Sequential Power-Dependence Theory
Buskens, Vincent; Rijt, Arnout van de
2008-01-01
Existing methods for predicting resource divisions in laboratory exchange networks do not take into account the sequential nature of the experimental setting. We extend network exchange theory by considering sequential exchange. We prove that Sequential Power-Dependence Theory—unlike
Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories
Visser, Albert
In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed
Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories
Visser, Albert
2012-01-01
In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question
A Theory of Sequential Reciprocity
Dufwenberg, M.; Kirchsteiger, G.
1998-01-01
Many experimental studies indicate that people are motivated by reciprocity. Rabin (1993) develops techniques for incorporating such concerns into game theory and economics. His model, however, does not fare well when applied to situations with an interesting dynamic structure (like many
The theory of syntactic domains
Kracht, M.
In this essay we develop a mathematical theory of syntactic domains with special attention to the theory of government and binding. Starting from an intrinsic characterization of command relations as defined in [Ba 90] we determine the structure of the distributive lattice of command relations.
Sequential approach to Colombeau's theory of generalized functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, T.D.
1987-07-01
J.F. Colombeau's generalized functions are constructed as equivalence classes of the elements of a specially chosen ultrapower of the class of the C ∞ -functions. The elements of this ultrapower are considered as sequences of C ∞ -functions, so in a sense, the sequential construction presented here refers to the original Colombeau theory just as, for example, the Mikusinski sequential approach to the distribution theory refers to the original Schwartz theory of distributions. The paper could be used as an elementary introduction to the Colombeau theory in which recently a solution was found to the problem of multiplication of Schwartz distributions. (author). Refs
A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.
Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L
2016-03-01
Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. Copyright © 2015
Domain Theory, Its Models and Concepts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Howard, Thomas J.; Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt
2014-01-01
Domain Theory is a systems approach for the analysis and synthesis of products. Its basic idea is to view a product as systems of activities, organs and parts and to define structure, elements, behaviour and function in these domains. The theory is a basis for a long line of research contribution...
Kahn, G.; Plotkin, G.D.
1993-01-01
This paper introduces the theory of a particular kind of computation domains called concrete domains. The purpose of this theory is to find a satisfactory framework for the notions of coroutine computation and sequentiality of evaluation.
Gelman, Susan A; Noles, Nicholaus S
2011-09-01
Human cognition entails domain-specific cognitive processes that influence memory, attention, categorization, problem-solving, reasoning, and knowledge organization. This article examines domain-specific causal theories, which are of particular interest for permitting an examination of how knowledge structures change over time. We first describe the properties of commonsense theories, and how commonsense theories differ from scientific theories, illustrating with children's classification of biological and nonbiological kinds. We next consider the implications of domain-specificity for broader issues regarding cognitive development and conceptual change. We then examine the extent to which domain-specific theories interact, and how people reconcile competing causal frameworks. Future directions for research include examining how different content domains interact, the nature of theory change, the role of context (including culture, language, and social interaction) in inducing different frameworks, and the neural bases for domain-specific reasoning. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 490-502 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.124 This article is categorized under: Psychology > Reasoning and Decision Making. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whyte, J. R.; McQuaid, R. G. P.; Einsle, J. F.; Gregg, J. M., E-mail: m.gregg@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Nanostructured Media (CNM), School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Ashcroft, C. M. [Centre for Nanostructured Media (CNM), School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Canalias, C. [Department of Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gruverman, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588–0299 (United States)
2014-08-14
Simple meso-scale capacitor structures have been made by incorporating thin (∼300 nm) single crystal lamellae of KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) between two coplanar Pt electrodes. The influence that either patterned protrusions in the electrodes or focused ion beam milled holes in the KTP have on the nucleation of reverse domains during switching was mapped using piezoresponse force microscopy imaging. The objective was to assess whether or not variations in the magnitude of field enhancement at localised “hot-spots,” caused by such patterning, could be used to both control the exact locations and bias voltages at which nucleation events occurred. It was found that both the patterning of electrodes and the milling of various hole geometries into the KTP could allow controlled sequential injection of domain wall pairs at different bias voltages; this capability could have implications for the design and operation of domain wall electronic devices, such as memristors, in the future.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Hao; Ping, Xueliang; Cao, Yi; Lie, Ke [Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China); Chen, Peng [Mie University, Mie (Japan); Wang, Huaqing [Beijing University, Beijing (China)
2014-04-15
This study proposes a novel intelligent fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery using ant colony optimization (ACO) and possibility theory. The non-dimensional symptom parameters (NSPs) in the frequency domain are defined to reflect the features of the vibration signals measured in each state. A sensitive evaluation method for selecting good symptom parameters using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed for detecting and distinguishing faults in rotating machinery. By using ACO clustering algorithm, the synthesizing symptom parameters (SSP) for condition diagnosis are obtained. A fuzzy diagnosis method using sequential inference and possibility theory is also proposed, by which the conditions of the machinery can be identified sequentially. Lastly, the proposed method is compared with a conventional neural networks (NN) method. Practical examples of diagnosis for a V-belt driving equipment used in a centrifugal fan are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results verify that the faults that often occur in V-belt driving equipment, such as a pulley defect state, a belt defect state and a belt looseness state, are effectively identified by the proposed method, while these faults are difficult to detect using conventional NN.
Garg, Dushyant K; Tomar, Rachana; Dhoke, Reema R; Srivastava, Ankit; Kundu, Bishwajit
2015-05-01
Here, we report the folding and assembly of a Pyrococcus furiosus-derived protein, L-asparaginase (PfA). PfA functions as a homodimer, with each monomer made of distinct N- and C-terminal domains. The purified individual domains as well as single Trp mutant of each domain were subjected to chemical denaturation/renaturation and probed by combination of spectroscopic, chromatographic, quenching and scattering techniques. We found that the N-domain acts like a folding scaffold and assists the folding of remaining polypeptide. The domains displayed sequential folding with the N-domain having higher thermodynamic stability. We report that the extreme thermal stability of PfA is due to the presence of high intersubunit associative forces supported by extensive H-bonding and ionic interactions network. Our results proved that folding cooperativity in a thermophilic, multisubunit protein is dictated by concomitant folding and association of constituent domains directly into a native quaternary structure. This report gives an account of the factors responsible for folding and stability of a therapeutically and industrially important protein.
Denotational semantics in Synthetic Guarded Domain Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paviotti, Marco
In functional programming, features such as recursion, recursive types and general references are central. To define semantics of this kind of languages one needs to come up with certain definitions which may be non-trivial to show well-defined. This is because they are circular. Domain theory has...... been used to solve this kind of problems for specific languages, unfortunately, this technique does not scale for more featureful languages, which prevented it from being widely used. Step-indexing is a more general technique that has been used to break circularity of definitions. The idea is to tweak...... the definition by adding a well- founded structure that gives a handle for recursion. Guarded dependent Type Theory (gDTT) is a type theory which implements step-indexing via a unary modality used to guard recursive definitions. Every circular definition is well-defined as long as the recursive variable...
Developing a Domain Theory Defining and Exemplifying a Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments
Bunderson, C. Victor
2011-01-01
This article defines the concept of Domain Theory, or, when educational measurement is the goal, one might call it a "Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments in X Domain". The concept of Domain Theory is first shown to be rooted in validity theory, then the concept of domain theory is expanded to amplify its necessary but long neglected…
On the domain of string perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, S.
1989-06-01
For a large class of effectively closed surfaces, it is shown that the only divergences in string scattering amplitudes at each order in perturbation theory are those associated with the coincidence of vertex operators and the boundary of moduli space. This class includes all closed surfaces of finite genus, and infinite-genus surfaces which can be uniformized by a group of Schottky type. While the computation is done explicitly for bosonic strings in their ground states, it can also be extended to excited states and to superstrings. The properties of these amplitudes lead to a definition of the domain of perturbation theory as the set of effectively closed surfaces. The implications of the restriction to effectively closed surfaces on the behavior of the perturbation series are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 6 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanelis, Voula; Donaldson, Logan; Muhandiram, D.R.; Rotin, Daniela; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Kay, Lewis E.
2000-01-01
Many protein-protein interactions involve amino acid sequences containing proline-rich motifs and even poly-proline stretches. The lack of amide protons in such regions complicates assignment, since 1 HN-based triple-resonance assignment strategies cannot be employed. Two such systems that we are currently studying include an SH2 domain from the protein Crk with a region containing 9 prolines in a 14 amino acid sequence, as well as a WW domain that interacts with a proline-rich target. A modified version of the HACAN pulse scheme, originally described by Bax and co-workers [Wang et al. (1995) J. Biomol. NMR, 5, 376-382], and an experiment which correlates the intra-residue 1 H α , 13 C α / 13 C β chemical shifts with the 15 N shift of the subsequent residue are presented and applied to the two systems listed above, allowing sequential assignment of the molecules
Evaluation Codes from Order Domain Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Henning Ejnar; Geil, Hans Olav
2008-01-01
bound is easily extended to deal with any generalized Hamming weights. We interpret our methods into the setting of order domain theory. In this way we fill in an obvious gap in the theory of order domains. [28] T. Shibuya and K. Sakaniwa, A Dual of Well-Behaving Type Designed Minimum Distance, IEICE......The celebrated Feng-Rao bound estimates the minimum distance of codes defined by means of their parity check matrices. From the Feng-Rao bound it is clear how to improve a large family of codes by leaving out certain rows in their parity check matrices. In this paper we derive a simple lower bound...... on the minimum distance of codes defined by means of their generator matrices. From our bound it is clear how to improve a large family of codes by adding certain rows to their generator matrices. The new bound is very much related to the Feng-Rao bound as well as to Shibuya and Sakaniwa's bound in [28]. Our...
Rerepresenting and Restructuring Domain Theories: A Constructive Induction Approach
Donoho, S. K.; Rendell, L. A.
1995-01-01
Theory revision integrates inductive learning and background knowledge by combining training examples with a coarse domain theory to produce a more accurate theory. There are two challenges that theory revision and other theory-guided systems face. First, a representation language appropriate for the initial theory may be inappropriate for an improved theory. While the original representation may concisely express the initial theory, a more accurate theory forced to use that same representati...
Cross-Domain Statistical-Sequential Dependencies Are Difficult To Learn
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne McClure Walk
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated participants’ ability to learn cross-modal associations during statistical learning tasks. However, these studies are all similar in that the cross-modal associations to be learned occur simultaneously, rather than sequentially. In addition, the majority of these studies focused on learning across sensory modalities but not across perceptual categories. To test both cross-modal and cross-categorical learning of sequential dependencies, we used an artificial grammar learning task consisting of a serial stream of auditory and/or visual stimuli containing both within- and cross-domain dependencies. Experiment 1 examined within-modal and cross-modal learning across two sensory modalities (audition and vision. Experiment 2 investigated within-categorical and cross-categorical learning across two perceptual categories within the same sensory modality (e.g. shape and color; tones and non-words. Our results indicated that individuals demonstrated learning of the within-modal and within-categorical but not the cross-modal or cross-categorical dependencies. These results stand in contrast to the previous demonstrations of cross-modal statistical learning, and highlight the presence of modality constraints that limit the effectiveness of learning in a multimodal environment.
Sequential Progressions in a Theory of Mind Scale: Longitudinal Perspectives
Wellman, Henry M.; Fuxi, Fang; Peterson, Candida C.
2011-01-01
Consecutive re-testings of 92 U.S. preschoolers (n = 30), Chinese preschoolers (n = 31), and deaf children (n = 31) examined whether the sequences of development apparent in cross-sectional results with a theory-of-mind scale also appeared in longitudinal assessment. Longitudinal data confirmed that theory-of-mind progressions apparent in cross-sectional scaling data also characterized longitudinal sequences of understanding for individual children. The match between cross-sectional and longitudinal sequences appeared for children who exhibit different progressions across cultures (U.S. vs. China) and for children with substantial delays (deaf children of hearing parents). Moreover, greater scale distances reflected larger longitudinal age differences. PMID:21428982
Meissner, Christian A; Tredoux, Colin G; Parker, Janat F; MacLin, Otto H
2005-07-01
Many eyewitness researchers have argued for the application of a sequential alternative to the traditional simultaneous lineup, given its role in decreasing false identifications of innocent suspects (sequential superiority effect). However, Ebbesen and Flowe (2002) have recently noted that sequential lineups may merely bring about a shift in response criterion, having no effect on discrimination accuracy. We explored this claim, using a method that allows signal detection theory measures to be collected from eyewitnesses. In three experiments, lineup type was factorially combined with conditions expected to influence response criterion and/or discrimination accuracy. Results were consistent with signal detection theory predictions, including that of a conservative criterion shift with the sequential presentation of lineups. In a fourth experiment, we explored the phenomenological basis for the criterion shift, using the remember-know-guess procedure. In accord with previous research, the criterion shift in sequential lineups was associated with a reduction in familiarity-based responding. It is proposed that the relative similarity between lineup members may create a context in which fluency-based processing is facilitated to a greater extent when lineup members are presented simultaneously.
Casimir forces in the time domain: Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.
2009-01-01
We present a method to compute Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries and for arbitrary materials based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme. The method involves the time evolution of electric and magnetic fields in response to a set of current sources, in a modified medium with frequency-independent conductivity. The advantage of this approach is that it allows one to exploit existing FDTD software, without modification, to compute Casimir forces. In this paper, we focus on the derivation, implementation choices, and essential properties of the time-domain algorithm, both considered analytically and illustrated in the simplest parallel-plate geometry.
Theory of topological edges and domain walls
Bais, F.A.; Slingerland, J.K.; Haaker, S.M.
2009-01-01
We investigate domain walls between topologically ordered phases in two spatial dimensions. We present a method which allows for the determination of the superselection sectors of excitations of such walls and which leads to a unified description of the kinematics of a wall and the two phases to
Fiebach, Christian J; Schubotz, Ricarda I
2006-05-01
This paper proposes a domain-general model for the functional contribution of ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and adjacent Broca's area to perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. We propose to understand this frontal region as a highly flexible sequence processor, with the PMv mapping sequential events onto stored structural templates and Broca's Area involved in more complex, hierarchical or hypersequential processing. This proposal is supported by reference to previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating abstract sequence processing and syntactic processing.
An information theory framework for dynamic functional domain connectivity.
Vergara, Victor M; Miller, Robyn; Calhoun, Vince
2017-06-01
Dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analyzes time evolution of coherent activity in the brain. In this technique dynamic changes are considered for the whole brain. This paper proposes an information theory framework to measure information flowing among subsets of functional networks call functional domains. Our method aims at estimating bits of information contained and shared among domains. The succession of dynamic functional states is estimated at the domain level. Information quantity is based on the probabilities of observing each dynamic state. Mutual information measurement is then obtained from probabilities across domains. Thus, we named this value the cross domain mutual information (CDMI). Strong CDMIs were observed in relation to the subcortical domain. Domains related to sensorial input, motor control and cerebellum form another CDMI cluster. Information flow among other domains was seldom found. Other methods of dynamic connectivity focus on whole brain dFNC matrices. In the current framework, information theory is applied to states estimated from pairs of multi-network functional domains. In this context, we apply information theory to measure information flow across functional domains. Identified CDMI clusters point to known information pathways in the basal ganglia and also among areas of sensorial input, patterns found in static functional connectivity. In contrast, CDMI across brain areas of higher level cognitive processing follow a different pattern that indicates scarce information sharing. These findings show that employing information theory to formally measured information flow through brain domains reveals additional features of functional connectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aqlan Mohammed H.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We develop the existence theory for sequential fractional differential equations involving Liouville-Caputo fractional derivative equipped with anti-periodic type (non-separated and nonlocal integral boundary conditions. Several existence criteria depending on the nonlinearity involved in the problems are presented by means of a variety of tools of the fixed point theory. The applicability of the results is shown with the aid of examples. Our results are not only new in the given configuration but also yield some new special cases for specific choices of parameters involved in the problems.
Sequential unfolding of the two-domain protein Pseudomonas stutzeri cytochrome c(4)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Niels Højmark; Jensen, Thomas Jon; Nørgaard, Allan
2002-01-01
F stutzeri cytochrome c. is a di-haem protein, composed of two globular domains each with His-Met coordinated haem. and a hydrogen bond network between the domains. The domain foldings are highly symmetric but with specific differences including structural differences of ligand coordination, and ...
The missing evaluation codes from order domain theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Henning Ejnar; Geil, Olav
The Feng-Rao bound gives a lower bound on the minimum distance of codes defined by means of their parity check matrices. From the Feng-Rao bound it is clear how to improve a large family of codes by leaving out certain rows in their parity check matrices. In this paper we derive a simple lower...... generalized Hamming weight. We interpret our methods into the setting of order domain theory. In this way we fill in an obvious gap in the theory of order domains. The improved codes from the present paper are not in general equal to the Feng-Rao improved codes but the constructions are very much related....
Danwanichakul, Panu; Glandt, Eduardo D
2004-11-15
We applied the integral-equation theory to the connectedness problem. The method originally applied to the study of continuum percolation in various equilibrium systems was modified for our sequential quenching model, a particular limit of an irreversible adsorption. The development of the theory based on the (quenched-annealed) binary-mixture approximation includes the Ornstein-Zernike equation, the Percus-Yevick closure, and an additional term involving the three-body connectedness function. This function is simplified by introducing a Kirkwood-like superposition approximation. We studied the three-dimensional (3D) system of randomly placed spheres and 2D systems of square-well particles, both with a narrow and with a wide well. The results from our integral-equation theory are in good accordance with simulation results within a certain range of densities.
Minimum-domain impulse theory for unsteady aerodynamic force
Kang, L. L.; Liu, L. Q.; Su, W. D.; Wu, J. Z.
2018-01-01
We extend the impulse theory for unsteady aerodynamics from its classic global form to finite-domain formulation then to minimum-domain form and from incompressible to compressible flows. For incompressible flow, the minimum-domain impulse theory raises the finding of Li and Lu ["Force and power of flapping plates in a fluid," J. Fluid Mech. 712, 598-613 (2012)] to a theorem: The entire force with discrete wake is completely determined by only the time rate of impulse of those vortical structures still connecting to the body, along with the Lamb-vector integral thereof that captures the contribution of all the rest disconnected vortical structures. For compressible flows, we find that the global form in terms of the curl of momentum ∇ × (ρu), obtained by Huang [Unsteady Vortical Aerodynamics (Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, 1994)], can be generalized to having an arbitrary finite domain, but the formula is cumbersome and in general ∇ × (ρu) no longer has discrete structures and hence no minimum-domain theory exists. Nevertheless, as the measure of transverse process only, the unsteady field of vorticity ω or ρω may still have a discrete wake. This leads to a minimum-domain compressible vorticity-moment theory in terms of ρω (but it is beyond the classic concept of impulse). These new findings and applications have been confirmed by our numerical experiments. The results not only open an avenue to combine the theory with computation-experiment in wide applications but also reveal a physical truth that it is no longer necessary to account for all wake vortical structures in computing the force and moment.
The domain theory: patterns for knowledge and software reuse
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sutcliffe, Alistair
2002-01-01
..., retrieval system, or any other means, without prior written permission of the publisher. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers 10 Industrial Avenue Mahwah, New Jersey 07430 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sutcliffe, Alistair, 1951- The domain theory : patterns for knowledge and software reuse / Alistair Sutcl...
Sequential Objective Structured Clinical Examination based on item response theory in Iran
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Mortaz Hejri
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Purpose In a sequential objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, all students initially take a short screening OSCE. Examinees who pass are excused from further testing, but an additional OSCE is administered to the remaining examinees. Previous investigations of sequential OSCE were based on classical test theory. We aimed to design and evaluate screening OSCEs based on item response theory (IRT. Methods We carried out a retrospective observational study. At each station of a 10-station OSCE, the students’ performance was graded on a Likert-type scale. Since the data were polytomous, the difficulty parameters, discrimination parameters, and students’ ability were calculated using a graded response model. To design several screening OSCEs, we identified the 5 most difficult stations and the 5 most discriminative ones. For each test, 5, 4, or 3 stations were selected. Normal and stringent cut-scores were defined for each test. We compared the results of each of the 12 screening OSCEs to the main OSCE and calculated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, as well as the exam cost. Results A total of 253 students (95.1% passed the main OSCE, while 72.6% to 94.4% of examinees passed the screening tests. The PPV values ranged from 0.98 to 1.00, and the NPV values ranged from 0.18 to 0.59. Two tests effectively predicted the results of the main exam, resulting in financial savings of 34% to 40%. Conclusion If stations with the highest IRT-based discrimination values and stringent cut-scores are utilized in the screening test, sequential OSCE can be an efficient and convenient way to conduct an OSCE.
Sequential Objective Structured Clinical Examination based on item response theory in Iran.
Hejri, Sara Mortaz; Jalili, Mohammad
2017-01-01
In a sequential objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), all students initially take a short screening OSCE. Examinees who pass are excused from further testing, but an additional OSCE is administered to the remaining examinees. Previous investigations of sequential OSCE were based on classical test theory. We aimed to design and evaluate screening OSCEs based on item response theory (IRT). We carried out a retrospective observational study. At each station of a 10-station OSCE, the students' performance was graded on a Likert-type scale. Since the data were polytomous, the difficulty parameters, discrimination parameters, and students' ability were calculated using a graded response model. To design several screening OSCEs, we identified the 5 most difficult stations and the 5 most discriminative ones. For each test, 5, 4, or 3 stations were selected. Normal and stringent cut-scores were defined for each test. We compared the results of each of the 12 screening OSCEs to the main OSCE and calculated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), as well as the exam cost. A total of 253 students (95.1%) passed the main OSCE, while 72.6% to 94.4% of examinees passed the screening tests. The PPV values ranged from 0.98 to 1.00, and the NPV values ranged from 0.18 to 0.59. Two tests effectively predicted the results of the main exam, resulting in financial savings of 34% to 40%. If stations with the highest IRT-based discrimination values and stringent cut-scores are utilized in the screening test, sequential OSCE can be an efficient and convenient way to conduct an OSCE.
Time-domain Hydroelasticity Theory of Ships Responding to Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui
1997-01-01
free surface flow. The general interface boundary condition is used in the mathematical formulation of the fluid motion around the flexible structure. The general time-domain theory is simplified to a slender-body theory for the analysis of wave-induced global responses of monohull ships. The structure...... is represented by a non-uniform beam, while the generalized hydrodynamic coefficients can be obtained from two-dimensional potential flow theory. The linear slender body theory is generalized to treat the non-linear loading effects of rigid motion and structural response of ships travelling in rough seas....... The non-linear hydrostatic restoring force and hydrodynamic momentum action are considered. A numerical solution is presented for the slender body theory. Numerical examples are given for two ship cases with different geometry features, a warship hull and the S175 containership with two different bow...
Synthetic Domain Theory and Models of Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars; Rosolini, Guiseppe
2008-01-01
Plotkin suggested using a polymorphic dual intuitionistic/linear type theory (PILLY) as a metalanguage for parametric polymorphism and recursion. In recent work the first two authors and R.L. Petersen have defined a notion of parametric LAPL-structure, which are models of PILLY, in which one can...... reason using parametricity and, for example, solve a large class of domain equations, as suggested by Plotkin.In this paper, we show how an interpretation of a strict version of Bierman, Pitts and Russo's language Lily into synthetic domain theory presented by Simpson and Rosolini gives rise...... to a parametric LAPL-structure. This adds to the evidence that the notion of LAPL-structure is a general notion, suitable for treating many different parametric models, and it provides formal proofs of consequences of parametricity expected to hold for the interpretation. Finally, we show how these results...
Prospect theory in the health domain: a quantitative assessment.
Attema, Arthur E; Brouwer, Werner B F; I'Haridon, Olivier
2013-12-01
It is well-known that expected utility (EU) has empirical deficiencies. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) has developed as an alternative with more descriptive validity. However, CPT's full function had not yet been quantified in the health domain. This paper is therefore the first to simultaneously measure utility of life duration, probability weighting, and loss aversion in this domain. We observe loss aversion and risk aversion for gains and losses, which for gains can be explained by probabilistic pessimism. Utility for gains is almost linear. For losses, we find less weighting of probability 1/2 and concave utility. This contrasts with the common finding of convex utility for monetary losses. However, CPT was proposed to explain choices among lotteries involving monetary outcomes. Life years are arguably very different from monetary outcomes and need not generate convex utility for losses. Moreover, utility of life duration reflects discounting, causing concave utility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Finding Commonalities: Social Information Processing and Domain Theory in the Study of Aggression
Nucci, Larry
2004-01-01
The Arsenio and Lemerise (this issue) proposal integrating social information processing (SIP) and domain theory to study children's aggression is evaluated from a domain theory perspective. Basic tenets of domain theory rendering it compatible with SIP are discussed as well as points of divergence. Focus is directed to the proposition that…
Webs of domain walls in supersymmetric gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eto, Minoru; Isozumi, Youichi; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke
2005-01-01
Webs of domain walls are constructed as 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in d=4, N=2 supersymmetric U(N C ) gauge theories with N F hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation. Webs of walls can contain any numbers of external legs and loops like (p,q) string/5-brane webs. We find the moduli space M of a 1/4 BPS equation for wall webs to be the complex Grassmann manifold. When moduli spaces of 1/2 BPS states (parallel walls) and the vacua are removed from M, the noncompact moduli space of genuine 1/4 BPS wall webs is obtained. All the solutions are obtained explicitly and exactly in the strong gauge coupling limit. In the case of Abelian gauge theory, we work out the correspondence between configurations of wall web and the moduli space CP N F -1
Limit Theory for Panel Data Models with Cross Sectional Dependence and Sequential Exogeneity.
Kuersteiner, Guido M; Prucha, Ingmar R
2013-06-01
The paper derives a general Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and asymptotic distributions for sample moments related to panel data models with large n . The results allow for the data to be cross sectionally dependent, while at the same time allowing the regressors to be only sequentially rather than strictly exogenous. The setup is sufficiently general to accommodate situations where cross sectional dependence stems from spatial interactions and/or from the presence of common factors. The latter leads to the need for random norming. The limit theorem for sample moments is derived by showing that the moment conditions can be recast such that a martingale difference array central limit theorem can be applied. We prove such a central limit theorem by first extending results for stable convergence in Hall and Hedye (1980) to non-nested martingale arrays relevant for our applications. We illustrate our result by establishing a generalized estimation theory for GMM estimators of a fixed effect panel model without imposing i.i.d. or strict exogeneity conditions. We also discuss a class of Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimators that can be analyzed using our CLT.
Domain wall universe in the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Minamitsuji, Masato
2009-01-01
In this Letter, we discuss the dynamics of a domain wall universe embedded into the charged black hole spacetime of the Einstein-Born-Infeld (EBI) theory. There are four kinds of possible spacetime structures, i.e., those with no horizon, the extremal one, those with two horizons (as the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole), and those with a single horizon (as the Schwarzshild black hole). We derive the effective cosmological equations on the wall. In contrast to the previous works, we take the contribution of the electrostatic energy on the wall into account. By examining the properties of the effective potential, we find that a bounce can always happen outside the (outer) horizon. For larger masses of the black hole, the height of the barrier between the horizon and bouncing point in the effective potential becomes smaller, leading to longer time scales of bouncing process. These results are compared with those in the previous works.
Wang, Lin
2013-01-01
Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…
A Cross-Cultural Validation of the Sequential-Simultaneous Theory of Intelligence in Children.
Moon, Soo-Back; McLean, James E.; Kaufman, Alan S.
2003-01-01
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children - Korean (K-ABC-K) was developed to assess the intelligence and achievement of preschool and school-aged Korean children. This study examined the validity of the Sequential Processing, Simultaneous Processing and Achievement scales of the K-ABC-K. The factor analyses provided strong support for the…
Maxwell, Bruce; Beaulac, Guillaume
2013-01-01
Moral foundations theory chastises cognitive developmental theory for having foisted on moral psychology a restrictive conception of the moral domain which involves arbitrarily elevating the values of justice and caring. The account of this negative influence on moral psychology, referred to in the moral foundations theory literature as the…
Shalviri, Gloria; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Mirbaha, Fariba; Gholami, Kheirollah; Majdzadeh, Reza
2018-01-01
Adverse drug events (ADEs) may cause serious injuries including death. Spontaneous reporting of ADEs plays a great role in detection and prevention of them; however, underreporting always exists. Although several interventions have been utilized to solve this problem, they are mainly based on experience and the rationale for choosing them has no theoretical base. The vast variety of behavioural theories makes it difficult to choose appropriate theory. Theoretical domains framework (TDF) is suggested as a solution. The objective of this study was to select the best theory for evaluating ADE reporting in hospitals based on TDF. We carried out three focus group discussions with hospital pharmacists and nurses, based on TDF questions. The analysis was performed through five steps including coding discussions transcript, extracting beliefs, selecting relevant domains, matching related constructs to the extracted beliefs, and determining the appropriate theories in each domain. The theory with the highest number of matched domains and constructs was selected as the theory of choice. A total of six domains were identified relevant to ADE reporting, including "Knowledge", "Skills", "Beliefs about consequences", "Motivation and goals", "Environmental context and resources" and "Social influences". We found theory of planned behavior as the comprehensive theory to study factors influencing ADE reporting in hospitals, since it was relevant theory in five out of six relevant domains and the common theory in 55 out of 75 identified beliefs. In conclusion, we suggest theory of planned behavior for further studies on designing appropriate interventions to increase ADE reporting in hospitals.
Domain wall theory and exchange stiffness in Co/Pd multilayers
Kambersky, V.; Kambersky, V.; de Haan, P.; Simsova, J.; Porthun, S.; Porthun, S.; Gemperle, R.; Lodder, J.C.
1996-01-01
The stripe model of domain structure in multilayers is studied by micromagnetic simulation. The results indicate a strong reduction of the effective domain wall energy (by dipolar effects). Domain width measurements on sputtered Co/Pd multilayers are compared with the theory. The estimated exchange
Pettit, S C; Moody, M D; Wehbie, R S; Kaplan, A H; Nantermet, P V; Klein, C A; Swanstrom, R
1994-12-01
The proteolytic processing sites of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor are cleaved in a sequential manner by the viral protease. We investigated the factors that regulate sequential processing. When full-length Gag protein was digested with recombinant HIV-1 protease in vitro, four of the five major processing sites in Gag were cleaved at rates that differ by as much as 400-fold. Three of these four processing sites were cleaved independently of the others. The CA/p2 site, however, was cleaved approximately 20-fold faster when the adjacent downstream p2/NC site was blocked from cleavage or when the p2 domain of Gag was deleted. These results suggest that the presence of a C-terminal p2 tail on processing intermediates slows cleavage at the upstream CA/p2 site. We also found that lower pH selectively accelerated cleavage of the CA/p2 processing site in the full-length precursor and as a peptide primarily by a sequence-based mechanism rather than by a change in protein conformation. Deletion of the p2 domain of Gag results in released virions that are less infectious despite the presence of the processed final products of Gag. These findings suggest that the p2 domain of HIV-1 Gag regulates the rate of cleavage at the CA/p2 processing site during sequential processing in vitro and in infected cells and that p2 may function in the proper assembly of virions.
Chiral gauge theory on AdS domain wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirman, Yuri
2005-01-01
We describe a realization of chiral gauge theories based on the domaim wall fermion construction implemented on an interval in five dimensional AdS spacetime. At semi-classical level deconstructed description of the theory is given in terms of 4-dimensional Minkowski slices supporting chiral zero modes at the ends. Energy scales warp down along the fifth dimension. When the theory is augmented by 4-dimensional neutral Majorana spinors together with the Higgs mechanism at the low energy end, we can arrange for a theory where the lightest gauge boson mode as well as chiral zero mode at the high energy end are parametrically lighter than other states. Triangle anomalies and instanton effects are expected to make gauge bosons heavy if the resulting effective theory is anomalous. Due to the strong coupling effects at the quantum level, full non-perturbative calculation will be necessary to validate this construction
Sequential Progressions in a Theory-of-Mind Scale: Longitudinal Perspectives
Wellman, Henry M.; Fang, Fuxi; Peterson, Candida C.
2011-01-01
Consecutive retestings of 92 U.S. preschoolers (n = 30), Chinese preschoolers (n = 31), and deaf children (n = 31) examined whether the sequences of development apparent in cross-sectional results with a theory-of-mind scale also appeared in longitudinal assessment. Longitudinal data confirmed that theory-of-mind progressions apparent in…
Plane symmetric cosmological model with thick domain walls in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pawar, D.; Bayaskar, S.; Patil, V.
2009-01-01
We have investigated plane symmetric cosmological model in presence of thick domain walls in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation, some geometrical and physical behavior of the model are discussed. (authors)
Domains and dimensions in acculturation: Implicit theories of Turkish–Dutch
Arends-Tóth, Judit; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
2004-01-01
The present study aims to further our understanding of psychological acculturation by examining which current models of acculturation correspond most with implicit theories of Turkish-Dutch. Current theoretical models of acculturation differ in two aspects: dimensionality (unidimensional adaptation, a bidimensional combination of culture maintenance and adaptation, or a multidimensional fusion of two cultures) and domain specificity (trait or domain-specific models). Domain specificity of acc...
Theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena
Jin, Yongmei M.; Wang, Yu U.; Ren, Yang
2015-12-01
Pre-martensitic phenomena, also called martensite precursor effects, have been known for decades while yet remain outstanding issues. This paper addresses pre-martensitic phenomena from new theoretical and experimental perspectives. A statistical mechanics-based Grüneisen-type phonon theory is developed. On the basis of deformation-dependent incompletely softened low-energy phonons, the theory predicts a lattice instability and pre-martensitic transition into elastic-phonon domains via 'phonon spinodal decomposition.' The phase transition lifts phonon degeneracy in cubic crystal and has a nature of phonon pseudo-Jahn-Teller lattice instability. The theory and notion of phonon domains consistently explain the ubiquitous pre-martensitic anomalies as natural consequences of incomplete phonon softening. The phonon domains are characterised by broken dynamic symmetry of lattice vibrations and deform through internal phonon relaxation in response to stress (a particular case of Le Chatelier's principle), leading to previously unexplored new domain phenomenon. Experimental evidence of phonon domains is obtained by in situ three-dimensional phonon diffuse scattering and Bragg reflection using high-energy synchrotron X-ray single-crystal diffraction, which observes exotic domain phenomenon fundamentally different from usual ferroelastic domain switching phenomenon. In light of the theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena, currently existing alternative opinions on martensitic precursor phenomena are revisited.
Example-Based Learning in Heuristic Domains: A Cognitive Load Theory Account
Renkl, Alexander; Hilbert, Tatjana; Schworm, Silke
2009-01-01
One classical instructional effect of cognitive load theory (CLT) is the worked-example effect. Although the vast majority of studies have focused on well-structured and algorithmic sub-domains of mathematics or physics, more recent studies have also analyzed learning with examples from complex domains in which only heuristic solution strategies…
Some problems in operator theory on bounded symmetric domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Engliš, Miroslav
2004-01-01
Roč. 81, č. 1 (2004), s. 51-71 ISSN 0167-8019. [Representations of Lie groups, harmonic analysis on homogeneous spaces and quantization. Leiden, 07.12.2002-13.12.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : homogeneous multiplication operators * bounded symmetric domains Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.354, year: 2004
Domain walls and perturbation theory in high-temperature gauge theory: SU(2) in 2+1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korthals Altes, C.; Michels, A.; Teper, M.; Stephanov, M.
1997-01-01
We study the detailed properties of Z 2 domain walls in the deconfined high-temperature phase of the d=2+1 SU(2) gauge theory. These walls are studied both by computer simulations of the lattice theory and by one-loop perturbative calculations. The latter are carried out both in the continuum and on the lattice. We find that leading order perturbation theory reproduces the detailed properties of these domain walls remarkably accurately even at temperatures where the effective dimensionless expansion parameter g 2 /T is close to unity. The quantities studied include the surface tension, the action density profiles, roughening, and the electric screening mass. It is only for the last quantity that we find an exception to the precocious success of perturbation theory. All this shows that, despite the presence of infrared divergences at higher orders, high-T perturbation theory can be an accurate calculational tool. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
A Complete, Co-Inductive Syntactic Theory of Sequential Control and State
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Støvring, Kristian; Lassen, Soren Bo
2007-01-01
equivalences between recursive imperative higher-order programs. The theory is modular in the sense that eager normal form bisimilarity for each of the calculi extended with continuations and/or mutable references is a fully abstract extension of eager normal form bisimilarity for its sub-calculi. For each...
Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
1998-01-01
. Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...
Cheng, Shaobo; Zhang, Dong; Deng, Shiqing; Li, Xing; Li, Jun; Tan, Guotai; Zhu, Yimei; Zhu, Jing
2018-04-01
Topological defects and their interactions often arouse multiple types of emerging phenomena from edge states in Skyrmions to disclination pairs in liquid crystals. In hexagonal manganites, partial edge dislocations, a prototype topological defect, are ubiquitous and they significantly alter the topologically protected domains and their behaviors. Herein, combining electron microscopy experiment and graph theory analysis, we report a systematic study of the connections and configurations of domains in this dislocation embedded system. Rules for domain arrangement are established. The dividing line between domains, which can be attributed by the strain field of dislocations, is accurately described by a genus model from a higher dimension in the graph theory. Our results open a door for the understanding of domain patterns in topologically protected multiferroic systems.
Sequential double excitations from linear-response time-dependent density functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mosquera, Martín A.; Ratner, Mark A.; Schatz, George C., E-mail: g-schatz@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chen, Lin X. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)
2016-05-28
Traditional UV/vis and X-ray spectroscopies focus mainly on the study of excitations starting exclusively from electronic ground states. However there are many experiments where transitions from excited states, both absorption and emission, are probed. In this work we develop a formalism based on linear-response time-dependent density functional theory to investigate spectroscopic properties of excited states. We apply our model to study the excited-state absorption of a diplatinum(II) complex under X-rays, and transient vis/UV absorption of pyrene and azobenzene.
