WorldWideScience

Sample records for seoul subway system

  1. Predicting PM10concentration in Seoul metropolitan subway stations using artificial neural network (ANN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sechan; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Minhae; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2018-01-05

    The indoor air quality of subway systems can significantly affect the health of passengers since these systems are widely used for short-distance transit in metropolitan urban areas in many countries. The particles generated by abrasion during subway operations and the vehicle-emitted pollutants flowing in from the street in particular affect the air quality in underground subway stations. Thus the continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) in underground station is important to evaluate the exposure level of PM to passengers. However, it is difficult to obtain indoor PM data because the measurement systems are expensive and difficult to install and operate for significant periods of time in spaces crowded with people. In this study, we predicted the indoor PM concentration using the information of outdoor PM, the number of subway trains running, and information on ventilation operation by the artificial neural network (ANN) model. As well, we investigated the relationship between ANN's performance and the depth of underground subway station. ANN model showed a high correlation between the predicted and actual measured values and it was able to predict 67∼80% of PM at 6 subway station. In addition, we found that platform shape and depth influenced the model performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergency evacuation models in subway service systems: An application on Izmir (Turkey subway system

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    Gökçe Baysal Türkölmez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing population in crowded cities causes transportation problems. Public transportation is an effective solution for the crowded traffic. Subway is a fast and productive alternative for public transportation so it is a highly preferable choice in others. It is hard to evacuate people in subway station during a disaster in carriages, on subway line or in subway stations because subway systems are often located underground, a lot people use it at the same time and enter-exit gates are controlled by turnstiles. It is crucially important to know the evacuation time of people from subway. In this paper, Konak station, one of the most crowded stations of Izmir Subway System is analyzed by emergency evacuation models. The evacuation process is simulated by Simulex software. The emergency evacuation problem is modeled in three different scenarios. Solution offers are developed for them.

  3. SUBWAY POWER SYSTEMS WITH MODERN SEMICONDUCTOR CONVERTERS AND ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

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    O.I. Kholod

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Five subway power systems, a traditional power system and power systems with an active rectifier and an energy storage device, are considered. Estimation of energy loss in the analyzed subway power systems circuits is made.

  4. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5-1.0) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42-60% (by weight) of fin...

  5. Factors controlling air quality in different European subway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Mendes, Luís; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Alves, Célia A; Duarte, Márcio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier; Minguillón, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Sampling campaigns using the same equipment and methodology were conducted to assess and compare the air quality at three South European subway systems (Barcelona, Athens and Oporto), focusing on concentrations and chemical composition of PM2.5 on subway platforms, as well as PM2.5 concentrations inside trains. Experimental results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations widely varied among the European subway systems, and even among different platforms within the same underground system, which might be associated to distinct station and tunnel designs and ventilation systems. In all cases PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms were higher than those in the urban ambient air, evidencing that there is generation of PM2.5 associated with the subway systems operation. Subway PM2.5 consisted of elemental iron, total carbon, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, insoluble sulphate, halite and trace elements. Of all metals, Fe was the most abundant, accounting for 29-43% of the total PM2.5 mass (41-61% if Fe2O3 is considered), indicating the existence of an Fe source in the subway system, which could have its origin in mechanical friction and wear processes between rails, wheels and brakes. The trace elements with the highest enrichment in the subway PM2.5 were Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Sb, Sr, Ni, Sn, Co, Zr and Mo. Similar PM2.5 diurnal trends were observed on platforms from different subway systems, with higher concentrations during subway operating hours than during the transport service interruption, and lower levels on weekends than on weekdays. PM2.5 concentrations depended largely on the operation and frequency of the trains and the ventilation system, and were lower inside the trains, when air conditioning system was operating properly, than on the platforms. However, the PM2.5 concentrations increased considerably when the train windows were open. The PM2.5 levels inside the trains decreased with the trains passage in aboveground sections. Copyright © 2015

  6. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

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    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  7. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  8. What Makes Urban Transportation Efficient? Evidence from Subway Transfer Stations in Korea

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    Changhee Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subway stations have been proliferating underneath cosmopolitan metropolises with subway lines forming complex webs connected in strategic transfer stations. The efficiency of the subway system thus heavily weighs on the efficiency at these transfer stations. However, few studies have been conducted on transfer efficiency at transfer stations due to the complexities involved. As the first study of its kind in the subway context, we analyze the transfer efficiency of the subway transfer stations in Seoul, one of the megacities in the world, and demonstrate how transfer efficiency can be analyzed using bootstrap-based DEA technique. Based on the results, we discuss the reasons behind the inefficiency of subway transfer stations and possible ways to improve them into efficient decision-making units.

  9. Culture-independent analysis of aerosol microbiology in a metropolitan subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles E; Baumgartner, Laura K; Harris, J Kirk; Peterson, Kristen L; Stevens, Mark J; Frank, Daniel N; Pace, Norman R

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the composition and diversity of microorganisms associated with bioaerosols in a heavily trafficked metropolitan subway environment. We collected bioaerosols by fluid impingement on several New York City subway platforms and associated sites in three sampling sessions over a 1.5-year period. The types and quantities of aerosolized microorganisms were determined by culture-independent phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences by using both Sanger (universal) and pyrosequencing (bacterial) technologies. Overall, the subway bacterial composition was relatively simple; only 26 taxonomic families made up ~75% of the sequences determined. The microbiology was more or less similar throughout the system and with time and was most similar to outdoor air, consistent with highly efficient air mixing in the system. Identifiable bacterial sequences indicated that the subway aerosol assemblage was composed of a mixture of genera and species characteristic of soil, environmental water, and human skin commensal bacteria. Eukaryotic diversity was mainly fungal, dominated by organisms of types associated with wood rot. Human skin bacterial species (at 99% rRNA sequence identity) included the Staphylococcus spp. Staphylococcus epidermidis (the most abundant and prevalent commensal of the human integument), S. hominis, S. cohnii, S. caprae, and S. haemolyticus, all well-documented human commensal bacteria. We encountered no organisms of public health concern. This study is the most extensive culture-independent survey of subway microbiota so far and puts in place pre-event information required for any bioterrorism surveillance activities or monitoring of the microbiological impact of recent subway flooding events.

  10. Noise pollution survey of a two-storey intersection station in Tehran metropolitan subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Reza; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Mohammad; Fard, Samaneh Momen Bellah

    2012-01-01

    According to the world population increase and demand on transportation in mega cities, modern and low-cost technologies are remarkably considered. Meanwhile, subway system, as a means to transfer a large population of people, is extremely welcomed due to its particular advantages including time and cost savings, traffic jam avoidance, and unaffected by weather. Nevertheless, despite the benefits of these technologies, such devices also have been associated with disadvantages for human. In many subway systems, noisy environments are clearly observed; therefore, workers and even the passengers are exposed to higher noise levels than permissible limit. In this research, noise measurements were performed at Imam Khomeini Station as the most crowded intersection subway station in Tehran. In this descriptive-sectional survey, the amount of noise pollution was investigated at both stories of Imam Khomeini Intersection Station. A variety of noise pollution indicators such as L(eq) 10 min were separately measured at each storey through five measurement points from 7 A.M. to 10 P.M. It was shown that the equivalent sound level range at Imam Khomeini station towards Elmo Sanat and Imam Khomeini towards Mirdamad were between 70.56-79.54 and 68.35-79.12 dB (A), respectively. It was indicated that except for the entrance stairs to the subway waiting platform and the first section of the platform on both stories, other measurement stations have the same equivalent sound levels.

  11. Vulnerability effects of passengers' intermodal transfer distance preference and subway expansion on complementary urban public transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Yan, Yongze; Ouyang, Min; Tian, Hui; He, Xiaozheng

    2017-01-01

    The vulnerability studies on urban public transportation systems have attracted growing attentions in recent years, due to their important role in the economy development of a city and the well-beings of its citizens. This paper proposes a vulnerability model of complementary urban public transportation systems (CUPTSs) composed of bus systems and subway systems, with the consideration of passengers’ intermodal transfer distance preference (PITDP) to capture different levels of complementary strength between the two systems. Based on the model, this paper further introduces a CUPTSs-aimed vulnerability analysis method from two specific aspects: (a) vulnerability effects of different PITDP values, which facilitate the design of policies to change PITDP to reduce system vulnerability; (b) vulnerability effects of different subway expansion plans, which facilitate the vulnerability investigation of current expansion plan and the identification of the optimal expansion plan from the system vulnerability perspective. The proposed CUPTSs-aimed vulnerability analysis method is applied to investigate the complementary bus and subway systems in the city of Wuhan, China. The insights from this study are helpful to analyze other CUPTSs for valuable planning suggestions from the vulnerability perspective. - Highlights: • We model complementary urban public transportation systems’ (CUPTSs) vulnerability. • We use a PITDP metric to capture different levels of complementary relationship. • We study vulnerability under different PITDP and different subway expansion plans. • We analyze dynamic vulnerability of CUPTSs during their expansion process.

  12. The end of the line: The relationship between New York City's subway system and residential class structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhindress, Mindy

    Public money is necessary to build and maintain this country's vast network of mass transit systems and highways. Thus you would expect class equity in choices of infrastructure location, types of projects and pricing. However, the influence of commercial interests appears to create a contradictory effect, and may negatively influence the settlement patterns where transit serves. New York City and its subway system offered the perfect case study by which to examine the before and after effects of mass transit introduction given the enormous size of the transit system and the grand development of New York City that appeared to occur simultaneous to subway inauguration. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the growth of the New York City subway system and the establishment of class structure in residential patterns. Regional census data covering the first 16-year period of the subway's development was examined along with geographic statistics on subway line expansion and station openings. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) maps were used to illustrate the development of living spaces as a function of subway introduction into communities, and several Indices were computed to demonstrate the population growth and class disparity. The results revealed that the early years of transit development were entrepreneurial efforts coordinated by business interests. This led to transit first providing significant benefits mostly to the middle and upper classes, giving them a reasonable means by which to escape horrible tenement living conditions while turning a profit at the same time. Thus new settlements were stratified by class almost immediately after introduction. The cycle continued until years later when the automobile was introduced and the once expensive and luxurious, but now more reasonably priced and just functional, public transit system finally befit the population much lower on the socioeconomic scale. Class divisions still

  13. Concentrations, properties, and health risk of PM2.5in the Tianjin City subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Qing; Liu, Jian-Feng; Ren, Zi-Hui; Chen, Rong-Hui

    2016-11-01

    A campaign was conducted to assess and compare the personal exposure in L3 of Tianjin subway, focusing on PM 2.5 levels, chemical compositions, morphology analysis, as well as the health risk of heavy metal in PM 2.5 . The results indicated that the average concentration of the PM 2.5 was 151.43 μg/m 3 inside the train of the subway during rush hours. PM 2.5 concentrations inside car under the ground are higher than those on the ground, and PM 2.5 concentrations on the platform are higher than those inside car. Regarding metal concentrations, the highest element in PM 2.5 samples was Fe; the level of which is 17.55 μg/m 3 . OC is a major component of PM 2.5 in Tianjin subway. Secondary organic carbon is the formation of gaseous organic pollutants in subway. SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX exhibit the presence of individual particle with a large metal content in the subway samples. For small Fe metal particles, iron oxide can be formed easily. With regard to their sources, Fe-containing particles are generated mainly from mechanical wear and friction processes at the rail-wheel-brake interfaces. The non-carcinogenic risk to metals Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, and carcinogenic hazard of Cr and Ni were all below the acceptable level in L3 of Tianjin subway.

  14. Decontamination of Subway Railcar and Related Materials ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report In the event of a biological incident in a transportation hub such as a subway system, effective remediation of railcars, subway tunnels and stations will require the use of various decontamination approaches. One potential decontamination tool that could be used in such an event is the fogging of sporicidal liquids. The study described in this report builds on previous fogging decontamination research, but with a focus on decontaminating subway railcars and related materials.

  15. Influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qing-yuan; Yan, Bin; Lou, Ping; Zhou, Xiao-lin

    2015-01-01

    A subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupling dynamic model, considering short and middle-long wavelength random track irregularities, and longitudinal connection between adjacent slabs of steel spring floating slab track, was developed. And the influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of the system under different track conditions and train speeds are theoretically studied. The calculated results show: (1) In general, the acceleration of each component of the cou...

  16. Influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system

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    Qing-yuan Xu

    Full Text Available A subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupling dynamic model, considering short and middle-long wavelength random track irregularities, and longitudinal connection between adjacent slabs of steel spring floating slab track, was developed. And the influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of the system under different track conditions and train speeds are theoretically studied. The calculated results show: (1 In general, the acceleration of each component of the coupled system decreases with the increase of slab length under the perfectly smooth track condition; (2 Slab length has different influence laws on acceleration of each component of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system under random irregularity of track condition. The lower the dominant frequency distribution of vibration acceleration is, the higher influence slab length has; (3 With the increase of slab length, the force of rail, fastener and steel spring also decreases significantly, which helps to lengthen the service life of these components; (4 With the increase of slab length, the longitudinal bending moment of slab increases sharply at first, then it begins to drop slightly. When slab length exceeds the distance between two bogies of a vehicle, the longitudinal bending moment of slab changes little; (5 Slab length has significant influence on the dynamic force and displacement of the coupled system when train speed is higher.

  17. Cyclic subway networks are less risky in metropolises

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    Xiao, Ying; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Xu, Bowen; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Guanrong; Chen, Duxin

    2018-02-01

    Subways are crucial in modern transportation systems of metropolises. To quantitatively evaluate the potential risks of subway networks suffered from natural disasters or deliberate attacks, real data from seven Chinese subway systems are collected and their population distributions and anti-risk capabilities are analyzed. Counterintuitively, it is found that transfer stations with large numbers of connections are not the most crucial, but the stations and lines with large betweenness centrality are essential, if subway networks are being attacked. It is also found that cycles reduce such correlations due to the existence of alternative paths. To simulate the data-based observations, a network model is proposed to characterize the dynamics of subway systems under various intensities of attacks on stations and lines. This study sheds some light onto risk assessment of subway networks in metropolitan cities.

  18. A model for dispersion of contaminants in the subway environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coke, L. R.; Sanchez, J. G.; Policastro, A. J.

    2000-05-03

    Although subway ventilation has been studied extensively, very little has been published on dispersion of contaminants in the subway environment. This paper presents a model that predicts dispersion of contaminants in a complex subway system. It accounts for the combined transient effects of train motion, station airflows, train car air exchange rates, and source release properties. Results are presented for a range of typical subway scenarios. The effects of train piston action and train car air exchange are discussed. The model could also be applied to analyze the environmental impact of hazardous materials releases such as chemical and biological agents.

  19. EVALUATION OF ELDERLY MOBILITY BASED ON TRANSIT CARD DATA IN SEOUL

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    Ji-Young Song

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the travel patterns of senior citizens in Seoul using Automatic Fare Collection (AFC data. We focused specifically on mode choices and transfer patterns. Results showed that 99% of trips made by senior citizens (individuals over 65 years old, who were given free subway transit passes, consisted of single-mode trips. Average travel time was 31 minutes, and subway travel times were longer than bus travel times. Individuals made fewer transfers, took longer metro trips, and paid smaller fares when using their free subway transit cards. They were more negatively sensitive to bus travel time than metro travel time. Encouraging older adult travelers to use transfers that increase costs to a modest extent might help improve travel quality among a group of individuals who find it difficult to enter the metro system or who are uncomfortable making inter-metro transfers. Additionally, as older adults have more time, yet are economically disadvantaged and take more leisure trips, travel improvements could include adopting a time-flexible fare discount. We discuss these improvements in terms of the individual and social benefits afforded to transit passengers in South Korea.

  20. Characterization of aerosol particles from Buenos Aires City and its subway system: PIXE and SEM/EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murruni, L. G.; Debray, M. E.; Minsky, D.; Kreiner, A. J.; Burlon, A.; Davidson, M.; Davidson, J.; Ozafran, M.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rosenbusch, M.; Ulke, A. G.; Solanes, V.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected at two sites of Buenos Aires City (34S, 58W). One site (San Martin) placed 17 km from city center, and the other one at an underground subway station (Diagonal Norte) in downtown Buenos Aires. In both cases, gravimetric analysis has been performed, while elemental analysis using PIXE has been only carried out in the first case. To the best our knowledge, this is the first airborne particle measurement perform at a Buenos Aires underground subway station

  1. Seoul: Korea's high-tech hotbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusoff, D

    1987-04-01

    Seoul, Korea, is in the throes of change--in the way its people live, in the jobs they do, and in the makeup of its populace. The city of Seoul proper houses 1 out of every 4 Koreans. Home to 95 of Korea's 100 largest trading companies and 42 of the 46 family-based industrial conglomerates--Seoul controls Korean commerce. Employment opportunities have kept pace with Seoul's rapidly growing labor supply resulting in low unemployment by developing country standards. Only 12.3% of Koreans now live below the poverty line, down from nearly 41% in 1962. The real per capita income in Seoul rose from a dismal $87 in 1962 to nearly $2000 in 1985. The completion of 2 commuter rail lines in 1974 accelerated the movement of people out of the city and into suburban areas, concentrating urban growth along the railway corridors. Population densities in the city's central wards make Seoul 1 of the world's most densely populated cities. Although Seoul's population is young--27.9% of the population was under age 15 in 1983-- it is becoming increasingly dominated by those of working age. Seoul is essentially a city of migrants; more than 1/2 of the city's grwoth since 1960 is attributable to in-migration. Although the trend is toward rising white-collar employment, Seoul is still a blue-collar town. Seoul's educational system is so highly regarded in Korea that families move to seoul just to enroll their children. Korean spending patterns are influenced greatly by the Korean penchant for higher education.

  2. Urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in employees of subway system.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Mehrdad; Sara Aghdaei; Gholamreza Pouryaghoub

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants, steel dust or other occupational and environmental hazards as oxidative stress have adverse effects on subway workers' health. Oxidative stress generates an excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Oxygen Free Radicals during their work time in the tunnels. Once DNA is repaired, Urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is excreted in the urine. Therefore, urinary level of 8-OHdG can reflect the extent of oxidative DNA damage. The aim of this study was...

  3. Effects of tunnel and station size on the costs and service of subway transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayman, B., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of less spacious, less costly underground rail mass transit system designs is studied. The major cost saving expected from alternative tunnel designs results from using precast concrete segment liners in place of steel. The saying expected for a two-foot decrease in the diameter of twin, single track tunnels is about two million dollars per route mile from 13 million dollars for precast concrete segment liners (a saving of about 16%). The cost per route-mile of a double track tunnel appears to be 15 to 25% higher than for the twin, single track tunnels. The effective cost saving expected from stations with four-car train capability instead of the usual eight-car trains is nearly 25% or seven million dollars per route mile. The saving in station costs can be obtained while improving service to the user (lower transit time and less waiting for trains) up to a capacity of 36,000 riders per hour in each direction.

  4. STRUCTURAL LEAF CHANGES IN TREES AROUND A SUBWAY AIR DUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Renato de Aragão Ribeiro; Vaz, Vanderson Corrêa; Sato, Alice; Arruda, Rosani do Carmo de Oliveira; Castro, Wagner Antonio Chiba de; Silva-Matos, Dalva Maria da

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTWhile a number of papers have shown that subway systems have an impact on the air quality through the release of particulate matters, no information about the impact of such particles on tree attributes is available. Tree leaves from three different species from the exit side of a subway station in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were more asymmetrical than leaves from the entrance side. This leaves also presenting changes in leaves cuticle and chlorophyll content. RESUMOVários artigos vêm...

  5. Structural leaf changes in trees around a subway air duct.

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES, R. de A. R.; VAZ, V. C.; SATO, A.; ARRUDA, R. do C. de O.; CASTRO, W. A. C. de; SILVA-MATOS, D. M. da.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTWhile a number of papers have shown that subway systems have an impact on the air quality through the release of particulate matters, no information about the impact of such particles on tree attributes is available. Tree leaves from three different species from the exit side of a subway station in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were more asymmetrical than leaves from the entrance side. This leaves also presenting changes in leaves cuticle and chlorophyll content.

  6. STRUCTURAL LEAF CHANGES IN TREES AROUND A SUBWAY AIR DUCT

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    Renato de Aragão Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWhile a number of papers have shown that subway systems have an impact on the air quality through the release of particulate matters, no information about the impact of such particles on tree attributes is available. Tree leaves from three different species from the exit side of a subway station in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were more asymmetrical than leaves from the entrance side. This leaves also presenting changes in leaves cuticle and chlorophyll content.

  7. [To the issue on the optimization and regulation of microclimate in the subway trains and stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksin, A G; Beresneva, T G; Kaptsov, V A; Korotich, L P; Evlampieva, M N; Timoshenkova, E V

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an overview of currently existing regulatory framework governing the parameters of the microclimate in the salons of subway passenger cars and stations. Analysis of the normative documents indicated that they contain very incomplete, contradictory, often unfounded information about the parameters of microclimate parameters in salons of subway rolling stock. Also, there are no clear cut hygienically-sound requirements for the work of imposed on the rolling stock subway systems provide microclimate, including new systems for air conditioning and disinfection.

  8. Comfort parameters - Ventilation of a subway wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, Pavlíček; Ladislav, Tříska

    2017-09-01

    Research and development of a ventilation system is being carried out as a part of project TA04030774 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic. Name of the project is "Research and Development of Mass-optimized Components for Rail Vehicles". Problems being solved are development and testing of a new concept for ventilation systems for public transport vehicles. The main improvements should be a reduction of the mass of the whole system, easy installation and reduction of the noise of the ventilation system. This article is focused on the comfort parameters in a subway wagon (measurement and evaluation carried out on a function sample in accordance with the regulations). The input to the project is a ventilator hybrid casing for a subway wagon, which was manufactured and tested during the Ministry of Industry and Trade project TIP FR-TI3/449.

  9. The effectiveness of platform screen doors for the prevention of subway suicides in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yong Woon; Kang, Sung Jin; Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Subway suicide can significantly impact the general public. Platform Screen Doors (PSDs) are considered to be an effective strategy to prevent suicides at subway stations, but the evidence on their effectiveness is limited. We assessed the effectiveness of installing half- and full-height platform screen doors in reducing subway suicides using Poisson regression analysis. Ten-year monthly panel data for 121 subway stations between 2003 and 2012 in the Seoul metropolitan area were used for the analysis. We found that installing PSDs decreases fatal suicide cases by 89% (95% CI: 57-97%). We also found that the installation of full-height PSDs resulted in the elimination of subway suicides by completely blocking access to the track area; however, half-height PSDs, which do not extend to the ceiling of the platform, were not as effective as full-height ones. Our findings were based on the data from a single subway operator for a limited period of time. Accordingly, we did not consider the possibility that some passengers choose to die at a station run by other operators. Our study did not examine the potential substitution effects of other suicide methods. Installing physical barriers at subway stations can be an effective strategy to reduce the number of subway suicides; however, half-height PSDs are not as effective as full-height ones, even when they are as high as the height of an adult. Thus, these barriers should be made high enough so that nobody can climb over them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in employees of subway system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mehrdad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to air pollutants, steel dust or other occupational and environmental hazards as oxidative stress have adverse effects on subway workers' health. Oxidative stress generates an excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and Oxygen Free Radicals during their work time in the tunnels. Once DNA is repaired, Urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG is excreted in the urine. Therefore, urinary level of 8-OHdG can reflect the extent of oxidative DNA damage. The aim of this study was to document the oxidative stress caused by exposure to these hazards by measuring 8-OHdG in workers urine. We collected urine samples of 81 male subway workers after their working shift. The concentration of urinary 8-OHdG was measured by ELISA method. We used linear regression analysis to compare the level of urinary 8-OHdG as a biomarker of oxidative stress between workers in tunnels and other staff. The mean concentration of urinary 8-OHdG for workers in the tunnel was 58.05 (SD=28.83 ng/mg creatinine and for another staff was 54.16 (SD =26.98 ng/mg creatinine.  After adjustment for age, smoking, driving and a second job in a linear regression model, the concentration of 8-OHdG for the exposed group was significantly higher than unexposed group (P=0.038. These findings confirm that the concentration of urinary 8-OHdG for workers who work in tunnels was significantly higher than the other staff. Additional investigations should be performed to understand that which ones of occupational exposures are more important to cause oxidative stress.

  11. AC Transmission Emulation Control Strategies for the BTB VSC HVDC System in the Metropolitan Area of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoon Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Korean power system, growing power loads have recently created the problems of voltage instability and fault current in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA. Accordingly, the back-to-back (BTB voltage source converter (VSC high-voltage direct-current (HVDC system is emerging to resolve such problems with grid segmentation. However, non-convergence problems occur in this metropolitan area, due to the large change of power flow in some contingencies. Therefore, this paper proposes two kinds of AC transmission emulation control (ATEC strategies to improve the metropolitan transient stability, and to resolve the non-convergence problem. The proposed ATEC strategies are able to mitigate possible overloading of adjacent AC transmission, and maintain power balance between metropolitan regions. The first ATEC strategy uses a monitoring system that permits the reverse power flow of AC transmission, and thus effectively improves the grid stability based on the power transfer equation. The second ATEC strategy emulates AC transmission with DC link capacitors in a permissible DC-link voltage range according to angle difference, and securely improves the gird stability, without requiring grid operator schedule decisions. This paper compares two kinds of ATEC schemes: it demonstrates the first ATEC strategy with specific fault scenario with PSS/E (Power Transmission System Planning Software, and evaluates the second ATEC strategy with internal controller performance with PSCAD/EMTDC (Power System Electromagnetic Transients Simulation Software.

  12. Energy analysis of Rio de Janeiro subway; Analise energetica do Metro do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, Roberto; Barcellos, Philipe P.; Silva Campos Neto, Carlos A. da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1984-12-31

    In this work an energy analysis of the Subway System from Rio de Janeiro city (Metro-RJ) is made. Only the direct energy involved on the subway operation is considered. The system and the electrical network are also defined. At the end, the direct energy spent by transported passenger is determined. (author). 4 tabs

  13. General characteristics of causes of urban flood damage and flood forecasting/warning system in Seoul, Korea Young-Il Moon1, 2, Jong-Suk Kim1, 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, South Korea 2 Urban Flood Research Inst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has increased, causing urban floods that result in casualties and property damage. As a consequence of natural disasters that occur annually, the cost of damage in Korea is estimated to be over two billion US dollars per year. As interest in natural disasters increase, demands for a safe national territory and efficient emergency plans are on the rise. In addition to this, as a part of the measures to cope with the increase of inland flood damage, it is necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that uses technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast based on both rivers and inland water bodies. Despite the investment and efforts to prevent landside flood damage, research and studies of landside-river combined hydro-system is at its initial stage in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research introduces the causes of flood damage in Seoul and shows a flood forecasting and warning system in urban streams of Seoul. This urban flood forecasting and warning system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area and also supports synthetic decision-making for prevention through real-time monitoring. Although we cannot prevent damage from typhoons or localized heavy rain, we can minimize that damage with accurate and timely forecast and a prevention system. To this end, we developed a flood forecasting and warning system, so in case of an emergency there is enough time for evacuation and disaster control. Keywords: urban flooding, flood risk, inland-river system, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  14. A study on the characteristics of silt loading on paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area using a mobile monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sehyun; Jung, Yong-Won

    2012-07-01

    This study is considered the first attempt to apply a mobile monitoring system to estimating silt loading on paved roads in a megacity such as the Seoul metropolitan area. Using a mobile monitoring system developed in 2005, we estimated silt loadings on representative paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area, including the city of Incheon, over a period of 3 yr. The temporal and spatial characteristics of silt loading were investigated for the carefully selected roads that may reflect the characteristics of the cities of Seoul and Incheon. In this study, changes in the average silt loading values were investigated in terms of land use, the temporal resolution of data acquisition (i.e., seasonal, daily, three-hour scale), the road width or number of lanes, and rainfall, which may affect the characteristics of the average silt loading significantly. It was found that the advantages of using the mobile monitoring system are its ability to obtain a large quantity of silt loading data in a short period of time and over a wide area and its ability to create a silt loading map showing the relative magnitude of silt loading in relation to a specific location, which makes it possible to easily locate hot spots.

  15. Predicting Short-Term Subway Ridership and Prioritizing Its Influential Factors Using Gradient Boosting Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between short-term subway ridership and its influential factors is crucial to improving the accuracy of short-term subway ridership prediction. Although there has been a growing body of studies on short-term ridership prediction approaches, limited effort is made to investigate the short-term subway ridership prediction considering bus transfer activities and temporal features. To fill this gap, a relatively recent data mining approach called gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT is applied to short-term subway ridership prediction and used to capture the associations with the independent variables. Taking three subway stations in Beijing as the cases, the short-term subway ridership and alighting passengers from its adjacent bus stops are obtained based on transit smart card data. To optimize the model performance with different combinations of regularization parameters, a series of GBDT models are built with various learning rates and tree complexities by fitting a maximum of trees. The optimal model performance confirms that the gradient boosting approach can incorporate different types of predictors, fit complex nonlinear relationships, and automatically handle the multicollinearity effect with high accuracy. In contrast to other machine learning methods—or “black-box” procedures—the GBDT model can identify and rank the relative influences of bus transfer activities and temporal features on short-term subway ridership. These findings suggest that the GBDT model has considerable advantages in improving short-term subway ridership prediction in a multimodal public transportation system.

  16. Hospital information systems: experience at the fully digitized Seoul National University Bundang Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2016-08-01

    The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience.

  17. Research on station management in subway operation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiman

    2017-10-01

    The management of subway station is an important part of the safe operation of urban subway. In order to ensure the safety of subway operation, it is necessary to study the relevant factors that affect station management. In the protection of subway safety operations on the basis of improving the quality of service, to promote the sustained and healthy development of subway stations. This paper discusses the influencing factors of subway operation accident and station management, and analyzes the specific contents of station management security for subway operation, and develops effective suppression measures. It is desirable to improve the operational quality and safety factor for subway operations.

  18. The Influence of subway climatology on gas dispersion and the effectiveness of guided evacuations in a complex subway station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Brüne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a strategy that integrates data from tracer gas experiments with results from pedestrian simulation software in the evaluation of different evacuation procedures for subway stations in response to a fire or a terrorist attack with chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and enhanced conventional weapons (CBRNE. The study demonstrates that by combining the two data sets a greater understanding of the impact of different evacuations routes on an evacuee's health is gained. It is shown that by controlling the routes pedestrians would use to exit a subway station, the number of fatalities and evacuees with long term health issues can be reduced. It is highlighted that a dynamic evacuation guiding system based on subway climatology would take into account the source of the toxin, the resulting dispersal of gas, smoke, etc. and the subway climatology at the time. In doing so, it would be possible to identify the most endangered areas and guide passengers via an adaptive escape route using audio and visual techniques. Information on the evolution of the emergency situation could also simultaneously be relayed back to the rescue forces to help to plan the rescue and evacuation procedures and optimise the deployment of the search and rescue teams.

  19. Children at risk: A comparison of child pedestrian traffic collisions in Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carola; Lee, Jae Seung; Zegras, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examine and compare pedestrian-vehicle collisions and injury outcomes involving school-age children between 5 and 18 years of age in the capital cities of Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea. We conduct descriptive analysis of the child pedestrian-vehicle collision (P-VC) data (904 collisions for Santiago and 3,505 for Seoul) reported by the police between 2010 and 2011. We also statistically analyze factors associated with child P-VCs, by both incident severity and age group, using 3 regression models: negative binomial, probit, and spatial lag models. Descriptive statistics suggest that child pedestrians in Seoul have a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes than their counterparts in Santiago. However, in Seoul a greater proportion of children are unharmed as a result of these incidents, whereas more child pedestrians are killed in Santiago. Younger children in Seoul suffer more injuries from P-VCs than in Santiago. The majority of P-VCs in both cities tend to occur in the afternoon and evening, at intersections in Santiago and at midblock locations in Seoul. Our model results suggest that the resident population of children is positively associated with P-VCs in both cities, and school concentrations apparently increase P-VC risk among older children in Santiago. Bus stops are associated with higher P-VCs in Seoul, and subway stations relate to higher P-VCs among older children in Santiago. Zone-level land use mix was negatively related to child P-VCs in Seoul but not in Santiago. Arterial roads are associated with fewer P-VCs, especially for younger children in both cities. A share of collector roads is associated with increased P-VCs in Seoul but fewer P-VCs in Santiago. Hilliness is related to fewer P-VCs in both cities. Differences in these model results for Santiago and Seoul warrant additional analysis, as do the differences in results across model type (negative binomial versus spatial lag models). To reduce child P-VCs, this study

  20. Toward qualitative growth in Seoul

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, M.; Lee, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Today, Seoul is looking back at its revolutionary development during the last 40 years, and is exploring the potential of an evolutionary, qualitative growth for the future. Atlantis interviewed Seog-Jeong Lee, who recently completed a project on the future form of Seoul. She has a multi-faceted

  1. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    OpenAIRE

    Qingru Zou; Xiangming Yao; Peng Zhao; Fei Dou; Taoyuan Yang

    2018-01-01

    Station inflow control (SIC) is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows a...

  2. The subway of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: energy and environmental implications of its operation; O metro de Belo Horizonte: implicacoes energeticas e ambientais da sua operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Paulo T.V.; Mello, Fernando L.V. de; Oliveira e Silva, Carlos R. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1996-12-31

    Comparative studies of the energy consumption variation of the bus and subway transportation systems in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil were made.They were made for two special cases:the first was the maintenance of the transportation capacity of the subway system and the second, the number of bus trips necessary in the present conditions to satisfy the subway demand.In the first case,the subway was more efficient when using energy of hydraulic origin and both systems have similar efficiency when using oil energy.In the second case,the subway is more efficient when occupancy is higher than 15% for hydraulic energy and higher than 59% for oil energy.From the environmental point of view, the subway is much more attractive for all the cases,even for low occupancy indexes 9 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. The Component And System Reliability Analysis Of Multipurpose Reactor G.A. Subway's Based On The Failure Rate Curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyono; Ismu Wahyono, Puradwi; Mulyanto, Dwijo; Kusmono, Siamet

    2001-01-01

    The main component of Multipurpose G.A.Siwabessy had been analyzed by its failure rate curve. The main component ha'..e been analyzed namely, the pump of ''Fuel Storage Pool Purification System'' (AK-AP), ''Primary Cooling System'' (JE01-AP), ''Primary Pool Purification System'' (KBE01-AP), ''Warm Layer System'' (KBE02-AP), ''Cooling Tower'' (PA/D-AH), ''Secondary Cooling System'', and Diesel (BRV). The Failure Rate Curve is made by component database that was taken from 'log book' operation of RSG GAS. The total operation of that curve is 2500 hours. From that curve it concluded that the failure rate of components form of bathtub curve. The maintenance processing causes the curve anomaly

  4. Application of Genetic Algorithms for Driverless Subway Train Energy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Brenna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After an introduction on the basic aspects of electric railway transports, focusing mainly on driverless subways and their related automation systems (ATC, ATP, and ATO, a technique for energy optimization of the train movement through their control using genetic algorithms will be presented. Genetic algorithms are a heuristic search and iterative stochastic method used in computing to find exact or approximate solutions to optimization problems. This optimization process has been calculated and tested on a real subway line in Milan through the implementation of a dedicated Matlab code. The so-defined algorithm provides the optimization of the trains movement through a coast control table created by the use of a genetic algorithm that minimizes the energy consumption and the train scheduled time. The obtained results suggest that the method is promising in minimizing the energy consumption of the electric trains.

  5. Radon and NO2levels and related environmental factors in 100 underground subway platforms over two-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Jae Bum; Park, Wha Me

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the environmental factors that affect radon (Rn) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels in subway-station underground platforms are evaluated, and the outdoor NO 2 levels are compared with those obtained for the underground platforms. The Rn and NO 2 levels from May 2013 to September 2015 are determined for lines 1-4 of the Seoul Metro, via calculation of the arithmetic means of the Rn and NO 2 levels with their standard deviations (SDs). The underground Rn levels in 2013 are found to be significantly higher than those recorded in 2015 for the Seoul Metro. In addition, the Rn levels are related to the station depth and construction year. Further, the underground NO 2 levels are shown to be significantly higher than the outdoor levels for all four Seoul Metro subway lines. The Rn levels are also found to vary significantly between months, and are shown to increase gradually with depth from 8 to 20 m. The Rn levels are also higher for stations constructed in the 1980s. Therefore, stricter monitoring of Rn level may be required for stations constructed in the 1980s and/or having platform depths within the 8-20 m range. Island-type platform stations based on granite areas may also require careful attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of noise exposure during commuting in the Madrid subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, M; Pavón, I; Ausejo, M; Asensio, C; Recuero, M

    2011-09-01

    Because noise-induced hearing impairment is the result not only of occupational noise exposure but also of total daily noise exposure, it is important to take the non-occupational exposure of individuals (during commuting to and from their jobs, at home, and during recreational activities) into account. Mass transit is one of the main contributors to non-occupational noise exposure. We developed a new methodology to estimate a representative commuting noise exposure. The methodology was put into practice for the Madrid subway because of all Spanish subway systems it covers the highest percentage of worker journeys (22.6%). The results of the application highlight that, for Madrid subway passengers, noise exposure level normalized to a nominal 8 hr (L(Ex,8h-cj) ) depends strongly on the type of train, the presence of squealing noise, and the public address audio system, ranging from 68.6 dBA to 72.8 dBA. These values play an important role in a more complete evaluation of a relationship between noise dose and worker health response.

  7. Humans and Machines in the subway Humanos e máquinas no metrô

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Caiafa

    2011-01-01

    In this work we analyze the repercussions that the recent implementation of an electronic fare collection system - with smart cards – has brought to everyday life of subway riders in Rio de Janeiro. The adoption of a fare collection system involves the choice of a technology and the stipulation of a charging system. By following this technological evolution in Rio de Janeiro’s subway, we explore how its riders learn to approach the new interfaces with the automatic machines and to cope with t...

  8. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  9. Corrosion control by limestone immersion into the hot water heat-storage tank. Case history of air-conditioning systems of Sapporo city subway stations; Sekkaiseki shinsekiho ni yoru chikunetsu onsui keito no boshoku koka. Sapporoshi chikatetsu kakueki no kucho setsubi no jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, M. [Sapporo City Transportation Bureau, Sapporo (Japan); Okumura, J. [Hokkaido Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Sapporo (Japan); Sakai, Y.; Shiiya, O. [Takasago Thermal Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-05

    Limestone immersion into heat-storage water tanks is a method for improving the water quality so as to encrust inner surface of piping by corrosion-preventive calcium carbonate film. For air-conditioning of Support city subway stations, heat-storing heat-pump systems with heat recovery from exhaust air have been introduced and developed for energy saving along with expansion of the subway routes. Inner surfaces of the heat-storage water tanks of all stations are coated with FRP-lining, therefore, some corrosion-preventive chemicals had been dosed from the starting up. However, the storage waters of all stations turned to red because of continuity of the piping corrosion. Instead of dosing chemicals, the limestone immersion method station. Thanks to His method, excellent results were obtained in a short period contributing control of the piping corrosion together with the red water fading. 14 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Empirical approach for real-time estimation of air flow rates in a subway station

    OpenAIRE

    Di Perna, Costanzo; Carbonari, Alessandro; Ansuini, Roberta; Casals Casanova, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    The EU-funded project called SEAM4US (Sustainable Energy mAnageMent for Underground Stations) is targeted to define advanced control systems for cost-effective management of subway stations, which will be applied to the pilot Peer Reviewed

  11. Dynamics of subway networks based on vehicles operation timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue-mei; Jia, Li-min; Wang, Yan-hui

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a subway network is represented as a dynamic, directed and weighted graph, in which vertices represent subway stations and weights of edges represent the number of vehicles passing through the edges by considering vehicles operation timetable. Meanwhile the definitions of static and dynamic metrics which can represent vertices' and edges' local and global attributes are proposed. Based on the model and metrics, standard deviation is further introduced to study the dynamic properties (heterogeneity and vulnerability) of subway networks. Through a detailed analysis of the Beijing subway network, we conclude that with the existing network structure, the heterogeneity and vulnerability of the Beijing subway network varies over time when the vehicle operation timetable is taken into consideration, and the distribution of edge weights affects the performance of the network. In other words, although the vehicles operation timetable is restrained by the physical structure of the network, it determines the performances and properties of the Beijing subway network.

  12. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingru Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Station inflow control (SIC is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows and section flows is then constructed. Second, capacity bottlenecks are identified by considering the transport capacity of each section. Then, a feedback-based bottleneck elimination strategy is established to search target control stations and determine their control time and control strength. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a decision support system coded in the C# programming language was developed, and the Beijing subway was used as a case study. The results indicate that the proposed method and tool are capable of practical applications, and the generated SIC plan has better performance over the existing SIC plan. This study provides a practical and useful method for operation agencies to construct SIC schemes in the subway system.

  13. Temporal and spatial patterns of suicides in Stockholm's subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uittenbogaard, Adriaan; Ceccato, Vania

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential temporal and spatial variations of suicides in subway stations in Stockholm, Sweden. The study also assesses whether the variation in suicide rates is related to the station environments by controlling for each station's location and a number of contextual factors using regression models and geographical information systems (GIS). Data on accidents are used as references for the analysis of suicides. Findings show that suicides tend to occur during the day and in the spring. They are concentrated in the main transportation hubs but, interestingly, during off-peak hours. However, the highest rates of suicides per passenger are found in Stockholm's subway stations located in the Southern outskirts. More than half of the variation in suicide rates is associated with stations that have walls between the two sides of the platform but still allow some visibility from passers-by. The surrounding environment and socioeconomic context show little effect on suicide rates, but stations embedded in areas with high drug-related crime rates tend to show higher suicide rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SIRS Model of Passengers’ Panic Propagation under Self-Organization Circumstance in the Subway Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subway emergency may lead to passengers’ panic, especially under self-organizing circumstance, which will spread rapidly and have an adverse impact on the society. This paper builds an improved SIRS model of passengers’ panic spread in subway emergency with consideration of passengers’ density, the characteristic of subway car with the confined space, and passengers’ psychological factors. The spread of passengers’ panic is simulated by use of Matlab, which draws the rules of how group panic spreads dynamically. The trend of stable point of the infection ratio is analyzed by changing different parameters, which help to draw a conclusion that immunization rate, spontaneous immune loss rate, and passenger number have a great influence on the final infected ratio. Finally, we propose an integrated control strategy and find the peak of passengers’ panic and the final infected ratio is greatly improved through the numerical simulation. The research plays a vital role in helping the government and subway administration to master the panic spread mechanism and reduce the panic spread by improving measures and also provides certain reference significance for rail system construction, emergency contingency plans, and the construction and implementation of emergency response system.

  15. Embedding human annoyance rate models in wireless smart sensors for assessing the influence of subway train-induced ambient vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Huaping; Kim, Robin E.; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    The operation of subway trains induces ambient vibrations, which may cause annoyance and other adverse effects on humans, eventually leading to physical, physiological, and psychological problems. In this paper, the human annoyance rate (HAR) models, used to assess the human comfort under the subway train-induced ambient vibrations, were deduced and the calibration curves for 5 typical use circumstances were addressed. An autonomous measurement system, based on the Imote2, wireless smart sensor (WSS) platform, plus the SHM-H, high-sensitivity accelerometer board, was developed for the HAR assessment. The calibration curves were digitized and embedded in the computational core of the WSS unit. Experimental validation was conducted, using the developed system on a large underground reinforced concrete frame structure adjoining the subway station. The ambient acceleration of both basement floors was measured; the embedded computation was implemented and the HAR assessment results were wirelessly transmitted to the central server, all by the WSS unit. The HAR distributions of the testing areas were identified, and the extent to which both basements will be influenced by the close-up subway-train’s operation, in term of the 5 typical use circumstances, were quantitatively assessed. The potential of the WSS-based autonomous system for the fast environment impact assessment of the subway train-induced ambient vibration was well demonstrated.

  16. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Susanna L; Levänen, Bettina; Nording, Malin; Klepczynska-Nyström, Anna; Sköld, Magnus; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Grunewald, Johan; Svartengren, Magnus; Hammock, Bruce D; Larsson, Britt-Marie; Eklund, Anders; Wheelock, Åsa M; Wheelock, Craig E

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications. This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air. Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information. Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change. Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  17. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications.This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air.Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information.Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2. Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change.Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel engine emission (elemental carbon) inside a car and a subway train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Oddoy, A; Piloty, M; Krause, M; Lahrz, T

    1998-06-30

    Significant concentrations of potentially harmful substances can be present in the interior of vehicles. The main sources of PAHs and elemental carbon (EC) inside a car are likely to be combustion emissions, especially from coal and traffic. The same sources can also be important for the interior of a subway train for which there are specific sources in the tunnel system, for example diesel engines. Twice, in summer 1995 and winter 1996 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel motor emission (estimated as elemental carbon) were determined in the interior of a car (a 2-year-old VW Golf with a three-way catalytic converter) and in the passenger compartment of a subway train (below ground). On each sampling day (in total 16 daily measurements in the car and 16 in the subway) the substances were determined in the breathing zone of the passengers from 07:00 h to 16:00 h under different meteorologic conditions (winter- and summertime). The car followed the route of the subway from the western Berlin borough of Spandau to the south-eastern borough of Neukölln, and back. The sampling represented a realistic exposure model for driving in a high traffic and polluted urban area. The electric subway train (also 2 years in use) connected the same parts of Berlin (31 km underground). The mean values obtained during the two measurement periods (summer/winter) inside the car were 1.0 and 3.2 ng/m3 for benzo[a]pyrene, 10.2 and 28.7 ng/m3 for total-measured-PAHs, 14.1 and 8.2 micrograms/m3 for EC and in the subway 0.7 and 4.0 ng/m3 for benzol[a]pyrene, 30.2 and 67.5 ng/m3 for total PAHs, 109 and 6.9 micrograms/m3 for EC. A comparison between subway and car exposures shows significantly higher concentrations of PAHs in the subway train, which can be explained by relatively high concentrations of fluoranthene and pyrene in the subway. So far a satisfactory explanation has not been found, but one source might be the wooden railway ties which were formerly preserved with tar

  19. Characterisation of nano- and micron-sized airborne and collected subway particles, a multi-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midander, Klara; Elihn, Karine; Wallén, Anna; Belova, Lyuba; Karlsson, Anna-Karin Borg; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2012-06-15

    Continuous daily measurements of airborne particles were conducted during specific periods at an underground platform within the subway system of the city center of Stockholm, Sweden. Main emphasis was placed on number concentration, particle size distribution, soot content (analyzed as elemental and black carbon) and surface area concentration. Conventional measurements of mass concentrations were conducted in parallel as well as analysis of particle morphology, bulk- and surface composition. In addition, the presence of volatile and semi volatile organic compounds within freshly collected particle fractions of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were investigated and grouped according to functional groups. Similar periodic measurements were conducted at street level for comparison. The investigation clearly demonstrates a large dominance in number concentration of airborne nano-sized particles compared to coarse particles in the subway. Out of a mean particle number concentration of 12000 particles/cm(3) (7500 to 20000 particles/cm(3)), only 190 particles/cm(3) were larger than 250 nm. Soot particles from diesel exhaust, and metal-containing particles, primarily iron, were observed in the subway aerosol. Unique measurements on freshly collected subway particle size fractions of PM(10) and PM(2.5) identified several volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, the presence of carcinogenic aromatic compounds and traces of flame retardants. This interdisciplinary and multi-analytical investigation aims to provide an improved understanding of reported adverse health effects induced by subway aerosols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of PM10 and CO2 concentrations on 100 underground subway station platforms in 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Wha Me; Park, Jae Bum; Nam, Taegyun

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the concentrations of particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter (PM10) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured in 100 underground subway stations, and the potential health risks of PM10, and environmental factors affecting these concentrations were analyzed. The concentrations were measured from May 2014 to September 2015 in stations along Seoul Metro lines 1-4. There were significantly different PM10 concentrations among the underground subway stations along lines 1, 2, 3, and 4. The PM10 concentrations were associated with the CO2 concentrations, construction years, station depths, and numbers of passengers. The underground PM10 concentrations were significantly higher than the outdoor PM10 concentrations. In addition, the PM10 concentrations were higher in the stations that were constructed in the 1970s than in those constructed after the 1970s. The PM10 and CO2 concentrations varied significantly, depending on the construction year and number of passengers. The hazard quotient is higher than the acceptable level of 1.0 μg kg-1 day for children, indicating that they are at risk of exposure to unsafe PM10 levels when travelling by the metro. Therefore, stricter management may be necessary for the stations constructed in the 1970s as well as those with higher numbers of passengers.

