentially query a subject about perceived light using different brightness levels at different visual field locations. At a given location, this query-patient-feedback process is expected to converge at a perceived sensitivity, such that a shown stimulus intensity is observed and reported 50% of the time. Given this inherently time-intensive and noisy process, fast testing strategies are necessary in order to measure existing regions more effectively and reliably. In this work, we present a novel meta-strategy which relies on the correlative nature of visual field locations in order to strongly reduce the necessary number of locations that need to be examined. To do this, we sequentially determine locations that most effectively reduce visual field estimation errors in an initial training phase. We then exploit these locations at examination time and show that our approach can easily be combined with existing perceived sensitivity estimation schemes to speed up the examinations. Compared to state-of-the-art strategies, our approach shows marked performance gains with a better accuracy-speed trade-off regime for both mixed and sub-populations.

  19. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  20. Performance analysis of coherent free space optical communications with sequential pyramid wavefront sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Danian; Cao, Jingtai; Gu, Haijun

    2018-03-01

    Based-on the previous study on the theory of the sequential pyramid wavefront sensor (SPWFS), in this paper, the SPWFS is first applied to the coherent free space optical communications (FSOC) with more flexible spatial resolution and higher sensitivity than the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and with higher uniformity of intensity distribution and much simpler than the pyramid wavefront sensor. Then, the mixing efficiency (ME) and the bit error rate (BER) of the coherent FSOC are analyzed during the aberrations correction through numerical simulation with binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, an experimental AO system based-on SPWFS is setup, and the experimental data is used to analyze the ME and BER of homodyne detection with BPSK modulation. The results show that the AO system based-on SPWFS can increase ME and decrease BER effectively. The conclusions of this paper provide a new method of wavefront sensing for designing the AO system for a coherent FSOC system.