Domain wall solitons and Hopf algebraic translational symmetries in noncommutative field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasai, Yuya; Sasakura, Naoki
2008-01-01
Domain wall solitons are the simplest topological objects in field theories. The conventional translational symmetry in a field theory is the generator of a one-parameter family of domain wall solutions, and induces a massless moduli field which propagates along a domain wall. We study similar issues in braided noncommutative field theories possessing Hopf algebraic translational symmetries. As a concrete example, we discuss a domain wall soliton in the scalar φ 4 braided noncommutative field theory in Lie-algebraic noncommutative space-time, [x i ,x j ]=2iκε ijk x k (i,j,k=1,2,3), which has a Hopf algebraic translational symmetry. We first discuss the existence of a domain wall soliton in view of Derrick's theorem, and construct explicitly a one-parameter family of solutions in perturbation of the noncommutativity parameter κ. We then find the massless moduli field which propagates on the domain wall soliton. We further extend our analysis to the general Hopf algebraic translational symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Powell, R.R. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). College of Education
1998-12-01
Integrative curriculum as both a theoretical construct and a practical reality, and as a theme-based, problem-centered, democratic way of schooling, is becoming more widely considered as a feasible alternative to traditional middle-level curricula. Importantly for teaching and learning, domain dependence requires teachers to view one area of knowledge as fully interdependent with other areas of knowledge during the learning process. This requires teachers to adopt personal epistemological theories that reflect integrative, domain dependent knowing. This study explored what happened when teachers from highly traditional domain independent school settings encountered an ambitious college-level curriculum project that was designed to help the teachers understand the potential that integrative, domain dependent teaching holds for precollege settings. This study asked: What influence does an integrative, domain dependent curriculum project have on teachers` domain independent, epistemological theories for teaching and learning? Finding an answer to this question is essential if we, as an educational community, are to understand how integrative curriculum theory is transformed by teachers into systemic curriculum reform. The results suggest that the integrative curriculum project that teachers participated in did not explicitly alter their classroom practices in a wholesale manner. Personal epistemological theories of teachers collectively precluded teachers from making any wholesale changes in their individual classroom teaching. However, teachers became aware of integrative curriculum as an alternative, and they expressed interest in infusing integrative practices into their classrooms as opportunities arise.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cham, Gerald K K; Turner, Louise; Lusingu, John
2009-01-01
The binding of erythrocytes infected with mature blood stage parasites to the vascular bed is key to the pathogenesis of malignant malaria. The binding is mediated by members of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. PfEMP1s can be divided into groups, and it has pr....... The identification of PfEMP1 domains expressed by parasites causing disease in infants and young children is important for development of vaccines protecting against severe malaria.......The binding of erythrocytes infected with mature blood stage parasites to the vascular bed is key to the pathogenesis of malignant malaria. The binding is mediated by members of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. PfEMP1s can be divided into groups, and it has...... previously been suggested that parasites expressing group A or B/A PfEMP1s are most pathogenic. To test the hypothesis that the first malaria infections in infants and young children are dominated by parasites expressing A and B/A PfEMP1s, we measured the plasma Ab level against 48 recombinant PfEMP1 domains...
Theoretical domains: a heuristic for teaching behavioral theory in HIV/STD prevention courses.
Dolcini, M Margaret; Canin, Lisa; Gandelman, Alice; Skolnik, Heidi
2004-10-01
The HIV/STD epidemics have broadened the need for better behavioral intervention programs and highlighted the importance of providing training in behavioral theory to frontline program practitioners. However, there is a lack of effective methods for teaching theoretical concepts to people who may not have a background in behavioral science. This article presents a solution to this challenge by introducing a new heuristic for teaching theory and for placing individual theories/models in a broader context. Using a broad framework, we identify five domains that influence behavior: risk appraisal, self-perceptions, emotions and arousal, relationships and social influence, and environmental and structural factors. Each domain is described, and a brief overview of supporting literature is provided. Following the presentation of domains, we discuss course structure and activities.
Watkins, James F., Comp.
These written domain referenced tests (DRTs) for the area of transportation/automotive mechanics test cognitive abilities or knowledge of theory. Introductory materials describe domain referenced testing and test development. Each multiple choice test includes a domain statement, describing the behavior and content of the domain, and a test item…
Counting domain walls in N=1 super Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritz, Adam; Shifman, Mikhail; Vainshtein, Arkady
2002-01-01
We study the multiplicity of BPS domain walls in N=1 super Yang-Mills theory, by passing to a weakly coupled Higgs phase through the addition of fundamental matter. The number of domain walls connecting two specified vacuum states is then determined via the Witten index of the induced world volume theory, which is invariant under the deformation to the Higgs phase. The world volume theory is a sigma model with a Grassmanian target space which arises as the coset associated with the global symmetries broken by the wall solution. Imposing a suitable infrared regulator, the result is found to agree with recent work of Acharya and Vafa in which the walls were realized as wrapped D4-branes in type IIA string theory
Sequential binding of calcium ions to the B-repeat domain of SdrD from Staphylococcus aureus.
Roman, Andrei Yu; Devred, François; Lobatchov, Vladimir M; Makarov, Alexander A; Peyrot, Vincent; Kubatiev, Aslan A; Tsvetkov, Philipp O
2016-02-01
Biofilms of live bacteria forming on medical devices and implants contribute significantly to bacterial blood dissemination and to the spread of nosocomial infections. Cell surface SdrD protein plays a key role in the attachment of Staphylococcus aureus to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and in the formation of biofilm. SdrD binds calcium ions using its B1-B5 region bearing EF-hand Ca-binding sites, leading to conformational changes in the structure of SdrD. This alters the distance between the bacterial surface and the ECM-interacting domain of SdrD in a spring-like fashion, participating in bacterial attachment. In this study we investigated calcium binding to EF-hand sites of SdrD using isothermal titration calorimetry and determined the impact of this process on SdrD's thermodynamic stability. This allowed us to propose a model of B1-B5 reorganization upon binding of calcium and to get new insight into the molecular mechanism of SdrD's action.
Bax, M.F.T.; Trum, H.M.G.J.; Nauta jr., D.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Vries de, de B.
2000-01-01
Subject of this paper is the establishment of a connection between categorical pragmatism, developed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) through phenomenological analysis, and Domain Theory, developed by Thijs Bax and Henk Trum since 1977. The first is a phenomenological branch of philosophy, the
Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
1998-01-01
. Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...
The Cosmological Constant and Domain Walls in Orientifold Field Theories and N=1 Gluodynamics
Armoni, Adi
2003-01-01
We discuss domain walls and vacuum energy density (cosmological constant) in N=1 gluodynamics and in non-supersymmetric large N orientifold field theories which have been recently shown to be planar equivalent (in the boson sector) to N=1 gluodynamics. A relation between the vanishing force between two parallel walls and vanishing cosmological constant is pointed out. This relation may explain why the cosmological constant vanishes in the orientifold field theory at leading order although the hadronic spectrum of this theory does not contain fermions in the limit N-->infinity. The cancellation is among even and odd parity bosonic contributions, due to NS-NS and R-R cancellations in the annulus amplitude of the underlying string theory. We use the open-closed string channel duality to describe interaction between the domain walls which is interpreted as the exchange of composite ``dilatons'' and ``axions'' coupled to the walls. Finally, we study some planar equivalent pairs in which both theories in the parent...
Structured Literature Review of disruptive innovation theory within the digital domain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vesti, Helle; Nielsen, Christian; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss
2017-01-01
The area of interest is disruption is the digital domain. The research questions are: How has the disruption and digital disruption literature developed over time? What is the research focus into disruption regarding the digital domain and how has this changed over time? Which methods are being...... utilized in research regarding disruption and digital disruption? Where are the key contributors to disruption in general and in digital disruption? Is there a future for digital disruption research? The method is a Structured Literature Review (SLR). The contribution is the results of an analysis of 95...... publications within the field of disruption in the digital domain and disruptive innovation theory in general. Works of twelve practitioners and 83 academics are investigated....
Incursions from the epicentre: Southern theory, social science, and the global HIV research domain.
Hodes, Rebecca; Morrell, Robert
2018-03-01
Research about HIV constitutes a global domain of academic knowledge. The patterns that structure this domain reflect inequalities in the production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as broader inequalities in geopolitics. Conventional metrics for assessing the value and impact of academic research reveal that "Northern" research remains dominant, while "Southern" research remains peripheral. Southern theory provides a framework for greater critical engagement with knowledge produced by researchers within the global South. With a focus on HIV social science, we show that investigators working in and from Africa have produced and disseminated knowledge fundamental to the global domain of HIV research, and argue that their epistemological contribution may be understood within the framework of Southern theory. Through repurposing a bibliometrical measure of citation count, we constitute a new archive of highly cited social science research. With a focus on South Africa, we situate this archive within changing historical contexts, connecting research findings to developments in medicine, health sciences and politics. We focus on two key themes in the evolution of HIV knowledge: (1) the significance of context and locality - the "setting" of HIV research; and (2) sex, race and risk - changing ideas about the social determinants of HIV transmission.
Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie S; Chivers, Sally
2017-10-01
Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education. The Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales are found to predict unique variance in job satisfaction, lower job burnout, quality-of-life following illness, marriage commitment, and educational engagement, while controlling for factors including sex, age, personality, cognitive ability, and trait resilience. The findings also suggest a distinction between the three resilience dimensions in terms of the types of systems to which they contribute. Engineering resilience may contribute most to life domains where an established system needs to be maintained, for example, one's health. Ecological resilience may contribute most to life domains where the system needs sustainability in terms of present and future goal orientation, for example, one's work. Adaptive Capacity may contribute most to life domains where the system needs to be retained, preventing it from reaching a crisis state, for example, work burnout.
Sequential stochastic optimization
Cairoli, Renzo
1996-01-01
Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet
The domain walls of gauged maximal supergravities and their M-theory origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergshoe, Eric; Nielsen, Mikkel; Roest, Diederik
2004-01-01
We consider gauged maximal supergravities with CSO(p,q,r) gauge groups and their relation to the branes of string and M-theory. The gauge groups are characterised by n mass parameters, where n is the transverse dimension of the brane. We give the scalar potentials and construct the corresponding domain wall solutions. In addition, we show the higher-dimensional origin of the domain walls in terms of (distributions of) branes. We put particular emphasis on the CSO(p,q,r) gauged supergravities in D = 9 and D = 8, which are related to the D7-brane and D6-brane, respectively. In these cases, twisted and group manifold reductions are shown to play a crucial role. We also discuss salient features of the corresponding brane distributions. (author)
An application of belief-importance theory in the domain of academic achievement.
Petrides, K V; Frederickson, Norah
2011-03-01
BACKGROUND. Belief-importance (belimp; Petrides, 2010a,b) theory posits that personality traits confer on the individual a propensity to perceive convergences and divergences between their belief that they can attain goals and the importance that they place on these goals. The theory suggests that these convergences and divergences have important implications for affect, motivation, and action. AIMS. To test belimp theory using performance-based criteria relating to academic achievement and constructs from the personality domain. SAMPLES. Two hundred and forty-two students, of whom 121 were male and 117 were female (4 unreported). They were approximately 18 years old at the time of testing. METHODS. Data were collected on the belief and importance of academic achievement, the Giant Three personality dimensions, and trait emotional intelligence (trait EI). Academic achievement was operationalized via Key Stage 3 and A-level assessment results. RESULTS. Four hypotheses concerning academic achievement were tested and confirmed, with the Motivation quadrant scoring higher than the other three belimp quadrants (Hubris, Depression, and Apathy). Four hypotheses concerning personality were tested, of which two were confirmed, with the Hubris quadrant scoring highest on psychoticism and the Depression quadrant scoring highest on neuroticism. Four hierarchical regressions demonstrated the incremental validity of the belief and importance belimp coordinates over the Giant Three personality dimensions in the prediction of academic achievement. CONCLUSIONS. The results are encouraging for belimp theory and complement similarly supportive findings in Petrides (2010b,c). ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Pettit, S C; Moody, M D; Wehbie, R S; Kaplan, A H; Nantermet, P V; Klein, C A; Swanstrom, R
1994-01-01
The proteolytic processing sites of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor are cleaved in a sequential manner by the viral protease. We investigated the factors that regulate sequential processing. When full-length Gag protein was digested with recombinant HIV-1 protease in vitro, four of the five major processing sites in Gag were cleaved at rates that differ by as much as 400-fold. Three of these four processing sites were cleaved independently of the others. The CA/p...
Centeredness Theory: Understanding and Measuring Well-Being Across Core Life Domains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zephyr T. Bloch-Jorgensen
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Background: Centeredness Theory (CT is proposed as a new mental health paradigm that focuses on well-being at a systems-level, across the core life domains of the self, the family unit, relationships, community, and work. The current studies aimed to validate the psychometric properties of a new scale that measures CT against existing well-being and mental health measures.Methods: Study 1 included 488 anonymous online respondents (46% females, 28% males, 25% unknown with median age between 31 and 35 years across 38 countries who completed the CT scale. Study 2 included 49 first-year psychology students (90% females, mean age of 19 years from Sydney Australia that completed the CT scale and other well-being and mental health questionnaires at baseline and 2-weeks follow-up.Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a refined 60-item CT scale with five domains, each with four sub-domains. The CT scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability, and showed evidence of convergent validity against other well-being measures (e.g., COMPAS-W Wellbeing Scale, SWLS scale, and Ryff's Psychological Well-being scale.Conclusions: The CT scale appears to be a reliable measure of well-being at a systems-level. Future studies need to confirm these findings in larger heterogeneous samples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brenes, Jose; Alvarado, Guillermo E.
2013-01-01
The theory of Fragmentation and Sequential Transport (FST) was applied to the granulometric analyzes of the deposits from the eruptions of 1723 and 1963-65 of the Volcan Irazu. An appreciable number of cases of positive dispersion was showed, associated in the literature with aggregation processes. A new fractal dimension defined in research has shown to be the product of secondary fragmentation. The application of the new dimension is used in the analyses of the eruptions of 1723 and 1963-65. A fractal model of a volcanic activity is formulated for the first time. The Hurst coefficient and the exponent of the law of powers are incorporated. The existence of values of dissidence near zero have been indicators of an effusive process, as would be the lava pools. The results derived from the model were agreed with field observations. (author) [es
An effective strong-coupling theory of composite particles in UV-domain
Xue, She-Sheng
2017-05-01
We briefly review the effective field theory of massive composite particles, their gauge couplings and characteristic energy scale in the UV-domain of UV-stable fixed point of strong four-fermion coupling, then mainly focus the discussions on the decay channels of composite particles into the final states of the SM gauge bosons, leptons and quarks. We calculate the rates of composite bosons decaying into two gauge bosons γγ, γZ 0, W + W -, Z 0 Z 0 and give the ratios of decay rates of different channels depending on gauge couplings only. It is shown that a composite fermion decays into an elementary fermion and a composite boson, the latter being an intermediate state decays into two gauge bosons, leading to a peculiar kinematics of final states of a quark (or a lepton) and two gauge bosons. These provide experimental implications of such an effective theory of composite particles beyond the SM. We also present some speculative discussions on the channels of composite fermions decaying into W W , W Z and ZZ two boson-tagged jets with quark jets, or to four-quark jets. Moreover, at the same energy scale of composite particles produced in high-energy experiments, composite particles are also produced by high-energy sterile neutrino (dark matter) collisions, their decays lead to excesses of cosmic ray particles in space and signals of SM particles in underground laboratories.
An effective strong-coupling theory of composite particles in UV-domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xue, She-Sheng [ICRANet,Piazzale della Repubblica 10, 10-65122, Pescara (Italy); Physics Department, Sapienza University of Rome,Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)
2017-05-29
We briefly review the effective field theory of massive composite particles, their gauge couplings and characteristic energy scale in the UV-domain of UV-stable fixed point of strong four-fermion coupling, then mainly focus the discussions on the decay channels of composite particles into the final states of the SM gauge bosons, leptons and quarks. We calculate the rates of composite bosons decaying into two gauge bosons γγ, γZ{sup 0}, W{sup +}W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0} and give the ratios of decay rates of different channels depending on gauge couplings only. It is shown that a composite fermion decays into an elementary fermion and a composite boson, the latter being an intermediate state decays into two gauge bosons, leading to a peculiar kinematics of final states of a quark (or a lepton) and two gauge bosons. These provide experimental implications of such an effective theory of composite particles beyond the SM. We also present some speculative discussions on the channels of composite fermions decaying into WW, WZ and ZZ two boson-tagged jets with quark jets, or to four-quark jets. Moreover, at the same energy scale of composite particles produced in high-energy experiments, composite particles are also produced by high-energy sterile neutrino (dark matter) collisions, their decays lead to excesses of cosmic ray particles in space and signals of SM particles in underground laboratories.
Gómez, Eduardo J
2014-05-20
This article proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the adaptive capacity of multilateral health agencies in meeting country and individual healthcare needs. Most studies comparing multilateral health agencies have failed to clearly propose a method for conducting agency comparisons. This study conducted a qualitative case study methodological approach, such that secondary and primary case study literature was used to conduct case study comparisons of multilateral health agencies. Through the proposed Sequential Comparative Analysis (SCA), the author found a more effective way to justify the selection of cases, compare and assess organizational transformative capacity, and to learn from agency success in policy sustainability processes. To more affectively understand and explain why some multilateral health agencies are more capable of adapting to country and individual healthcare needs, SCA provides a methodological approach that may help to better understand why these agencies are so different and what we can learn from successful reform processes. As funding challenges continue to hamper these agencies' adaptive capacity, learning from each other will become increasingly important.
Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M
1992-01-01
The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...
Electromagnetic Field Theory in (N+1)-Space-Time : AModern Time-Domain Tensor/Array Introduction
De Hoop, A.T.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a modern time-domain introduction is presented for electromagnetic field theory in (N+1)-spacetime. It uses a consistent tensor/array notation that accommodates the description of electromagnetic phenomena in N-dimensional space (plus time), a requirement that turns up in present-day
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Becker
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid method combining the Time-Domain Method of Moments (TD-MoM, the Time-Domain Uniform Theory of Diffraction (TD-UTD and the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (FDTD is presented. When applying this new hybrid method, thin-wire antennas are modeled with the TD-MoM, inhomogeneous bodies are modelled with the FDTD and large perfectly conducting plates are modelled with the TD-UTD. All inhomogeneous bodies are enclosed in a so-called FDTD-volume and the thin-wire antennas can be embedded into this volume or can lie outside. The latter avoids the simulation of white space between antennas and inhomogeneous bodies. If the antennas are positioned into the FDTD-volume, their discretization does not need to agree with the grid of the FDTD. By using the TD-UTD large perfectly conducting plates can be considered efficiently in the solution-procedure. Thus this hybrid method allows time-domain simulations of problems including very different classes of objects, applying the respective most appropriate numerical techniques to every object.
Shot- and angle-domain wave-equation traveltime inversion of reflection data: Theory
Zhang, Sanzong
2015-05-26
The main difficulty with iterative waveform inversion is that it tends to get stuck in local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. To mitigate this problem and avoid the need to fit amplitudes in the data, we have developed a wave-equation method that inverts the traveltimes of reflection events, and so it is less prone to the local minima problem. Instead of a waveform misfit function, the penalty function was a crosscorrelation of the downgoing direct wave and the upgoing reflection wave at the trial image point. The time lag, which maximized the crosscorrelation amplitude, represented the reflection-traveltime residual (RTR) that was back projected along the reflection wavepath to update the velocity. Shot- and angle-domain crosscorrelation functions were introduced to estimate the RTR by semblance analysis and scanning. In theory, only the traveltime information was inverted and there was no need to precisely fit the amplitudes or assume a high-frequency approximation. Results with synthetic data and field records revealed the benefits and limitations of wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion.
Shot- and angle-domain wave-equation traveltime inversion of reflection data: Theory
Zhang, Sanzong; Luo, Yi; Schuster, Gerard T.
2015-01-01
The main difficulty with iterative waveform inversion is that it tends to get stuck in local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. To mitigate this problem and avoid the need to fit amplitudes in the data, we have developed a wave-equation method that inverts the traveltimes of reflection events, and so it is less prone to the local minima problem. Instead of a waveform misfit function, the penalty function was a crosscorrelation of the downgoing direct wave and the upgoing reflection wave at the trial image point. The time lag, which maximized the crosscorrelation amplitude, represented the reflection-traveltime residual (RTR) that was back projected along the reflection wavepath to update the velocity. Shot- and angle-domain crosscorrelation functions were introduced to estimate the RTR by semblance analysis and scanning. In theory, only the traveltime information was inverted and there was no need to precisely fit the amplitudes or assume a high-frequency approximation. Results with synthetic data and field records revealed the benefits and limitations of wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion.
Against Consilience: Outsider Scholarship and the Isthmus Theory of Knowledge Domains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mike King
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The endless proliferation of human knowledge within sub-disciplines represents not so much a tree structure of knowledge from which we can stand back and admire some organic unity as the tentacles of an octopus dragging us down into anguished division. The anguish is genuine and has been expressed since the Enlightenment by many types of thinker. This paper argues however that the anguish does not in fact arise from the nature of human knowledge but from the mistaken belief in the possibility of its unification. The desire for the unitive has been erroneously transplanted from its proper context – the mystical – to the domain of knowledge, as the latter – particularly under the rubric of “science” – has become the only culturally legitimised stance towards the world. Conventional scholarship, while busy creating sub-branches and sub-sub-branches on which the leaves of new knowledge sprout with vigour and abandon, is powerless to avoid this feeling of anguish. It feels compromised in the thwarted longing for a lost sense unity. “Outsider scholarship” – of the type practiced by Koestler, Schumacher and Pirsig – is often preoccupied with just this question, but is free to propose various taxonomies of knowledge, often of an unfashionably hierarchical kind, that cut across conventional boundaries and which provide a basis for an uncompromised relationship with knowledge. This paper starts with a brief consideration of outsider scholarship, including its anachronistic characteristics, and then turns to Pirsig’s meditation on the technologies behind the word-processor, which lead to an “isthmus theory of knowledge domains.” It then considers Steven Jay Gould’s non-overlapping magisteria, and the hint from Ken Wilber about epistemological pluralism. These are then used to show why E. O. Wilson’s consilience is misguided: it represents the final triumph of logical positivism – a takeover bid for the humanities by the
Zhou, Yu; Pearson, John E; Auerbach, Anthony
2005-12-01
We derive the analytical form of a rate-equilibrium free-energy relationship (with slope Phi) for a bounded, linear chain of coupled reactions having arbitrary connecting rate constants. The results confirm previous simulation studies showing that Phi-values reflect the position of the perturbed reaction within the chain, with reactions occurring earlier in the sequence producing higher Phi-values than those occurring later in the sequence. The derivation includes an expression for the transmission coefficients of the overall reaction based on the rate constants of an arbitrary, discrete, finite Markov chain. The results indicate that experimental Phi-values can be used to calculate the relative heights of the energy barriers between intermediate states of the chain but provide no information about the energies of the wells along the reaction path. Application of the equations to the case of diliganded acetylcholine receptor channel gating suggests that the transition-state ensemble for this reaction is nearly flat. Although this mechanism accounts for many of the basic features of diliganded and unliganded acetylcholine receptor channel gating, the experimental rate-equilibrium free-energy relationships appear to be more linear than those predicted by the theory.
Self-consistent field theory simulations of polymers on arbitrary domains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ouaknin, Gaddiel, E-mail: gaddielouaknin@umail.ucsb.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5070 (United States); Laachi, Nabil; Delaney, Kris [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5080 (United States); Fredrickson, Glenn H. [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5080 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5080 (United States); Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States); Gibou, Frederic [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5070 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5110 (United States)
2016-12-15
We introduce a framework for simulating the mesoscale self-assembly of block copolymers in arbitrary confined geometries subject to Neumann boundary conditions. We employ a hybrid finite difference/volume approach to discretize the mean-field equations on an irregular domain represented implicitly by a level-set function. The numerical treatment of the Neumann boundary conditions is sharp, i.e. it avoids an artificial smearing in the irregular domain boundary. This strategy enables the study of self-assembly in confined domains and enables the computation of physically meaningful quantities at the domain interface. In addition, we employ adaptive grids encoded with Quad-/Oc-trees in parallel to automatically refine the grid where the statistical fields vary rapidly as well as at the boundary of the confined domain. This approach results in a significant reduction in the number of degrees of freedom and makes the simulations in arbitrary domains using effective boundary conditions computationally efficient in terms of both speed and memory requirement. Finally, in the case of regular periodic domains, where pseudo-spectral approaches are superior to finite differences in terms of CPU time and accuracy, we use the adaptive strategy to store chain propagators, reducing the memory footprint without loss of accuracy in computed physical observables.
Supertube domain walls and elimination of closed timelike curves in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drukker, Nadav
2004-01-01
We show that some novel physics of supertubes removes closed timelike curves from many supersymmetric spaces which naively suffer from this problem. The main claim is that supertubes naturally form domain walls, so while analytical continuation of the metric would lead to closed timelike curves, across the domain wall the metric is nondifferentiable, and the closed timelike curves are eliminated. In the examples we study, the metric inside the domain wall is always of the Goedel type, while outside the shell it looks like a localized rotating object, often a rotating black hole. Thus this mechanism prevents the appearance of closed timelike curves behind the horizons of certain rotating black holes
Schindler, Maike; Rott, Benjamin
2017-01-01
Giftedness is an increasingly important research topic in educational sciences and mathematics education in particular. In this paper, we contribute to further theorizing mathematical giftedness through illustrating how networking processes can be conducted and illustrating their potential benefits. The paper focuses on two theories: Renzulli's…
Sequential lineup presentation: Patterns and policy
Lindsay, R C L; Mansour, Jamal K; Beaudry, J L; Leach, A-M; Bertrand, M I
2009-01-01
Sequential lineups were offered as an alternative to the traditional simultaneous lineup. Sequential lineups reduce incorrect lineup selections; however, the accompanying loss of correct identifications has resulted in controversy regarding adoption of the technique. We discuss the procedure and research relevant to (1) the pattern of results found using sequential versus simultaneous lineups; (2) reasons (theory) for differences in witness responses; (3) two methodological issues; and (4) im...
Cochran, John K
2017-08-01
Recently, Robert Agnew introduced a new general theory of crime and delinquency in which he attempted to corral the vast array of theoretical "causes" of criminal conduct into a more parsimonious statement organized into one of five life domains: self, family, peers, school, and work as well as constraints against crime and motivation for it. These domains are depicted as the source of constraints and motivations and whose effects are, in part, mediated by these constraints and motivations. Based on self-report data on academic dishonesty from a sample of college students, the present study attempts to test this general theory. While several of the life domain variables had significant effects of cheating in the baseline model, all of these effects were fully mediated by constraints and motivations. In the final model, academic dishonesty was observed to be most significantly affected by the perceived severity of formal sanction threats, the number of credit hours enrolled, the frequency of skipping classes, and pressure from friends.
Avoiding domain wall problem in SU(N) grand unified theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimoto, Y.; Zhiyong, Z.
1982-08-01
We look for the possibility of embedding the discrete sub-group of U(1)-Pecci-Quinn symmetry into the continuous one to avoid the domain wall problem. We find, within some restricted context, among various SU(N) models only one-family SU(5) and SU(6). (author)
Although empirical models have been developed previously, a mechanistic model is needed for estimating electrical conductivity (EC) using time domain reflectometry (TDR) with variable lengths of coaxial cable. The goals of this study are to: (1) derive a mechanistic model based on multisection tra...
Francis, Jill J; Stockton, Charlotte; Eccles, Martin P; Johnston, Marie; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hyde, Chris; Tinmouth, Alan; Stanworth, Simon J
2009-11-01
Many theories of behaviour are potentially relevant to predictive and intervention studies but most studies investigate a narrow range of theories. Michie et al. (2005) agreed 12 'theoretical domains' from 33 theories that explain behaviour change. They developed a 'Theoretical Domains Interview' (TDI) for identifying relevant domains for specific clinical behaviours, but the framework has not been used for selecting theories for predictive studies. It was used here to investigate clinicians' transfusion behaviour in intensive care units (ICU). Evidence suggests that red blood cells transfusion could be reduced for some patients without reducing quality of care. (1) To identify the domains relevant to transfusion practice in ICUs and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), using the TDI. (2) To use the identified domains to select appropriate theories for a study predicting transfusion behaviour. An adapted TDI about managing a patient with borderline haemoglobin by watching and waiting instead of transfusing red blood cells was used to conduct semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with 18 intensive care consultants and neonatologists across the UK. Relevant theoretical domains were: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, social influences, behavioural regulation. Further analysis at the construct level resulted in selection of seven theoretical approaches relevant to this context: Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Control Theory, Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness and Action Planning Approaches. This study illustrated, the use of the TDI to identify relevant domains in a complex area of inpatient care. This approach is potentially valuable for selecting theories relevant to predictive studies and resulted in greater breadth of potential explanations than would be achieved if a single theoretical model had been adopted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharon L. Spano
2015-03-01
Full Text Available How leaders experience wisdom is important to our understanding of leadership behavior as well as to our overall understanding of leadership. The article explores qualitative findings that may advance academic discourse and research at the intersection between leadership, wisdom, and constructive-developmental theory. The present study examined how 12 executive leaders who assessed at the conventional and post-conventional stages of adult development experience wisdom. It is significant in that it addresses a gap in the literature between wisdom and constructive-developmental theory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to determine how executive leaders understand their leadership role in terms of the cognitive, reflective, and affective domains of wisdom. Contrary to research that defines and operationalizes wisdom as the integration of these domains, findings indicate that participants experience wisdom in one or more of the domains of wisdom. Participants were also assessed for their meaning-making capacity to determine their stage of development using the SCTi-Map instrument. Contrary to research in constructive-developmental theory that suggests that post-conventional levels of development may equate to higher levels of wisdom, findings also indicate that there was no significant difference between how leaders describe their propensity for wisdom and their measured adult stage of development. Leaders who assessed at both the conventional and post-conventional stages of development described a propensity for wisdom. Analysis of participant responses suggests that the wisdom, in all its complexity, has its own trajectory and therefore necessitates inquiry into the lines of human development to include integral perspectives associated with spiritual, emotional, and psychosocial measures. The results of this study indicate the potential for additional research that explores wisdom in the context of both adult lines and adult stages of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Yu. Ivanov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Presented article is the second of two articles, the aim of which is to introduce the reader has no special mathematical training, with the possibilities of application of mathematical methods developed in the scientific direction of “Conceptual analysis and design of systems of organizational management (CAD SOM”, designed to solve a variety of tasks, such as technical and humanitarian spheres on the basis of the proposed methodological approach to the mathematization of the theoretical knowledge. At the heart of this methodological approach is a process of conceptualization, which is understood as a theoretical study of qualitative aspects of a selected domain using mathematical forms (axiomatic theory, the locking connection between the concepts of logical derivability characterizing this subject area. Designed axiomatic theory – conceptual scheme – is the basis for building database structures, decision-making processes, a variety of phenomena subject area, structure and genesis of domain analysis and other tasks. One of the main advantages of the sending of methodological approach is the ability to work with complex regions based on the controlled synthesis tool terminal theory of conceptual schemes, explicated simple fragments of the subject area. Given the non-mathematical preparation of the reader, the contents of the methods illustrated by conceptualizing a conceptually simple subject areas – areas related relations, as well as the choice of one of the most simple goals conceptualization – structuring the domain and build a variety of its phenomena. The first article was given a brief description of mathematical methods, describes the main stages of the conceptualization of the subject areas, ranging from the definition of the boundaries of the domain and ending with the theory of the synthesis of the terminal and determine its compliance with the tasks of conceptualizing. In the chosen example – areas related relations
Rijmen, Frank; Jeon, Minjeong; von Davier, Matthias; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia
2014-01-01
Second-order item response theory models have been used for assessments consisting of several domains, such as content areas. We extend the second-order model to a third-order model for assessments that include subdomains nested in domains. Using a graphical model framework, it is shown how the model does not suffer from the curse of…
Moscovitch, Morris
2008-03-01
The hippocampus and surrounding regions of the medial temporal lobe play a central role in all neuropsychological theories of memory. It is still a matter of debate, however, how best to characterise the functions of these regions, the hippocampus in particular. In this article, I examine the proposal that the hippocampus is a "stupid" module whose specific domain is consciously apprehended information. A number of interesting consequences for the organisation of memory and the brain follow from this proposal and the assumptions it entails. These, in turn, have important implications for neuropsychological theories of recent and remote episodic, semantic, and spatial memory and for the functions that episodic memory may serve in perception, comprehension, planning, imagination, and problem solving. I consider these implications by selectively reviewing the literature and primarily drawing on research my collaborators and I have conducted. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Kurzweil, J
1986-01-01
The author, Professor Kurzweil, is one of the world's top experts in the area of ordinary differential equations - a fact fully reflected in this book. Unlike many classical texts which concentrate primarily on methods of integration of differential equations, this book pursues a modern approach: the topic is discussed in full generality which, at the same time, permits us to gain a deep insight into the theory and to develop a fruitful intuition. The basic framework of the theory is expanded by considering further important topics like stability, dependence of a solution on a parameter, Car
Francis, Jill J; O'Connor, Denise; Curran, Janet
2012-04-24
Behaviour change is key to increasing the uptake of evidence into healthcare practice. Designing behaviour-change interventions first requires problem analysis, ideally informed by theory. Yet the large number of partly overlapping theories of behaviour makes it difficult to select the most appropriate theory. The need for an overarching theoretical framework of behaviour change was addressed in research in which 128 explanatory constructs from 33 theories of behaviour were identified and grouped. The resulting Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) appears to be a helpful basis for investigating implementation problems. Research groups in several countries have conducted TDF-based studies. It seems timely to bring together the experience of these teams in a thematic series to demonstrate further applications and to report key developments. This overview article describes the TDF, provides a brief critique of the framework, and introduces this thematic series.In a brief review to assess the extent of TDF-based research, we identified 133 papers that cite the framework. Of these, 17 used the TDF as the basis for empirical studies to explore health professionals' behaviour. The identified papers provide evidence of the impact of the TDF on implementation research. Two major strengths of the framework are its theoretical coverage and its capacity to elicit beliefs that could signify key mediators of behaviour change. The TDF provides a useful conceptual basis for assessing implementation problems, designing interventions to enhance healthcare practice, and understanding behaviour-change processes. We discuss limitations and research challenges and introduce papers in this series.
Semantic Relevance, Domain Specificity and the Sensory/Functional Theory of Category-Specificity
Sartori, Giuseppe; Gnoato, Francesca; Mariani, Ilenia; Prioni, Sara; Lombardi, Luigi
2007-01-01
According to the sensory/functional theory of semantic memory, Living items rely more on Sensory knowledge than Non-living ones. The sensory/functional explanation of category-specificity assumes that semantic features are organised on the basis of their content. We report here a study on DAT patients with impaired performance on Living items and…
Utilizing Theory of Mind for Action Selection Applied in the Domain of Fighter Pilot Training
Hoogendoorn, M.; Merk, R.J.
2013-01-01
When developing intelligent agents, approaches that allow the anticipation of other agents is of utmost importance. For humans, this has also been shown to be crucial to establish good interactions. In this paper, a design for an agent that is equipped with theory of mind based reasoning
Domain-General Contributions to Social Reasoning: Theory of Mind and Deontic Reasoning Re-Explored
McKinnon, Margaret C.; Moscovitch, Morris
2007-01-01
Using older adults and dual-task interference, we examined performance on two social reasoning tasks: theory of mind (ToM) tasks and versions of the deontic selection task involving social contracts and hazardous conditions. In line with performance accounts of social reasoning (Leslie, Friedman, & German, 2004), evidence from both aging and the…
Mahajan, Dhruv; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Curless, Brian
2008-02-01
This paper develops a theory of frequency domain invariants in computer vision. We derive novel identities using spherical harmonics, which are the angular frequency domain analog to common spatial domain invariants such as reflectance ratios. These invariants are derived from the spherical harmonic convolution framework for reflection from a curved surface. Our identities apply in a number of canonical cases, including single and multiple images of objects under the same and different lighting conditions. One important case we consider is two different glossy objects in two different lighting environments. For this case, we derive a novel identity, independent of the specific lighting configurations or BRDFs, that allows us to directly estimate the fourth image if the other three are available. The identity can also be used as an invariant to detecttampering in the images. While this paper is primarily theoretical, it has the potential to lay the mathematical foundations for two important practical applications. First, we can develop more general algorithms for inverse rendering problems, which can directly relight and change material properties by transferring the BRDF or lighting from another object or illumination. Second, we can check the consistency of an image, to detect tampering or image splicing.
Time-domain ultra-wideband radar, sensor and components theory, analysis and design
Nguyen, Cam
2014-01-01
This book presents the theory, analysis, and design of ultra-wideband (UWB) radar and sensor systems (in short, UWB systems) and their components. UWB systems find numerous applications in the military, security, civilian, commercial and medicine fields. This book addresses five main topics of UWB systems: System Analysis, Transmitter Design, Receiver Design, Antenna Design and System Integration and Test. The developments of a practical UWB system and its components using microwave integrated circuits, as well as various measurements, are included in detail to demonstrate the theory, analysis and design technique. Essentially, this book will enable the reader to design their own UWB systems and components. In the System Analysis chapter, the UWB principle of operation as well as the power budget analysis and range resolution analysis are presented. In the UWB Transmitter Design chapter, the design, fabrication and measurement of impulse and monocycle pulse generators are covered. The UWB Receiver Design cha...
A minimax procedure in the context of sequential mastery testing
Vos, Hendrik J.
1999-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master or a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random test item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory
Applying the minimax principle to sequential mastery testing
Vos, Hendrik J.
2002-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master, a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory (minimum
Optimal Sequential Rules for Computer-Based Instruction.
Vos, Hans J.
1998-01-01
Formulates sequential rules for adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to learning needs in the context of computer-based instruction. Topics include Bayesian decision theory, threshold and linear-utility structure, psychometric model, optimal sequential number of test questions, and an empirical example of sequential instructional…
Towards a Theory of Fear Management in the Counter-Terrorism Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edwin Bakker
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Since 9/11, the state of the art in counter-terrorism research, counter-terorism measures and counter-terrorism impacts has taken off. Nevertheless, countering terrorism as a branch of fear management is still a discipline to be developed. In this Research Paper, authors Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf attempt to lessen this gap. The Paper identifies and analyses governmental approaches to managing fear in relation to terrorist incidents. It is a stocktaking approach, offering a preliminary oversight of some central aspects and pointers on the way forward when constructing and testing such a theory.
Electronic stopping power of polymers for heavy ions in the ion energy domain of LSS theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neetu [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, Haryana (India)], E-mail: neetuphy@gmail.com; Pratibha [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, Haryana (India); Sharma, V. [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 402 (India); Diwan, P.K. [Department of Physics, U.I.E.T., Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana (India); Kumar, Shyam [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, Haryana (India)
2009-04-15
LSS based computed electronic stopping power values have been compared with the corresponding measured values in polymers for heavy ions with Z = 5-29, in the reduced ion velocity region, v{sub red} {<=} 1. Except for limited v{sub red} {approx} 0.6-0.85, the formulation generally shows significantly large deviations with the measured values. The {zeta} factor, which was approximated to be {approx}Z{sub 1}{sup 1/6}, involved in LSS theory has been suitably modified in the light of the available experimental stopping power data. The calculated stopping power values after incorporating modified {zeta} in LSS formula have been found to be in close agreement with measured values in various polymers in the reduced ion velocity range 0.35 {<=} v{sub red} {<=} 1.0.