  1. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Youngeun; Hong, Seung-Han; Kim, Soohwaun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Youngwook

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the o...

  2. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-12-09

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system.

  3. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM. The implementation consists of four phases: (1 geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2 implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3 accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4 creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system.

  4. The Tokyo subway sarin attack: disaster management, Part 3: National and international responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, T; Suzuki, K; Fukuda, A; Kohama, A; Takasu, N; Ishimatsu, S; Hinohara, S

    1998-06-01

    The authors report the national and international responses to the disaster produced by the Tokyo subway sarin attack. From a worldwide historical perspective, there had never been such a large-scale disaster caused by nerve gas during peacetime. Therefore, this event should be studied from various viewpoints in cooperation with members of the international community. To this end, the Japanese government should help coordinate a large-scale and detailed investigation of the Tokyo subway sarin attack, including the long-term effects of sarin. The authors also recommend that the Japanese Self Defense Forces should be used more effectively in large-scale disasters. The system of direct control of disaster management by the Japanese government could be useful in a large-scale disaster.

  5. Individual- and area-level disparities in access to the road network, subway system and a public bicycle share program on the Island of Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan

    2013-02-01

    Few studies have examined potential disparities in access to transportation infrastructures, an important determinant of population health. To examine individual- and area-level disparities in access to the road network, public transportation system, and a public bicycle share program in Montreal, Canada. Examining associations between sociodemographic variables and access to the road network, public transportation system, and a public bicycle share program, 6,495 adult respondents (mean age, 48.7 years; 59.0 % female) nested in 33 areas were included in a multilevel analysis. Individuals with lower incomes lived significantly closer to public transportation and the bicycle share program. At the area level, the interaction between low-education and low-income neighborhoods showed that these areas were significantly closer to public transportation and the bicycle share program controlling for individual and urbanicity variables. More deprived areas of the Island of Montreal have better access to transportation infrastructure than less-deprived areas.

  6. A risk-based method for planning of bus–subway corridor evacuation under hybrid uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Y.; Yan, X.D.; Sun, W.; Gao, Z.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Emergencies involved in a bus–subway corridor system are associated with many processes and factors with social and economic implications. These processes and factors and their interactions are related to a variety of uncertainties. In this study, an interval chance-constrained integer programming (EICI) method is developed in response to such challenges for bus–subway corridor based evacuation planning. The method couples a chance-constrained programming with an interval integer programming model framework. It can thus deal with interval uncertainties that cannot be quantified with specified probability distribution functions. Meanwhile, it can also reflect stochastic features of traffic flow capacity, and thereby help examine the related violation risk of constraint. The EICI method is applied to a subway incident based evacuation case study. It is solved through an interactive algorithm that does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. A number of decision alternatives could be directly generated based on results from the EICI method. It is indicated that the solutions cannot only help decision makers identify desired population evacuation and vehicle dispatch schemes under hybrid uncertainties, but also provide bases for in-depth analyses of tradeoffs among evacuation plans, total evacuation time, and constraint-violation risks. - Highlights: • An inexact model is developed for the bus–subway corridor evacuation management. • It tackles stochastic and interval uncertainties in an integer programming problem. • It can examine violation risk of the roadway flow capacity related constraint. • It will help identify evacuation schemes under hybrid uncertainties

  7. Humans and Machines in the subway Humanos e máquinas no metrô

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Caiafa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze the repercussions that the recent implementation of an electronic fare collection system - with smart cards – has brought to everyday life of subway riders in Rio de Janeiro. The adoption of a fare collection system involves the choice of a technology and the stipulation of a charging system. By following this technological evolution in Rio de Janeiro’s subway, we explore how its riders learn to approach the new interfaces with the automatic machines and to cope with the payment conditions, which are at the same time imposed. We note, in this context, how the technological devices are coupled to human actions regarding the construction of a new fare collection system as well as the sociability that is developed in the subway technological space.Resumo: Neste trabalho analisamos as repercussões que a recente implementação de um novo sistema de bilhetagem eletrônica trouxe para o quotidiano dos usuários do metrô do Rio de Janeiro. A adoção de um sistema de bilhetagem envolve a escolha de uma tecnologia e a estipulação de um regime de cobrança. Ao acompanhar essa evolução tecnológia no metrô do Rio de Janeiro, exploramos como os usuários têm aprendido a abordar as novas interfaces com as máquinas automáticas e enfrentado as condições de pagamento que no mesmo golpe são impostas. Observamos como as ferramentas tecnológicas se acoplam a ações humanas tanto no que diz respeito à própria construção do novo sistema quanto à sociabilidade que se desenvolve no espaço tecnológico do metrô. Palavras-Chave: Tecnologia; Metrô (Rio de Janeiro; Sociabilidade Abstract: In this work we analyze the repercussions of the recently implemented fare collection system with smart cards in the Rio de Janeiro subway. The implementation of a fare collection system involves opting for a certain technology as well as stipulating a regime of fare charging. As we follow this technological evolution in the Rio

  8. The Tokyo subway sarin attack--lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, T; Hisaoka, T; Yamada, A; Naito, T; Isonuma, H; Okumura, S; Miura, K; Sakurada, M; Maekawa, H; Ishimatsu, S; Takasu, N; Suzuki, K

    2005-09-01

    The sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway system is reviewed from a clinical toxicology perspective. Based on the lessons learned from this attack, the following areas should be addressed on a global scale. First, an adequate supply of protective equipment is required, including level B protective equipment with a pressure demand breathing apparatus. In addition, a system should be established that enables a possible cause to be determined based on symptoms, physical findings, general laboratory tests, and a simple qualitative analysis for poisonous substances. If an antidote is needed, the system should enable it to be administered to the victims as quickly as possible. Preparation for a large-scale chemical attack by terrorists requires the prior establishment of a detailed decontamination plan that utilizes not only mass decontamination facilities but also public facilities in the area. A system should be established for summarizing, evaluating, and disseminating information on poisonous substances. Finally, a large-scale scientific investigation of the Tokyo sarin attack should be conducted to examine its long-term and subclinical effects and the effects of exposure to asymptomatic low levels of sarin.

  9. Route Choice in Subway Station during Morning Peak Hours: A Case of Guangzhou Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at crowding phenomenon in the subway. As passengers are inclined to choose the route with minimum disutility, we put forward a route choice model which is constructed to achieve minimum objective function of feasibility for the optimal solution. Meanwhile we set passenger volume threshold values according to capacity of facilities. In the case of actual capacity exceeding the threshold, the decision node of constrained route will be selected; computing procedure about searching decision points will be presented. Then we should set rational restrictions at the decision node of the minimum utility function route to prevent too many passengers’ access to platform. Through certification, this series of methods can effectively ensure the safety of the station efficient operation.

  10. Constructing a generalized network design model to study air distribution in ventilation networks in subway with a single-track tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugin, IV

    2018-03-01

    In focus are the features of construction of the generalized design model for the network method to study air distribution in ventilation system in subway with the single-track tunnel. The generalizations, assumptions and simplifications included in the model are specified. The air distribution is calculated with regard to the influence of topology and air resistances of the ventilation network sections. The author studies two variants of the subway line: half-open and closed with dead end on the both sides. It is found that the total air exchange at a subway station depends on the station location within the line. The operating mode of fans remains unaltered in this case. The article shows that elimination of air leakage in the station ventilation room allows an increase in the air flow rate by 7–8% at the same energy consumption by fans. The influence of the stop of a train in the tunnel on the air distribution is illustrated.

  11. Investigation of Magnetic Field in the Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ctibor Henzl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with computing of magnetic field in the rails surroundings of subway (underground. The calculation of field is made by using of an analytical method in Excel VBA. There is also used commercial FEM software ANSYS and finite element method. Output results of the both methods are finally compared.

  12. Rail and Subway Concessions in Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge M. Rebelo

    1999-01-01

    To help address a budgetary crisis in early 1995, the Rio de Janeiro state government began reforms aimed at selling or concessioning to the private sector loss-making state-owned enterprises. In the transport sector this meant selling or concessioning subway, commuterrail, bus, and ferry services, at the time requiring subsidies of US $363 million annually. This note describes the concess...

  13. Improving acoustical characteristics of a Gothic cathedral using simple public address system: A case study of Myeong-dong Cathedral in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Hwan Hwang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, improving acoustical characteristics of a Gothic cathedral (Myeong-dong Cathedral, which is the first built Western Gothic-style architecture in Korea using simple public address system were investigated. Acoustical measurements were conducted at 11 selected points inside the cathedral and seven acoustical parameters were calculated: sound pressure level (SPL: 64.6 dBA (the measurement value with regard to the omni-directional speaker sound source; 74.5 dBA (the measurement value with regard to the public address speaker sound source, early decay time (EDT: 4.04 s; 3.76 s, reverberation time (RT60: 3.58 s; 3.89 s, clarity (C80: −6.2 dB; −2.8 dB, definition (D50: 18%; 29%, initial time delay gap (ITDG: 47 ms; 23 ms, and rapid speech transmission index (RASTI: 32%; 42%. Parameters showed that the acoustical characteristics of a typical Gothic cathedral include rich reverberation and diffusive sound fields. Meanwhile, there was improved speech intelligibility when using simple public address system. Based on subjective evaluation, there was overall satisfaction with voice and music recognition and the highest satisfaction with clarity with respect to voice recognition and with reverberation with respect to music recognition. This is a good solution of optimized acoustic environment through harmony between natural reverberation and reinforced clarity using simple public address system.

  14. The Tokyo subway sarin attack: disaster management, Part 1: Community emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, T; Suzuki, K; Fukuda, A; Kohama, A; Takasu, N; Ishimatsu, S; Hinohara, S

    1998-06-01

    The Tokyo subway sarin attack was the second documented incident of nerve gas poisoning in Japan. Prior to the Tokyo subway sarin attack, there had never been such a large-scale disaster caused by nerve gas in peacetime history. This article provides details related to how the community emergency medical services (EMS) system responded from the viewpoint of disaster management, the problems encountered, and how they were addressed. The authors' assessment was that if EMTs, under Japanese law, had been allowed to maintain an airway with an endotracheal tube or use a laryngeal mask airway without physician oversight, more patients might have been saved during this chemical exposure disaster. Given current legal restrictions, advanced airway control at the scene will require that doctors become more actively involved in out-of-hospital treatment. Other recommendations are: 1) that integration and cooperation of concerned organizations be established through disaster drills; 2) that poison information centers act as regional mediators of all toxicologic information; 3) that a real-time, multidirectional communication system be established; 4) that multiple channels of communication be available for disaster care; 5) that public organizations have access to mobile decontamination facilities; and 6) that respiratory protection and chemical-resistant suits with gloves and boots be available for out-of-hospital providers during chemical disasters.

  15. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  16. Environmental trade-offs of tunnels vs cut-and-cover subways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M.

    1978-01-01

    Heavy construction projects in cities entail two kinds of cost - internal cost, which can be defined in terms of payments from one set of parties to another, and external cost, which is the cost borne by the community at large as the result of disutilities entailed in construction and operation. Environmental trade-offs involve external costs, which are commonly difficult to measure. Cut-and-cover subway construction probably entails higher external and internal cost than deep tunnel construction in many urban geological environments, but uncertainty concerning the costs and environmental trade-offs of tunneling leads to limited and timid use of tunneling by American designers. Thus uncertainty becomes a major trade-off which works against tunneling. The reverse is true in Sweden after nearly 30 years of subway construction. Econometric methods for measuring external costs exist in principle, but are limited in application. Economic theory based on market pressure does not address the real problem of urban environmental trade-offs. Nevertheless, the problem of uncertainty can be addressed by comparative studies of estimated and as-built costs of cut-and-cover vs tunnel projects and a review of environmental issues associated with such construction. Such a study would benefit the underground construction industry and the design of transportation systems. It would also help solve an aspect of the urban problem. ?? 1978.

  17. Coordination between Subway and Urban Space: A Networked Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper selects Changsha as a case study and constructs the models of the subway network and the urban spatial network by using planning data. In the network models, the districts of Changsha are regarded as nodes and the connections between each pair of districts are regarded as edges. The method is based on quantitative analysis of the node weights and the edge weights, which are defined in the complex network theory. And the structures of subway and urban space are visualized in the form of networks. Then, through analyzing the discrepancy coefficients of the corresponding nodes and edges, the paper carries out a comparison between the two networks to evaluate the coordination. The results indicate that only 21.4% of districts and 13.2% of district connections have a rational coordination. Finally, the strategies are put forward for optimization, which suggest adjusting subway transit density, regulating land-use intensity and planning new mass transits for the uncoordinated parts.

  18. Comparison of Aerosol Volume Size Distributions between Surface and Ground-based Remote Sensing Measurements Downwind of Seoul, Korea during MAPS-Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P.; Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    Both sunphotometer (Cimel, CE-318) and skyradiometer (Prede, POM-02) were operated in May, 2015 as a part of the Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) campaign. These instruments were collocated at the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (Hankuk_UFS) site of AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and the Yongin (YGN) site of SKYradiometer NETwork (SKYNET). The aerosol volume size distribution at the surface was measured using a wide range aerosol spectrometer (WRAS) system consisting of a scanning mobility particle sizer (Grimm, Model 5.416; 45 bins, 0.01-1.09 μm) and an optical particle counter (Grimm, Model 1.109; 31 bins, 0.27-34 μm). The measurement site (37.34oN, 127.27oE, 167 m above sea level) is located about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul. To investigate the discrepancies in volume concentrations, effective diameters and fine mode volume fractions, we compared the volume size distributions from sunphotometer, skyradiometer, and WRAS system when the measurement time coincided within 5 minutes considering that the measurement intervals were different between instruments.

  19. [MICROCLIMATE CONDITION IN SUBWAY CARS IN THE SUMMER PERIOD OF THE YEAR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksin, A G; Evlampieva, M N; Timoshenkova, E V; Morgunov, A V; Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the results of the work, which aims to identify the relationship between the temperature of air in the salons of subway cars from the heat output of passengers in different people occupancy of cars during "peak hours", and to determine the efficacy offorced air handling regular ventilation or air conditioning system to remove the elevated heat load on passengers. In the work there was used the method of calculating the amount of heat output of 215 passengers (nominal fullness of the chamber) and the simulation method of heat and moisture output of the same number of passengers. The operating system of ventilation has been shown to fail to decline the average temperature of the air in the passenger compartment to the optimum values and most efficient approach for the reducing the heat load on the passengers is the use of air conditioning systems.

  20. Seoul: Public policies to walk through a low carbon era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guadalupe Figueroa González

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic and demographic growth that Seoul has experienced in recent decades has led to an increase in demand and energy consumption at the expense of the environment. In accordance with national green growth vision, Seoul is implementing a number of strategies that involve various actors for the transition to a low carbon era. The paper addresses Korea’s vision for green growth, analyzes presidential leadership to articulate policies in the domestic and international level and the actions executed locally by the Seoul Metropolitan Government.

  1. The Tokyo subway sarin attack: disaster management, Part 2: Hospital response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, T; Suzuki, K; Fukuda, A; Kohama, A; Takasu, N; Ishimatsu, S; Hinohara, S

    1998-06-01

    The Tokyo subway sarin attack was the second documented incident of nerve gas poisoning in Japan. The authors report how St. Luke's Hospital dealt with this disaster from the viewpoint of disaster management. Recommendations derived from the experience include the following: Each hospital in Japan should prepare an emergent decontamination area and have available chemical-resistant suits and masks. Ventilation in the ED and main treatment areas should be well planned at the time a hospital is designed. Hospital disaster planning must include guidance in mass casualties, an emergency staff call-up system, and an efficient emergency medical chart system. Hospitals should establish an information network during routine practice so that it can be called upon at the time of a disaster. The long-term effects of sarin should be monitored, with such investigation ideally organized and integrated by the Japanese government.

  2. [Study on transition metals in airborne particulate matter in Shanghai city's subway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Liang-Man; Lei, Qian-Tao; Tan, Ming-Guang; Li, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Liu, Wei; Li, Yan

    2014-06-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 aerosol particle samples were collected at a subway station in Shanghai and their morphology, chemical composition and transition metal species were studied. The mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 inside the subway station were significantly higher than those measured in aboveground ambient air. The PM levels inside subway were much higher than the state control limit. The aerosol composition in the metro station was quite different from that of the aboveground urban particles. Concentrations of Fe, Mn and Cr were higher than the averages of aboveground urban air particles by factors of 8, 2, and 2, respectively, showing a substantial enrichment in subway. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the subway particles had flat surfaces in combination with parallel scratches and sharp edges and looked like metal sheets or flakes. Furthermore, analysis of the atomic composition of typical subway particles by energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) spectroscopy showed that oxygen and iron dominated the mass of the particles. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results showed that a fraction (> 26%) of the total iron in the PM10 was in the form of pure Fe, while in the street particles Fe(III) was shown to be a significant fraction of the total iron. The work demonstrated that the underground subway stations in Shanghai were an important microenvironment for exposure to transition metal aerosol for the people taking subway train for commuting every day and those who work in the subway stations, and the metal particle exposure for people in the subway station should not be ignored.

  3. Choosing TBM for Tabriz Subway using Multi Criteria Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edalat, Kamaladdin; Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Ghodrat, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The world of underground engineering and construction has acquired a wide-ranging and high-level experience on tunnel construction with Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM) and nowadays remarkable progresses are traceable in the number of tunnels that are becoming longer, going deeper, and growing larger...... in diameter and in other words becoming more difficult to realize. Tabriz-one of the big cities in northern west of Iran has four subway lines which are under con-struction or investigation. The phase1 design of Tabriz urban railway line 2 (TURL2) has completely been done. Method statement of this line...

  4. Comparison of safety equipment between London underground and Beijing subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhao, L. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, R. J.; Hu, C.; Jing, L. S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to improve the safety equipment’s effectiveness through the comparison. Firstly, the history and safety accident of London Underground and Beijing Subway were shown. Secondly, fire equipment between these two cities was compared including station’s hardware installations and carriage’s hardware installations. Thirdly, the relative software installations were also compared such as emergency drills. The results showed that Beijing Subway’s hardware installations were better than London. However, London Underground’s some installations were more effective than Beijing. Both cities would pay more attention on anti-terrorist in tunnel.

  5. Park Accessibility Impacts Housing Prices in Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Han Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing prices are determined by a variety of factors, including the features of the building and the neighborhood environment, and a potential buyer decides to buy a house after reviewing these factors and concluding that it is worth the price. We used Hedonic Price Methods to find the relationship between monetary value of house and access conditions to urban parks. Two meaningful results were discovered in this study: first, as the distance from the park increases, the value of the park inherent in the housing price decreases; second, the greater walking accessibility, to the park, the higher the park value inherent in housing prices. Despite presenting shorter distances to walk and more entrances, poorly accessible zones were deemed as such due to the necessity of crossing an arterial road. This indicates that the results can define accessibility not as the Euclidian distance but as the shortest walking distance while considering crossroads and park entrances. The results of this study have significant implications for urban park economic impact analyses in Seoul. Also, the increase in housing prices closer to parks supports the idea that access is dependent on the residents’ socioeconomic status. Lastly, the results of this study can improve walking accessibility to the park.

  6. Numerical simulation of pollutant transport in soils surrounding subway infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cuihong; Liu, Chengqing; Liang, Jiahao; Wang, Shihan

    2018-03-01

    With continued urbanization, public transport infrastructure, e.g., subways, is expected to be built in historically industrial areas. To minimize the transfer of volatile organic compounds and metalloids like arsenic from industrial areas into subway environments and reduce their impact on public health, the transport of pollutants in soil was simulated in this study. During numerical simulations of a contaminated site, the pollutant (arsenic) was transported from layers of higher to lower concentration, and concentration changes were particularly evident in the early simulation stages. The pollutant was transported in soil along the direction of groundwater flow and spread from the center to the periphery of the contaminated zone without inputs from pollution sources. After approximately 400 days, the concentration of all layers became uniform, with slow decreases occurring over time. The pollutant supply rate had a major influence on the pollutant diffusion distance. When other conditions were kept constant, higher supply rates resulted in longer diffusion distances. The simulation results show that a diaphragm wall of a certain depth can effectively control the diffusion of pollutants in soil. These results can be used to improve environmental assessments and remediation efforts and inform engineering decisions during the construction of urban infrastructure at sites affected by historical pollution.

  7. Implications for visually stimulating advertisements on NYC subway platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullwood, M Dottington; Basch, Corey H; LeBlanc, Michael

    2016-03-12

    Despite the fact that the New York City (NYC) Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) no longer advertises tobacco products, there is no ban on ads for alcohol. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the frequency of alcohol-related advertising content on the platforms of two populated subway lines in NYC. Advertisements were evaluated on one subway line (the green line) that runs through Bronx and Manhattan in NYC. In the stations included in the study, the total number of advertisements were tallied and classified according to the type of advertisement. When an advertisement for alcohol was identified, it was determined whether the ad was for an alcoholic beverage, or it if was for a different product but exhibited an alcoholic beverage in some way. A total of 26 advertisements were identified which marketed an alcohol product. An additional 24 ads were noted for marketing another product or service whereby, alcohol was depicted as being consumed. There was a statistically significant difference in ads between the different lines t (20.04)=7.62, padvertisements have, focus could shift to health promoting products, versus those that are deleterious.

  8. Violence in Advertisements in New York City Subway Stations: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Fullwood, M D; LeBlanc, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Violence has become a public health concern in the United States. Violent visually stimulating content encompasses various techniques such as fear, humor, shock, or violence, to stimulate a response or appeal toward awareness of human emotion. Exposing impressionable youth to violent advertisements can be particularly problematic. This is especially true in places like New York City where violent crime is a prevalent problem. With annual ridership reaching over 1.7 billion in 2014, the New York City subway system is abundant with advertisements. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the frequency and type of violent advertising on the Lexington Avenue/East Side Line in New York City, running through the Bronx and Manhattan to represent the lower and higher median income earning boroughs. There were no statistically different findings in median household income at site of station by number of ads or source of violent. Destruction was the most common form of violence (n = 32, 42.7 %) followed by intent to strike (n = 18, 24 %), showing a weapon (n = 15, 20 %) and horror (n = 10, 13.3 %). Most ads (n = 46, 61.3 %) were found in stations heading uptown toward and through the Bronx, the borough where median household income is lowest, whereas 29 (38.7 %) were found in stations heading downtown. Future studies could focus on additional boroughs and subways lines, and could be collected at multiple points in time to determine of how prevalent violent advertising is throughout New York City and at different time frames.

  9. Evaluation of Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Forecasts during the MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, C.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    We report forecasting model performance analysis results of Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) simulation evaluated with flight measurements during Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) field campaign. The primary focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the air quality forecasting model performance for O3, PM10/2.5 and their precursors over the Yellow Sea to measure the model's ability to account for the transport process and (2) the utilization of modeled source-receptor relationship to understand the root of systematic model under-prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 forecasts. MAPS-Seoul, conducted in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in the summer of 2015, was an integrated research program covering ground monitoring and aloft measurement with aircrafts. To support this field campaign, air quality forecasting was performed with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) - CAMx modeling framework. WRF model simulations initialized with National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecasting System (NOAA/NCEP-GFS) were prepared for daily meteorological forecasts. Emission inventories used in this study are Model Inter-Comparison Study-Asia (MICS-Asia) 2010 for Asia and Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) 2010 for South Korea. Simulated PM10 concentrations were evaluated with observed PM10 concentrations at ground monitoring sites of the AirKorea network in SMA. During the campaign period, average simulated PM10 concentrations showed significant underprediction, over 30% (~35 ㎍/㎥) lower than those observed at sites. To examine source-receptor relationship as a way to identify the cause of underprediction, we ran CAMx with Particulate matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT). The air quality forecasting model is based on the with 27-km horizontal grid resolution over Northeast Asia.

  10. Podnikateľský zámer - Subway franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is to create a business plan for the branch of Subway franchise and acquaint with the concept of franchising. Theoretical part of the diploma thesis applies to definition of franchising, its characteristics, features, advantages and disadvantages for both parties and describes the elements necessary for setting up business. In application part of the thesis is introduced the business plan for opening of Subway branch.

  11. Bus Rapid Transit system’s influence on urban development: An inquiry to Boston and Seoul BRT systems’ technical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogi, Lutfi

    2018-03-01

    This article explores the relation between bus rapid transit (BRT) system and urban development. This article was written through a multi-staged comprehensive literature review. It includes a general overview of widely acknowledged BRT technical characteristics. It explains the approach taken in understanding the relation between BRT system provision and urban development around the system. Findings regarding the influence of Boston Silver Line 4 and 5 and Seoul BRT systems on urban development around the systems are quoted and used as case studies. Investigation on the technical characteristics of Boston SL4/5 and Seoul BRT systems are provided. This article shows that the two BRT systems that influence urban development around the systems have technical characteristics that enable the BRT systems to have high performance. However, while the quoted BRT systems can influence urban development, they have significantly different performance.

  12. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Youngeun; Hong, Seung-Han; Kim, Soohwaun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Youngwook

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  13. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Woo Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  14. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30 km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30 km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Muck Problems in Subway Shield Tunneling in Sandy Cobble Stratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Kai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Experiments aiming at the muck improvement for Chengdu’s subway shield tunneling in water-rich sandy cobble ground initially finds out the kinds and ratio of muck improver suitable for the this strata, and through the field application determines the reasonable ratio of muck improver for shield tunneling in sandy cobble ground, providing a reference to other muck improvement for shied tunneling in similar ground. And the earth pressure balanced shield is widely used in tunnel engineering, with its characteristics as wide adaptability, safe operation, fast driving speed, low environmental noise and low cost. Taking Chengdu Metro Line as the background, aiming at the difficulty faced by EPB shield tunneling in water-rich sandy cobble ground, and based on the explorations and researches of the predecessors and scholars, engineering and technical personnel, the present paper combines with engineering examples to make a systematic summary and research on key construction technology of EPB shield tunneling through sandy cobble ground from the aspects of EPB shield adaptability, , structure and transformation of cutter and helical unearthed wares, settlement control method, and muck improvement measures. It has certain reference value and guiding significance to the selection of shield machine and the reconstruction of shield machine in complex geological condition.

  16. Hyperloops, Nuclear Spacecraft, and the New York City Subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granade, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Frustrated by the speed and high cost-per-mile of the California High-Speed Rail project linking Los Angeles with San Francisco, Elon Musk proposed the Hyperloop: a high-speed train running in a sealed, partially-evacuated tube. Musk released a white paper that described the technology and concluded that the Hyperloop could be built for less than a tenth of a cost of the California High-Speed Rail. Musk's white paper focused heavily on the scientific and technical questions that must be answered, but public transportation is a domain at the intersection of science and society. Public transportation infrastructure is shaped as much by the pressures of government and citizens as by the technology behind the transportation. Tube-based transport like the Hyperloop has been proposed before, but has never gone further than words on a page. Why? Historical examples like the development of the New York City subway and the proposed nuclear-powered Orion spacecraft shed light on the societal barriers that new transportation must overcome, and help illuminate why technology-based answers are not a full response to transportation questions.

  17. The Impact of Subway Lines on Residential Property Values in Tianjin: An Empirical Study Based on Hedonic Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of subways has an external impact on the urban environment. Among them, the most important acceleration function lies in the property values of housing near subway stations. Tianjin, the largest open coastal city in Northern China, is selected as the subject of the research in this paper by virtue of its unique background. The Hedonic Pricing Model is used in analysing the change in the value of the properties located within 1,000 metres of completed subway line 3 stations. Using the theories of land rent and land location, and a model of the impact of urban traffic on the surrounding real estate prices, we analyse the sphere of influence of Tianjin Metro Line 3 on real estate prices. Finally, the paper stresses the importance of urban construction and subway building and finds that different development strategies should be used according to the characteristics of the subway in various regions of the city.

  18. High-resolution urban observation network for user-specific meteorological information service in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Park, Sung-Hwa; Chae, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Min-Hyeok; Song, Yunyoung; Kang, Minsoo; Roh, Joon-Woo

    2017-04-01

    To improve our knowledge of urban meteorology, including those processes applicable to high-resolution meteorological models in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the Weather Information Service Engine (WISE) Urban Meteorological Observation System (UMS-Seoul) has been designed and installed. The UMS-Seoul incorporates 14 surface energy balance (EB) systems, 7 surface-based three-dimensional (3-D) meteorological observation systems and applied meteorological (AP) observation systems, and the existing surface-based meteorological observation network. The EB system consists of a radiation balance system, sonic anemometers, infrared CO2/H2O gas analyzers, and many sensors measuring the wind speed and direction, temperature and humidity, precipitation, and air pressure. The EB-produced radiation, meteorological, and turbulence data will be used to quantify the surface EB according to land use and to improve the boundary-layer and surface processes in meteorological models. The 3-D system, composed of a wind lidar, microwave radiometer, aerosol lidar, or ceilometer, produces the cloud height, vertical profiles of backscatter by aerosols, wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, and liquid water content. It will be used for high-resolution reanalysis data based on observations and for the improvement of the boundary-layer, radiation, and microphysics processes in meteorological models. The AP system includes road weather information, mosquito activity, water quality, and agrometeorological observation instruments. The standardized metadata for networks and stations are documented and renewed periodically to provide a detailed observation environment. The UMS-Seoul data are designed to support real-time acquisition and display and automatically quality check within 10 min from observation. After the quality check, data can be distributed to relevant potential users such as researchers and policy makers. Finally, two case studies demonstrate that the observed data

  19. Preventing Terrorist Bombings on United States Subway Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    extracurricular activities to deter drug use; drug and alcohol tests for railway employees to encourage safety; car stops at borders to intercept illegal...26 Table 3. Possible Signs of Suspicious Activity .............................................................27 Table 4...Mass transportation has been and remains an attractive target for terrorist activity throughout the world. In the last three years, major

  20. Dynamic Performance of Subway Vehicle with Linear Induction Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingbo; Luo, Ren; Hu, Yan; Zeng, Jing

    The light rail vehicle with Linear Induction Motor (LIM) bogie, which is a new type of urban rail traffic tool, has the advantages of low costs, wide applicability, low noise, simple maintenance and better dynamic behavior. This kind of vehicle, supported and guided by the wheel and rail, is not driven by the wheel/rail adhesion force, but driven by the electromagnetic force between LIM and reaction plate. In this paper, three different types of suspensions and their characteristic are discussed with considering the interactions both between wheel and rail and between LIM and reaction plate. A nonlinear mathematical model of the vehicle with LIM bogie is set up by using the software SIMPACK, and the electromechanical model is also set up on Simulink roof. Then the running behavior of the LIM vehicle is simulated, and the influence of suspension on the vehicle dynamic performance is investigated.

  1. Urban vegetation and heat-related mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lane, Kevin J; Lee, Jong-Tae; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-11-01

    Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat-related health outcomes. Simultaneous trends of climate change and urbanization may increase the urban heat-related health burden. We investigated the effects of urban vegetation on heat-related mortality, and evaluated whether different levels of vegetation and individuals' characteristics affect the temperature-mortality associations within Seoul, Korea 2000-2009. We used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the urban vegetation within Seoul. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model with interaction term between temperature and indicator of NDVI group (categorized in 3 levels) to assess the effect modification of the temperature-mortality association by urban vegetation. We conducted stratified analysis to explore whether associations are affected by individual characteristics of sex and age. The association between total mortality and a 1°C increase in temperature above the 90th percentile (25.1°C) (the "heat effect") was the highest for gus with low NDVI. The heat effect was a 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3, 5.9%), 3.0% (95% CI 0.2, 5.9%), and 2.2% (95% CI -0.5, 5.0%) increase in mortality risk for low, medium, and high NDVI group, respectively. Estimated risks showed similar effects by sex and age. Our findings suggest a higher mortality effect of high temperature in areas with lower vegetation in Seoul, Korea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Ok Sun; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2002 at the Seoul Monitoring Station: gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 84.1 {+-} 46.2 mBq/m{sup 3}, mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.9 {+-} 5.6 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 317 {+-} 465 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 71.2 {+-} 23.0 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul-Gyunggi districts in 2002. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and Gyunggi districts were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs (peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mug wort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.554 and 0.480 Bq/kg, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves(786 and 574 Bq/kg, respectively)

  3. Etiologic and epidemiologic analysis of bacterial infectious upper respiratory disease in Thoroughbred horses at the Seoul Race Park

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Seung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Lee, Young-Woo; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Infectious upper respiratory disease (IURD) of Thoroughbred racehorses has been a frequent problem (29.6% of incidence) at the Seoul Race Park (Korea). Risk factors for IURD include the season with a high transfer rate (summer and fall), the stabling period (≤ 3 months), and age (2 to 3 years old), suggesting that the movement and new environment may have depressed the immune system of the horses and decreased their ability to respond properly to pathogens. The bacterial strains (n = 98) isol...

  4. An overview of 2016 WISE Urban Summer Observation Campaign (WUSOC 2016) in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Won; Kim, Sang-Woo; Shim, Jae-Kwan; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    The Weather Information Service Engine (WISE), launched project of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), aims to operate the urban meteorological observation network from 2012 to 2019 and to test and operate the application weather service (e.g., flash flood, road weather, city ecology, city microclimate, dispersion of hazardous substance etc.) in 2019 through the development of Advanced Storm-scale Analysis Prediction System(ASAPS) for the production of storm-scale hazard weather monitoring and prediction system. The WISE institute has completed construction of 31 urban meteorological observation cities in Seoul metropolitan area and has built a real-time test operation and verification system by improving the ASAPS that produces 1 km and 6 hour forecast information based on the 5 km forecast information of KMA. Field measurements of 2016 WISE Urban Summer Observation Campaign (WUSOC 2016) was conducted in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea from August 22 to October 14, 2016. Involving over 70 researchers from more than 12 environmental and atmospheric science research groups in South Korea, WUSOC2016 focused on special observations, severe rain storm observations using mobile observation car and radiosonde, wind profile observations using Wind Doppler Lidar and radiosonde, etc., around the Seoul metropolitan area. WUSOC2016 purpose at data quality control, accuracy verification, usability check, and quality improvement of ASAPS at observation stations constructed in WISE. In addition, we intend to contribute to the activation of urban fusion weather research and risk weather research through joint observation and data sharing.

  5. Music as Transitional Object and Practice: Children's Spontaneous Musical Behaviors in the Subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodero, Lori A.; Calì, Claudia; Diaz-Donoso, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    This study looks at children's music making in a public setting designed for society writ large. Although known to most children in the city, the subway presents a unique environment, both structurally predictable yet sonically dynamic; it is in continuous transition. Adopting Winnicott's psychoanalytical perspective, we make a case for viewing…

  6. Cycling for Transportation in Sao Paulo City: Associations with Bike Paths, Train and Subway Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Alex Antonio; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Turrell, Gavin; Barbosa, João Paulo Dos Anjos Souza; Cabral-Miranda, William; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2018-03-21

    Cities that support cycling for transportation reap many public health benefits. However, the prevalence of this mode of transportation is low in Latin American countries and the association with facilities such as bike paths and train/subway stations have not been clarified. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between bike paths, train/subway stations and cycling for transportation in adults from the city of Sao Paulo. We used data from the Sao Paulo Health Survey ( n = 3145). Cycling for transportation was evaluated by a questionnaire and bike paths and train/subway stations were geocoded using the geographic coordinates of the adults' residential addresses in 1500-m buffers. We used multilevel logistic regression, taking account of clustering by census tract and households. The prevalence of cycling for transportation was low (5.1%), and was more prevalent in males, singles, those active in leisure time, and in people with bicycle ownership in their family. Cycling for transportation was associated with bike paths up to a distance of 500 m from residences (OR (Odds Ratio) = 2.54, 95% CI (Confidence interval) 1.16-5.54) and with the presence of train/subway stations for distances >500 m from residences (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.10-3.86). These results are important to support policies to improve cycling for transportation in megacities such as Sao Paulo.

  7. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (Nbus or walking in the city centre (N>5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2003 at the Seoul monitoring station : gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 4.31 {+-} 2.01 mBq/m{sup 3} (after 48 hours), mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.5 {+-} 4.3 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 230 {+-} 246 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 69.3 {+-} 15.7 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul district in 2003. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and northern part of Gyunggi district were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs(peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mugwort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup l37}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.733 and 0.339 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves (1300 and 579 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively)

  9. Drought over Seoul and Its Association with Solar Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyeok Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated drought periodicities occurred in Seoul to find out any indication of relationship between drought in Korea and solar activities. It is motivated, in view of solar-terrestrial connection, to search for an example of extreme weather condition controlled by solar activity. The periodicity of drought in Seoul has been re-examined using the wavelet transform technique as the consensus is not achieved yet. The reason we have chosen Seoul is because daily precipitation was recorded for longer than 200 years, which meets our requirement that analyses of drought frequency demand long-term historical data to ensure reliable estimates. We have examined three types of time series of the Effective Drought Index (EDI. We have directly analyzed EDI time series in the first place. And we have constructed and analyzed time series of histogram in which the number of days whose EDI is less than -1.5 for a given month of the year is given as a function of time, and one in which the number of occasions where EDI values of three consecutive days are all less than -1.5 is given as a function of time. All the time series data sets we analyzed are periodic. Apart from the annual cycle due to seasonal variations, periodicities shorter than the 11 year sunspot cycle, ~ 3, ~ 4, ~ 6 years, have been confirmed. Periodicities to which theses short periodicities (shorter than Hale period may be corresponding are not yet known. Longer periodicities possibly related to Gleissberg cycles, ~ 55, ~ 120 years, can be also seen. However, periodicity comparable to the 11 year solar cycle seems absent in both EDI and the constructed data sets.

  10. Aerobiological study of pollen and mold in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Oh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large number of allergic individuals, inhalant allergens are important causative and triggering agents in respiratory allergies. It is essential to survey the pollen and mold around the patient’s environment for the diagnosis and treatment of airborne allergy. Rotorod samplers were installed at well-ventilated places in seven collecting stations in Seoul, the capital of Korea, which has a population of 12 million. Airborne particles carrying allergens were collected daily from each station for 2 years (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1997. After being stained with Calberla’s fuchsin, they were identified, counted and recorded. The weather in Seoul was also recorded. Pollen was found from the middle of February through to the end of December. The peak date for pollen was 12 May (peak mean daily count: 701 grains/m3/day and for mold it was 23 June (peak mean daily count: 936 spores/m3/day. Alder, birch, pine, oak, maple, elm, juniper, willow, and gingko trees were prevalent during the tree season, lasting from the middle of February to late July. Then sagebrush, ragweed, Japanese hop, and pigweed followed during the weed season, which lasts from the middle of July to the end of December. In skin prick test results, house dust mite was the most common positive allergen in Seoul, followed by cockroach. Among the pollens, mugwort was the most common positive, followed by ragweed mix, alder, birch, and grasses mix. Among the molds, there were high counts of Cladosporium and Alternaria during the year, excluding January. Ascospore of Lepto-spheria was highest during the monsoon season.

  11. Spatial Homophily of Commercial Areas: The Case of Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Go-Eun Kim; Mack Joong Choi

    2017-01-01

    This paper attempts to answer the question of whether or not “segregation”, or at least “differentiation”, takes place in commercial areas in terms of “spatial homophily”. Based on the 2010 Household Travel Survey data in the Seoul metropolitan area, we first identify Seoul’s top 20 destinations for weekend shopping and leisure trips. Then, using traveler information regarding gender, age, and income, we calculate the percentage of female visitors, as well as the average and the coefficient o...

  12. Multivariate analysis between air pollutants and meteorological variables in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Lim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological variables measured in Seoul from January 1 to December 31, 1999. The first principal component showed the contrast effect between O 3 and the other pollutants. The second principal component showed the contrast effect between CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 , PM 10 , TSP. Based on the cluster analysis, three clusters represented different air pollution levels, seasonal characteristics of air pollutants, and meteorological conditions. Discriminant analysis with air environment index (AEI) was carried out to develop an air pollution index function. (orig.)

  13. Crimes In New York And Seoul A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia G. Patino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Across the world highly populated urban areas are widely regarded as generators of various crimes. From petty crimes to organized crime activities cities and other urban areas provide some form of haven for criminal activities and their proponents. In this paper we look at two highly-urbanized areas New York City and Seoul South Korea. We look to compare the crime trends and activities in these two areas and see if there are points of comparison by which these two are similar or if they are separated by some factors..

  14. 76 FR 51350 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission (AESTM) to Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... International Trade Administration Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission (AESTM) to Seoul, Korea AGENCY.... Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration (ITA), Aerospace & Defense Technologies Team and the U.S. Commercial Service in Seoul (CS Korea) are organizing an Aerospace Executive Service Trade...

  15. Discovery, understanding, and bioapplication of organic fluorophore: a case study with an indolizine-based novel fluorophore, Seoul-Fluor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Youngjun; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2015-03-17

    Owing to its high sensitivity and great applicability, the fluorescence phenomenon has been considered as an inevitable research tool in the modern scientific fields of chemistry, biology, materials science, biomedical science, and their interfaces. Many strategies have been pursued to understand and manipulate the photophysical properties of fluorescent materials, but the scientific community has been focused on the repeated application of existing organic fluorophores or the identification of unique fluorescence properties in a trial-and-error basis without systematic studies. Moreover, recent studies are emphasizing the necessity of deeper understanding about the structure-photophysical property relationship of organic fluorophores for the development of better fluorescent probes. Herein, we provide an overview of a novel fluorescent molecular framework, Seoul-Fluor, which can be rationally engineered to furnish a wide variety of fluorophores in terms of the photophysical properties. Seoul-Fluor is built on an indolizine-based fluorescent platform with three different positions to introduce various substituents: R(1) and R(2) substituents for electronic perturbation; R(3) substituent as a functional handle for bioconjugation. Over the past decade, we have demonstrated that the Seoul-Fluor system has (i) tunable and predictable emission wavelength covering a full visible-color range; (ii) controllable quantum yield via photoinduced electron transfer phenomenon; and (iii) environment-sensitive fluorogenic properties that can be modified through intramolecular charge transfer processes. We convincingly demonstrated the prediction of photophysical properties, that is, emission wavelength and quantum yield, through the construction of a systematic set of analogues and the subsequent analysis of their photophysical properties without the highly sophisticated theoretical support. Guided by quantifiable parameters such as the Hammett substituent constants or energy

  16. International society of blood transfusion working party on red cell immunogenetics and terminology: report of the Seoul and London meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storry, J. R.; Castilho, L.; Chen, Q.; Daniels, G.; Denomme, G.; Flegel, W. A.; Gassner, C.; de Haas, M.; Hyland, C.; Keller, M.; Lomas-Francis, C.; Moulds, J. M.; Nogues, N.; Olsson, M. L.; Peyrard, T.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Tani, Y.; Thornton, N.; Wagner, F.; Wendel, S.; Westhoff, C.; Yahalom, V.

    2017-01-01

    The Working Party has met twice since the last report: in Seoul, South Korea 2014, and in London, UK 2015, both in association with the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) Congress. As in previous meetings, matters pertaining to blood group antigen nomenclature were discussed. Eleven new blood group antigens were added to seven blood group systems. This brings the current total of blood group antigens recognized by the ISBT to 346, of which 308 are clustered within 36 blood groups systems. The remaining 38 antigens are currently unassigned to a known blood group system. PMID:29093749

  17. Hygroscopic properties of urban aerosols and their cloud condensation nuclei activities measured in Seoul during the MAPS-Seoul campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Najin; Park, Minsu; Yum, Seong Soo; Park, Jong Sung; Song, In Ho; Shin, Hye Jung; Ahn, Joon Young; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hwajin; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Gangwoong

    2017-03-01

    Aerosol physical properties, chemical compositions, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities were measured in Seoul, the highly populated capital city of Korea, during the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS-Seoul) campaign, in May-June 2015. The average aerosol concentration for particle diameters >10 nm was 11787 ± 7421 cm-3 with dominant peaks at morning rush hours and in the afternoon due to frequent new particle formation (NPF) events. The average CCN concentration was 4075 ± 1812 cm-3 at 0.6% supersaturation, with little diurnal variation. The average hygroscopicity parameter (κ) value determined using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) ranged 0.17-0.27 for a range of particle diameters (30-150 nm). The κ values derived using the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data with three different methods were 0.32-0.34, significantly higher than those from HTDMA due to the uncertainties in the hygroscopicity values of different chemical compositions, especially organics and black carbon. Factors affecting the aerosol hygroscopicity seemed to be traffic and chemical processes during the NPF events. The CCN concentration predicted based on HTDMA κ data showed very good agreement with the measured one. Because of the overestimation of κ, CCN closure with the predicted CCN concentration based on AMS κ data over-predicted CCN concentration although the linear correlation between measured and predicted CCN concentration was still very good.

  18. How can a change in the operating system of the mental health review board promote the discharge of long-term hospitalized psychiatric patients? A case study of Seoul city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Soo; Lim, Hee-Young; Kim, Youngki; Lee, Yong-Suk

    2014-01-01

    One of the most typical and chronic problem in Korean mental health system is the prolonged length of hospital stay. In contrast to there are many components which leads to long length of stay of psychiatric patients in Korean situation such as low and fixed medical fee for psychiatric inpatient treatment, shortage of community resources, lack of care-givers' awareness and so on, there are just few mechanisms to handle this issue such as Mental Health Review Board (MHRB) which is based on Mental Health Act since 1995. However, the discharge order rate was very low and there community care system after discharge order is still very weak. The Korean government has revised the Mental Health Act in 2008 and changed the operating principals of the MHRB from a regional level to a local level to strengthen the function of MHRB. However, the discharge order rate versus the whole evaluation requests still remains at a very low level or less than 5%. And it is still very difficult to execute a discharge order against a patient whose symptoms and conditions become psychiatrically stabilized enough for discharge, due to a shortage of community care facilities and a lack of social support system. These results are exactly same with former studies. Any policies to promote psychiatric discharge including MHRB are needed to take the comprehensive factors into consideration, such as payment program, community infrastructure, increasing care-givers' acceptance and so on. Despite of the political trial of Korean government to reduce length of stay of chronic psychiatric patients, it was not successful. Still it had failed to propose a detailed policy measure in terms of the above-mentioned prerequisites. Therefore, new system and program developments including reform of payment system which reflect prior studies' recommendations are essential.