Electronic stopping power of polymers for heavy ions in the ion energy domain of LSS theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neetu; Pratibha; Sharma, V.; Diwan, P.K.; Kumar, Shyam
2009-01-01
LSS based computed electronic stopping power values have been compared with the corresponding measured values in polymers for heavy ions with Z = 5-29, in the reduced ion velocity region, v red ≤ 1. Except for limited v red ∼ 0.6-0.85, the formulation generally shows significantly large deviations with the measured values. The ζ factor, which was approximated to be ∼Z 1 1/6 , involved in LSS theory has been suitably modified in the light of the available experimental stopping power data. The calculated stopping power values after incorporating modified ζ in LSS formula have been found to be in close agreement with measured values in various polymers in the reduced ion velocity range 0.35 ≤ v red ≤ 1.0.
Jiang, Wen; Cao, Ying; Yang, Lin; He, Zichang
2017-08-28
Specific emitter identification plays an important role in contemporary military affairs. However, most of the existing specific emitter identification methods haven't taken into account the processing of uncertain information. Therefore, this paper proposes a time-space domain information fusion method based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, which has the ability to deal with uncertain information in the process of specific emitter identification. In this paper, radars will generate a group of evidence respectively based on the information they obtained, and our main task is to fuse the multiple groups of evidence to get a reasonable result. Within the framework of recursive centralized fusion model, the proposed method incorporates a correlation coefficient, which measures the relevance between evidence and a quantum mechanical approach, which is based on the parameters of radar itself. The simulation results of an illustrative example demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively deal with uncertain information and get a reasonable recognition result.
Turek, Jan; Braïda, Benoît; De Proft, Frank
2017-10-17
The bonding in heavier Group 14 zero-valent complexes of a general formula L 2 E (E=Si-Pb; L=phosphine, N-heterocyclic and acyclic carbene, cyclic tetrylene and carbon monoxide) is probed by combining valence bond (VB) theory and maximum probability domain (MPD) approaches. All studied complexes are initially evaluated on the basis of the structural parameters and the shape of frontier orbitals revealing a bent structural motif and the presence of two lone pairs at the central E atom. For the VB calculations three resonance structures are suggested, representing the "ylidone", "ylidene" and "bent allene" structures, respectively. The influence of both ligands and central atoms on the bonding situation is clearly expressed in different weights of the resonance structures for the particular complexes. In general, the bonding in the studied E 0 compounds, the tetrylones, is best described as a resonating combination of "ylidone" and "ylidene" structures with a minor contribution of the "bent allene" structure. Moreover, the VB calculations allow for a straightforward assessment of the π-backbonding (E→L) stabilization energy. The validity of the suggested resonance model is further confirmed by the complementary MPD calculations focusing on the E lone pair region as well as the E-L bonding region. Likewise, the MPD method reveals a strong influence of the σ-donating and π-accepting properties of the ligand. In particular, either one single domain or two symmetrical domains are found in the lone pair region of the central atom, supporting the predominance of either the "ylidene" or "ylidone" structures having one or two lone pairs at the central atom, respectively. Furthermore, the calculated average populations in the lone pair MPDs correlate very well with the natural bond orbital (NBO) populations, and can be related to the average number of electrons that is backdonated to the ligands. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Mashayekhi, Mohammad Jalali; Behdinan, Kamran
2017-10-01
The increasing demand to minimize undesired vibration and noise levels in several high-tech industries has generated a renewed interest in vibration transfer path analysis. Analyzing vibration transfer paths within a system is of crucial importance in designing an effective vibration isolation strategy. Most of the existing vibration transfer path analysis techniques are empirical which are suitable for diagnosis and troubleshooting purpose. The lack of an analytical transfer path analysis to be used in the design stage is the main motivation behind this research. In this paper an analytical transfer path analysis based on the four-pole theory is proposed for multi-energy-domain systems. Bond graph modeling technique which is an effective approach to model multi-energy-domain systems is used to develop the system model. In this paper an electro-mechanical system is used as a benchmark example to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. An algorithm to obtain the equivalent four-pole representation of a dynamical systems based on the corresponding bond graph model is also presented in this paper.
Exploring the social without a separate domain for religion: on actor-network theory and religion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peik Ingman
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In post-secular societies—after secularisation—it may increasingly be the case that the connecting and structuring of religious matter is done outsidedesignated religious sites and without appointed religious experts. The centres of calculation have changed and so the connections between these are different. The former ways of translation and ordering are transforming into new ones. By exiting the designated sites religious matter has found new freedom with the new associations and inventions in the processes of translation. Less control leads to more heterogeneous agencies and facilitates the mobility of religious materials. This less controlled mobility of religious actants can also produce an apparent increase of religious matter, but this does not necessarily mean the return of religion. In any case, this increased plurality combined with increased mobility calls for perspectives which can recognise novelty, andnot just in comparison with previous states of affairs. Actor-network theory (ANT is about tracing the webs of associations between myriad actants whose collective actions produce what we call ‘society’. Dismissing the notion of ‘the social’ as a kind of ‘stuff ’, ANT insists that sociology should focus on the interactional processes—the circulation of ‘the social’ among human and non-human actants—collectively assembling emerging states of affairs.
Collins, Michael D; Jackson, Chris J; Walker, Benjamin R; O'Connor, Peter J; Gardiner, Elliroma
2017-01-01
Over the last 40 years or more the personality literature has been dominated by trait models based on the Big Five (B5). Trait-based models describe personality at the between-person level but cannot explain the within-person mental mechanisms responsible for personality. Nor can they adequately account for variations in emotion and behavior experienced by individuals across different situations and over time. An alternative, yet understated, approach to personality architecture can be found in neurobiological theories of personality, most notably reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). In contrast to static trait-based personality models like the B5, RST provides a more plausible basis for a personality process model, namely, one that explains how emotions and behavior arise from the dynamic interaction between contextual factors and within-person mental mechanisms. In this article, the authors review the evolution of a neurobiologically based personality process model based on RST, the response modulation model and the context-appropriate balanced attention model. They argue that by integrating this complex literature, and by incorporating evidence from personality neuroscience, one can meaningfully explain personality at both the within- and between-person levels. This approach achieves a domain-general architecture based on RST and self-regulation that can be used to align within-person mental mechanisms, neurobiological systems and between-person measurement models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sequential Product of Quantum Effects: An Overview
Gudder, Stan
2010-12-01
This article presents an overview for the theory of sequential products of quantum effects. We first summarize some of the highlights of this relatively recent field of investigation and then provide some new results. We begin by discussing sequential effect algebras which are effect algebras endowed with a sequential product satisfying certain basic conditions. We then consider sequential products of (discrete) quantum measurements. We next treat transition effect matrices (TEMs) and their associated sequential product. A TEM is a matrix whose entries are effects and whose rows form quantum measurements. We show that TEMs can be employed for the study of quantum Markov chains. Finally, we prove some new results concerning TEMs and vector densities.
Zhao, Yan; Stratt, Richard M.
2018-05-01
Surprisingly long-ranged intermolecular correlations begin to appear in isotropic (orientationally disordered) phases of liquid crystal forming molecules when the temperature or density starts to close in on the boundary with the nematic (ordered) phase. Indeed, the presence of slowly relaxing, strongly orientationally correlated, sets of molecules under putatively disordered conditions ("pseudo-nematic domains") has been apparent for some time from light-scattering and optical-Kerr experiments. Still, a fully microscopic characterization of these domains has been lacking. We illustrate in this paper how pseudo-nematic domains can be studied in even relatively small computer simulations by looking for order-parameter tensor fluctuations much larger than one would expect from random matrix theory. To develop this idea, we show that random matrix theory offers an exact description of how the probability distribution for liquid-crystal order parameter tensors converges to its macroscopic-system limit. We then illustrate how domain properties can be inferred from finite-size-induced deviations from these random matrix predictions. A straightforward generalization of time-independent random matrix theory also allows us to prove that the analogous random matrix predictions for the time dependence of the order-parameter tensor are similarly exact in the macroscopic limit, and that relaxation behavior of the domains can be seen in the breakdown of the finite-size scaling required by that random-matrix theory.
Bascandziev, Igor; Tardiff, Nathan; Zaitchik, Deborah; Carey, Susan
2018-03-24
Some episodes of learning are easier than others. Preschoolers can learn certain facts, such as "my grandmother gave me this purse," only after one or two exposures (easy to learn; fast mapping), but they require several years to learn that plants are alive or that the sun is not alive (hard to learn). One difference between the two kinds of knowledge acquisition is that hard cases often require conceptual construction, such as the construction of the biological concept alive, whereas easy cases merely involve forming new beliefs formulated over concepts the child already has (belief revision, a form of knowledge enrichment). We asked whether different domain-general cognitive resources support these two types of knowledge acquisition (conceptual construction and knowledge enrichment that supports fast mapping) by testing 82 6-year-olds in a pre-training/training/post-training study. We measured children's improvement in an episode involving theory construction (the beginning steps of acquisition of the framework theory of vitalist biology, which requires conceptual change) and in an episode involving knowledge enrichment alone (acquisition of little known facts about animals, such as the location of crickets' ears and the color of octopus blood). In addition, we measured children's executive functions and receptive vocabulary to directly compare the resources drawn upon in the two episodes of learning. We replicated and extended previous findings highlighting the differences between conceptual construction and knowledge enrichment, and we found that Executive Functions predict improvement on the Vitalism battery but not on the Fun Facts battery and that Receptive Vocabulary predicts improvement the Fun Facts battery but not on the Vitalism battery. This double dissociation provides new evidence for the distinction between the two types of knowledge acquisition, and bears on the nature of the learning mechanisms involved in each. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adailton S. Borges
Full Text Available Abstract A broad class of engineering systems can be satisfactory modeled under the assumptions of small deformations and linear material properties. However, many mechanical systems used in modern applications, like structural elements typical of aerospace and petroleum industries, have been characterized by increased slenderness and high static and dynamic loads. In such situations, it becomes indispensable to consider the nonlinear geometric effects and/or material nonlinear behavior. At the same time, in many cases involving dynamic loads, there comes the need for attenuation of vibration levels. In this context, this paper describes the development and validation of numerical models of viscoelastic slender beam-like structures undergoing large displacements. The numerical approach is based on the combination of the nonlinear Cosserat beam theory and a viscoelastic model based on Fractional Derivatives. Such combination enables to derive nonlinear equations of motion that, upon finite element discretization, can be used for predicting the dynamic behavior of the structure in the time domain, accounting for geometric nonlinearity and viscoelastic damping. The modeling methodology is illustrated and validated by numerical simulations, the results of which are compared to others available in the literature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Mikkel
and associated comonads, it highlights the role of linearity in concurrent computation. Two choices of comonad yield two expressive metalanguages for higher-order processes, both arising from canonical constructions in the model. Their denotational semantics are fully abstract with respect to contextual...... equivalence. One language, called HOPLA for Higher-Order Process LAnguage, derives from an exponential of linear logic. It can be viewed as an extension of the simply-typed lambda calculus with CCS-like nondeterministic sum and prefix operations, in which types express the form of computation path of which...
When good is stickier than bad: Understanding gain/loss asymmetries in sequential framing effects.
Sparks, Jehan; Ledgerwood, Alison
2017-08-01
Considerable research has demonstrated the power of the current positive or negative frame to shape people's current judgments. But humans must often learn about positive and negative information as they encounter that information sequentially over time. It is therefore crucial to consider the potential importance of sequencing when developing an understanding of how humans think about valenced information. Indeed, recent work looking at sequentially encountered frames suggests that some frames can linger outside the context in which they are first encountered, sticking in the mind so that subsequent frames have a muted effect. The present research builds a comprehensive account of sequential framing effects in both the loss and the gain domains. After seeing information about a potential gain or loss framed in positive terms or negative terms, participants saw the same issue reframed in the opposing way. Across 5 studies and 1566 participants, we find accumulating evidence for the notion that in the gain domain, positive frames are stickier than negative frames for novel but not familiar scenarios, whereas in the loss domain, negative frames are always stickier than positive frames. Integrating regulatory focus theory with the literatures on negativity dominance and positivity offset, we develop a new and comprehensive account of sequential framing effects that emphasizes the adaptive value of positivity and negativity biases in specific contexts. Our findings highlight the fact that research conducted solely in the loss domain risks painting an incomplete and oversimplified picture of human bias and suggest new directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
French Simon D
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s of delivery could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? Results A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. Conclusions We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be
French, Simon D; Green, Sally E; O'Connor, Denise A; McKenzie, Joanne E; Francis, Jill J; Michie, Susan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Schattner, Peter; Spike, Neil; Grimshaw, Jeremy M
2012-04-24
There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary framework to guide researchers through a
Sequential charged particle reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo
2004-01-01
The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)
Campbell and moment measures for finite sequential spatial processes
M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette)
2006-01-01
textabstractWe define moment and Campbell measures for sequential spatial processes, prove a Campbell-Mecke theorem, and relate the results to their counterparts in the theory of point processes. In particular, we show that any finite sequential spatial process model can be derived as the vector
Reading Remediation Based on Sequential and Simultaneous Processing.
Gunnison, Judy; And Others
1982-01-01
The theory postulating a dichotomy between sequential and simultaneous processing is reviewed and its implications for remediating reading problems are reviewed. Research is cited on sequential-simultaneous processing for early and advanced reading. A list of remedial strategies based on the processing dichotomy addresses decoding and lexical…
Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Hamdan, Noora; Sorhagen, Nicole S; D'Esterre, Alexander P
2017-06-01
Individuals' implicit theories of intelligence exist on a spectrum, from believing intelligence is fixed and unchangeable, to believing it is malleable and can be improved with effort. A belief in malleable intelligence leads to adaptive responses to challenge and higher achievement. However, surprisingly little is known about the development of academic-domain-specific theories of intelligence (i.e., math vs. reading and writing). The authors examined this in a cross-section of students from 1st grade to college (N = 523). They also examined whether students hold different beliefs about the role of fixed ability in adult jobs versus their own grade. The authors' adult-specific beliefs hypothesis states that when children learn societally held beliefs from adults, they first apply these beliefs specifically to adults and later to students their own age. Consistent with this, even the youngest students (1st and 2nd graders) believed that success in an adult job requires more fixed ability in math than reading and writing. However, when asked about students in their own grade, only high school and college students reported that math involves more fixed ability than reading and writing. High school and college students' math-specific theories of intelligence were related to their motivation and achievement in math, controlling for reading and writing-specific theories. Reading and writing-specific theories did not predict reading and writing-specific motivations or achievement, perhaps because students perceive reading and writing as less challenging than math. In summary, academic-domain-specific theories of intelligence develop early but may not become self-relevant until adolescence, and math-specific beliefs may be especially important targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Moyer, Joanne M.; Sinclair, A. John
2016-01-01
Transformative learning theory is applied in a variety of fields, including archaeology, religious studies, health care, the physical sciences, environmental studies, and natural resource management. Given the breadth of the theory's application, it needs to be adaptable to broad contexts. This article shares insights gained from applying the…
Sargent, Lucy; McCullough, Amanda; Del Mar, Chris; Lowe, John
2017-02-13
Delayed antibiotic prescribing reduces antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in trials in general practice, but the uptake in clinical practice is low. The aim of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to general practitioners' (GPs') use of delayed prescribing and to gain pharmacists' and the public's views about delayed prescribing in Australia. This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia. Forty-three semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with general practitioners, pharmacists and patients were conducted. Responses were coded into domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework, and specific criteria from the Behaviour Change Wheel were used to identify which domains were relevant to increasing the use of delayed prescribing by GPs. The interviews revealed nine key domains that influence GPs' use of delayed prescribing: knowledge; cognitive and interpersonal skills; memory, attention and decision-making processes; optimism; beliefs about consequences; intentions; goals; emotion; and social influences: GPs knew about delayed prescribing; however, they did not use it consistently, preferring to bring patients back for review and only using it with patients in a highly selective way. Pharmacists would support GPs and the public in delayed prescribing but would fill the prescription if people insisted. The public said they would delay taking their antibiotics if asked by their GP and given the right information on managing symptoms and when to take antibiotics. Using a theory-driven approach, we identified nine key domains that influence GPs' willingness to provide a delayed prescription to patients with an acute respiratory infection presenting to general practice. These data can be used to develop a structured intervention to change this behaviour and thus reduce antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in general practice.
Sequential memory: Binding dynamics
Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail
2015-10-01
Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.
Sequential Dependencies in Driving
Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.
2012-01-01
The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…
Mining compressing sequential problems
Hoang, T.L.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Calders, T.G.K.
2012-01-01
Compression based pattern mining has been successfully applied to many data mining tasks. We propose an approach based on the minimum description length principle to extract sequential patterns that compress a database of sequences well. We show that mining compressing patterns is NP-Hard and
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio
2012-01-01
We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of
Werner, Hans-Joachim
2008-09-14
A new explicitly correlated local MP2-F12 method is proposed in which the error caused by truncating the virtual orbital space to pair-specific local domains is almost entirely removed. This is achieved by a simple modification of the ansatz for the explicitly correlated wave function, which makes it possible that the explicitly correlated terms correct both for the basis set incompleteness error as well as for the domain error in the LMP2. Benchmark calculations are presented for 21 molecules and 16 chemical reactions. The results demonstrate that the local approximations have hardly any effect on the accuracy of the computed correlation energies and reaction energies, and the LMP2-F12 reaction energies agree within 0.1-0.2 kcal/mol with estimated MP2 basis set limits.
Cohen, Adam S; German, Tamsin C
2010-06-01
In a task where participants' overt task was to track the location of an object across a sequence of events, reaction times to unpredictable probes requiring an inference about a social agent's beliefs about the location of that object were obtained. Reaction times to false belief situations were faster than responses about the (false) contents of a map showing the location of the object (Experiment 1) and about the (false) direction of an arrow signaling the location of the object (Experiment 2). These results are consistent with developmental, neuro-imaging and neuropsychological evidence that there exist domain specific mechanisms within human cognition for encoding and reasoning about mental states. Specialization of these mechanisms may arise from either core cognitive architecture or via the accumulation of expertise in the social domain.
Violato, Claudio; Gao, Hong; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Grier, David; Shen, E.
2018-01-01
The distinction between basic sciences and clinical knowledge which has led to a theoretical debate on how medical expertise is developed has implications for medical school and lifelong medical education. This longitudinal, population based observational study was conducted to test the fit of three theories--knowledge encapsulation, independent…
West, Leo H. T.; Kellett, Natalie C.
1981-01-01
Tests the applicability of Ausubel's theory to the meaningful learning of intellectual skills. Results of three studies of high school students indicate that advance organizers enhance learning of skills related to solubility product problems. This effect was removed if prior teaching in relevant background knowledge was included. (Author/WB)
Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole Riis
In this thesis we describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon codes with non-uniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance...... is possible as low as Eb/No=0.6 dB, which is about 1.7 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio that marks the cut-off rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability...... of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first Reed-Solomon word is decoded after C computations are presented. This is supported by simulation results that are also extended to other parameters....
Modelling sequentially scored item responses
Akkermans, W.
2000-01-01
The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is
Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik
1998-01-01
We describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon (RS) codes with nonuniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is possible as low...... as Eb/N0=0.6 dB, which is about 1.25 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that marks the cutoff rate for the full system. Accounting for about 0.45 dB due to the outer codes, sequential decoding takes place at about 1.7 dB below the SNR cutoff rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since...... the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first RS word is decoded after C computations are presented. These results are supported...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Yangping; Gao Huahun; Fu Longzhou
1991-01-01
A state-of-the-art multi-variable frequency-domain model has been developed for analysis of instabilities of nuclear-coupled density-wave in BWR core. The characteristic locus method is used for analysing the stability of BWR. A computer code-NUCTHIA has been derived. The model has been tested against the existing experimental data and compared with results of past single-variable analyses. By using the NUCTHIA code, the investigations of effects of main system parameters on BWW core stability have also been made. All the results are consistent with the experimental data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haberland, Hartmut
2005-01-01
politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...
How to Read the Tractatus Sequentially
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tim Kraft
2016-11-01
Full Text Available One of the unconventional features of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is its use of an elaborated and detailed numbering system. Recently, Bazzocchi, Hacker und Kuusela have argued that the numbering system means that the Tractatus must be read and interpreted not as a sequentially ordered book, but as a text with a two-dimensional, tree-like structure. Apart from being able to explain how the Tractatus was composed, the tree reading allegedly solves exegetical issues both on the local (e. g. how 4.02 fits into the series of remarks surrounding it and the global level (e. g. relation between ontology and picture theory, solipsism and the eye analogy, resolute and irresolute readings. This paper defends the sequential reading against the tree reading. After presenting the challenges generated by the numbering system and the two accounts as attempts to solve them, it is argued that Wittgenstein’s own explanation of the numbering system, anaphoric references within the Tractatus and the exegetical issues mentioned above do not favour the tree reading, but a version of the sequential reading. This reading maintains that the remarks of the Tractatus form a sequential chain: The role of the numbers is to indicate how remarks on different levels are interconnected to form a concise, surveyable and unified whole.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Toshihiro
1981-01-01
Probabilities of meson production in the sequential decay of Reggeons, which are formed from the projectile and the target in the hadron-hadron to Reggeon-Reggeon processes, are investigated. It is assumed that pair creation of heavy quarks and simultaneous creation of two antiquark-quark pairs are negligible. The leading-order terms with respect to ratio of creation probabilities of anti s s to anti u u (anti d d) are calculated. The production cross sections in the target fragmentation region are given in terms of probabilities in the initial decay of the Reggeons and an effect of manyparticle production. (author)
Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization
Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav
2013-01-01
A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monniaux, D.
2009-06-15
Software operating critical systems (aircraft, nuclear power plants) should not fail - whereas most computerised systems of daily life (personal computer, ticket vending machines, cell phone) fail from time to time. This is not a simple engineering problem: it is known, since the works of Turing and Cook, that proving that programs work correctly is intrinsically hard. In order to solve this problem, one needs methods that are, at the same time, efficient (moderate costs in time and memory), safe (all possible failures should be found), and precise (few warnings about nonexistent failures). In order to reach a satisfactory compromise between these goals, one can research fields as diverse as formal logic, numerical analysis or 'classical' algorithmics. From 2002 to 2007 I participated in the development of the Astree static analyser. This suggested to me a number of side projects, both theoretical and practical (use of formal proof techniques, analysis of numerical filters...). More recently, I became interested in modular analysis of numerical property and in the applications to program analysis of constraint solving techniques (semi-definite programming, SAT and SAT modulo theory). (author)
Guo, Yang; Becker, Ute; Neese, Frank
2018-03-01
Local correlation theories have been developed in two main flavors: (1) "direct" local correlation methods apply local approximation to the canonical equations and (2) fragment based methods reconstruct the correlation energy from a series of smaller calculations on subsystems. The present work serves two purposes. First, we investigate the relative efficiencies of the two approaches using the domain-based local pair natural orbital (DLPNO) approach as the "direct" method and the cluster in molecule (CIM) approach as the fragment based approach. Both approaches are applied in conjunction with second-order many-body perturbation theory (MP2) as well as coupled-cluster theory with single-, double- and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. Second, we have investigated the possible merits of combining the two approaches by performing CIM calculations with DLPNO methods serving as the method of choice for performing the subsystem calculations. Our cluster-in-molecule approach is closely related to but slightly deviates from approaches in the literature since we have avoided real space cutoffs. Moreover, the neglected distant pair correlations in the previous CIM approach are considered approximately. Six very large molecules (503-2380 atoms) were studied. At both MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory, the CIM and DLPNO methods show similar efficiency. However, DLPNO methods are more accurate for 3-dimensional systems. While we have found only little incentive for the combination of CIM with DLPNO-MP2, the situation is different for CIM-DLPNO-CCSD(T). This combination is attractive because (1) the better parallelization opportunities offered by CIM; (2) the methodology is less memory intensive than the genuine DLPNO-CCSD(T) method and, hence, allows for large calculations on more modest hardware; and (3) the methodology is applicable and efficient in the frequently met cases, where the largest subsystem calculation is too large for the canonical CCSD(T) method.
Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke
2008-01-01
A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monniaux, D.
2009-06-01
Software operating critical systems (aircraft, nuclear power plants) should not fail - whereas most computerised systems of daily life (personal computer, ticket vending machines, cell phone) fail from time to time. This is not a simple engineering problem: it is known, since the works of Turing and Cook, that proving that programs work correctly is intrinsically hard. In order to solve this problem, one needs methods that are, at the same time, efficient (moderate costs in time and memory), safe (all possible failures should be found), and precise (few warnings about nonexistent failures). In order to reach a satisfactory compromise between these goals, one can research fields as diverse as formal logic, numerical analysis or 'classical' algorithmics. From 2002 to 2007 I participated in the development of the Astree static analyser. This suggested to me a number of side projects, both theoretical and practical (use of formal proof techniques, analysis of numerical filters...). More recently, I became interested in modular analysis of numerical property and in the applications to program analysis of constraint solving techniques (semi-definite programming, SAT and SAT modulo theory). (author)
Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin
2013-06-28
In a qualitative substudy, we sought to elicit participants' perspectives of their behavioural change and maintenance of new behaviours towards intervention optimisation. The intervention was delivered in leisure and community settings in a local authority, which according to the UK government statistics ranks as 1 of the 10 most socioeconomically deprived areas in England. We recruited 218 adults aged 40-65 years at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score≥11) to the intervention. Follow-up at 12 months was completed by 134 (62%). We recruited 15 participants, purposively sampled for physical activity increase, to the qualitative substudy. Lifestyle intervention can prevent type 2 diabetes, but translation to service provision remains challenging. The 'New life, New you' intervention aimed to promote physical activity, healthy eating and weight loss, and included supervised group physical activity sessions. Behavioural change and weight loss at 12-month follow-up were encouraging. We conducted 15 individual semistructured interviews. The Framework approach, with a comparison of emerging themes, was used in analysis of the transcribed data and complemented by the Theory Domains Framework. Themes emerging from the data were grouped as perceptions that promoted initiating, enacting and maintaining behavioural change. The data were then categorised in accordance with the Theory Domains Framework: intentions and goals; reinforcement; knowledge; social role and identity; social influences; skills and beliefs about capabilities; behavioural regulation, memory, emotion, attention and decision processes and environmental context and resources. Participant perceptions of intervention features that facilitated behavioural change processes were then similarly analysed. Social influences, reference to social role and identity (eg, peer support), and intentions and goals (eg, to lose weight) were dominant themes across the three phases of behavioural
Sequential and simultaneous choices: testing the diet selection and sequential choice models.
Freidin, Esteban; Aw, Justine; Kacelnik, Alex
2009-03-01
We investigate simultaneous and sequential choices in starlings, using Charnov's Diet Choice Model (DCM) and Shapiro, Siller and Kacelnik's Sequential Choice Model (SCM) to integrate function and mechanism. During a training phase, starlings encountered one food-related option per trial (A, B or R) in random sequence and with equal probability. A and B delivered food rewards after programmed delays (shorter for A), while R ('rejection') moved directly to the next trial without reward. In this phase we measured latencies to respond. In a later, choice, phase, birds encountered the pairs A-B, A-R and B-R, the first implementing a simultaneous choice and the second and third sequential choices. The DCM predicts when R should be chosen to maximize intake rate, and SCM uses latencies of the training phase to predict choices between any pair of options in the choice phase. The predictions of both models coincided, and both successfully predicted the birds' preferences. The DCM does not deal with partial preferences, while the SCM does, and experimental results were strongly correlated to this model's predictions. We believe that the SCM may expose a very general mechanism of animal choice, and that its wider domain of success reflects the greater ecological significance of sequential over simultaneous choices.
Adaptive sequential controller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)
1994-01-01
An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.
Adaptive sequential controller
El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso
1994-01-01
An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.
Datta, Dipayan; Kossmann, Simone; Neese, Frank
2016-09-01
The domain-based local pair-natural orbital coupled-cluster (DLPNO-CC) theory has recently emerged as an efficient and powerful quantum-chemical method for the calculation of energies of molecules comprised of several hundred atoms. It has been demonstrated that the DLPNO-CC approach attains the accuracy of a standard canonical coupled-cluster calculation to about 99.9% of the basis set correlation energy while realizing linear scaling of the computational cost with respect to system size. This is achieved by combining (a) localized occupied orbitals, (b) large virtual orbital correlation domains spanned by the projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), and (c) compaction of the virtual space through a truncated pair natural orbital (PNO) basis. In this paper, we report on the implementation of an analytic scheme for the calculation of the first derivatives of the DLPNO-CC energy for basis set independent perturbations within the singles and doubles approximation (DLPNO-CCSD) for closed-shell molecules. Perturbation-independent one-particle density matrices have been implemented in order to account for the response of the CC wave function to the external perturbation. Orbital-relaxation effects due to external perturbation are not taken into account in the current implementation. We investigate in detail the dependence of the computed first-order electrical properties (e.g., dipole moment) on the three major truncation parameters used in a DLPNO-CC calculation, namely, the natural orbital occupation number cutoff used for the construction of the PNOs, the weak electron-pair cutoff, and the domain size cutoff. No additional truncation parameter has been introduced for property calculation. We present benchmark calculations on dipole moments for a set of 10 molecules consisting of 20-40 atoms. We demonstrate that 98%-99% accuracy relative to the canonical CCSD results can be consistently achieved in these calculations. However, this comes with the price of tightening the
Quantum Inequalities and Sequential Measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candelpergher, B.; Grandouz, T.; Rubinx, J.L.
2011-01-01
In this article, the peculiar context of sequential measurements is chosen in order to analyze the quantum specificity in the two most famous examples of Heisenberg and Bell inequalities: Results are found at some interesting variance with customary textbook materials, where the context of initial state re-initialization is described. A key-point of the analysis is the possibility of defining Joint Probability Distributions for sequential random variables associated to quantum operators. Within the sequential context, it is shown that Joint Probability Distributions can be defined in situations where not all of the quantum operators (corresponding to random variables) do commute two by two. (authors)
A sequential binding mechanism in a PDZ domain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chi, Celestine N; Bach, Anders; Engström, Åke
2009-01-01
that ligand binding involves at least a two-step process. By using an ultrarapid continuous-flow mixer, we then detected a hyperbolic dependence of binding rate constants on peptide concentration, corroborating the two-step binding mechanism. Furthermore, we found a similar dependence of the rate constants...
Beriozkin, A.; Mualem, Y.
2018-05-01
This study theoretically analyzes the concept of apparent saturation hysteresis, combined with the Scott et al. (1983) scaling approach, as suggested by Parker and Lenhard (1987), to account for the effect of air entrapment and release on the soil water hysteresis. We found that the theory of Parker and Lenhard (1987) is comprised of some mutually canceling mathematical operations, and when cleared of the superfluous intermediate calculations, their model reduces to the original Scott et al.'s (1983) scaling method, supplemented with the requirement of closure of scanning loops. Our analysis reveals that actually there is no effect of their technique of accounting for the entrapped air on the final prediction of the effective saturation (or water content) scanning curves. Our consideration indicates that the use of the Land (1968) formula for assessing the amount of entrapped air is in disaccord with the apparent saturation concept as introduced by Parker and Lenhard (1987). In this paper, a proper routine is suggested for predicting hysteretic scanning curves of any order, given the two measured main curves, in the complete hysteretic domain and some verification tests are carried out versus measured results. Accordingly, explicit closed-form formulae for direct prediction (with no need of intermediate calculation) of scanning curves up to the third order are derived to sustain our analysis.
Framework for sequential approximate optimization
Jacobs, J.H.; Etman, L.F.P.; Keulen, van F.; Rooda, J.E.
2004-01-01
An object-oriented framework for Sequential Approximate Optimization (SAO) isproposed. The framework aims to provide an open environment for thespecification and implementation of SAO strategies. The framework is based onthe Python programming language and contains a toolbox of Python
Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator
Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA
2009-08-18
A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.
The Motivating Language of Principals: A Sequential Transformative Strategy
Holmes, William Tobias
2012-01-01
This study implemented a Sequential Transformative Mixed Methods design with teachers (as recipients) and principals (to give voice) in the examination of principal talk in two different school accountability contexts (Continuously Improving and Continuously Zigzag) using the conceptual framework of Motivating Language Theory. In phase one,…
Making Career Decisions--A Sequential Elimination Approach.
Gati, Itamar
1986-01-01
Presents a model for career decision making based on the sequential elimination of occupational alternatives, an adaptation for career decisions of Tversky's (1972) elimination-by-aspects theory of choice. The expected utility approach is reviewed as a representative compensatory model for career decisions. Advantages, disadvantages, and…
Sequential Computerized Mastery Tests--Three Simulation Studies
Wiberg, Marie
2006-01-01
A simulation study of a sequential computerized mastery test is carried out with items modeled with the 3 parameter logistic item response theory model. The examinees' responses are either identically distributed, not identically distributed, or not identically distributed together with estimation errors in the item characteristics. The…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjørland, Birger
2017-01-01
The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studies....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....
Sequential flavor symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas
2009-01-01
The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.
Sequential flavor symmetry breaking
Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas
2009-08-01
The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riplinger, Christoph; Pinski, Peter; Becker, Ute; Neese, Frank; Valeev, Edward F.
2016-01-01
Domain based local pair natural orbital coupled cluster theory with single-, double-, and perturbative triple excitations (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) is a highly efficient local correlation method. It is known to be accurate and robust and can be used in a black box fashion in order to obtain coupled cluster quality total energies for large molecules with several hundred atoms. While previous implementations showed near linear scaling up to a few hundred atoms, several nonlinear scaling steps limited the applicability of the method for very large systems. In this work, these limitations are overcome and a linear scaling DLPNO-CCSD(T) method for closed shell systems is reported. The new implementation is based on the concept of sparse maps that was introduced in Part I of this series [P. Pinski, C. Riplinger, E. F. Valeev, and F. Neese, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 034108 (2015)]. Using the sparse map infrastructure, all essential computational steps (integral transformation and storage, initial guess, pair natural orbital construction, amplitude iterations, triples correction) are achieved in a linear scaling fashion. In addition, a number of additional algorithmic improvements are reported that lead to significant speedups of the method. The new, linear-scaling DLPNO-CCSD(T) implementation typically is 7 times faster than the previous implementation and consumes 4 times less disk space for large three-dimensional systems. For linear systems, the performance gains and memory savings are substantially larger. Calculations with more than 20 000 basis functions and 1000 atoms are reported in this work. In all cases, the time required for the coupled cluster step is comparable to or lower than for the preceding Hartree-Fock calculation, even if this is carried out with the efficient resolution-of-the-identity and chain-of-spheres approximations. The new implementation even reduces the error in absolute correlation energies by about a factor of two, compared to the already accurate
Sequential experiments with primes
Caragiu, Mihai
2017-01-01
With a specific focus on the mathematical life in small undergraduate colleges, this book presents a variety of elementary number theory insights involving sequences largely built from prime numbers and contingent number-theoretic functions. Chapters include new mathematical ideas and open problems, some of which are proved in the text. Vector valued MGPF sequences, extensions of Conway’s Subprime Fibonacci sequences, and linear complexity of bit streams derived from GPF sequences are among the topics covered in this book. This book is perfect for the pure-mathematics-minded educator in a small undergraduate college as well as graduate students and advanced undergraduate students looking for a significant high-impact learning experience in mathematics.
The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications
Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto
2012-01-01
The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.
Remarks on sequential designs in risk assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seidenfeld, T.
1982-01-01
The special merits of sequential designs are reviewed in light of particular challenges that attend risk assessment for human population. The kinds of ''statistical inference'' are distinguished and the problem of design which is pursued is the clash between Neyman-Pearson and Bayesian programs of sequential design. The value of sequential designs is discussed and the Neyman-Pearson vs. Bayesian sequential designs are probed in particular. Finally, warnings with sequential designs are considered, especially in relation to utilitarianism
A micromagnetic study of domain structure modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuo, Tetsuji; Mimuro, Naoki; Shimasaki, Masaaki
2008-01-01
To develop a mesoscopic model for magnetic-domain behavior, a domain structure model (DSM) was examined and compared with a micromagnetic simulation. The domain structure of this model is given by several domains with uniform magnetization vectors and domain walls. The directions of magnetization vectors and the locations of domain walls are determined so as to minimize the magnetic total energy of the magnetic material. The DSM was modified to improve its representation capability for domain behavior. The domain wall energy is multiplied by a vanishing factor to represent the disappearance of magnetic domain. The sequential quadratic programming procedure is divided into two steps to improve an energy minimization process. A comparison with micromagnetic simulation shows that the modified DSM improves the representation accuracy of the magnetization process
Deposition and growth of domains in one dimension
Rodgers, G. J.; Tavassoli, Z.
1998-09-01
A model of deposition and growth in one dimension is studied in which finite sized domains are deposited by the random sequential adsorption process. The domains then grow with a time dependent growth rate. When the initial deposited domains are monomers and dimers the coverage is found exactly for a number of different growth rates. A continuum version of this model is also considered.
Sequential versus simultaneous market delineation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haldrup, Niels; Møllgaard, Peter; Kastberg Nielsen, Claus
2005-01-01
and geographical markets. Using a unique data setfor prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodologyfor simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that comparedto a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.JEL: C3, K21, L41, Q22Keywords: Relevant market, econometric delineation......Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrustcases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product marketis delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographicaldimension...
Sequential logic analysis and synthesis
Cavanagh, Joseph
2007-01-01
Until now, there was no single resource for actual digital system design. Using both basic and advanced concepts, Sequential Logic: Analysis and Synthesis offers a thorough exposition of the analysis and synthesis of both synchronous and asynchronous sequential machines. With 25 years of experience in designing computing equipment, the author stresses the practical design of state machines. He clearly delineates each step of the structured and rigorous design principles that can be applied to practical applications. The book begins by reviewing the analysis of combinatorial logic and Boolean a
Bjørner, Dines
Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.
Domain architecture conservation in orthologs
2011-01-01
Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the
Evaluation Using Sequential Trials Methods.
Cohen, Mark E.; Ralls, Stephen A.
1986-01-01
Although dental school faculty as well as practitioners are interested in evaluating products and procedures used in clinical practice, research design and statistical analysis can sometimes pose problems. Sequential trials methods provide an analytical structure that is both easy to use and statistically valid. (Author/MLW)
Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction
Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando
2015-01-01
We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of
A convergent overlapping domain decomposition method for total variation minimization
Fornasier, Massimo; Langer, Andreas; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane
2010-01-01
In this paper we are concerned with the analysis of convergent sequential and parallel overlapping domain decomposition methods for the minimization of functionals formed by a discrepancy term with respect to the data and a total variation
Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing
Kim, Kwang-Ki K.; Shamma, Jeff S.
2014-01-01
incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well
A path-level exact parallelization strategy for sequential simulation
Peredo, Oscar F.; Baeza, Daniel; Ortiz, Julián M.; Herrero, José R.
2018-01-01
Sequential Simulation is a well known method in geostatistical modelling. Following the Bayesian approach for simulation of conditionally dependent random events, Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) method draws simulated values for K categories (categorical case) or classes defined by K different thresholds (continuous case). Similarly, Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) method draws simulated values from a multivariate Gaussian field. In this work, a path-level approach to parallelize SIS and SGS methods is presented. A first stage of re-arrangement of the simulation path is performed, followed by a second stage of parallel simulation for non-conflicting nodes. A key advantage of the proposed parallelization method is to generate identical realizations as with the original non-parallelized methods. Case studies are presented using two sequential simulation codes from GSLIB: SISIM and SGSIM. Execution time and speedup results are shown for large-scale domains, with many categories and maximum kriging neighbours in each case, achieving high speedup results in the best scenarios using 16 threads of execution in a single machine.
Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage
Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.
2009-01-01
A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…
Sequential Probability Ration Tests : Conservative and Robust
Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Shi, Wen
2017-01-01
In practice, most computers generate simulation outputs sequentially, so it is attractive to analyze these outputs through sequential statistical methods such as sequential probability ratio tests (SPRTs). We investigate several SPRTs for choosing between two hypothesized values for the mean output
Random sequential adsorption of cubes
Cieśla, Michał; Kubala, Piotr
2018-01-01
Random packings built of cubes are studied numerically using a random sequential adsorption algorithm. To compare the obtained results with previous reports, three different models of cube orientation sampling were used. Also, three different cube-cube intersection algorithms were tested to find the most efficient one. The study focuses on the mean saturated packing fraction as well as kinetics of packing growth. Microstructural properties of packings were analyzed using density autocorrelation function.
Managerial adjustment and its limits: sequential fault in comparative perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flávio da Cunha Rezende
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This article focuses on explanations for sequential faults in administrative reform. It deals with the limits of managerial adjustment in an approach that attempts to connect theory and empirical data, articulating three levels of analysis. The first level presents comparative evidence of sequential fault within reforms in national governments through a set of indicators geared toward understanding changes in the role of the state. In light of analyses of a representative set of comparative studies on reform implementation, the second analytical level proceeds to identify four typical mechanisms that are present in explanations on managerial adjustment faults. In this way, we seek to configure an explanatory matrix for theories on sequential fault. Next we discuss the experience of management reform in the Brazilian context, conferring special attention on one of the mechanisms that creates fault: the control dilemma. The major hypotheses that guide our article are that reforms lead to sequential fault and that there are at least four causal mechanisms that produce reforms: a transactions costs involved in producing reforms; b performance legacy; c predominance of fiscal adjustment and d the control dilemma. These mechanisms act separately or in concert, and act to decrease chances for a transformation of State managerial patterns. Major evidence that is analyzed in these articles lend consistency to the general argument that reforms have failed in their attempts to reduce public expenses, alter patterns of resource allocation, reduce the labor force and change the role of the State. Our major conclusion is that reforms fail sequentially and managerial adjustment displays considerable limitations, particularly those of a political nature.
Research on parallel algorithm for sequential pattern mining
Zhou, Lijuan; Qin, Bai; Wang, Yu; Hao, Zhongxiao
2008-03-01
Sequential pattern mining is the mining of frequent sequences related to time or other orders from the sequence database. Its initial motivation is to discover the laws of customer purchasing in a time section by finding the frequent sequences. In recent years, sequential pattern mining has become an important direction of data mining, and its application field has not been confined to the business database and has extended to new data sources such as Web and advanced science fields such as DNA analysis. The data of sequential pattern mining has characteristics as follows: mass data amount and distributed storage. Most existing sequential pattern mining algorithms haven't considered the above-mentioned characteristics synthetically. According to the traits mentioned above and combining the parallel theory, this paper puts forward a new distributed parallel algorithm SPP(Sequential Pattern Parallel). The algorithm abides by the principal of pattern reduction and utilizes the divide-and-conquer strategy for parallelization. The first parallel task is to construct frequent item sets applying frequent concept and search space partition theory and the second task is to structure frequent sequences using the depth-first search method at each processor. The algorithm only needs to access the database twice and doesn't generate the candidated sequences, which abates the access time and improves the mining efficiency. Based on the random data generation procedure and different information structure designed, this paper simulated the SPP algorithm in a concrete parallel environment and implemented the AprioriAll algorithm. The experiments demonstrate that compared with AprioriAll, the SPP algorithm had excellent speedup factor and efficiency.
Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick
2011-01-01
Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iwahara, M [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sugiura, T; Takaiwa, H; Nagamatsu, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
1997-10-01
An approach is presented for the identification of spatial matrix with modal parameters in the frequency domain. Modal parameters are transformed to spatial matrix with constraints of modal vector orthogonality and characteristic equation. Adding the connecting conditions or unconnected conditions of measuring points, spatial matrix is determined by modal parameters whose number is smaller than that of dimension of spatial matrix. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Man, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA
2016-10-01
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been widely used in parameter estimation for hydrological models. The focus of most previous studies was to develop more efficient analysis (estimation) algorithms. On the other hand, it is intuitively understandable that a well-designed sampling (data-collection) strategy should provide more informative measurements and subsequently improve the parameter estimation. In this work, a Sequential Ensemble-based Optimal Design (SEOD) method, coupled with EnKF, information theory and sequential optimal design, is proposed to improve the performance of parameter estimation. Based on the first-order and second-order statistics, different information metrics including the Shannon entropy difference (SD), degrees of freedom for signal (DFS) and relative entropy (RE) are used to design the optimal sampling strategy, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthetic one-dimensional and two-dimensional unsaturated flow case studies. It is shown that the designed sampling strategies can provide more accurate parameter estimation and state prediction compared with conventional sampling strategies. Optimal sampling designs based on various information metrics perform similarly in our cases. The effect of ensemble size on the optimal design is also investigated. Overall, larger ensemble size improves the parameter estimation and convergence of optimal sampling strategy. Although the proposed method is applied to unsaturated flow problems in this study, it can be equally applied in any other hydrological problems.
Sequential series for nuclear reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izumo, Ko
1975-01-01
A new time-dependent treatment of nuclear reactions is given, in which the wave function of compound nucleus is expanded by a sequential series of the reaction processes. The wave functions of the sequential series form another complete set of compound nucleus at the limit Δt→0. It is pointed out that the wave function is characterized by the quantities: the number of degrees of freedom of motion n, the period of the motion (Poincare cycle) tsub(n), the delay time t sub(nμ) and the relaxation time tausub(n) to the equilibrium of compound nucleus, instead of the usual quantum number lambda, the energy eigenvalue Esub(lambda) and the total width GAMMAsub(lambda) of resonance levels, respectively. The transition matrix elements and the yields of nuclear reactions also become the functions of time given by the Fourier transform of the usual ones. The Poincare cycles of compound nuclei are compared with the observed correlations among resonance levels, which are about 10 -17 --10 -16 sec for medium and heavy nuclei and about 10 -20 sec for the intermediate resonances. (auth.)
New parallel SOR method by domain partitioning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Dexuan [Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences New York Univ., NY (United States)
1996-12-31
In this paper, we propose and analyze a new parallel SOR method, the PSOR method, formulated by using domain partitioning together with an interprocessor data-communication technique. For the 5-point approximation to the Poisson equation on a square, we show that the ordering of the PSOR based on the strip partition leads to a consistently ordered matrix, and hence the PSOR and the SOR using the row-wise ordering have the same convergence rate. However, in general, the ordering used in PSOR may not be {open_quote}consistently ordered{close_quotes}. So, there is a need to analyze the convergence of PSOR directly. In this paper, we present a PSOR theory, and show that the PSOR method can have the same asymptotic rate of convergence as the corresponding sequential SOR method for a wide class of linear systems in which the matrix is {open_quotes}consistently ordered{close_quotes}. Finally, we demonstrate the parallel performance of the PSOR method on four different message passing multiprocessors (a KSR1, the Intel Delta, an Intel Paragon and an IBM SP2), along with a comparison with the point Red-Black and four-color SOR methods.
Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.
2010-01-01
It is widely assumed that children with autism have a diminished understanding of the perception-knowledge relationship, as a specific manifestation of a theory of mind (ToM) impairment. However, such a conclusion may not be justified on the basis of previous studies, which have suffered from significant methodological weaknesses. The current…
Bruijn, de G.J.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Putte, van den B.; Vries, de N.K.
2012-01-01
Objectives: To study whether exercise action control profiles should be usefully extended to include exercise identity. Further, this study investigated theory of planned behaviour antecedents of exercise identity. Design: Prospective data from 413 undergraduate students (M age ¼ 21.4; 73.5%
Domain wall networks on solitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sutcliffe, Paul
2003-01-01
Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZ n symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks
Exploring the sequential lineup advantage using WITNESS.
Goodsell, Charles A; Gronlund, Scott D; Carlson, Curt A
2010-12-01
Advocates claim that the sequential lineup is an improvement over simultaneous lineup procedures, but no formal (quantitatively specified) explanation exists for why it is better. The computational model WITNESS (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) was used to develop theoretical explanations for the sequential lineup advantage. In its current form, WITNESS produced a sequential advantage only by pairing conservative sequential choosing with liberal simultaneous choosing. However, this combination failed to approximate four extant experiments that exhibited large sequential advantages. Two of these experiments became the focus of our efforts because the data were uncontaminated by likely suspect position effects. Decision-based and memory-based modifications to WITNESS approximated the data and produced a sequential advantage. The next step is to evaluate the proposed explanations and modify public policy recommendations accordingly.
Formal modelling and verification of interlocking systems featuring sequential release
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan
2017-01-01
In this article, we present a method and an associated toolchain for the formal verification of the new Danish railway interlocking systems that are compatible with the European Train Control System (ETCS) Level 2. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behaviour and generic...... safety properties. This model accommodates sequential release - a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. To verify the safety of an interlocking system, first a domain-specific description of interlocking configuration data is constructed and validated. Then the generic model and safety...
The Bacterial Sequential Markov Coalescent.
De Maio, Nicola; Wilson, Daniel J
2017-05-01
Bacteria can exchange and acquire new genetic material from other organisms directly and via the environment. This process, known as bacterial recombination, has a strong impact on the evolution of bacteria, for example, leading to the spread of antibiotic resistance across clades and species, and to the avoidance of clonal interference. Recombination hinders phylogenetic and transmission inference because it creates patterns of substitutions (homoplasies) inconsistent with the hypothesis of a single evolutionary tree. Bacterial recombination is typically modeled as statistically akin to gene conversion in eukaryotes, i.e. , using the coalescent with gene conversion (CGC). However, this model can be very computationally demanding as it needs to account for the correlations of evolutionary histories of even distant loci. So, with the increasing popularity of whole genome sequencing, the need has emerged for a faster approach to model and simulate bacterial genome evolution. We present a new model that approximates the coalescent with gene conversion: the bacterial sequential Markov coalescent (BSMC). Our approach is based on a similar idea to the sequential Markov coalescent (SMC)-an approximation of the coalescent with crossover recombination. However, bacterial recombination poses hurdles to a sequential Markov approximation, as it leads to strong correlations and linkage disequilibrium across very distant sites in the genome. Our BSMC overcomes these difficulties, and shows a considerable reduction in computational demand compared to the exact CGC, and very similar patterns in simulated data. We implemented our BSMC model within new simulation software FastSimBac. In addition to the decreased computational demand compared to previous bacterial genome evolution simulators, FastSimBac provides more general options for evolutionary scenarios, allowing population structure with migration, speciation, population size changes, and recombination hotspots. FastSimBac is
Biased lineups: sequential presentation reduces the problem.
Lindsay, R C; Lea, J A; Nosworthy, G J; Fulford, J A; Hector, J; LeVan, V; Seabrook, C
1991-12-01
Biased lineups have been shown to increase significantly false, but not correct, identification rates (Lindsay, Wallbridge, & Drennan, 1987; Lindsay & Wells, 1980; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Lindsay and Wells (1985) found that sequential lineup presentation reduced false identification rates, presumably by reducing reliance on relative judgment processes. Five staged-crime experiments were conducted to examine the effect of lineup biases and sequential presentation on eyewitness recognition accuracy. Sequential lineup presentation significantly reduced false identification rates from fair lineups as well as from lineups biased with regard to foil similarity, instructions, or witness attire, and from lineups biased in all of these ways. The results support recommendations that police present lineups sequentially.
Sequential and parallel image restoration: neural network implementations.
Figueiredo, M T; Leitao, J N
1994-01-01
Sequential and parallel image restoration algorithms and their implementations on neural networks are proposed. For images degraded by linear blur and contaminated by additive white Gaussian noise, maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation and regularization theory lead to the same high dimension convex optimization problem. The commonly adopted strategy (in using neural networks for image restoration) is to map the objective function of the optimization problem into the energy of a predefined network, taking advantage of its energy minimization properties. Departing from this approach, we propose neural implementations of iterative minimization algorithms which are first proved to converge. The developed schemes are based on modified Hopfield (1985) networks of graded elements, with both sequential and parallel updating schedules. An algorithm supported on a fully standard Hopfield network (binary elements and zero autoconnections) is also considered. Robustness with respect to finite numerical precision is studied, and examples with real images are presented.
Monks, P D D; Connor, J N L; Bouakline, F
2009-04-23
We investigate methods for filtering reaction mechanisms in the angular scattering of the state-to-state reaction, H + D(2)(v(i) = 0, j(i) = 0, m(i) = 0) --> HD(v(f) = 3, j(f) = 0, m(f) = 0) + D, where v(i), j(i), and m(i) and v(f), j(f), and m(f) are initial and final vibrational, rotational, and helicity quantum numbers, respectively. The input to our filtrations is a new set of accurate quantum scattering matrix elements for total energies in the range 1.52-2.50 eV (in steps of 0.01 eV) and for total angular momentum quantum numbers in the range, 0-40, in steps of unity. We filter reaction mechanisms in both the energy domain and the time domain. The time-domain calculations employ the plane wave packet formulation of time-dependent scattering. The theoretical tools used are nearside-farside (NF) analysis of partial wave series for scattering amplitudes, together with NF local angular momentum (LAM) theory. An energy-domain LAM analysis reveals the existence of an important dynamical feature in the N scattering, a "trench" which bisects the (energy, angle) plane. We use the location of this trench to approximately filter two reaction mechanisms. Transformation to the time domain demonstrates that the two reaction mechanisms correspond to direct and delayed (by about 25 fs) scattering. Further analysis, including filtration in the time domain, shows that the pronounced LAM trench arises from the interference of the energy-domain analogues of the time-direct and time-delayed scattering. Our theory and results provide the first successful demonstration of reaction mechanism filtering carried out directly in the (energy, angle) domain. The calculations and results in this paper extend and complement earlier research reported by Monks, Connor, and Althorpe (Monks, P. D. D.; Connor, J. N. L.; Althorpe, S. C. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 741; J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 10302).
Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte
2015-01-01
The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...
Random and cooperative sequential adsorption
Evans, J. W.
1993-10-01
Irreversible random sequential adsorption (RSA) on lattices, and continuum "car parking" analogues, have long received attention as models for reactions on polymer chains, chemisorption on single-crystal surfaces, adsorption in colloidal systems, and solid state transformations. Cooperative generalizations of these models (CSA) are sometimes more appropriate, and can exhibit richer kinetics and spatial structure, e.g., autocatalysis and clustering. The distribution of filled or transformed sites in RSA and CSA is not described by an equilibrium Gibbs measure. This is the case even for the saturation "jammed" state of models where the lattice or space cannot fill completely. However exact analysis is often possible in one dimension, and a variety of powerful analytic methods have been developed for higher dimensional models. Here we review the detailed understanding of asymptotic kinetics, spatial correlations, percolative structure, etc., which is emerging for these far-from-equilibrium processes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy
2012-01-01
In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...
Human visual system automatically represents large-scale sequential regularities.
Kimura, Motohiro; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich
2010-03-04
Our brain recordings reveal that large-scale sequential regularities defined across non-adjacent stimuli can be automatically represented in visual sensory memory. To show that, we adopted an auditory paradigm developed by Sussman, E., Ritter, W., and Vaughan, H. G. Jr. (1998). Predictability of stimulus deviance and the mismatch negativity. NeuroReport, 9, 4167-4170, Sussman, E., and Gumenyuk, V. (2005). Organization of sequential sounds in auditory memory. NeuroReport, 16, 1519-1523 to the visual domain by presenting task-irrelevant infrequent luminance-deviant stimuli (D, 20%) inserted among task-irrelevant frequent stimuli being of standard luminance (S, 80%) in randomized (randomized condition, SSSDSSSSSDSSSSD...) and fixed manners (fixed condition, SSSSDSSSSDSSSSD...). Comparing the visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) index of memory-mismatch processes in human visual sensory system, revealed that visual MMN elicited by deviant stimuli was reduced in the fixed compared to the randomized condition. Thus, the large-scale sequential regularity being present in the fixed condition (SSSSD) must have been represented in visual sensory memory. Interestingly, this effect did not occur in conditions with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 480 and 800 ms but was confined to the 160-ms SOA condition supporting the hypothesis that large-scale regularity extraction was based on perceptual grouping of the five successive stimuli defining the regularity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transposition of Domain Knowledge into Educational Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchetti, Emanuela; Jensen, Kristoffer; Valente, Andrea
2014-01-01
Starting from Rogoff’s (1990) theory of apprenticeship in thinking and Apter’s (1987) reversal theory, this paper discusses the formulation of PlayDT (Playful Domain Transposition), a new approach to support the transposition of complex concepts, from different knowledge domains, into playful int...
Classification of domains of closed operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lassner, G.; Timmermann, W.
1975-01-01
The structure of domains of determining closed operators in the Hilbert space by means of sequence spaces is investigated. The final classification provides three classes of these domains. Necessary and sufficient conditions of equivalence of these domains are obtained in the form of equivalency of corresponding sequences of natural numbers. Connection with the perturbation theory is mentioned [ru
On the structure of order domains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Olav; Pellikaan, Ruud
2002-01-01
The notion of an order domain is generalized. The behaviour of an order domain by taking a subalgebra, the extension of scalars, and the tensor product is studied. The relation of an order domain with valuation theory, Gröbner algebras, and graded structures is given. The theory of Gröbner bases...... for order domains is developed and used to show that the factor ring theorem and its converse, the presentation theorem, hold. The dimension of an order domain is related to the rank of its value semigroup....
Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis
Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John
2014-01-01
Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune
2012-01-01
remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...
Sequential lineup laps and eyewitness accuracy.
Steblay, Nancy K; Dietrich, Hannah L; Ryan, Shannon L; Raczynski, Jeanette L; James, Kali A
2011-08-01
Police practice of double-blind sequential lineups prompts a question about the efficacy of repeated viewings (laps) of the sequential lineup. Two laboratory experiments confirmed the presence of a sequential lap effect: an increase in witness lineup picks from first to second lap, when the culprit was a stranger. The second lap produced more errors than correct identifications. In Experiment 2, lineup diagnosticity was significantly higher for sequential lineup procedures that employed a single versus double laps. Witnesses who elected to view a second lap made significantly more errors than witnesses who chose to stop after one lap or those who were required to view two laps. Witnesses with prior exposure to the culprit did not exhibit a sequential lap effect.
Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing
Kim, Kwang-Ki K.
2014-12-15
This paper considers multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing and presents a framework for strategic learning in sequential games with explicit consideration of both temporal and spatial coordination. The associated Bayes risk functions explicitly incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well-defined value functions with respect to (a) the belief states for the case of conditional independent private noisy measurements that are also assumed to be independent identically distributed over time, and (b) the information states for the case of correlated private noisy measurements. A sequential investment game of strategic coordination and delay is also discussed as an application of the proposed strategic learning rules.
Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers
Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Tempone, Raul; Zhou, Yan
2016-01-01
In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . âˆž>h0>h1â‹¯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers
Beskos, Alexandros
2016-08-29
In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . âˆž>h0>h1â‹¯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Sequential Scintigraphy in Renal Transplantation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winkel, K. zum; Harbst, H.; Schenck, P.; Franz, H. E.; Ritz, E.; Roehl, L.; Ziegler, M.; Ammann, W.; Maier-Borst, W. [Institut Fuer Nuklearmedizin, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)
1969-05-15
Based on experience gained from more than 1600 patients with proved or suspected kidney diseases and on results on extended studies with dogs, sequential scintigraphy was performed after renal transplantation in dogs. After intravenous injection of 500 {mu}Ci. {sup 131}I-Hippuran scintiphotos were taken during the first minute with an exposure time of 15 sec each and thereafter with an exposure of 2 min up to at least 16 min.. Several examinations were evaluated digitally. 26 examinations were performed on 11 dogs with homotransplanted kidneys. Immediately after transplantation the renal function was almost normal arid the bladder was filled in due time. At the beginning of rejection the initial uptake of radioactive Hippuran was reduced. The intrarenal transport became delayed; probably the renal extraction rate decreased. Corresponding to the development of an oedema in the transplant the uptake area increased in size. In cases of thrombosis of the main artery there was no evidence of any uptake of radioactivity in the transplant. Similar results were obtained in 41 examinations on 15 persons. Patients with postoperative anuria due to acute tubular necrosis showed still some uptake of radioactivity contrary to those with thrombosis of the renal artery, where no uptake was found. In cases of rejection the most frequent signs were a reduced initial uptake and a delayed intrarenal transport of radioactive Hippuran. Infarction could be detected by a reduced uptake in distinct areas of the transplant. (author)
Sequential provisional implant prosthodontics therapy.
Zinner, Ira D; Markovits, Stanley; Jansen, Curtis E; Reid, Patrick E; Schnader, Yale E; Shapiro, Herbert J
2012-01-01
The fabrication and long-term use of first- and second-stage provisional implant prostheses is critical to create a favorable prognosis for function and esthetics of a fixed-implant supported prosthesis. The fixed metal and acrylic resin cemented first-stage prosthesis, as reviewed in Part I, is needed for prevention of adjacent and opposing tooth movement, pressure on the implant site as well as protection to avoid micromovement of the freshly placed implant body. The second-stage prosthesis, reviewed in Part II, should be used following implant uncovering and abutment installation. The patient wears this provisional prosthesis until maturation of the bone and healing of soft tissues. The second-stage provisional prosthesis is also a fail-safe mechanism for possible early implant failures and also can be used with late failures and/or for the necessity to repair the definitive prosthesis. In addition, the screw-retained provisional prosthesis is used if and when an implant requires removal or other implants are to be placed as in a sequential approach. The creation and use of both first- and second-stage provisional prostheses involve a restorative dentist, dental technician, surgeon, and patient to work as a team. If the dentist alone cannot do diagnosis and treatment planning, surgery, and laboratory techniques, he or she needs help by employing the expertise of a surgeon and a laboratory technician. This team approach is essential for optimum results.
Briggs, Martin A.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B.; Harvey, Judson W.; Lane, John W.
2014-01-01
Models of dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) are used to explain anomalous aquifer transport behavior such as the slow release of contamination and solute tracer tailing. Traditional tracer experiments to characterize DDMT are performed at the flow path scale (meters), which inherently incorporates heterogeneous exchange processes; hence, estimated “effective” parameters are sensitive to experimental design (i.e., duration and injection velocity). Recently, electrical geophysical methods have been used to aid in the inference of DDMT parameters because, unlike traditional fluid sampling, electrical methods can directly sense less-mobile solute dynamics and can target specific points along subsurface flow paths. Here we propose an analytical framework for graphical parameter inference based on a simple petrophysical model explaining the hysteretic relation between measurements of bulk and fluid conductivity arising in the presence of DDMT at the local scale. Analysis is graphical and involves visual inspection of hysteresis patterns to (1) determine the size of paired mobile and less-mobile porosities and (2) identify the exchange rate coefficient through simple curve fitting. We demonstrate the approach using laboratory column experimental data, synthetic streambed experimental data, and field tracer-test data. Results from the analytical approach compare favorably with results from calibration of numerical models and also independent measurements of mobile and less-mobile porosity. We show that localized electrical hysteresis patterns resulting from diffusive exchange are independent of injection velocity, indicating that repeatable parameters can be extracted under varied experimental designs, and these parameters represent the true intrinsic properties of specific volumes of porous media of aquifers and hyporheic zones.
Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin
2014-07-08
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a debilitating disease, highly prevalent in UK South Asians, and preventable by lifestyle intervention. The 'New life, New you' (NLNY) physical activity (PA) and dietary intervention for T2D prevention was culturally adapted to better engage minority ethnic populations and tested for feasibility. To investigate Pakistani female participants' perspectives of their behaviour change and of salient intervention features. A community-based 8-week programme of group delivered PA sessions with behavioural counselling and dietary advice, culturally adapted for ethnic minority populations, in an area of socioeconomic deprivation. Participants to NLNY were recruited through screening events in community venues across the town. Interviews were conducted with 20 Pakistani female NLNY participants, aged 26-45 (mean 33.5) years, from different parts of town. Within the a priori Theoretical Domains Framework (intentions and goals, reinforcement, knowledge, nature of the activity, social role and identity, social influences, capabilities and skills, regulation and decision, emotion and environment), we identified the importance of social factors relating to participants' own PA and dietary behaviour change. We also identified cross-cutting themes as collateral benefits of the intervention including participants' 'psychological health'; 'responsibility' (for others' health, especially family members included in the new PA and diet regimes) and 'inclusion' (an ethos of accommodating differences). Our findings suggest that culturally adapted interventions for Pakistani women at risk of T2D, delivered via group PA sessions with counselling and dietary advice, may encourage their PA and dietary behaviour change, and have collateral health and social benefits. The NLNY intervention appeared to be acceptable. We plan to evaluate recruitment, retention and likely effect of the intervention on participant behaviour prior to definitive evaluation. Published by the
2016-05-26
Overload From the previous discussion, cognitive maneuver seeks to degrade the enemy’s capacity for...in all domains, the ability to maneuver from the air domain in the cognitive sense, comes primarily from air power’s unique ability to overload the... cognitive maneuver mechanisms developed in the 1980s as part of broader maneuver warfare theory. The result is a proposed definition of maneuver from
Sequential Change-Point Detection via Online Convex Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Cao
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Sequential change-point detection when the distribution parameters are unknown is a fundamental problem in statistics and machine learning. When the post-change parameters are unknown, we consider a set of detection procedures based on sequential likelihood ratios with non-anticipating estimators constructed using online convex optimization algorithms such as online mirror descent, which provides a more versatile approach to tackling complex situations where recursive maximum likelihood estimators cannot be found. When the underlying distributions belong to a exponential family and the estimators satisfy the logarithm regret property, we show that this approach is nearly second-order asymptotically optimal. This means that the upper bound for the false alarm rate of the algorithm (measured by the average-run-length meets the lower bound asymptotically up to a log-log factor when the threshold tends to infinity. Our proof is achieved by making a connection between sequential change-point and online convex optimization and leveraging the logarithmic regret bound property of online mirror descent algorithm. Numerical and real data examples validate our theory.
Jackendoff, Ray
2017-01-01
Formal theories of mental representation have receded from the importance they had in the early days of cognitive science. I argue that such theories are crucial in any mental domain, not just for their own sake, but to guide experimental inquiry, as well as to integrate the domain into the mind as a whole. To illustrate the criteria of adequacy…
Protein domain organisation: adding order
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kummerfeld Sarah K
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected
Protein domain organisation: adding order.
Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A
2009-01-29
Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and
Tradable permit allocations and sequential choice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MacKenzie, Ian A. [Centre for Economic Research, ETH Zuerich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)
2011-01-15
This paper investigates initial allocation choices in an international tradable pollution permit market. For two sovereign governments, we compare allocation choices that are either simultaneously or sequentially announced. We show sequential allocation announcements result in higher (lower) aggregate emissions when announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). Whether allocation announcements are strategic substitutes or complements depends on the relationship between the follower's damage function and governments' abatement costs. When the marginal damage function is relatively steep (flat), allocation announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). For quadratic abatement costs and damages, sequential announcements provide a higher level of aggregate emissions. (author)
Sequential Generalized Transforms on Function Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jae Gil Choi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We define two sequential transforms on a function space Ca,b[0,T] induced by generalized Brownian motion process. We then establish the existence of the sequential transforms for functionals in a Banach algebra of functionals on Ca,b[0,T]. We also establish that any one of these transforms acts like an inverse transform of the other transform. Finally, we give some remarks about certain relations between our sequential transforms and other well-known transforms on Ca,b[0,T].
Liu, Baoding
2015-01-01
When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...
Efficacy of premixed versus sequential administration of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
sequential administration in separate syringes on block characteristics, haemodynamic parameters, side effect profile and postoperative analgesic requirement. Trial design: This was a prospective, randomised clinical study. Method: Sixty orthopaedic patients scheduled for elective lower limb surgery under spinal ...
Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.
Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey
1987-01-01
Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...
Examining Age-Related Movement Representations for Sequential (Fine-Motor) Finger Movements
Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana
2011-01-01
Theory suggests that imagined and executed movement planning relies on internal models for action. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested children aged 7-11 years and adults on their ability to perform sequential finger movements. Underscoring this tactic was our desire to gain a…
Sequentially firing neurons confer flexible timing in neural pattern generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urban, Alexander; Ermentrout, Bard
2011-01-01
Neuronal networks exhibit a variety of complex spatiotemporal patterns that include sequential activity, synchrony, and wavelike dynamics. Inhibition is the primary means through which such patterns are implemented. This behavior is dependent on both the intrinsic dynamics of the individual neurons as well as the connectivity patterns. Many neural circuits consist of networks of smaller subcircuits (motifs) that are coupled together to form the larger system. In this paper, we consider a particularly simple motif, comprising purely inhibitory interactions, which generates sequential periodic dynamics. We first describe the dynamics of the single motif both for general balanced coupling (all cells receive the same number and strength of inputs) and then for a specific class of balanced networks: circulant systems. We couple these motifs together to form larger networks. We use the theory of weak coupling to derive phase models which, themselves, have a certain structure and symmetry. We show that this structure endows the coupled system with the ability to produce arbitrary timing relationships between symmetrically coupled motifs and that the phase relationships are robust over a wide range of frequencies. The theory is applicable to many other systems in biology and physics.
Craig, Louise E; Taylor, Natalie; Grimley, Rohan; Cadilhac, Dominique A; McInnes, Elizabeth; Phillips, Rosemary; Dale, Simeon; O'Connor, Denise; Levi, Chris; Fitzgerald, Mark; Considine, Julie; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Gerraty, Richard; Cheung, N Wah; Ward, Jeanette; Middleton, Sandy
2017-07-17
Theoretical frameworks and models based on behaviour change theories are increasingly used in the development of implementation interventions. Development of an implementation intervention is often based on the available evidence base and practical issues, i.e. feasibility and acceptability. The aim of this study was to describe the development of an implementation intervention for the T 3 Trial (Triage, Treatment and Transfer of patients with stroke in emergency departments (EDs)) using theory to recommend behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and drawing on the research evidence base and practical issues of feasibility and acceptability. A stepped method for developing complex interventions based on theory, evidence and practical issues was adapted using the following steps: (1) Who needs to do what, differently? (2) Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? (3) Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? A researcher panel was convened to review the list of BCTs recommended for use and to identify the most feasible and acceptable techniques to adopt. Seventy-six barriers were reported by hospital staff who attended the workshops (step 1: thirteen TDF domains likely to influence the implementation of the T 3 Trial clinical intervention were identified by the researchers; step 2: the researcher panellists then selected one third of the BCTs recommended for use as appropriate for the clinical context of the ED and, using the enabler workshop data, devised enabling strategies for each of the selected BCTs; and step 3: the final implementation intervention consisted of 27 BCTs). The TDF was successfully applied in all steps of developing an implementation intervention for the T 3 Trial clinical intervention. The use of researcher panel opinion was an essential part of the BCT selection process to incorporate both research
Gradability in the nominal domain
Constantinescu, Camelia
2011-01-01
This dissertation investigates whether and how gradability is manifested in the nominal domain, as well as the implications this could have for theories of the representation of gradability. It is shown that the various gradability diagnostics proposed in the literature not only yield different
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Yang; Sivalingam, Kantharuban; Neese, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Neese@cec.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Chemische Energiekonversion, Stiftstr. 34-36, D-45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Valeev, Edward F. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24014 (United States)
2016-03-07
Multi-reference (MR) electronic structure methods, such as MR configuration interaction or MR perturbation theory, can provide reliable energies and properties for many molecular phenomena like bond breaking, excited states, transition states or magnetic properties of transition metal complexes and clusters. However, owing to their inherent complexity, most MR methods are still too computationally expensive for large systems. Therefore the development of more computationally attractive MR approaches is necessary to enable routine application for large-scale chemical systems. Among the state-of-the-art MR methods, second-order N-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) is an efficient, size-consistent, and intruder-state-free method. However, there are still two important bottlenecks in practical applications of NEVPT2 to large systems: (a) the high computational cost of NEVPT2 for large molecules, even with moderate active spaces and (b) the prohibitive cost for treating large active spaces. In this work, we address problem (a) by developing a linear scaling “partially contracted” NEVPT2 method. This development uses the idea of domain-based local pair natural orbitals (DLPNOs) to form a highly efficient algorithm. As shown previously in the framework of single-reference methods, the DLPNO concept leads to an enormous reduction in computational effort while at the same time providing high accuracy (approaching 99.9% of the correlation energy), robustness, and black-box character. In the DLPNO approach, the virtual space is spanned by pair natural orbitals that are expanded in terms of projected atomic orbitals in large orbital domains, while the inactive space is spanned by localized orbitals. The active orbitals are left untouched. Our implementation features a highly efficient “electron pair prescreening” that skips the negligible inactive pairs. The surviving pairs are treated using the partially contracted NEVPT2 formalism. A detailed
General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...
Learning Orthographic Structure With Sequential Generative Neural Networks.
Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin; Sperduti, Alessandro; Zorzi, Marco
2016-04-01
Learning the structure of event sequences is a ubiquitous problem in cognition and particularly in language. One possible solution is to learn a probabilistic generative model of sequences that allows making predictions about upcoming events. Though appealing from a neurobiological standpoint, this approach is typically not pursued in connectionist modeling. Here, we investigated a sequential version of the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), a stochastic recurrent neural network that extracts high-order structure from sensory data through unsupervised generative learning and can encode contextual information in the form of internal, distributed representations. We assessed whether this type of network can extract the orthographic structure of English monosyllables by learning a generative model of the letter sequences forming a word training corpus. We show that the network learned an accurate probabilistic model of English graphotactics, which can be used to make predictions about the letter following a given context as well as to autonomously generate high-quality pseudowords. The model was compared to an extended version of simple recurrent networks, augmented with a stochastic process that allows autonomous generation of sequences, and to non-connectionist probabilistic models (n-grams and hidden Markov models). We conclude that sequential RBMs and stochastic simple recurrent networks are promising candidates for modeling cognition in the temporal domain. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Booted domain wall and charged Kaigorodov space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Ronggen
2003-01-01
The Kaigorodov space is a homogeneous Einstein space and it describes a pp-wave propagating in anti-de Sitter space. It is conjectured in the literature that M-theory or string theory on the Kaigorodov space times a compact manifold is dual to a conformal field theory in an infinitely-boosted frame with constant momentum density. In this Letter we present a charged generalization of the Kaigorodov space by boosting a non-extremal charged domain wall to the ultrarelativity limit where the boost velocity approaches the speed of light. The finite boost of the domain wall solution gives the charged generalization of the Carter-Novotny-Horsky metric. We study the thermodynamics associated with the charged Carter-Novotny-Horsky space and discuss its relation to that of the static black domain walls and its implications in the domain wall/QFT (quantum field theory) correspondence
Optical Theory Improvements to Space Domain Awareness
2016-09-15
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctoral of Philosophy Tyler J. Hardy, BSEE, MSEE Captain, USAF September 2016 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A... film images allowed for detailed comparison over time. Film comparison is more exact, but still requires manual analysis, limiting the quantity of
Sequential dependencies in magnitude scaling of loudness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt
2013-01-01
Ten normally hearing listeners used a programmable sone-potentiometer knob to adjust the level of a 1000-Hz sinusoid to match the loudness of numbers presented to them in a magnitude production task. Three different power-law exponents (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60) and a log-law with equal steps in d......B were used to program the sone-potentiometer. The knob settings systematically influenced the form of the loudness function. Time series analysis was used to assess the sequential dependencies in the data, which increased with increasing exponent and were greatest for the log-law. It would be possible......, therefore, to choose knob properties that minimized these dependencies. When the sequential dependencies were removed from the data, the slope of the loudness functions did not change, but the variability decreased. Sequential dependencies were only present when the level of the tone on the previous trial...
A Logic for Inclusion of Administrative Domains and Administrators in Multi-domain Authorization
Iranmanesh, Zeinab; Amini, Morteza; Jalili, Rasool
Authorization policies for an administrative domain or a composition of multiple domains in multi-domain environments are determined by either one administrator or multiple administrators' cooperation. Several logic-based models for multi-domain environments' authorization have been proposed; however, they have not considered administrators and administrative domains in policies' representation. In this paper, we propose the syntax, proof theory, and semantics of a logic for multi-domain authorization policies including administrators and administrative domains. Considering administrators in policies provides the possibility of presenting composite administration having applicability in many collaborative applications. Indeed, administrators and administrative domains stated in policies can be used in authorization. The presented logic is based on modal logic and utilizes two calculi named the calculus of administrative domains and the calculus of administrators. It is also proved that the logic is sound. A case study is presented signifying the logic application in practical projects.
Dihydroazulene photoswitch operating in sequential tunneling regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Thisted, Christine Lindbjerg
2012-01-01
to electrodes so that the electron transport goes by sequential tunneling. To assure weak coupling, the DHA switching kernel is modified by incorporating p-MeSC6H4 end-groups. Molecules are prepared by Suzuki cross-couplings on suitable halogenated derivatives of DHA. The synthesis presents an expansion of our......, incorporating a p-MeSC6H4 anchoring group in one end, has been placed in a silver nanogap. Conductance measurements justify that transport through both DHA (high resistivity) and VHF (low resistivity) forms goes by sequential tunneling. The switching is fairly reversible and reenterable; after more than 20 ON...