  19. Iron speciation of airborne subway particles by the combined use of energy dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and Raman microspectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyo-Jin; Jung, Hae-Jin; Sobanska, Sophie; Chung, Sang-Gwi; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Sunwoo, Young; Ro, Chul-Un

    2013-11-05

    Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA), known as low-Z particle EPMA, and Raman microspectrometry (RMS) were applied in combination for an analysis of the iron species in airborne PM10 particles collected in underground subway tunnels. Iron species have been reported to be a major chemical species in underground subway particles generated mainly from mechanical wear and friction processes. In particular, iron-containing particles in subway tunnels are expected to be generated with minimal outdoor influence on the particle composition. Because iron-containing particles have different toxicity and magnetic properties depending on their oxidation states, it is important to determine the iron species of underground subway particles in the context of both indoor public health and control measures. A recently developed analytical methodology, i.e., the combined use of low-Z particle EPMA and RMS, was used to identify the chemical species of the same individual subway particles on a single particle basis, and the bulk iron compositions of airborne subway particles were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The majority of airborne subway particles collected in the underground tunnels were found to be magnetite, hematite, and iron metal. All the particles collected in the tunnels of underground subway stations were attracted to permanent magnets due mainly to the almost ubiquitous ferrimagnetic magnetite, indicating that airborne subway particles can be removed using magnets as a control measure.

  20. A NEW APPROACH FOR SUBWAY TUNNEL DEFORMATION MONITORING: HIGH-RESOLUTION TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of the accuracy and efficiency of laser scanning technology, high-resolution terrestrial laser scanning (TLS technology can obtain high precise points-cloud and density distribution and can be applied to high-precision deformation monitoring of subway tunnels and high-speed railway bridges and other fields. In this paper, a new approach using a points-cloud segmentation method based on vectors of neighbor points and surface fitting method based on moving least squares was proposed and applied to subway tunnel deformation monitoring in Tianjin combined with a new high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner (Riegl VZ-400. There were three main procedures. Firstly, a points-cloud consisted of several scanning was registered by linearized iterative least squares approach to improve the accuracy of registration, and several control points were acquired by total stations (TS and then adjusted. Secondly, the registered points-cloud was resampled and segmented based on vectors of neighbor points to select suitable points. Thirdly, the selected points were used to fit the subway tunnel surface with moving least squares algorithm. Then a series of parallel sections obtained from temporal series of fitting tunnel surfaces were compared to analysis the deformation. Finally, the results of the approach in z direction were compared with the fiber optical displacement sensor approach and the results in x, y directions were compared with TS respectively, and comparison results showed the accuracy errors of x, y, z directions were respectively about 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm. Therefore the new approach using high-resolution TLS can meet the demand of subway tunnel deformation monitoring.

  1. [Features of the status of otorhinolaryngologic organs of subway train mechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankova, V B; Vasil'eva, S V

    1996-01-01

    337 mechanics exposed to chemical and physical hazards while servicing subway trains were examined for ENT status. Abnormalities were registered in 87.5% of the examinees. Frequent isolated and combined affections of the nose and pharynx occurred as a rule with mucosal dystrophy. Allergic conditions were not evident. 58 patients with hearing defects had cochlear neuritis of occupational origin. Prophylactic measures are proposed: individual aids protecting hearing organ and respiratory tracts, improved routine medical examinations with indication of the risk groups.

  2. Multi-approach analysis of maximum riverbed scour depth above subway tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Chen; Hong-wu Tang; Zui-sen Li; Wen-hong Dai

    2010-01-01

    When subway tunnels are routed underneath rivers, riverbed scour may expose the structure, with potentially severe consequences. Thus, it is important to identify the maximum scour depth to ensure that the designed buried depth is adequate. There are a range of methods that may be applied to this problem, including the fluvial process analysis method, geological structure analysis method, scour formula method, scour model experiment method, and numerical simulation method. However, the applic...

  3. Initial Analysis of VOCs Speciation in CREATE Emissions Inventory using the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, C.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y. K.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the first international cooperative air quality field study, the MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 over the South Korea, to understand of climate and atmospheric environment. The aircraft carried observation instruments for measurements of GHGs, ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and chemical tracers. The CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Environment) emissions inventory and SMOKE-Asia emission processing system were used to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation. Initial results of comparison studies show large discrepancies in VOC species over the South Korea - especially over urban regions. Several VOC species observed high near megacities and petro-chemical plants but under-predicted by chemical transport models (CTMs) - possibly due to relatively low emissions. The chemical speciation profiles and emissions inventory for each emission sources, therefore, have to be re-visited to improve emissions information. In this study, we have; 1) re-examined our emissions inventory and emission speciation processes, 2) and tried to find possible missing sources and alternative chemical speciation profiles, to improve our modelling emissions inventory. Initial review of the mapping and classification profiles, the original US chemical speciation profiles were found to be low in partitioning painting and surface coating sources, although they are the very significant contributors. Unlike other major national cities in China, Shanghai's VOC emissions fraction seems very similar to that of Seoul. Continuous analysis of major urban and industrial areas of the country will be presented at site.Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment

  4. The Urban Identity Recovery in Seoul: The Case of the Outdoor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Benghida, Djamil

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Seoul has lived up to its reputation as a truly urbanized cosmopolitan Asian city and despite rapid industrialization; the authentic identity of market architecture is still maintained in many regions. However, the form and character of many markets is intrinsically connected with the evolution of trading. With the rapid economic development of Seoul since the 1990s, modern markets were created, the seller-customer relationship changed, and many other factors led to a ...

  5. Spatial Homophily of Commercial Areas: The Case of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question of whether or not “segregation”, or at least “differentiation”, takes place in commercial areas in terms of “spatial homophily”. Based on the 2010 Household Travel Survey data in the Seoul metropolitan area, we first identify Seoul’s top 20 destinations for weekend shopping and leisure trips. Then, using traveler information regarding gender, age, and income, we calculate the percentage of female visitors, as well as the average and the coefficient of variation of age and income, for each destination. These statistics are employed to identify which groups and which shopping and leisure activity centers are characterized distinctively by spatial homophily. As a result, it is proved that “differentiation” takes place in commercial areas in terms of “spatial homophily”. Moreover, paying attention to the “Old Age, Low Income” cluster in the old downtown area, we can raise the possibility of “segregation” in commercial areas.

  6. Prosodic Marking of Narrow Focus in Seoul Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Sung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores prosodic marking of narrow (corrective focus in Seoul Korean. Korean lacks lexical stress and it has a phonologized association between the Accentual Phrase (AP initial segment and intonation. In the experiment, 4 speakers read sentences including a two-item list which were designed to elicit either an L or H AP-initial tone. The durational variations, the pitch events at prosodic boundaries, and 'F''0 'span in 32 sentences read neutrally and 64 sentences read with one of the items under focus were analyzed. The results show that the focused constituent consistently initiates a new prosodic phrase. In comparison to the neutrally spoken or defocused counterpart, the focused constituent was more likely to be realized as an Intonational Phrase (IP in some contexts. Bitonal IP boundary tones were more likely to occur under focus than monotonal tones. In addition, in focused constituents, durational expansion particularly at the phrase-edges, expansion in 'F''0 'span, and raising of the phrase-initial pitch were observed. On the other hand, defocused constituents were not phonetically reduced compared to the neutral counterparts. The results imply that the phonetic cues spreading over the focused constituent complement the exaggerated prosodic boundaries.

  7. The Relationship between Obesity and Urban Environment in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungah; Shon, Changwoo; Yi, Seonju

    2017-08-09

    Obesity is a global pandemic that brings about a myriad of health consequences. In the past, policies for combating obesity mainly focused on improving individual health and behavior, but nowadays some policies have changed and now concentrate on improving the built environment believing this can improve health through positive changes to health-related behaviors. We examined whether both individual and environmental factors were associated with body mass index in Seoul, the capital city of South Korea. Data from the 2011 and 2013 Community Health Surveys were used ( n = 20,147 men and 25,300 women). We staged multilevel logistic regression models to estimate the effect of individual and environmental factors on obesity. Among individual covariates, high-risk drinking, the time spent watching TV and surfing the Internet, high salt intake, stress, and the negative recognition of health were significantly associated with obesity. When controlling individual covariates, the number of sports facilities, number of fried chicken stores, and food insecurity level were statistically associated with probability of obesity. Therefore, this study emphasizes that it is important not only to improve the health behavior of the individual, but also to improve the urban environment in order to reduce the obesity rates of city dwellers.

  8. Urban atmospheric boundary layer height in Seoul Metropolitan Area, KOREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Hyeok; Park, Moon-Soo

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric boundary-layer height (ABLH) is important parameter in meteorological model for weather forecasting and it's used to model verification. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of ABLH obtained by aerosol lidars and ceilometers deployed at urban commercial area (Gwanghwamun, urban center) and urban residential area (Jungnang, eastern part) of Seoul Metropolitan Area in 2014 are analyzed. The ABLH is determined as the height corresponding to a minimum vertical gradient of backscattered signals observed by an aerosol lidar (532 nm) and a ceilometer (910 nm), respectively. It is found that the ABLH determined by an aerosol lidar shows nearly the same seasonal and diurnal variation as that by a ceilometer. But the ABLH observed at downwind (Jungnang) station is generally higher than that observed at urban center (Gwanghwamun) station. The stable boundary layer (SBL) height in nighttime ranges 10 500 m, and a residual layer is often located over the top of SBL. The unstable boundary layer height grows during the daytime and shows a daily maximum in late afternoon. The daily maximum ABLH has a higher value in spring and a lower value in winter according to surface sensible heat flux, cloud, and precipitation.

  9. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Anderson, G Brooke; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 deg. C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 deg. C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 deg. C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  10. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  11. CONTINUOUSLY DEFORMATION MONITORING OF SUBWAY TUNNEL BASED ON TERRESTRIAL POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The deformation monitoring of subway tunnel is of extraordinary necessity. Therefore, a method for deformation monitoring based on terrestrial point clouds is proposed in this paper. First, the traditional adjacent stations registration is replaced by sectioncontrolled registration, so that the common control points can be used by each station and thus the error accumulation avoided within a section. Afterwards, the central axis of the subway tunnel is determined through RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus algorithm and curve fitting. Although with very high resolution, laser points are still discrete and thus the vertical section is computed via the quadric fitting of the vicinity of interest, instead of the fitting of the whole model of a subway tunnel, which is determined by the intersection line rotated about the central axis of tunnel within a vertical plane. The extraction of the vertical section is then optimized using RANSAC for the purpose of filtering out noises. Based on the extracted vertical sections, the volume of tunnel deformation is estimated by the comparison between vertical sections extracted at the same position from different epochs of point clouds. Furthermore, the continuously extracted vertical sections are deployed to evaluate the convergent tendency of the tunnel. The proposed algorithms are verified using real datasets in terms of accuracy and computation efficiency. The experimental result of fitting accuracy analysis shows the maximum deviation between interpolated point and real point is 1.5 mm, and the minimum one is 0.1 mm; the convergent tendency of the tunnel was detected by the comparison of adjacent fitting radius. The maximum error is 6 mm, while the minimum one is 1 mm. The computation cost of vertical section abstraction is within 3 seconds/section, which proves high efficiency..

  12. NON-TRIVIALITY OF THE RESULTS OF MILGRAM FIELD EXPERIMENT IN MOSCOW AND NEW YORK SUBWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V Mitina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-triviality of the results of the field experiment conducted on Stanley Milgram’s methodology in the New York and Moscow subway have been studied. The statistical significance of the difference between empirical and predicted results has been taken as the non-triviality criterion. 208 respondents (psychologists and students studying psychology were asked to predict an experimental result in dependence on an experimenter’s and subject’s gender, a subject’s age, and a city where the experiment was carried out. The obtained results have confirmed our hypothesis on non-triviality of the experiments in subways: it has been showed that there is a statistically significant difference between real behavior of subway passengers (in New York and in Moscow and predictions made by Moscow and Tashkent respondents. Practically in most cases the predicted probability that a subject gives a seat after request of experimenter (young woman or young man is much less than in reality. The structural equation modeling (SEM has been used to analyze the data by constructing the model taking account of all factors mentioned above. The model fit the experimental data well (CFI = 0.919. It has been found that predicted results depend not only on gender, age, and residence of a respondent but also on the degree of familiarity with the research. The obtained data give an important material for a further study of the role of situational (an experiment design and individual (respondent characteristics factors in predicted results; they contribute to further understanding of the problem of creation and support of non-formal social norms in various cultures and show new aspects of research carried out on experimental methodology of Stanley Milgram.

  13. Multi-approach analysis of maximum riverbed scour depth above subway tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When subway tunnels are routed underneath rivers, riverbed scour may expose the structure, with potentially severe consequences. Thus, it is important to identify the maximum scour depth to ensure that the designed buried depth is adequate. There are a range of methods that may be applied to this problem, including the fluvial process analysis method, geological structure analysis method, scour formula method, scour model experiment method, and numerical simulation method. However, the application ranges and forecasting precision of these methods vary considerably. In order to quantitatively analyze the characteristics of the different methods, a subway tunnel passing underneath a river was selected, and the aforementioned five methods were used to forecast the maximum scour depth. The fluvial process analysis method was used to characterize the river regime and evolution trend, which were the baseline for examination of the scour depth of the riverbed. The results obtained from the scour model experiment and the numerical simulation methods are reliable; these two methods are suitable for application to tunnel projects passing underneath rivers. The scour formula method was less accurate than the scour model experiment method; it is suitable for application to lower risk projects such as pipelines. The results of the geological structure analysis had low precision; the method is suitable for use as a secondary method to assist other research methods. To forecast the maximum scour depth of the riverbed above the subway tunnel, a combination of methods is suggested, and the appropriate analysis method should be chosen with respect to the local conditions.

  14. Research on Matrix-type Packet Loss Compensation Scheme for Wireless Video Transmission on Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Qing-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mainstream wireless LAN technology, Wi-Fi can achieve fast data transfer. With the subway moving in a high speed, video data transmission between the metro and the ground is achieved through Wi-Fi technology. This paper aims at solving the Caton problem caused by switching packet loss in the process of playing real-time video on the train terminal, and proposes matrix-type packet loss compensation scheme. Finally, the feasibility of the scheme is verified by experiments.

  15. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographical information system grid modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  16. Stress state in the neighborhood of subways and pipe lines under the action of dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyeva, L.A.; Eskalieva, A.Z.; Shershnev, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the long underground constructions of deep and shallow types such as transport subways, mines, underground pipes etc. by the action of dynamic lads. Situated in areas of seismic activity, they are subjected to the influence of seismic waves during earthquakes and can be destroyed. Running loads inside constructions (transport for instance) affect upon toughness and stability of both subways and surrounding medium. If underground construction dispose near a day's surface, it acts also on nearby buildings. Evaluations of behavior of underground and pipes under dynamic influences in real conditions of usage are determined of stress state of constructions in the interaction with environment medium. Here underground constructions are simulated by infinitely long cylindrical cavities in utter ambience. As utter ambience the isotropic elastic medium and two-component medium of Biot are researched. Last one allows simulating saturated water oils. The elastic cylindrical shell simulates supporting of a tunnel (or pipeline). Both a tress state of construction and surrounding medium were investigated for a different contact conditions between support of tunnel and environment (rigid, slippery and viscous contacts). (author)

  17. Preferred listening levels of mobile phone programs when considering subway interior noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyaehyoung Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, people listen to music loud using personal listening devices. Although a majority of studies have reported that the high volume played on these listening devices produces a latent risk of hearing problems, there is a lack of studies on "double noise exposures" such as environmental noise plus recreational noise. The present study measures the preferred listening levels of a mobile phone program with subway interior noise for 74 normal-hearing participants in five age groups (ranging from 20s to 60s. The speakers presented the subway interior noise at 73.45 dB, while each subject listened to three application programs [Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB, music, game] for 30 min using a tablet personal computer with an earphone. The participants′ earphone volume levels were analyzed using a sound level meter and a 2cc coupler. Overall, the results showed that those in their 20s listened to the three programs significantly louder with DMB set at significantly higher volume levels than for the other programs. Higher volume levels were needed for middle frequency compared to the lower and higher frequencies. We concluded that any potential risk of noise-induced hearing loss for mobile phone users should be communicated when users listen regularly, although the volume level was not high enough that the users felt uncomfortable. When considering individual listening habits on mobile phones, further study to predict total accumulated environmental noise is still needed.

  18. Urban Containment Policies and the Protection of Natural Areas: The Case of Seoul's Greenbelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Bengston

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Countries around the world have responded to the problems associated with rapid urban growth and increasingly land-consumptive development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth. Of the array of growth management techniques, urban containment policies are considered by some to be a promising approach. This paper focuses on greenbelts, the most restrictive form of urban containment policy. The long-standing greenbelt of Seoul, Republic of Korea is examined as a case study. Seoul's greenbelt has generated both significant social costs and benefits. Costs include higher land and housing prices in the urban area surrounded by the greenbelt, additional costs incurred by commuters who live beyond the greenbelt and work in Seoul, and increased congestion and related quality of life impacts. Benefits include the amenity value of living near the greenbelt, recreational resources, bequest and heritage values, fiscal savings due to increased efficiency in the provision of public services and infrastructure, and a wide range of life-supporting ecosystem services. After standing virtually unchanged for almost three decades, Korea's greenbelt policy is currently being revised and weakened, largely due to pressure from greenbelt landowners and developers. Although there is no definitive answer to the question of whether Seoul would be a more or less "sustainable city" today without the greenbelt, it is certain that in the absence of the greenbelt, Seoul would have lost much of its rich natural heritage and essential ecosystem services.

  19. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-04-01

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  20. The role of forensic anthropology in the examination of the Daegu subway disaster (2003, Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Yi-Suk; Chung, Nak-Eun; Ahn, Yong-Woo; Han, Seung-Ho

    2009-05-01

    Meticulous recovery of victims in the Daegu subway disaster was possible, because charred and fragmented victims were left in situ. Because bodies were piled one over another within the train, appropriate methodology during the recovery was critical to identifying the victims. The disaster area was thoroughly documented with notes, photographs, and schematic drawings of the various locations. The recovery team, comprising two medical examiners and one forensic anthropologist, decided when charred body parts and cremated bones were linked to the same individual based on the anatomy and forensic anthropological examination. Without these recovery procedures, it would not have been possible to efficiently harvest representative DNA sample from most of the victims' body parts. After the entire process of identification, 136 victims were positively identified, and six victims remained unidentified. This study supports the crucial role of forensic anthropologists in the recovery of victims, especially in fire scenes.

  1. Subway e skyway: infrastrutture sostenibili per la mobilità pedonale?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Papa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo propone un approfondimento su una particolare tipologia di sistemi per la mobilità pedonale: le reti pedonali dedicate. Questa tipologia di infrastrutture per la mobilità pedonale è caratterizzata da assi pedonali sotterranei (subway e sopraelevati (skyway che si strutturano come complesse strutture percorribili solo a piedi. Gli esempi emblematici sono la più ampia rete pedonale sotterranea del mondo di Montreal, che raggiunge un estensione di 32km ed è conosciuta come la ville intérieure e la rete sopraelevata di Calgary, che supera i 16km di passaggi pedonali di collegamento tra diversi edifici commerciali e terziari. Partendo da un’analisi comparativa di casi di studio, l’articolo descrive gli elementi caratteristici delle reti pedonali “non convenzionali”, mettendo in evidenza i punti di forza e di debolezza di questi esempi in cui il flusso pedonale è totalmente separato dagli spazi dedicati al traffico veicolare.

  2. A Case Study on Stratified Settlement and Rebound Characteristics due to Dewatering in Shanghai Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Yishan Metro Station Project of Shanghai Metro Line number 9, a centrifugal model test was conducted to investigate the behavior of stratified settlement and rebound (SSR of Shanghai soft clay caused by dewatering in deep subway station pit. The soil model was composed of three layers, and the dewatering process was simulated by self-invention of decompressing devise. The results indicate that SSR occurs when the decompression was carried out, and only negative rebound was found in sandy clay, but both positive and negative rebound occurred in the silty clay, and the absolute value of rebound in sandy clay was larger than in silty clay, and the mechanism of SSR was discussed with mechanical sandwich model, and it was found that the load and cohesive force of different soils was the main source of different responses when decompressed.

  3. Definitive evidence for the acute sarin poisoning diagnosis in the Tokyo subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Takatori, T; Matsuda, Y; Nakajima, M; Iwase, H; Iwadate, K

    1997-05-01

    A new method was developed to detect sarin hydrolysis products from erythrocytes of four victims of sarin (isopropylmethylphosphonofluoridate) poisoning resulting from the terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway. Sarin-bound acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was solubilized from erythrocyte membranes of sarin victims, digested with trypsin, the sarin hydrolysis products bound to AChE were released by alkaline phosphatase digestion, and the digested sarin hydrolysis products were subjected to trimethylsilyl derivatization and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isopropylmethylphosphonic acid, which is a sarin hydrolysis product, was detected in all sarin poisoning, victims we examined and methylphosphonic acid, which is a sarin and soman hydrolysis product, was determined in all victims. Postmortem examinations revealed no macroscopic and microscopic findings specific to sarin poisoning and sarin and its hydrolysis products were almost undetectable in their blood. We think that the procedure described below will be useful for the forensic diagnosis of acute sarin poisoning.

  4. Continuous Extraction of Subway Tunnel Cross Sections Based on Terrestrial Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the continuous extraction of subway tunnel cross sections using terrestrial point clouds is proposed. First, the continuous central axis of the tunnel is extracted using a 2D projection of the point cloud and curve fitting using the RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus algorithm, and the axis is optimized using a global extraction strategy based on segment-wise fitting. The cross-sectional planes, which are orthogonal to the central axis, are then determined for every interval. The cross-sectional points are extracted by intersecting straight lines that rotate orthogonally around the central axis within the cross-sectional plane with the tunnel point cloud. An interpolation algorithm based on quadric parametric surface fitting, using the BaySAC (Bayesian SAmpling Consensus algorithm, is proposed to compute the cross-sectional point when it cannot be acquired directly from the tunnel points along the extraction direction of interest. Because the standard shape of the tunnel cross section is a circle, circle fitting is implemented using RANSAC to reduce the noise. The proposed approach is tested on terrestrial point clouds that cover a 150-m-long segment of a Shanghai subway tunnel, which were acquired using a LMS VZ-400 laser scanner. The results indicate that the proposed quadric parametric surface fitting using the optimized BaySAC achieves a higher overall fitting accuracy (0.9 mm than the accuracy (1.6 mm obtained by the plain RANSAC. The results also show that the proposed cross section extraction algorithm can achieve high accuracy (millimeter level, which was assessed by comparing the fitted radii with the designed radius of the cross section and comparing corresponding chord lengths in different cross sections and high efficiency (less than 3 s/section on average.

  5. Prediction of PM10 grades in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on synoptic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, S. K.; Oh, H. R.; Ho, C. H.; Kim, J.; Song, C. K.; Chang, L. S.; Lee, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    As of November 2014, the Korean Ministry of Environment (KME) started forecasting the level of ambient particulate matter with diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) as four grades: low (PM10 ≤ 30 μg m-3), moderate (30 150 μg m-3). Due to short history of forecast, overall performance of the operational forecasting system and its hit rate for the four PM10 grades are difficult to evaluate. In attempt to provide a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system, we hindcasted the four PM10 grades for the cold seasons (October-March) of 2001-2014 in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on the synoptic patterns of meteorological fields such as geopotential height, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind. In the form of cosine similarity, the distinctive synoptic patterns for each PM10 grades are well quantified as predictors to train the neural network model. Using these fields as predictors and considering the PM10 concentration in Seoul from the day before prediction as an additional predictor, an overall hit rate of 69% was achieved; the hit rates for the low, moderate, high, and very high PM10 grades were 33%, 83%, 45%, and 33%, respectively. This study reveals that the synoptic patterns of meteorological fields are useful predictors for the identification of favorable conditions for each PM10 grade, and the associated transboundary transport and local accumulation of PM10 from the industrialized regions of China. Consequently, the assessments of predictability obtained from the neural network model in this study are reliable to use as a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system.

  6. Modeling of urban trees' effects on reducing human exposure to UV radiation in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang Ryeol Na; Gordon M. Heisler; David J. Nowak; Richard H. Grant

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model isconstructed for quantifying urban trees’ effects on mitigating the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the ground within different landuse types across a city. The model is based upon local field data, meteorological data and equations designed to predict the reduced UV fraction due to trees at the ground level. Trees in Seoul, Korea (2010...

  7. A Case Study of MOOCs Design and Administration at Seoul National University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Mihwa; Han, Songlee; Seo, Seungil

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on the case study of edX at Seoul National University, which is running Korea's first Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), discussed and proposed the roles of principal facilitators, the process, and the relationships among various facilitators in selecting, designing, opening and administrating MOOCs classes. Researches on…

  8. Re-Locating the National: Spatialization of the National Past in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soochul

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to make sense of the emerging culture of mobility in Seoul in the 1990s. The 1990s in a South Korean context is emblematic of a changed social reality and transformation. Grand narratives of development, anti-state democratization activism and Cold War politics were losing their effect and authority. Meanwhile, new…

  9. Validation of Senge's Learning Organization Model with Teachers of Vocational High Schools at the Seoul Megalopolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Ho

    2008-01-01

    This study measured and applied Senge's (1990) fifth discipline model of learning organizations in a culturally distinct population, namely teachers in 17 vocational high schools located in the Seoul megalopolis. The participants were 976 full-time vocational and academic teachers in public trade/industry-technical and business high schools in the…

  10. Light Pollution Surveys around the Seoul Capital Area: Results from 2009 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinhee; An, Sung-Ho; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Roh, Eunji; Chiang, Howoo; Kim, Jinhyub; Kim, Seongjoong; Park, Songyoun

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a series of light pollution surveys in the periods of 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 at ~130 sites within the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We quantitatively measured the night sky brightness in the unit of mag/arcsec2 with the ‘SQM (Sky Quality Meter)-L’ by considering the following conditions: 1) fully dark sky after astronomical twilight, 2) good weather with the cloud amount less than 10%, and 3) ensure no contaminations from nearby street lights to the measured value. We find that the night sky is getting darker from the center of Seoul to the outskirts of Gyeonggi-do by a factor of ~40. In both surveys, for example, the brightest site is Namsan Elementary School (Jung-gu, Seoul: 16.3 and 16.5 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), located nearly at the middle of Seoul. Also, the darkest site is Goseong-ri (Gapyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do: 20.1 and 20.6 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), situated ~50 km northeast of the brightest site. In addition, the night sky brightness in 2014/2015 is on average darker by ~0.4 mag/arcsec2 compared to the brightness in 2009/2010, which indicates the reduced light pollution in the Seoul Capital Area. In this contribution, we will present the maps of the night sky brightness in the capital region of Korea from both surveys, and discuss the possible reasons for the changes in night sky brightness within 5 years.

  11. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Lee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  12. Prehospital management of sarin nerve gas terrorism in urban settings: 10 years of progress after the Tokyo subway sarin attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Kikuchi, Makiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Stein, Gerald H

    2006-02-01

    Chemical agents have been used previously in wartime on numerous occasions, from World War I to the Gulf War. In 1994 and 1995, sarin nerve gas was used first in peacetime as a weapon of terrorism in Japan. The Tokyo subway sarin attack was the first large-scale disaster caused by nerve gas. A religious cult released sarin gas into subway commuter trains during morning rush hour. Twelve passengers died and about 5500 people were harmed. Sarin is a highly toxic nerve agent that can be fatal within minutes to hours. It causes the clinical syndrome of cholinergic hyperstimulation by inhibition of the crucial enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Therapy of nerve agent toxicity is divided into three categories, decontamination, respiratory support, and antidotes. All of these therapies may be given simultaneously. This article reviews toxicology and management of this acute chemical emergency. To help minimize the possible catastrophic impact on the public, we make several recommendations based on analysis of the Tokyo subway sarin attack and systematically review the current scientific literature.

  13. Persuasion to use personal protective equipment in constructing subway stations: application of social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Mahmoud; Pariani, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Soleymani-nejad, Marzieh

    2016-04-01

    To study the effects of an intervention based on social marketing to persuade workers to use personal protective equipment (PPE) in constructing subway stations in Isfahan, Iran. This was a quasi-experimental study. Two stations were selected as intervention and control groups. Intervention was designed based on results of a formative research. A free package containing a safety helmet with a tailored message affixed to it, mask and gloves and an educational pamphlet was delivered to the intervention group. After 6 weeks, behaviours in the intervention and control stations were measured using an observational checklist. After the intervention, the percentage of workers who used PPE at the intervention station increased significantly. OR for helmet and mask usage was 7.009 and 2.235, respectively, in the intervention group. Social marketing can be used to persuade workers to use PPE in the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Geological Hazards analysis in Urban Tunneling by EPB Machine (Case study: Tehran subway line 7 tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in tunneling has led to modern and efficient tunneling methods in vast underground spaces even under inappropriate geological conditions. Identification and access to appropriate and sufficient geological hazard data are key elements to successful construction of underground structures. Choice of the method, excavation machine, and prediction of suitable solutions to overcome undesirable conditions depend on geological studies and hazard analysis. Identifying and investigating the ground hazards in excavating urban tunnels by an EPB machine could augment the strategy for improving soil conditions during excavation operations. In this paper, challenges such as geological hazards, abrasion of the machine cutting tools, clogging around these tools and inside the chamber, diverse work front, severe water level fluctuations, existence of water, and fine-grained particles in the route were recognized in a study of Tehran subway line 7, for which solutions such as low speed boring, regular cutter head checks, application of soil improving agents, and appropriate grouting were presented and discussed. Due to the presence of fine particles in the route, foam employment was suggested as the optimum strategy where no filler is needed.

  15. Model uncertainty of various settlement estimation methods in shallow tunnels excavation; case study: Qom subway tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademian, Amir; Abdollahipour, Hamed; Bagherpour, Raheb; Faramarzi, Lohrasb

    2017-10-01

    In addition to the numerous planning and executive challenges, underground excavation in urban areas is always followed by certain destructive effects especially on the ground surface; ground settlement is the most important of these effects for which estimation there exist different empirical, analytical and numerical methods. Since geotechnical models are associated with considerable model uncertainty, this study characterized the model uncertainty of settlement estimation models through a systematic comparison between model predictions and past performance data derived from instrumentation. To do so, the amount of surface settlement induced by excavation of the Qom subway tunnel was estimated via empirical (Peck), analytical (Loganathan and Poulos) and numerical (FDM) methods; the resulting maximum settlement value of each model were 1.86, 2.02 and 1.52 cm, respectively. The comparison of these predicted amounts with the actual data from instrumentation was employed to specify the uncertainty of each model. The numerical model outcomes, with a relative error of 3.8%, best matched the reality and the analytical method, with a relative error of 27.8%, yielded the highest level of model uncertainty.

  16. NeuroLines: A Subway Map Metaphor for Visualizing Nanoscale Neuronal Connectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali K.

    2014-12-31

    We present NeuroLines, a novel visualization technique designed for scalable detailed analysis of neuronal connectivity at the nanoscale level. The topology of 3D brain tissue data is abstracted into a multi-scale, relative distance-preserving subway map visualization that allows domain scientists to conduct an interactive analysis of neurons and their connectivity. Nanoscale connectomics aims at reverse-engineering the wiring of the brain. Reconstructing and analyzing the detailed connectivity of neurons and neurites (axons, dendrites) will be crucial for understanding the brain and its development and diseases. However, the enormous scale and complexity of nanoscale neuronal connectivity pose big challenges to existing visualization techniques in terms of scalability. NeuroLines offers a scalable visualization framework that can interactively render thousands of neurites, and that supports the detailed analysis of neuronal structures and their connectivity. We describe and analyze the design of NeuroLines based on two real-world use-cases of our collaborators in developmental neuroscience, and investigate its scalability to large-scale neuronal connectivity data.

  17. Indoor radon distribution of subway stations in a Korean major city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae; Byun, Jong-In; Yun, Ju-Yong

    2010-04-01

    The overall survey on indoor radon concentration was conducted at all subway stations in a major city, Daejeon in the central part of Korea. It was quarterly performed from September 2007 to August 2008. The annual arithmetic mean of indoor radon concentration of all the stations was 34.1+/-14.7 Bq m(-3), and the range of values was from 9.4 to 98.2 Bq m(-3). The radon concentrations in groundwater (average 31.0+/-0.8 Bq m(-3)) were not significantly high in most stations, but the concentration (177.9+/-2.3 Bq L(-1)) of one station was over the level of 148 Bq L(-1) in drinking water proposed by U.S. EPA. Based on indoor survey results, the approximate average of the annual effective dose by radon inhalation to the employees and passengers were 0.24 mSv y(-1), and 0.02 mSv y(-1), respectively. Although the effective dose based on the UNSCEAR report was potentially estimated, for more accurate assessment, the additional survey on the influence by indoor radon will be necessary. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic and efficient methods applied to the binarization of a subway map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Philippe; Ghorbanzadeh, Dariush; Jaupi, Luan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of efficient methods for image binarization. The objective of the work is the metro maps binarization. the goal is to binarize, avoiding noise to disturb the reading of subway stations. Different methods have been tested. By this way, a method given by Otsu gives particularly interesting results. The difficulty of the binarization is the choice of this threshold in order to reconstruct. Image sticky as possible to reality. Vectorization is a step subsequent to that of the binarization. It is to retrieve the coordinates points containing information and to store them in the two matrices X and Y. Subsequently, these matrices can be exported to a file format 'CSV' (Comma Separated Value) enabling us to deal with them in a variety of software including Excel. The algorithm uses quite a time calculation in Matlab because it is composed of two "for" loops nested. But the "for" loops are poorly supported by Matlab, especially in each other. This therefore penalizes the computation time, but seems the only method to do this.

  19. Uncovering stable and occasional human mobility patterns: A case study of the Beijing subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Nuo; Ni, Shunjiang; Shen, Shifei; Chen, Peng; Ji, Xuewei

    2018-02-01

    There have generally been two kinds of approaches to the empirical study of human mobility. At the group level, some valuable information might be submerged in statistical noise, while due to the diversity of individual purpose and preference, there is still no general statistical regularity of human mobility at the individual level. In this paper, we considered group-level human mobility as the combination of several basic patterns and analyzed the collective mobility by category. Utilizing matrix factorization and correlation analysis, we extracted some of the stable/occasional components from the collective human mobility in the Beijing subway and found that the departure and arrival mobility patterns have different characteristics, both in time and space, under various conditions. We classified individual records into different patterns and analyzed the most likely trip distance by category. The proposed method can decompose stable/occasional mobility patterns from the collective mobility and identify passengers belonging to different patterns, helping us to better understand the origin of different mobility patterns and provide guidance for emergency management of large crowds.

  20. Insomnia as a sequela of sarin toxicity several years after exposure in Tokyo subway trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Katsumata, Masao; Suzuki, Hiroko; Li, Qing; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Nakadai, Ari; Shimizu, Takako; Hirata, Kimiko; Hirata, Yukiyo

    2005-06-01

    More than 5,000 passengers on Tokyo subway trains were injured with toxic chemicals including the nerve gas "sarin" on March 20, 1995. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of sarin exposure on insomnia in a cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire concerning sleep-related items was distributed to victims of sarin exposure in October and November, 2003. Questionnaires were completed by 161 of the 163 participants (98.8%), who were selected from 1,500 subjects. Among them, the authors selected 75 women 30 to 69 years of age. Control participants were collected from inhabitants living in Maebachi City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. For the younger exposed group (under 50 yr. of age), percentages of poor sleep, difficulty falling asleep, intermittent awakening, early morning awakening, a feeling of light overnight sleep, and insomnia were significantly higher than those for the control group. In contrast, the older exposed group (ages 50 to 69 years) had significantly higher prevalence of poor sleep, a feeling of light overnight sleep, and early morning awakening for the exposed group when compared with the control group. The high prevalence of insomnia and insomnia-related factors for victims especially under 50 years of age suggests a need for research on sleep quality after sarin exposure. Although posttraumatic stress disorder is assumed to be a psychological effect of exposure to a toxic substance, a cause-and-effect relationship has not been established.

  1. An Estimation of Construction and Demolition Debris in Seoul, Korea: Waste Amount, Type, and Estimating Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongwon; Hwang, Yongwoo

    1999-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) debris is generated at the site of various construction activities. However, the amount of the debris is usually so large that it is necessary to estimate the amount of C&D debris as accurately as possible for effective waste management and control in urban areas. In this paper, an effective estimation method using a statistical model was proposed. The estimation process was composed of five steps: estimation of the life span of buildings; estimation of the floor area of buildings to be constructed and demolished; calculation of individual intensity units of C&D debris; and estimation of the future C&D debris production. This method was also applied in the city of Seoul as an actual case, and the estimated amount of C&D debris in Seoul in 2021 was approximately 24 million tons. Of this total amount, 98% was generated by demolition, and the main components of debris were concrete and brick.

  2. Air quality monitoring at Seoul, Korea as a part of East-Asian air surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Kim, H.K.; Otoshi, T.

    1989-01-01

    Global scale air pollution study is a recent trend due to a perception that air pollution is changing climate and other essential earth's conditions that could seriously affect our lives. One of the important tasks which can contribute to protect our natural environment must be to know about the present and changing air quality. For this purpose, a regional air monitoring plan was designed by a research group and has proceeded to set up stations in the eastern Asia including Japan, Korea and China to get continuous data which can contribute to world wide data base of air quality. This project was initiated at Seoul, Korea in April, 1986 by the method of National Air Surveillance Network, Japan. Airborne particles were collected by so-called Hi-vol and Lo-vol, and their components were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and others. The results of Seoul sampling as a first step of this network plan are presented

  3. Public Willingness to Pay for Transforming Jogyesa Buddhist Temple in Seoul, Korea into a Cultural Tourism Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Seul-Ye Lim; Ho-Young Kim; Seung-Hoon Yoo

    2016-01-01

    The Jogyesa Buddhist Temple (JBT), located in Seoul, Korea, is the chief temple of the Jogye Order, which represents Korean Buddhism. The Seoul government plans to transform the JBT into a cultural tourism resource and a historical site. This study attempts to analyze the willingness to pay (WTP) for implementing the transformation, which includes building a new shopping arcade for Buddhist culture and tourism, constructing a museum for the teaching of history and an experience center for Kor...

  4. Urban aerosol hygroscopicity and CCN activity measured during the MAPS-Seoul 2016 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N.; Park, M.; Yum, S. S.; Kim, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    While submicron aerosols in atmosphere and their effects on air quality and climate are a rising issue in atmospheric sciences, scientific understanding of them is still limited due to the lack of comprehensive observations. In particular, studies for hygroscopic properties of aerosols, closely related to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, are essential to aerosol-cloud-interaction study as aerosols can act as CCN, which crucially influence cloud microphysical and radiative properties. Urban aerosol properties were measured at Olympic Park in Seoul, a typical megacity with various anthropogenic sources, during the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS-Seoul 2016) campaign (9 May- 12 June 2016) for understanding diverse aspects of air quality problem in Korea. Physical properties of aerosols, including aerosol and CCN number concentration, aerosol size distribution and growth factor were measured by CPC, CCNC, SMPS and H-TDMA, respectively. Simultaneously, size-resolved chemical component of aerosol and water-soluble aerosol mass concentration were measured by AMS and PILS-IC. These measurement data are used for comprehensive analysis. A main focus will be on the relationship between overall properties of aerosols and their CCN activity in urban area. Results from MAPS-Seoul 2015 will also be used as reference for comparison with measurements in 2016 campaign. For example, aerosol number concentrations peaked at 0800, 1500 and 2000 LT due to traffic at rush hours and photochemical reaction in the afternoon. This is slightly different from the results of MAPS-Seoul 2015 campaign that showed two dominant peaks in the morning and afternoon.

  5. Landschaftsplanung als Steuerungsinstrument im Urbanisierungsprozess am Beispiel der beiden Hauptstädte Seoul und Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji-Young

    2017-01-01

    Als Begleiterscheinungen des rasanten Wirtschaftswachstums und der nicht behutsamen Raumentwicklungen Südkoreas seit Beginn der 60er Jahre kristallisierten sich monotone Stadtstrukturen, regionaler Identitätsverlust und enorme ökologische Belastung als negative Erscheinungsformen der Raumordnung heraus. Erhebliche Umweltbelastungen, Veränderungen des Stadtbilds und die Flächeninanspruchnahme sind vor allem in der Hauptstadt Seoul signifikante Folgen der städtischen Ausdehnung und Verdichtung....

  6. Genetic analyses of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hak-Sun; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Hyo-Kyung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il

    2001-01-01

    We conducted both the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA RFLP analyses for a genetic characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea. Twenty-three strains of Acanthamoeba from the American Type Culture Collection and twelve clinical isolates from Korean patients were used as reference strains. Thirty-nine isolates from contact lens ...

  7. A Clinical Study of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Seoul Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seung Chull; Pyo, Heui Jung; Soe, Jae Bung; Lee, Myung Seok; Kim, Young Hoon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Min Ja; Kim, Jun Suck; Lee, Ho Wang; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Pyung Woo; Seong, In Wha; Baek, Luck Ju

    1989-01-01

    The clinical findings of 29 patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Seoul virus were evaluated and compared with the previously reported clinical findings of classic Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF). The diagnoses of these patients were made by hemagglutination inhibition test. The results were as follows: The disease occurred predominantly in males with a high incidence in the third and fourth decades of life. The highest incidence of the disease occurred in Octobe...

  8. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production over Seoul, South Korea, during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Schroder, J. C.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Choi, Y.; DiGangi, J. P.; Fried, A.; Huey, L. G.; Knote, C. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Armin, W.

    2017-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is rapidly produced over and downwind of urban areas, causing important effects on health, visibility, and climate. However, multiple studies over different cities have shown that the production of SOA over urban areas cannot be accounted for when only using traditional volatile compounds (e.g., aromatics). Non-traditional anthropogenic volatile compounds—semi- and intermediate-volatile organic compounds (S/IVOC) are needed to account the observed urban SOA production. At this time, only a few megacities have been well characterized for urban SOA production; however, urban SOA production has not been well characterized in a megacity embedded in a region of rapid economic growth and energy consumption. In this study, we utilize observations from the NASA DC-8 over Seoul, South Korea, during the NASA/NIER 2016 KORean United States-Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) study to investigate the influence of transported OA and SOA precursors to Seoul versus the influence of local emissions of SOA precursors on the observed SOA production. We utilize the ambient gas-phase and OA observations over Seoul and the Western Sea along with Oxidation Flow Reactor (OFR) observations and FLEXPART tracer analysis to investigate the influence of transport versus local emissions. We find that the contribution of transported OA and SOA precursors to Seoul, during the campaign, was minor and had a small impact on the observed SOA production. Using the observed traditional volatile compounds, along with estimates of S/IVOC, brought near closure for the observed SOA production. We found that greater than 90% of the SOA production can be accounted for by reactive organic compounds with OH lifetimes less than 1 day, consistent with several previous megacity studies, further suggesting that local SOA precursor emissions are dominant. Our study highlights the need to further investigate and account for speciated S/IVOC measurements, as these represented an estimated 60

  9. Proceedings of the Pacific Conference on Operations Research, April 23- 28, 1979, Seoul, Korea. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Broeckx 5. Operations Research Applications to Tourism . ............................. 1250 ’Pur~qut VarW Swart, and C. Garing 6. Multicriteria...house capabilities would include uniformed analysts. At the present time, all U.S. Services have in-house analysis shops at the headquarters level and...Consumption Areas Supply Areas City-Province City, Kun Choongju Fert. Seoul 1 Honam Fert. Busan I Local Youngnam Fert. Gyeounggi 18 Supplies Jinhae Fert

  10. OH Reactivity Observations during the MAPS-Seoul Campaign: Contrasts between Urban and Suburban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, D.; Jeong, D.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, M. D.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    Direct total OH reactivity was observed in the urban and suburban environments of Seoul, South Korea using a comparative reactivity method (CRM) during the MAPS-Seoul field campaign. In addition, CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, VOCs, aerosol, physical, and chemical parameters were also deployed. By comparing the observed total OH reactivity results with calculated OH reactivity from the trace gas observational datasets, we will evaluate our current status in constraining reactive gases in the urban and suburban environments in the East Asian megacity. Observed urban OH reactivity will be presented in the context of the ability to constrain anthropogenic reactive trace gas emissions. It will then be compared to the observed suburban results from Taehwa Research Forest (located ~ 50 km from the Seoul City Center). Our understanding of reactive trace gases in an environment of high BVOC emissions in a mildly aged anthropogenic influences will be evaluated. Using an observational constrained box model with detailed VOC oxidation schemes (e.g. MCM), we will discuss: 1) what is the amount of missing OH reactivity 2) what are the potential sources of the missing OH reactivity, and 3) what are the implications on regional air quality?

  11. Spatial Distribution of New Particle Formation over the Seoul Metropolitan Area during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y. S.; Seo, Y. K.; Choi, J. Y.; Lee, Y.; Kim, D. B.; Kang, K.; Chung, H.; Jung, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol number size distributions were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) at four selected sites in and around the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) during the Korea-US Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ) campaign from May to June 2016. Three sites are located within the SMA: Olympic Park (OP), Global Campus of the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (HUFS), and Mt. Taehwa (MT), which are located about 14 km east-southeast, 35 km southeast, and 42 km southeast of the Seoul City Hall, respectively. The OP site is within a park ( 1.45 km2) surrounded by main roads. The HUFS site is in a valley sloping up to the east, and to the west, rural in character, with small-sized buildings, farmlands, and open spaces. The MT site is in the middle of forests, but an expressway runs in the southeast-northwest direction, about 2.6 km to the northeast. The Baengnyeong Island (BI) site, located about 210 km west-northwest of the Seoul City Hall. BI is considered a background and an upwind site of SMA, in contrast to HUFS and MT downwind of SMA, under prevailing northwesterlies. We investigated the spatial distribution of observed new particle formation (NPF) events to distinguish whether an event was local or regional. The evolutions of the episodes were accounted for in terms of precursor concentrations and meteorological variables, in association with the effects of long-range transport whenever it occurred.

  12. Characteristics of MSW and heat energy recovery between residential and commercial areas in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sora; Yoo, Kee-Young; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the amount and characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) according to the inhabitant density of population and the business concentration in 25 districts in Seoul. Further, the heat energy recovery and avoided CO(2) emissions of four incineration plants located in residential and commercial areas in Seoul are examined. The amount of residential waste per capita tended to increase as the density of inhabitants decreased. The amount of commercial waste per capita tended to increase as the business concentration increased. The examination of the heat energy recovery characteristics indicated that the four incineration plants produced heat energy that depended on residential or commercial areas based on population and business. The most important result regarding avoided CO(2) emissions was that commercial areas with many office-type businesses had the most effective CO(2) emission savings by combusting 1 kg of waste. Assuming the full-scale operation of the four incineration plants, the amount of saved CO(2) emissions per year was 444 Gg CO(2) and 57,006 households in Seoul can be provided with heat energy equivalent to 542,711 Nm(3) of LNG. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Great hospitals of Asia: the Department of Neurosurgery at Seoul National University College of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Chi Heon; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Established in 1957, the Department of Neurosurgery at Seoul National University College of Medicine is the one of the oldest neurosurgical departments in Korea. The seven past Chairmen (Bo Sung Sim, Kil Soo Choi, Dae Hee Han, Byung-Kyu Cho, Hyun Jib Kim, Hee-Won Jung, and Dong Gyu Kim) have devoted themselves to the development of the department. The current chair, Chun Kee Chung, assumed the position in July 2010. The current department comprises several clinical programs that encompass the entire spectrum of neurosurgical disorders, with 29 specialized faculty members and care teams in three hospitals: Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH), Boramae Medical Center (BMC), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH). The remarkable growth of the department during the last half century made it possible to perform 5,666 operations (3,299 at SNUH, 411 at BMC and 1,860 at SNUBH) during 2009. A total of 1,201 articles authored by faculty members were published in scientific journals between 1958 and 2009, approximately 32% of which were published in international journals. The department is regarded as the "Mecca" of neurosurgery in Korea because of its outstanding achievement and the many distinguished alumni with leadership roles in the academic field. This article traces the clinical, academic, and scientific development of the department, its present activities, and its future direction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Land Surface Temperature Retrieved from High Resolution Satellites in Seoul, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Joon-Bum; Choi, Young-Jean

    2015-04-01

    In order to analyze the land surface properties in Seoul and its surrounding metropolitan area in the South Korea, several indices and LST were calculated by the Landsat 8 and TERRA and AQUA MODIS satellites. The land surface properties used are the indices that represented Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Modified Normalized Difference Wetness Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Wetness Index (NDWI), Tasseled cap Brightness, Tasseled cap Greenness, Tasseled cap Wetness Index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) and the LST of the area in and around Seoul. Most indices distinguish very well between urban, rural, mountain, building, river and road. In particular, most of the urbanization is represented in the new cities around Seoul. According to NDVI, NDBI and LST, urban expansion is displayed in the surrounding area of Seoul. The LST and surface elevation have a strong relationship with the distribution and structure of the vegetation/built-up indices such as NDVI and NDBI. While the NDVI is positively correlated with the LST and is also negatively correlated with the surface elevation, the NDBI have just the opposite correlations, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the thermal properties in metropolitan, Landsat and MODIS land surface temperature, AWS (Automatic Weather Station) temperature, digital elevation model and landuse are used. Analysis method among the Landsat and MODIS LST and AWS temperature is basic statistics using by correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error (RMSE) and linear regression function etc. As a result, statistics of Landsat and MODIS LST are a correlation coefficient of 0.32 and RMSE of 4.61K, respectively. And statistics of Landsat and MODIS LST and AWS temperature have the correlations of 0.83 and 0.96 and the RMSE of 3.28K and 2.25K, respectively. Landsat and MODIS LST have relatively high correlation with AWS temperature, and the slope of the

  15. Concomitant contact allergy to the resins, reactive diluents and hardener of a bisphenol A/F-based epoxy resin in subway construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Yu; Pontén, Ann; Sun, Chee-Ching; Jee, Shiou-Hwa

    2006-03-01

    An outbreak of suspected contact dermatitis among subway construction workers was suspected to be due to a new bisphenol A/F-based epoxy resin system (ERS). The construction workers used ERSs during the insertion of iron bars into concrete walls. The objective of the study was to determine the components (if any) of the ERS responsible for the contact allergy. Patch testing was performed on 20 of the 22 construction workers who had had contact with the ERS, and to the various subcomponents of component A on 5 of the 7 who reacted to this component. 9 patients (9/22, 40.9%) had clinical symptoms and signs of suspected contact dermatitis at presentation. 7 of these 9, but none of the 11 asymptomatic individuals, were positive to component A, while all were negative to component B. Of the 5 cases receiving further patch testing, all reacted to m-xylylene diamine, 4 to 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether, 3 to epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether 0.25% petrolatum, and only 1 to epoxy resins of the bisphenol A-type. Contact allergy to ERSs may involve hardeners and diluents as well as resins, and patch testing for reaction to all components should be performed.

  16. Optimizing a desirable fare structure for a bus-subway corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Zheng; Ge, Ying-En; Cao, Kai; Jiang, Xi; Meng, Lingyun; Liu, Ding; Gao, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to optimize a desirable fare structure for the public transit service along a bus-subway corridor with the consideration of those factors related to equity in trip, including travel distance and comfort level. The travel distance factor is represented by the distance-based fare strategy, which is an existing differential strategy. The comfort level one is considered in the area-based fare strategy which is a new differential strategy defined in this paper. Both factors are referred to by the combined fare strategy which is composed of distance-based and area-based fare strategies. The flat fare strategy is applied to determine a reference level of social welfare and obtain the general passenger flow along transit lines, which is used to divide areas or zones along the corridor. This problem is formulated as a bi-level program, of which the upper level maximizes the social welfare and the lower level capturing traveler choice behavior is a variable-demand stochastic user equilibrium assignment model. A genetic algorithm is applied to solve the bi-level program while the method of successive averages is adopted to solve the lower-level model. A series of numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the performance of the models and solution methods. Numerical results indicate that all three differential fare strategies play a better role in enhancing the social welfare than the flat fare strategy and that the fare structure under the combined fare strategy generates the highest social welfare and the largest resulting passenger demand, which implies that the more equity factors a differential fare strategy involves the more desirable fare structure the strategy has. PMID:28981508

  17. Sulfur isotope and chemical compositions of the wet precipitation in two major urban areas, Seoul and Busan, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chungwan; Jang, Jaeho; Lee, Insung; Kim, Guebuem; Lee, Sang-Mook; Kim, Yeongmin; Kim, Hyoungbum; Kaufman, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal variations of δ34S together with major ions in snow and rainwater samples were measured in urban areas. Precipitation samples were collected from metropolitan city, Seoul and large port city, Busan, Korea, for about one year from June 2002 to June 2003. The δ34S values of sulfate in precipitation ranged from -4.3‰ to +6.6‰ (mean: 3.72‰) and +1.0‰ to +18.6‰ (mean: 5.55‰) in Seoul and Busan, respectively. Even though both of the study areas have large populations and transportation infrastructure, δ34S values of sulfate in Seoul precipitation originate more from anthropogenic sources relative to that of Busan. The elevated anthropogenic sources in Seoul might be influenced by human activities from surrounding industrial cities, while the scatter of δ34S values in Busan may be influenced by marine air. During the study, δ34S values are high in the fall season and low in the spring season. It may be inferred from this data that spring time δ34S values are affected more by biogenic sources compared to the fall season. As such, Seoul and Busan showed significant differences in chemical compositions, such as δ34S and nss-SO42-. Especially, δ34S values in the Seoul show very good relationship with anthropogenic emissions (e.g., emission from coal combustion) and δ34S values in the Busan may be influenced by sea spray from the oceanic surface micro-layer. This correlation and the δ34S values indicate that the major source in this region is likely to be anthropogenic source in Seoul and sea spray in Busan, rather than traditionally suggested sources such as soil resuspension, stratospheric air intrusion, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions.

  18. Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT): A Remotely Operated Robotic Telescope for Education and Research at Seoul National University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myungshin; Choi, Changsu; Kim, Kihyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT), a remotely operated, robotic 0.43-meter telescope. The telescope was installed at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in 2014 October, to secure regular and exclusive access to the dark sky and excellent atmospheric conditions in the southern hemisphere from the Seoul National University (SNU) campus. Here, we describe the LSGT system and its performance, present example images from early observations, and discuss a future plan to upgrade the system. The use of the telescope includes (i) long-term monitoring observations of nearby galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae; (ii) rapid follow-up observations of transients such as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources; and (iii) observations for educational activities at SNU. Based on observations performed so far, we find that the telescope is capable of providing images to a depth of R=21.5 mag (point source detection) at 5-σ with 15 min total integration time under good obs-erving conditions.

  19. Relationship between Spatio-Temporal Travel Patterns Derived from Smart-Card Data and Local Environmental Characteristics of Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the incorporation of an automated fare-collection system into the management of public transportation, not only can the quality of transportation services be improved but also that of the data collected from users when coupled with smart-card technology. The data collected from smart cards provide opportunities for researchers to analyze big data sets and draw meaningful information out of them. This study aims to identify the relationship between travel patterns derived from smart-card data and urban characteristics. Using seven-day transit smart-card data from the public-transportation system in Seoul, the capital city of the Republic of Korea, we investigated the temporal and spatial boarding and alighting patterns of the users. The major travel patterns, classified into five clusters, were identified by utilizing the K-Spectral Centroid clustering method. We found that the temporal pattern of urban mobility reflects daily activities in the urban area and that the spatial pattern of the five clusters classified by travel patterns was closely related to urban structure and urban function; that is, local environmental characteristics extracted from land-use and census data. This study confirmed that the travel patterns at the citywide level can be used to understand the dynamics of the urban population and the urban spatial structure. We believe that this study will provide valuable information about general patterns, which represent the possibility of finding travel patterns from individuals and urban spatial traits.

  20. Evaluation of an international faculty development program for developing countries in Asia: the Seoul Intensive Course for Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hwan; Yoon, Hyun Bae; Sung, Minsun; Yoo, Dong-Mi; Hwang, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Seunghee; Shin, Jwa-Seop

    2015-12-18

    The issue of collaboration in medical education is becoming prominent. Some faculty development programs have suggested an approach for promoting collaboration on a global level. However, non-English-speaking developing countries in Asia, especially in Southeast Asia, do not take advantage of them due to their unique context, such as language and culture. To address these issues, Seoul National University College of Medicine initiated a 6-week international faculty development program called the "Seoul Intensive Course for Medical Educators" for 16 fellows from five Asian countries (Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, and Vietnam). The aim of this study is to report the evaluation results of the outcome of the program and discuss better ways of collaborating with developing countries. Three levels of collaboration-intraorganizational, intranational, and international-were central initiatives of the program. Prior to setting up the program details, we first established four design principles, following which the contents, materials, and facilitators were determined to maintain consistency with the design principles. The evaluation of the program was done with Kirkpatrick's four-level model. Most of the evaluation data for level 1 were collected by two questionnaires, the post-module survey and the post-program survey. Portfolios and progress reports were mainly used to collect outcome data for levels 2 and 3, respectively. The reaction was generally positive throughout the program and there was a significant correlation between satisfaction and relevance to one's job or needs. Despite the fellows' propensity for overestimating themselves, both the evaluators and fellows reported that there was significant improvement in learning. Opinions on the impact or urgency of the topics were slightly different from country to country; however, the answers regarding feasibility were fairly similar. Moreover, we could observe from the post-program progress reports that the

  1. Public Willingness to Pay for Transforming Jogyesa Buddhist Temple in Seoul, Korea into a Cultural Tourism Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ye Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jogyesa Buddhist Temple (JBT, located in Seoul, Korea, is the chief temple of the Jogye Order, which represents Korean Buddhism. The Seoul government plans to transform the JBT into a cultural tourism resource and a historical site. This study attempts to analyze the willingness to pay (WTP for implementing the transformation, which includes building a new shopping arcade for Buddhist culture and tourism, constructing a museum for the teaching of history and an experience center for Korean traditional culture in the precincts of JBT, and making an open space for domestic and/or foreign visitors. To this end, the study looks into the WTP for the implementation, reporting on a contingent valuation (CV survey that was conducted with 500 Seoul households. The single-bounded dichotomous choice CV model and a spike model were applied to derive the WTP responses and analyze the WTP data with zero observations, respectively. The mean yearly WTP was computed to be KRW 7129 (USD 6.30 per household for the next five years, with the estimate being statistically significant at the 1% level. Expanding the value to the Seoul population gives us KRW 25.4 billion (USD 22.5 million per year. The present value of the total WTP amounts to KRW 114.6 billion (USD 101.3 million using a social discount rate of 5.5%. We can conclude that Seoul households are ready to shoulder some of the financial burden of implementing the transformation.

  2. Analysis of the effect of local heat island in Seoul using LANDSAT image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. I.; Ryu, J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The increase in the rate of industrialization due to urbanization has caused the Urban Heat Island phenomenon which means that the temperature of the city is higher than the surrounding area, and its intensity is increasing with climate change. Among the cities where heat island phenomenon occur, Seoul city has different degree of urbanization, green area ratio, energy consumption, and population density by each district unit. As a result, the strength of heat island phenomenon is also different. The average maximum temperature in each region may differ by more than 3 °, which is bigger than the suburbs in Seoul and it means that analysis of UHI effect by regional unit is needed. Therefore, this study is to extract the UHI Intensity of the regional unit of the Seoul Metropolitan City using the satellite image, analyzed the difference of intensity according to the regional unit. And do linear regression analysis with variables included in three categories(regional meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat generation, land use factors). As a result, The UHI Intensity value of the Gu unit is significantly different from the UHI Intensity distribution of the Dong unit. The variable having the greatest positive correlation with UHI Intensity was NDBI(Normalized Difference Built-up Index) which shows the distribution of urban area, and Urban area ratio also has high correlation. There was a negative correlation between mean wind speed but there was no significant correlation between population density and power consumption. The result of this study is to identify the regional difference of UHI Intensity and to identify the factors inducing heat island phenomenon. so It is expected that it will provide direction in urban thermal environment design and policy development in the future.

  3. Molecular and serological evidence for Seoul virus in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Zhangmu, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingsong; Fan, Quanshui; Hu, Xiaobing; Deng, Bo; Chen, Gang; Gu, Liangqi; Li, Ming; Zheng, Ying; Yuan, Guihong; Qiu, Wei; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2015-05-01

    We report the detection of a virus, tentatively identified as Seoul virus (SEOV), from a rat (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Zhangmu, Tibet. SEOV RNA was detected in lung tissue by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, followed by sequencing. Serum samples collected from Zhangmu were positive for SEOV-specific antibodies (indirect fluorescent antibody test that used SEO antigen). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial L and S sequences together with serology results suggest that the Zhangmu01 hantavirus is an isolate of SEOV, that hantaviruses circulate in Tibet, and that rats may act as natural reservoirs for the virus.

  4. Green Roof for Stormwater Management in a Highly Urbanized Area: The Case of Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization changes natural pervious surfaces to hard, impervious surfaces such as roads, buildings and roofs. These modifications significantly affect the natural hydrologic cycle by increasing stormwater runoff rates and volume. Under these circumstances, green roofs offer multiple benefits including on-site stormwater management that mimics the natural hydrologic conditions in an urban area. It can retain a large amount of rainwater for a longer time and delay the peak discharge. However, there is very limited research that has been carried out on the retrofitted green roof for stormwater management for South Korean conditions. This study has investigated the performance of retrofitted green roofs for stormwater management in a highly urbanized area of Seoul, the capital city of Korea. In this study, various storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to check the performance of the green roof with controlling the runoff in urban areas. Results also allowed us to conclude that the retention mainly depends on the intensity and duration of the rain events. From the analysis, average runoff retention on the green roof was 10% to 60% in different rain events. The application of an extensive green roof provides promising results for stormwater management in the highly urbanized area of Seoul.

  5. Urban Sustainability Versus Green-Washing—Fallacy and Reality of Urban Regeneration in Downtown Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the planning paradigm shift related to the contested “urban renaissance” mega-project in Downtown Seoul (Korea. Similar to other global cities, over the last few decades, different mega-projects have been successfully implemented in Seoul. These projects have been considered engines for urban renewals and transformation. This paper builds on the analysis of the failure and re-framing planning strategy for the Green Corridor (GC mega-project, part of the “Urban Renaissance Master Plan for Downtown Seoul”. The GC case reveals various critical insights for urban sustainability: (i the current mega-projects’ sustainability fallacy, related to top-down, technocratic densification, and greening practices; and (ii the untapped potential of Asian traditional and irregular small scale urban patterns, and their related socio-cultural value in addressing the renaissance of the long term urban sustainability. In particular, the discussed research findings point out that urban renaissance enabling sustainability principles requires integrated, small scale, incremental, and adaptive (stepwise urban planning and design processes that go well beyond general strategies following the so-called “green growth” paradigm.

  6. Seoul, Keep Your Paddies! Implications for the Conservation of Hylid Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzee, Amael

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is plummeting worldwide, and the major causes of such decline include habitat degradation and climate change. While cities do contribute to the negative impact to the environment, they can also serve as strategic centres for conservation programs. Sites qualifying as biogeographic islands within metropolitan Seoul were studied for the occurrence of two hylid species: the endangered Hyla suweonensis and the abundant H. japonica. This study demonstrates that neither habitat diversity nor surface area, but solely the occurrence of aggregated rice paddies is a requisite for H. suweonensis, hypothetically due to its strict breeding requirements. On the contrary, H. japonica occurrence was not affected by any of these factors, and all types of habitats studied were adequate for this species. The presence of an endangered species within the boundaries of one of the most populated metropolises suggests a strong natural resilience, which should be enhanced with appropriate actions. We emphasize that the management plans therein can, and should, be used as the first step in the conservation of H. suweonensis in metropolitan Seoul.

  7. Familiarity with, knowledge of, and attitudes toward epilepsy in residents of Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Kwon, S; Park, K A; Lee, H J; Park, M S; Lee, C H; Cheon, S E; Youn, M H; Lee, S K; Chung, C-K

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of epilepsy in Seoul, South Korea, a country where social stigma toward epilepsy is still pronounced. We randomly selected 1000 persons living in Seoul and performed telephone interviews regarding public awareness, knowledge, and attitudes toward epilepsy. Among 1000 respondents, the 92% who had read or heard about epilepsy became the subjects of the study. Word of mouth was most often referenced as a source of knowledge (78%). Forty-seven percentage believed that epilepsy is inheritable, whereas 5% thought that epilepsy is a mental illness. Marriage of their children to an epileptic person, childbearing by women with epilepsy, and employing a person with epilepsy were opposed by more than 50% of respondents. The reasons for the negative attitudes were that epilepsy was hereditary and untreatable (P influence of herbal medicine, and South Korea's ethnic homogeneity. Public health education either through media or school health education is urgently needed to improve knowledge about, and attitudes toward epilepsy.

  8. Enhancing healthcare accessibility measurements using GIS: A case study in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeeun; Byon, Young-Ji; Yeo, Hwasoo

    2018-01-01

    With recent aging demographic trends, the needs for enhancing geo-spatial analysis capabilities and monitoring the status of accessibilities of its citizens with healthcare services have increased. The accessibility to healthcare is determined not only by geographic distances to service locations, but also includes travel time, available modes of transportation, and departure time. Having access to the latest and accurate information regarding the healthcare accessibility allows the municipal government to plan for improvements, including expansion of healthcare infrastructure, effective labor distribution, alternative healthcare options for the regions with low accessibilities, and redesigning the public transportation routes and schedules. This paper proposes a new method named, Seoul Enhanced 2-Step Floating Catchment Area (SE2SFCA), which is customized for the city of Seoul, where population density is higher and the average distance between healthcare-service locations tends to be shorter than the typical North American or European cities. The proposed method of SE2SFCA is found to be realistic and effective in determining the weak accessibility regions. It resolves the over-estimation issues of the past, arising from the assignment of high healthcare accessibility for the regions with large hospitals and high density of population and hospitals.

  9. High surface O3 episodes in Seoul under different meteorological regimes during KORUS-AQ campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Cho, S.; Shin, H.; Lee, G.; Park, M.; Hong, J.

    2017-12-01

    To examine chemical characteristics of ozone (O3) formation in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), H2O2, PAN, and HONO were measured in conjunction with O3 and its precursors. The experiment was conducted at Olympic Park in Seoul during May 12 June 15, 2016. For the entire experiment period, the high O3 episodes of hourly mean concentration over 100 ppbv occurred on May 20, 23, 25, 29, and 30 and June 10 and 14. These episodes were different in meteorological conditions, precursor strengths, and chemical characteristics. The local influence was dominant under stagnant condition on May 20, 23 and June 10. When stagnant conditions developed over the Korean peninsula, the PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) height often changed rapidly, leading to abrupt change in O3 and NOx. Particularly the nighttime concentrations of reactive gases such as O3 and NOx were sensitive to the change in PBL height. It is thought to be driven by land-sea breeze circulation. During May 25 28 when air was coming from the Eastern China, O3 was enhanced with aerosols and high SO2 and CO but low NOx concentration. Odd-Oxygen (O3+NO2, OX) ratio indicates the different chemical regimes, particularly at night(8PM - 7AM). O3/OX ratio was close to zero when local influence was dominant due to O3-titration by NOx. In contrast, this ratio was high over 0.6 in Chinese outflow plumes.

  10. Aerosol optical depth and its relation to regional-scale circulations over Korea during MAPS-Seoul (May-June, 2015) and KORUS-AQ campaigns (May-June, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunhye; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Ji-Hyoung; Park, Jin-Soo; Ahn, Joon-Young; Lee, Jae-Bum; Lim, Yong-Jae

    2017-04-01

    We investigate aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its relation to regional-scale circulations over Korea during the two recent field campaigns conducted in May-June of 2015 (MAPS-Seoul experiment) and May-June of 2016 (KORUS-AQ campaign), using satellite MODIS and AERONET measurement data. The monthly averaged MODIS AOD at 550 nm was estimated to about 0.35 in May and 0.50 in June during the MAPS-Seoul experiment, which was about 33% and 17% lower than that of 13-year averaged MODIS AOD. MODIS AOD during KORUS-AQ 2016 campaign was similarly about 8˜23% lower than those of 13-year averages, but slightly higher than those in 2015. The monthly averaged MODIS AOD was 0.40 in May and 0.56 in June, 2016. Consistently, ground-based AERONET sky radiometer measurements at Seoul showed AODs of about 0.35 (May) and 0.60 (June) at 500 nm during MAPS-Seoul experiment, which was approximately 32% and 20% lower than the averaged AODs (May - 0.51; June - 0.76) from 4-year measurements (2012, 2013, 2015, and 2016). Also, AOD during KORUS-AQ campaign in 2016 was about 0.43 in May and 0.71 in June, which was about 16% and 6% lower than 4-year mean AOD. This year-to-year variation of AOD in May-June over East Asia, including Korea, was closely linked with synoptic atmospheric circulations. Generally, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is high in May and June due to stagnant synoptic meteorological systems, as previously reported by Kim et al. (Atmospheric Environment, 2007). For example, in 2012, MODIS AOD over the Korean Peninsula was observed to be about 0.71 in May and 0.72 in June. This can be explained by the frequent occurrences of stagnant atmospheric conditions. However, the regional-scale circulations during MAPS-Seoul and KORUS-AQ campaigns were characterized by the fast-moving confluent flows over the Korean peninsula, formed between Siberian high pressure system located in North China and North Pacific high in South China. These results suggest that atmospheric circulations play a

  11. Discovering the knowledge creation process of an expert group in women-friendly policy: The policy case of Seoul City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Sam; Nam, SungHee; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    This research explores how expert knowledge is created in the process of women-friendly policy making, based on actor network theory (ANT). To address this purpose, this study uses the "Women's Happiness in the City of Seoul" policy initiated by the local government of Seoul as one example of policy development. Research findings demonstrate that knowledge creation in expert groups followed the four stages suggested by ANT. In addition, this study found that various types of knowledge emerged from individual experts. This research elucidates the process of knowledge creation and its meanings for women-friendly policy.

  12. A Multilevel Analysis of the Compositional and Contextual Association of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Seoul, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sehee; Kim, Heaseung; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between social capital and subjective well-being (life satisfaction) by using multilevel analysis considering both individual and area-level social capital while adjusting for various control variables at multiple-levels in Seoul, South Korea. The data was from the 2010 (Wave 2) Seoul Welfare…

  13. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  14. First evidence of Seoul hantavirus in the wild rat population in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Verner-Carlsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the first detection of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV-specific antibodies in the wild brown rat population in the Netherlands. SEOV-reactive antibodies were found in three rats out of 16 in a repeated series of tests including immunofluorescence assay, immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Focus reduction neutralization test confirmed the presence of SEOV-specific antibodies, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR confirmed the presence of hantaviral RNA. This discovery follows the recent findings of SEOV infections in wild and pet brown rats and humans in England, Wales, France, Belgium, and Sweden, indicating an even higher importance of this hantavirus for public health in large areas of Europe.

  15. Estimating the residential demand function for natural gas in Seoul with correction for sample selection bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lim, Hea-Jin; Kwak, Seung-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, the consumption of natural gas in Korea has increased dramatically. This increase has mainly resulted from the rise of consumption in the residential sector. The main objective of the study is to estimate households' demand function for natural gas by applying a sample selection model using data from a survey of households in Seoul. The results show that there exists a selection bias in the sample and that failure to correct for sample selection bias distorts the mean estimate, of the demand for natural gas, downward by 48.1%. In addition, according to the estimation results, the size of the house, the dummy variable for dwelling in an apartment, the dummy variable for having a bed in an inner room, and the household's income all have positive relationships with the demand for natural gas. On the other hand, the size of the family and the price of gas negatively contribute to the demand for natural gas. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the Department of Neurosurgery of the Seoul National University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Neurosurgery (DNS) of the Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH), belongs to the largest and oldest such institutions in Korea. Because of its growing reputation it is hardly surprising that the DNS draws visitor and scholars for clinical education and academic exchange from far beyond Korea. I myself visited the SNUH in February and March 2013. During this time I composed this evaluation in which I compare the DNS to my home Department at the Johannes Gutenberg-University in Mainz/Germany, as well as the situation of Neurosurgery in Korea and Germany in general. In the first part this evaluation summarizes data concerning equipment, staff and organizational structure, as well as educational and scientific issues of the DNS. In the second part some issues of interest are discussed in special regard to the corresponding practices in Germany. PMID:23908698

  17. Discovery of Parasite Eggs in Archeological Residence during the 15th Century in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Pyo Yeon; Park, Jung-Min; Hwang, Myeong-Ki; Park, Seo Hye; Park, Yun-Kyu; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Woo

    2017-01-01

    During civil engineering construction near Sejong-ro, Jongro-ku, Seoul, cultural sites were found that are thought to have been built in the 15th century. This area was home to many different people as well as the leaders of the Yi dynasty. To gain further insight into the life styles of the inhabitants of the old capital, soil samples were collected from various areas such as toilets, water foundations, and drainage ways. Parasite eggs were examined by microscopy after 5 g soil samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. A total of 662 parasite eggs from 7 species were found. Species with the highest number of eggs found were Ascaris lumbricoides (n=483), followed by Trichuris trichiura (138), Trichuris vulpis (21), Fasciola hepatica (8), Clonorchis sinensis (6), Paragonimus westermani (4), and Metagonimus yokogawai (2). These findings indirectly indicate the food habits of the people in Yi dynasty. PMID:28719964

  18. Characterization of atmospheric particles in Seoul, Korea using SEM-EDX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunha; Park, Inji; Lee, Young Jae; Lee, Meehye

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric particles in Seoul, Korea were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Particles were identified and characterized by their morphology and elemental compositions. The morphology of particles was closely coupled with elemental compositions, which provided information on sources and transport processes of aerosols. There were various types of combustion-derived particles identified such as fly ashes, soot, organic matters, tar balls, chars, and sulfur-containing particles. These anthropogenic particles mainly have spherical shape with nano- to micro-meter size. Char was, however, distinguished by irregular shape with varying size up to several micrometers. The sulfur-containing aggregates show a wide range of size, shape, and elemental composition. In addition, bioaerosol and mineral dust were the most abundant particles from natural sources.

  19. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  20. Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Formation of Informal Settlements in a Metropolitan Fringe: Seoul (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Han

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many metropolitan areas, the urban fringe is defined by highly sensitive habitats such as forests and wetlands. However, the explosive growth of urban areas has led to the formation of informal settlements in the urban fringe, subsequently threatening these sensitive habitats and exaggerating several social and environmental problems. We seek to improve the current understanding of informal settlements and their formation in the metropolitan fringe through a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the Guryong Area (GA in the Gangnam District, Seoul, South Korea. We measured the land-use and land-cover (LULC changes in the entire GA from 1950 to 2015, and then analyzed the changes in one specific land-use type defined as “spontaneous settlements”. We then combined these changes with landform and slope data in 600-m-wide bands along the gradient of urbanization. The results showed spontaneous settlements distributed in small clusters in 1975, and the growth of this distribution into larger, more condensed clusters beginning in 1985. Between 1950 and 2015, the total area of spontaneous settlements decreased, while the settlement locations shifted from the urban core to the marginal area of the GA. Meanwhile, the locations selected for spontaneous settlements moved from plain areas with slopes of 2–7%, to more steeply sloped, remote areas such as the mountain foothills with slopes of 15–30%. These results suggest that the spatial characteristics of informal settlements are shown in the degree of aggregation and marginalized trend indicated from the analysis of spontaneous settlements. Finally, we hope the spatial analysis can be used as a basis and starting point for the evaluation process of informal settlement redevelopments in other areas of Seoul, as well as in other Asian cities.

  1. Assessment of the Air Quality Improvement Potentials for Seoul Metropolitan Area using GAINS-Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Kim, J.; Bu, C.; Lee, Y.; Choi, K. C.; Amann, M.; Kim, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas are very important places for climate change and air pollution because they have been emitting a significant amount of Green House Gases (GHGs) and air pollutants. Cause they have massive pollutant emissions and high population density with amount of vehicles. Korea's government has set the 2nd phase capital air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets are to achieve annual mean PM10 and pm2.5concentration for SMA Area 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3, respectively. To achieve this target, emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. In this study, we found the emission level of some pollutants for the year 2030 will be decreased compare with the baseline level but the concentration cannot meet their target even with more stringent control measures. The more in-depth analysis of future PM concentration, estimated from Source-Receptor(S-R) relationship, were conducted for more accurate air quality improvement assessment. As the result, we found that secondary and transboundary pollution have been plying significant role in Seoul Metro air quality. Not only direct/in-region measures, therefore, but indirect measures/international cooperation have to be conducted to achieve target air quality. ** This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea.

  2. Analysis on the flood vulnerability in the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area, Korea using spatial database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mung-Jin

    2015-04-01

    In the future, temperature rises and precipitation increases are expected from climate change due to global warming. Concentrated heavy rain, typhoons, flooding, and other weather phenomena bring hydrologic variations. In this study, the flood susceptibility of the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area was analyzed and validated using a GIS based on a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model with training and validation datasets of the flooded area. The flooded area in 2010 was used to train the model, and the flooded area in 2011 was used to validate the model. Using data is that topographic, geological, and soil data from the study areas were collected, processed, and digitized for use in a GIS. Maps relevant to the specific capacity were assembled in a spatial database. Then, flood susceptibility maps were created. Finally, the flood susceptibility maps were validated using the flooded area in 2011, which was not used for training. To represent the flood susceptible areas, this study used the probability-frequency ratio. The frequency ratio is the probability of occurrence of a certain attribute. Logistic regression allows for investigation of multivariate regression relations between one dependent and several independent variables. Logistic regression has a limit in that the calculation process cannot be traced because it repeats calculations to find the optimized regression equation for determining the possibility that the dependent variable will occur. In case of Seoul, The frequency ratio and logistic regression model results showed 79.61% and 79.05% accuracy. And the case of Busan, logistic regression model results showed 82.30%. This information and the maps generated from it could be applied to flood prevention and management. In addition, the susceptibility map provides meaningful information for decision-makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies.

  3. An experiment for urban energy autonomy in Seoul: The One ‘Less’ Nuclear Power Plant policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taehwa; Lee, Taedong; Lee, Yujin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines an experiment in energy self-sufficiency in Seoul, Republic of Korea, through a particular energy policy called the One Less Nuclear Power Plant (OLNPP) policy. We define an urban energy experiment as a purposive intervention for energy transition from an energy system based on nuclear and fossil fuels to one based on renewable energy and energy demand management. We suggest three findings. First, we find that the themes of our theoretical framework policy backgrounds, governance and policy contents have played important roles for Seoul’s energy experiments aimed at urban energy autonomy. In particular, political leadership based on the mayor’s previous experiences contributed significantly to the formation and implementation of this policy. Second, the OLNPP policy adds a social or moral dimension to urban energy policies. The norm change from an environmental and economic focus to a focus on the combination of social, environmental, and economic considerations is a unique contribution of the OLNPP policy to urban experiments in energy transition. Third, we find that experiments through purposive interventions serve as a means for facilitating urban energy governance where the actors involved can communicate and enhance their new ideas and practices. - Highlights: • We analyze One Less Nuclear Power Plant policy, with background, governance and content framework. • The OLNPP policy aims to achieve energy self-sufficiency at a local scale. • An urban energy experiment is for energy transition to renewable energy and energy demand management. • A unique contribution of Seoul’s energy experiment is changing norms by adding a moral dimension

  4. Key Techniques and Risk Management for the Application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA Excavation Method: A Case Study of the Zhongjie Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ping Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area.

  5. Assessment of the impact of dipped guideways on urban rail transit systems: Ventilation and safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The ventilation and fire safety requirements for subway tunnels with dipped profiles between stations as compared to subway tunnels with level profiles were evaluated. This evaluation is based upon computer simulations of a train fire emergency condition. Each of the tunnel configurations evaluated was developed from characteristics that are representative of modern transit systems. The results of the study indicate that: (1) The level tunnel system required about 10% more station cooling than dipped tunnel systems in order to meet design requirements; and (2) The emergency ventilation requirements are greater with dipped tunnel systems than with level tunnel systems.

  6. Personal exposure to particulate matter in commuters using different transport modes (bus, bicycle, car and subway) in an assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Liliana; Mesías, Stephanie; Iglesias, Verónica; Silva, Claudio; Cáceres, Dante D; Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare personal exposure to particulate matter (fine and ultrafine particles) in commuters using different transport modes (bicycle, bus, car and subway) in a busy, assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile. Volunteers carrying personal samplers completed scheduled commutes during the morning rush hours, while central site measurements were conducted in parallel. A total of 137 valid commutes were assessed. The impact of central site, traffic and other variables was explored with regression models. PM2.5 personal concentrations were equal to or slightly above central site measurements, while UFP personal concentrations were above them. Regression models showed impacts of both background levels and traffic emissions on personal PM2.5 and UFP exposure. Traffic impacts varied with transport modes. Estimates of traffic impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure were 2.0, 13.0, 16.9 and 17.5 μg m(-3), for car, bicycle, subway and bus, respectively; while for UFP exposure were 8400, 16 200, 25 600 and 30 100 counts per cm(3), for subway, car, bicycle and bus, respectively. After controlling the central site and transport mode, higher temperatures increased PM2.5 exposure and decreased UFP ones, while the wind direction affected UFP personal exposure. In conclusion, we found significant impacts of both central site background measurements and traffic emissions on personal exposure of volunteer commuters in an assigned route in Santiago, with impacts varying with transport modes.

  7. Genetic analyses of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H S; Choi, K H; Kim, H K; Kong, H H; Chung, D I

    2001-06-01

    We conducted both the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA RFLP analyses for a genetic characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea. Twenty-three strains of Acanthamoeba from the American Type Culture Collection and twelve clinical isolates from Korean patients were used as reference strains. Thirty-nine isolates from contact lens storage cases were classified into seven types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS4, KA/LS5, KA/LS7, KA/LS18, KA/LS31). Four types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS5, KA/LS18) including 33 isolates were regarded as A. castellanii complex by riboprints. KA/LS1 type was the most predominant (51.3%) in the present survey area, followed by KA/LS2 (20.9%), and KA/LS5 (7.7%) types. Amoebae of KA/LS1 type had the same mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns as KA/E2 and KA/E12 strains, clinical isolates from Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS2 type had the identical mtDNA RFLP patterns with A. castellanii Ma strain, a corneal isolate from an American patient as amoebae of KA/LS5 type, with KA/E3 and KA/E8 strains from other Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS18 type had identical patterns with JAC/E1, an ocular isolate from a Japanese patient. Three types, which remain unidentified at species level, were not corresponded with any clinical isolate in their mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns. Out of 39 isolates analyzed in this study, mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns of 33 isolates (84.6%) were identical to already known clinical isolates, and therefore, they may be regarded as potentially keratopathogenic. These results suggest that contact lens wearers in Seoul should pay more attention to hygienic maintenance of contact lens storage cases for the prevention of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  8. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  9. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  10. Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Seoul, South Korea in relation to an urban effect

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Kar; Y.-A. Liou; K.-J. Ha

    2007-01-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash data collected by the lightning detection network installed at the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) have been used to study the urban effect on lightning activity over and around Seoul, the largest metropolitan city of South Korea, for the period of 1989–1999. Negative and positive flash density and the percentage of positive flashes have been calculated. Calculation reveals that an enhancement of approximately 60% and 42% are observed,...

  11. Analysis of source regions and meteorological factors for the variability of spring PM10 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangho; Kim, Kwang-Yul

    2018-02-01

    CSEOF analysis is applied for the springtime (March, April, May) daily PM10 concentrations measured at 23 Ministry of Environment stations in Seoul, Korea for the period of 2003-2012. Six meteorological variables at 12 pressure levels are also acquired from the ERA Interim reanalysis datasets. CSEOF analysis is conducted for each meteorological variable over East Asia. Regression analysis is conducted in CSEOF space between the PM10 concentrations and individual meteorological variables to identify associated atmospheric conditions for each CSEOF mode. By adding the regressed loading vectors with the mean meteorological fields, the daily atmospheric conditions are obtained for the first five CSEOF modes. Then, HYSPLIT model is run with the atmospheric conditions for each CSEOF mode in order to back trace the air parcels and dust reaching Seoul. The K-means clustering algorithm is applied to identify major source regions for each CSEOF mode of the PM10 concentrations in Seoul. Three main source regions identified based on the mean fields are: (1) northern Taklamakan Desert (NTD), (2) Gobi Desert and (GD), and (3) East China industrial area (ECI). The main source regions for the mean meteorological fields are consistent with those of previous study; 41% of the source locations are located in GD followed by ECI (37%) and NTD (21%). Back trajectory calculations based on CSEOF analysis of meteorological variables identify distinct source characteristics associated with each CSEOF mode and greatly facilitate the interpretation of the PM10 variability in Seoul in terms of transportation route and meteorological conditions including the source area.

  12. Monitoring middle-atmospheric water vapor over Seoul by using a 22 GHz ground-based radiometer SWARA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Soohyun; de Wachter, Evelyn; Kaempfer, Niklaus; Oh, Jung Jin

    2010-10-01

    Water vapor is the strongest natural greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. It is most abundant in the troposphere at low altitudes, due to evaporation at the ocean surface, with maximum values of around 6 g/kg. The amount of water vapor reaches a minimum at tropopause level and increases again in the middle atmosphere through oxidation of methane and vertical transport. Water vapor has both positive and negative effects on global warming, and we need to study how it works on climate change by monitoring water vapor concentration in the middle atmosphere. In this paper, we focus on the 22 GHz ground-based radiometer called SWARA (Seoul Water vapor Radiometer) which has been operated at Sookmyung women's university in Seoul, Korea since Oct. 2006. It is a joint project of the University of Bern, Switzerland, and the Sookmyung Women's University of Seoul, South Korea. The SWARA receives 22.235 GHz emitted from water vapor spontaneously and converts down to 1.5 GHz with +/- 0.5 GHz band width in 61 kHz resolution. To represent 22.235 GHz water vapor spectrum precisely, we need some calibration methods because the signal shows very weak intensity in ~0.1 K on the ground. For SWARA, we have used the balancing and the tipping curve methods for a calibration. To retrieve the water vapor profile, we have applied ARTS and Qpack software. In this paper, we will present the calibration methods and water vapor variation over Seoul for the last 4 years.

  13. Optimization of Seoul-Fluor-based lipid droplet bioprobes and their application in microalgae for bio-fuel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngjun; Na, Sangcheol; Lee, Sanghee; Jeon, Noo Li; Park, Seung Bum

    2013-05-01

    We synthesized a series of Seoul-Fluor-based lipid droplet bioprobes with a linear range of lipophilicity and identified SF44 and SF58 as SF-based LD bioprobes in microalgae for biofuel research as well as in mammalian cells. Unlike Nile Red, SF-based bioprobes can stain algal LDs with excellent efficiency under the non-invasive and non-cytotoxic conditions.

  14. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Responses of two invasive plants under various microclimate conditions in the Seoul metropolitan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO(2) concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO(2)) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO(2)) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  16. Land-use regression panel models of NO2 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkook; Guldmann, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    Transportation and land-use activities are major air pollution contributors. Since their shares of emissions vary across space and time, so do air pollution concentrations. Despite these variations, panel data have rarely been used in land-use regression (LUR) modeling of air pollution. In addition, the complex interactions between traffic flows, land uses, and meteorological variables, have not been satisfactorily investigated in LUR models. The purpose of this research is to develop and estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) panel models based on the LUR framework with data for Seoul, Korea, accounting for the impacts of these variables, and their interactions with spatial and temporal dummy variables. The panel data vary over several scales: daily (24 h), seasonally (4), and spatially (34 intra-urban measurement locations). To enhance model explanatory power, wind direction and distance decay effects are accounted for. The results show that vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT) and solar radiation have statistically strong positive and negative impacts on NO2 concentrations across the four seasonal models. In addition, there are significant interactions with the dummy variables, pointing to VKT and solar radiation effects on NO2 concentrations that vary with time and intra-urban location. The results also show that residential, commercial, and industrial land uses, and wind speed, temperature, and humidity, all impact NO2 concentrations. The R2 vary between 0.95 and 0.98.

  17. Speciation and source identification of organic compounds in PM₁₀ over Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Na Rae; Lee, Se Pyo; Lee, Ji Yi; Jung, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Seventy three individual organic compounds in the atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 μm (PM10) over Seoul were identified and quantified from April 2010 to April 2011 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These organic compounds were classified into five groups, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-carboxylic acids, di-carboxylic acids (DCAs), and sugars based on their chemical structures and properties. The organic compounds showed higher seasonal average concentrations from fall to winter than from spring to summer due to source strength, except some organic compounds among mono-carboxylic acids, DCAs, sugars such as undecanoic acid, methylmalonic acid, and fructose. Through qualitative data analysis using seasonal concentration variations and relevant diagnostic parameters, it was found that (1) anthropogenic sources such as combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning attributed more to the formation of the organic aerosols than biogenic sources, and (2) the ambient level of n-alkanes, PAHs, and some compounds of DCAs and sugars was elevated in winter due to the increased primary emissions and larger transport from outside of the organic compounds in winter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of the first water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Kwak, Wooseok; Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Won; Oh, Jaeyeon; Youn, Seung-Ki

    2013-07-01

    The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines.

  19. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  20. Mental health conditions in Korean atomic bomb survivors. A survey in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimoto, Rika; Nakane, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyen

    2011-01-01

    More than 60 years have elapsed since the atomic bombings to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and since all of the atomic bomb survivors have become old, the importance of caring their mental health has become increasing in Japan. Although approximately 70% of overseas atomic bomb are living in Korea, there have been quite few studies on their mental health. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate whether the mental health conditions of atomic bomb survivor in Korea are similar to those in Japan. The subjects were 181 Korean atomic bomb survivors living in Korea (cases) and 209 outpatients of a hospital in Seoul who were not exposed to atomic bombs (controls). Interviewers administered them at the hospital a questionnaire with Impact of Event Scale-Revised, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), Korean version of short form Geriatric Depression Scale and the K scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Excluding subjects with incomplete responses we analyzed 162 cases and 189 controls. The proportion of subjects with high score of GHQ-12 (≥4) was significantly higher in cases (78/162 or 48.1%) than in controls (42/189 or 22.2%) (p<0.0001, Fisher's exact test). The present results, though preliminary, indicate that atomic bomb survivors in Korea have also mental health problems similar to those observed in Japanese atomic bomb survivors, indicating the necessity of a larger study. (author)

  1. Effect of diurnal temperature range on cardiovascular markers in the elderly in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-07-01

    While diurnal temperature range (DTR) has been found to be a risk factor for mortality, evaluation of the underlying mechanisms involved in this association are lacking. To explain the association between DTR and health effects, we investigated how cardiovascular markers responded to DTR. Data was obtained from 560 participants who regularly attended a community elderly welfare center located in Seoul, Korea. Data collection was conducted a total of five times over a 3-year period beginning in August, 2008. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Mixed-effects models and generalized additive mixed models were used to assess the relationship of DTR with BP, HR, and HRV. BP was not associated significantly with rapid temperature changes during the day. While HR was associated linearly with increments of DTR, the relationship between DTR and HRV showed nonlinear associations, or the presence of a cutoff around median DTR. At the cutoff level of DTR determined by an inflection point in the graph, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and root mean square successive difference (RMSSD) were peaked, whereas the low frequency:high frequency (LF:HF) ratio was elevated with decreasing DTR below the cutoff level. The study demonstrated that HR increases with increasing temperature range during the day, and that HRV is reduced at small or large DTR, which suggests minimal cardiovascular stress around the median level of temperature range during the day.

  2. Statistical properties of effective drought index (EDI) for Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Mokpo in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chang, Heon-Young

    2014-08-01

    Time series of drought indices has been considered mostly in view of temporal and spatial distributions of a drought index so far. Here we investigate the statistical properties of a daily Effective Drought Index (EDI) itself for Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Mokpo for the period of 100 years from 1913 to 2012. We have found that both in dry and wet seasons the distribution of EDI as a function of EDI follows the Gaussian function. In dry season the shape of the Gaussian function is characteristically broader than that in wet seasons. The total number of drought days during the period we have analyzed is related both to the mean value and more importantly to the standard deviation. We have also found that according to the distribution of the number of occasions where the EDI values of several consecutive days are all less than a threshold, the distribution follows the exponential distribution. The slope of the best fit becomes steeper not only as the critical EDI value becomes more negative but also as the number of consecutive days increases. The slope of the exponential distribution becomes steeper as the number of the city in which EDI is simultaneously less than a critical EDI in a row increases. Finally, we conclude by pointing out implications of our findings.

  3. Studying Air Pollutants Origin and Associated Meteorological Parameters over Seoul from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmin Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the temporal characteristics of major air pollutants collected from 44 air quality stations over the city of Seoul, Korea, namely, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, particular matter at 10 microns, and sulfur dioxide (SO2 between 2000 and 2009. The corresponding satellite datasets, namely, aerosol optical depth (AODsat, Ångström exponent, and fine mode fraction, collected from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS as well as the Aeronet ground aerosol optical depth (AODaeronet, have been analyzed. Pollutants’ seasonal effect has been inferred from the precipitation and temperature. The four pollutants under study show varying temporal characteristics with different annual mean concentration patterns. The monthly mean of mentioned pollutants all show similar low concentrations during the summer season and high concentrations during the winter season. We found that pollution is strongly linked to temperature and precipitation variability, especially during the fall season. Satellite data analysis provides information on the pollutants origin whether of natural or anthropogenic type. Our results indicate that the anthropogenic aerosol is dominant in the summer season even though the concentration was lower than the other seasons. AODaeronet and Ångström exponent indicated high positive and negative correlation coefficients with PM10, 0.60, and −0.45, respectively. Both small and large sizes of aerosols existed in 2007; however coarse size of aerosols was the primary component in 2002.

  4. Incidence of presbycusis of Korean populations in Seoul, Kyunggi and Kangwon provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. N.; Kim, S. G.; Lee, H. K.; Ohrr, H.; Moon, S. K.; Chi, J.; Lee, E. H.; Park, K.; Park, D. J.; Lee, J. H.; Yi, S. W.