Asynchronous Operators of Sequential Logic Venjunction & Sequention
Vasyukevich, Vadim
2011-01-01
This book is dedicated to new mathematical instruments assigned for logical modeling of the memory of digital devices. The case in point is logic-dynamical operation named venjunction and venjunctive function as well as sequention and sequentional function. Venjunction and sequention operate within the framework of sequential logic. In a form of the corresponding equations, they organically fit analytical expressions of Boolean algebra. Thus, a sort of symbiosis is formed using elements of asynchronous sequential logic on the one hand and combinational logic on the other hand. So, asynchronous
Fault detection in multiply-redundant measurement systems via sequential testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ray, A.
1988-01-01
The theory and application of a sequential test procedure for fault detection and isolation. The test procedure is suited for development of intelligent instrumentation in strategic processes like aircraft and nuclear plants where redundant measurements are usually available for individual critical variables. The test procedure consists of: (1) a generic redundancy management procedure which is essentially independent of the fault detection strategy and measurement noise statistics, and (2) a modified version of sequential probability ratio test algorithm for fault detection and isolation, which functions within the framework of this redundancy management procedure. The sequential test procedure is suitable for real-time applications using commercially available microcomputers and its efficacy has been verified by online fault detection in an operating nuclear reactor. 15 references
Probing finite coarse-grained virtual Feynman histories with sequential weak values
Georgiev, Danko; Cohen, Eliahu
2018-05-01
Feynman's sum-over-histories formulation of quantum mechanics has been considered a useful calculational tool in which virtual Feynman histories entering into a coherent quantum superposition cannot be individually measured. Here we show that sequential weak values, inferred by consecutive weak measurements of projectors, allow direct experimental probing of individual virtual Feynman histories, thereby revealing the exact nature of quantum interference of coherently superposed histories. Because the total sum of sequential weak values of multitime projection operators for a complete set of orthogonal quantum histories is unity, complete sets of weak values could be interpreted in agreement with the standard quantum mechanical picture. We also elucidate the relationship between sequential weak values of quantum histories with different coarse graining in time and establish the incompatibility of weak values for nonorthogonal quantum histories in history Hilbert space. Bridging theory and experiment, the presented results may enhance our understanding of both weak values and quantum histories.
A continuous-time neural model for sequential action.
Kachergis, George; Wyatte, Dean; O'Reilly, Randall C; de Kleijn, Roy; Hommel, Bernhard
2014-11-05
Action selection, planning and execution are continuous processes that evolve over time, responding to perceptual feedback as well as evolving top-down constraints. Existing models of routine sequential action (e.g. coffee- or pancake-making) generally fall into one of two classes: hierarchical models that include hand-built task representations, or heterarchical models that must learn to represent hierarchy via temporal context, but thus far lack goal-orientedness. We present a biologically motivated model of the latter class that, because it is situated in the Leabra neural architecture, affords an opportunity to include both unsupervised and goal-directed learning mechanisms. Moreover, we embed this neurocomputational model in the theoretical framework of the theory of event coding (TEC), which posits that actions and perceptions share a common representation with bidirectional associations between the two. Thus, in this view, not only does perception select actions (along with task context), but actions are also used to generate perceptions (i.e. intended effects). We propose a neural model that implements TEC to carry out sequential action control in hierarchically structured tasks such as coffee-making. Unlike traditional feedforward discrete-time neural network models, which use static percepts to generate static outputs, our biological model accepts continuous-time inputs and likewise generates non-stationary outputs, making short-timescale dynamic predictions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Dobolyi, David G; Dodson, Chad S
2013-12-01
Confidence judgments for eyewitness identifications play an integral role in determining guilt during legal proceedings. Past research has shown that confidence in positive identifications is strongly associated with accuracy. Using a standard lineup recognition paradigm, we investigated accuracy using signal detection and ROC analyses, along with the tendency to choose a face with both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We replicated past findings of reduced rates of choosing with sequential as compared to simultaneous lineups, but notably found an accuracy advantage in favor of simultaneous lineups. Moreover, our analysis of the confidence-accuracy relationship revealed two key findings. First, we observed a sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect: despite an overall reduction in false alarms, confidence for false alarms that did occur was higher with sequential lineups than with simultaneous lineups, with no differences in confidence for correct identifications. This sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect is an expected byproduct of the use of a more conservative identification criterion with sequential than with simultaneous lineups. Second, we found a steady drop in confidence for mistaken identifications (i.e., foil identifications and false alarms) from the first to the last face in sequential lineups, whereas confidence in and accuracy of correct identifications remained relatively stable. Overall, we observed that sequential lineups are both less accurate and produce higher confidence false identifications than do simultaneous lineups. Given the increasing prominence of sequential lineups in our legal system, our data argue for increased scrutiny and possibly a wholesale reevaluation of this lineup format. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
S.M.P. SEQUENTIAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM.
CICIARELLI, V; LEONARD, JOSEPH
A SEQUENTIAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM BEGINNING WITH THE BASIC FUNDAMENTALS ON THE FOURTH GRADE LEVEL IS PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE AN UNDERSTANDING OF OUR NUMBER SYSTEM, AND THE BASIC OPERATIONS OF WORKING WITH WHOLE NUMBERS--ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTIPLICATION, AND DIVISION. COMMON FRACTIONS ARE TAUGHT IN THE FIFTH, SIXTH, AND SEVENTH GRADES. A…
Sequential and Simultaneous Logit: A Nested Model.
van Ophem, J.C.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.
1997-01-01
A nested model is presented which has both the sequential and the multinomial logit model as special cases. This model provides a simple test to investigate the validity of these specifications. Some theoretical properties of the model are discussed. In the analysis a distribution function is
Sensitivity Analysis in Sequential Decision Models.
Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet
2017-02-01
Sequential decision problems are frequently encountered in medical decision making, which are commonly solved using Markov decision processes (MDPs). Modeling guidelines recommend conducting sensitivity analyses in decision-analytic models to assess the robustness of the model results against the uncertainty in model parameters. However, standard methods of conducting sensitivity analyses cannot be directly applied to sequential decision problems because this would require evaluating all possible decision sequences, typically in the order of trillions, which is not practically feasible. As a result, most MDP-based modeling studies do not examine confidence in their recommended policies. In this study, we provide an approach to estimate uncertainty and confidence in the results of sequential decision models. First, we provide a probabilistic univariate method to identify the most sensitive parameters in MDPs. Second, we present a probabilistic multivariate approach to estimate the overall confidence in the recommended optimal policy considering joint uncertainty in the model parameters. We provide a graphical representation, which we call a policy acceptability curve, to summarize the confidence in the optimal policy by incorporating stakeholders' willingness to accept the base case policy. For a cost-effectiveness analysis, we provide an approach to construct a cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier, which shows the most cost-effective policy as well as the confidence in that for a given willingness to pay threshold. We demonstrate our approach using a simple MDP case study. We developed a method to conduct sensitivity analysis in sequential decision models, which could increase the credibility of these models among stakeholders.
Sequential models for coarsening and missingness
Gill, R.D.; Robins, J.M.
1997-01-01
In a companion paper we described what intuitively would seem to be the most general possible way to generate Coarsening at Random mechanisms a sequential procedure called randomized monotone coarsening Counterexamples showed that CAR mechanisms exist which cannot be represented in this way Here we
Sequential motor skill: cognition, perception and action
Ruitenberg, M.F.L.
2013-01-01
Discrete movement sequences are assumed to be the building blocks of more complex sequential actions that are present in our everyday behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation address the (neuro)cognitive underpinnings of such movement sequences, in particular in relationship to the role
Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems
Ali, Konpal S.; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity
A framework for sequential multiblock component methods
Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jong, S.de
2003-01-01
Multiblock or multiset methods are starting to be used in chemistry and biology to study complex data sets. In chemometrics, sequential multiblock methods are popular; that is, methods that calculate one component at a time and use deflation for finding the next component. In this paper a framework
Classical and sequential limit analysis revisited
Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Kondo, Djimédo; Morin, Léo; Remmal, Almahdi
2018-04-01
Classical limit analysis applies to ideal plastic materials, and within a linearized geometrical framework implying small displacements and strains. Sequential limit analysis was proposed as a heuristic extension to materials exhibiting strain hardening, and within a fully general geometrical framework involving large displacements and strains. The purpose of this paper is to study and clearly state the precise conditions permitting such an extension. This is done by comparing the evolution equations of the full elastic-plastic problem, the equations of classical limit analysis, and those of sequential limit analysis. The main conclusion is that, whereas classical limit analysis applies to materials exhibiting elasticity - in the absence of hardening and within a linearized geometrical framework -, sequential limit analysis, to be applicable, strictly prohibits the presence of elasticity - although it tolerates strain hardening and large displacements and strains. For a given mechanical situation, the relevance of sequential limit analysis therefore essentially depends upon the importance of the elastic-plastic coupling in the specific case considered.
Sequential spatial processes for image analysis
M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette); V. Capasso
2009-01-01
htmlabstractWe give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects
Sequential spatial processes for image analysis
Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Capasso, V.
2009-01-01
We give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects through a video
Sequential Analysis: Hypothesis Testing and Changepoint Detection
2014-07-11
maintains the flexibility of deciding sooner than the fixed sample size procedure at the price of some lower power [13, 514]. The sequential probability... markets , detection of signals with unknown arrival time in seismology, navigation, radar and sonar signal processing, speech segmentation, and the... skimming cruise missile can yield a significant increase in the probability of raid annihilation. Furthermore, usually detection systems are
STABILIZED SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING: A SURVEY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damián Fernández
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We review the motivation for, the current state-of-the-art in convergence results, and some open questions concerning the stabilized version of the sequential quadratic programming algorithm for constrained optimization. We also discuss the tools required for its local convergence analysis, globalization challenges, and extentions of the method to the more general variational problems.
Truly costly sequential search and oligopolistic pricing
Janssen, Maarten C W; Moraga-González, José Luis; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.
We modify the paper of Stahl (1989) [Stahl, D.O., 1989. Oligopolistic pricing with sequential consumer search. American Economic Review 79, 700-12] by relaxing the assumption that consumers obtain the first price quotation for free. When all price quotations are costly to obtain, the unique
Zips : mining compressing sequential patterns in streams
Hoang, T.L.; Calders, T.G.K.; Yang, J.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Chau, D.H.; Vreeken, J.; Leeuwen, van M.; Faloutsos, C.
2013-01-01
We propose a streaming algorithm, based on the minimal description length (MDL) principle, for extracting non-redundant sequential patterns. For static databases, the MDL-based approach that selects patterns based on their capacity to compress data rather than their frequency, was shown to be
Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory
Holmes, V. M.
2012-01-01
Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…
Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection
Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.
2012-01-01
The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…
Relations between the simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satchler, G.R.
1982-01-01
The transfer of two nucleons between projectile and target in a direct or peripheral reaction such as (p,t) or ( 16 O, 14 C) may occur in one-step or two-steps. These we refer to as simultaneous and sequential transfers, respectively. In the former, the interaction acts once and both nucleons are transferred. In the latter, the interaction acts once to transfer one nucleon, the system then propagates in one or more intermediate states and is followed by a second action of the interaction to transfer the second nucleon. This process may be symbolized for the above examples as (p,d;d,t) and ( 16 O, 15 N; 15 N, 14 C), implying the intermediate formation of a deuteron or the nucleus 15 N. (Of course, the intermediate system may exist in more than one state of excitation). For simplicity, the (t,p) reaction is chosen to illustrate the theory
Modeling two-phase ferroelectric composites by sequential laminates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idiart, Martín I
2014-01-01
Theoretical estimates are given for the overall dissipative response of two-phase ferroelectric composites with complex particulate microstructures under arbitrary loading histories. The ferroelectric behavior of the constituent phases is described via a stored energy density and a dissipation potential in accordance with the theory of generalized standard materials. An implicit time-discretization scheme is used to generate a variational representation of the overall response in terms of a single incremental potential. Estimates are then generated by constructing sequentially laminated microgeometries of particulate type whose overall incremental potential can be computed exactly. Because they are realizable, by construction, these estimates are guaranteed to conform with any material constraints, to satisfy all pertinent bounds and to exhibit the required convexity properties with no duality gap. Predictions for representative composite and porous systems are reported and discussed in the light of existing experimental data. (paper)
Relations between the simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satchler, G.R.
1982-01-01
The transfer of two nucleons between projectile and target in a direct or peripheral reaction such as (p,t) or ( 16 O, 14 C) may occur in one-step or two-steps. These we refer to as simultaneous and sequential transfers, respectively. In the former, the interaction acts once and both nucleons are transferred. In the latter, the interaction acts once to transfer one nucleon, the system then propagates in one or more intermediate states and is followed by a second action of the interaction to transfer the second nucleon. This process may be symbolized for the examples as (p,d; d,t) and ( 16 O, 15 N; 15 N, 14 C), implying the intermediate formation of a deuteron or the nucleus 15 N. In terms of a perturbation theory expansion, such as the distorted-wave Born series, simultaneous transfer is possible in first order while sequential transfer requires second order. The nuclear forces are predominantly two-body in character; hence, in first-order only one of the two nucleons experiences an interaction. The possibility of finding that the other nucleon has also transferred arises only because its state within the projectile is not orthogonal to the state in the target into which it transfers. In the two-step process each nucleon is transferred under the direct influence of an interaction with the target. The one-step and two-step amplitudes are frequently comparable in magnitude for light-ion reactions while the two-step may dominate in reactions with heavy ions. Our purpose here is to gain some insight into the relationship between the two amplitudes by using a simple approximate form of the theory. For simplicity, we shall discuss a light-ion reaction and, to be specific, we choose the (t,p) reaction (or the inverse (p,t) reaction)
Domain walls at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho, C.A. de; Marques, G.C.; Silva, A.J. da; Ventura, I.
1983-08-01
It is suggested that the phase transition of lambda phi 4 theory as a function of temperature coincides with the spontaneous appearance of domain walls. Based on one-loop calculations, T sub(c) = 4M/√ lambda is estimated as the temperature for these domains to because energetically favored, to be compared with T sub(c) = 4.9M/√ lambda from effective potential calculations (which are performed directly in the broken phase). Domain walls, as well as other Types of fluctuations, disorder the system above T sub(c), leading to =0. The critical exponent for the specific heat above T sub(c) is computed; and α=2/3 + 0 (√ lambda) is obtained. (Author) [pt
Domains of bosonic functional integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, Luiz C.L.; Para Univ., Belem, PA
1998-07-01
We propose a mathematical framework for bosonic Euclidean quantum field functional integrals based on the theory of integration on the dual algebraic vector space of classical field sources. We present a generalization of the Minlos-Dao Xing theorem and apply it to determine exactly the domain of integration associated to the functional integral representation of the two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics Schwinger generating functional. (author)
Impact of Diagrams on Recalling Sequential Elements in Expository Texts.
Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah
1988-01-01
Examines the instructional effectiveness of abstract diagrams on recall of sequential relations in social science textbooks. Concludes that diagrams assist significantly the recall of sequential relations in a text and decrease significantly the rate of order mistakes. (RS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Racz, A.; Lux, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Atomic Energy Research Inst.
1996-04-16
The applicability of the classical sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT) for early failure detection problems is limited by the fact that there is an extra time delay between the occurrence of the failure and its first recognition. Chien and Adams developed a method to minimize this time for the case when the problem can be formulated as testing the mean value of a Gaussian signal. In our paper we propose a procedure that can be applied for both mean and variance testing and that minimizes the time delay. The method is based on a special parametrization of the classical SPRT. The one-sided sequential tests (OSST) can reproduce the results of the Chien-Adams test when applied for mean values. (author).
Documentscape: Intertextuality, Sequentiality & Autonomy at Work
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Lars Rune; Bjørn, Pernille
2014-01-01
On the basis of an ethnographic field study, this article introduces the concept of documentscape to the analysis of document-centric work practices. The concept of documentscape refers to the entire ensemble of documents in their mutual intertextual interlocking. Providing empirical data from...... a global software development case, we show how hierarchical structures and sequentiality across the interlocked documents are critical to how actors make sense of the work of others and what to do next in a geographically distributed setting. Furthermore, we found that while each document is created...... as part of a quasi-sequential order, this characteristic does not make the document, as a single entity, into a stable object. Instead, we found that the documents were malleable and dynamic while suspended in intertextual structures. Our concept of documentscape points to how the hierarchical structure...
Sequential designs for sensitivity analysis of functional inputs in computer experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fruth, J.; Roustant, O.; Kuhnt, S.
2015-01-01
Computer experiments are nowadays commonly used to analyze industrial processes aiming at achieving a wanted outcome. Sensitivity analysis plays an important role in exploring the actual impact of adjustable parameters on the response variable. In this work we focus on sensitivity analysis of a scalar-valued output of a time-consuming computer code depending on scalar and functional input parameters. We investigate a sequential methodology, based on piecewise constant functions and sequential bifurcation, which is both economical and fully interpretable. The new approach is applied to a sheet metal forming problem in three sequential steps, resulting in new insights into the behavior of the forming process over time. - Highlights: • Sensitivity analysis method for functional and scalar inputs is presented. • We focus on the discovery of most influential parts of the functional domain. • We investigate economical sequential methodology based on piecewise constant functions. • Normalized sensitivity indices are introduced and investigated theoretically. • Successful application to sheet metal forming on two functional inputs
On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalina, Jan
2017-01-01
Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016
Sequential pattern recognition by maximum conditional informativity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Grim, Jiří
2014-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-45 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Keywords : Multivariate statistics * Statistical pattern recognition * Sequential decision making * Product mixtures * EM algorithm * Shannon information Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Sci ence Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/grim-0428565.pdf
Comparing two Poisson populations sequentially: an application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halteman, E.J.
1986-01-01
Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado monitors each of its employees for radiation exposure. Excess exposure is detected by comparing the means of two Poisson populations. A sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is proposed as a replacement for the fixed sample normal approximation test. A uniformly most efficient SPRT exists, however logistics suggest using a truncated SPRT. The truncated SPRT is evaluated in detail and shown to possess large potential savings in average time spent by employees in the monitoring process
Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.
Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R
2016-03-01
Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sequential Monte Carlo with Highly Informative Observations
Del Moral, Pierre; Murray, Lawrence M.
2014-01-01
We propose sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods for sampling the posterior distribution of state-space models under highly informative observation regimes, a situation in which standard SMC methods can perform poorly. A special case is simulating bridges between given initial and final values. The basic idea is to introduce a schedule of intermediate weighting and resampling times between observation times, which guide particles towards the final state. This can always be done for continuous-...
Sequential test procedures for inventory differences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, A.S.; Kern, E.A.; Emeigh, C.W.
1985-01-01
By means of a simulation study, we investigated the appropriateness of Page's and power-one sequential tests on sequences of inventory differences obtained from an example materials control unit, a sub-area of a hypothetical UF 6 -to-U 3 O 8 conversion process. The study examined detection probability and run length curves obtained from different loss scenarios. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs
Sequential neural models with stochastic layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fraccaro, Marco; Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Paquet, Ulrich
2016-01-01
How can we efficiently propagate uncertainty in a latent state representation with recurrent neural networks? This paper introduces stochastic recurrent neural networks which glue a deterministic recurrent neural network and a state space model together to form a stochastic and sequential neural...... generative model. The clear separation of deterministic and stochastic layers allows a structured variational inference network to track the factorization of the model's posterior distribution. By retaining both the nonlinear recursive structure of a recurrent neural network and averaging over...
Matter antimatter domains: A possible solution to the CP domain wall problem in the early universe
Mohanty, A. K.; Stecker, F. W.
1984-01-01
An SU(5) grand unified theory model is used to show how the degeneracy between vacua with different spontaneously broken charge parity can be dynamically lifted by a condensate of heavy fermion pairs. This drives a phase transition to a unique vacuum state with definite charge parity. The transition eliminates the domain walls in a matter antimatter symmetric domain cosmology.
Angular anisotropy parameters for sequential two-photon double ionization of helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, I A; Kheifets, A S
2009-01-01
We evaluate photoelectron angular anisotropy /3-parameters for the process of sequential two-photon double electron ionization of helium within the time-independent lowest order perturbation theory (LOPT). Our results indicate that for the photoelectron energies outside the interval (E slow , E fast ), where E slow = ω - IP He + and E fast ω - IP He , there is a considerable deviation from the dipole angular distribution thus indicating the effect of electron correlation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimiliano Rossi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The paper investigates the theory of operation of a passive millimeter-wave seeker sensor using a fast electronic sequential-lobing technique and the experimental validation obtained through laboratory trials. The paper analyzes in detail the theoretical performance of a difference channel sensor and a pseudo-monopulse sensor deriving agile formulas for the estimation of target angular tracking accuracy and the subsequent experimental validation.
Massimiliano Rossi; Riccardo Maria Liberati; Marco Frasca; Mauro Angelini
2018-01-01
The paper investigates the theory of operation of a passive millimeter-wave seeker sensor using a fast electronic sequential-lobing technique and the experimental validation obtained through laboratory trials. The paper analyzes in detail the theoretical performance of a difference channel sensor and a pseudo-monopulse sensor deriving agile formulas for the estimation of target angular tracking accuracy and the subsequent experimental validation.
The Dynamic Interdependence of Developmental Domains across Emerging Adulthood
Sneed, Joel R.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; McArdle, John J.; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian
2007-01-01
Emerging adulthood is a period in which profound role changes take place across a number of life domains including finance, romance, and residence. On the basis of dynamic systems theory, change in one domain should be related to change in another domain, because the concept of development according to this approach is a relational one. To…
Sequential double photodetachment of He- in elliptically polarized laser fields
Génévriez, Matthieu; Dunseath, Kevin M.; Terao-Dunseath, Mariko; Urbain, Xavier
2018-02-01
Four-photon double detachment of the helium negative ion is investigated experimentally and theoretically for photon energies where the transient helium atom is in the 1 s 2 s 3S or 1 s 2 p P3o states, which subsequently ionize by absorption of three photons. Ionization is enhanced by intermediate resonances, giving rise to series of peaks in the He+ spectrum, which we study in detail. The He+ yield is measured in the wavelength ranges from 530 to 560 nm and from 685 to 730 nm and for various polarizations of the laser light. Double detachment is treated theoretically as a sequential process, within the framework of R -matrix theory for the first step and effective Hamiltonian theory for the second step. Experimental conditions are accurately modeled, and the measured and simulated yields are in good qualitative and, in some cases, quantitative agreement. Resonances in the double detachment spectra can be attributed to well-defined Rydberg states of the transient atom. The double detachment yield exhibits a strong dependence on the laser polarization which can be related to the magnetic quantum number of the intermediate atomic state. We also investigate the possibility of nonsequential double detachment with a two-color experiment but observe no evidence for it.
Harden, Bradley J; Nichols, Scott R; Frueh, Dominique P
2014-09-24
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of larger proteins are hampered by difficulties in assigning NMR resonances. Human intervention is typically required to identify NMR signals in 3D spectra, and subsequent procedures depend on the accuracy of this so-called peak picking. We present a method that provides sequential connectivities through correlation maps constructed with covariance NMR, bypassing the need for preliminary peak picking. We introduce two novel techniques to minimize false correlations and merge the information from all original 3D spectra. First, we take spectral derivatives prior to performing covariance to emphasize coincident peak maxima. Second, we multiply covariance maps calculated with different 3D spectra to destroy erroneous sequential correlations. The maps are easy to use and can readily be generated from conventional triple-resonance experiments. Advantages of the method are demonstrated on a 37 kDa nonribosomal peptide synthetase domain subject to spectral overlap.
Introduction to spectral theory
Levitan, B M
1975-01-01
This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.
Randhawa, Bikkar S.; And Others
1982-01-01
Replications of two basic experiments in support of the dual-coding processing model with grade 10 and college subjects used pictures, concrete words, and abstract words as stimuli presented at fast and slow rates for immediate and sequential recall. Results seem to be consistent with predictions of simultaneous-successive cognitive theory. (MBR)
Millroth, Philip; Guath, Mona; Juslin, Peter
2018-06-07
The rationality of decision making under risk is of central concern in psychology and other behavioral sciences. In real-life, the information relevant to a decision often arrives sequentially or changes over time, implying nontrivial demands on memory. Yet, little is known about how this affects the ability to make rational decisions and a default assumption is rather that information about outcomes and probabilities are simultaneously available at the time of the decision. In 4 experiments, we show that participants receiving probability- and outcome information sequentially report substantially (29 to 83%) higher certainty equivalents than participants with simultaneous presentation. This holds also for monetary-incentivized participants with perfect recall of the information. Participants in the sequential conditions often violate stochastic dominance in the sense that they pay more for a lottery with low probability of an outcome than participants in the simultaneous condition pay for a high probability of the same outcome. Computational modeling demonstrates that Cumulative Prospect Theory (Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) fails to account for the effects of sequential presentation, but a model assuming anchoring-and adjustment constrained by memory can account for the data. By implication, established assumptions of rationality may need to be reconsidered to account for the effects of memory in many real-life tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalina, Jan
2017-01-01
Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/kalina-0474065.pdf
Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin
2017-06-15
Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL SEQUENTIALLY-TIMED
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanislav LICHOROBIEC
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This article documents the development of the noninvasive use of explosives during the destruction of ice mass in river flows. The system of special sequentially-timed charges utilizes the increase in efficiency of cutting charges by covering them with bags filled with water, while simultaneously increasing the effect of the entire system of timed charges. Timing, spatial combinations during placement, and the linking of these charges results in the loosening of ice barriers on a frozen waterway, while at the same time regulating the size of the ice fragments. The developed charges will increase the operability and safety of IRS units.
Pass-transistor asynchronous sequential circuits
Whitaker, Sterling R.; Maki, Gary K.
1989-01-01
Design methods for asynchronous sequential pass-transistor circuits, which result in circuits that are hazard- and critical-race-free and which have added degrees of freedom for the input signals, are discussed. The design procedures are straightforward and easy to implement. Two single-transition-time state assignment methods are presented, and hardware bounds for each are established. A surprising result is that the hardware realizations for each next state variable and output variable is identical for a given flow table. Thus, a state machine with N states and M outputs can be constructed using a single layout replicated N + M times.
Estimation After a Group Sequential Trial.
Milanzi, Elasma; Molenberghs, Geert; Alonso, Ariel; Kenward, Michael G; Tsiatis, Anastasios A; Davidian, Marie; Verbeke, Geert
2015-10-01
Group sequential trials are one important instance of studies for which the sample size is not fixed a priori but rather takes one of a finite set of pre-specified values, dependent on the observed data. Much work has been devoted to the inferential consequences of this design feature. Molenberghs et al (2012) and Milanzi et al (2012) reviewed and extended the existing literature, focusing on a collection of seemingly disparate, but related, settings, namely completely random sample sizes, group sequential studies with deterministic and random stopping rules, incomplete data, and random cluster sizes. They showed that the ordinary sample average is a viable option for estimation following a group sequential trial, for a wide class of stopping rules and for random outcomes with a distribution in the exponential family. Their results are somewhat surprising in the sense that the sample average is not optimal, and further, there does not exist an optimal, or even, unbiased linear estimator. However, the sample average is asymptotically unbiased, both conditionally upon the observed sample size as well as marginalized over it. By exploiting ignorability they showed that the sample average is the conventional maximum likelihood estimator. They also showed that a conditional maximum likelihood estimator is finite sample unbiased, but is less efficient than the sample average and has the larger mean squared error. Asymptotically, the sample average and the conditional maximum likelihood estimator are equivalent. This previous work is restricted, however, to the situation in which the the random sample size can take only two values, N = n or N = 2 n . In this paper, we consider the more practically useful setting of sample sizes in a the finite set { n 1 , n 2 , …, n L }. It is shown that the sample average is then a justifiable estimator , in the sense that it follows from joint likelihood estimation, and it is consistent and asymptotically unbiased. We also show why
A sequential/parallel track selector
Bertolino, F; Bressani, Tullio; Chiavassa, E; Costa, S; Dellacasa, G; Gallio, M; Musso, A
1980-01-01
A medium speed ( approximately 1 mu s) hardware pre-analyzer for the selection of events detected in four planes of drift chambers in the magnetic field of the Omicron Spectrometer at the CERN SC is described. Specific geometrical criteria determine patterns of hits in the four planes of vertical wires that have to be recognized and that are stored as patterns of '1's in random access memories. Pairs of good hits are found sequentially, then the RAMs are used as look-up tables. (6 refs).
Boundary conditions in random sequential adsorption
Cieśla, Michał; Ziff, Robert M.
2018-04-01
The influence of different boundary conditions on the density of random packings of disks is studied. Packings are generated using the random sequential adsorption algorithm with three different types of boundary conditions: periodic, open, and wall. It is found that the finite size effects are smallest for periodic boundary conditions, as expected. On the other hand, in the case of open and wall boundaries it is possible to introduce an effective packing size and a constant correction term to significantly improve the packing densities.
Automatic synthesis of sequential control schemes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, I.
1993-01-01
Of all hard- and software developed for industrial control purposes, the majority is devoted to sequential, or binary valued, control and only a minor part to classical linear control. Typically, the sequential parts of the controller are invoked during startup and shut-down to bring the system into its normal operating region and into some safe standby region, respectively. Despite its importance, fairly little theoretical research has been devoted to this area, and sequential control programs are therefore still created manually without much theoretical support to obtain a systematic approach. We propose a method to create sequential control programs automatically. The main ideas is to spend some effort off-line modelling the plant, and from this model generate the control strategy, that is the plan. The plant is modelled using action structures, thereby concentrating on the actions instead of the states of the plant. In general the planning problem shows exponential complexity in the number of state variables. However, by focusing on the actions, we can identify problem classes as well as algorithms such that the planning complexity is reduced to polynomial complexity. We prove that these algorithms are sound, i.e., the generated solution will solve the stated problem, and complete, i.e., if the algorithms fail, then no solution exists. The algorithms generate a plan as a set of actions and a partial order on this set specifying the execution order. The generated plant is proven to be minimal and maximally parallel. For a larger class of problems we propose a method to split the original problem into a number of simple problems that can each be solved using one of the presented algorithms. It is also shown how a plan can be translated into a GRAFCET chart, and to illustrate these ideas we have implemented a planing tool, i.e., a system that is able to automatically create control schemes. Such a tool can of course also be used on-line if it is fast enough. This
From sequential to parallel programming with patterns
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
To increase in both performance and efficiency, our programming models need to adapt to better exploit modern processors. The classic idioms and patterns for programming such as loops, branches or recursion are the pillars of almost every code and are well known among all programmers. These patterns all have in common that they are sequential in nature. Embracing parallel programming patterns, which allow us to program for multi- and many-core hardware in a natural way, greatly simplifies the task of designing a program that scales and performs on modern hardware, independently of the used programming language, and in a generic way.
Sequential extraction of uranium metal contamination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murry, M.M.; Spitz, H.B.; Connick, W.B.
2016-01-01
Samples of uranium contaminated dirt collected from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill were analyzed for uranium using a sequential extraction protocol involving a series of five increasingly aggressive solvents. The quantity of uranium extracted from the contaminated dirt by each reagent can aid in predicting the fate and transport of the uranium contamination in the environment. Uranium was separated from each fraction using anion exchange, electrodeposition and analyzed by alpha spectroscopy analysis. Results demonstrate that approximately 77 % of the uranium was extracted using NH 4 Ac in 25 % acetic acid. (author)
Simultaneous optimization of sequential IMRT plans
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popple, Richard A.; Prellop, Perri B.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Santos, Jennifer F. de los; Duan, Jun; Fiveash, John B.; Brezovich, Ivan A.
2005-01-01
Radiotherapy often comprises two phases, in which irradiation of a volume at risk for microscopic disease is followed by a sequential dose escalation to a smaller volume either at a higher risk for microscopic disease or containing only gross disease. This technique is difficult to implement with intensity modulated radiotherapy, as the tolerance doses of critical structures must be respected over the sum of the two plans. Techniques that include an integrated boost have been proposed to address this problem. However, clinical experience with such techniques is limited, and many clinicians are uncomfortable prescribing nonconventional fractionation schemes. To solve this problem, we developed an optimization technique that simultaneously generates sequential initial and boost IMRT plans. We have developed an optimization tool that uses a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a high level programming language for technical computing. The tool uses the TPS to calculate the dose deposition coefficients (DDCs) for optimization. The DDCs were imported into external software and the treatment ports duplicated to create the boost plan. The initial, boost, and tolerance doses were specified and used to construct cost functions. The initial and boost plans were optimized simultaneously using a gradient search technique. Following optimization, the fluence maps were exported to the TPS for dose calculation. Seven patients treated using sequential techniques were selected from our clinical database. The initial and boost plans used to treat these patients were developed independently of each other by dividing the tolerance doses proportionally between the initial and boost plans and then iteratively optimizing the plans until a summation that met the treatment goals was obtained. We used the simultaneous optimization technique to generate plans that met the original planning goals. The coverage of the initial and boost target volumes in the simultaneously optimized
A Review of Domain Modelling and Domain Imaging Techniques in Ferroelectric Crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John E. Huber
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The present paper reviews models of domain structure in ferroelectric crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Common crystal structures in ferroelectric materials are described and the theory of compatible domain patterns is introduced. Applications to multi-rank laminates are presented. Alternative models employing phase-field and related techniques are reviewed. The paper then presents methods of observing ferroelectric domain structure, including optical, polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and piezo-force microscopy. Use of more than one technique for unambiguous identification of the domain structure is also described.
Ordered alternating binary polymer nanodroplet array by sequential spin dewetting.
Bhandaru, Nandini; Das, Anuja; Salunke, Namrata; Mukherjee, Rabibrata
2014-12-10
We report a facile technique for fabricating an ordered array of nearly equal-sized mesoscale polymer droplets of two constituent polymers (polystyrene, PS and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA) arranged in an alternating manner on a topographically patterned substrate. The self-organized array of binary polymers is realized by sequential spin dewetting. First, a dilute solution of PMMA is spin-dewetted on a patterned substrate, resulting in an array of isolated PMMA droplets arranged along the substrate grooves due to self-organization during spin coating itself. The sample is then silanized with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), and subsequently, a dilute solution of PS is spin-coated on to it, which also undergoes spin dewetting. The spin-dewetted PS drops having a size nearly equal to the pre-existing PMMA droplets position themselves between two adjacent PMMA drops under appropriate conditions, forming an alternating binary polymer droplet array. The alternating array formation takes place for a narrow range of solution concentration for both the polymers and depends on the geometry of the substrate. The size of the droplets depends on the extent of confinement, and droplets as small as 100 nm can be obtained by this method, on a suitable template. The findings open up the possibility of creating novel surfaces having ordered multimaterial domains with a potential multifunctional capability.
Multi-Temporal Land Cover Classification with Sequential Recurrent Encoders
Rußwurm, Marc; Körner, Marco
2018-03-01
Earth observation (EO) sensors deliver data with daily or weekly temporal resolution. Most land use and land cover (LULC) approaches, however, expect cloud-free and mono-temporal observations. The increasing temporal capabilities of today's sensors enables the use of temporal, along with spectral and spatial features. Domains, such as speech recognition or neural machine translation, work with inherently temporal data and, today, achieve impressive results using sequential encoder-decoder structures. Inspired by these sequence-to-sequence models, we adapt an encoder structure with convolutional recurrent layers in order to approximate a phenological model for vegetation classes based on a temporal sequence of Sentinel 2 (S2) images. In our experiments, we visualize internal activations over a sequence of cloudy and non-cloudy images and find several recurrent cells, which reduce the input activity for cloudy observations. Hence, we assume that our network has learned cloud-filtering schemes solely from input data, which could alleviate the need for tedious cloud-filtering as a preprocessing step for many EO approaches. Moreover, using unfiltered temporal series of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance data, we achieved in our experiments state-of-the-art classification accuracies on a large number of crop classes with minimal preprocessing compared to other classification approaches.
Effortless assignment with 4D covariance sequential correlation maps.
Harden, Bradley J; Mishra, Subrata H; Frueh, Dominique P
2015-11-01
Traditional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) assignment procedures for proteins rely on preliminary peak-picking to identify and label NMR signals. However, such an approach has severe limitations when signals are erroneously labeled or completely neglected. The consequences are especially grave for proteins with substantial peak overlap, and mistakes can often thwart entire projects. To overcome these limitations, we previously introduced an assignment technique that bypasses traditional pick peaking altogether. Covariance Sequential Correlation Maps (COSCOMs) transform the indirect connectivity information provided by multiple 3D backbone spectra into direct (H, N) to (H, N) correlations. Here, we present an updated method that utilizes a single four-dimensional spectrum rather than a suite of three-dimensional spectra. We demonstrate the advantages of 4D-COSCOMs relative to their 3D counterparts. We introduce improvements accelerating their calculation. We discuss practical considerations affecting their quality. And finally we showcase their utility in the context of a 52 kDa cyclization domain from a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.
2010-01-01
The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clemmensen, Torkil; Kaptelinin, Victor; Nardi, Bonnie
2016-01-01
different ways of using activity theory: (1) analysing unique features, principles, and problematic aspects of the theory; (2) identifying domain-specific requirements for new theoretical tools; (3) developing new conceptual accounts of issues in the field of HCI; (4) guiding and supporting empirical...... analyses of HCI phenomena; and (5) providing new design illustrations, claims, and guidelines. We conclude that HCI researchers are not only users of imported theory, but also theory-makers who adapt and develop theory for different purposes.......This paper reports a study of the use of activity theory in human–computer interaction (HCI) research. We analyse activity theory in HCI since its first appearance about 25 years ago. Through an analysis and meta-synthesis of 109 selected HCI activity theory papers, we created a taxonomy of 5...
Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J
2016-01-01
Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect
Comparison of Sequential and Variational Data Assimilation
Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Weerts, Albrecht
2017-04-01
Data assimilation is a valuable tool to improve model state estimates by combining measured observations with model simulations. It has recently gained significant attention due to its potential in using remote sensing products to improve operational hydrological forecasts and for reanalysis purposes. This has been supported by the application of sequential techniques such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter which require no additional features within the modeling process, i.e. it can use arbitrary black-box models. Alternatively, variational techniques rely on optimization algorithms to minimize a pre-defined objective function. This function describes the trade-off between the amount of noise introduced into the system and the mismatch between simulated and observed variables. While sequential techniques have been commonly applied to hydrological processes, variational techniques are seldom used. In our believe, this is mainly attributed to the required computation of first order sensitivities by algorithmic differentiation techniques and related model enhancements, but also to lack of comparison between both techniques. We contribute to filling this gap and present the results from the assimilation of streamflow data in two basins located in Germany and Canada. The assimilation introduces noise to precipitation and temperature to produce better initial estimates of an HBV model. The results are computed for a hindcast period and assessed using lead time performance metrics. The study concludes with a discussion of the main features of each technique and their advantages/disadvantages in hydrological applications.