    2000-01-01

    Presbycusis, a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss caused by changes in the inner ear, is related to multiple factors such as noise exposure and otologic disease. In institute-based studies, we tried to determine the incidence of presbycusis in Korean populations living in Seoul, Kyunggi and Kangwon provinces by gender and age groups. The subjects were people who had visited health promotion centers. Pure tone audiometry was done over 20 years on 6,028 subjects. In a community-based study, the subjects were elderly residents of Kanghwa-do area. There were no obvious factors that could cause hearing impairment in the subjects. For the pure tone audiometry, hearing threshold was obtained by using the six-dimension method. The incidence of presbycusis for subjects aged 65 years and older was 37.8% and 8.3% for > or = 27 dB HL criterion and > or = 41 dB HL criterion, respectively. The incidence increased with age. A statistically significant difference in the hearing threshold was found between men and women aged 65 years or older. No differences were found between the community-based study and the institute- based studies. There was a high incidence (about 40%) of presbycusis among Koreans aged 65 years or older (for > or = 27 dB HL criterion). With an aging population, we anticipate that this report could be used to provide a basic data for the study of presbycusis. PMID:11068997

  5. The Department of Neurosurgery at Seoul National University: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D G; Kim, H J

    2001-04-01

    The Department of Neurosurgery at Seoul National University College of Medicine is one of the oldest neurosurgical departments in Korea, and it is a center of academic leadership in neurosurgery. In September 1957, the department was established by Bo Sung Sim, and it has produced many leaders of neurosurgery in Korea. Chairmen Bo Sung Sim, Kil Soo Choi, Dae Hee Han, and Byung-Kyu Cho each brought special skills and talents to the development of the department. The current and fifth chair, Hyun Jib Kim, assumed the chairmanship in July 2000. The department comprises 11 full-time faculty members, 5 fellows, and 14 residents. More than 1,700 neurosurgical procedures are performed annually in four operating theaters. A gamma knife was installed in 1997, and approximately 200 gamma knife procedures are performed each year. In addition to clinical activities, research and education for graduate and postgraduate students are also particular strengths of the department. This article traces the clinical, academic, and scientific development of the department, its present activities, and its future direction.

  6. A pragmatic trial in the Rio de Janeiro subway to capture smokers for a quitline: methodological challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, André Salem; da Silva Freire Coutinho, Evandro; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, smoking is an important cause of death worldwide. To encourage smoking cessation, persuasive messages can be used to raise smokers' risk perception. This article discusses challenges and solutions in designing a study to evaluate the effect of two different communication strategies ("gains from quitting" vs. "losses from continuing smoking") in encouraging calls to a quitline. The authors conducted an intervention study in two subway stations for 4 weeks, considering only 1 strategy per station. Large posters containing non-age-specific images and texts, on the basis of the theme"shortness of breath," were displayed on central dividing columns on the boarding platforms. Call rates from the selected stations, and respective rate ratios, overall and per study week, were calculated. Passengers who were smokers, exposed to the positive-content message, called on average 1.7 times more often than did those exposed to the negative-content message (p = .01). Moreover, call rate ratios did not decline over the 4 weeks of the study (p = .40). The effectiveness findings suggest that antismoking campaigns could use positive-content messages in order to recruit a larger smoker population. The proposed methodology can also be used to evaluate effectiveness of messages for "capturing" individuals with other health problems (e.g., alcohol abuse), thereby increasing its potential impact.

  7. The Metagenomics and Metadesign of the Subways and Urban Biomes (MetaSUB) International Consortium inaugural meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-03

    The Metagenomics and Metadesign of the Subways and Urban Biomes (MetaSUB) International Consortium is a novel, interdisciplinary initiative comprised of experts across many fields, including genomics, data analysis, engineering, public health, and architecture. The ultimate goal of the MetaSUB Consortium is to improve city utilization and planning through the detection, measurement, and design of metagenomics within urban environments. Although continual measures occur for temperature, air pressure, weather, and human activity, including longitudinal, cross-kingdom ecosystem dynamics can alter and improve the design of cities. The MetaSUB Consortium is aiding these efforts by developing and testing metagenomic methods and standards, including optimized methods for sample collection, DNA/RNA isolation, taxa characterization, and data visualization. The data produced by the consortium can aid city planners, public health officials, and architectural designers. In addition, the study will continue to lead to the discovery of new species, global maps of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) markers, and novel biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Finally, we note that engineered metagenomic ecosystems can help enable more responsive, safer, and quantified cities.

  8. Detection of the sarin hydrolysis product in formalin-fixed brain tissues of victims of the Tokyo subway terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Y; Nagao, M; Takatori, T; Niijima, H; Nakajima, M; Iwase, H; Kobayashi, M; Iwadate, K

    1998-06-01

    One of the hydrolysis products of sarin (isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) was detected in formalin-fixed brain tissues of victims poisoned in the Tokyo subway terrorist attack. Part of this procedure, used for the detection of sarin hydrolysis products in erythrocytes of sarin victims, has been described previously. The test materials were four individual cerebellums, which had been stored in formalin fixative for about 2 years. Sarin-bound acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was solubilized from these cerebellums, purified by immunoaffinity chromatography, and digested with trypsin. Then the sarin hydrolysis products bound to AChE were released by alkaline phosphatase digestion, subjected to trimethylsilyl derivatization (TMS), and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Peaks at m/z 225 and m/z 240, which are indicative of TMS-methylphosphonic acid, were observed within the retention time range of authentic methylphosphonic acid. However, no isopropyl methylphosphonic acid was detected in the formalin-fixed cerebellums of these 4 sarin victims, probably because the isopropoxy group of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid underwent chemical hydrolysis during storage. This procedure will be useful for the forensic diagnosis of poisoning by protein-bound, highly toxic agents, such as sarin, which are easily hydrolysed. This appears to be the first time that intoxication by a nerve agent has been demonstrated by analyzing formalin-fixed brains obtained at autopsy.

  9. Analytical Study on Dynamic Response of Deep Foundation Pit Support Structure under the Action of Subway Train Vibration Load: A Case Study of Deep Foundation Pit of the New Museum Near Metro Line 2 in Chengdu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, foundation pit support structures are generally regarded as the temporary structures and the impact of vibration loads is often overlooked. As opposed to static and seismic loads, the vibration loads of subway trains are a type of cyclic load with a relatively long duration of action and a definite cycle; it is of great importance for the design of foundation pit support structures to correctly evaluate the impact of subway train vibrations on deep foundation pit and support works. In this paper, a dynamic three-dimensional numerical model is built that considers the vibration load of subway trains on the basis of the static numerical model for deep foundation pit support structures and simplified train loads to study the impact of train vibrations on deep foundation pit and permanent support structures. Studies have shown that the dynamic response of surface displacement mainly occurs in the early period of dynamic load, the vibration load of subway trains has little impact on ground subsidence, the support pile structure is in an elastic state during dynamic response under the action of subway train vibrations, and the action of train vibration loads is inimical to the safety of foundation pit support structures and should be closely studied.

  10. A survey of the radiographic cassettes disinfection of university hospitals in seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Park, Peom; Kim, Moon Sun; Kim, Dong Sung

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to prevent nosocomial infection in patients through contact of radiographic cassettes. Data were collected from radiographers working in 29 university hospitals in Seoul in February and March 2001. Radiographic cassettes were disinfected daily in 5 hospitals, weekly in 4 hospitals, monthly in 5 hospitals, bimonthly in 1 hospital and once every three months in another hospital. 12 other hospitals do not practice regular disinfections of radiographic cassettes. Gauze soaked in disinfectant solution is used in 7 hospitals while 11 hospitals used cotton and cloth soaked in disinfectant solution to clean the radiographic cassettes. 26 hospitals used 99% alcohol based disinfectant solutions while 3 hospitals used 75% alcohol based disinfectant, 26 hospitals use of intercourse cassettes outpatients and in patients. In 26 hospitals, all patients shared the same set of radiographic cassettes used in the hospitals, or in 26 hospitals, separate sets of radiographic cassettes are used for outpatients and inpatients. Separate sets of cassettes are used for ICU and inpatients in 6 others hospitals. 23 hospitals used the same sets of radiographic cassettes for all their patients. radiographic cassettes are cleaned in wash area in the study room of the radiographic department in 17 hospitals. 12 other hospitals do not have designated cleaning areas for the cassettes. All radiographers practiced hands washing with soap. All 29 hospitals surveyed have infection control committee. However, only 9 out of the 29 hospitals surveyed provided Infection · disinfections control education to radiographers. Only 3 hospitals have radiographers sitting in the infection control committee. Infection management education is conducted in 63 hospitals annually, twice a year in 1 hospital and once every 3 months in 2 hospitals

  11. Characteristics of cloud occurrence using ceilometer measurements and its relationship to precipitation over Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghee; Hwang, Seung-On; Kim, Jhoon; Ahn, Myoung-Hwan

    2018-03-01

    Clouds are an important component of the atmosphere that affects both climate and weather, however, their contributions can be very difficult to determine. Ceilometer measurements can provide high resolution information on atmospheric conditions such as cloud base height (CBH) and vertical frequency of cloud occurrence (CVF). This study presents the first comprehensive analysis of CBH and CVF derived using Vaisala CL51 ceilometers at two urban stations in Seoul, Korea, during a three-year period from January 2014 to December 2016. The average frequency of cloud occurrence detected by the ceilometers is 54.3%. It is found that the CL51 is better able to capture CBH as compared to another ceilometer CL31 at a nearby meteorological station because it could detect high clouds more accurately. Frequency distributions for CBH up to 13,000 m providing detailed vertical features with 500-m interval show 55% of CBHs below 2 km for aggregated CBHs. A bimodal frequency distribution was observed for three-layers CBHs. A monthly variation of CVF reveals that frequency concentration of lower clouds is found in summer and winter, and higher clouds more often detected in spring and autumn. Monthly distribution features of cloud occurrence and precipitation are depending on seasons and it might be easy to define their relationship due to higher degree of variability of precipitation than cloud occurrence. However, a fluctuation of cloud occurrence frequency in summer is similar to precipitation in trend, whereas clouds in winter are relatively frequent but precipitation is not accompanied. In addition, recent decrease of summer precipitation could be mostly explained by a decrease of cloud occurrence. Anomalous precipitation recorded sometimes is considerably related to corresponding cloud occurrence. The diurnal and daily variations of CBH and CVF from ceilometer observations and the analysis of microwave radiometer measurements for two typical cloudiness cases are also reviewed

  12. Deriving Spatio-Temporal Development of Ground Subsidence Due to Subway Construction and Operation in Delta Regions with PS-InSAR Data: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqiang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Subways have been an important method for relieving traffic pressures in urban areas, but ground subsidence, during construction and operation, can be a serious problem as it may affect the safety of its operation and that of the surrounding buildings. Thus, conducting long-term ground deformation monitoring and modeling for subway networks are essential. Compared with traditional geodetic methods, the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR technique offers wider coverage and denser measurements along subway lines. In this study, we mapped the surface deformation of the Guangzhou subway network with Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR and Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data using the Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA technique. The results indicate that newly excavated tunnels have regional subsidence with an average rate of more than 8 mm/year, as found on Lines Two, Three, Six, and GuangFo (GF. Furthermore, we determined the spatio-temporal subsidence behavior of subways with PALSAR in delta areas using Peck’s formula and the logistic time model. We estimated the tunneling-related parameters in soft soil areas, which had not been previously explored. We examined a section of line GF, as an example, to estimate the ground settlement trough development. The results showed the maximum settlement increased from −5.2 mm to −23.6 mm and its ground loss ratio ranged from 1.5–8.7% between 13 July 2008 and 19 January 2011. In addition, we found that the tunnels in line GF will become stable after a period of about 2300 days in peak subsidence areas. The results show that the proposed approach can help explain the dynamic ground subsidence along a metro line. This study can provide references for urban subway projects in delta areas, and for the risk assessment of nearby buildings and underground pipelines along metro lines.

  13. Settlement Impact Analysis and Countermeasure Research of the Down Traversing Formed by the Double-Arch Subway Tunnels through the Existing Railways in Loess Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the large-scale construction of city subways, the down traversing formed by subway running tunnels through the existing railways or railway yards are increasing day by day. Down traversing in shield method becomes common; however, the engineering cases which can be referable in the down traversing formed by the shallow-buried excavation of double-arch tunnels through the existing railways are very little. The ability to effectively control the excavation of shallow-buried subway tunnels can directly affect the safety of railway operation. According to the engineering characteristics of the down traversing formed by the shallow-buried excavation of double-arch tunnels in loessial layer, this paper proposed the standards for railway bed and track settlement control, and offers underground water treatment measures with assistant steps implemented on the ground surface during construction, so as to ensure the railway operation safety during the construction of the tunnel. Moreover, this paper applied MIDAS-GTS finite element software to make numerical simulation analysis of the down traversing formed by the double-arch tunnel through the railway and obtained the deformation laws during down traversing. The calculations suggest the railway track deformation caused by the down traversing construction of the double-arch tunnel in this project can meet related control standard requirements. There’s certain reference value contained in the deformation laws for the point locations of monitoring measurement. The research conclusions can provide scientific proof and technical guidance for the design and construction of this running tunnel project in order to offer reference for similar projects in the future.

  14. GPR applied to mapping utilities along the route of the Line 4 (yellow) subway tunnel construction in São Paulo City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsani, Jorge Luís; Ruy, Yang Boo; Ramos, Fernanda Pereira; Yamanouth, Gisele R. B.

    2012-05-01

    The rapid industrial development and disorganized population growth in huge cities bring about various urban problems due to intense use of physical space on and below the surface. Subsurface problems in metropolitan areas are caused by subway line construction, which often follows the routes of utility networks, such as electric and telephone cables, water and gas pipes, storm sewers, etc. Usually, the main problems are related to damage or destruction of preexisting utilities, often putting human lives at risk. With the purpose of minimizing risks, GPR-profiling with 200 MHz antennae was done at two sites, both located in downtown São Paulo, Brazil. The objectives of this work were to map utilities or existing infrastructure in the subsurface in order to orient the construction of the Line 4 (yellow) subway tunnel in São Paulo. GPR profiles can detect water pipes, utility networks in the subsurface, and concrete foundation columns or pilings in subsoil up to 2 m depth. In addition, the GPR profiles also provided details of the target shapes in the subsurface. GPR interpretations combined with lithological information from boreholes and trenches opened in the study areas were extremely important in mapping of the correct spatial distribution of buried utilities at these two sites in São Paulo. This information improves and updates maps of utility placement, serves as a basis for planning of the geotechnical excavation of the Line 4 (yellow) subway tunnel in São Paulo, helps minimize problems related to destruction of preexisting utilities in the subsoil, and avoids risk of dangerous accidents.

  15. Increasing the Usage of Personal Protective Equipments in Constructing Subway Stations: An Application of Social Marketing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Although the relationship between the use of personal protective equipment and the reduction of workplace injuries is well-known the use of these devices during operation by the staff is not so desirable. This study was based on a model of social marketing interventions to increase the use of safety devices and personal protection on the subway-station staff. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was based on the results of a formative research consisted of a qualitative (exploring employees’ views through focus group discussions and a quantitative study (measuring attitudes and behaviors by questionnaire and checklist. Based on the formative research findings, a free package includes a helmet with a label containing the message, an anti-cut safety gloves, a dust mask, and an educational pamphlet were delivered to intervention group. After four weeks, the check list of observational behaviors in two constructing stations was completed and the results were compared with before intervention. The data were analyzed by paired t-test, t-test and logistic regression. Results: Three common behaviors were observed among staff not using caps, masks and gloves. The odds ratio for helmet and mask usage in the intervention group was more than other groups. After the intervention, the use of safety helmets and masks significantly increased (p < 0.05. The odds ratio for the use of helmets and masks after intervention in the intervention group was significantly higher than other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The experimental basis of the safety devices and personal protection needs and demands of the audience, material and immaterial costs of the equipment, supplies, and promoting their use in the right place, can encourage the staff to continuously use the safety devices at workplace. Key Words: Workplace, Injuries, Personal Protective Equipment, Social Marketing

  16. Association between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health: a multilevel study in Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Choi, Jaesung; Park, Kisoo; Chung, Yeonseung; Park, Sangjo; Heo, Jongho

    2014-07-29

    Several studies have reported the relationship between residents' perceived neighbourhood safety and their health outcomes. However, those studies suffered from unreliability of neighbourhood safety measure and potential residual confounding related to crime rates. In this study, using multilevel analysis to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, we examined associations between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health after adjusting for potential confounders including the district-level crime rate. Cross-sectional study. We used the first wave of Seoul Welfare Panel Study, which has 7761 individuals from 3665 households in 25 administrative districts in Seoul, South Korea. District-level perceived safety was obtained by aggregating responses from the residents that are representative samples for each administrative district in Seoul. To examine an association between district-level safety and residents' self-rated health, we used mixed effect logistic regression. Our results showed that higher district-level perceived safety, an aggregated measure of district residents' responses towards neighbourhood safety, was significantly associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for sex, age, education level, job status, marital status and household income (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97). Furthermore, this association was still robust when we additionally adjusted for the district-level crime rate (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.95). Our study highlights the importance of improving neighbourhood perceived safety to enhance residents' health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Aerosol radiative effects on mesoscale cloud-precipitation variables over Northeast Asia during the MAPS-Seoul 2015 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Young; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kang, Jeong-Eon; Lee, Taehyoung; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2018-01-01

    The online model, Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is employed to interpret the effects of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction on mesoscale meteorological fields over Northeast Asia during the Megacity Air Pollution Study-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) 2015 campaign. The MAPS-Seoul campaign is a pre-campaign of the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign conducted over the Korean Peninsula. We validated the WRF-Chem simulations during the campaign period, and analyzed aerosol-warm cloud interactions by diagnosing both aerosol direct, indirect, and total effects. The results demonstrated that aerosol directly decreased downward shortwave radiation up to -44% (-282 W m-2) for this period and subsequently increased downward longwave radiation up to +15% (∼52 W m-2) in the presence of low-level clouds along the thematic area. Aerosol increased cloud fraction indirectly up to ∼24% with the increases of both liquid water path and the droplet number mixing ratio. Precipitation properties were altered both directly and indirectly. Direct effects simply changed cloud-precipitation quantities via simple updraft process associated with perturbed radiation and temperature, while indirect effects mainly suppressed precipitation, but sometimes increased precipitation in the higher relative humidity atmosphere or near vapor-saturated condition. The total aerosol effects caused a time lag of the precipitation rate with the delayed onset time of up to 9 h. This implies the importance of aerosol effects in improving mesoscale precipitation rate prediction in the online approach in the presence of non-linear warm cloud.

  18. Relationship of age at menarche on anthropometric index and menstrual irregularity in late adolescent girls in Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo examine the relationship between menarcheal age and anthropometric indices and menstrual irregularity in late adolescent girls in Seoul.MethodsWe surveyed 4,218 fertile adolescent girls between the ages of 16 and 18 years to determine their anthropometric indices and menarcheal age. Measurements were taken from June 2008 to October 2009 at seven girl's high schools in Seoul, Korea. Participants were offered self-report questionnaire as a survey tool that included questions on anthropometric indices (height, weight, waist circumference, menarcheal age, menstrual pattern, frequency of menstruation per year.ResultsThe participants were categorized into three groups based on menarcheal age: early menarche group (younger than 2 standard deviations [SD], mid menarche group (within ±2 SD, late menarche group (older than 2 SD. The mean age of early menarche group was 9.9±0.2 years, mid menarche group 12.5±0.9 years, late menarche group 15.1±0.3 years (P < 0.001. Heights were recorded as 160.4±5.2 cm, 161.8±4.9 cm, 162.3±4.7 cm in early, mid, and late menarche group, respectively (P = 0.001. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference significantly were lager in early menarche group than mid and late menarche ones (P < 0.001. The menarcheal age had a positive correlation with height and negative correlations with weight, BMI, waist circumference (P < 0.001. The prevalence of oligomenorrhea was more frequent in late menarche group than early and mid menarche group.ConclusionThe menarcheal age have positive relationship with height and inverse relationship with BMI and waist circumference in late adolescent girls in Seoul. Late menarcheal girls are disposed to have menstrual irregularity compared to early menarcheal girls.

  19. Wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo observed by skyradiometer in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Eck, Thomas F.; Lee, Yun Gon; Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Mijin; Jung, Ukkyo; Yoon, Jongmin; Mok, Jungbin; Cho, Hi-Ku

    2016-11-01

    Absorption and scattering characteristics of various aerosol events are investigated using 2-years of measurements from a skyradiometer at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea. Both transported dust and anthropogenic aerosols are observed at distinct geo-location of Seoul, a megacity located a few thousand kilometers away from dust source regions in China. We focus on the wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA), showing the characteristics of regional aerosols. The correlation between spectral SSAs and AEs calculated using different wavelength pairs generally indicates relatively weak absorption of fine-mode aerosols (urban pollution and/or biomass burning) and strong absorption of coarse-mode aerosols (desert dust) at this location. AE ratio (AER), a ratio of AEs calculated using wavelength pair between shorter (340-675 nm) and longer wavelength pair (675-1020 nm) correlates differently with SSA according to the dominant size of local aerosols. Correlations between SSA and AER show strong absorption of aerosols for AER 2.0. Based on the seasonal pattern of wavelength dependence of AER and SSA, this correlation difference looks to reveal the separated characteristics of transported dust and anthropogenic particles from urban pollution respectively. The seasonal characteristics of AER and SSAs also show that the skyradiometer measurement with multiple wavelengths may be able to detect the water soluble brown carbon, one of the important secondary organic aerosols in the summertime atmospheric composition.

  20. A Community Energy Transition Model for Urban Areas: The Energy Self-Reliant Village Program in Seoul, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While community energy initiatives are on the rise, community actions for energy transition in Asian countries have rarely been studied. While it is difficult for community energy initiatives to develop spontaneously in Seoul, there are some success stories there. This study places these successes in context. It analyzes municipal documents, including unpublished materials from municipal meetings, in order to examine how the Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG created enabling conditions for promoting community energy initiatives. This study also conducted interviews to explore unsolved issues related to the Energy Self-Reliant Village (ESV program. The SMG encouraged collective action through financial, administrative, and informational support. Also, this study found that Seoul’s ESV program fostered communities by raising the sense of locality and responsibility and community spirit through various educational programs. The ESV program supported the continuity of community by providing guidelines that relieved the burden on community members. The SMG played a significant role in promoting community engagement in energy transition by affecting internal and external conditions. This study provides meaningful insights that other municipalities, especially large urban areas, can follow to foster community actions for energy transition.

  1. Filling the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks of urban emergency management: Following the 2013 Seoul Floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minsun; Jung, Kyujin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks following the 2013 Seoul Floods in which the rapid transmission of disaster information and resources was impeded by severe changes of interorganizational collaboration networks. This research uses the 2013 Seoul Emergency Management Survey data that were collected before and after the floods, and total 94 organizations involving in coping with the floods were analyzed in bootstrap independent-sample t-test and social network analysis through UCINET 6 and STATA 12. The findings show that despite the primary network form that is more hierarchical, horizontal collaboration has been relatively invigorated in actual response. Also, interorganizational collaboration networks for response operations seem to be more flexible grounded on improvisation to coping with unexpected victims and damages. Local organizations under urban emergency management are recommended to tightly build a strong commitment for joint response operations through full-size exercises at the metropolitan level before a catastrophic event. Also, interorganizational emergency management networks need to be restructured by reflecting the actual response networks to reduce collaboration risk during a disaster. This research presents a critical insight into inverse thinking of the view designing urban emergency management networks and provides original evidences for filling the gap between previously coordinated networks for disaster preparedness and practical response operations after a disaster.

  2. The Effects of Greenbelt Policies on Land Development: Evidence from the Deregulation of the Greenbelt in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoying Han

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenbelt policies are important urban containment policies. On the one hand, they can effectively control the disorderly growth of a city; on the other hand, they can cause other social problems because of their strict control over land development. This paper uses data from 2000 and 2010 and the difference-in-differences (DID method to evaluate the effects of greenbelt deregulation policies on urban land development in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA through a quasi-natural experiment. The results show that first, the deregulation of the greenbelt has significantly furthered urban land development that was not caused by economic development or other factors. Second, the greenbelt deregulation had no significant effects on urban land development in the city centers, but has furthered urban land development near the boundary of Seoul City and greenbelt boundaries. Third, in terms of the effects on land development, the greenbelt deregulation has resulted in regional heterogeneity. Specifically, the greenbelt deregulation has had a significant impact on the urban land development in the southern section of the Han River, whereas the effects of the greenbelt deregulation in the northern area of the Han River are not as obvious.

  3. Total gaseous concentrations in mercury in Seoul, Korea: Local sources compared to long-range transport from China and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Seung-Hee; Holsen, Thomas M.; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2009-01-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured every 5 min and hourly, respectively, in Seoul, Korea, from February 2005 through December 2006. The mean concentrations of TGM and CO were 3.44 ± 2.13 ng m -3 and 613 ± 323 ppbv, respectively. TGM and CO concentrations were highest during the winter and lowest during the summer. In total, 154 high TGM concentration events were identified: 86 were classified as long-range transport events and 68 were classified as local events. The TGM and CO concentrations were well correlated during all long-range transport events and were weakly correlated during local events. Five-day backward trajectory analysis for long-range transport events showed four potential source regions: China (79%), Japan (13%), the Yellow Sea (6%), and Russia (2%). Our results suggest that measured ΔTGM/ΔCO can be used to identify long-range transported mercury and to estimate mercury emissions from long-range transport. - This study identified long-range transport from China and local sources of elevated TGM concentrations in Seoul, Korea using the relationship between ΔTGM and ΔCO

  4. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae): comparison of R. chosenica and R. plancyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2011-06-01

    Here, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae), which is known as a Korean endemic species. It is listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN Red List and also an endangered species in South Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica consists of 18,357 bp. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with those of other Rana frogs. We compared the mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica with that of the Peking frog Rana plancyi that has been known closely related to R. chosenica. Nucleotide sequence similarity between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 95.7%, and the relatively low similarity seems to indicate that the two species are distinctly separated on the species level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two species was discussed in detail.

  6. [Recruitment of smokers in the Rio de Janeiro subway, Brazil, as a strategy to increase access to quitline services: the impact of novelty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, André Salem; Coutinho, Evandro da Silva Freire; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Perez, Cristina; Moreira, Taís de Campos; Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Pinho, Mariana; Carvalho, Valeska Figueiredo

    2009-11-01

    Creative and innovative strategies to recruit smokers are essential for improving tobacco control activities. Currently in Brazil, through health warning messages on cigarette packs, there is a permanent and intense spread of messages that provoke feelings of loss associated with smoking, which is important to encourage access to smoking quitlines. The study analyzed the call rate for telephone counseling after introducing a new strategy for reactive recruitment focused on the theme 'smoking causes shortness of breath', adapted to the subway setting in Rio de Janeiro, as compared to the rates for two existing reactive strategies. Regardless of age bracket, there was a higher response to the new proposed strategy. Despite the major awareness-raising in Brazil concerning the ills of tobacco, new communications formats approaching personally relevant themes can increase the number and range of smokers recruited for telephone counseling to support cessation.

  7. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  8. Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Seoul, South Korea in relation to an urban effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kar

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud-to-ground (CG lightning flash data collected by the lightning detection network installed at the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA have been used to study the urban effect on lightning activity over and around Seoul, the largest metropolitan city of South Korea, for the period of 1989–1999. Negative and positive flash density and the percentage of positive flashes have been calculated. Calculation reveals that an enhancement of approximately 60% and 42% are observed, respectively, for negative and positive flash density over and downwind of the city. The percentage decrease of positive flashes occurs over and downwind of Seoul and the amount of decrease is nearly 20% compared to upwind values. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by Steiger et al. (2002 and Westcott (1995. CG lightning activities have also been considered in relation to annual averages of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm and sulphur dioxide (SO2 concentrations. Interesting results are found, indicating that the higher concentration of SO2 contributes to the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. On the other hand, the contribution from PM10 concentration has not appeared in this study to be as significant as SO2 in the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. Correlation coefficients of 0.33 and 0.64 are found between the change in CG lightning flashes and the PM10 and SO2, respectively, for upwind to downwind areas, suggesting a significant influence of the increased concentration of SO2 on the enhancement of CG flashes.

  9. Assessment of the Performance of a Scanning Wind Doppler Lidar at an Urban-Mountain Site in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Kim, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Winds in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are important factors for accurate modelling of air quality, numerical weather prediction and conversion of satellite measurements to near-surface air quality information (Seibert et al., AE, 2000; Emeis et al., Meteorol. Z., 2008). In this study, we (1) evaluate wind speed (WS) and direction (WD) retrieved from Wind Doppler Lidar (WDL) measurements by two methods [so called, `sine-fitting (SF) method' and `singular value decomposition (SVD) method'] and (2) analyze the WDL data at Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, to investigate the diurnal evolution of winds and aerosol characteristics in PBL. Evaluation of the two methods used in retrieving wind from radial velocity was done through comparison with radiosonde soundings from the same site. Winds retrieved using the SVD method from mean radial velocity of 15 minutes showed good agreement with radiosonde profiles (i.e., bias of 0.03 m s-1 and root mean square of 1.70 m s-1 in WS). However, the WDL was found to have difficulty retrieving signals under clean conditions (i.e., too small signal to noise ratio) or under the presence of near-surface optically-thick aerosol/cloud layer (i.e., strong signal attenuation). Despite this shortcoming, the WDL was able to successfully capture the diurnal variation of PBL wind. Two major wind patterns were observed at SNU; first of all, when convective boundary layer was strongly developed, thermally induced winds with large variation of vertical WS in the afternoon and a diurnal variation in WD showing characteristics of mountain and valley winds were observed. Secondly, small variation in WS and WD throughout the day was a major characteristic of cases when wind was largely influenced by the synoptic weather pattern.

  10. Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Seoul, South Korea in relation to an urban effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kar

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud-to-ground (CG lightning flash data collected by the lightning detection network installed at the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA have been used to study the urban effect on lightning activity over and around Seoul, the largest metropolitan city of South Korea, for the period of 1989–1999. Negative and positive flash density and the percentage of positive flashes have been calculated. Calculation reveals that an enhancement of approximately 60% and 42% are observed, respectively, for negative and positive flash density over and downwind of the city. The percentage decrease of positive flashes occurs over and downwind of Seoul and the amount of decrease is nearly 20% compared to upwind values. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by Steiger et al. (2002 and Westcott (1995. CG lightning activities have also been considered in relation to annual averages of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm and sulphur dioxide (SO2 concentrations. Interesting results are found, indicating that the higher concentration of SO2 contributes to the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. On the other hand, the contribution from PM10 concentration has not appeared in this study to be as significant as SO2 in the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. Correlation coefficients of 0.33 and 0.64 are found between the change in CG lightning flashes and the PM10 and SO2, respectively, for upwind to downwind areas, suggesting a significant influence of the increased concentration of SO2 on the enhancement of CG flashes.

  11. Spatial Approach of Climate Risk Assessment and Uncertainty: A Case Study of Heat Wave Risk in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.

    2016-12-01

    As climate change continuously reaches new climaxes, it is aggravating many climate extremes. Urban heat island effect (UHI) is one of them. It occurs in cities with sealed surfaces and building canyons, which make changes in storage, radiative and turbulent heat flux that make cities warmer than surrounding areas. However, applying adequate policies at the right place can attenuate the impacts of UHI. Therefore, heat wave risk assessment is important in the sense that it helps decision makers set priority in targets of application. Seoul is highly urbanized capital of South Korea. It is suffering from increasing heat wave days and tropical nights every year. More than 10 million residents are exposed to heat extremes and measures should be taken. Therefore, heat wave risk assessment of Seoul should be done in advance. While, risk assessment contains uncertainty; from variables to assessment procedure. However, there is no standardized assessment methodology. A fuzzy logic, introduced by Zadeh in 1965, is applied in quantifying these uncertainties. We fuzzified indices for assessing heat wave risk with threshold values. And indices were aggregated step by step with fuzzy operators, which make up "vulnerability" and "climate exposure". Vulnerability and climate exposure are further combined with fuzzy operator to derive complete heat wave risk assessment map. As a result, we expressed spatial distribution of UHI risk. Districts lying in the central area of the city showed higher risk than in marginal areas. In addition, hierarchic structured approach of assessing risk in this study makes it easy to track key variables of risk, therefore, giving decision makers insights to help their application of adaptation policies.

  12. Analysis of parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (1984-2005) in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Hyung; Chu, Jong-Phil; Jiang, Meihua; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Bum-Shik; Kim, Deog-Gon; Park, Yong-Koo

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (KMC) from 1984 to 2005. The total number of parasite infection cases was 150 (0.07%) out of the total 211,859 biopsy specimens submitted for histopathological examinations. They consisted of 62 cysticercosis, 23 sparganosis, 16 paragonimiasis, 15 amebiasis, 11 anisakiasis, 11 clonorchiasis, 3 ascariasis, 2 scabies, 2 enterobiasis, 2 trichuriasis, 1 leishmaniasis, 1 taeniasis, and 1 thelaziasis. Out of 62 cysticercosis cases, 55 were detected in subcutaneous tissues or the central nerve system. Eighteen out of 23 sparganosis cases were involved in muscular and subcutaneous tissues. In most anisakiasis cases, the involved organ was the stomach. The lung and the pleura were the most common site of paragonimiasis. The incidence of parasitic diseases during the first 5 years (1984-1988) was the highest of all observed periods. After 1989, similar incidences were shown throughout the period. Whereas cysticercosis was diagnosed in 34 cases during 1984-1988, no case has been diagnosed since 2000. In the case of sparganosis, the chronological incidence was almost uniform throughout the period 1984-2005. Paragonimiasis showed a similar tendency to cysticercosis. In gender and age distribution of parasitic diseases, men showed higher incidence rates than females, and the age groups of the 40s or older indicated higher infection frequencies than other age groups. Therefore, these results are a significant report to appear the tendency of human parasitic disease diagnosed by tissue biopsy in association with parasitosis at KMC in Seoul.

  13. 9-Aryl-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-one (Seoul-Fluor) as a smart platform for colorful ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2011-07-21

    In this communication, we report that 9-aryl-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-one (Seoul-Fluor) can serve as a potential platform for colorful ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors by simple incorporation of pH responsive elements on Seoul-Fluor. Seoul-Fluor-based fluorescent pH sensors allow the emission- and pH-tuning ability upon protonation by varying their pK(a) values and electronic characteristics of substituents by a rational design.

  14. The development of an on-line ERM system for the research reactors in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Lee, Wanno; Kim, Eun Han; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2007-08-01

    A real-time on-line environmental radiation monitoring (ERM) system for the research reactor sites of Daejeon and Seoul is established. In the Daejeon site, a radio communication method with a radiofrequency of 468.8 MHz is used between the main computer and the six posts inside the Daejeon research reactor site. A general telephone communication method by a dial modem is applied between the main computer and a comparison point with one post outside the Daejeon research reactor site. In the Seoul site, a null modem communication method is employed between a sub-computer and the three posts inside the Seoul research reactor site, and a high-speed communication network such as ADSL is used between the sub-computer in the Seoul site and the main computer in the Daejeon site. Consequently, the real-time data from a total of 10 places is displayed on-line on a screen and it is statistically treated.

  15. The development of an on-line ERM system for the research reactors in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kimhr@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Wanno; Kim, Eun Han; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-21

    A real-time on-line environmental radiation monitoring (ERM) system for the research reactor sites of Daejeon and Seoul is established. In the Daejeon site, a radio communication method with a radiofrequency of 468.8 MHz is used between the main computer and the six posts inside the Daejeon research reactor site. A general telephone communication method by a dial modem is applied between the main computer and a comparison point with one post outside the Daejeon research reactor site. In the Seoul site, a null modem communication method is employed between a sub-computer and the three posts inside the Seoul research reactor site, and a high-speed communication network such as ADSL is used between the sub-computer in the Seoul site and the main computer in the Daejeon site. Consequently, the real-time data from a total of 10 places is displayed on-line on a screen and it is statistically treated.

  16. Characteristics of PM2.5 in Seoul in relationship with PM10 and PM1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Lee, M.; Lim, S.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.; Chang, L.

    2017-12-01

    PM2.5 was enacted to an environmental standard in 2005 and then has enforced since 2015 in Korea. PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 mass and their chemical components were measured in Seoul during 2007-2008. To investigate the suitability of PM2.5 mass as an environmental standard for fine and coarse aerosols, samples were classified into three groups on the PM1.0 and PM10 mass relationship, in which three groups were divided into Group 1 (PM1.0 proportionally increased with PM10), Group 2 (PM10 dominantly increased rather than PM1.0) and Group 3 (PM1.0 relatively mainly increased rather than PM10). The average PM2.5 mass concentrations of former two groups exceeded the annual standard. In Group 1, PM1.0 and PM10 mass showed good correlation, in which SO42-, NO3-, OC, and EC increased when air masses passed over urbanized regions in East China along with trace gases. So, Group 1 represents fine aerosols episode impacted by Chinese outflows. The PM2.5 mass of Group 2 increased when air masses were transported from desert areas region as well as PM10 mass, and Ca2+. It reveals that the main source of Group 2 is Asian dust. Thus, these two high PM episodes were well captured by PM2.5 mass. Although the average PM2.5 mass concentration of Group 3 was lower than the annual standard, the proportion of carbonaceous fine aerosols against PM2.5 mass was noticeably increased while air massed were slowly moving through Seoul. The results of chemical analysis and NMF (Non-negative Matrix Factorization) receptor model implied that the increase of carbonaceous aerosols was associated with local traffic emission. These results show that PM2.5 mass is a suitable environmental standard for detecting high aerosol events in Korea. However, the high concentration of carbonaceous aerosols during non-episode days of Group 3 showed that caution and effort are needed to stem the rise of carbonaceous aerosols due to local emissions.

  17. Isolation of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain from Wild Birds in Seoul, a Highly Urbanized Area in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-07-01

    Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates. This H5N8 virus was likely introduced into the urbanized city by migratory wild birds. Therefore, wild bird habitats in urbanized areas should be carefully monitored for HPAIV.

  18. Rational perturbation of the fluorescence quantum yield in emission-tunable and predictable fluorophores (Seoul-Fluors) by a facile synthetic method involving C-H activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Joung; Kim, Eunha; Lee, Youngjun; Jo, Ala; Park, Seung Bum

    2014-01-27

    Fluorescence imaging enables the uniquely sensitive observation of functional- and molecular-recognition events in living cells. However, only a limited range of biological processes have been subjected to imaging because of the lack of a design strategy and difficulties in the synthesis of biosensors. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of emission-tunable and predictable Seoul-Fluors, 9-aryl-1,2-dihydrolopyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-ones, with various R(1) and R(2) substituents by coinage-metal-catalyzed intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and subsequent palladium-mediated CH activation. We also showed that the quantum yields of Seoul-Fluors are controlled by the electronic nature of the substituents, which influences the extent of photoinduced electron transfer. On the basis of this understanding, we demonstrated our design strategy by the development of a Seoul-Fluor-based chemosensor 20 for reactive oxygen species that was not accessible by a previous synthetic route. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of Creative Commons the Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  19. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  20. Modeling the Hourly Distribution of Population at a High Spatiotemporal Resolution Using Subway Smart Card Data: A Case Study in the Central Area of Beijing

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    Yunjia Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of the dynamic changes in population is a key component in effective urban planning and emergency management. We developed a model to estimate hourly dynamic changes in population at the community level based on subway smart card data. The hourly population of each community in six central districts of Beijing was calculated, followed by a study of the spatiotemporal patterns and diurnal dynamic changes of population and an exploration of the main sources and sinks of the observed human mobility. The maximum daytime population of the six central districts of Beijing was approximately 0.7 million larger than the night-time population. The administrative and commercial districts of Dongcheng and Xicheng had high values of population ratio of day to night of 1.35 and 1.22, respectively, whereas Shijingshan, a residential district, had the lowest value of 0.84. Areas with a high population ratio were mainly concentrated in Dongcheng, Xicheng, West Chaoyang, and Southeast Haidian. The daytime population distribution showed a hierarchical spatial pattern of planar centers and second scattered centers as opposed to multiple scattered centers during the night-time. This was because most people moved inward from the areas with a low–high to high–low population ratio of day to night from night-time to daytime, which can be explained by the process of commuting between residential areas and workplaces. Several distinctive phenomena (e.g., the distribution of new industrial parks, the so-called old residential areas, and colleges and universities in the development of China are reflected by the spatiotemporal pattern of the distribution of population. The general consistency of the population ratios of day to night, population distribution, population variation of typical communities, and population mobility pattern with previous research suggests that the subway smart card data has potential in analyzing dynamic diurnal

  1. Perceived urban neighborhood environment for physical activity of older adults in Seoul, Korea: A multimethod qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Dong Ha

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the attributes of a perceived urban neighborhood environment for the physical activity (PA) of older adults by applying a qualitative multimethod approach to collect both descriptive and spatial information. Conducted in a northern community of Seoul, Korea, from April 2014 to November 2015, data collection methods included 90 walking tours by researchers, 46 face-to-face, semi-structured interviews combined with qualitative mapping with senior residents aged 65+, 19 guided tours with the interviewees, and 3 focus groups with 12 community service providers. Thematic analysis and pattern finding were performed on the data. Walking was the main type of PA of the older adults. Nine attributes of perceived neighborhood environment for PA were identified under three themes: daily living (everyday life activities, mobility, social opportunities, diverse destinations); the multidimensionality of accessibility (physical, economic, psychosocial), and attractiveness and pleasantness (maintenance, aesthetics). The subcategories of the attributes included proximity, access to public transportation, walkability, cost-worthiness, low or no cost, familiarity, sense of welcoming, sociocultural appropriateness, fair access, order and upkeep, safety, openness, cleanliness, and interestingness. Strategies to generate more movement and activities in the everyday routine of the elderly should be a core task for health promotion and neighborhood design. A strategic application of multiple qualitative methods can create an opportunity to build contextual understanding and to generate ideas in interactions with the community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho; Kyung-Ho, Kwon

    2018-03-16

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas.

  3. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  4. RISK FACTORS AND INCIDENCE OF FALLS AMONG FIFTH- AND SIXTH-GRADE CHILDREN IN SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki Sook; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Soon Duck

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of falls among children in South Korea, and the risk factors associated with these falls in order to develop preventive strategies. We studied 1,044 elementary school students in the fifth and sixth grades from Seoul, South Korea and evaluated the incidence of falls based on four surveys conducted in June, September, and December 2010 and February 2011. The surveys included the number of falls, the types of medical care received, and the potential factors associated with those falls. Risk factors related to the falls were examined using a generalized estimating equation method. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS, version 9.2. The overall incidence of falls was 376 per 1,000 person-years; and a total of 44 children were hospitalized. Having a previous history of fall [odds ratio (OR) = 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.64] and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 2.97-4.44) were risk factors associated with falls. Comparative analyses of the odds of having a single fall versus recurrent falls showed that ADHD (p risk of recurrent falls. These results suggest novel safety programs should be developed taking these risk factors into consideration in order to reduce the incidence of falls among children in South Korea.

  5. Short and Long-Term Temporal Changes in Air Quality in a Seoul Urban Area: The Weekday/Sunday Effect

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    Jan E. Szulejko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence on the short-term differences in airborne pollution levels in terms of weekday/weekend (WD/WN and weekday/Sunday (WD/Sun intervals. To this end, we analyzed the hourly data of important pollutants (nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO using the data acquired in the Yong-San district of Seoul, Korea from 2009 to 2013. For each week, the pollutant ratio (Rw was estimated through either WD/WN or WD/Sun. Here, a week is defined as Sunday through Saturday, WD as Monday through Friday and WN as Sunday and Saturday. The WD/Sun Rw geometric means (and range were 2.02 (0.27–15.5 for NO, 1.29 (0.49–5.7 for NO2 and 0.89 (0.17–7.2 for O3 while the fraction of Rw (WD/Sun > 1 were 81, 71 and 38%, respectively. NO and CO levels were much higher in October through March (during Autumn and Winter than April through September (during Spring and Summer, reflecting the potential effect of fuel consumption (e.g., in terms of use patterns of nationwide city natural gas. Thus, we provide a broader interpretation on the occurrence patterns of the major pollutants (e.g., NO, NO2, O3 and CO in relation to temporal changes in man-made activities.

  6. Measuring the Externality Effects of Commercial Land Use on Residential Land Value: A Case Study of Seoul

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    Hee Jin Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting theories purport to explain the effects of neighborhood non-residential use on residential property values. In traditional zoning theory, separating land from commercial land use is considered to protect residential environments from negative externalities such as noise, litter, and congestion. By contrast, contemporary planning principles including Smart Growth emphasize positive impacts of mixed land use on residential environment, which lead to more walkable and sustainable communities. This study attempts to empirically investigate how positive and negative externalities of commercial land use, referred to as “proximity effects” and “disamenity effects” respectively, affect residential land values. Using data gathered in Seoul, we pay attention to two particular aspects of commercial land use: spatial concentration and neighborhood scale. Spatial concentration is determined by the number of commercial employees present in the buffer zone around an individual residential parcel. We model four geographically distinct neighborhood scales as we compare spatial concentrations in and across commercial zones. Quadratic regression analyses of our data show the trade-off relationship that a higher spatial concentration of commercial land use in a neighborhood initially results in increased residential land values, but drops off beyond a threshold level by excessive noise or crowding.

  7. Identification of Dobrava, Hantaan, Seoul, and Puumala viruses by one-step real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitichou, Mohamed; Saleh, Sharron S; McElroy, Anita K; Schmaljohn, C; Ibrahim, M Sofi

    2005-03-01

    We developed four assays for specifically identifying Dobrava (DOB), Hantaan (HTN), Puumala (PUU), and Seoul (SEO) viruses. The assays are based on the real-time one-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the small segment used as the target sequence. The detection limits of DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 25, 25, 25, and 12.5 plaque-forming units, respectively. The assays were evaluated in blinded experiments, each with 100 samples that contained Andes, Black Creek Canal, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever and Sin Nombre viruses in addition to DOB, HTN, PUU and SEO viruses. The sensitivity levels of the DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 98%, 96%, 92% and 94%, respectively. The specificity of DOB, HTN and SEO assays was 100% and the specificity of the PUU assay was 98%. Because of the high levels of sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, we believe that these assays can be useful for diagnosing and differentiating these four Old-World hantaviruses.

  8. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea.

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    Seungeun Lee

    Full Text Available Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air.

  9. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  10. Development of hospital-integrated large-scale PACS in Seoul National University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JongHyo; Yeon, Kyoung M.; Han, Man Chung; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Cho, Han I.

    1997-05-01

    The SNUH has started a PACS project with three main goals: to develop a fully hospital-integrated PACS, to develop a cost effective PACS using open systems architecture, and to extend PACS' role to the advanced application such as image guided surgery, multi-media assisted education and research. In order to achieve these goals, we have designed a PACS architecture which takes advantage of client-server computing, high speed communication network, computing power of up-to-date high-end PC, and advanced image compression method. We have installed ATM based communication network in radiology department and in-patient wards, and implemented DICOM compliant acquisition modules, image storage and management servers, and high resolution display workstations based on high-end PC and Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows NT operating systems. The SNUH PACS is in partial scale operation now, and will be expanded to full scale by the end of 1998.