Time scale of random sequential adsorption.
Erban, Radek; Chapman, S Jonathan
2007-04-01
A simple multiscale approach to the diffusion-driven adsorption from a solution to a solid surface is presented. The model combines two important features of the adsorption process: (i) The kinetics of the chemical reaction between adsorbing molecules and the surface and (ii) geometrical constraints on the surface made by molecules which are already adsorbed. The process (i) is modeled in a diffusion-driven context, i.e., the conditional probability of adsorbing a molecule provided that the molecule hits the surface is related to the macroscopic surface reaction rate. The geometrical constraint (ii) is modeled using random sequential adsorption (RSA), which is the sequential addition of molecules at random positions on a surface; one attempt to attach a molecule is made per one RSA simulation time step. By coupling RSA with the diffusion of molecules in the solution above the surface the RSA simulation time step is related to the real physical time. The method is illustrated on a model of chemisorption of reactive polymers to a virus surface.
Hybrid Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Group Sequential Design to Fully Sequential Design
Wang, Shiyu; Lin, Haiyan; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeff
2016-01-01
Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST) have become two of the most popular modes in large-scale computer-based sequential testing. Though most designs of CAT and MST exhibit strength and weakness in recent large-scale implementations, there is no simple answer to the question of which design is better because different…
Sequential probability ratio controllers for safeguards radiation monitors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.L.; Nixon, K.V.
1984-01-01
Sequential hypothesis tests applied to nuclear safeguards accounting methods make the methods more sensitive to detecting diversion. The sequential tests also improve transient signal detection in safeguards radiation monitors. This paper describes three microprocessor control units with sequential probability-ratio tests for detecting transient increases in radiation intensity. The control units are designed for three specific applications: low-intensity monitoring with Poisson probability ratios, higher intensity gamma-ray monitoring where fixed counting intervals are shortened by sequential testing, and monitoring moving traffic where the sequential technique responds to variable-duration signals. The fixed-interval controller shortens a customary 50-s monitoring time to an average of 18 s, making the monitoring delay less bothersome. The controller for monitoring moving vehicles benefits from the sequential technique by maintaining more than half its sensitivity when the normal passage speed doubles
Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games
Kobayashi, Naoki
2007-01-01
A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneo...
Discrimination between sequential and simultaneous virtual channels with electrical hearing
Landsberger, David; Galvin, John J.
2011-01-01
In cochlear implants (CIs), simultaneous or sequential stimulation of adjacent electrodes can produce intermediate pitch percepts between those of the component electrodes. However, it is unclear whether simultaneous and sequential virtual channels (VCs) can be discriminated. In this study, CI users were asked to discriminate simultaneous and sequential VCs; discrimination was measured for monopolar (MP) and bipolar + 1 stimulation (BP + 1), i.e., relatively broad and focused stimulation mode...
C-quence: a tool for analyzing qualitative sequential data.
Duncan, Starkey; Collier, Nicholson T
2002-02-01
C-quence is a software application that matches sequential patterns of qualitative data specified by the user and calculates the rate of occurrence of these patterns in a data set. Although it was designed to facilitate analyses of face-to-face interaction, it is applicable to any data set involving categorical data and sequential information. C-quence queries are constructed using a graphical user interface. The program does not limit the complexity of the sequential patterns specified by the user.
Discrimination between sequential and simultaneous virtual channels with electrical hearing.
Landsberger, David; Galvin, John J
2011-09-01
In cochlear implants (CIs), simultaneous or sequential stimulation of adjacent electrodes can produce intermediate pitch percepts between those of the component electrodes. However, it is unclear whether simultaneous and sequential virtual channels (VCs) can be discriminated. In this study, CI users were asked to discriminate simultaneous and sequential VCs; discrimination was measured for monopolar (MP) and bipolar + 1 stimulation (BP + 1), i.e., relatively broad and focused stimulation modes. For sequential VCs, the interpulse interval (IPI) varied between 0.0 and 1.8 ms. All stimuli were presented at comfortably loud, loudness-balanced levels at a 250 pulse per second per electrode (ppse) stimulation rate. On average, CI subjects were able to reliably discriminate between sequential and simultaneous VCs. While there was no significant effect of IPI or stimulation mode on VC discrimination, some subjects exhibited better VC discrimination with BP + 1 stimulation. Subjects' discrimination between sequential and simultaneous VCs was correlated with electrode discrimination, suggesting that spatial selectivity may influence perception of sequential VCs. To maintain equal loudness, sequential VC amplitudes were nearly double those of simultaneous VCs, presumably resulting in a broader spread of excitation. These results suggest that perceptual differences between simultaneous and sequential VCs might be explained by differences in the spread of excitation. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Lineup composition, suspect position, and the sequential lineup advantage.
Carlson, Curt A; Gronlund, Scott D; Clark, Steven E
2008-06-01
N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate in the simultaneous lineup, and no sequential lineup advantage was found. This led the authors to hypothesize that protection from a sequential lineup might emerge only when an innocent suspect stands out from the other lineup members. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a simultaneous or sequential lineup with either the guilty suspect or 1 of 3 innocent suspects. Lineup fairness was varied to influence the degree to which a suspect stood out. A sequential lineup advantage was found only for the unfair lineups. Additional analyses of suspect position in the sequential lineups showed an increase in the diagnosticity of suspect identifications as the suspect was placed later in the sequential lineup. These results suggest that the sequential lineup advantage is dependent on lineup composition and suspect position. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT mea......BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG...
Ultra-Wide Band Non-reciprocity through Sequentially-Switched Delay Lines.
Biedka, Mathew M; Zhu, Rui; Xu, Qiang Mark; Wang, Yuanxun Ethan
2017-01-06
Achieving non-reciprocity through unconventional methods without the use of magnetic material has recently become a subject of great interest. Towards this goal a time switching strategy known as the Sequentially-Switched Delay Line (SSDL) is proposed. The essential SSDL configuration consists of six transmission lines of equal length, along with five switches. Each switch is turned on and off sequentially to distribute and route the propagating electromagnetic wave, allowing for simultaneous transmission and receiving of signals through the device. Preliminary experimental results with commercial off the shelf parts are presented which demonstrated non-reciprocal behavior with greater than 40 dB isolation from 200 KHz to 200 MHz. The theory and experimental results demonstrated that the SSDL concept may lead to future on-chip circulators over multi-octaves of frequency.
Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing
2017-10-10
A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.
Clinical evaluation of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Peter Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis
2012-01-01
In this study clinically relevant ultrasound images generated with synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is compared to images generated with a conventional technique. The advantage of SASB is the ability to produce high resolution ultrasound images with a high frame rate and at the same...... time massively reduce the amount of generated data. SASB was implemented in a system consisting of a conventional ultrasound scanner connected to a PC via a research interface. This setup enables simultaneous recording with both SASB and conventional technique. Eighteen volunteers were ultrasound...... scanned abdominally, and 84 sequence pairs were recorded. Each sequence pair consists of two simultaneous recordings of the same anatomical location with SASB and conventional B-mode imaging. The images were evaluated in terms of spatial resolution, contrast, unwanted artifacts, and penetration depth...
Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane
Jones, Russel B
2017-04-04
A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.
Gleason-Busch theorem for sequential measurements
Flatt, Kieran; Barnett, Stephen M.; Croke, Sarah
2017-12-01
Gleason's theorem is a statement that, given some reasonable assumptions, the Born rule used to calculate probabilities in quantum mechanics is essentially unique [A. M. Gleason, Indiana Univ. Math. J. 6, 885 (1957), 10.1512/iumj.1957.6.56050]. We show that Gleason's theorem contains within it also the structure of sequential measurements, and along with this the state update rule. We give a small set of axioms, which are physically motivated and analogous to those in Busch's proof of Gleason's theorem [P. Busch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 120403 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.120403], from which the familiar Kraus operator form follows. An axiomatic approach has practical relevance as well as fundamental interest, in making clear those assumptions which underlie the security of quantum communication protocols. Interestingly, the two-time formalism is seen to arise naturally in this approach.
Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers
Jasra, Ajay
2016-01-01
Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.
Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.
Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L
2017-08-01
Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.
Sequential Acral Lentiginous Melanomas of the Foot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiro Uehara
2010-12-01
Full Text Available A 64-year-old Japanese woman had a lightly brown-blackish pigmented macule (1.2 cm in diameter on the left sole of her foot. She received surgical excision following a diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM, which was confirmed histopathologically. One month after the operation, a second melanoma lesion was noticed adjacent to the grafted site. Histopathologically, the two lesions had no continuity, but HMB-45 and cyclin D1 double-positive cells were detected not only on aggregates of atypical melanocytes but also on single cells near the cutting edge of the first lesion. The unique occurrence of a sequential lesion of a primary melanoma might be caused by stimulated subclinical field cells during the wound healing process following the initial operation. This case warrants further investigation to establish the appropriate surgical margin of ALM lesions.
Dancing Twins: Stellar Hierarchies That Formed Sequentially?
Tokovinin, Andrei
2018-04-01
This paper draws attention to the class of resolved triple stars with moderate ratios of inner and outer periods (possibly in a mean motion resonance) and nearly circular, mutually aligned orbits. Moreover, stars in the inner pair are twins with almost identical masses, while the mass sum of the inner pair is comparable to the mass of the outer component. Such systems could be formed either sequentially (inside-out) by disk fragmentation with subsequent accretion and migration, or by a cascade hierarchical fragmentation of a rotating cloud. Orbits of the outer and inner subsystems are computed or updated in four such hierarchies: LHS 1070 (GJ 2005, periods 77.6 and 17.25 years), HIP 9497 (80 and 14.4 years), HIP 25240 (1200 and 47.0 years), and HIP 78842 (131 and 10.5 years).
Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers
Jasra, Ajay
2016-01-05
Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.
Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bradford R Hirsch
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network's Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our thought process in approaching sequential therapy of mRCC and the use of real-world data to inform our approach. We also highlight the evolving literature that will impact practicing oncologists in the near future.
Microstructure history effect during sequential thermomechanical processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yassar, Reza S.; Murphy, John; Burton, Christina; Horstemeyer, Mark F.; El kadiri, Haitham; Shokuhfar, Tolou
2008-01-01
The key to modeling the material processing behavior is the linking of the microstructure evolution to its processing history. This paper quantifies various microstructural features of an aluminum automotive alloy that undergoes sequential thermomechanical processing which is comprised hot rolling of a 150-mm billet to a 75-mm billet, rolling to 3 mm, annealing, and then cold rolling to a 0.8-mm thickness sheet. The microstructural content was characterized by means of electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results clearly demonstrate the evolution of precipitate morphologies, dislocation structures, and grain orientation distributions. These data can be used to improve material models that claim to capture the history effects of the processing materials
Prosody and alignment: a sequential perspective
Szczepek Reed, Beatrice
2010-12-01
In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes and positive emotions. Lack of prosodic matching, and other specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as features of unsuccessful interactions, and negative emotions. This forum focuses on the article's analysis of the relation between interpersonal alignment, emotion and prosody. It argues that prosodic matching, and other prosodic linking practices, play a primarily sequential role, i.e. one that displays the way in which participants place and design their turns in relation to other participants' turns. Prosodic matching, rather than being a conversational action in itself, is argued to be an interactional practice (Schegloff 1997), which is not always employed for the accomplishment of `positive', or aligning actions.
Monitoring sequential electron transfer with EPR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thurnauer, M.C.; Feezel, L.L.; Snyder, S.W.; Tang, J.; Norris, J.R.; Morris, A.L.; Rustandi, R.R.
1989-01-01
A completely general model which treats electron spin polarization (ESP) found in a system in which radical pairs with different magnetic interactions are formed sequentially has been described. This treatment has been applied specifically to the ESP found in the bacterial reaction center. Test cases show clearly how parameters such as structure, lifetime, and magnetic interactions within the successive radical pairs affect the ESP, and demonstrate that previous treatments of this problem have been incomplete. The photosynthetic bacterial reaction center protein is an ideal system for testing the general model of ESP. The radical pair which exhibits ESP, P 870 + Q - (P 870 + is the oxidized, primary electron donor, a bacteriochlorophyll special pair and Q - is the reduced, primary quinone acceptor) is formed via sequential electron transport through the intermediary radical pair P 870 + I - (I - is the reduced, intermediary electron acceptor, a bacteriopheophytin). In addition, it is possible to experimentally vary most of the important parameters, such as the lifetime of the intermediary radical pair and the magnetic interactions in each pair. It has been shown how selective isotopic substitution ( 1 H or 2 H) on P 870 , I and Q affects the ESP of the EPR spectrum of P 870 + Q - , observed at two different microwave frequencies, in Fe 2+ -depleted bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26. Thus, the relative magnitudes of the magnetic properties (nuclear hyperfine and g-factor differences) which influence ESP development were varied. The results support the general model of ESP in that they suggest that the P 870 + Q - radical pair interactions are the dominant source of ESP production in 2 H bacterial reaction centers
A mathematical programming approach for sequential clustering of dynamic networks
Silva, Jonathan C.; Bennett, Laura; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.; Tsoka, Sophia
2016-02-01
A common analysis performed on dynamic networks is community structure detection, a challenging problem that aims to track the temporal evolution of network modules. An emerging area in this field is evolutionary clustering, where the community structure of a network snapshot is identified by taking into account both its current state as well as previous time points. Based on this concept, we have developed a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model, SeqMod, that sequentially clusters each snapshot of a dynamic network. The modularity metric is used to determine the quality of community structure of the current snapshot and the historical cost is accounted for by optimising the number of node pairs co-clustered at the previous time point that remain so in the current snapshot partition. Our method is tested on social networks of interactions among high school students, college students and members of the Brazilian Congress. We show that, for an adequate parameter setting, our algorithm detects the classes that these students belong more accurately than partitioning each time step individually or by partitioning the aggregated snapshots. Our method also detects drastic discontinuities in interaction patterns across network snapshots. Finally, we present comparative results with similar community detection methods for time-dependent networks from the literature. Overall, we illustrate the applicability of mathematical programming as a flexible, adaptable and systematic approach for these community detection problems. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.
Dressed Domain Walls and holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grisa, Luca; Pujolas, Oriol
2008-01-01
The cutoff version of the AdS/CFT correspondence states that the Randall Sundrum scenario is dual to a Conformal Field Theory (CFT) coupled to gravity in four dimensions. The gravitational field produced by relativistic Domain Walls can be exactly solved in both sides of the correspondence, and thus provides one further check of it. We show in the two sides that for the most symmetric case, the wall motion does not lead to particle production of the CFT fields. Still, there are nontrivial effects. Due to the trace anomaly, the CFT effectively renormalizes the Domain Wall tension. On the five dimensional side, the wall is a codimension 2 brane localized on the Randall-Sundrum brane, which pulls the wall in a uniform acceleration. This is perceived from the brane as a Domain Wall with a tension slightly larger than its bare value. In both cases, the deviation from General Relativity appears at nonlinear level in the source, and the leading corrections match to the numerical factors.
Simultaneous versus sequential penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery.
Hayashi, Ken; Hayashi, Hideyuki
2006-10-01
To compare the surgical outcomes of simultaneous penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery with those of sequential surgery. Thirty-nine eyes of 39 patients scheduled for simultaneous keratoplasty and cataract surgery and 23 eyes of 23 patients scheduled for sequential keratoplasty and secondary phacoemulsification surgery were recruited. Refractive error, regular and irregular corneal astigmatism determined by Fourier analysis, and endothelial cell loss were studied at 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after combined surgery in the simultaneous surgery group or after subsequent phacoemulsification surgery in the sequential surgery group. At 3 and more months after surgery, mean refractive error was significantly greater in the simultaneous surgery group than in the sequential surgery group, although no difference was seen at 1 week. The refractive error at 12 months was within 2 D of that targeted in 15 eyes (39%) in the simultaneous surgery group and within 2 D in 16 eyes (70%) in the sequential surgery group; the incidence was significantly greater in the sequential group (P = 0.0344). The regular and irregular astigmatism was not significantly different between the groups at 3 and more months after surgery. No significant difference was also found in the percentage of endothelial cell loss between the groups. Although corneal astigmatism and endothelial cell loss were not different, refractive error from target refraction was greater after simultaneous keratoplasty and cataract surgery than after sequential surgery, indicating a better outcome after sequential surgery than after simultaneous surgery.
Induction of simultaneous and sequential malolactic fermentation in durian wine.
Taniasuri, Fransisca; Lee, Pin-Rou; Liu, Shao-Quan
2016-08-02
This study represented for the first time the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) induced by Oenococcus oeni and its inoculation strategies (simultaneous vs. sequential) on the fermentation performance as well as aroma compound profile of durian wine. There was no negative impact of simultaneous inoculation of O. oeni and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth and fermentation kinetics of S. cerevisiae as compared to sequential fermentation. Simultaneous MLF did not lead to an excessive increase in volatile acidity as compared to sequential MLF. The kinetic changes of organic acids (i.e. malic, lactic, succinic, acetic and α-ketoglutaric acids) varied with simultaneous and sequential MLF relative to yeast alone. MLF, regardless of inoculation mode, resulted in higher production of fermentation-derived volatiles as compared to control (alcoholic fermentation only), including esters, volatile fatty acids, and terpenes, except for higher alcohols. Most indigenous volatile sulphur compounds in durian were decreased to trace levels with little differences among the control, simultaneous and sequential MLF. Among the different wines, the wine with simultaneous MLF had higher concentrations of terpenes and acetate esters while sequential MLF had increased concentrations of medium- and long-chain ethyl esters. Relative to alcoholic fermentation only, both simultaneous and sequential MLF reduced acetaldehyde substantially with sequential MLF being more effective. These findings illustrate that MLF is an effective and novel way of modulating the volatile and aroma compound profile of durian wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making
Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.
2013-01-01
Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential
Dynamics-based sequential memory: Winnerless competition of patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seliger, Philip; Tsimring, Lev S.; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.
2003-01-01
We introduce a biologically motivated dynamical principle of sequential memory which is based on winnerless competition (WLC) of event images. This mechanism is implemented in a two-layer neural model of sequential spatial memory. We present the learning dynamics which leads to the formation of a WLC network. After learning, the system is capable of associative retrieval of prerecorded sequences of patterns
Sequential, progressive, equal-power, reflective beam-splitter arrays
Manhart, Paul K.
2017-11-01
The equations to calculate equal-power reflectivity of a sequential series of beam splitters is presented. Non-sequential optical design examples are offered for uniform illumination using diode lasers. Objects created using Boolean operators and Swept Surfaces can create objects capable of reflecting light into predefined elevation and azimuth angles. Analysis of the illumination patterns for the array are also presented.
The sequential price of anarchy for atomic congestion games
de Jong, Jasper; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Liu, Tie-Yan; Qi, Qi; Ye, Yinyu
2014-01-01
In situations without central coordination, the price of anarchy relates the quality of any Nash equilibrium to the quality of a global optimum. Instead of assuming that all players choose their actions simultaneously, we consider games where players choose their actions sequentially. The sequential
Quantum Probability Zero-One Law for Sequential Terminal Events
Rehder, Wulf
1980-07-01
On the basis of the Jauch-Piron quantum probability calculus a zero-one law for sequential terminal events is proven, and the significance of certain crucial axioms in the quantum probability calculus is discussed. The result shows that the Jauch-Piron set of axioms is appropriate for the non-Boolean algebra of sequential events.
Lineup Composition, Suspect Position, and the Sequential Lineup Advantage
Carlson, Curt A.; Gronlund, Scott D.; Clark, Steven E.
2008-01-01
N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate…
Accounting for Heterogeneous Returns in Sequential Schooling Decisions
Zamarro, G.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a method for estimating returns to schooling that takes into account that returns may be heterogeneous among agents and that educational decisions are made sequentially.A sequential decision model is interesting because it explicitly considers that the level of education of each
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lenain, Roland
2015-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the implementation of a domain decomposition method applied to the neutron transport equation. The objective of this work is to access high-fidelity deterministic solutions to properly handle heterogeneities located in nuclear reactor cores, for problems' size ranging from color-sets of assemblies to large reactor cores configurations in 2D and 3D. The innovative algorithm developed during the thesis intends to optimize the use of parallelism and memory. The approach also aims to minimize the influence of the parallel implementation on the performances. These goals match the needs of APOLLO3 project, developed at CEA and supported by EDF and AREVA, which must be a portable code (no optimization on a specific architecture) in order to achieve best estimate modeling with resources ranging from personal computer to compute cluster available for engineers analyses. The proposed algorithm is a Parallel Multigroup-Block Jacobi one. Each sub-domain is considered as a multi-group fixed-source problem with volume-sources (fission) and surface-sources (interface flux between the sub-domains). The multi-group problem is solved in each sub-domain and a single communication of the interface flux is required at each power iteration. The spectral radius of the resolution algorithm is made similar to the one of a classical resolution algorithm with a nonlinear diffusion acceleration method: the well-known Coarse Mesh Finite Difference. In this way an ideal scalability is achievable when the calculation is parallelized. The memory organization, taking advantage of shared memory parallelism, optimizes the resources by avoiding redundant copies of the data shared between the sub-domains. Distributed memory architectures are made available by a hybrid parallel method that combines both paradigms of shared memory parallelism and distributed memory parallelism. For large problems, these architectures provide a greater number of processors and the amount of
Constructor theory of probability
2016-01-01
Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called ‘decision-theoretic approach’, I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information—where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch–Wallace-type argument—thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles. PMID:27616914
Evidence of benzenoid domains in nanographenes.
Baldoni, Matteo; Mercuri, Francesco
2015-01-21
Calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate the occurrence of local deformations of the perfect honeycomb lattice in nanographenes to form arrangements, with triangular symmetry, composed of six-membered ring patterns. The formation of these locally regular superstructures, which can be considered as benzenoid-like domains on the 2D graphene lattice, is ascribed to the gain in resonance energy deriving from aromaticity. The relationship between the atomic morphology of nanographenes and details of the relaxed structure is rationalized in terms of Clar's theory of the aromatic sextet and by extending concepts borrowed from valence bond theory to 2D carbon nanostructures. Namely, two regular arrangements can be evidenced, defined as Clar (fully benzenoid) and Kekulé domains, which correspond to two different regular bond patterns in sets of adjacent six-membered rings. Our findings are compatible with recent experiments and have potentially relevant consequences in the development of novel electronic devices based on graphene materials.
Interfaces in hot gauge theory
Bronoff, S.
1996-01-01
The string tension at low T and the free energy of domain walls at high T can be computed from one and the same observable. We show by explicit calculation that domain walls in hot Z(2) gauge theory have good thermodynamical behaviour. This is due to roughening of the wall, which expresses the restoration of translational symmetry.
Constrained treatment planning using sequential beam selection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woudstra, E.; Storchi, P.R.M.
2000-01-01
In this paper an algorithm is described for automated treatment plan generation. The algorithm aims at delivery of the prescribed dose to the target volume without violation of constraints for target, organs at risk and the surrounding normal tissue. Pre-calculated dose distributions for all candidate orientations are used as input. Treatment beams are selected in a sequential way. A score function designed for beam selection is used for the simultaneous selection of beam orientations and weights. In order to determine the optimum choice for the orientation and the corresponding weight of each new beam, the score function is first redefined to account for the dose distribution of the previously selected beams. Addition of more beams to the plan is stopped when the target dose is reached or when no additional dose can be delivered without violating a constraint. In the latter case the score function is modified by importance factor changes to enforce better sparing of the organ with the limiting constraint and the algorithm is run again. (author)
Phenomenology of the next sequential lepton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizzo, T.G.
1980-01-01
We consider the phenomenology of a sequential, charged lepton in the mass range 6 --13 GeV. We find the semileptonic branching ratio of such a lepton to be approx. 13%; the dominant two-body modes are found to include the decay L → ν/sub L/F* with a branching ratio approx. 6%. In this analysis we assume that the mass of the lepton under consideration is lighter than the t quark such that decays such as L → ν/sub L/t-barq, where q= (d, s, or b) are kinematically forbidden. We also find that decays such as L → ν/sub L/B* (c-barb) can also be as large as approx. 6% depending on the mixing angles; the lifetime of such a lepton is found to be approx. 2.6 x 10 -12 M/sub L/ -5 sec, where M/sub L/ is in GeV
The Origin of Sequential Chromospheric Brightenings
Kirk, M. S.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Jackiewicz, J.; Gilbert, H. R.
2017-06-01
Sequential chromospheric brightenings (SCBs) are often observed in the immediate vicinity of erupting flares and are associated with coronal mass ejections. Since their initial discovery in 2005, there have been several subsequent investigations of SCBs. These studies have used differing detection and analysis techniques, making it difficult to compare results between studies. This work employs the automated detection algorithm of Kirk et al. (Solar Phys. 283, 97, 2013) to extract the physical characteristics of SCBs in 11 flares of varying size and intensity. We demonstrate that the magnetic substructure within the SCB appears to have a significantly smaller area than the corresponding Hα emission. We conclude that SCBs originate in the lower corona around 0.1 R_{⊙} above the photosphere, propagate away from the flare center at speeds of 35 - 85 km s^{-1}, and have peak photosphere magnetic intensities of 148±2.9 G. In light of these measurements, we infer SCBs to be distinctive chromospheric signatures of erupting coronal mass ejections.
Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems
Ali, Konpal S.
2014-05-01
Due to their ability to provide high data rates, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become increasingly popular. Decoding of these systems with acceptable error performance is computationally very demanding. In this paper, we employ the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity and vice versa for higher bias values. Numerical results are done that show moderate bias values result in a decent performance-complexity trade-off. We also attempt to bound the error by bounding the bias, using the minimum distance of a lattice. The variations in complexity with SNR have an interesting trend that shows room for considerable improvement. Our work is compared against linear decoders (LDs) aided with Element-based Lattice Reduction (ELR) and Complex Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz (CLLL) reduction. © 2014 IFIP.
Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Schöbel
Full Text Available People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.
Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making
Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael
2016-01-01
People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448
Sequential acquisition of mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Makishima, Hideki
2017-01-01
Recent progress in next-generation sequencing technologies allows us to discover frequent mutations throughout the coding regions of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), potentially providing us with virtually a complete spectrum of driver mutations in this disease. As shown by many study groups these days, such driver mutations are acquired in a gene-specific fashion. For instance, DDX41 mutations are observed in germline cells long before MDS presentation. In blood samples from healthy elderly individuals, somatic DNMT3A and TET2 mutations are detected as age-related clonal hematopoiesis and are believed to be a risk factor for hematological neoplasms. In MDS, mutations of genes such as NRAS and FLT3, designated as Type-1 genes, may be significantly associated with leukemic evolution. Another type (Type-2) of genes, including RUNX1 and GATA2, are related to progression from low-risk to high-risk MDS. Overall, various driver mutations are sequentially acquired in MDS, at a specific time, in either germline cells, normal hematopoietic cells, or clonal MDS cells.
Building a Lego wall: Sequential action selection.
Arnold, Amy; Wing, Alan M; Rotshtein, Pia
2017-05-01
The present study draws together two distinct lines of enquiry into the selection and control of sequential action: motor sequence production and action selection in everyday tasks. Participants were asked to build 2 different Lego walls. The walls were designed to have hierarchical structures with shared and dissociated colors and spatial components. Participants built 1 wall at a time, under low and high load cognitive states. Selection times for correctly completed trials were measured using 3-dimensional motion tracking. The paradigm enabled precise measurement of the timing of actions, while using real objects to create an end product. The experiment demonstrated that action selection was slowed at decision boundary points, relative to boundaries where no between-wall decision was required. Decision points also affected selection time prior to the actual selection window. Dual-task conditions increased selection errors. Errors mostly occurred at boundaries between chunks and especially when these required decisions. The data support hierarchical control of sequenced behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in
2016-07-15
Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.
Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.
Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael
2016-01-01
People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Guan SAW
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This article revisits the cognitive load theory to explore the use of worked examples to teach a selected topic in a higher level undergraduate physics course for distance learners at the School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia. With a break of several years from receiving formal education and having only minimum science background, distance learners need an appropriate instructional strategy for courses that require complex conceptualization and mathematical manipulations. As the working memory is limited, distance learners need to acquire domain specific knowledge in stages to lessen cognitive load. This article charts a learning task with a lower cognitive load to teach Fermi-Dirac distribution and demonstrates the use of sequential worked examples. Content taught in stages using worked examples can be presented as a form of didactic conversation to reduce transactional distance. This instructional strategy can be applied to similar challenging topics in other well-structured domains in a distance learning environment.
Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Castel, Alan D
2018-05-01
Learners make a number of decisions when attempting to study efficiently: they must choose which information to study, for how long to study it, and whether to restudy it later. The current experiments examine whether documented impairments to self-regulated learning when studying information sequentially, as opposed to simultaneously, extend to the learning of and memory for valuable information. In Experiment 1, participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1-10 points sequentially or simultaneously at a preset presentation rate; in Experiment 2, study was self-paced and participants could choose to restudy. Although participants prioritized high-value over low-value information, irrespective of presentation, those who studied the items simultaneously demonstrated superior value-based prioritization with respect to recall, study selections, and self-pacing. The results of the present experiments support the theory that devising, maintaining, and executing efficient study agendas is inherently different under sequential formatting than simultaneous. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Universal features in sequential and nonsequential two-photon double ionization of helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazourek, R.; Nagele, S.; Persson, E.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Feist, J.; Schneider, B. I.; Collins, L. A.
2011-01-01
We analyze two-photon double ionization of helium in both the nonsequential ((ℎ/2π)ω 2 ≅54.4 eV) and sequential ((ℎ/2π)ω>I 2 ) regime. We show that the energy spacing ΔE=E 1 -E 2 between the two emitted electrons provides the key parameter that controls both the energy and the angular distribution and reveals the universal features present in both the nonsequential and sequential regime. This universality, i.e., independence of (ℎ/2π)ω, is a manifestation of the continuity across the threshold for sequential double ionization. For all photon energies considered, the energy distribution can be described by a universal shape function that contains only the spectral and temporal information entering second-order time-dependent perturbation theory. Angular correlations and distributions are found to be more sensitive to the value of (ℎ/2π)ω. In particular, shake-up interferences have a large effect on the angular distribution. Energy spectra, angular distributions parametrized by the anisotropy parameters β j , and total cross sections presented in this paper are obtained by fully correlated time-dependent ab initio calculations.
Sequential nonadiabatic excitation of large molecules and ions driven by strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markevitch, Alexei N.; Levis, Robert J.; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Smith, Stanley M.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Ivanov, Misha Yu.
2004-01-01
Electronic processes leading to dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules in strong laser fields are investigated experimentally, theoretically, and numerically. Using time-of-flight ion mass spectroscopy, we study the dependence of fragmentation on laser intensity for a series of related molecules and report regular trends in this dependence on the size, symmetry, and electronic structure of a molecule. Based on these data, we develop a model of dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules in intense laser fields. The model is built on three elements: (i) nonadiabatic population transfer from the ground electronic state to the excited-state manifold via a doorway (charge-transfer) transition; (ii) exponential enhancement of this transition by collective dynamic polarization of all electrons, and (iii) sequential energy deposition in both neutral molecules and resulting molecular ions. The sequential nonadiabatic excitation is accelerated by a counterintuitive increase of a large molecule's polarizability following its ionization. The generic theory of sequential nonadiabatic excitation forms a basis for quantitative description of various nonlinear processes in polyatomic molecules and ions in strong laser fields
Breakdown of the Graphene Coating Effect under Sequential Exposure to O2 and H2S
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Louis; Andersen, Mie; Hammer, Bjørk
2013-01-01
exposures of O2 and H2S, a sequential dose of O2 and H2S causes a breakdown of the coating effect. From density functional theory calculations we explain these observations at the atomic level. We show that it is favorable for oxygen atoms to disrupt the Pt–C bonds at the graphene edge to insert between...... the edge and the surface in a bridging position. This closed-edge configuration explains why oxygen alone is not found to intercalate under the graphene at room temperature. With the subsequent dosing of H2S, we propose that the oxygen atoms are released from the platinum surface causing the breakdown...
Geometrical methods in learning theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burdet, G.; Combe, Ph.; Nencka, H.
2001-01-01
The methods of information theory provide natural approaches to learning algorithms in the case of stochastic formal neural networks. Most of the classical techniques are based on some extremization principle. A geometrical interpretation of the associated algorithms provides a powerful tool for understanding the learning process and its stability and offers a framework for discussing possible new learning rules. An illustration is given using sequential and parallel learning in the Boltzmann machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Ju Min; Lee, Beyong Yeob; Lee, Jong Gun; Jong, Duc Jin
2006-06-01
This book describes theory and practice of VHDL in easy way. It starts introduction of HDL, the design process with VHDL, the constitution of VHDL code, design structure of CHDL, basics for using of VHDL, language grammar of VHDL, design of combinational circuit, synchronizing circuit and asynchronizing circuit design, finite state machine, using of Quartus, parity, 7-segment decode, 4bit adder, 4 X I multiplexer, I X 4 demulitplexer, duodecimal counter, a second counter, LED sequential switch and a traffic signal controller.
Liu, Ye; Zheng, Tengfei; Bruner, Steven D.
2011-01-01
Summary Phosphopantetheine-modified carrier domains play a central role in the template-directed, biosynthesis of several classes of primary and secondary metabolites. Fatty acids, polyketides and nonribosomal peptides are constructed on multidomain enzyme assemblies using phosphopantetheinyl thioester-linked carrier domains to traffic and activate building blocks. The carrier domain is a dynamic component of the process, shuttling pathway intermediates to sequential enzyme active sites. Here we report an approach to structurally fix carrier domain/enzyme constructs suitable for X-ray crystallographic analysis. The structure of a two-domain construct of E. coli EntF was determined with a conjugated phosphopantetheinyl-based inhibitor. The didomain structure is locked in an active orientation relevant to the chemistry of nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis. This structure provides details into the interaction of phosphopantetheine arm with the carrier domain and the active site of the thioesterase domain. PMID:22118682
Förster, J.; Marguc, J.; Gillebaart, M.
2010-01-01
Novelty Categorization Theory (NCT) attempts to predict when people perceive events as novel and how they process novel events across different domains. It is predicted that broad mental categories reduce the perception of an event being novel via inclusion processes, whereas narrow categories
Comparison of ablation centration after bilateral sequential versus simultaneous LASIK.
Lin, Jane-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Yu
2005-01-01
To compare ablation centration after bilateral sequential and simultaneous myopic LASIK. A retrospective randomized case series was performed of 670 eyes of 335 consecutive patients who had undergone either bilateral sequential (group 1) or simultaneous (group 2) myopic LASIK between July 2000 and July 2001 at the China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. The ablation centrations of the first and second eyes in the two groups were compared 3 months postoperatively. Of 670 eyes, 274 eyes (137 patients) comprised the sequential group and 396 eyes (198 patients) comprised the simultaneous group. Three months post-operatively, 220 eyes of 110 patients (80%) in the sequential group and 236 eyes of 118 patients (60%) in the simultaneous group provided topographic data for centration analysis. For the first eyes, mean decentration was 0.39 +/- 0.26 mm in the sequential group and 0.41 +/- 0.19 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .30). For the second eyes, mean decentration was 0.28 +/- 0.23 mm in the sequential group and 0.30 +/- 0.21 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .36). Decentration in the second eyes significantly improved in both groups (group 1, P = .02; group 2, P sequential group and 0.32 +/- 0.18 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .33). The difference of ablation center angles between the first and second eyes was 43.2 sequential group and 45.1 +/- 50.8 degrees in the simultaneous group (P = .42). Simultaneous bilateral LASIK is comparable to sequential surgery in ablation centration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huber-Wagner S
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several well established scores for the assessment of the prognosis of major trauma patients that all have in common that they can be calculated at the earliest during intensive care unit stay. We intended to develop a sequential trauma score (STS that allows prognosis at several early stages based on the information that is available at a particular time. Study design In a retrospective, multicenter study using data derived from the Trauma Registry of the German Trauma Society (2002-2006, we identified the most relevant prognostic factors from the patients basic data (P, prehospital phase (A, early (B1, and late (B2 trauma room phase. Univariate and logistic regression models as well as score quality criteria and the explanatory power have been calculated. Results A total of 2,354 patients with complete data were identified. From the patients basic data (P, logistic regression showed that age was a significant predictor of survival (AUCmodel p, area under the curve = 0.63. Logistic regression of the prehospital data (A showed that blood pressure, pulse rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, and anisocoria were significant predictors (AUCmodel A = 0.76; AUCmodel P + A = 0.82. Logistic regression of the early trauma room phase (B1 showed that peripheral oxygen saturation, GCS, anisocoria, base excess, and thromboplastin time to be significant predictors of survival (AUCmodel B1 = 0.78; AUCmodel P +A + B1 = 0.85. Multivariate analysis of the late trauma room phase (B2 detected cardiac massage, abbreviated injury score (AIS of the head ≥ 3, the maximum AIS, the need for transfusion or massive blood transfusion, to be the most important predictors (AUCmodel B2 = 0.84; AUCfinal model P + A + B1 + B2 = 0.90. The explanatory power - a tool for the assessment of the relative impact of each segment to mortality - is 25% for P, 7% for A, 17% for B1 and 51% for B2. A spreadsheet for the easy calculation of the sequential trauma
Sequential formation of subgroups in OB associations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elmegreen, B.G.; Lada, C.J.
1977-01-01
We reconsider the structure and formation of OB association in view of recent radio and infrared observations of the adjacent molecular clouds. As a result of this reexamination, we propose that OB subgroups are formed in a step-by-step process which involves the propagation of ionization (I) and shock (S) fronts through a molecular cloud complex. OB stars formed at the edge of a molecular cloud drive these I-S fronts into the cloud. A layer of dense neutral material accumulates between the I and S fronts and eventually becomes gravitationally unstable. This process is analyzed in detail. Several arguments concerning the temperature and mass of this layer suggest that a new OB subgroup will form. After approximately one-half million years, these stars will emerge from and disrupt the star-forming layer. A new shock will be driven into the remaining molecular cloud and will initiate another cycle of star formation.Several observed properties of OB associations are shown to follow from a sequential star-forming mechanism. These include the spatial separation and systematic differences in age of OB subgroups in a given association, the regularity of subgroup masses, the alignment of subgroups along the galactic plane, and their physical expansion. Detailed observations of ionization fronts, masers, IR sources, and molecular clouds are also in agreement with this model. Finally, this mechanism provides a means of dissipating a molecular cloud and exposing less massive stars (e.g., T Tauri stars) which may have formed ahead of the shock as part of the original cloud collapsed and fragmented
District heating in sequential energy supply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with
Large-scale sequential quadratic programming algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eldersveld, S.K.