  11. Analyzing Thermal Characteristics of Urban Streets Using a Thermal Imaging Camera: A Case Study on Commercial Streets in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugie Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to continuing city growth and global warming over the past decades, urban heat island (UHI effects, referring to the phenomena wherein the ambient air temperatures in cities are higher than those in rural areas, have become a serious threat to urban populations. Impervious surfaces, buildings with low-albedo materials, and a lack of vegetated areas are the major causes of poor urban thermal environments, particularly during the summer. Previous research has focused primarily on the thermal characteristics of individual building units. Few studies consider the impact of the street-scale thermal environments on the surface temperature, which affects pedestrian thermal comfort. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of various physical elements on urban streets using thermal imaging cameras, and present policy implications for improving pedestrian thermal comfort. This study examines street-scale thermal environments of three major commercial streets: Garosu road, Serosu road, and Narosu road, in Seoul, Korea. This study conducted field measurements both during the day and the night in June 2017 in order to investigate changes in the urban surface temperatures across time. The results show that street trees are the most effective mitigation element for reducing surface temperatures. With regard to building use types, the highest surface temperatures are typically measured near restaurant buildings. Building façades that are dark-colored or partially covered with a metal contribute to high surface temperatures. Similarly, the temperatures of artificial turf or wooden decks on urban streets are also significantly high during the daytime. The thermal characteristics of various urban street elements should be considered to reduce the surface temperature and mitigate the urban heat island effect.

  12. Modern Solutions for Automation of Electrical Traction Power Supply Systems

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    Ana Mihaela Andreica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modern solutions for the automation of the electrical traction power supply system used in urban public transport (trams, trolleybuses and subway trains. The monitoring and control of this process uses SCADA distributed architectures, grouped around a central point (dispatcher who controls all field sensors, transmitters and actuators using programmable logical controllers. The presented applications refer to the Bucharest electrical transport infrastructure.

  13. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations and bioaerosol on each floor at a building in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyeon-Ju; Jeong, Na-Na; Chi, Woo-Bae; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Jun, Si-Moon; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul

    2015-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in buildings are mostly sourced from the transport of outdoor particles through a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and generation of particle within the building itself. We investigated the concentrations and characteristic of indoor and outdoor particles and airborne bacteria concentrations across four floors of a building located in a high-traffic area. In all the floors we studied (first, second, fifth, and eighth), the average concentrations of particles less than 10 μm (PM10) in winter for were higher than those in summer. On average, a seasonal variation in the PM10 level was found for the first, fifth, and eighth floors, such that higher values occurred in the winter season, compared to the summer season. In addition, in winter, the indoor concentrations of PM10 on the first, fifth, and eighth floors were higher than those of the outdoor PM10. The maximum level of airborne bacteria concentration was found in a fifth floor office, which held a private academy school consisting of many students. Results indicated that the airborne bacteria remained at their highest concentration throughout the weekday period and varied by students' activity. The correlation coefficient (R (2)) and slope of linear approximation for the concentrations of particulate matter were used to evaluate the relationship between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter. These results can be used to predict both the indoor particle levels and the risk of personal exposure to airborne bacteria.

  14. Analysis of effects of climate change on runoff in an urban drainage system: a case study from Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M; Kim, H; Mallari, K J B; Pak, G; Yoon, J

    2015-01-01

    Both water quantity and quality are impacted by climate change. In addition, rapid urbanization has also brought an immeasurable loss of life and property resulting from floods. Hence, there is a need to predict changes in rainfall events to effectively design stormwater infrastructure to protect urban areas from disaster. This study develops a framework for predicting future short duration rainfall intensity and examining the effects of climate change on urban runoff in the Gunja Drainage Basin. Non-stationarities in rainfall records are first analysed using trend analysis to extrapolate future climate change scenarios. The US Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used for single event simulation of runoff quantity from the study area. For the 1-hour and 24-hour durations, statistically significant upward trends were observed. Although the 10-minute duration was only nearly significant at the 90% level, the steepest slope was observed for this short duration. Moreover, it was observed that the simulated peak discharge from SWMM increases as the short duration rainfall intensity increases. The proposed framework is thought to provide a means to review the current design of stormwater infrastructures to determine their capacity, along with consideration of climate change impact.

  15. A selective Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe, SfBP, for vaccinia H1-related phosphatase--a dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kim, Eunha; Kang, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eun Joung; Cho, Alvin R; Chung, Sang J; Park, Seung Bum

    2012-07-04

    We report a Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe, SfBP, for selective monitoring of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). A rational design based on the structures at the active site of dual-specific PTPs can enable SfBP to selectively monitor the activity of these PTPs with a 93-fold change in brightness. Moreover, screening results of SfBP against 30 classical PTPs and 35 dual-specific PTPs show that it is selective toward vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase, a dual-specific PTP (DUSP-3).

  16. A study on exposure assessment for fine dust by using Kriging method: The case of Seoul Metropolitan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J. H.; Sohn, J. R.; Mo, R.

    2017-12-01

    According to the OECD, South Korea is expected to have the highest morality and the biggest economic damage due to the air pollution among OECD members in 2060. Korea's air quality monitoring network is provided by Air Korea of the Korea Environment Corporation under the Ministry of Environment. There are 323 measurement stations installed in 97 different places in Korea. The monitoring network is classified into city atmosphere, roadside, country background concentration, and suburban atmosphere monitoring network, which operate according to each measurement purpose. However, the data from this network shows a large difference in pollutant concentration by region and there is a limit to explain the concentration of pollutants in Seoul, which has a very high population density. The data of the fine dust concentration in Korea University is provided by Seongbuk-gu, but actually Korea University is closer to the measuring station in Dongdaemun-gu. Therefore, a difference will occur if the data from Seongbuk-gu is used to the exposure assessment of residents in nearby Korea University for air pollution. Therefore, this study is aimed to acquire estimated value about areas that have not been measured and implement more precise exposure assessment by comparing it with measured value. On May 8, 2017, when the fine dust concentration was the highest, we calculated the pollutant concentration estimates near Korea University by using measuring network of Seongbukgu and Dongdaemun through Kriging method and compared them with actual measured value which was acquired in this study. Analysis results showed that air pollution concentration near Korea University tends to be overestimated when using the data from Seongbukgu. On the other hand, it showed a similarity to measured value when using data from both Seongbukgu and Dongdaemungu through Kriging method. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate the data about blind spots through Kriging method rather than using the existing

  17. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  18. Photochemical characteristics of high and low ozone episodes observed in the Taehwa Forest observatory (TFO) in June 2011 near Seoul South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Suyeon; Choi, Soonho; Seok, Sonjung; Kim, Saewung

    2013-05-01

    We present a comprehensive discussion on what cause high ozone episodes at a suburban photochemical observation site of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (population ˜23 million). The observational site, Taehwa Research Forest (TRF), is situated ˜30 km from the center of Seoul. In June 2011, we observed two very distinctive ozone periods-high ozone (peak up to 120 ppbv) and low ozone (peak up to 60 ppbv) in the mid and early month, respectively. The trace gas measurement dataset, especially CO and NO X clearly indicate that less anthropogenic influences during the high ozone period. Volatile organic compound (VOC) measurement results show that at the observational site, biogenic VOCs (mostly isoprene) contribute most of chemical reactivity towards OH, although toluene from anthropogenic activities was observed in higher concentrations. Back-trajectory analysis indicates that air-masses from the forest part of Korea Peninsula were dominant influences during the high ozone episode event. On the other hand, Aged air masses from China were the dominant influence during the low ozone episode event. Model calculations conducted using the University of Washington Chemical Mechanism (UWCM) box model, also consistently show that BVOC, especially isoprene photochemistry, can be the significantly contribution to local ozone formation in the given photochemical environments of TRF. These research results strongly suggest that ozone control strategy in the Eastern Asian megacities, mostly situated in surrounding forest areas should be based on the comprehensive scientific understanding in BVOC photochemistry and interplays between anthropogenic and biogenic interactions.

  19. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  20. Map Sensitivity vs. Map Dependency: A Case Study of Subway Maps’ Impact on Passenger Route Choices in Washington DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the key assumption in behavioral and transportation planning literature that, when people use a transit system more frequently, they become less dependent on and less sensitive to transit maps in their decision-making. Therefore, according to this assumption, map changes are much less impactful to travel decisions of frequent riders than to that of first-time or new passengers. This assumption—though never empirically validated—has been the major hurdle for transit maps to becoming a planning tool to change passengers’ behavior. This paper examines this assumption using the Washington DC metro map as a case study by conducting a route choice experiment between 30 Origin-Destination (O-D pairs on seven metro map designs. The experiment targets two types of passengers: frequent metro riders through advertisements on a free daily newspaper available at DC metro stations, and general residents in the Washington metropolitan area through Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing platform. A total of 255 and 371 participants made 2024 and 2960 route choices in the respective experiments. The results show that frequent passengers are in fact more sensitive to subtle changes in map design than general residents who are less likely to be familiar with the metro map and therefore unaffected by map changes presented in the alternative designs. The work disproves the aforementioned assumption and further validates metro maps as an effective planning tool in transit systems.

  1. Covariation in community- and individual-based community capacity and health behavior: a multilevel analysis of populations in Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    Community capacity is defined as the degree to which the human, physical, and potential resources of a neighborhood are organized based on mutual solidarity among the residents. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between community capacity and health behaviors in Seoul, South Korea. Multilevel models controlling for socioeconomic variables were used to measure the association between community capacity and health behaviors in 25 districts and 404 subdistricts (n = 14 228). Community capacity was determined to be significant at the more local community level, as it was a significant variable in the subdistrict analysis for explaining health behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and exercising. Community capacity exists not only at the individual level but also at the community level. High community capacity further enhanced the positive effects of individual capacity on health behavior and further weakened the negative effects.

  2. Time-course monitoring of urban bioaerosol bacterial communities and its use in microbial hazard identification during Asian Dust events in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    The microbial communities transported by Asian dust events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported airborne microbes may strongly influence the downwind ecosystems and potentially human health in East Asia. Bioaerosol study has received relatively little attention and their characterization and risk assessments remain poorly developed. We used high throughput 16S rRNA gene targeted pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor airborne bacterial communities and assess their potential risk. We monitored microbial communities in bioaerosol in Seoul between 2011 and 2013 using high volume air samplers. Six samples were collected during Asian dust (AD) events and the other 34 samples were urban air collected during non-Asian dust (non-AD) events. According to the qPCR result, the gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes were significantly higher during the AD events (P culture methods. 16S rRNA gene sequences of several pathogens were detected and their relative abundances appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM10. About 1% of Bacillus isolates were identified as known pathogenic B. cereus, confirming their presence in Asian dust samples. The qPCR detection of bceT gene, which codes for an enterotoxin in B. cereus group, was significantly increased in the AD dust samples over the non-AD samples. The following MLST assessment and virulence test of cultivated Bacillus isolates showed that B. cereus, B. licheniformis and B. mycoides were identified as pathogenic bacteria, and these pathogenic bacteria were usually more abundant during AD events. To assess the possible associations of identified pathogens on the hospital stroke admissions of residents in Seoul, we identified sixteen bioaerosol episodes using Poisson regression and calculated relative risk. The findings are useful in building a database for bacterial pathogens in AD events.

  3. Developing National Systems of Innovation: University-Industry ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 janv. 2015 ... Developing National Systems of Innovation: University-Industry Interactions in the Global South. Book cover Developing ... of Campinas, Brazil. Glenda Kruss is research director at the Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa. Keun Lee is professor at Seoul National University, South Korea.

  4. Long-term trends in airborne SO2in an air quality monitoring station in Seoul, Korea, from 1987 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azmatullah; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Brown, Richard J C; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Oh, Jong-Min; Shin, Yong Soon; Adelodun, Adedeji A

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) was intermittently measured at an air quality monitoring (AQM) station in the Yong-san district of Seoul, Korea, between 1987 and 2013. The SO 2 level was compared with other important pollutants concurrently measured, including methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), and particulate matter (PM 10 ). If split into three different periods (period 1, 1987-1988, period 2, 1999-2000, and period 3, 2004-2013), the respective mean [SO 2 ] values (6.57 ± 4.29, 6.30 ± 2.44, and 5.29 ± 0.63 ppb) showed a slight reduction across the entire study period. The concentrations of SO 2 are found to be strongly correlated with other pollutants such as CO (r = 0.614, p = 0.02), which tracked reductions in reported emissions due to tighter emissions standards enacted by the South Korean government. There was also a clear seasonal trend in the SO 2 level, especially in periods 2 and 3, reflecting the combined effects of domestic heating by coal briquettes and meteorological conditions. Although only a 16% concentration reduction was achieved during the 27-year study duration, this is significant if one considers rapid urbanization, an 83.2% increase in population, and rapid industrialization that took place during that period. Since 1970, a network of air quality monitoring (AQM) stations has been operated by the Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE) for routine nationwide monitoring of air pollutant concentrations in urban/suburban areas. To date, the information obtained from these stations has provided a platform for analyzing long-term trends of major pollutant species. In this study, we examined the long-term trends of SO 2 levels and relevant environmental parameters monitored continuously in the Yong-san district of Seoul between 1987 and 2013. The data were analyzed over various time scales (i.e., monthly, seasonal, and annual intervals). The results obtained from

  5. Aerosol Number Size Distribution and Type Classification from 4-Year Polarization Optical Particle Counter (POPC) Measurements at Urban-Mountain Site in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. J.; Kim, S. W.; Kobayashi, H.; Nishizawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Polarization Optical Particle Counter (POPC), unlike general OPCs, has the advantage capable of classifying the aerosol types (e.g., dust, anthropogenic pollution), because it measures particle number, size and depolarization ratio (DPR; the sphericity information of single particle) for 4 size bins with diameter (0.5-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10 μm). In this study, we investigate the temporal variations of particle number and volume size distributions with DPR values and classify aerosol types such as dust, anthropogenic pollution, from 4-year (2013-2016) POPC data at Seoul National University campus in Seoul, Korea. Coarse mode particles from 5-10 μm with relatively high DPR values (0.25-0.3) were distinctly appeared in in both spring (March-May) and winter (December-February) due to frequent transport of Asian dust particles. In summer (June -August), however, both aerosol number concentration and DPR value were decreased in all size bins due to the influences of relatively clean maritime airmass and frequent precipitations. In autumn (September - November), the particle number concentration in all size bins was the lowest. To classify the aerosol types, we investigate particle number and volume size distributions and DPR value for clean, dust-dominant and anthropogenic pollution-dominant cases, which were selected by PM10, PM2.5 mass concentrations and its ratio, because those parameters are clearly different among aerosol types (Kobayashi et al., 2014, Pan et al., 2016). Non-spherical coarse mode particles (Dp > 2.5 μm, 0.1 < DPR < 0.6) were dominantly observed during the dust-dominant period, while both spherical fine mode and coarse mode particles (Dp < 1 μm and Dp = 2-4 μm, DPR < 0.1) were dominantly appeared during the pollution event. The aerosol type classifications with these criteria values were successfully applied to the extreme Asian dust event from February 22 to 24, 2015. The results showed that pollution-dominant airmass preceded by the appearance

  6. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO{sub 2} in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the {Delta}{sup 14}C in ginkgo leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Hong, W. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Park, G., E-mail: junghun@kigam.re.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, K.S.; Lee, K.H.; Kim, Y.E.; Kim, J.K.; Choi, H.W.; Kim, G.D.; Woo, H.J. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO{sub 2} (fossil fuel CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The {Delta}{sup 14}C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO{sub 2} ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO{sub 2} over total CO{sub 2} in atmosphere), 13.9 {+-} 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  7. Chemical composition based aerosol optical properties according to size distribution and mixture types during smog and Asian dust events in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ji Yi; Um, Junshik; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the optical properties of aerosols involved in different meteorological events, including smog and Asian dust days. Carbonaceous components and inorganic species were measured in Seoul, Korea between 25 and 31 March 2012. Based on the measurements, the optical properties of aerosols were calculated by considering composition, size distribution, and mixing state of aerosols. To represent polydisperse size distributions of aerosols, a lognormal size distribution with a wide range of geometric mean diameters and geometric standard deviations was used. For the optical property calculations, the Mie theory was used to compute single-scattering properties of aerosol particles with varying size and composition. Analysis of the sampled data showed that the water-soluble components of organic matter increased on smog days, whereas crustal elements increased on dust days. The water content significantly influenced the optical properties of aerosols during the smog days as a result of high relative humidity and an increase in the water-soluble component. The absorption coefficients depended on the aerosol mixture type and the aerosol size distributions. Therefore, to improve our knowledge on radiative impacts of aerosols, especially the regional impacts of aerosols in East Asia, accurate measurements of aerosols, such as size distribution, composition, and mixture type, under different meteorological conditions are required.

  8. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora; Park, Jeongim

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: → The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.→ Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.→ Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.→ Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.→ Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  9. The effect of sociodemographic factors on infant mortality according to cause of death: a birth cohort in Seoul, Korea, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status and demographic factors on infant mortality, classified by cause of death, in a group of children born in Seoul, Korea during 1999-2003. Linked infant birth and death data were collected from the Korea National Statistical Office. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of socioeconomic and demographic factors on infant mortality. The results were adjusted to take into account the infants' length of gestation and birth weight. Infant death rates from all causes tended to decrease as the parents' educational level increased. We observed a similar pattern for deaths from other specific causes. We also found higher mortality rates for mothers less than 20 years of age and over 35. Our analysis shows that socioeconomic and demographic factors affect infant mortality. In the case of postneonatal infant death, we confirmed that adequate follow-up care can reduce the risks of death from these acquired factors. This suggests that these are important factors to consider in reducing infant mortality.

  10. Radiologic Review of an Outbreak of the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection at a University Hospital in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yoon Kyung; Woo, Ok Hee; Yong, Hwan Seok; Oh, Yu Whan; Kim, Jang Su

    2011-01-01

    To assess the frequency of radiologic abnormalities and investigate the radiologic findings of patients with a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection at a University hospital in Seoul, Korea. In November 2009, 9,427 patients were tested for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and 3,849 (41%) were positive. Among them, only 338 (9%) underwent chest radiographs and 13 (0.3%) received chest CT. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed all the radiologic images. Among the 338 patients, 287 (85%) were normal and 51 (15%) showed abnormalities. The frequency of abnormalities was significantly higher in children (41/212=19%) than in adults (10/126=8%) (p = 0.005). Of them, 42 (82%) patients had airspace pneumonia, whereas the remaining patients showed a bronchopneumonia pattern. Unilateral (82%) involvement was more common than bilateral (18%) involvement. Among patients who received chest CT, 12 (92%) showed abnormalities, with bilateral (67%) and random (75%) involvement being more common. Ground-glass opacity (67%) and centrilobular nodules (58%) were the more common CT findings. Only a small number of patients were critically ill enough to undergo further radiologic evaluation as a result of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection, and most patients had normal chest radiographs. Unilateral airspace pneumonia was the most common abnormality in patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.

  11. Radiologic Review of an Outbreak of the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection at a University Hospital in Seoul, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yoon Kyung; Woo, Ok Hee; Yong, Hwan Seok; Oh, Yu Whan [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Su [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    To assess the frequency of radiologic abnormalities and investigate the radiologic findings of patients with a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection at a University hospital in Seoul, Korea. In November 2009, 9,427 patients were tested for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and 3,849 (41%) were positive. Among them, only 338 (9%) underwent chest radiographs and 13 (0.3%) received chest CT. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed all the radiologic images. Among the 338 patients, 287 (85%) were normal and 51 (15%) showed abnormalities. The frequency of abnormalities was significantly higher in children (41/212=19%) than in adults (10/126=8%) (p = 0.005). Of them, 42 (82%) patients had airspace pneumonia, whereas the remaining patients showed a bronchopneumonia pattern. Unilateral (82%) involvement was more common than bilateral (18%) involvement. Among patients who received chest CT, 12 (92%) showed abnormalities, with bilateral (67%) and random (75%) involvement being more common. Ground-glass opacity (67%) and centrilobular nodules (58%) were the more common CT findings. Only a small number of patients were critically ill enough to undergo further radiologic evaluation as a result of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection, and most patients had normal chest radiographs. Unilateral airspace pneumonia was the most common abnormality in patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.

  12. Chemical Composition Based Aerosol Optical Properties According to Size Distribution and Mixture Types during Smog and Asian Dust Events in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ji Yi; Um, Junshik; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the optical properties of aerosols involved in different meteorological events, including smog and Asian dust days. Carbonaceous components and inorganic species were measured in Seoul, Korea between 25 and 31 March 2012. Based on the measurements, the optical properties of aerosols were calculated by considering composition, size distribution, and mixing state of aerosols. To represent polydisperse size distributions of aerosols, a lognormal size distribution with a wide range of geometric mean diameters and geometric standard deviations was used. For the optical property calculations, the Mie theory was used to compute single-scattering properties of aerosol particles with varying size and composition. Analysis of the sampled data showed that the water-soluble components of organic matter increased on smog days, whereas crustal elements increased on dust days. The water content significantly influenced the optical properties of aerosols during the smog days as a result of high relative humidity and an increase in the water-soluble component. The absorption coefficients depended on the aerosol mixture type and the aerosol size distributions. Therefore, to improve our knowledge on radiative impacts of aerosols, especially the regional impacts of aerosols in East Asia, accurate measurements of aerosols, such as size distribution, composition, and mixture type, under different meteorological conditions are required.

  13. A Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe for lipid droplets and its application in image-based high throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2012-02-25

    We developed a novel fluorescent bioprobe (SF44) that can specifically visualize the cellular lipid droplets in in vitro and in vivo systems and illustrated the mechanistic rationale of its fluorogenic property. Its application to image-based high throughput screening led us to the identification of a new small-molecule modulator of lipid droplet formation. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. Energy-Saving Automation and LED Lighting Systems in Industry, Transport, Building and Municipal Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Klimenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protocol of diverse technological data unification providing the ability to scale with a minimal increase in auxiliary information volume that allows its usage, ranging from the simplest microcontrollers to integration of automation equipment in global systems was designed for industrial automation systems. Basic technical solutions implemented in development of LED lighting systems of salon subway cars, including a schematic diagram of the lamp, the main technical characteristics of the lamp power supply, the peculiarities of developed design of LED modules are described.

  15. Mobile application-based Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator: development, validation, and comparative analysis with two Western risk calculators in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang Wook; Lee, Sangchul; Jung, Jin-Woo; Lee, Byung Ki; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2014-01-01

    We developed a mobile application-based Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (SNUPC-RC) that predicts the probability of prostate cancer (PC) at the initial prostate biopsy in a Korean cohort. Additionally, the application was validated and subjected to head-to-head comparisons with internet-based Western risk calculators in a validation cohort. Here, we describe its development and validation. As a retrospective study, consecutive men who underwent initial prostate biopsy with more than 12 cores at a tertiary center were included. In the development stage, 3,482 cases from May 2003 through November 2010 were analyzed. Clinical variables were evaluated, and the final prediction model was developed using the logistic regression model. In the validation stage, 1,112 cases from December 2010 through June 2012 were used. SNUPC-RC was compared with the European Randomized Study of Screening for PC Risk Calculator (ERSPC-RC) and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (PCPT-RC). The predictive accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The clinical value was evaluated using decision curve analysis. PC was diagnosed in 1,240 (35.6%) and 417 (37.5%) men in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. Age, prostate-specific antigen level, prostate size, and abnormality on digital rectal examination or transrectal ultrasonography were significant factors of PC and were included in the final model. The predictive accuracy in the development cohort was 0.786. In the validation cohort, AUC was significantly higher for the SNUPC-RC (0.811) than for ERSPC-RC (0.768, pcalculators. SNUPC-RC has a higher predictive accuracy and clinical benefit than Western risk calculators. Furthermore, it is easy to use because it is available as a mobile application for smart devices.

  16. Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a Geostationary Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a geostationary orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.

  17. Airborne measurement of submicron aerosol number concentration and CCN activity in and around the Korean Peninsula and their comparison to ground measurement in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M.; Kim, N.; Yum, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols exert impact not only on human health and visibility but also on climate change directly by scattering or absorbing solar radiation and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and thus altering cloud radiative and microphysical properties. Aerosol indirect effects on climate has been known to have large uncertainty because of insufficient measurement data on aerosol and CCN activity distribution. Submicron aerosol number concentration (NCN, TSI CPC) and CCN number concentration (NCCN, DMT CCNC) were measured on board the NASA DC-8 research aircraft and at a ground site at Olympic Park in Seoul from May 2nd to June 10th, 2016. CCNC on the airborne platform was operated with the fixed internal supersaturation of 0.6% and CCNC at the ground site was operated with the five different supersaturations (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1.0%). The NASA DC-8 conducted 20 research flights (about 150 hours) in and around the Korean Peninsula and the ground measurement at Olympic Park was continuously made during the measurement period. Both airborne and ground measurements showed spatially and temporally varied aerosol number concentration and CCN activity. Aerosol number concentration in the boundary layer measured on airborne platform was highly affected by pollution sources on the ground. The average diurnal distribution of ground aerosol number concentration showed distinct peaks are located at about 0800, 1500, and 2000. The middle peak indicates that new particle formation events frequently occurred during the measurement period. CCN activation ratio at 0.6% supersaturation (NCCN/NCN) of the airborne measurement ranged from 0.1 to 0.9, indicating that aerosol properties in and around the Korean Peninsula varied so much (e. g. size, hygroscopicity). Comprehensive analysis results will be shown at the conference.

  18. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Lee, Chang Kil; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-10-01

    The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus improve nutrition and food-related health outcomes.

  19. Low consumption of fruits and dairy foods is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults from outpatient clinics in and near Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soyoung; Shin, Sangah; Song, YoonJu; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee Young

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. Study subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from four outpatient clinics in and near the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea between 2006 and 2012. A total of 668 subjects (413 men and 255 women) aged ≥ 30 y were included in the final data analyses. For each subject, daily nutrient intake and food consumption were calculated using three days of dietary intake data obtained from a combination of 24-hour recalls and dietary records. To evaluate food consumption, mean number of servings consumed per day and percentages of recommended number of servings for six food groups were calculated. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The general linear model was performed to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Nutrient intake did not differ by the presence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Men with metabolic syndrome had lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for fruits compared with those without metabolic syndrome (1.6 vs. 1.1 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 63.5 vs. 49.5%, P-value = 0.013). Women with metabolic syndrome showed lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for dairy foods than those without metabolic syndrome (0.8 vs. 0.5 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 78.6 vs. 48.9%, P-value = 0.001). Low intakes of fruits and dairy foods might be associated with the risk of having metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Dietary advice on increasing consumption of these foods is needed to prevent and attenuate the risk of metabolic syndrome.

  20. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. SUBJECTS/METHODS We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. RESULTS Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. CONCLUSIONS A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus

  1. Um estudo sobre gestão do conhecimento e inovação em uma empresa multinacional do setor de fast-food: o caso da Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as práticas de gestão do conhecimento e da inovação em uma franquia de uma importante empresa multinacional do setor de fast-food de Minas Gerais: a Subway. Como estratégia de pesquisa, utilizou-se um estudo de caso descritivo e os dados foram coletados por meio de uma entrevista em profundidade, realizada com o proprietário de quatro lojas dessa franquia, situadas em regiões estratégicas da cidade de Belo Horizonte. Os resultados demonstraram que os processos de criação, desenvolvimento e compartilhamento de conhecimentos entre os funcionários administrativos e operacionais são incentivados e têm alcançado resultados significativos nas lojas da franquia, conforme defende a teoria. Entretanto, talvez em decorrência desse modelo de negócio (franquia, esses conhecimentos produzidos e compartilhados, entre tais funcionários, não são aplicados em sua totalidade na inovação dos produtos e dos processos operacionais no local de vendas, pois grande parte das inovações é desenvolvida no ambiente da franqueadora, o que restringe o espaço de inovação nas lojas franqueadas, apesar de haver resultados satisfatórios na inovação de alguns processos gerenciais.

  2. Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons’ Perception of the Concentration of Cardiovascular Operations in Seoul Metropolitan Area’s Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concentration of cardiovascular surgical procedures in a metropolitan area and investigate the perception of specialists regarding governmental policies to resolve this imbalance. Methods: From March to May 2015, surveys were distributed to members of the Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Association. The final pool of research subjects consisted of 75 respondents. Subjects were queried regarding the concentration of cardiovascular operations in metropolitan areas, alternatives to the imbalance, and governmental policies to resolve the inequalities. Results: Survey participants responded that South Korea needs governmental policies to alleviate the concentration of cardiovascular surgery patients in large metropolitan hospitals. Participants agreed that the freedom to choose medical institutions and improved accessibility to metropolitan hospitals due to advanced transportation systems were some of the causes for the concentration. A majority (98.7% of respondents thought establishing thoracic and cardiovascular surgery centers in provinces was an appropriate solution to alleviate the concentration. Thoracic and cardiovascular surgery specialists were ranked as the number one group on which to focus development. Conclusion: Developing and carrying out policies to establish thoracic and cardiovascular surgery centers in provinces will alleviate the regional imbalance in available heart surgery services and an overall improvement in cardiovascular disease treatment in South Korea.

  3. Influence of Intense secondary aerosol formation and long range transport on aerosol chemistry and properties in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during spring time: Results from KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was measured in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea, using an HR-ToF-AMS from April 14 to June 15, 2016, as a part of the KORUS-AQ campaign. The average concentration of PM1 was 22.1 µg m-3, which was composed of 44% organics, 20% SO4, 17% NO3, and 12 % NH4. Organics had an average O/C ratio of 0.49 and an average OM/OC ratio of 1.82. Four distinct sources of OA were identified via PMF analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: hydrocarbon like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA),semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Our results indicate that air quality in SMA during KORUS-AQ was influenced strongly by secondary aerosol formation with SO4, NO3, NH4, SV-OOA, and LV-OOA together accounting for 76% of the PM1 mass. Due to high temperature and elevated ozone concentrations, photochemical reactions during daytime promoted the formation of SV-OOA, LV-OOA and SO4. In addition, aqueous-phase or heterogeneous reactions likely promoted efficient formation of NO3 whereas gas-to-particle partitioning processes appeared to have enhanced nighttime SV-OOA and NO3 formation. From May 20 to May 23, LV-OOA was significantly enhanced and accounted for up to 41% of the PM1 mass. Since this intense LV-OOA formation event was associated with large enhancement of VOCs, high concentration of Ox , strong solar radiation, and stagnant conditions, it appeared to be related to local photochemical formation. We also have investigated the formation and evolution mechanisms of severe haze episodes. Unlike the cases observed in winter when haze episodes were mainly caused by intense local emissions coupled with stagnant meteorological conditions, the spring haze events observed in this study appeared to be attributed by both regional and local factors. For example, episodes of long range transport of plumes were followed by calm meteorology conditions, which promoted the formation and accumulation of local

  4. Mobile application-based Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator: development, validation, and comparative analysis with two Western risk calculators in Korean men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wook Jeong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We developed a mobile application-based Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (SNUPC-RC that predicts the probability of prostate cancer (PC at the initial prostate biopsy in a Korean cohort. Additionally, the application was validated and subjected to head-to-head comparisons with internet-based Western risk calculators in a validation cohort. Here, we describe its development and validation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: As a retrospective study, consecutive men who underwent initial prostate biopsy with more than 12 cores at a tertiary center were included. In the development stage, 3,482 cases from May 2003 through November 2010 were analyzed. Clinical variables were evaluated, and the final prediction model was developed using the logistic regression model. In the validation stage, 1,112 cases from December 2010 through June 2012 were used. SNUPC-RC was compared with the European Randomized Study of Screening for PC Risk Calculator (ERSPC-RC and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (PCPT-RC. The predictive accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. The clinical value was evaluated using decision curve analysis. RESULTS: PC was diagnosed in 1,240 (35.6% and 417 (37.5% men in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. Age, prostate-specific antigen level, prostate size, and abnormality on digital rectal examination or transrectal ultrasonography were significant factors of PC and were included in the final model. The predictive accuracy in the development cohort was 0.786. In the validation cohort, AUC was significantly higher for the SNUPC-RC (0.811 than for ERSPC-RC (0.768, p<0.001 and PCPT-RC (0.704, p<0.001. Decision curve analysis also showed higher net benefits with SNUPC-RC than with the other calculators. CONCLUSIONS: SNUPC-RC has a higher predictive accuracy and clinical benefit than Western risk calculators. Furthermore, it is easy

  5. Estimation of PM10 concentrations over Seoul using multiple empirical models with AERONET and MODIS data collected during the DRAGON-Asia campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B. N.; Kim, S.-W.; Song, C. H.; Lim, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of various empirical linear models to estimate the concentrations of surface-level particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) was evaluated using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data collected in Seoul during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON)-Asia campaign from March to May 2012. An observed relationship between the PM10 concentration and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) was accounted for by several parameters in the empirical models, including boundary layer height (BLH), relative humidity (RH), and effective radius of the aerosol size distribution (Reff), which was used here for the first time in empirical modeling. Among various empirical models, the model which incorporates both BLH and Reff showed the highest correlation, which indicates the strong influence of BLH and Reff on the PM10 estimations. Meanwhile, the effect of RH on the relationship between AOD and PM10 appeared to be negligible during the campaign period (spring), when RH is generally low in northeast Asia. A large spatial dependency of the empirical model performance was found by categorizing the locations of the collected data into three different site types, which varied in terms of the distances between instruments and source locations. When both AERONET and MODIS data sets were used in the PM10 estimation, the highest correlations between measured and estimated values (R = 0.76 and 0.76 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the residential area (RA) site type, while the poorest correlations (R = 0.61 and 0.68 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the near-source (NS) site type. Significant seasonal variations of empirical model performances for PM10 estimation were found using the data collected at Yonsei University (one of the DRAGON campaign sites) over a period of 17 months including the DRAGON campaign

  6. Spatio-temporal variations in PM10 concentrations over Seoul estimated using multiple empirical models together with AERONET and MODIS data collected during the DRAGON-Asia campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B. N.; Kim, S.; Song, C. H.; Lim, J.

    2014-08-01

    The performance of various empirical linear models to estimate the concentrations of surface-level particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) was evaluated using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data collected in Seoul during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON)-Asia campaign from March to May 2012. An observed relationship between the PM10 concentration and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) was accounted for by several parameters in the empirical models, including boundary layer height (BLH), relative humidity (RH), and effective radius of the aerosol size distribution (Reff), which was used here for the first time in empirical modeling. Results show the strong influence of BLH and (Reff on the PM10 estimates, while the role of RH was negligible during the campaign period when, in general, RH was lower than in other seasons. A large spatial dependency of the empirical model performance was found by categorizing the locations of the collected data into three different site types, which varied in terms of the distances between instruments and source locations. When both AERONET and MODIS datasets were used in the PM10 estimation, the highest correlations between measured and estimated values ((R = 0.76 and 0.76 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the residential area (RA) site type, while the poorest correlations ((R = 0.61 and 0.68 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the near source (NS) site type. Significant seasonal variations of empirical model performances for PM10 estimation were found using the data collected at Yonsei University (one of the DRAGON campaign sites) over a period of 17 months including the DRAGON campaign period. The best correlation between measured and estimated PM10 concentrations ((R = 0.81) was found in winter, due to the presence of a stagnant air mass and low {BLH

  7. Review of the international forum on peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear security. Taking the lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to the 2012 Seoul nuclear security summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Makiko; Suda, Kazunori; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held '2011 International Forum on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security - Taking the lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident to the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit-' on 8 and 9 December, 2011. It intended to articulate effective strategies and measures for strengthening nuclear security using lessons learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. Moreover, it was expected to explore comprehensive approaches which could contribute to enhancing both nuclear safety and security in order to support sustainable and appropriate development of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summary of panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording and content of this report, excepts presentation materials. (author)

  8. Metro as an example of an urban rail system. Four case studies from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna FRASZCZYK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground, tube, subway or metro are common expressions used to describe a rapid transit system serving urban areas. Such a system uses dedicated rail corridors, can run underground or overground, and often includes tunnels and viaducts. Although there are 148 cities in the world with metro systems, each system is different, in terms of layout, length, capacity, etc., as it serves different geographical and socio-economical areas. In this context, the paper presents four European metro systems (Sofia, Warsaw, Lisbon, and Tyne and Wear, introduces the systems dimensions, rolling stock and ticketing strategies and compares similarities and differences between the systems. The analyses suggest a number of recommendations and improvements, which if implemented, could benefit other metro systems in Europe and beyond.

  9. A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

  10. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.-C.; Lee, J.-H.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE

  11. 15th International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Liu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the hybridization of intelligent systems which is a promising research field of modern computational intelligence concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Fifteenth International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2015) held in Seoul, South Korea during November 16-18, 2015. The 26 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 paper submissions. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  12. Towards standard protocols and guidelines for urine proteomics: a report on the Human Kidney and Urine Proteome Project (HKUPP) symposium and workshop, 6 October 2007, Seoul, Korea and 1 November 2007, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tadashi; Langham, Robyn G; Ronco, Pierre; Knepper, Mark A; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2008-06-01

    The Human Kidney and Urine Proteome Project (HKUPP) was initiated in 2005 to promote proteomics research in the nephrology field, to better understand kidney functions as well as pathogenic mechanisms of kidney diseases, and to define novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This project was first approved in 2005 by the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) as a Kidney Disease Initiative under an umbrella of the HUPO Disease Biomarker Initiative (DBI), and more recently was approved as the HKUPP Initiative in 2007. Several sub-projects have been planned to achieve the ultimate goals. The most pressing is the establishment of "standard protocols and guidelines for urine proteome analysis". This sub-project had been extensively discussed during the first HKUPP symposium (during 6(th) HUPO Annual World Congress--October 2007, Seoul, Korea) and second workshop (during 40(th) American Society of Nephrology Renal Week--November 2007, San Francisco, CA, USA). Additional data and references have been collected after the symposium and workshop. An initial draft of standard protocols and guidelines for proteome analysis of non-proteinuric urine (urine protein excretion 150 mg/day) will soon be released as the first HKUPP product.

  13. A two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of four hemorrhagic fever viruses: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, Hantaan virus, Seoul virus, and dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifeng; Qi, Xian; Zhou, Minghao; Bao, Changjun; Hu, Jianli; Wu, Bin; Wang, Shenjiao; Tan, Zhongmin; Fu, Jianguang; Shan, Jun; Zhu, Yefei; Tang, Fenyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and identification of four viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) pathogens, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), and dengue virus (DENV), from human clinical samples. The two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay we developed has a sensitivity of 10 copies/μL for each of the targets, and the performance was linear within the range of at least 10(7) transcript copies. Moreover, we evaluated the specificity of the assay using other virus RNA as template, and found no cross-reactivity. This new assay is able to detect SFTSV, HTNV, SEOV and DENV in two reactions and brings a cost of 40 % compared to separate reactions. Evaluation of this assay with clinical serum samples from laboratory-confirmed patients and healthy donors showed 100 % clinical diagnostic sensitivity and over 99 % specificity. The assay was applied for scanning 346 clinical samples collected from patients admitted to the hospital with suspected VHF and compared with virus isolation and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The assay indentified 59 SFTSV-, 12 HTNV-, 11 SEOV- and 9 DENV-positive samples and showed higher sensitivity. This assay thus provides a reliable and cost-effective screening tool for early clinical diagnosis of SFTSV, HTNV, SEOV and DENV in the acute phase.

  14. 26 CFR 1.148-7 - Spending exceptions to the rebate requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... air-conditioning systems, pipes or ducts, elevators, escalators installed in a building, paved parking..., tangible personal property includes machinery that is not a structural component of a building, subway cars.... Example 4. Subway cars. City C issues bonds to finance new subway cars. C reasonably expects that it will...

  15. BioCAS: Biometeorological Climate impact Assessment System for building-scale impact assessment of heat-stress related mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Kyu Rang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An urban climate analysis system for Seoul was combined with biometeorological models for the spatially distributed assessment of heat stress risks. The Biometeorological Climate impact Assessment System (BioCAS is based on the Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS workbench which provides urban planners with gridded data relevant for local climate assessment at 25 m and 5 m spatial resolutions. The influence of building morphology and vegetation on mean radiant temperature Tmrt was simulated by the SOLWEIG model. Gridded hourly perceived temperature PT was computed using the Klima-Michel Model for a hot day in 2012. Daily maximum perceived temperature PTmax was then derived from these data and applied to an empirical-statistical model that explains the relationship between PTmax and excess mortality rate rEM in Seoul. The resultant rEM map quantifies the detrimental impact of hot weather at the building scale. Mean (maximum values of rEM in old and new town areas in an urban re-development site in Seoul were estimated at 2.3 % (50.7 % and 0 % (8.6 %, respectively, indicating that urban re-development in the new town area has generally resulted in a strong reduction of heat-stress related mortality. The study illustrates that BioCAS can generally be applied for the quantification of the impacts of hot weather on human health for different urban development scenarios. Further improvements are required, particularly to consider indoor climate conditions causing heat stress, as well as socio-economic status and population structure of local residents.

  16. A remote educational system in medicine using digital video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Joon Soo; Lee, Hang Lak; Kim, Sun Il; Shimizu, Shuji; Choi, Ho Soon; Ko, Yong; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Kim, Tae Eun; Yun, Ji Won; Park, Yong Jin; Naoki, Nakashima; Koji, Okamura

    2007-03-01

    Telemedicine has opened the door to a wide range of learning experience and simultaneous feedback to doctors and students at various remote locations. However, there are limitations such as lack of approved international standards of ethics. The aim of our study was to establish a telemedical education system through the development of high quality images, using the digital transfer system on a high-speed network. Using telemedicine, surgical images can be sent not only to domestic areas but also abroad, and opinions regarding surgical procedures can be exchanged between the operation room and a remote place. The Asia Pacific Information Infrastrucuture (APII) link, a submarine cable between Busan and Fukuoka, was used to connect Korea with Japan, and Korea Advanced Research Network (KOREN) was used to connect Busan with Seoul. Teleconference and video streaming between Hanyang University Hospital in Seoul and Kyushu University Hospital in Japan were realized using Digital Video Transfer System (DVTS) over Ipv4 network. Four endoscopic surgeries were successfully transmitted between Seoul and Kyushu, while concomitant teleconferences took place between the two throughout the operations. Enough bandwidth of 60 Mbps could be kept for two-line transmissions. The quality of transmitted video image had no frame loss with a rate of 30 images per second. The sound was also clear, and time delay was less than 0.3 sec. Our experience has demonstrated the feasibility of domestic and international telemedicine. We have established an international medical network with high-quality video transmission over Internet protocol, which is easy to perform, reliable, and economical. Our network system may become a promising tool for worldwide telemedical communication in the future.

  17. Analysis of queueing system with discrete autoregressive arrivals having DML as marginal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze DAR(1/D/s Queue with Discrete Mittag-Leffler [DML(α] as marginal distribution. Simulation study of the sample path of the arrival process is conducted. For this queueing system, the stationary distribution of the system size and the waiting time distribution of an arbitrary packet is obtained with the help of matrix analytic methods and Markov regenerative theory. The quantitative effect of the stationary distribution on system size, waiting time and  the autocorrelation function as well as the parameters of the input traffic is illustrated empirically. The model is applied to a real data on the passenger arrivals at a subway bus terminal in Santiago de Chile and is established that the model well suits this data.

  18. Urban Transit System Microbial Communities Differ by Surface Type and Interaction with Humans and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tiffany; Joice, Regina; Vallarino, Jose; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Hartmann, Erica M; Shafquat, Afrah; DuLong, Casey; Baranowski, Catherine; Gevers, Dirk; Green, Jessica L; Morgan, Xochitl C; Spengler, John D; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Public transit systems are ideal for studying the urban microbiome and interindividual community transfer. In this study, we used 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile microbial communities on multiple transit surfaces across train lines and stations in the Boston metropolitan transit system. The greatest determinant of microbial community structure was the transit surface type. In contrast, little variation was observed between geographically distinct train lines and stations serving different demographics. All surfaces were dominated by human skin and oral commensals such as Propionibacterium , Corynebacterium , Staphylococcus , and Streptococcus . The detected taxa not associated with humans included generalists from alphaproteobacteria, which were especially abundant on outdoor touchscreens. Shotgun metagenomics further identified viral and eukaryotic microbes, including Propionibacterium phage and Malassezia globosa . Functional profiling showed that Propionibacterium acnes pathways such as propionate production and porphyrin synthesis were enriched on train holding surfaces (holds), while electron transport chain components for aerobic respiration were enriched on touchscreens and seats. Lastly, the transit environment was not found to be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Our results suggest that microbial communities on transit surfaces are maintained from a metapopulation of human skin commensals and environmental generalists, with enrichments corresponding to local interactions with the human body and environmental exposures. IMPORTANCE Mass transit environments, specifically, urban subways, are distinct microbial environments with high occupant densities, diversities, and turnovers, and they are thus especially relevant to public health. Despite this, only three culture-independent subway studies have been performed, all since 2013 and all with widely differing designs and conclusions. In this study, we

  19. Factors associated with secondhand smoke incursion into the homes of non-smoking residents in a multi-unit housing complex: a cross-sectional study in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghoon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a multi-unit housing (MUH complex, secondhand smoke (SHS can pass from one living space to another. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SHS incursion, and to establish the relationship between SHS incursion and socio-demographic and built environmental factors in MUH in Korea. Methods A population-based sample of 2600 residents (aged ≥19 years living in MUH from across the city of Seoul, Korea, was obtained through a web-based selection panel. The residents completed a questionnaire detailing socio-demographic factors, smoking status, frequency of SHS incursion, and built environmental factors. The presence of a personal smoke-free home rule was determined by residents declaring that no one smoked inside the home. Results Of the 2600 participants, non-smoking residents who lived in homes with a personal smoke-free rule were selected for further analysis (n = 1784. In the previous 12 months, 74.7% of residents had experienced SHS incursion ≥1 times. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis indicated that residents who spent more time at home, lived with children, supported the implementation of smoke-free regulations in MUH, lived in small homes, lived in homes with natural ventilation provided by opening a front door or the windows and front door, and lived in homes with more frequent natural ventilation were more likely to report SHS incursion into their homes. Conclusions The majority of the non-smoking residents experienced SHS incursion, even with a personal smoke-free rule in their homes. A smoke-free policy in MUH is needed to protect residents from SHS exposure when they are at home.

  20. Factors associated with secondhand smoke incursion into the homes of non-smoking residents in a multi-unit housing complex: a cross-sectional study in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, KyooSang

    2017-09-25

    In a multi-unit housing (MUH) complex, secondhand smoke (SHS) can pass from one living space to another. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SHS incursion, and to establish the relationship between SHS incursion and socio-demographic and built environmental factors in MUH in Korea. A population-based sample of 2600 residents (aged ≥19 years) living in MUH from across the city of Seoul, Korea, was obtained through a web-based selection panel. The residents completed a questionnaire detailing socio-demographic factors, smoking status, frequency of SHS incursion, and built environmental factors. The presence of a personal smoke-free home rule was determined by residents declaring that no one smoked inside the home. Of the 2600 participants, non-smoking residents who lived in homes with a personal smoke-free rule were selected for further analysis (n = 1784). In the previous 12 months, 74.7% of residents had experienced SHS incursion ≥1 times. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis indicated that residents who spent more time at home, lived with children, supported the implementation of smoke-free regulations in MUH, lived in small homes, lived in homes with natural ventilation provided by opening a front door or the windows and front door, and lived in homes with more frequent natural ventilation were more likely to report SHS incursion into their homes. The majority of the non-smoking residents experienced SHS incursion, even with a personal smoke-free rule in their homes. A smoke-free policy in MUH is needed to protect residents from SHS exposure when they are at home.