1992-09-01
The problem addressed is the general nonlinear programming problem: finding a local minimizer for a nonlinear function subject to a mixture of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The methods studied are in the class of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms, which have previously proved successful for problems of moderate size. Our goal is to devise an SQP algorithm that is applicable to large-scale optimization problems, using sparse data structures and storing less curvature information but maintaining the property of superlinear convergence. The main features are: 1. The use of a quasi-Newton approximation to the reduced Hessian of the Lagrangian function. Only an estimate of the reduced Hessian matrix is required by our algorithm. The impact of not having available the full Hessian approximation is studied and alternative estimates are constructed. 2. The use of a transformation matrix Q. This allows the QP gradient to be computed easily when only the reduced Hessian approximation is maintained. 3. The use of a reduced-gradient form of the basis for the null space of the working set. This choice of basis is more practical than an orthogonal null-space basis for large-scale problems. The continuity condition for this choice is proven. 4. The use of incomplete solutions of quadratic programming subproblems. Certain iterates generated by an active-set method for the QP subproblem are used in place of the QP minimizer to define the search direction for the nonlinear problem. An implementation of the new algorithm has been obtained by modifying the code MINOS. Results and comparisons with MINOS and NPSOL are given for the new algorithm on a set of 92 test problems.
An Efficient System Based On Closed Sequential Patterns for Web Recommendations
Utpala Niranjan; R.B.V. Subramanyam; V-Khana
2010-01-01
Sequential pattern mining, since its introduction has received considerable attention among the researchers with broad applications. The sequential pattern algorithms generally face problems when mining long sequential patterns or while using very low support threshold. One possible solution of such problems is by mining the closed sequential patterns, which is a condensed representation of sequential patterns. Recently, several researchers have utilized the sequential pattern discovery for d...
Structural domain walls in polar hexagonal manganites
Kumagai, Yu
2014-03-01
The domain structure in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites is currently intensely investigated, motivated by the observation of intriguing sixfold topological defects at their meeting points [Choi, T. et al,. Nature Mater. 9, 253 (2010).] and nanoscale electrical conductivity at the domain walls [Wu, W. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 077203 (2012).; Meier, D. et al., Nature Mater. 11, 284 (2012).], as well as reports of coupling between ferroelectricity, magnetism and structural antiphase domains [Geng, Y. et al., Nano Lett. 12, 6055 (2012).]. The detailed structure of the domain walls, as well as the origin of such couplings, however, was previously not fully understood. In the present study, we have used first-principles density functional theory to calculate the structure and properties of the low-energy structural domain walls in the hexagonal manganites [Kumagai, Y. and Spaldin, N. A., Nature Commun. 4, 1540 (2013).]. We find that the lowest energy domain walls are atomically sharp, with {210}orientation, explaining the orientation of recently observed stripe domains and suggesting their topological protection [Chae, S. C. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167603 (2012).]. We also explain why ferroelectric domain walls are always simultaneously antiphase walls, propose a mechanism for ferroelectric switching through domain-wall motion, and suggest an atomistic structure for the cores of the sixfold topological defects. This work was supported by ETH Zurich, the European Research Council FP7 Advanced Grants program me (grant number 291151), the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad, and the MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center TIES.
Embedding responses in spontaneous neural activity shaped through sequential learning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomoki Kurikawa
Full Text Available Recent experimental measurements have demonstrated that spontaneous neural activity in the absence of explicit external stimuli has remarkable spatiotemporal structure. This spontaneous activity has also been shown to play a key role in the response to external stimuli. To better understand this role, we proposed a viewpoint, "memories-as-bifurcations," that differs from the traditional "memories-as-attractors" viewpoint. Memory recall from the memories-as-bifurcations viewpoint occurs when the spontaneous neural activity is changed to an appropriate output activity upon application of an input, known as a bifurcation in dynamical systems theory, wherein the input modifies the flow structure of the neural dynamics. Learning, then, is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems such that a target output pattern is generated as an attractor upon a given input. Based on this novel viewpoint, we introduce in this paper an associative memory model with a sequential learning process. Using a simple hebbian-type learning, the model is able to memorize a large number of input/output mappings. The neural dynamics shaped through the learning exhibit different bifurcations to make the requested targets stable upon an increase in the input, and the neural activity in the absence of input shows chaotic dynamics with occasional approaches to the memorized target patterns. These results suggest that these dynamics facilitate the bifurcations to each target attractor upon application of the corresponding input, which thus increases the capacity for learning. This theoretical finding about the behavior of the spontaneous neural activity is consistent with recent experimental observations in which the neural activity without stimuli wanders among patterns evoked by previously applied signals. In addition, the neural networks shaped by learning properly reflect the correlations of input and target-output patterns in a similar manner to those designed in
Shiyi Zhou; Shu Da; Heng Guo; Xichao Zhang
2018-01-01
After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relat...
Conserved Domain Database (CDD)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins.
Domain-General Factors Influencing Numerical and Arithmetic Processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
André Knops
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This special issue contains 18 articles that address the question how numerical processes interact with domain-general factors. We start the editorial with a discussion of how to define domain-general versus domain-specific factors and then discuss the contributions to this special issue grouped into two core numerical domains that are subject to domain-general influences (see Figure 1. The first group of contributions addresses the question how numbers interact with spatial factors. The second group of contributions is concerned with factors that determine and predict arithmetic understanding, performance and development. This special issue shows that domain-general (Table 1a as well as domain-specific (Table 1b abilities influence numerical and arithmetic performance virtually at all levels and make it clear that for the field of numerical cognition a sole focus on one or several domain-specific factors like the approximate number system or spatial-numerical associations is not sufficient. Vice versa, in most studies that included domain-general and domain-specific variables, domain-specific numerical variables predicted arithmetic performance above and beyond domain-general variables. Therefore, a sole focus on domain-general aspects such as, for example, working memory, to explain, predict and foster arithmetic learning is also not sufficient. Based on the articles in this special issue we conclude that both domain-general and domain-specific factors contribute to numerical cognition. But the how, why and when of their contribution still needs to be better understood. We hope that this special issue may be helpful to readers in constraining future theory and model building about the interplay of domain-specific and domain-general factors.
Domain Engineering, A Software Engineering Discipline in Need of Research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørner, Dines
2000-01-01
. The aim of this paper is to advocate: that researchers study these development method components, and that universities focus their education on basing well-nigh any course on the use of formal techniques: Specification and verification, and that software engineers take heed: Start applying formal......, and these again seem more stable than software designs. Thus, almost like the universal laws of physics, it pays off to first develop theories of domains. But domain engineering, as in fact also requirements engineering, really is in need of thoroughly researched development principles, techniques and tools...... techniques. A brief example of describing stake-holder perspectives will be given - on the background of which we then proceed to survey the notions of domain intrinsics, domain support technologies, domain management & organisation, domain rules & regulations, domain human behaviour, etc. We show elsewhere...
Further comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulacsy, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics
1997-05-23
The Bayesian method for belief updating proposed in Racz (1996) is examined. The interpretation of the belief function introduced therein is found, and the method is compared to the classical binary Sequential Probability Ratio Testing method (SPRT). (author).
Sequential lineups: shift in criterion or decision strategy?
Gronlund, Scott D
2004-04-01
R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985) argued that a sequential lineup enhanced discriminability because it elicited use of an absolute decision strategy. E. B. Ebbesen and H. D. Flowe (2002) argued that a sequential lineup led witnesses to adopt a more conservative response criterion, thereby affecting bias, not discriminability. Height was encoded as absolute (e.g., 6 ft [1.83 m] tall) or relative (e.g., taller than). If a sequential lineup elicited an absolute decision strategy, the principle of transfer-appropriate processing predicted that performance should be best when height was encoded absolutely. Conversely, if a simultaneous lineup elicited a relative decision strategy, performance should be best when height was encoded relatively. The predicted interaction was observed, providing direct evidence for the decision strategies explanation of what happens when witnesses view a sequential lineup.
Relations between the simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satchler, G.R.
1982-01-01
The author discusses the perturbative treatment of simultaneous and sequential two-nucleon transfer reactions with special regards to the DWBA. As examples the (t,p), (p,t), and (α,d) reactions are considered. (HSI)
Retrieval of sea surface velocities using sequential Ocean Colour ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
pended sediment dispersion patterns, in sequential two time lapsed images. .... face advective velocities consists essentially of iden- tifying the ... matrix is time consuming, a significant reduction .... Chauhan, P. 2002 Personal Communication.
Process tomography via sequential measurements on a single quantum system
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bassa, H
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The authors utilize a discrete (sequential) measurement protocol to investigate quantum process tomography of a single two-level quantum system, with an unknown initial state, undergoing Rabi oscillations. The ignorance of the dynamical parameters...
Generalized infimum and sequential product of quantum effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yuan; Sun Xiuhong; Chen Zhengli
2007-01-01
The quantum effects for a physical system can be described by the set E(H) of positive operators on a complex Hilbert space H that are bounded above by the identity operator I. For A, B(set-membership sign)E(H), the operation of sequential product A(convolution sign)B=A 1/2 BA 1/2 was proposed as a model for sequential quantum measurements. A nice investigation of properties of the sequential product has been carried over [Gudder, S. and Nagy, G., 'Sequential quantum measurements', J. Math. Phys. 42, 5212 (2001)]. In this note, we extend some results of this reference. In particular, a gap in the proof of Theorem 3.2 in this reference is overcome. In addition, some properties of generalized infimum A sqcap B are studied
Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda.
The impact of eyewitness identifications from simultaneous and sequential lineups.
Wright, Daniel B
2007-10-01
Recent guidelines in the US allow either simultaneous or sequential lineups to be used for eyewitness identification. This paper investigates how potential jurors weight the probative value of the different outcomes from both of these types of lineups. Participants (n=340) were given a description of a case that included some exonerating and some incriminating evidence. There was either a simultaneous or a sequential lineup. Depending on the condition, an eyewitness chose the suspect, chose a filler, or made no identification. The participant had to judge the guilt of the suspect and decide whether to render a guilty verdict. For both simultaneous and sequential lineups an identification had a large effect,increasing the probability of a guilty verdict. There were no reliable effects detected between making no identification and identifying a filler. The effect sizes were similar for simultaneous and sequential lineups. These findings are important for judges and other legal professionals to know for trials involving lineup identifications.
A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2016-09-03
Sep 3, 2016 ... Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for ... show the effectiveness of the research method. ... qualitative data before quantitative datasets ..... whereby both types of data are collected simultaneously.
Face identification with frequency domain matched filtering in mobile environments
Lee, Dong-Su; Woo, Yong-Hyun; Yeom, Seokwon; Kim, Shin-Hwan
2012-06-01
Face identification at a distance is very challenging since captured images are often degraded by blur and noise. Furthermore, the computational resources and memory are often limited in the mobile environments. Thus, it is very challenging to develop a real-time face identification system on the mobile device. This paper discusses face identification based on frequency domain matched filtering in the mobile environments. Face identification is performed by the linear or phase-only matched filter and sequential verification stages. The candidate window regions are decided by the major peaks of the linear or phase-only matched filtering outputs. The sequential stages comprise a skin-color test and an edge mask filtering test, which verify color and shape information of the candidate regions in order to remove false alarms. All algorithms are built on the mobile device using Android platform. The preliminary results show that face identification of East Asian people can be performed successfully in the mobile environments.
Concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik
1995-01-01
We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder......We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder...
Multichannel, sequential or combined X-ray spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Florestan, J.
1979-01-01
X-ray spectrometer qualities and defects are evaluated for sequential and multichannel categories. Multichannel X-ray spectrometer has time-coherency advantage and its results could be more reproducible; on the other hand some spatial incoherency limits low percentage and traces applications, specially when backgrounds are very variable. In this last case, sequential X-ray spectrometer would find again great usefulness [fr
A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making
Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.
2013-01-01
Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives. Though there is a growing body of literature on this subject, little of it makes explicit under what circumstances special methods are needed to solve multi-obj...
Configural and component processing in simultaneous and sequential lineup procedures
Flowe, HD; Smith, HMJ; Karoğlu, N; Onwuegbusi, TO; Rai, L
2015-01-01
Configural processing supports accurate face recognition, yet it has never been examined within the context of criminal identification lineups. We tested, using the inversion paradigm, the role of configural processing in lineups. Recent research has found that face discrimination accuracy in lineups is better in a simultaneous compared to a sequential lineup procedure. Therefore, we compared configural processing in simultaneous and sequential lineups to examine whether there are differences...
Sequential weak continuity of null Lagrangians at the boundary
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalamajska, A.; Kraemer, S.; Kružík, Martin
2014-01-01
Roč. 49, 3/4 (2014), s. 1263-1278 ISSN 0944-2669 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : null Lagrangians * nonhomogeneous nonlinear mappings * sequential weak/in measure continuity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kruzik-sequential weak continuity of null lagrangians at the boundary.pdf
A Trust-region-based Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
This technical note documents the trust-region-based sequential quadratic programming algorithm used in other works by the authors. The algorithm seeks to minimize a convex nonlinear cost function subject to linear inequalty constraints and nonlinear equality constraints.......This technical note documents the trust-region-based sequential quadratic programming algorithm used in other works by the authors. The algorithm seeks to minimize a convex nonlinear cost function subject to linear inequalty constraints and nonlinear equality constraints....
Sequential bayes estimation algorithm with cubic splines on uniform meshes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossfeld, F.; Mika, K.; Plesser-Walk, E.
1975-11-01
After outlining the principles of some recent developments in parameter estimation, a sequential numerical algorithm for generalized curve-fitting applications is presented combining results from statistical estimation concepts and spline analysis. Due to its recursive nature, the algorithm can be used most efficiently in online experimentation. Using computer-sumulated and experimental data, the efficiency and the flexibility of this sequential estimation procedure is extensively demonstrated. (orig.) [de
Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the penis.
Kaneko, K; De Mouy, E H; Lee, B E
1994-04-01
To determine the enhancement patterns of the penis at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sequential contrast material-enhanced MR images of the penis in a flaccid state were obtained in 16 volunteers (12 with normal penile function and four with erectile dysfunction). Subjects with normal erectile function showed gradual and centrifugal enhancement of the corpora cavernosa, while those with erectile dysfunction showed poor enhancement with abnormal progression. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging provides additional morphologic information for the evaluation of erectile dysfunction.
Classical theory of algebraic numbers
Ribenboim, Paulo
2001-01-01
Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...
Sequential unconstrained minimization algorithms for constrained optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrne, Charles
2008-01-01
The problem of minimizing a function f(x):R J → R, subject to constraints on the vector variable x, occurs frequently in inverse problems. Even without constraints, finding a minimizer of f(x) may require iterative methods. We consider here a general class of iterative algorithms that find a solution to the constrained minimization problem as the limit of a sequence of vectors, each solving an unconstrained minimization problem. Our sequential unconstrained minimization algorithm (SUMMA) is an iterative procedure for constrained minimization. At the kth step we minimize the function G k (x)=f(x)+g k (x), to obtain x k . The auxiliary functions g k (x):D subset of R J → R + are nonnegative on the set D, each x k is assumed to lie within D, and the objective is to minimize the continuous function f:R J → R over x in the set C = D-bar, the closure of D. We assume that such minimizers exist, and denote one such by x-circumflex. We assume that the functions g k (x) satisfy the inequalities 0≤g k (x)≤G k-1 (x)-G k-1 (x k-1 ), for k = 2, 3, .... Using this assumption, we show that the sequence {(x k )} is decreasing and converges to f(x-circumflex). If the restriction of f(x) to D has bounded level sets, which happens if x-circumflex is unique and f(x) is closed, proper and convex, then the sequence {x k } is bounded, and f(x*)=f(x-circumflex), for any cluster point x*. Therefore, if x-circumflex is unique, x* = x-circumflex and {x k } → x-circumflex. When x-circumflex is not unique, convergence can still be obtained, in particular cases. The SUMMA includes, as particular cases, the well-known barrier- and penalty-function methods, the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), the proximal minimization algorithm of Censor and Zenios, the entropic proximal methods of Teboulle, as well as certain cases of gradient descent and the Newton–Raphson method. The proof techniques used for SUMMA can be extended to obtain related results
Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT mea......BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG...... assumed to be normally distributed, and sequential one-sided hypothesis tests on the population standard deviation of the differences against a hypothesised value of 1.5 were performed, employing an alpha spending function. The fixed-sample analysis (N = 45) was compared with the group-sequential analysis...... strategies comprising one (at N = 23), two (at N = 15, 30), or three interim analyses (at N = 11, 23, 34), respectively, which were defined post hoc. RESULTS: When performing interim analyses with one third and two thirds of patients, sufficient agreement could be concluded after the first interim analysis...
One-pot growth of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures via sequential edge-epitaxy
Sahoo, Prasana K.; Memaran, Shahriar; Xin, Yan; Balicas, Luis; Gutiérrez, Humberto R.
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional heterojunctions of transition-metal dichalcogenides have great potential for application in low-power, high-performance and flexible electro-optical devices, such as tunnelling transistors, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and photovoltaic cells. Although complex heterostructures have been fabricated via the van der Waals stacking of different two-dimensional materials, the in situ fabrication of high-quality lateral heterostructures with multiple junctions remains a challenge. Transition-metal-dichalcogenide lateral heterostructures have been synthesized via single-step, two-step or multi-step growth processes. However, these methods lack the flexibility to control, in situ, the growth of individual domains. In situ synthesis of multi-junction lateral heterostructures does not require multiple exchanges of sources or reactors, a limitation in previous approaches as it exposes the edges to ambient contamination, compromises the homogeneity of domain size in periodic structures, and results in long processing times. Here we report a one-pot synthetic approach, using a single heterogeneous solid source, for the continuous fabrication of lateral multi-junction heterostructures consisting of monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides. The sequential formation of heterojunctions is achieved solely by changing the composition of the reactive gas environment in the presence of water vapour. This enables selective control of the water-induced oxidation and volatilization of each transition-metal precursor, as well as its nucleation on the substrate, leading to sequential edge-epitaxy of distinct transition-metal dichalcogenides. Photoluminescence maps confirm the sequential spatial modulation of the bandgap, and atomic-resolution images reveal defect-free lateral connectivity between the different transition-metal-dichalcogenide domains within a single crystal structure. Electrical transport measurements revealed diode-like responses across the
Conceptual view of Cyberloafing and Non-Work Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soh Patrick Chin-Hooi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In an attempt to understand the reasons for employees’ personal Internet use at work, known as cyberloafing, this paper attempts a new perspective to look at the phenomenon. As the barrier between the previously separate work and home domains reduces, employees are increasingly integrating their working and private world. This phenomenon has resulted in employees using their personal time for work-related tasks through technology in the privacy of their homes and private domain. Conversely, employees could be carrying out non-work related Internet use during office hours. This paper aims to explore the possibility of non-work domain as a factor for employees to cyberloaf. This paper proposed a conceptual model based on border theory and theory of interpersonal behaviour. The resultant augmented theory offers a richer explanation of how non-work domain affects employees’ decision making process on cyberloafing.
Friction anisotropy-driven domain imaging on exfoliated monolayer graphene.
Choi, Jin Sik; Kim, Jin-Soo; Byun, Ik-Su; Lee, Duk Hyun; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Bae Ho; Lee, Changgu; Yoon, Duhee; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Ki Ho; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Jeong Young; Salmeron, Miquel
2011-07-29
Graphene produced by exfoliation has not been able to provide an ideal graphene with performance comparable to that predicted by theory, and structural and/or electronic defects have been proposed as one cause of reduced performance. We report the observation of domains on exfoliated monolayer graphene that differ by their friction characteristics, as measured by friction force microscopy. Angle-dependent scanning revealed friction anisotropy with a periodicity of 180° on each friction domain. The friction anisotropy decreased as the applied load increased. We propose that the domains arise from ripple distortions that give rise to anisotropic friction in each domain as a result of the anisotropic puckering of the graphene.
Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrault, M.; Cances, E.; Hager, W.W.; Le Bris, C.
2007-01-01
We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure
Transactions in domain-specific information systems
Zacek, Jaroslav
2017-07-01
Substantial number of the current information system (IS) implementations is based on transaction approach. In addition, most of the implementations are domain-specific (e.g. accounting IS, resource planning IS). Therefore, we have to have a generic transaction model to build and verify domain-specific IS. The paper proposes a new transaction model for domain-specific ontologies. This model is based on value oriented business process modelling technique. The transaction model is formalized by the Petri Net theory. First part of the paper presents common business processes and analyses related to business process modeling. Second part defines the transactional model delimited by REA enterprise ontology paradigm and introduces states of the generic transaction model. The generic model proposal is defined and visualized by the Petri Net modelling tool. Third part shows application of the generic transaction model. Last part of the paper concludes results and discusses a practical usability of the generic transaction model.
Zhou, Shiyi; Da, Shu; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xichao
2018-01-01
After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work–family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women’s perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work–family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress. PMID:29719522
Zhou, Shiyi; Da, Shu; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xichao
2018-01-01
After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work-family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women's perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work-family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shiyi Zhou
2018-04-01
Full Text Available After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work–family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women’s perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work–family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress.
Strategic Leadership Development: An Operation Domain Application
1997-03-01
effectiveness. The Stratified Systems Theory Model is used to identify skills and attributes for the three leadership domains of Direct, Operation, and...tools they need to help the organization achieve its goals. In discussing leadership , it is important to distinguish between management and leadership ...Peter Drucker and Warren Bennis, two noted authors on leadership , offered the following differentiation: “ Management is doing things right
Matter-antimatter domains in the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, A.
2001-01-01
A possible existence of cosmologically large domains of antimatter or astronomical 'anti-objects' is discussed. A brief review of different scenarios of baryogenesis predicting a noticeable amount of antimatter is given. Though both theory and observations indicate that the universe is most possibly uniformly charge asymmetric without any noticeable amount of antimatter, several natural scenarios are possible that allow for cosmologically (astronomically) interesting objects in close vicinity to us. The latter may be discovered by observation of cosmic ray antinuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Consoli, T; Proca, G; Slama, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
This work presents the theory and the technic in the field of holography. It makes a synthesis of the present knowledge in that field. (authors) [French] Ce travail expose les theories et les techniques dans le domaine de l'holographie. Il fait la synthese des connaissances acquises a ce jour dans ce domaine en evolution rapide. (auteurs)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Consoli, T.; Proca, G.; Slama, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
This work presents the theory and the technic in the field of holography. It makes a synthesis of the present knowledge in that field. (authors) [French] Ce travail expose les theories et les techniques dans le domaine de l'holographie. Il fait la synthese des connaissances acquises a ce jour dans ce domaine en evolution rapide. (auteurs)
Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains in laser-irradiated Fe–3%Si(110) steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwata, Keiji; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Orihara, Hideto; Sakai, Yusuke; Ohya, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Tamaki; Shobu, Takahisa; Akita, Koichi; Ishiyama, Kazushi
2015-01-01
Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains occurring in laser-irradiated Fe–3%Si(110) steels was investigated using high-energy X-ray analysis and domain theory based on the variational principle. The measured triaxial stresses inside the specimen were compressive and the stress in the rolling direction became more dominant than stresses in the other directions. The calculations based on the variational principle of magnetic energy for closure domains showed that the measured triaxial stresses made the closure domains more stable than the basic domain without closure domains. The experimental and calculation results reveal that the laser-introduced internal stresses result in the occurrence of the closure domains
Simultaneous Versus Sequential Ptosis and Strabismus Surgery in Children.
Revere, Karen E; Binenbaum, Gil; Li, Jonathan; Mills, Monte D; Katowitz, William R; Katowitz, James A
The authors sought to compare the clinical outcomes of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery in children. Retrospective, single-center cohort study of children requiring both ptosis and strabismus surgery on the same eye. Simultaneous surgeries were performed during a single anesthetic event; sequential surgeries were performed at least 7 weeks apart. Outcomes were ptosis surgery success (margin reflex distance 1 ≥ 2 mm, good eyelid contour, and good eyelid crease); strabismus surgery success (ocular alignment within 10 prism diopters of orthophoria and/or improved head position); surgical complications; and reoperations. Fifty-six children were studied, 38 had simultaneous surgery and 18 sequential. Strabismus surgery was performed first in 38/38 simultaneous and 6/18 sequential cases. Mean age at first surgery was 64 months, with mean follow up 27 months. A total of 75% of children had congenital ptosis; 64% had comitant strabismus. A majority of ptosis surgeries were frontalis sling (59%) or Fasanella-Servat (30%) procedures. There were no significant differences between simultaneous and sequential groups with regards to surgical success rates, complications, or reoperations (all p > 0.28). In the first comparative study of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery, no advantage for sequential surgery was seen. Despite a theoretical risk of postoperative eyelid malposition or complications when surgeries were performed in a combined manner, the rate of such outcomes was not increased with simultaneous surgeries. Performing ptosis and strabismus surgery together appears to be clinically effective and safe, and reduces anesthesia exposure during childhood.
Human visual system automatically encodes sequential regularities of discrete events.
Kimura, Motohiro; Schröger, Erich; Czigler, István; Ohira, Hideki
2010-06-01
For our adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment, an essential task of the brain is to automatically encode sequential regularities inherent in the environment into a memory representation. Recent studies in neuroscience have suggested that sequential regularities embedded in discrete sensory events are automatically encoded into a memory representation at the level of the sensory system. This notion is largely supported by evidence from investigations using auditory mismatch negativity (auditory MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the auditory sensory system. However, it is still largely unclear whether or not this notion can be generalized to other sensory modalities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the visual sensory system to the automatic encoding of sequential regularities using visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an ERP correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the visual sensory system. To this end, we conducted a sequential analysis of visual MMN in an oddball sequence consisting of infrequent deviant and frequent standard stimuli, and tested whether the underlying memory representation of visual MMN generation contains only a sensory memory trace of standard stimuli (trace-mismatch hypothesis) or whether it also contains sequential regularities extracted from the repetitive standard sequence (regularity-violation hypothesis). The results showed that visual MMN was elicited by first deviant (deviant stimuli following at least one standard stimulus), second deviant (deviant stimuli immediately following first deviant), and first standard (standard stimuli immediately following first deviant), but not by second standard (standard stimuli immediately following first standard). These results are consistent with the regularity-violation hypothesis, suggesting that the visual sensory system automatically encodes sequential
Wu, Huey-Min; Lin, Chin-Kai; Yang, Yu-Mao; Kuo, Bor-Chen
2014-11-12
Visual perception is the fundamental skill required for a child to recognize words, and to read and write. There was no visual perception assessment tool developed for preschool children based on Chinese characters in Taiwan. The purposes were to develop the computerized visual perception assessment tool for Chinese Characters Structures and to explore the psychometrical characteristic of assessment tool. This study adopted purposive sampling. The study evaluated 551 kindergarten-age children (293 boys, 258 girls) ranging from 46 to 81 months of age. The test instrument used in this study consisted of three subtests and 58 items, including tests of basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters. Based on the results of model fit analysis, the higher-order item response theory was used to estimate the performance in visual perception, basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters simultaneously. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant difference in age groups and gender groups. The difficulty of identifying items in a visual perception test ranged from -2 to 1. The visual perception ability of 4- to 6-year-old children ranged from -1.66 to 2.19. Gender did not have significant effects on performance. However, there were significant differences among the different age groups. The performance of 6-year-olds was better than that of 5-year-olds, which was better than that of 4-year-olds. This study obtained detailed diagnostic scores by using a higher-order item response theory model to understand the visual perception of basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters. Further statistical analysis showed that, for basic strokes and compound characters, girls performed better than did boys; there also were differences within each age group. For single-component characters, there was no difference in performance between boys and girls. However, again the performance of 6-year-olds was better than
Structural and functional analysis of multi-interface domains.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Zhao
Full Text Available A multi-interface domain is a domain that can shape multiple and distinctive binding sites to contact with many other domains, forming a hub in domain-domain interaction networks. The functions played by the multiple interfaces are usually different, but there is no strict bijection between the functions and interfaces as some subsets of the interfaces play the same function. This work applies graph theory and algorithms to discover fingerprints for the multiple interfaces of a domain and to establish associations between the interfaces and functions, based on a huge set of multi-interface proteins from PDB. We found that about 40% of proteins have the multi-interface property, however the involved multi-interface domains account for only a tiny fraction (1.8% of the total number of domains. The interfaces of these domains are distinguishable in terms of their fingerprints, indicating the functional specificity of the multiple interfaces in a domain. Furthermore, we observed that both cooperative and distinctive structural patterns, which will be useful for protein engineering, exist in the multiple interfaces of a domain.
Wang, Jia-Zhong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jin-Long; Lu, Le; Zhang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Hong-Wei; Li, Yi-Ming
2015-06-14
We undertook this meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between revascularization and outcomes after liver transplantation. A literature search was performed using MeSH and key words. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Jadad Score and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Heterogeneity was evaluated by the χ(2) and I (2) tests. The risk of publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot and Egger's test, and the risk of bias was assessed using a domain-based assessment tool. A sensitivity analysis was conducted by reanalyzing the data using different statistical approaches. Six studies with a total of 467 patients were included. Ischemic-type biliary lesions were significantly reduced in the simultaneous revascularization group compared with the sequential revascularization group (OR = 4.97, 95%CI: 2.45-10.07; P simultaneous revascularization group. Although warm ischemia time was prolonged in simultaneous revascularization group (MD = -25.84, 95%CI: -29.28-22.40; P sequential and simultaneous revascularization groups. Assessment of the risk of bias showed that the methods of random sequence generation and blinding might have been a source of bias. The sensitivity analysis strengthened the reliability of the results of this meta-analysis. The results of this study indicate that simultaneous revascularization in liver transplantation may reduce the incidence of ischemic-type biliary lesions and length of stay of patients in the ICU.
Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom
2013-05-01
Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abraham, Joanna; Kannampallil, Thomas; Brenner, Corinne; Lopez, Karen D; Almoosa, Khalid F; Patel, Bela; Patel, Vimla L
2016-02-01
Effective communication during nurse handoffs is instrumental in ensuring safe and quality patient care. Much of the prior research on nurse handoffs has utilized retrospective methods such as interviews, surveys and questionnaires. While extremely useful, an in-depth understanding of the structure and content of conversations, and the inherent relationships within the content is paramount to designing effective nurse handoff interventions. In this paper, we present a methodological framework-Sequential Conversational Analysis (SCA)-a mixed-method approach that integrates qualitative conversational analysis with quantitative sequential pattern analysis. We describe the SCA approach and provide a detailed example as a proof of concept of its use for the analysis of nurse handoff communication in a medical intensive care unit. This novel approach allows us to characterize the conversational structure, clinical content, disruptions in the conversation, and the inherently phasic nature of nurse handoff communication. The characterization of communication patterns highlights the relationships underlying the verbal content of nurse handoffs with specific emphasis on: the interactive nature of conversation, relevance of role-based (incoming, outgoing) communication requirements, clinical content focus on critical patient-related events, and discussion of pending patient management tasks. We also discuss the applicability of the SCA approach as a method for providing in-depth understanding of the dynamics of communication in other settings and domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wæver, Ole
2009-01-01
-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory......, shows the power of a dominant philosophy of science in US IR, and thus the challenge facing any ambitious theorising. The article suggests a possible movement of fronts away from the ‘fourth debate' between rationalism and reflectivism towards one of theory against empiricism. To help this new agenda...
Yamagishi, Shimpei; Otsuka, Sho; Furukawa, Shigeto; Kashino, Makio
2017-07-01
The two-tone sequence (ABA_), which comprises two different sounds (A and B) and a silent gap, has been used to investigate how the auditory system organizes sequential sounds depending on various stimulus conditions or brain states. Auditory streaming can be evoked by differences not only in the tone frequency ("spectral cue": ΔF TONE , TONE condition) but also in the amplitude modulation rate ("AM cue": ΔF AM , AM condition). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the perceptual properties of auditory streaming for the TONE and AM conditions. A sequence with a long duration (400 repetitions of ABA_) was used to examine the property of the bistability of streaming. The ratio of feature differences that evoked an equivalent probability of the segregated percept was close to the ratio of the Q-values of the auditory and modulation filters, consistent with a "channeling theory" of auditory streaming. On the other hand, for values of ΔF AM and ΔF TONE evoking equal probabilities of the segregated percept, the number of perceptual switches was larger for the TONE condition than for the AM condition, indicating that the mechanism(s) that determine the bistability of auditory streaming are different between or sensitive to the two domains. Nevertheless, the number of switches for individual listeners was positively correlated between the spectral and AM domains. The results suggest a possibility that the neural substrates for spectral and AM processes share a common switching mechanism but differ in location and/or in the properties of neural activity or the strength of internal noise at each level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anomaly Detection in Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Using a Sequential Symbolic Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Li
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Anomaly detection plays a significant role in helping gas turbines run reliably and economically. Considering the collective anomalous data and both sensitivity and robustness of the anomaly detection model, a sequential symbolic anomaly detection method is proposed and applied to the gas turbine fuel system. A structural Finite State Machine is used to evaluate posterior probabilities of observing symbolic sequences and the most probable state sequences they may locate. Hence an estimation-based model and a decoding-based model are used to identify anomalies in two different ways. Experimental results indicate that both models have both ideal performance overall, but the estimation-based model has a strong robustness ability, whereas the decoding-based model has a strong accuracy ability, particularly in a certain range of sequence lengths. Therefore, the proposed method can facilitate well existing symbolic dynamic analysis- based anomaly detection methods, especially in the gas turbine domain.
Corpus Callosum Analysis using MDL-based Sequential Models of Shape and Appearance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Davies, Rhodri H.; Ryberg, Charlotte
2004-01-01
are proposed, but all remain applicable to other domain problems. The well-known multi-resolution AAM optimisation is extended to include sequential relaxations on texture resolution, model coverage and model parameter constraints. Fully unsupervised analysis is obtained by exploiting model parameter...... that show that the method produces accurate, robust and rapid segmentations in a cross sectional study of 17 subjects, establishing its feasibility as a fully automated clinical tool for analysis and segmentation.......This paper describes a method for automatically analysing and segmenting the corpus callosum from magnetic resonance images of the brain based on the widely used Active Appearance Models (AAMs) by Cootes et al. Extensions of the original method, which are designed to improve this specific case...
Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.
This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual
Cellulose binding domain proteins
Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy
1998-01-01
A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hessellund, Anders
the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joshi, Hiren J; Jørgensen, Anja; Schjoldager, Katrine T
2018-01-01
features, which enhances visibility and accessibility of the wealth of glycoproteomic data being generated. The GlycoDomainViewer enables visual exploration of glycoproteomic data, incorporating information from recent N- and O-glycoproteome studies on human and animal cell lines and some organs and body...
Dimensional comparison theory.
Möller, Jens; Marsh, Herb W
2013-07-01
Although social comparison (Festinger, 1954) and temporal comparison (Albert, 1977) theories are well established, dimensional comparison is a largely neglected yet influential process in self-evaluation. Dimensional comparison entails a single individual comparing his or her ability in a (target) domain with his or her ability in a standard domain (e.g., "How good am I in math compared with English?"). This article reviews empirical findings from introspective, path-analytic, and experimental studies on dimensional comparisons, categorized into 3 groups according to whether they address the "why," "with what," or "with what effect" question. As the corresponding research shows, dimensional comparisons are made in everyday life situations. They impact on domain-specific self-evaluations of abilities in both domains: Dimensional comparisons reduce self-concept in the worse off domain and increase self-concept in the better off domain. The motivational basis for dimensional comparisons, their integration with recent social cognitive approaches, and the interdependence of dimensional, temporal, and social comparisons are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Native Frames: Disentangling Sequential from Concerted Three-Body Fragmentation
Rajput, Jyoti; Severt, T.; Berry, Ben; Jochim, Bethany; Feizollah, Peyman; Kaderiya, Balram; Zohrabi, M.; Ablikim, U.; Ziaee, Farzaneh; Raju P., Kanaka; Rolles, D.; Rudenko, A.; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.
2018-03-01
A key question concerning the three-body fragmentation of polyatomic molecules is the distinction of sequential and concerted mechanisms, i.e., the stepwise or simultaneous cleavage of bonds. Using laser-driven fragmentation of OCS into O++C++S+ and employing coincidence momentum imaging, we demonstrate a novel method that enables the clear separation of sequential and concerted breakup. The separation is accomplished by analyzing the three-body fragmentation in the native frame associated with each step and taking advantage of the rotation of the intermediate molecular fragment, CO2 + or CS2 + , before its unimolecular dissociation. This native-frame method works for any projectile (electrons, ions, or photons), provides details on each step of the sequential breakup, and enables the retrieval of the relevant spectra for sequential and concerted breakup separately. Specifically, this allows the determination of the branching ratio of all these processes in OCS3 + breakup. Moreover, we find that the first step of sequential breakup is tightly aligned along the laser polarization and identify the likely electronic states of the intermediate dication that undergo unimolecular dissociation in the second step. Finally, the separated concerted breakup spectra show clearly that the central carbon atom is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the laser field.
Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.
Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang
2014-05-28
Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.
Evaluation of skin moisturizer effects using terahertz time domain imaging
Martinez-Meza, L. H.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Castro-Camus, E.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.
2018-02-01
We use terahertz time domain imaging for the evaluation of the effects of skin-moisturizers in vivo. We evaluate three principal substances used in commercial moisturizers: glycerin, hyaluronic acid and lanolin. We image the interaction of the forearm with each of the substances taking terahertz spectra at sequential times. With this, we are able to measure the effect of the substances on the hydration level of the skin in time, determining the feasibility of using THz imaging for the evaluation of the products and their effects on the hydration levels of the skin.