  1. Proceedings of 11th international workshop on Asian network for accelerator-driven system and nuclear transmutation technology (ADS+NTT 2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings describe the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: Korea, China and Japan. The proceedings also include all presentation materials presented in 'the 11th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS+NTT 2013)' held at the Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea on 12th and 13th December, 2013. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The report is composed of these following items: Presentation materials: ADS+NTT 2013. (author)

  2. Realized Volatility in Seoul Foreign Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Shick Chung

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs model-free estimates of daily KRW/USD's volatility, termed realized volatility, using two minutes frequency and compares the volatility with two major currencies of JPY/USD and EURO/USD. We confirm that the empirical properties of KRW/USD's realized volatility are very similar to early findings major currencies as argued by Andersen et. al(2003. Noteworthy results include the distribution of realized volatility are leptokurtic, but the distributions of logarithmic standard deviations are nearly Gaussian. We also find that the correlation between KRW/USD and major currency, JPY/USD and EURO/USD, are positive and increase with volatility.

  3. Dynamics of the coupled railway vehicle-flexible track system with irregularities using a multibody approach with moving modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, Antonio M.; Escalona, José L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we assessed the capabilities of a method that uses a multibody system description of railway vehicles based on a moving coordinate system in combination with moving modes of deformation to include track elastic displacements. Because this approach suppresses the influence of the boundary conditions of track models, track length ceases to be an issue for simulations. This existing procedure is briefly described and extended to a wide range of applications that require accounting for track frequency contents. A variety of phenomena long surveyed in the railway literature can thus be addressed. Several examples of a wheelset and a subway vehicle running on corrugated rails along varying-parameter tracks were simulated. Based on the results, the proposed method can efficiently capture the dynamic phenomena behind low-to-mid track frequency vehicle-track interactions, contact patch elasticity and vehicle dynamics.

  4. International Conference on Intelligent Unmanned Systems (ICIUS)

    CERN Document Server

    Kartidjo, Muljowidodo; Yoon, Kwang-Joon; Budiyono, Agus; Autonomous Control Systems and Vehicles : Intelligent Unmanned Systems

    2013-01-01

    The International Conference on Intelligent Unmanned Systems 2011 was organized by the International Society of Intelligent Unmanned Systems and locally by the Center for Bio-Micro Robotics Research at Chiba University, Japan. The event was the 7th conference continuing from previous conferences held in Seoul, Korea (2005, 2006), Bali, Indonesia (2007), Nanjing, China (2008), Jeju, Korea (2009), and Bali, Indonesia (2010). ICIUS 2011 focused on both theory and application, primarily covering the topics of robotics, autonomous vehicles, intelligent unmanned technologies, and biomimetics. We invited seven keynote speakers who dealt with related state-of-the-art technologies including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs), flapping wings (FWs), unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), underwater vehicles (UVs), bio-inspired robotics, advanced control, and intelligent systems, among others. This book is a collection of excellent papers that were updated after presentation at ICIUS2011. All papers ...

  5. Wireless Communications in Smart Rail Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Briso-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway, subway, airplane, and other transportation systems have drawn an increasing interest on the use of wireless communications for critical and noncritical services to improve performance, reliability, and passengers experience. Smart transportation systems require the use of critical communications for operation and control, and wideband services can be provided using noncritical communications. High speed train (HST is one of the best test cases for the analysis of communication links and specification of the general requirements for train control and supervision, passenger communications, and onboard and infrastructure wireless sensors. In this paper, we analyze in detail critical and noncritical networks mainly using the HST as a test case. First, the different types of links for smart rail transportation are described, specifying the main requirements of the transportation systems, communications, and their applications for different services. Then, we propose a network architecture and requirements of the communication technologies for critical and noncritical data. Finally, an analysis is made for the future technologies, including the fifth-generation (5G communications, millimeter wave (mmWave, terahertz (THz, and satellites for critical and high-capacity communications in transportation.

  6. Image correction during large and rapid B(0) variations in an open MRI system with permanent magnets using navigator echoes and phase compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yu; Xie, Haibin; Li, Gengying

    2009-09-01

    An open permanent magnet system with vertical B(0) field and without self-shielding can be quite susceptible to perturbations from external magnetic sources. B(0) variation in such a system located close to a subway station was measured to be greater than 0.7 microT by both MRI and a fluxgate magnetometer. This B(0) variation caused image artifacts. A navigator echo approach that monitored and compensated the view-to-view variation in magnetic resonance signal phase was developed to correct for image artifacts. Human brain imaging experiments using a multislice gradient-echo sequence demonstrated that the ghosting and blurring artifacts associated with B(0) variations were effectively removed using the navigator method.

  7. [Telemedicine with digital video transport system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Joon Soo; Shimizu, Shuji; Nakashima, Naoki; Byun, Tae Jun; Lee, Hang Lak; Choi, Ho Soon; Ko, Yong; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Kim, Sun Il; Kim, Tae Eun; Yun, Jiwon; Park, Yong Jin

    2004-06-01

    The growth of technology based on internet protocol has affected on the informatics and automatic controls of medical fields. The aim of this study was to establish the telemedical educational system by developing the high quality image transfer using the DVTS (digital video transmission system) on the high-speed internet network. Using telemedicine, we were able to send surgical images not only to domestic areas but also to international area. Moreover, we could discuss the condition of surgical procedures in the operation room and seminar room. The Korean-Japan cable network (KJCN) was structured in the submarine between Busan and Fukuoka. On the other hand, the Korea advanced research network (KOREN) was used to connect between Busan and Seoul. To link the image between the Hanyang University Hospital in Seoul and Kyushu University Hospital in Japan, we started teleconference system and recorded image-streaming system with DVTS on the circumstance with IPv4 network. Two operative cases were transmitted successfully. We could keep enough bandwidth of 60 Mbps for two-line transmission. The quality of transmitted moving image had no frame loss with the rate 30 per second. The sound was also clear and the time delay was less than 0.3 sec. Our study has demonstrated the feasibility of domestic and international telemedicine. We have established an international medical network with high-quality video transmission over internet protocol. It is easy to perform, reliable, and also economical. Thus, it will be a promising tool in remote medicine for worldwide telemedical communication in the future.

  8. Design and Operation of Decentralized Reservoirs in Urban Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Hoon Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Poor drainage of urban storm water can lead to urban inundation which presents a risk to people and property. Previous research has presented various measures to prevent and reduce urban flooding and these measures can be classified into costly but effective structural measures, and economical but less effective non-structural measures. This study suggests a new approach to reduce urban flooding by combining structural and non-structural measures in a target watershed in Seoul, South Korea. Inlet design modification in a detention reservoir (Decentralized Reservoir, DR is examined in conjunction with combined inlet/outlet management for the DR. Monitoring nodes used to control DR inlet/outlet operations are selected by locating the first flooding node, maximum flooding node and DR inlet node. This new approach demonstrates outstanding flood volume reduction for historical flooding events that occurred in Seoul during 2010 and 2011. Flood volumes during the 2010 event using the combined inlet/outlet operation in the DR were between 1656 m3 and 1815 m3 compared to a flood volume of 6617 m3 using current DR operation. Finally, the suggested operating level for the DR based on the best hydraulic section, system resilience index, and local regulations is 1.2 m.

  9. The image database management system of teaching file using personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, M. J.; Kim, G. W.; Chun, T. J.; Ahn, W. H.; Baik, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    For the systemic management and easy using of teaching file in radiology department, the authors tried to do the setup of a database management system of teaching file using personal computer. We used a personal computer (IBM PC compatible, 486DX2) including a image capture card(Window vision, Dooin Elect, Seoul, Korea) and video camera recorder (8mm, CCD-TR105, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) for the acquisition and storage of images. We developed the database program by using Foxpro for Window 2.6(Microsoft, Seattle, USA) executed in the Window 3.1 (Microsoft, Seattle, USA). Each datum consisted of hospital number, name, sex, age, examination date, keyword, radiologic examination modalities, final diagnosis, radiologic findings, references and representative images. The images were acquired and stored as bitmap format (8 bitmap, 540 X 390 ∼ 545 X 414, 256 gray scale) and displayed on the 17 inch-flat monitor(1024 X 768, Samtron, Seoul, Korea). Without special devices, the images acquisition and storage could be done on the reading viewbox, simply. The image quality on the computer's monitor was less than the one of original film on the viewbox, but generally the characteristics of each lesions could be differentiated. Easy retrieval of data was possible for the purpose of teaching file system. Without high cost appliances, we could consummate the image database system of teaching file using personal computer with relatively inexpensive method

  10. Study of Development for RFID System to Hospital Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Kwon; Sung, Myung-Whun

    2015-01-01

    RFID/USN develops information systems for anytime, anywhere to anybody access Electronic Medical Records (EMR). The goal of the present study is to develop a RFID/USN-based information system for the hospital environment. First, unable to recognize, second, able to recognize as a pursuit of place and suppose the time of medical examination. A retrospective analysis of 235 RFID monitoring results, from four ENT ambulatory clinics of Seoul National University Hospital were extracted by a reader program and monitoring of RFID tag (2006.11.16~2006.12.16). RFID detection for sensing reader of this study has been put into representing "place" and "spending time" of patients for medical history taking and examination. Through the RFID of detection for specific place and spending time of medical examination, RFID/USN develops information system progressing in the EMR of hospital system.

  11. Estratégia de recrutamento de fumantes no metrô do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para ampliar o acesso a linhas telefônicas de apoio à cessação: impacto da novidade Recruitment of smokers in the Rio de Janeiro subway, Brazil, as a strategy to increase access to quitline services: the impact of novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Salem Szklo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Criatividade e inovação das estratégias de recrutamento de fumantes são fundamentais para aprimorar as ações de controle do tabagismo. Atualmente, no Brasil, por meio das imagens de advertência presentes nos maços de cigarros, há uma divulgação permanente e intensa de mensagens que provocam sentimentos de perda associados ao tabagismo, os quais são importantes para estimular o acesso a linhas telefônicas de apoio à cessação. Comparou-se a taxa de ligação para aconselhamento telefônico observada após introdução de nova estratégia de recrutamento reativo focada no tema "fumar é perder fôlego" e adaptada ao cenário do metrô do Rio de Janeiro, com as taxas verificadas para duas outras estratégias reativas existentes. Independentemente da faixa etária, houve maior resposta para a nova estratégia proposta. Apesar da grande sensibilização, no Brasil, quanto aos malefícios do tabaco, novos formatos de comunicação abordando temas de relevância pessoal podem aumentar a quantidade e diversidade da população de fumantes recrutada para serviços de aconselhamento telefônico de suporte à cessação.Creative and innovative strategies to recruit smokers are essential for improving tobacco control activities. Currently in Brazil, through health warning messages on cigarette packs, there is a permanent and intense spread of messages that provoke feelings of loss associated with smoking, which is important to encourage access to smoking quitlines. The study analyzed the call rate for telephone counseling after introducing a new strategy for reactive recruitment focused on the theme "smoking causes shortness of breath", adapted to the subway setting in Rio de Janeiro, as compared to the rates for two existing reactive strategies. Regardless of age bracket, there was a higher response to the new proposed strategy. Despite the major awareness-raising in Brazil concerning the ills of tobacco, new communications formats

  12. Designing a Sustainable Noise Mapping System Based on Citizen Scientists Smartphone Sensor Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Shim

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to assess the feasibility of collecting population health data via mobile devices. Specifically, we constructed noise maps based on sound information monitored by individuals' smartphones. We designed a sustainable way of creating noise maps that can overcome the shortcomings of existing station-based noise-monitoring systems. Three hundred and nine Seoul residents aged 20-49 years who used Android-based smartphones were recruited, and the subjects installed a special application that we developed for this study. This application collected information on sound and geographical location every 10 min for 7 days. Using GIS, we were able to construct various types of noise maps of Seoul (e.g., daytime/nighttime and weekdays/weekends using the information on sound and geographical location obtained via the users' smartphones. Despite the public health importance of noise management, a number of countries and cities lack a sustainable system to monitor noise. This pilot study showed the possibility of using the smartphones of citizen scientists as an economical and sustainable way of monitoring noise, particularly in an urban context in developing countries.

  13. Designing a Sustainable Noise Mapping System Based on Citizen Scientists Smartphone Sensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunyoung; Kim, Dohyeong; Woo, Hyekyung; Cho, Youngtae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to assess the feasibility of collecting population health data via mobile devices. Specifically, we constructed noise maps based on sound information monitored by individuals' smartphones. We designed a sustainable way of creating noise maps that can overcome the shortcomings of existing station-based noise-monitoring systems. Three hundred and nine Seoul residents aged 20-49 years who used Android-based smartphones were recruited, and the subjects installed a special application that we developed for this study. This application collected information on sound and geographical location every 10 min for 7 days. Using GIS, we were able to construct various types of noise maps of Seoul (e.g., daytime/nighttime and weekdays/weekends) using the information on sound and geographical location obtained via the users' smartphones. Despite the public health importance of noise management, a number of countries and cities lack a sustainable system to monitor noise. This pilot study showed the possibility of using the smartphones of citizen scientists as an economical and sustainable way of monitoring noise, particularly in an urban context in developing countries.

  14. Solidão Povoada: viagens silenciosas no metrô do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIAFA, Janice

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this text I try to point out certain characteristics of a subway system by examining its urban furniture and operational factors. Then I describe how those characteristics develop in the Rio subway and how a diverse social milieu is produced in this context. Finally, considering the physical and social characteristics of these collective facilities, I explore the situations of communication which unfold during the solitary – often silent – journeys in the Rio subway.

  15. Solidão Povoada: viagens silenciosas no metrô do Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    CAIAFA, Janice

    2006-01-01

    In this text I try to point out certain characteristics of a subway system by examining its urban furniture and operational factors. Then I describe how those characteristics develop in the Rio subway and how a diverse social milieu is produced in this context. Finally, considering the physical and social characteristics of these collective facilities, I explore the situations of communication which unfold during the solitary – often silent – journeys in the Rio subway.

  16. Implementation of fuzzy modeling system for faults detection and diagnosis in three phase induction motor drive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorouk Ossama Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Induction motors have been intensively utilized in industrial applications, mainly due to their efficiency and reliability. It is necessary that these machines work all the time with its high performance and reliability. So it is necessary to monitor, detect and diagnose different faults that these motors are facing. In this paper an intelligent fault detection and diagnosis for different faults of induction motor drive system is introduced. The stator currents and the time are introduced as inputs to the proposed fuzzy detection and diagnosis system. The direct torque control technique (DTC is adopted as a suitable control technique in the drive system especially, in traction applications, such as Electric Vehicles and Sub-Way Metro that used such a machine. An intelligent modeling technique is adopted as an identifier for different faults; the proposed model introduces the time as an important factor or variable that plays an important role either in fault detection or in decision making for suitable corrective action according to the type of the fault. Experimental results have been obtained to verify the efficiency of the proposed intelligent detector and identifier; a matching between the simulated and experimental results has been noticed.

  17. An integrated service digital network (ISDN)-based international telecommunication between Samsung Medical Center and Hokkaido University using telecommunication helped radiotherapy planning and information system (THERAPIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, S J; Shirato, H; Hashimoto, S; Shimizu, S; Kim, D Y; Ahn, Y C; Choi, D; Miyasaka, K; Mizuno, J

    2000-07-01

    This study introduces the integrated service digital network (ISDN)-based international teleradiotherapy system (THERAPIS) in radiation oncology between hospitals in Seoul, South Korea and in Sapporo, Japan. THERAPIS has the following functions: (1) exchange of patient's image data, (2) real-time teleconference, and (3) communication of the treatment planning, dose calculation and distribution, and of portal verification images between the remote hospitals. Our preliminary results of applications on eight patients demonstrated that the international telecommunication using THERAPIS was clinically useful and satisfactory with sufficient bandwidth for the transfer of patient data for clinical use in radiation oncology.

  18. An integrated service digital network (ISDN)-based international telecommunication between Samsung Medical Center and Hokkaido University using telecommunication helped radiotherapy planning and information system (THERAPIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, S.J.; Kim, D.Y.; Ahn, Y.C.; Choi, D.; Shirato, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Shimizu, S.; Miyasaka, K.; Mizuno, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study introduces the integrated service digital network (ISDN)-based international teleradiotherapy system (THERAPIS) in radiation oncology between hospitals in Seoul, South Korea and in Sapporo, Japan. THERAPIS has the following functions: (1) exchange of patient's image data, (2) real-time teleconference, and (3) communication of the treatment planning, dose calculation and distribution, and of portal verification images between the remote hospitals. Our preliminary results of applications on eight patients demonstrated that the international telecommunication using THERAPIS was clinically useful and satisfactory with sufficient bandwidth for the transfer of patient data for clinical use in radiation oncology. (author)

  19. A comparative simulation study on three lattice systems for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y J Jeon1 M Jamil1 2 Hyo-Dong Lee3 J T Rhee2. Liquid Crystal Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea; IAP, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea; Korean Mingok Leadership Academy, Hoengseong-gun, Gangwon-do, 225-823, Korea ...

  20. Application of an electrochemical chlorine-generation system combined with solar energy as appropriate technology for water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jusol; Park, Chan Gyu; Yoon, Jeyong

    2013-02-01

    Affordable water disinfection is key to reducing the waterborne disease experienced worldwide where resources are limited. A simple electrochemical system that can generate chlorine as a disinfectant from the electrolysis of sodium chloride is an appropriate technology to produce clean water, particularly if driven by solar energy. This study examined the affordability of an electrochemical chlorine generation system using solar energy and developed the necessary design information for its implementation. A two-electrode batch reactor, equipped with commercial IrO(2)-coated electrodes and a solar panel (approximate area 0.2 m(2)), was used to produce chlorine from a 35g/L solution of NaCl. Within 1 h, sufficient chlorine (0.8 g) was generated to produce clean drinking water for about 80 people for 1 day (target microorganism: Escherichia coli; daily drinking water requirement: 2 L per person; chlorine demand: 4 mg/L; solar power: 650 W/m(2) in Seoul, Korea. Small household batteries were demonstrated to be a suitable alternative power source when there is insufficient solar irradiation. Using a 1 m(2) solar panel, the reactor would take only 15 min in Seoul, Korea, or 7 min in the tropics (solar power 1300 W/m(2)), to generate 1 g of chlorine. The solar-powered electrochemical chlorine generation system for which design information is provided here is a simple and affordable way to produce chlorine with which to convert contaminated water into clean drinking water.

  1. RISK MANAGEMENT IN A LARGE-SCALE NEW RAILWAY TRANSPORT SYSTEM PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunduck D. SUH, Ph.D., P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk management experiences of the Korean Seoul-Pusan high-speed railway (KTX project since the planning stage are evaluated. One can clearly see the interplay of engineering and construction risks, financial risks and political risks in the development of the KTX project, which is the peculiarity of large-scale new railway system projects. A brief description on evaluation methodology and overview of the project is followed by detailed evaluations on key differences in risks between conventional railway system and high-speed railway system, social and political risks, engineering and construction risks, and financial risks. Risks involved in system procurement process, such as proposal solicitation, evaluation, selection, and scope of solicitation are separated out and evaluated in depth. Detailed events resulting from these issues are discussed along with their possible impact on system risk. Lessons learned and further possible refinements are also discussed.

  2. The net greenhouse gas impact of the Sheppard Subway Line

    OpenAIRE

    Saxe, S; Miller, E; Guthrie, P

    2017-01-01

    As cities work to reduce their total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the transportation sector is lagging, accounting for a growing percentage of total emissions in many cities. The provision of public transit, and specifically urban rail transit, is widely seen as a useful tool for reducing urban transportation GHG emissions. There is, however, limited understanding of the net impact of new metro rail infrastructure on urban emissions. This paper examines the net GHG emissions the Sheppard S...

  3. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  4. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  5. Leveraging Service Oriented Architecture to Enhance Information Sharing for Surface Transportation Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    includes commuter passenger rail service (suburban rail), heavy rail (metro, subway, or rapid transit), light rail (streetcars, trolleys, trams...domestic boardings on the nation’s airlines.7 There are 14 subway systems in the U.S. with 1023 stations, 21 commuter rail systems and 27 light rail systems

  6. Communications Based Train Control (CBTC) Before and After Cost Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni) undertook a retrofit of a fixed-block signaling system with a communications-based train control (CBTC) system in the subway portion of their light rail system (Muni Metro subway) in 1998. This report presents t...

  7. The Wheels That Drove New York A History of the New York City Transit System

    CERN Document Server

    Roess, Roger P

    2013-01-01

    The Wheels That Drove New York tells the fascinating story of how a public transportation system helped transform a small trading community on the southern tip of Manhattan island to a world financial capital that is home to more than 8,000,000 people.  From the earliest days of horse-drawn conveyances to the wonders of one of the world's largest and most efficient subways, the story links the developing history of the City itself to the growth and development of its public transit system.  Along the way, the key role played by the inventors, builders, financiers, and managers of the system are highlighted. The Wheels That Drove New York takes us through the present day, and discusses the many challenges that the transit system has had to face over the years.  It also traces the conversion of the system from fully private operations (through the elevated railways) to the fully public system that exists today, and the problems that this transformation has created along the way.

  8. Photon counting detector for the personal radiography inspection system "SIBSCAN"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, E. A.; Baru, S. E.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Leonov, V. V.; Oleynikov, V. P.; Porosev, V. V.; Savinov, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    X-ray detectors operating in the energy integrating mode are successfully used in many different applications. Nevertheless the direct photon counting detectors, having the superior parameters in comparison with the integrating ones, are rarely used yet. One of the reasons for this is the low value of the electrical signal generated by a detected photon. Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based scintillation counters have a high detection efficiency, high electronic gain and compact dimensions. This makes them a very attractive candidate to replace routinely used detectors in many fields. More than 10 years ago the digital scanning radiography system based on multistrip ionization chamber (MIC) was suggested at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The detector demonstrates excellent radiation resistance and parameter stability after 5 year operations and an imaging of up to 1000 persons per day. Currently, the installations operate at several Russian airports and at subway stations in some cities. At the present time we design a new detector operating in the photon counting mode, having superior parameters than the gas one, based on scintillator - SiPM assemblies. This detector has close to zero noise, higher quantum efficiency and a count rate capability of more than 5 MHz per channel (20% losses), which leads to better image quality and improved detection capability. The suggested detector technology could be expanded to medical applications.

  9. Optimal Energy Management, Location and Size for Stationary Energy Storage System in a Metro Line Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The installation of stationary super-capacitor energy storage system (ESS in metro systems can recycle the vehicle braking energy and improve the pantograph voltage profile. This paper aims to optimize the energy management, location, and size of stationary super-capacitor ESSes simultaneously and obtain the best economic efficiency and voltage profile of metro systems. Firstly, the simulation platform of an urban rail power supply system, which includes trains and super-capacitor energy storage systems, is established. Then, two evaluation functions from the perspectives of economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation are put forward. Ultimately, a novel optimization method that combines genetic algorithms and a simulation platform of urban rail power supply system is proposed, which can obtain the best energy management strategy, location, and size for ESSes simultaneously. With actual parameters of a Chinese metro line applied in the simulation comparison, certain optimal scheme of ESSes’ energy management strategy, location, and size obtained by a novel optimization method can achieve much better performance of metro systems from the perspectives of two evaluation functions. The simulation result shows that with the increase of weight coefficient, the optimal energy management strategy, locations and size of ESSes appear certain regularities, and the best compromise between economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation can be obtained by a novel optimization method, which can provide a valuable reference to subway company.

  10. A nanohybrid system for taste masking of sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Hee Lee1,*, Goeun Choi1,*, Yeon-Ji Oh1, Je Won Park1, Young Bin Choy3, Mung Chul Park1, Yeo Joon Yoon1, Hwa Jeong Lee2, Hee Chul Chang4, Jin-Ho Choy1 1Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials (CINBM, Department of Bioinspired Science and Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, 2Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea; 4Global Strategy Center and Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A nanohybrid was prepared with an inorganic clay material, montmorillonite (MMT, for taste masking of sildenafil (SDN. To further improve the taste-masking efficiency and enhance the drug-release rate, we coated the nanohybrid of SDN–MMT with a basic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared experiments showed that SDN was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of MMT. The AEA-coated SDN–MMT nanohybrid showed drug release was much suppressed at neutral pH (release rate, 4.70 ± 0.53%, suggesting a potential for drug taste masking at the buccal cavity. We also performed in vitro drug release experiments in a simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2 and compared the drug-release profiles of AEA-coated SDN–MMT and Viagra®, an approved dosage form of SDN. As a result, about 90% of SDN was released from the AEA-coated SDN–MMT during the first 2 hours while almost 100% of drug was released from Viagra®. However, an in vivo experiment showed that the AEA-coated SDN–MMT exhibited higher drug exposure than Viagra®. For the AEA-coated SDN–MMT, the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUC0-∞ and maximum

  11. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Brockett

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose S={{Xnj,   j=1,2,…,kn}} is an infinitesimal system of random variables whose centered sums converge in law to a (necessarily infinitely divisible distribution with Levy representation determined by the triple (γ,σ2,M. If {Yj,   j=1,2,…} are independent indentically distributed random variables independent of S, then the system S′={{YjXnj,j=1,2,…,kn}} is obtained by randomizing the scale parameters in S according to the distribution of Y1. We give sufficient conditions on the distribution of Y in terms of an index of convergence of S, to insure that centered sums from S′ be convergent. If such sums converge to a distribution determined by (γ′,(σ′2,Λ, then the exact relationship between (γ,σ2,M and (γ′,(σ′2,Λ is established. Also investigated is when limit distributions from S and S′ are of the same type, and conditions insuring products of random variables belong to the domain of attraction of a stable law.

  12. Comparison of new AJCC staging system with old AJCC staging system in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Se Mie; Wu, Hong Gyun; Park, Charn II [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the reliability of the new version of the AJCC staging system (1997) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in comparison with the AJCC staging system of 1992. Between 1983 and 1996, 185 patients with histologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with radiation therapy at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology Seoul National University Hospital. For these patients, AJCC staging system of 1992 was compared with the 1997 version, by reviewing hospital records, computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 5-year overall survival rates according to the 1992 and 1997 AJCC staging systems were 100%, and 100% at stage I; 100%, and 68.8% at stage ll;61.4%, and 63.8% at stage III; 61.1%, and 63.2% at stage IV. 5-year overall survival rates of each classification showed significant differences between stages (p=0.0049 for the old version, p=0.01 for the new), but no significant difference was found between the staging systems except at stage II. The new AJCC staging system allows staging as reliably as the 1992 version, but the adequacy of the newly modified staging classification should be confirmed by further clinical examination.

  13. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  14. Tracking the Evolution of Infrastructure Systems and Mass Responses Using Publically Available Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Guan

    Full Text Available Networks can evolve even on a short-term basis. This phenomenon is well understood by network scientists, but receive little attention in empirical literature involving real-world networks. On one hand, this is due to the deceitfully fixed topology of some networks such as many physical infrastructures, whose evolution is often deemed unlikely to occur in short term; on the other hand, the lack of data prohibits scientists from studying subjects such as social networks that seem likely to evolve on a short-term basis. We show that both networks-the infrastructure network and social network-are able to demonstrate evolutionary dynamics at the system level even in the short-term, characterized by shifting between different phases as predicted in network science. We develop a methodology of tracking the evolutionary dynamics of the two networks by incorporating flows and the microstructure of networks such as motifs. This approach is applied to the human interaction network and two transportation networks (subway and taxi in the context of Hurricane Sandy, using publically available Twitter data and transportation data. Our result shows that significant changes in the system-level structure of networks can be detected on a continuous basis. This result provides a promising channel for real-time tracking in the future.

  15. The Place of ‘Force’ in Several Graphic Representations of the International System of Units (SI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihai Stefanescu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The International System of Units (SI is the most widespread system of measurement units and presently it is the official one in almost all countries of the world. Its detailed presentation may be found for example in [1] where all names, symbols, definitions and inter-relations of the base and derived units are given. Other international norms and documents are devoted to various recommendations and rules for using, writing, expressing and converting the SI units, especially in scientific texts and also in trade and commercial documents. To a lesser extent are known and used the graphical representations of the International System of Units. Three variants might be considered as most eloquent, and at the same time scientifically correct and explicite. They could be called (a "tree", (b "planetary system" and, respectively, (c “subway map” representation, in accordance with their specific shape. The purpose of this letter is to describe the three graphic representations and to highlight the place of the quantity "force" and its measurement unit, the "Newton", in these representations.

  16. Accurate sequential detection of primary tumor and metastatic lymphatics using a temperature-induced phase transition nanoparticulate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh KS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Keun Sang Oh,1 Ji Young Yhee,2 Dong-Eun Lee,3 Kwangmeyung Kim,2 Ick Chan Kwon,2 Jae Hong Seo,4 Sang Yoon Kim,5 Soon Hong Yuk1,4 1College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, 2Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 3Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeonbuk, 4Biomedical Research Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, 5Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Primary tumor and tumor-associated metastatic lymphatics have emerged as new targets for anticancer therapy, given that these are difficult to treat using traditional chemotherapy. In this study, docetaxel-loaded Pluronic nanoparticles with Flamma™ (FPR-675, fluorescence molecular imaging dye; DTX/FPR-675 Pluronic NPs were prepared using a temperature-induced phase transition for accurate detection of metastatic lymphatics. Significant accumulation was seen at the primary tumor and in metastatic lymph nodes within a short time. Particle size, maximum drug loading capacity, and drug encapsulation efficiency of the docetaxel-loaded Pluronic NPs were approximately 10.34±4.28 nm, 3.84 wt%, and 94±2.67 wt%, respectively. Lymphatic tracking after local and systemic delivery showed that DTX/FPR-675 Pluronic NPs were more potent in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice, and excised mouse lymphatics showed stronger near-infrared fluorescence intensity on the tumor-bearing side than on the non-tumor-bearing side at 60 minutes post-injection. In vivo cytotoxicity and efficacy data for the NPs demonstrated that the systemically administered NPs caused little tissue damage and had minimal side effects in terms of slow renal excretion and prolonged circulation in tumor-bearing mice, and rapid renal excretion in non-tumor-bearing mice using an in vivo real-time near-infrared fluorescence imaging system. These results

  17. A study on the formation of fouling in a heat exchanging system for Han-river water as cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Sun Kyung; Suh, Sang Ho; Rho, Hyung Woon; Cho, Young Il

    2003-01-01

    Scale is formed when hard water is heated or cooled in heat transfer equipments such as heat exchangers, condensers, evaporators, cooling towers, boilers, and pipe walls. When scale deposits in a heat exchanger surface, it is traditionally called fouling. The objective of the present study is to investigate the formation of fouling in a heat exchanging system. A lab-scale heat exchanging system is built-up to observe and measure the formation of fouling experimentally. Water analyses are conducted to obtain the properties of Han river water. In the present study a microscopic observation is conducted to visualize the process of scale formation. Hardness of Han-river water is higher than that of tap water in Seoul

  18. 3D MODELLING OF AN INDOOR SPACE USING A ROTATING STEREO FRAME CAMERA SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sophisticated indoor design and growing development in urban architecture make indoor spaces more complex. And the indoor spaces are easily connected to public transportations such as subway and train stations. These phenomena allow to transfer outdoor activities to the indoor spaces. Constant development of technology has a significant impact on people knowledge about services such as location awareness services in the indoor spaces. Thus, it is required to develop the low-cost system to create the 3D model of the indoor spaces for services based on the indoor models. In this paper, we thus introduce the rotating stereo frame camera system that has two cameras and generate the indoor 3D model using the system. First, select a test site and acquired images eight times during one day with different positions and heights of the system. Measurements were complemented by object control points obtained from a total station. As the data were obtained from the different positions and heights of the system, it was possible to make various combinations of data and choose several suitable combinations for input data. Next, we generated the 3D model of the test site using commercial software with previously chosen input data. The last part of the processes will be to evaluate the accuracy of the generated indoor model from selected input data. In summary, this paper introduces the low-cost system to acquire indoor spatial data and generate the 3D model using images acquired by the system. Through this experiments, we ensure that the introduced system is suitable for generating indoor spatial information. The proposed low-cost system will be applied to indoor services based on the indoor spatial information.

  19. D Modelling of AN Indoor Space Using a Rotating Stereo Frame Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    Sophisticated indoor design and growing development in urban architecture make indoor spaces more complex. And the indoor spaces are easily connected to public transportations such as subway and train stations. These phenomena allow to transfer outdoor activities to the indoor spaces. Constant development of technology has a significant impact on people knowledge about services such as location awareness services in the indoor spaces. Thus, it is required to develop the low-cost system to create the 3D model of the indoor spaces for services based on the indoor models. In this paper, we thus introduce the rotating stereo frame camera system that has two cameras and generate the indoor 3D model using the system. First, select a test site and acquired images eight times during one day with different positions and heights of the system. Measurements were complemented by object control points obtained from a total station. As the data were obtained from the different positions and heights of the system, it was possible to make various combinations of data and choose several suitable combinations for input data. Next, we generated the 3D model of the test site using commercial software with previously chosen input data. The last part of the processes will be to evaluate the accuracy of the generated indoor model from selected input data. In summary, this paper introduces the low-cost system to acquire indoor spatial data and generate the 3D model using images acquired by the system. Through this experiments, we ensure that the introduced system is suitable for generating indoor spatial information. The proposed low-cost system will be applied to indoor services based on the indoor spatial information.

  20. The association of renin–angiotensin system blockades and pneumonia requiring admission in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Junghyun Kim,1 Jung-Kyu Lee,2 Eun Young Heo,2 Hee Soon Chung,2 Deog Kyeom Kim2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea Background: The hallmark of COPD is chronic airway inflammation, which may be mediated by renin–angiotensin system. The renin–angiotensin system blockers such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs have exhibited anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in patients with various diseases. We explored the effects of ACEi and ARBs on the risk of pneumonia in patients with COPD.Methods: A nested case–control study was performed on COPD patients recruited from January 2010 to August 2013 in two referral hospitals in Korea. A total of 130 COPD patients admitted with pneumonia were included, and 245 COPD patients without pneumonia were selected as controls from a total of 1,646 such patients. Controls were matched with test patients by age, sex, and severity of airflow limitation. The effects of ACEi/ARBs use on the odds ratio (OR for the development of pneumonia were tested through conditional logistic regression.Results: Elderly patients (over 70 years of age constituted ~30% of each group; most of the patients were male (85%. Of the COPD patients with pneumonia, 21.5% had taken ACEi/ARBs for a mean of 9.8 months (standard deviation ±3.5 months. The proportions of ACEi/ARBs users and the mean duration of such use did not differ when compared to those of the control patients (26.9%, P=0.25; 9.6±3.6 months, P=0.83. Univariate analyses indicated that the use of ACEi/ARBs was not associated with a decreased risk of pneumonia (OR =0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.41–1.23, P=0.21, whereas both a history of pulmonary

  1. Pharmaceutical Logistics at the 121st General Hospital, Seoul, Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giraud, Roger S

    2004-01-01

    ...). The sample consists of 122 days of pharmaceutical requisitions. Pharmaceutical logistics data are used to estimate a multiple regression model of OST for demand satisfaction and accommodation, requisition cost and volume and source of supply...

  2. Optimal planning and economic evaluation of cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Si-Doek; Lee, Ho-Jun; Jung, Jung-Yeul; Kwak, Ho-Young

    2007-01-01

    Cogeneration plants, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat energy, have been introduced increasingly for commercial and domestic applications in Korea because of their energy efficiency. The optimal plant configuration of a specific commercial building can be determined by selecting the sizes and the number of cogeneration systems and the auxiliary equipment based on the annual demands of electricity, heating and cooling. In this study, a mixed-integer, linear programming, utilizing the branch and bound algorithm was used to obtain the optimal solution. Both the optimal configuration system equipment and the optimal operational mode were determined based on the annual cost method for the installation of a cogeneration system to a hospital and a group of apartments in Seoul, Korea. In addition, the economic evaluation for the optimal cogeneration system depending on the fuel tariff system was calculated. A short payback period and higher internal rate of return on the initial investment were found to be essential for the adoption of cogeneration plants to hospitals and apartments

  3. Optimal planning and economic evaluation of cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Si-Doek; Lee, Ho-Jun [Hyosung Corporation, Bangbae B/D, 1006-2, Bangbae-Dong, Seocho-Ku, Seoul 137-850 (Korea); Jung, Jung-Yeul; Kwak, Ho-Young [Mechanical Engineering Department, Chung-Ang University, 221, Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea)

    2007-05-15

    Cogeneration plants, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat energy, have been introduced increasingly for commercial and domestic applications in Korea because of their energy efficiency. The optimal plant configuration of a specific commercial building can be determined by selecting the sizes and the number of cogeneration systems and the auxiliary equipment based on the annual demands of electricity, heating and cooling. In this study, a mixed-integer, linear programming, utilizing the branch and bound algorithm was used to obtain the optimal solution. Both the optimal configuration system equipment and the optimal operational mode were determined based on the annual cost method for the installation of a cogeneration system to a hospital and a group of apartments in Seoul, Korea. In addition, the economic evaluation for the optimal cogeneration system depending on the fuel tariff system was calculated. A short payback period and higher internal rate of return on the initial investment were found to be essential for the adoption of cogeneration plants to hospitals and apartments. (author)

  4. A design of irregular grid map for large-scale Wi-Fi LAN fingerprint positioning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Min, Kyoung Sik; Yeo, Woon-Young

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of mobile communication and the proliferation of smartphones have drawn significant attention to location-based services (LBSs). One of the most important factors in the vitalization of LBSs is the accurate position estimation of a mobile device. The Wi-Fi positioning system (WPS) is a new positioning method that measures received signal strength indication (RSSI) data from all Wi-Fi access points (APs) and stores them in a large database as a form of radio fingerprint map. Because of the millions of APs in urban areas, radio fingerprints are seriously contaminated and confused. Moreover, the algorithmic advances for positioning face computational limitation. Therefore, we present a novel irregular grid structure and data analytics for efficient fingerprint map management. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is presented using the actual radio fingerprint measurements taken throughout Seoul, Korea.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Waterproofing Membrane Systems Subject to the Concrete Joint Load Behavior of Below-Grade Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Below-grade structures such as parking lots, underground subway tunnels, and basements are growing in scale and reaching deeper below-ground levels. In this type of environment, they become subject to higher water pressure. The concrete material of the structures is exposed to wet conditions for longer periods of time, which makes the proper adhesion of waterproofing membranes difficult. Joint movements from increased structural settlement, thermal expansion/shrinkage, and physical loads from external sources (e.g., vehicles make securing durable waterproofing challenging. While ASTM Guides, Korean Codes, and BS Practice Codes on below-grade waterproofing stress the importance of manufacturer specification for quality control, ensuring high quality waterproofing for the ever-changing scale of construction remains a challenge. This study proposes a new evaluation method and criteria which allow for the selection of waterproofing membranes based on specific performance attributes and workmanship. It subjects six different waterproofing membrane systems (installed on dry and wet surface conditioned mortar slab specimens with an artificial joint to different cyclic movement widths to 300 cycles in water to demonstrate that inadequate material properties and workmanship are key causes for leakages.

  6. Management and Evaluation System on Human Error, Licence Requirements, and Job-aptitude in Rail and the Other Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, In Soo; Suh, S. M.; Park, G. O. (and others)

    2006-07-15

    Rail system is a system that is very closely related to the public life. When an accident happens, the public using this system should be injured or even be killed. The accident that recently took place in Taegu subway system, because of the inappropriate human-side task performance, showed demonstratively how its results could turn out to be tragic one. Many studies have shown that the most cases of the accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state of the art report studied the cases of the managements and evaluation systems related to human errors, license requirements, and job aptitudes in the areas of rail and the other industries for the purpose of improvement of the task performance of personnel which consists of an element and finally enhancement of rail safety. The human errors, license requirements, and evaluation system of the job aptitude on people engaged in agencies with close relation to rail do much for development and preservation their abilities. But due to various inside and outside factors, to some extent it may have limitations to timely reflect overall trends of society, technology, and a sense of value. Removal and control of the factors of human errors will have epochal roles in safety of the rail system through the case studies of this report. Analytical results on case studies of this report will be used in the project 'Development of Management Criteria on Human Error and Evaluation Criteria on Job-aptitude of Rail Safe-operation Personnel' which has been carried out as a part of 'Integrated R and D Program for Railway Safety'.

  7. Management and Evaluation System on Human Error, Licence Requirements, and Job-aptitude in Rail and the Other Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, In Soo; Suh, S. M.; Park, G. O.

    2006-07-01

    Rail system is a system that is very closely related to the public life. When an accident happens, the public using this system should be injured or even be killed. The accident that recently took place in Taegu subway system, because of the inappropriate human-side task performance, showed demonstratively how its results could turn out to be tragic one. Many studies have shown that the most cases of the accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state of the art report studied the cases of the managements and evaluation systems related to human errors, license requirements, and job aptitudes in the areas of rail and the other industries for the purpose of improvement of the task performance of personnel which consists of an element and finally enhancement of rail safety. The human errors, license requirements, and evaluation system of the job aptitude on people engaged in agencies with close relation to rail do much for development and preservation their abilities. But due to various inside and outside factors, to some extent it may have limitations to timely reflect overall trends of society, technology, and a sense of value. Removal and control of the factors of human errors will have epochal roles in safety of the rail system through the case studies of this report. Analytical results on case studies of this report will be used in the project 'Development of Management Criteria on Human Error and Evaluation Criteria on Job-aptitude of Rail Safe-operation Personnel' which has been carried out as a part of 'Integrated R and D Program for Railway Safety'

  8. Three-tiered integration of PACS and HIS toward next generation total hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Lee, D H; Choi, J W; Cho, H I; Kang, H S; Yeon, K M; Han, M C

    1998-01-01

    The Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) started a project to innovate the hospital information facilities. This project includes installation of high speed hospital network, development of new HIS, OCS (order communication system), RIS and PACS. This project aims at the implementation of the first total hospital information system by seamlessly integrating these systems together. To achieve this goal, we took three-tiered systems integration approach: network level, database level, and workstation level integration. There are 3 loops of networks in SNUH: proprietary star network for host computer based HIS, Ethernet based hospital LAN for OCS and RIS, and ATM based network for PACS. They are linked together at the backbone level to allow high speed communication between these systems. We have developed special communication modules for each system that allow data interchange between different databases and computer platforms. We have also developed an integrated workstation in which both the OCS and PACS application programs run on a single computer in an integrated manner allowing the clinical users to access and display radiological images as well as textual clinical information within a single user environment. A study is in progress toward a total hospital information system in SNUH by seamlessly integrating the main hospital information resources such as HIS, OCS, and PACS. With the three-tiered systems integration approach, we could successfully integrate the systems from the network level to the user application level.

  9. 77 FR 808 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Fairpoint, New York; Samsung Techwin Co., Ltd. of Seoul, Korea; Samsung Opto- Electronics America, Inc. (d/b/a Samsung Techwin America, Inc.) of Ridgefield Park, New Jersey; Sony Corporation of Tokyo, Japan...

  10. Reluctant Samurai? Partnering with Japan to Combat Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Derek A

    2006-01-01

    .... Memories of the Aum Shinrikyo (Aum Supreme Truth) sarin-gas attack on the subway system of Tokyo in March 1995 intensified the horror felt by the Japanese people as they watched the World Trade Center attack on television...

  11. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni.

  12. Predictors of attitude and intention to use knowledge management system among Korean nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge sharing using Knowledge Management (KM) systems helps nurses to understand and acquire appropriate knowledge that influences the quality of healthcare service. The purpose of this study was to identify organizational and individual factors influencing attitude and intention to use KM systems among Korean nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used to study a sample of 245 nurses employed at five hospitals in Seoul. A multiple hierarchical regression was used to examine predictors of nurses' attitude and intention to use. From an individual perspective, nurse's informatics competency was identified as a significant factor influencing attitudes toward knowledge management usage within adhocracy and clan cultures. However, from an organizational perspective, level of hospital information system was identified as a significant factor influencing KM system usage within adhocracy cultures. The findings of this study will be helpful in better understanding and assessing the impact of the factors affecting the implementation of nursing knowledge management systems and in further developing successful managerial strategies using knowledge resources in healthcare settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of digital dashboard system for medical practice: maximizing efficiency of medical information retrieval and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kee Hyuck; Yoo, Sooyoung; Shin, HoGyun; Baek, Rong-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Hwang, Hee

    2013-01-01

    It is reported that digital dashboard systems in hospitals provide a user interface (UI) that can centrally manage and retrieve various information related to patients in a single screen, support the decision-making of medical professionals on a real time basis by integrating the scattered medical information systems and core work flows, enhance the competence and decision-making ability of medical professionals, and reduce the probability of misdiagnosis. However, the digital dashboard systems of hospitals reported to date have some limitations when medical professionals use them to generally treat inpatients, because those were limitedly used for the work process of certain departments or developed to improve specific disease-related indicators. Seoul National University Bundang Hospital developed a new concept of EMR system to overcome such limitations. The system allows medical professionals to easily access all information on inpatients and effectively retrieve important information from any part of the hospital by displaying inpatient information in the form of digital dashboard. In this study, we would like to introduce the structure, development methodology and the usage of our new concept.

  14. Effect of methylphenidate on the quality of life in children with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: and open-label study using an osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hanik K; Park, Subin; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Lee, Joong Sun; Kim, Kunwoo; Paik, Kyoung-Won; Yum, Mi Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2009-12-01

    This open study explored whether methylphenidate could be tolerated and effective in improving the quality of life (QOL) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of children with epilepsy and ADHD. Twenty-five subjects (aged 10.1 +/- 3.0 years) with ADHD and epilepsy were recruited at an outpatient clinic in Seoul, Korea. We used the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE), ADHD rating scale (ARS) and clinical global impression (CGI) in this study. Osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system (OROS) methylphenidate, 1.0 +/- 0.4 mg/kg/day, was administered for 55.2 +/- 7.5 days. The QOL subscales including physical restriction (p = 0.005), self-esteem (p = 0.002), memory (p ADHD symptoms and improving QOL in this patient population.