The framing of scientific domains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam Christensen, Hans
2014-01-01
domains, and UNISIST helps understanding this navigation. Design/methodology/approach The UNISIST models are tentatively applied to the domain of art history at three stages, respectively two modern, partially overlapping domains, as well as an outline of an art historical domain anno c1820...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel López Astorga
2013-12-01
Full Text Available A recent study states that alcoholics manifest conditional reasoning problems in certain specific mental domains, particularly in the domain of social interactions and in the domain in charge of precautions in hazardous situations. Nonetheless, given that the existence of such domains is questioned in different papers, a reinterpretation of the results of said study, in the light of a theoretical framework more widely accepted, might be needed. That is the aim of this paper, which will be based mainly on the dual-process theory and which will offer a critical review of both the Social contracts theory and the hazard management theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herckenrath, Daan; Fiandaca, G.; Auken, Esben
2013-01-01
hydrogeophysical inversion approaches to inform a field-scale groundwater model with time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data. In a sequential hydrogeophysical inversion (SHI) a groundwater model is calibrated with geophysical data by coupling groundwater model parameters...... with the inverted geophysical models. We subsequently compare the SHI with a joint hydrogeophysical inversion (JHI). In the JHI, a geophysical model is simultaneously inverted with a groundwater model by coupling the groundwater and geophysical parameters to explicitly account for an established petrophysical...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herckenrath, Daan; Fiandaca, G.; Auken, Esben
2013-01-01
with the inverted geophysical models. We subsequently compare the SHI with a joint hydrogeophysical inversion (JHI). In the JHI, a geophysical model is simultaneously inverted with a groundwater model by coupling the groundwater and geophysical parameters to explicitly account for an established petrophysical...... hydrogeophysical inversion approaches to inform a field-scale groundwater model with time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data. In a sequential hydrogeophysical inversion (SHI) a groundwater model is calibrated with geophysical data by coupling groundwater model parameters...
Perceived Spaciousness and Preference in Sequential Experience.
Bokharaei, Saleheh; Nasar, Jack L
2016-11-01
We assessed the perceived spaciousness and preference for a destination space in relation to six attributes (size, lighting, window size, texture, wall mural, and amount of furniture) of it and of the space experienced before it. Studies have examined effects of these attributes but not for dynamic experience or preference. We created 24 virtual reality walks between each possible pair of two levels of each attribute. For each destination space, 31 students (13 men, 18 women) rated spaciousness and 30 students (16 men, 14 women) rated preference. We conducted separate 2 × 2 repeated-measure ANOVAs across each condition for perceived spaciousness and preference. Participants judged the space that was larger, was more brightly lit, with a larger window, or with less furniture as the more spacious. These attributes also increased preference. Consonant with adaptation-level theory, participants judged offices as higher in spaciousness and preference if preceded by a space that was smaller, was more dimly lit, or had smaller windows. The findings suggest that perceived spaciousness varies with size, lightness, window size, and amount of furniture but that perception also depends on the size, lightness, and size of the space experienced before. Designers could use the findings to manipulate features to make a space appear larger or more desirable. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Lexical decoder for continuous speech recognition: sequential neural network approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iooss, Christine
1991-01-01
The work presented in this dissertation concerns the study of a connectionist architecture to treat sequential inputs. In this context, the model proposed by J.L. Elman, a recurrent multilayers network, is used. Its abilities and its limits are evaluated. Modifications are done in order to treat erroneous or noisy sequential inputs and to classify patterns. The application context of this study concerns the realisation of a lexical decoder for analytical multi-speakers continuous speech recognition. Lexical decoding is completed from lattices of phonemes which are obtained after an acoustic-phonetic decoding stage relying on a K Nearest Neighbors search technique. Test are done on sentences formed from a lexicon of 20 words. The results are obtained show the ability of the proposed connectionist model to take into account the sequentiality at the input level, to memorize the context and to treat noisy or erroneous inputs. (author) [fr
Computing Sequential Equilibria for Two-Player Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre
2006-01-01
Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for two-player extensive-form zero-sum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Koller and Pfeffer pointed out that the strategies...... obtained by the algorithm are not necessarily sequentially rational and that this deficiency is often problematic for the practical applications. We show how to remove this deficiency by modifying the linear programs constructed by Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel so that pairs of strategies forming...... a sequential equilibrium are computed. In particular, we show that a sequential equilibrium for a two-player zero-sum game with imperfect information but perfect recall can be found in polynomial time. In addition, the equilibrium we find is normal-form perfect. Our technique generalizes to general-sum games...
Computing sequential equilibria for two-player games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miltersen, Peter Bro
2006-01-01
Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for two-player extensive-form zero-sum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Their algorithm has been used by AI researchers...... for constructing prescriptive strategies for concrete, often fairly large games. Koller and Pfeffer pointed out that the strategies obtained by the algorithm are not necessarily sequentially rational and that this deficiency is often problematic for the practical applications. We show how to remove this deficiency...... by modifying the linear programs constructed by Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel so that pairs of strategies forming a sequential equilibrium are computed. In particular, we show that a sequential equilibrium for a two-player zero-sum game with imperfect information but perfect recall can be found in polynomial...
A Bayesian sequential processor approach to spectroscopic portal system decisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sale, K; Candy, J; Breitfeller, E; Guidry, B; Manatt, D; Gosnell, T; Chambers, D
2007-07-31
The development of faster more reliable techniques to detect radioactive contraband in a portal type scenario is an extremely important problem especially in this era of constant terrorist threats. Towards this goal the development of a model-based, Bayesian sequential data processor for the detection problem is discussed. In the sequential processor each datum (detector energy deposit and pulse arrival time) is used to update the posterior probability distribution over the space of model parameters. The nature of the sequential processor approach is that a detection is produced as soon as it is statistically justified by the data rather than waiting for a fixed counting interval before any analysis is performed. In this paper the Bayesian model-based approach, physics and signal processing models and decision functions are discussed along with the first results of our research.
Configural and component processing in simultaneous and sequential lineup procedures.
Flowe, Heather D; Smith, Harriet M J; Karoğlu, Nilda; Onwuegbusi, Tochukwu O; Rai, Lovedeep
2016-01-01
Configural processing supports accurate face recognition, yet it has never been examined within the context of criminal identification lineups. We tested, using the inversion paradigm, the role of configural processing in lineups. Recent research has found that face discrimination accuracy in lineups is better in a simultaneous compared to a sequential lineup procedure. Therefore, we compared configural processing in simultaneous and sequential lineups to examine whether there are differences. We had participants view a crime video, and then they attempted to identify the perpetrator from a simultaneous or sequential lineup. The test faces were presented either upright or inverted, as previous research has shown that inverting test faces disrupts configural processing. The size of the inversion effect for faces was the same across lineup procedures, indicating that configural processing underlies face recognition in both procedures. Discrimination accuracy was comparable across lineup procedures in both the upright and inversion condition. Theoretical implications of the results are discussed.
Visual short-term memory for sequential arrays.
Kumar, Arjun; Jiang, Yuhong
2005-04-01
The capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) for a single visual display has been investigated in past research, but VSTM for multiple sequential arrays has been explored only recently. In this study, we investigate the capacity of VSTM across two sequential arrays separated by a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). VSTM for spatial locations (Experiment 1), colors (Experiments 2-4), orientations (Experiments 3 and 4), and conjunction of color and orientation (Experiment 4) were tested, with the SOA across the two sequential arrays varying from 100 to 1,500 msec. We find that VSTM for the trailing array is much better than VSTM for the leading array, but when averaged across the two arrays VSTM has a constant capacity independent of the SOA. We suggest that multiple displays compete for retention in VSTM and that separating information into two temporally discrete groups does not enhance the overall capacity of VSTM.
LeVeque, William J
1996-01-01
This excellent textbook introduces the basics of number theory, incorporating the language of abstract algebra. A knowledge of such algebraic concepts as group, ring, field, and domain is not assumed, however; all terms are defined and examples are given - making the book self-contained in this respect.The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diopha
Sequential determination of important ecotoxic radionuclides in nuclear waste samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilohuscin, J.
2016-01-01
In the dissertation thesis we focused on the development and optimization of a sequential determination method for radionuclides 93 Zr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc and 126 Sn, employing extraction chromatography sorbents TEVA (R) Resin and Anion Exchange Resin, supplied by Eichrom Industries. Prior to the attestation of sequential separation of these proposed radionuclides from radioactive waste samples, a unique sequential procedure of 90 Sr, 239 Pu, 241 Am separation from urine matrices was tried, using molecular recognition sorbents of AnaLig (R) series and extraction chromatography sorbent DGA (R) Resin. On these experiments, four various sorbents were continually used for separation, including PreFilter Resin sorbent, which removes interfering organic materials present in raw urine. After the acquisition of positive results of this sequential procedure followed experiments with a 126 Sn separation using TEVA (R) Resin and Anion Exchange Resin sorbents. Radiochemical recoveries obtained from samples of radioactive evaporate concentrates and sludge showed high efficiency of the separation, while values of 126 Sn were under the minimum detectable activities MDA. Activity of 126 Sn was determined after ingrowth of daughter nuclide 126m Sb on HPGe gamma detector, with minimal contamination of gamma interfering radionuclides with decontamination factors (D f ) higher then 1400 for 60 Co and 47000 for 137 Cs. Based on the acquired experiments and results of these separation procedures, a complex method of sequential separation of 93 Zr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc and 126 Sn was proposed, which included optimization steps similar to those used in previous parts of the dissertation work. Application of the sequential separation method for sorbents TEVA (R) Resin and Anion Exchange Resin on real samples of radioactive wastes provided satisfactory results and an economical, time sparing, efficient method. (author)
Sequential analysis in neonatal research-systematic review.
Lava, Sebastiano A G; Elie, Valéry; Ha, Phuong Thi Viet; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne
2018-05-01
As more new drugs are discovered, traditional designs come at their limits. Ten years after the adoption of the European Paediatric Regulation, we performed a systematic review on the US National Library of Medicine and Excerpta Medica database of sequential trials involving newborns. Out of 326 identified scientific reports, 21 trials were included. They enrolled 2832 patients, of whom 2099 were analyzed: the median number of neonates included per trial was 48 (IQR 22-87), median gestational age was 28.7 (IQR 27.9-30.9) weeks. Eighteen trials used sequential techniques to determine sample size, while 3 used continual reassessment methods for dose-finding. In 16 studies reporting sufficient data, the sequential design allowed to non-significantly reduce the number of enrolled neonates by a median of 24 (31%) patients (IQR - 4.75 to 136.5, p = 0.0674) with respect to a traditional trial. When the number of neonates finally included in the analysis was considered, the difference became significant: 35 (57%) patients (IQR 10 to 136.5, p = 0.0033). Sequential trial designs have not been frequently used in Neonatology. They might potentially be able to reduce the number of patients in drug trials, although this is not always the case. What is known: • In evaluating rare diseases in fragile populations, traditional designs come at their limits. About 20% of pediatric trials are discontinued, mainly because of recruitment problems. What is new: • Sequential trials involving newborns were infrequently used and only a few (n = 21) are available for analysis. • The sequential design allowed to non-significantly reduce the number of enrolled neonates by a median of 24 (31%) patients (IQR - 4.75 to 136.5, p = 0.0674).
The pursuit of balance in sequential randomized trials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raymond P. Guiteras
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In many randomized trials, subjects enter the sample sequentially. Because the covariates for all units are not known in advance, standard methods of stratification do not apply. We describe and assess the method of DA-optimal sequential allocation (Atkinson, 1982 for balancing stratification covariates across treatment arms. We provide simulation evidence that the method can provide substantial improvements in precision over commonly employed alternatives. We also describe our experience implementing the method in a field trial of a clean water and handwashing intervention in Dhaka, Bangladesh, the first time the method has been used. We provide advice and software for future researchers.
TELEGRAPHS TO INCANDESCENT LAMPS: A SEQUENTIAL PROCESS OF INNOVATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurence J. Malone
2000-01-01
Full Text Available This paper outlines a sequential process of technological innovation in the emergence of the electrical industry in the United States from 1830 to 1880. Successive inventions that realize the commercial possibilities of electricity provided the foundation for an industry where technical knowledge, invention and diffusion were ultimately consolidated within the managerial structure of new firms. The genesis of the industry is traced, sequentially, through the development of the telegraph, arc light and incandescent lamp. Exploring the origins of the telegraph and incandescent lamp reveals a process where a series of inventions and firms result from successful efforts touse scientific principles to create new commodities and markets.
Properties of simultaneous and sequential two-nucleon transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinkston, W.T.; Satchler, G.R.
1982-01-01
Approximate forms of the first- and second-order distorted-wave Born amplitudes are used to study the overall structure, particularly the selection rules, of the amplitudes for simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons. The role of the spin-state assumed for the intermediate deuterons in sequential (t, p) reactions is stressed. The similarity of one-step and two-step amplitudes for (α, d) reactions is exhibited, and the consequent absence of any obvious J-dependence in their interference is noted. (orig.)
Event-shape analysis: Sequential versus simultaneous multifragment emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cebra, D.A.; Howden, S.; Karn, J.; Nadasen, A.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Vander Molen, A.; Westfall, G.D.; Wilson, W.K.; Winfield, J.S.; Norbeck, E.
1990-01-01
The Michigan State University 4π array has been used to select central-impact-parameter events from the reaction 40 Ar+ 51 V at incident energies from 35 to 85 MeV/nucleon. The event shape in momentum space is an observable which is shown to be sensitive to the dynamics of the fragmentation process. A comparison of the experimental event-shape distribution to sequential- and simultaneous-decay predictions suggests that a transition in the breakup process may have occurred. At 35 MeV/nucleon, a sequential-decay simulation reproduces the data. For the higher energies, the experimental distributions fall between the two contrasting predictions
2006-01-01
This is the version 1.1 of the TENCompetence Domain Model (version 1.0 released at 19-6-2006; version 1.1 at 9-11-2008). It contains several files: a) a pdf with the model description, b) three jpg files with class models (also in the pdf), c) a MagicDraw zip file with the model itself, d) a release
Buhs, Sophia; Nollau, Peter
2017-01-01
Among posttranslational modifications, the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a key modification in cell signaling. Because of its biological importance, characterization of the cellular state of tyrosine phosphorylation is of great interest. Based on the unique properties of endogenously expressed SH2 domains recognizing tyrosine phosphorylated signaling proteins with high specificity we have developed an alternative approach, coined SH2 profiling, enabling us to decipher complex patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in various normal and cancerous tissues. So far, SH2 profiling has largely been applied for the analysis of protein extracts with the limitation that information on spatial distribution and intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation within a tissue is lost. Here, we describe a novel SH2 domain based strategy for differential characterization of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. This approach demonstrates that SH2 domains may serve as very valuable tools for the analysis of the differential state of tyrosine phosphorylation in primary tissues fixed and processed under conditions frequently applied by routine pathology laboratories.
Monopoles, vortices, domain walls and D-branes: The rules of interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Norisuke; Tong, David
2005-01-01
Non-abelian gauge theories in the Higgs phase admit a startling variety of BPS solitons. These include domain walls, vortex strings, confined monopoles threaded on vortex strings, vortex strings ending on domain walls, monopoles threaded on strings ending on domain walls, and more. After presenting a self-contained review of these objects, including several new results on the dynamics of domain walls, we go on to examine the possible interactions of solitons of various types. We point out the existence of a classical binding energy when the string ends on the domain wall which can be thought of as a BPS boojum with negative mass. We present an index theorem for domain walls in non-abelian gauge theories. We also answer questions such as: Which strings can end on which walls? What happens when monopoles pass through domain walls? What happens when domain walls pass through each other? (author)
Yun, Danim; Kim, Tae Yong; Park, Dae Sung; Yun, Yang Sik; Han, Jeong Woo; Yi, Jongheop
2014-08-01
Developing a catalyst to resolve deactivation caused from coke is a primary challenge in the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. An open-macropore-structured and Brønsted-acidic catalyst (Marigold-like silica functionalized with sulfonic acid groups, MS-FS) was synthesized for the stable and selective production of acrolein from glycerol. A high acrolein yield of 73% was achieved and maintained for 50 h in the presence of the MS-FS catalyst. The hierarchical structure of the catalyst with macropores was found to have an important effect on the stability of the catalyst because coke polymerization and pore blocking caused by coke deposition were inhibited. In addition, the behavior of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) during the sequential dehydration was studied using density functional theory (DFT) calculations because 3-HPA conversion is one of the main causes for coke formation. We found that the easily reproducible Brønsted acid sites in MS-FS permit the selective and stable production of acrolein. This is because the reactive intermediate (3-HPA) is readily adsorbed on the regenerated acid sites, which is essential for the selective production of acrolein during the sequential dehydration. The regeneration ability of the acid sites is related not only to the selective production of acrolein but also to the retardation of catalyst deactivation by suppressing the formation of coke precursors originating from 3-HPA degradation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Cao
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A novel intelligent fault diagnosis method for motor roller bearings which operate under unsteady rotating speed and load is proposed in this paper. The pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD and the relative crossing information (RCI methods are used for extracting the feature spectra from the non-stationary vibration signal measured for condition diagnosis. The RCI is used to automatically extract the feature spectrum from the time-frequency distribution of the vibration signal. The extracted feature spectrum is instantaneous, and not correlated with the rotation speed and load. By using the ant colony optimization (ACO clustering algorithm, the synthesizing symptom parameters (SSP for condition diagnosis are obtained. The experimental results shows that the diagnostic sensitivity of the SSP is higher than original symptom parameter (SP, and the SSP can sensitively reflect the characteristics of the feature spectrum for precise condition diagnosis. Finally, a fuzzy diagnosis method based on sequential inference and possibility theory is also proposed, by which the conditions of the machine can be identified sequentially as well.
Svensson, Andreas; Schön, Thomas B.; Lindsten, Fredrik
2018-05-01
Probabilistic (or Bayesian) modeling and learning offers interesting possibilities for systematic representation of uncertainty using probability theory. However, probabilistic learning often leads to computationally challenging problems. Some problems of this type that were previously intractable can now be solved on standard personal computers thanks to recent advances in Monte Carlo methods. In particular, for learning of unknown parameters in nonlinear state-space models, methods based on the particle filter (a Monte Carlo method) have proven very useful. A notoriously challenging problem, however, still occurs when the observations in the state-space model are highly informative, i.e. when there is very little or no measurement noise present, relative to the amount of process noise. The particle filter will then struggle in estimating one of the basic components for probabilistic learning, namely the likelihood p (data | parameters). To this end we suggest an algorithm which initially assumes that there is substantial amount of artificial measurement noise present. The variance of this noise is sequentially decreased in an adaptive fashion such that we, in the end, recover the original problem or possibly a very close approximation of it. The main component in our algorithm is a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) sampler, which gives our proposed method a clear resemblance to the SMC2 method. Another natural link is also made to the ideas underlying the approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). We illustrate it with numerical examples, and in particular show promising results for a challenging Wiener-Hammerstein benchmark problem.
Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Cieslak, Roman; Demerouti, Evangelia
2017-09-01
This study derives from Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis, L. L., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). A resource perspective on the work-home interface: The work-home resources model. American Psychologist, 67(7), 545-556. doi: 10.1037/a0027974 ) and Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.) to investigate mechanisms responsible for the effect of job and family demands on work- and family-related perceived stress. We hypothesized that interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands operate either independently or sequentially transmitting the effects of demands on perceived stress. A sample of 100 employees of various occupations participated in the study conducted online in two waves: Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) with a three-month interval. Regression analysis with bootstrapping was applied. Interrole conflict (T1) did not mediate the relationships between demands (T1) and perceived stress (T2), whereas self-efficacy (T1) mediated only those between family demands (T1) and stress (T2). However, data supported the sequential mediation hypotheses: Demands (T1) were associated with increased interrole conflict (T1) which in turn decreased self-efficacy (T1) and ultimately resulted in the elevated perceived stress at work and in the family (T2). Demands originating in one domain can impact stress both in the same and other life areas through the sequence of interrole conflict and context-specific self-efficacy.
Domain decomposition method for solving elliptic problems in unbounded domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoromskij, B.N.; Mazurkevich, G.E.; Zhidkov, E.P.
1991-01-01
Computational aspects of the box domain decomposition (DD) method for solving boundary value problems in an unbounded domain are discussed. A new variant of the DD-method for elliptic problems in unbounded domains is suggested. It is based on the partitioning of an unbounded domain adapted to the given asymptotic decay of an unknown function at infinity. The comparison of computational expenditures is given for boundary integral method and the suggested DD-algorithm. 29 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs
Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas
1988-01-01
The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent F.
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
Domain shape dependence of semiclassical corrections to energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwiatkowski, Grzegorz
2017-01-01
Stationary solution of a one-dimensional sine-Gordon system is embedded in a multidimensional theory with an explicitly finite domain in the added spatial dimensions. Semiclassical corrections to energy are calculated for a static kink solution with emphasis on the impact of the scale of the domain as well as the choice of boundary conditions on the results for a rectangular cross-section. (paper)
Kinetics of slow domain growth in complex systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindgard, P.-A.; Castan, T.
1989-01-01
The domain growth after a quench to very low and to finite temperatures T is analyzed by scaling theory and Monte Carlo simulation. The model studied has continuous variables, non-conserved order parameter and has two kinds of domain walls: sharp, straight stacking faults and broad curved soliton-like walls. For quenches to higher temperatures the growth exponent is found to approach the classical Allen-Cahn exponent n = 1/2. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Fast regularizing sequential subspace optimization in Banach spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schöpfer, F; Schuster, T
2009-01-01
We are concerned with fast computations of regularized solutions of linear operator equations in Banach spaces in case only noisy data are available. To this end we modify recently developed sequential subspace optimization methods in such a way that the therein employed Bregman projections onto hyperplanes are replaced by Bregman projections onto stripes whose width is in the order of the noise level
A sequential hypothesis test based on a generalized Azuma inequality
Reijsbergen, D.P.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk
We present a new power-one sequential hypothesis test based on a bound for the probability that a bounded zero-mean martingale ever crosses a curve of the form $a(n+k)^b$. The proof of the bound is of independent interest.
Sequential and simultaneous revascularization in adult orthotopic piggyback liver transplantation
Polak, WG; Miyamoto, S; Nemes, BA; Peeters, PMJG; de Jong, KP; Porte, RJ; Slooff, MJH
The aim of the study was to assess whether there is a difference in outcome after sequential or simultaneous revascularization during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in terms of patient and graft survival, mortality, morbidity, and liver function. The study population consisted of 102 adult
A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining
van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter
2008-01-01
A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic
Excessive pressure in multichambered cuffs used for sequential compression therapy
Segers, P; Belgrado, JP; Leduc, A; Leduc, O; Verdonck, P
2002-01-01
Background and Purpose. Pneumatic compression devices, used as part of the therapeutic strategy for lymphatic drainage, often have cuffs with multiple chambers that are, inflated sequentially. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the relationship between cuff chamber pressure
Retrieval of sea surface velocities using sequential Ocean Colour
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Indian remote sensing satellite, IRS-P4 (Oceansat-I) launched on May 26th, 1999 carried two sensors on board, i.e., the Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and the Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) dedicated for oceanographic research. Sequential data of IRS-P4 OCM has been analysed over parts ...
Sequential and Biomechanical Factors Constrain Timing and Motion in Tapping
Loehr, J.D.; Palmer, C.
2009-01-01
The authors examined how timing accuracy in tapping sequences is influenced by sequential effects of preceding finger movements and biomechanical interdependencies among fingers. Skilled pianists tapped Sequences at 3 rates; in each sequence, a finger whose motion was more or less independent of
What determines the impact of context on sequential action?
Ruitenberg, M.F.L.; Verwey, Willem B.; Abrahamse, E.L.
2015-01-01
In the current study we build on earlier observations that memory-based sequential action is better in the original learning context than in other contexts. We examined whether changes in the perceptual context have differential impact across distinct processing phases (preparation versus execution
The Efficacy of Sequential Therapy in Eradication of Helicobacter ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2017-05-22
May 22, 2017 ... pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates of standard triple, sequential and quadruple therapies including claritromycin regimes in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients were randomized to four groups of treatment protocols.
The efficacy of sequential therapy in eradication of Helicobacter ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates of standard triple, sequential and quadruple therapies including claritromycin regimes in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients were randomized to four groups of treatment protocols.
In Vivo Evaluation of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Hansen, Peter Møller; Lange, Theis
2012-01-01
Ultrasound in vivo imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamformation (SASB) is compared with conventional imaging in a double blinded study using side-by-side comparisons. The objective is to evaluate if the image quality in terms of penetration depth, spatial resolution, contrast...
Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botet, R.
1996-01-01
We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors)
Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botet, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)
1996-12-31
We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors). 15 refs.
The sequential price of anarchy for atomic congestion games
de Jong, Jasper; Uetz, Marc Jochen
2014-01-01
In situations without central coordination, the price of anarchy relates the quality of any Nash equilibrium to the quality of a global optimum. Instead of assuming that all players choose their actions simultaneously, here we consider games where players choose their actions sequentially. The
Sequential infiltration synthesis for enhancing multiple-patterning lithography
Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih
2017-06-20
Simplified methods of multiple-patterning photolithography using sequential infiltration synthesis to modify the photoresist such that it withstands plasma etching better than unmodified resist and replaces one or more hard masks and/or a freezing step in MPL processes including litho-etch-litho-etch photolithography or litho-freeze-litho-etch photolithography.
The sequential structure of brain activation predicts skill.
Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Moon, Jungaa
2016-01-29
In an fMRI study, participants were trained to play a complex video game. They were scanned early and then again after substantial practice. While better players showed greater activation in one region (right dorsal striatum) their relative skill was better diagnosed by considering the sequential structure of whole brain activation. Using a cognitive model that played this game, we extracted a characterization of the mental states that are involved in playing a game and the statistical structure of the transitions among these states. There was a strong correspondence between this measure of sequential structure and the skill of different players. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, it was possible to recognize, with relatively high accuracy, the cognitive states participants were in during particular scans. We used the sequential structure of these activation-recognized states to predict the skill of individual players. These findings indicate that important features about information-processing strategies can be identified from a model-based analysis of the sequential structure of brain activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for investigating complex problems, but it has not been extensively used in construction management research. In South Africa, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital responsibility since the government called upon the ...
Algorithm for Non-proportional Loading in Sequentially Linear Analysis
Yu, C.; Hoogenboom, P.C.J.; Rots, J.G.; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.
2016-01-01
Sequentially linear analysis (SLA) is an alternative to the Newton-Raphson method for analyzing the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete and masonry structures. In this paper SLA is extended to load cases that are applied one after the other, for example first dead load and then wind load. It
Concurrent Learning of Control in Multi agent Sequential Decision Tasks
2018-04-17
Concurrent Learning of Control in Multi-agent Sequential Decision Tasks The overall objective of this project was to develop multi-agent reinforcement... learning (MARL) approaches for intelligent agents to autonomously learn distributed control policies in decentral- ized partially observable... learning of policies in Dec-POMDPs, established performance bounds, evaluated these algorithms both theoretically and empirically, The views
Sequential stenotic strictures of the small bowel leading to obstruction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) are primarily caused by adhesions, hernias, neoplasms, or inflammatory strictures. Intraluminal strictures are an uncommon cause of SBO. This report describes our findings in a unique case of sequential, stenotic intraluminal strictures of the small intestine, discusses the differential diagnosis of intraluminal intestinal strictures, and reviews the literature regarding intraluminal pathology.
Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.
Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.
1979-01-01
Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)
Standardized method for reproducing the sequential X-rays flap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brenes, Alejandra; Molina, Katherine; Gudino, Sylvia
2009-01-01
A method is validated to estandardize in the taking, developing and analysis of bite-wing radiographs taken in sequential way, in order to compare and evaluate detectable changes in the evolution of the interproximal lesions through time. A radiographic positioner called XCP® is modified by means of a rigid acrylic guide, to achieve proper of the X ray equipment core positioning relative to the XCP® ring and the reorientation during the sequential x-rays process. 16 subjects of 4 to 40 years old are studied for a total number of 32 registries. Two x-rays of the same block of teeth of each subject have been taken in sequential way, with a minimal difference of 30 minutes between each one, before the placement of radiographic attachment. The images have been digitized with a Super Cam® scanner and imported to a software. The measurements in X and Y-axis for both x-rays were performed to proceed to compare. The intraclass correlation index (ICI) has shown that the proposed method is statistically related to measurement (mm) obtained in the X and Y-axis for both sequential series of x-rays (p=0.01). The measures of central tendency and dispersion have shown that the usual occurrence is indifferent between the two measurements (Mode 0.000 and S = 0083 and 0.109) and that the probability of occurrence of different values is lower than expected. (author) [es
Sequential Analysis of Metals in Municipal Dumpsite Composts of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... Ni) in Municipal dumpsite compost were determined by the sequential extraction method. Chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, and organic carbon contents of the samples were also determined. Analysis of the extracts was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer machine (Buck Scientific VPG 210).
Investigation of the sequential validity of quality improvement team ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Self-assessment is widely used in the health care improvement collaboratives quality improvement (QI) teams' to assess their own performance. There is mixed evidence on the validity of this approach. This study investigated sequential validity of self-assessments in a QI HIV collaborative in Tanzania.
On the origin of reproducible sequential activity in neural circuits
Afraimovich, V. S.; Zhigulin, V. P.; Rabinovich, M. I.
2004-12-01
Robustness and reproducibility of sequential spatio-temporal responses is an essential feature of many neural circuits in sensory and motor systems of animals. The most common mathematical images of dynamical regimes in neural systems are fixed points, limit cycles, chaotic attractors, and continuous attractors (attractive manifolds of neutrally stable fixed points). These are not suitable for the description of reproducible transient sequential neural dynamics. In this paper we present the concept of a stable heteroclinic sequence (SHS), which is not an attractor. SHS opens the way for understanding and modeling of transient sequential activity in neural circuits. We show that this new mathematical object can be used to describe robust and reproducible sequential neural dynamics. Using the framework of a generalized high-dimensional Lotka-Volterra model, that describes the dynamics of firing rates in an inhibitory network, we present analytical results on the existence of the SHS in the phase space of the network. With the help of numerical simulations we confirm its robustness in presence of noise in spite of the transient nature of the corresponding trajectories. Finally, by referring to several recent neurobiological experiments, we discuss possible applications of this new concept to several problems in neuroscience.
The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte
1996-01-01
We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...
A solution for automatic parallelization of sequential assembly code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kovačević Đorđe
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Since modern multicore processors can execute existing sequential programs only on a single core, there is a strong need for automatic parallelization of program code. Relying on existing algorithms, this paper describes one new software solution tool for parallelization of sequential assembly code. The main goal of this paper is to develop the parallelizator which reads sequential assembler code and at the output provides parallelized code for MIPS processor with multiple cores. The idea is the following: the parser translates assembler input file to program objects suitable for further processing. After that the static single assignment is done. Based on the data flow graph, the parallelization algorithm separates instructions on different cores. Once sequential code is parallelized by the parallelization algorithm, registers are allocated with the algorithm for linear allocation, and the result at the end of the program is distributed assembler code on each of the cores. In the paper we evaluate the speedup of the matrix multiplication example, which was processed by the parallelizator of assembly code. The result is almost linear speedup of code execution, which increases with the number of cores. The speed up on the two cores is 1.99, while on 16 cores the speed up is 13.88.
Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation
Özgür, E.; Mars, A.E.; Peksel, B.; Louwerse, A.; Yücel, M.; Gündüz, U.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Eroglu, I.
2010-01-01
Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile
Influence of synchronous and sequential stimulation on muscle fatigue
Thomsen, M.; Thomsen, M.; Veltink, Petrus H.
1997-01-01
In acute experiments the sciatic nerve of the rat is electrically stimulated to induce fatigue in the medial Gastrocnemius muscle. Fatigue tests are carried out using intermittent stimulation of different compartments (sequential) or a single compartment (synchronous) of the sciatic nerve. The
A Relational Account of Call-by-Value Sequentiality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riecke, Jon Gary; Sandholm, Anders Bo
2002-01-01
We construct a model for FPC, a purely functional, sequential, call-by-value language. The model is built from partial continuous functions, in the style of Plotkin, further constrained to be uniform with respect to a class of logical relations. We prove that the model is fully abstract....
Sequential kidney scintiscanning before and after vascular reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siems, H.H.; Allenberg, J.R.; Hupp, T.; Clorius, J.H.
1985-01-01
In this follow-up study sequential scintigraphy was performed on 20 of selected patients up to 3.4 years after operation, the results are compared with the pre-operative examinations and with the surgical effect on the increased blood pressure. (orig./MG) [de
Quantifying information transfer by protein domains: Analysis of the Fyn SH2 domain structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serrano Luis
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient communication between distant sites within a protein is essential for cooperative biological response. Although often associated with large allosteric movements, more subtle changes in protein dynamics can also induce long-range correlations. However, an appropriate formalism that directly relates protein structural dynamics to information exchange between functional sites is still lacking. Results Here we introduce a method to analyze protein dynamics within the framework of information theory and show that signal transduction within proteins can be considered as a particular instance of communication over a noisy channel. In particular, we analyze the conformational correlations between protein residues and apply the concept of mutual information to quantify information exchange. Mapping out changes of mutual information on the protein structure then allows visualizing how distal communication is achieved. We illustrate the approach by analyzing information transfer by the SH2 domain of Fyn tyrosine kinase, obtained from Monte Carlo dynamics simulations. Our analysis reveals that the Fyn SH2 domain forms a noisy communication channel that couples residues located in the phosphopeptide and specificity binding sites and a number of residues at the other side of the domain near the linkers that connect the SH2 domain to the SH3 and kinase domains. We find that for this particular domain, communication is affected by a series of contiguous residues that connect distal sites by crossing the core of the SH2 domain. Conclusion As a result, our method provides a means to directly map the exchange of biological information on the structure of protein domains, making it clear how binding triggers conformational changes in the protein structure. As such it provides a structural road, next to the existing attempts at sequence level, to predict long-range interactions within protein structures.
Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jørn Wetterslev
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors. Methods We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. Results The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D2 measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo.
1987-10-01
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
Functional Domain Driven Design
Herrera Guzmán, Sergio
2016-01-01
Las tecnologías están en constante expansión y evolución, diseñando nuevas técnicas para cumplir con su fin. En el desarrollo de software, las herramientas y pautas para la elaboración de productos software constituyen una pieza en constante evolución, necesarias para la toma de decisiones sobre los proyectos a realizar. Uno de los arquetipos para el desarrollo de software es el denominado Domain Driven Design, donde es importante conocer ampliamente el negocio que se desea modelar en form...
Feature-level domain adaptation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.
2016-01-01
-level domain adaptation (flda), that models the dependence between the two domains by means of a feature-level transfer model that is trained to describe the transfer from source to target domain. Subsequently, we train a domain-adapted classifier by minimizing the expected loss under the resulting transfer...... modeled via a dropout distribution, which allows the classiffier to adapt to differences in the marginal probability of features in the source and the target domain. Our experiments on several real-world problems show that flda performs on par with state-of-the-art domainadaptation techniques.......Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...
Compensating for Incomplete Domain Knowledge
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Scott, Lynn M; Drezner, Steve; Rue, Rachel; Reyes, Jesse
2007-01-01
.... First, many senior leader positions require experience in more than one functional or operational domain, but it is difficult to develop a corps of senior leaders with all the required combinations of domain knowledge...
Generating Dynamic Persistence in the Time Domain
Guerrero, A.; Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.; Kaplan, D. T.
2001-12-01
Many dynamical systems present long-range correlations. Physically, these systems vary from biological to economical, including geological or urban systems. Important geophysical candidates for this type of behaviour include weather (or climate) and earthquake sequences. Persistence is characterised by slowly decaying correlation function; that, in theory, never dies out. The Persistence exponent reflects the degree of memory in the system and much effort has been expended creating and analysing methods that successfully estimate this parameter and model data that exhibits persistence. The most widely used methods for generating long correlated time series are not dynamical systems in the time domain, but instead are derived from a given spectral density. Little attention has been drawn to modelling persistence in the time domain. The time domain approach has the advantage that an observation at certain time can be calculated using previous observations which is particularly suitable when investigating the predictability of a long memory process. We will describe two of these methods in the time domain. One is a traditional approach using fractional ARIMA (autoregressive and moving average) models; the second uses a novel approach to extending a given series using random Fourier basis functions. The statistical quality of the two methods is compared, and they are contrasted with weather data which shows, reportedly, persistence. The suitability of this approach both for estimating predictability and for making predictions is discussed.
Atomic resolution imaging of ferroelectric domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bursill, L.A.
1997-01-01
Electron optical principles involved in obtaining atomic resolution images of ferroelectric domains are reviewed, including the methods available to obtain meaningful interpretation and analysis of the image detail in terms of the atomic structures. Recent work is concerned with establishing the relationship between the essentially static chemical nanodomains and the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the nanoscale polar domains present in the relaxor class of materials, including lead scandium tantalate (PST) and lead magnesium niobate (PMN). Correct interpretation of the images required use of Next Nearest Neighbour Ising model simulations for the chemical domain textures upon which we must superimpose the polar domain textures; an introduction to this work is presented. A thorough analysis of the atomic scale chemical inhomogeneities, based upon the HRTEM results, has lead to an improved formulation of the theory of the dielectric response of PMN and PST, which is capable to predict the observed temperature and frequency dependence. HRTEM may be combined with solid state and statistical physics principles to provide a deeper understanding of structure/property relationships. 15 refs., 6 figs
Resonant tunneling across a ferroelectric domain wall
Li, M.; Tao, L. L.; Velev, J. P.; Tsymbal, E. Y.
2018-04-01
Motivated by recent experimental observations, we explore electron transport properties of a ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) with an embedded head-to-head ferroelectric domain wall, using first-principles density-functional theory calculations. We consider a FTJ with L a0.5S r0.5Mn O3 electrodes separated by a BaTi O3 barrier layer and show that an in-plane charged domain wall in the ferroelectric BaTi O3 can be induced by polar interfaces. The resulting V -shaped electrostatic potential profile across the BaTi O3 layer creates a quantum well and leads to the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas, which stabilizes the domain wall. The confined electronic states in the barrier are responsible for resonant tunneling as is evident from our quantum-transport calculations. We find that the resonant tunneling is an orbital selective process, which leads to sharp spikes in the momentum- and energy-resolved transmission spectra. Our results indicate that domain walls embedded in FTJs can be used to control the electron transport.
Gross, Kenny C.
1994-01-01
Failure of a fuel element in a nuclear reactor core is determined by a gas tagging failure detection system and method. Failures are catalogued and characterized after the event so that samples of the reactor's cover gas are taken at regular intervals and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Employing a first set of systematic heuristic rules which are applied in a transformed node space allows the number of node combinations which must be processed within a barycentric algorithm to be substantially reduced. A second set of heuristic rules treats the tag nodes of the most recent one or two leakers as "background" gases, further reducing the number of trial node combinations. Lastly, a "fuzzy" set theory formalism minimizes experimental uncertainties in the identification of the most likely volumes of tag gases. This approach allows for the identification of virtually any number of sequential leaks and up to five simultaneous gas leaks from fuel elements.