  15. Conceptual design and economic evaluation about the coupling of high power PWRs and desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    REX-10 is a small-sized integral pressurized water reactor designed by Seoul National Univ. (SNU) for supplying electricity and district heating in micro-grid. REX-10 has a rated thermal output of 10 MW and the reactor assemblies are equipped with the thorium-fueled core, the helical-coil steam generator, and the steam-gas pressurizer inside a reactor pressure vessel. Unique technical features and reactor system designs of REX-10 are presented in this paper. To evaluate the system performance and investigate the transient behaviors of REX-10, a thermal-hydraulic system code named TAPIR is developed by SNU on the basis of the momentum integral model. The TASS/SMR code developed by KAERI is also applicable to the transient analyses of the advanced integral reactors. Main design decisions of the REX-10 reactor coolant system are assessed using both codes from the steady-state calculation. In addition, a transient analysis on the uncontrolled reactivity insertion event is performed to evaluate the reactor dynamics coupled with the thermal-hydraulic behavior of REX-10. The predicted results from TAPIR and TASS/SMR are compared with each other and good agreements are obtained.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of carboxylated nanodiamond as a topical drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim DG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dae Gon Lim,1,* Ki Hyun Kim,1,* Eunah Kang,2 Sun Hee Lim,3 Jeremy Ricci,3 Si Kwon Sung,3 Myoung Taek Kwon,3 Seong Hoon Jeong1 1College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University-Seoul, Gyeonggi, 2School of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Chung-Ang University, 3NanoResource Co. Ltd., Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The best strategy in the development of topical drug delivery systems may be to facilitate the permeation of drugs without any harmful effects, while staying on the skin surface and maintaining stability of the system. Nanodiamonds (NDs play a key role with their excellent physicochemical properties, including high biocompatibility, physical adsorption, reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging capability, and photostabilizing activity. Z-average sizes of carboxylated ND (ND–COOH agglutinate decreased significantly as the pH increased. Fluorescein-conjugated ND was observed only on the stratum corneum, and no sample diffused into the dermal layer even after 48 hours. Moreover, ND–COOH and ND–COOH/eugenol complex did not show significant toxic effects on murine macrophage cells. ND improved in vitro skin permeation >50% acting as a “drug reservoir” to maintain a high drug concentration in the donor chamber, which was supported by quartz crystal microbalance results. Moreover, ND–COOH could adsorb a drug amount equivalent to 80% of its own weight. A photostability study showed that ND–COOH increased the photostability ~47% with regard to rate constant of the eugenol itself. A significant decrease in ROS was observed in the ND–COOH and ND–COOH/eugenol complex compared with the negative control during intracellular ROS assay. Moreover, ROS and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity evaluation showed that ND–COOH had synergistic effects of antioxidation with eugenol. Therefore, ND–COOH could be used as an excellent topical drug delivery system with improved permeability

  17. Step-by-step application methodology in practical KEPCO 22.9kV bus-bar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jae-young; Lee, Seung-yeol

    2010-01-01

    With the increase of power demand and the progress of power industry deregulation, the transmission and distribution systems will have more complicated problems by the influence of curtailing investment and the NIMBY phenomena in overall power systems. [1-2] It is expected that the route length per MW demand of South Korea will decrease gradually from 0.6[C-km/MW] to 0.53[C-km/MW] in 2010.[3] This comes up to a real serious problem from system planning and operation viewpoints. HTS technologies related to power system have properties to solve these complex transmission and distribution constraints, especially for metropolitan area, in the future. As the HTS technology has developed, the HTS cable technology can be the most effective alternative to solve the future expected power network constraints. This paper describes the application methodology of developing 22.9kV HTS cable by CAST for practical distribution system. 22.9kV HTS cable under development with step-by-step application methodology can substitute the existing and planning conventional 154kV cable.[4-5] If this scheme is applied, part of downtown 154kV substation of metropolitan city such as Seoul can be changed into 22.9kV switching station. Additionally, it can give huge economic, environmental benefits to all of the concerned authorities.

  18. Back Disorder Intervention Strategies for Mass Transit Operators Exposed to Whole-Body VIBRATION—COMPARISON of Two Transit System Approaches and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanning, E.

    1998-08-01

    Occupational long-term whole-body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as a major risk factor for low back disorders, one of the most important reasons for medical impairment and early permanent disability among mass transit operators. Although no firm health and safety vibration exposure threshold limits have been established, the available data suggests that rail vehicle operators would probably fall under the proposed WBV “action levels” of the EU directive provisions for protection from physical hazards. This provision calls for technical, administrative and medical controls. This paper examines and compares the current conditions, provisions and plans of two major mass transit systems, the New Yorker MTA and the Munich MVV. The available data, information and publications (English/German) on working conditions, vibration exposure, epidemiology and intervention strategies (primary and secondary prevention) for rail bound mass transit workers were reviewed. Results strongly suggest that the MTA transit system has currently and in the near future no effective and meaningful controls in place to significantly reduce the WBV exposure of subway operators. It appears that the MVV system has more and better control measures in place to reduce harmful effects of WBV. Results of a scientific evaluation of a participatory, collaborative project in the MVV system suggest that the MVV may have developed a successful method of a “condition prevention” (Verhältnisprävention)—and “behavioral prevention” (Verhaltensprävention) intervention strategy, which appears beneficial for WBV exposed workers with existing low back pain. Long-term outcomes and benefits need to be assessed further.

  19. Application of AMS radiocarbon in earth system science studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Jin; Park, Mi Kyung; Kim, Kyung Ryul

    2001-01-01

    Radiocarbon, a cosmic ray-produced isotope, is one of the most important tracers in Earth system sciences. The strong involvement of carbon in the biosphere and its half life of 5720 years are reflected in appropriate applications in archeology, as well as in the Earth system sciences. Radiocarbon dating had an important turning point in 1977 with the discovery that mass spectrometry with tandem acceleration could be used to measure C-14. This new technique, known as AMS or accelerator mass spectrometry reduced the required sample size to the order of mg, three orders of magnitude smaller than for conventional techniques, thus opening the range of applicability of C-14 studies to a much wider range of samples. However, the application has been complicated by two major activities of human beings on a global scale: the extensive usage of fossil fuel since the industrial revolution and nuclear testing in the atmosphere, which have influenced the natural balance of radiocarbon in the atmosphere. However, the separation of bomb-produced carbon from natural background carbon has produced a very fruitful understanding of the global carbon cycle and the conveyor belt system in the ocean, which will be essential for understanding global environmental problems, such as global warming, in the coming century. Carbon cycle studies in Korea have been made since the early 1990s. The studies include monitoring of CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere, stable isotope studies, and carbon cycle studies in the sea around Korea. The opening of ths AMS facility at Seoul National University (SNU) will enhance carbon studies in Earth system sciences greatly in the future

  20. Commuter exposure to particulate matter and particle-bound PAHs in three transportation modes in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Caiqing; Zheng, Mei; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhang, Qunfang; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Yanjun; Fu, Huaiyu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to fine and ultrafine particles as well as particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by commuters in three transportation modes (walking, subway and bus) were examined in December 2011 in Beijing, China. During the study period, real-time measured median PM 2.5 mass concentration (PMC) for walking, riding buses and taking the subway were 26.7, 32.9 and 56.9 μg m −3 , respectively, and particle number concentrations (PNC) were 1.1 × 10 4 , 1.0 × 10 4 and 2.2 × 10 4  cm −3 . Commuters were exposed to higher PNC in air-conditioned buses and aboveground-railway, but higher PMC in underground-subway compared to aboveground-railway. PNC in roadway modes (bus and walking) peaked at noon, but was lower during traffic rush hours, negatively correlated with PMC. Toxic potential of particulate-PAHs estimated based on benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQs) showed that walking pedestrians were subjected to higher BaP TEQs than bus (2.7-fold) and subway (3.6-fold) commuters, though the highest PMC and PNC were observed in subway. - Highlights: • The highest PNC and PM 2.5 occurred around noon and late rush hours, respectively. • Higher PM 2.5 and PNC, but lower PAHs and BaP TEQ were found in Beijing subway. • Traffic congestion, roadside cooking, and construction evidently enhanced roadway PM. • Ventilation and air-conditioning system impact PM level in bus and subway cabins. - Higher PMC and PNC, but lower particulate PAHs and BaP TEQ were found in Beijing subway. PNC and PMC in on-roadway modes were peaked around noon and late rush hours, respectively

  1. Experimental study of wave energy extraction by a dual-buoy heaving system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentric dual-buoy Wave Energy Converter (WEC, which consists of external buoy (hallow-cylinder with toroidal appendage and cylindrical internal buoy within the moon-pool is suggested in this research and its performance in various wave conditions is studied. The Linear Electric Generator (LEG, consisting of a permanent magnet and coils, is used as a direct Power Take-Off (PTO system. To maximize the electrical energy extracted from the PTO system, the relative heave motions between the dual buoys must be highly amplified by the multiple resonance phenomena of dual-buoy and internal-fluid motions. The high-performance range can be widened by distributing those natural frequencies with respect to the peak frequency of the wave spectrum. The performance of the newly developed dual-buoy WEC was measured throughout the systematic 1:5.95-model test in regular and irregular waves conducted in a wave tank at Seoul National University. The model-test results are also validated by an independently developed numerical method.

  2. CO2 Outgassing from an Urbanized River System Fueled by Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae Kyung; Jin, Hyojin; Begum, Most Shirina; Kang, Namgoo; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2017-09-19

    Continuous underway measurements were combined with a basin-scale survey to examine human impacts on CO 2 outgassing in a highly urbanized river system in Korea. While the partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2 ) was measured at 15 sites using syringe equilibration, 3 cruises employing an equilibrator were done along a 30 km transect in the Seoul metropolitan area. The basin-scale survey revealed longitudinal increases in surface water pCO 2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the downstream reach. Downstream increases in pCO 2 , DOC, fluorescence index, and inorganic N and P reflected disproportionately large contributions from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents carried by major urban tributaries. Cruise transects exhibited strong localized peaks of pCO 2 up to 13 000 μatm and 13 CO 2 enrichment along the confluences of tributaries at an average flow, whereas CO 2 pulses were dampened by increased flow during the monsoon period. Fluctuations in pCO 2 along the eutrophic reach downstream of the confluences reflected environmental controls on the balance between photosynthesis, biodegradation, and outgassing. The results underscore WWTP effluents as an anthropogenic source of nutrients, DOC, and CO 2 and their influences on algal blooms and associated C dynamics in eutrophic urbanized river systems, warranting further research on urbanization-induced perturbations to riverine metabolic processes and carbon fluxes.

  3. Chemical characterisation of the coarse and fine particulate matter in the environment of an underground railway system: cytotoxic effects and oxidative stress-a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Ottria, Gianluca; Perdelli, Fernanda; Cristina, Maria Luisa

    2015-04-13

    Exposure to the particulate matter produced in underground railway systems is arousing increasing scientific interest because of its health effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the airborne concentrations of PM10 and three sub-fractions of PM2.5 in an underground railway system environment in proximity to platforms and in underground commercial areas within the system, and to compare these with the outdoor airborne concentrations. We also evaluated the metal components, the cytotoxic properties of the various fractions of particulate matter (PM) and their capacity to induce oxidative stress. We collected the coarse fraction (5-10 µm) and the fine fractions (1-2.5 µm; 0.5-1 µm; 0.25-0.5 µm). Chemical characterisation was determined by means of spectrometry. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) assessment. The concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 proved to be similar at the three sampling sites. Iron and other transition metals displayed a greater concentration at the subway platform than at the other two sites. The 2.5-10 µm and 1-2.5 µm fractions of PM from all three sampling sites determined a greater increase in ROS; the intensity of oxidative stress progressively declined as particle diameter diminished. Moreover, ROS concentrations were correlated with the concentrations of some transition metals, namely Mn, Cr, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Mo. All particulate matter fractions displayed lower or similar ROS values between platform level and the outdoor air. The present study revealed that the underground railway environment at platform level, although containing higher concentrations of some particularly reactive metallic species, did not display higher cytotoxicity and oxidative stress levels than the outdoor air.

  4. Chemical Characterisation of the Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Environment of an Underground Railway System: Cytotoxic Effects and Oxidative Stress—A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Spagnolo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to the particulate matter produced in underground railway systems is arousing increasing scientific interest because of its health effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the airborne concentrations of PM10 and three sub-fractions of PM2.5 in an underground railway system environment in proximity to platforms and in underground commercial areas within the system, and to compare these with the outdoor airborne concentrations. We also evaluated the metal components, the cytotoxic properties of the various fractions of particulate matter (PM and their capacity to induce oxidative stress. Method: We collected the coarse fraction (5–10 µm and the fine fractions (1–2.5 µm; 0.5–1 µm; 0.25–0.5 µm. Chemical characterisation was determined by means of spectrometry. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS assessment. Results: The concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 proved to be similar at the three sampling sites. Iron and other transition metals displayed a greater concentration at the subway platform than at the other two sites. The 2.5–10 µm and 1–2.5 µm fractions of PM from all three sampling sites determined a greater increase in ROS; the intensity of oxidative stress progressively declined as particle diameter diminished. Moreover, ROS concentrations were correlated with the concentrations of some transition metals, namely Mn, Cr, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Mo. All particulate matter fractions displayed lower or similar ROS values between platform level and the outdoor air. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the underground railway environment at platform level, although containing higher concentrations of some particularly reactive metallic species, did not display higher cytotoxicity and oxidative stress levels than the outdoor air.

  5. Chemical Characterisation of the Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Environment of an Underground Railway System: Cytotoxic Effects and Oxidative Stress—A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Ottria, Gianluca; Perdelli, Fernanda; Cristina, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to the particulate matter produced in underground railway systems is arousing increasing scientific interest because of its health effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the airborne concentrations of PM10 and three sub-fractions of PM2.5 in an underground railway system environment in proximity to platforms and in underground commercial areas within the system, and to compare these with the outdoor airborne concentrations. We also evaluated the metal components, the cytotoxic properties of the various fractions of particulate matter (PM) and their capacity to induce oxidative stress. Method: We collected the coarse fraction (5–10 µm) and the fine fractions (1–2.5 µm; 0.5–1 µm; 0.25–0.5 µm). Chemical characterisation was determined by means of spectrometry. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) assessment. Results: The concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 proved to be similar at the three sampling sites. Iron and other transition metals displayed a greater concentration at the subway platform than at the other two sites. The 2.5–10 µm and 1–2.5 µm fractions of PM from all three sampling sites determined a greater increase in ROS; the intensity of oxidative stress progressively declined as particle diameter diminished. Moreover, ROS concentrations were correlated with the concentrations of some transition metals, namely Mn, Cr, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Mo. All particulate matter fractions displayed lower or similar ROS values between platform level and the outdoor air. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the underground railway environment at platform level, although containing higher concentrations of some particularly reactive metallic species, did not display higher cytotoxicity and oxidative stress levels than the outdoor air. PMID:25872016

  6. Lupus cystitis in Korean patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: risk factors and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J H; Lee, J; Jung, S M; Ju, J H; Park, S-H; Kim, H-Y; Kwok, S-K

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics of lupus cystitis and determine the risk factors and clinical outcomes of lupus cystitis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We retrospectively reviewed 1064 patients at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul, Korea, from 1998 to 2013. Twenty-four patients had lupus cystitis. Lupus cystitis was defined as unexplained ureteritis and/or cystitis as detected by imaging studies, cystoscopy, or bladder histopathology without urinary microorganisms or stones. Three-fourths of patients with lupus cystitis had concurrent lupus mesenteric vasculitis (LMV). The initial symptoms were gastrointestinal in nature for most patients (79.2%). High-dose methylprednisolone was initially administered to most patients (91.7%) with lupus cystitis. Two patients (8.3%) died of urinary tract infections. Sixty-five age- and sex-matched patients with SLE who were admitted with other manifestations were included as the control group. Patients with lupus cystitis showed a lower C3 level (p = 0.031), higher SLE Disease Activity Index score (p = 0.006), and higher ESR (p = 0.05) upon admission; more frequently had a history of LMV prior to admission (p lupus (p = 0.031) than did patients with SLE but without lupus cystitis. The occurrence of lupus cystitis was associated with a history of LMV (OR, 21.794; 95% CI, 4.061-116.963). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years, and the cumulative one-year mortality rate was 20%. Complications developed in 33.3% of patients with lupus cystitis and were related to survival (log-rank p = 0.021). Our results suggest that the possibility of lupus cystitis should be considered when a patient with SLE and history of LMV presents with gastrointestinal symptoms or lower urinary tract symptoms. Development of complications in patients with lupus cystitis can be fatal. Thus, intensive treatment and follow-up are needed, especially in the presence of

  7. Development and validation of an automated delirium risk assessment system (Auto-DelRAS) implemented in the electronic health record system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung-Ja; Jin, Yinji; Jin, Taixian; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2018-01-01

    A key component of the delirium management is prevention and early detection. To develop an automated delirium risk assessment system (Auto-DelRAS) that automatically alerts health care providers of an intensive care unit (ICU) patient's delirium risk based only on data collected in an electronic health record (EHR) system, and to evaluate the clinical validity of this system. Cohort and system development designs were used. Medical and surgical ICUs in two university hospitals in Seoul, Korea. A total of 3284 patients for the development of Auto-DelRAS, 325 for external validation, 694 for validation after clinical applications. The 4211 data items were extracted from the EHR system and delirium was measured using CAM-ICU (Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit). The potential predictors were selected and a logistic regression model was established to create a delirium risk scoring algorithm to construct the Auto-DelRAS. The Auto-DelRAS was evaluated at three months and one year after its application to clinical practice to establish the predictive validity of the system. Eleven predictors were finally included in the logistic regression model. The results of the Auto-DelRAS risk assessment were shown as high/moderate/low risk on a Kardex screen. The predictive validity, analyzed after the clinical application of Auto-DelRAS after one year, showed a sensitivity of 0.88, specificity of 0.72, positive predictive value of 0.53, negative predictive value of 0.94, and a Youden index of 0.59. A relatively high level of predictive validity was maintained with the Auto-DelRAS system, even one year after it was applied to clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Subway Mandibular Buccal Defect Blocked with Two Part Prosthesis Unified by Earth Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Punjani, Shikha; Arora, Aman; Upadhyaya, Viram

    2012-01-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of a two-piece obturator used to close the mandibular buccal defect. Two-piece obturator prosthesis was fabricated with clear heat cure acrylic resin to be used during the healing period following the marsupialization of odontogenic keratocyst which had lead to the loss of portions of the mandibular buccal region. The prosthesis fabricated in two parts was joined by the rare earth magnets. Retention was increased by lining the prosthesis with tis...

  9. Indicators to assess the environmental performances of an innovative subway station : example of Noisy-Champs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J. M.; Charbonnier, L.; Versini, P. A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2017-12-01

    Noisy-Champs is a train station located in Noisy-le-Grand and Champs-sur-Marne, in the Paris urban area (France). Integrated into the Grand Paris Express project (huge development project to modernise the transport network around Paris), this station is going to be radically transformed and become a major hub. Designed by the architectural office Duthilleul, the new Noisy-Champs station aspires to be an example of an innovative and sustainable infrastructure. Its architectural precepts are indeed meant to improve its environmental performances, especially those related to storm water management, water consumption and users' thermal and hygrometric comfort. In order to assess and monitor these performances, objectives and associated indicators have been developed. They aim to be adapted for a specific infrastructure such as a public transport station. Analyses of pre-existing comfort simulations, blueprints and regulatory documents have led to identify the main issues for the Noisy-Champs station, focusing on its resilience to extreme events like droughts, heatwaves and heaxvy rainfalls. Both objectives and indicators have been proposed by studying the space-time variabilities of physical fluxes (heat, pollutants, radiation, wind and water) and passenger flows, and their interactions. Each indicator is linked to an environmental performance and has been determined after consultation of the different stakeholders involved in the rebuilding of the station. It results a monitoring program to assess the environmental performances of the station composed by both the indicators grid and their related objectives, and a measurement program detailing the nature and location of sensors, and the frequency of measurements.

  10. Electronic Highway of Electronic subway : Verborgen merkinformatie op het Internet in Amerikaans perspectief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Aan Internetpagina's kan door middel van zogenaamde meta-tags informatie worden toegevoegd die zich niet primair richt op de directe gebruiker maar op het voeden van zoeksystemen en filterprogramma's. Door het gebruik van meta-tags in de onderliggende code wordt aangegeven wat de relevante

  11. A comparison of film and 3 digital imaging systems for natural dental caries detection: CCD, CMOS, PSP and film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Won Jeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of occlusal and proximal caries detection using CCD, CMOS, PSP and film system. 32 occlusal and 30 proximal tooth surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions using 3 digital systems; CCD (CDX-2000HQ, Biomedysis Co., Seoul, Korea), CMOS (Schick, Schick Inc., Long Island, USA), PSP (Digora FMX, Orion Co./Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) and 1 film system (Kodak Insight, Eastman Kodak, Rochester, USA). 5 observers examined the radiographs for occlusal and proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale. The presence of caries was validated histologically and radiographically. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using ROC curve areas (AZ). Analysis using ROC curves revealed the area under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy. For occlusal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.765, CCD one of 0.730, CMOS one of 0.742 and PSP one of 0.735. For proximal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.833, CCD one of 0.832, CMOS one of 0.828 and PSP one of 0.868. No statistically significant difference was noted between any of the imaging modalities. CCD, CMOS, PSP and film performed equally well in the detection of occlusal and proximal dental caries. CCD, CMOS and PSP-based digital images provided a level of diagnostic performance comparable to Kodak Insight film.

  12. Development and evaluation of an automated fall risk assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Jin, Yinji; Piao, Jinshi; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-04-01

    Fall risk assessment is the first step toward prevention, and a risk assessment tool with high validity should be used. This study aimed to develop and validate an automated fall risk assessment system (Auto-FallRAS) to assess fall risks based on electronic medical records (EMRs) without additional data collected or entered by nurses. This study was conducted in a 1335-bed university hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The Auto-FallRAS was developed using 4211 fall-related clinical data extracted from EMRs. Participants included fall patients and non-fall patients (868 and 3472 for the development study; 752 and 3008 for the validation study; and 58 and 232 for validation after clinical application, respectively). The system was evaluated for predictive validity and concurrent validity. The final 10 predictors were included in the logistic regression model for the risk-scoring algorithm. The results of the Auto-FallRAS were shown as high/moderate/low risk on the EMR screen. The predictive validity analyzed after clinical application of the Auto-FallRAS was as follows: sensitivity = 0.95, NPV = 0.97 and Youden index = 0.44. The validity of the Morse Fall Scale assessed by nurses was as follows: sensitivity = 0.68, NPV = 0.88 and Youden index = 0.28. This study found that the Auto-FallRAS results were better than were the nurses' predictions. The advantage of the Auto-FallRAS is that it automatically analyzes information and shows patients' fall risk assessment results without requiring additional time from nurses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  13. Hydroxychloroquine and pregnancy on lupus flares in Korean patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J H; Ko, H S; Kwok, S-K; Ju, J H; Park, S-H

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the clinical and laboratory characteristics of pregnancies with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and identified lupus flare predictors during pregnancy. Additionally, we examined lupus activity and pregnancy outcomes in SLE patients who continued, discontinued or underwent no hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment during pregnancy. We retrospectively analyzed 179 pregnancies in 128 SLE patients at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Korea, between 1998 and 2012 and then assessed the clinical profiles and maternal and fetal outcomes. Overall, 90.5% of pregnancies resulted in a successful delivery and were divided into two groups: those who experienced lupus flares (80 pregnancies, 44.7%) and those who did not (99 pregnancies, 55.3%). Increased preeclampsia, preterm births, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and low 1-minute Apgar scores occurred in pregnancies with lupus flares compared to pregnancies in quiescent disease. Lupus flares were predicted by HCQ discontinuation, a history of lupus nephritis, high pre-pregnancy serum uric acid and low C4 levels. Our study indicates that achieving pre-pregnancy remission and continuing HCQ treatment during pregnancy are important for preventing lupus flares. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaekeun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%. PMID:25258730

  15. 50 Years of Bong-Han Theory and 10 Years of Primo Vascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Sup Soh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS was first introduced by Bong-Han Kim via his five research reports. Among these the third report was most extensive and conclusive in terms of the PVS anatomy and physiology relating to the acupuncture meridians. His study results, unfortunately, were not reproduced by other scientists because he did not describe the materials and methods in detail. In 2002, a research team in Seoul National University reinitiated the PVS research, confirmed the existence of PVS in various organs, and discovered new characteristics of PVS. Two important examples are as follows: PVS was found in the adipose tissue and around cancer tissues. In parallel to these new findings, new methods for observing and identifying PVS were developed. Studies on the cell and material content inside the PVS, including the immune function cells and stem cells, are being progressed. In this review, Bong-Han Kim’s study results in his third report are summarized, and the new results after him are briefly reviewed. In the last section, the obstacles in finding the PVS in the skin as an anatomical structure of acupuncture meridian are discussed.

  16. IoT-based smart garbage system for efficient food waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Insung; Park, Sunghoi; Lee, Beomseok; Lee, Jaekeun; Jeong, Daebeom; Park, Sehyun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  17. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT, researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  18. Advocacy for pneumonia prevention in Korea: a multi-dimensional program organised around World Pneumonia Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon A Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited examples of population-based approaches that engage a broad range of stakeholders for prevention of pneumonia. In 2010, a multi-dimensional public-private partnership was established around World Pneumonia Day (WPD in Seoul, Korea and included the following components: a formation of an expert advisory group, b creation of educational materials tailored for lay persons, c creation of a dedicated WPD internet website in the local language, d organisation of a WPD venue in central Seoul, e creation of video and social networking messages for wide distribution, and f engagement of parents, health-care professionals, public health agencies and policymakers. This project directly engaged 7 expert health professionals, five national- and city-level health facilities, and parents from communities. The program reached out to 70,560 persons including 25,200 persons who were contacted in person at publicly-held WPD events. An educational video produced for WPD was aired in the Seoul subway and visible to several million persons riding subway lines that aired the pneumonia public service announcements over a two-month period (February to March, 2011. In addition, the Korean WPD website experienced 4,975 page views with 3,338 visitors and the micro blog associated with this site hosted 82 posts from site visitors. Based on participant numbers and contact volumes achieved in this project, the Korean WPD program was widely accepted and proved to be a highly effective in reaching a large audience to advocate for pneumonia prevention. One key to success of this program appears to be the unique public-private partnership around a major health issue. The methods and tools developed in this program have excellent potential for adaptation and application in other countries where pneumonia may be an under recognised problem among the general public. 

  19. Research on seasonal indoor thermal environment and residents' control behavior of cooling and heating systems in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Chihye; Chun, Chungyoon [Department of Housing and Interior Design, College of Human Ecology, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    Indoor thermal environments and residents' control behavior of cooling and heating systems were investigated in Seoul, Korea and compared with the results of previous studies. Twenty-four houses in summer, six houses in autumn and 36 houses in winter were used in this study. The measurement of temperature, humidity and air conditioner usage behavior was carried out. The clo-value, thermal comfort, sensation and basic data of the houses were also investigated. The indoor thermal environment in the summer had a high temperature and a high humidity ratio compare to standard comfort zone. Most of the indoor thermal environments at the time of starting the air conditioner in the summer were out of the comfort zone. Some of the data recorded while the air conditioner was stopped were in the comfort zone, but in many cases the temperature was relatively higher than comfort zone. Most indoor climate distributions in the winter were in the comfort zone and the indoor climate in autumn coincided well with the criteria of the comfort zone. Compared with results of previous studies in these 25 years, indoor ambient average temperature in winter has increased and the comfort temperature has increased in the heating period and decreased in the cooling period. This result indicates that the development of an HVAC system has created an expectation of comfort for residents and has shifted their thermal comfort zone warmer in winter and cooler in summer. (author)

  20. Department of Sport Science, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 172 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, 139-743 Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngho

    2013-06-01

    The current study investigated differences in physical activity and perceived benefits and barriers in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and tested the effect of BMI and perceived benefits and barriers on physical activity. Adolescents (N = 773) participated in the study; 381 were classified as having normal weight, 262 as overweight, and 130 as obese. Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, Decisional Balance Scale, and body composition analyzer were used to measure the study variables. Results indicated that there were no differences in self-reported physical activity in the three BMI groups. However, groups perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity differed. BMI and 'better outlook', 'weight control', 'feeling confidence', 'physical dissatisfaction', and 'lack of confidence' accounted for nearly half the variance in self-reported physical activity.

  1. MODELLING TEMPORAL SCHEDULE OF URBAN TRAINS USING AGENT-BASED SIMULATION AND NSGA2-BASED MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sahelgozin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing distances between locations of residence and services leads to a large number of daily commutes in urban areas. Developing subway systems has been taken into consideration of transportation managers as a response to this huge amount of travel demands. In developments of subway infrastructures, representing a temporal schedule for trains is an important task; because an appropriately designed timetable decreases Total passenger travel times, Total Operation Costs and Energy Consumption of trains. Since these variables are not positively correlated, subway scheduling is considered as a multi-criteria optimization problem. Therefore, proposing a proper solution for subway scheduling has been always a controversial issue. On the other hand, research on a phenomenon requires a summarized representation of the real world that is known as Model. In this study, it is attempted to model temporal schedule of urban trains that can be applied in Multi-Criteria Subway Schedule Optimization (MCSSO problems. At first, a conceptual framework is represented for MCSSO. Then, an agent-based simulation environment is implemented to perform Sensitivity Analysis (SA that is used to extract the interrelations between the framework components. These interrelations is then taken into account in order to construct the proposed model. In order to evaluate performance of the model in MCSSO problems, Tehran subway line no. 1 is considered as the case study. Results of the study show that the model was able to generate an acceptable distribution of Pareto-optimal solutions which are applicable in the real situations while solving a MCSSO is the goal. Also, the accuracy of the model in representing the operation of subway systems was significant.

  2. Modelling Temporal Schedule of Urban Trains Using Agent-Based Simulation and NSGA2-BASED Multiobjective Optimization Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahelgozin, M.; Alimohammadi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing distances between locations of residence and services leads to a large number of daily commutes in urban areas. Developing subway systems has been taken into consideration of transportation managers as a response to this huge amount of travel demands. In developments of subway infrastructures, representing a temporal schedule for trains is an important task; because an appropriately designed timetable decreases Total passenger travel times, Total Operation Costs and Energy Consumption of trains. Since these variables are not positively correlated, subway scheduling is considered as a multi-criteria optimization problem. Therefore, proposing a proper solution for subway scheduling has been always a controversial issue. On the other hand, research on a phenomenon requires a summarized representation of the real world that is known as Model. In this study, it is attempted to model temporal schedule of urban trains that can be applied in Multi-Criteria Subway Schedule Optimization (MCSSO) problems. At first, a conceptual framework is represented for MCSSO. Then, an agent-based simulation environment is implemented to perform Sensitivity Analysis (SA) that is used to extract the interrelations between the framework components. These interrelations is then taken into account in order to construct the proposed model. In order to evaluate performance of the model in MCSSO problems, Tehran subway line no. 1 is considered as the case study. Results of the study show that the model was able to generate an acceptable distribution of Pareto-optimal solutions which are applicable in the real situations while solving a MCSSO is the goal. Also, the accuracy of the model in representing the operation of subway systems was significant.

  3. Clinicopathologic review of 19 patients with systemic candidiasis with skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Gee Young; Lee, Hae Woong; Chang, Sung Eun; Moon, Kee Chan; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Koh, Jai Kyoung

    2005-07-01

    A diagnosis of systemic candidiasis is often delayed or missed owing to the absence of sensitive, specific, and timely diagnostic tools. Skin lesions are not common, but they can help to rapidly establish a diagnosis. We report on a 14-year experience of systemic candidiasis with skin lesions in our institution. We report the prevalence, clinical findings, histologic findings, etiologic Candida species, underlying conditions, treatment modalities, and outcomes of the cases and compare them with the previous reports. We reviewed the medical records and laboratory data of patients diagnosed with systemic candidiasis from June 1989 to September 2002 at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. We thoroughly reviewed the data on those patients with characteristic skin lesions. We included the cases in which Candida organisms were either shown or cultured from the skin. We also included the patients who had developed the characteristic rash at the onset of infection if there was no other possible explanation for the rash. Of 53 documented systemic candidiasis cases, 19 (35.8%) had the characteristic skin lesions. Fifteen patients (78.9%) had hematologic problems and were neutropenic. The skin lesions were a maculopapular or nodular rash and plaques. In addition to the trunk and proximal extremities, the rash also involved the face and distal extremities. The rashes were mostly purpuric, not consistently associated with underlying thrombocytopenia but also associated with underlying vascular damage as a result of Candida organisms. The underlying vascular damage also caused intraepidermal necrotic and vesicular change. One case of transepidermal elimination of organisms was newly found. The most common causative species was Candida tropicalis in the 19 patients with skin lesions, in contrast with Candida albicans in a total of 53 patients. The mortality rate was 84.2%. The prevalence of systemic candidiasis-associated skin lesions may be higher than previously reported

  4. [A study on facilitators and inhibitors to the introduction of outsourcing in the hospital information systems in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Soon; Shin, Hyeong-Sik; Choi, Inyoung; Kim, Sukil

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the current status of outsourcing in Korean hospital information systems and the factors influencing its introduction. The authors surveyed 136 hospitals located in Seoul and its surrounding vicinities from June 7 to June 23, 2006. The facilitators and inhibitors to outsourcing in hospital information systems were derived from literature and expert reviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the major influencing factors on outsourcing in hospital information systems. Eighty-six (63.2%) of the 136 hospitals surveyed, which were mainly tertiary hospitals, responded to using outsourcing for their hospital information systems. "Hardware and software maintenance and support," "application development," and "management of service and staff" were the major areas of outsourcing. Outsourcing had been employed for 4-7 years by 45.5% of the hospitals and the proportion of the budget used for outsourcing was less than 20%. A need for an extension in outsourcing was agreed on by 76.5% of the hospitals. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that both consumer satisfaction and security risk have an influence on hospital information system outsourcing. Outsourcing in hospital information systems is expected to increase just as in other industries. One primary facilitator to outsourcing in other industries is consumer satisfaction. We found that this was also a facilitator to outsourcing in hospital information systems. Security risk, which is usually considered an inhibitor to information technology outsourcing, was proven to be an inhibitor here as well. The results of this study may help hospital information systems establish a strategy and management plan for outsourcing.

  5. Development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojin; Song, Chul-han; Park, Rae Seol; Park, Mi Eun; Han, Kyung man; Kim, Jhoon; Choi, Myungje; Ghim, Young Sung; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2016-04-01

    To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70{%}, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample

  6. Real-time crowd density mapping using a novel sensory fusion model of infrared and visual systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yaseen, S; Al-Habaibeh, A; Su, D; Otham, F

    2013-01-01

    Crowd dynamic management research has seen significant attention in recent years in research and industry in an attempt to improve safety level and management of large scale events and in large public places such as stadiums, theatres, railway stations, subways and other places where high flow of people at high densities is expected. Failure to detect the crowd behaviour at the right time could lead to unnecessary injuries and fatalities. Over the past decades there have been many incidents o...

  7. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery in a survival animal model using a transabdominal magnetic anchoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Beom; Park, Chan Ho; Kim, Hee Cheol; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2011-12-01

    Though single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) can reduce operative scarring and facilitates postoperative recovery, it does have some limitations, such as reduction in instrument working, difficulty in triangulation, and collision of instruments. To overcome these limitations, development of new instruments is needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a magnetic anchoring system in performing SILS ileocecectomy. Experiments were performed in a living dog model. Five dogs (26.3-29.2 kg) underwent ileocecectomy using a multichannel single port (OCTO port; Darim, Seoul, Korea). The port was inserted at the umbilicus and maintained a CO(2) pneumoperitoneum. Two magnet-fixated vascular clips were attached to the colon using an endoclip applicator, and it was held together across the abdominal wall by using an external handheld magnet. The cecum was then retracted in an upward direction by moving the external handheld magnet, and the mesocolon was dissected with Ultracision(®). Extracorporeal functional end-to-end anastomosis was done using a linear stapler. All animals survived during the observational period of 2 weeks, and then re-exploration was performed under general anesthesia for evaluation of intra-abdominal healing and complications. Mean operation time was 70 min (range 55-100 min), with each subsequent case taking less time. The magnetic anchoring system was effective in achieving adequate exposure in all cases. All animals survived and convalesced normally without evidence of clinical complication during the observation period. At re-exploration, all anastomoses were completely healed and there were no complications such as abscess, bleeding or organ injury. SILS ileocecectomy using a magnetic anchoring system was safe and effective in a dog model. The development of magnetic anchoring systems may be beneficial for overcoming the limitations of SILS.

  8. Essential Experimental Methods for Identifying Bonghan Systems as a Basis for Korean Medicine: Focusing on Visual Materials from Original Papers and Modern Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Gi Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, through studies on Korean Medicine, Bonghan Kim proposed the Bonghan systems (BS as the anatomical reality of the acupuncture meridians based on various experimental data. Since 2002, several groups, mainly led by a team at Seoul National University, who renamed the BS as the primo vascular system (PVS, have published around 70 papers showing biological structures corresponding to the BS. However, it is still difficult for other researchers to find them, especially under the skin, which Bonghan Kim first reported as acupuncture points, due to similar-looking biological tissues, for example, the lymphatic vessels, and such artifacts as blood clots or fascia debris. To solve these drawbacks, we examined the main methods for identifying the BS by comparing the original papers with the modern outcomes in terms of the common physical/chemical characteristics of the BS. In addition, effective methods of staining and microscopic observations discovered by modern teams are synthetically explained using visual materials such as diagrams and photos. Through the essentially organized methods in this review paper, we suggest that one can find the BS under the skin as putative acupuncture points by tracing the intraexternal BS, from which a new Korean Medicine will be born.

  9. Effects of self-reported sensitivity and road-traffic noise levels on the immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahra Kim

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to noise, particularly road traffic noise, can increase cortisol levels and result in changes in immune system biomarkers. Therefore, continuous exposure to noise can have an effect on immune function, hormonal levels, and cardiovascular function, leading to hypertension and stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in stress-and immune system-related biomarkers according to the self-reported sensitivity to noise and exposure to road traffic noise, to ultimately determine the potential effects of noise on health. A survey was conducted through questionnaire (ISO/TS 15666 sent to 172 female subjects in Korea, including 128 from Ulsan and 44 from Seoul. The average noise level was calculated, and blood samples were collected for measurements of cortisol levels, Natural killer (NK / Natural killer T (NKT cell populations, and NK cell activity (through measurements of interleukin-12 (IL-12 and interferon-gamma (INF-γ concentrations. Multivariate linear regression analysis of the measured biomarkers according to the road traffic noise level and self-reported noise sensitivity was conducted adjusting for the effects of age, alcohol status, smoking status, regular exercise, and residence period. IL-12 levels increased, whereas the NKT cell population decreased with increasing noise levels. The results further suggested that cortisol levels are more influenced by the subject's sensitivity to noise than to the level of chronic road traffic noise. Therefore, noise appears to have the largest effect on IL-12 levels as well as the population and activity of NKT cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that low-level road traffic noise and sensitivity to noise can affect health by causing changes in the immune response through mechanisms other than increased cortisol.

  10. GIST-PM-Asia v1: development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Park, M. E.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Ghim, Y. S.; Woo, J.-H.

    2016-01-01

    To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70 %, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample

  11. Enhanced oral bioavailability of fenofibrate using polymeric nanoparticulated systems: physicochemical characterization and in vivo investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf AM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abid Mehmood Yousaf,1 Dong Wuk Kim,1 Yu-Kyoung Oh,2 Chul Soon Yong,3 Jong Oh Kim,3 Han-Gon Choi11College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, 2College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 3College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, South KoreaBackground: The intention of this research was to prepare and compare various solubility-enhancing nanoparticulated systems in order to select a nanoparticulated formulation with the most improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.Methods: The most appropriate excipients for different nanoparticulated preparations were selected by determining the drug solubility in 1% (w/v aqueous solutions of each carrier. The polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP nanospheres, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD nanocorpuscles, and gelatin nanocapsules were formulated as fenofibrate/PVP/sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, fenofibrate/HP-β-CD, and fenofibrate/gelatin at the optimized weight ratios of 2.5:4.5:1, 1:4, and 1:8, respectively. The three solid-state products were achieved using the solvent-evaporation method through the spray-drying technique. The physicochemical characterization of these nanoparticles was accomplished by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Their physicochemical properties, aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated in comparison with the drug powder.Results: Among the tested carriers, PVP, HP-β-CD, gelatin, and SLS showed better solubility and were selected as the most appropriate constituents for various nanoparticulated systems. All of the formulations significantly improved the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability of fenofibrate compared to the drug powder. The drug was present in the amorphous form in HP-β-CD nanocorpuscles; however, in

  12. Effects of catchment, first-flush, storage conditions, and time on microbial quality in rainwater harvesting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M T; Kim, Tschung-il; Amin, M N; Han, M Y

    2013-12-01

    Rainwater collected from a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is typically not considered suitable for potable uses, primarily because of poor microbial quality. The quality of stored rainwater, however, can be improved through basic design and maintenance practices during the construction and operation of an RWH system. This paper presents the microbial analysis of rainwater in two RWH systems installed at the Seoul National University Campus in South Korea. Rainwater samples were collected at different locations within each system and analyzed for total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Within their storage tanks, water quality improved horizontally from inlet to outlet points, and higher quality was observed at the supply point (located about 0.5 m from the base of the tank) than at the surface or bottom of the tank. First-flush rainwater was found to be highly contaminated but rainwater quality improved following about 1 mm of precipitation. The catchment surface also had a significant effect on the quality of rainwater; samples collected from a rooftop exhibited better microbial quality than from a terrace catchment. Better water quality in underground tanks (dark storage conditions) compared to open weirs/ filters (exposed to natural light) demonstrated the importance of storage conditions. Water quality also improved with longer storage, and a decrease of 70% to 90% in microbial concentrations was observed after about 1 week of storage time. The findings of this study demonstrate that the microbial quality of harvested rainwater can be improved significantly by the adoption of proper design and maintenance guidelines such as those discussed in this paper.

  13. Does community capacity influence self-rated health? Multilevel contextual effects in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Viswanath, K

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between community-level contextual effects and self-rated health (SRH) based on the perspective of community capacity rather than social capital. Community capacity for mobilization is broad cooperation for networking among indigenous social agents and grassroots organizations that may serve as potential resources. The idea of community capacity is rooted in the philosophy that a community not only faces problems but also possesses the necessary resources to solve its problems. We used nationally representative data from South Korea, 2010, drawing on 14,228 residents in 404 communities. Community capacity was measured at two levels: an individual-level indicator of community satisfaction, and community-level indicators of participation rate in community organizations, number of community-based organizations (CBOs), and number of volunteer work camps (VWCs). The outcome variable was SRH, which was categorized into two groups: the low-SRH and high-SRH groups. Confounders included gender, age, and income at the individual level, and aggregate length of residency, financial independence ratio, and aggregate income at the community level. We estimated the effects of community capacity on SRH using hierarchical generalized linear models. The likelihood of belonging to the group having low-SRH is significantly high among those respondents living in places with lower community capacity at the community level, that report lower community satisfaction, and that have lower income at the individual level. After controlling for socio-economic confounders, the odds ratios were attenuated but remained significant in the final model, which included the gender-specific model. This study revealed that SRH is related to the level of community capacity for mobilization. It is probably because CBOs and VWCs not only provide necessary information and complementary services but also play an active role in identifying and resolving health problems therein. Thus, community capacity building warrants serious consideration for a community-based health promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Statement at Nuclear Security Summit, 27 March 2012, Seoul, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Mr President, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, The Fukushima Daiichi accident last year reminded us of the important connections between nuclear safety and nuclear security. Implementing multiple safety measures at nuclear plants also helps to protect them against terrorist sabotage. In order to take this work forward, I have just established a Nuclear Security Guidance Committee. All of you can participate in developing best practices in nuclear security, taking account of nuclear safety considerations. During the course of yesterday and today, all of you have referred to the activities of the IAEA, so I hope you will let me share some of the details of those activities with you. Last year, in a sting operation, police in the Republic of Moldova seized a quantity of high enriched uranium. The uranium was carried in a shielded container to prevent it from being detected. The smugglers claimed that the seized material was just a sample and that they could provide more. This case showed a new and worrying level of sophistication. I mention this example to demonstrate that the seriousness of the threat of nuclear terrorism has not diminished. But I also wanted to show that, by working together, we can respond effectively. In this case, the IAEA had provided training to around 60 Moldovan officials and given them some 70 items of specialist equipment. Thanks to that cooperation, the Moldovan police were able to stop the smuggling. This Summit is considering not just the security of nuclear materials, but also that of radioactive sources. These materials, such as cobalt-60, could be used along with conventional explosives to make so-called dirty bombs. A dirty bomb detonated in a major city could cause mass panic, as well as serious economic and environmental consequences. Ladies and Gentlemen, National governments have primary responsibility for nuclear security, but international cooperation is vital. In the past two years, there have been some positive developments, but more needs to be done. In addressing nuclear security, information has a vital importance. More than 100 countries now report incidents of thefts or other illicit activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials to the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database. It tracks several hundred incidents every year, but this could just be the tip of the iceberg. I would like to see all countries participating in the Database. We are presently working with many of you to establish global networks of Nuclear Security Support Centres to improve nuclear security. Upon the request of IAEA Member States, we are coordinating these activities. One area where more action is urgently needed by the Member States is ratification of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. The Amendment was agreed in 2005 but has still not entered into force. The problem with the original Convention is that it covers only the physical protection of nuclear material in international transport. The Amendment would expand its coverage to include the protection of nuclear material in domestic use, transport and storage, and the protection of nuclear facilities. Entry into force of the Amendment would make an important difference to global nuclear security. Ladies and Gentlemen, Strengthening nuclear security is not just about spending money on 'guns, gates and guards.' Human elements such as training specialist staff and transferring know-how are of equal importance. In the past ten years, the IAEA has trained over 10,000 people in more than 120 countries in nuclear security. We have helped countries put a considerable amount of high enriched uranium into more secure storage. We are receiving more requests for peer reviews which is a very encouraging sign. Ladies and Gentlemen, I welcome and thank you for your support for the IAEA, as expressed at this Summit and the communique which you are about to adopt. We will work with all of you to help make the world more secure from nuclear terrorism. Thank you. (IAEA)

  15. Same Day Surgery at the 121st General Hospital Seoul, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    SECT) NEWBORN NURSERY 8-Jan-04 9-Jan-04 1173 (POST TERM PREG-DEL) WICU 8-Jan-04 9-Jan-04 1344 (PERFORAT TYMPAN MEMB NOS) MULTI-CARE UNIT 9-Jan-04 9-Jan...indicates the surgery (V64. 1). For example, patient experiences arrhythmia that causes the procedure to be terminated, " Patient decides not to have the

  16. Twitter Analysis of Public Acceptance between Seoul and Gori of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seungkook

    2015-01-01

    Public acceptance is critical for sustaining nuclear power, and researchers have devised various methods to measure it (Stritar, 1996). Existing literatures suggest that rationality, emotion, knowledge of nuclear technology, trust, policy executor, and risk perception variables affect public acceptance. These attempts, however, have been limited to epistemological measurements using methods such as the Likert scale (Sjoberg and Drottz-Sjoberg, 2009; Slovic, 2000; Tanaka, 2004). Because such methods are standardized, it is difficult to reflect on emotions latent in individuals within the public. Moreover, surveys can be conducted only on people in a specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. Because big data methods are based on unstructured data, which contain the live experiences/opinions, and are virtually real-time with almost no delay between the events of concern and the data collection, big data analysis allows real-time identification of relationships among different variables and their significance (Graham and Shelton, 2013). In this research, we propose big data analysis as a solution and attempt to identify the attitudes of the public on nuclear energy using big data analysis. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis), and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze the public acceptance of nuclear technology. The trends and opinions of opinion leaders on SNSs should be monitored and responded to in real time. As demonstrated from the rejection of the extension of the Gori nuclear power plant, image and feeling are more important than the performance of the safety technology on the operation of a nuclear power plant. Because Korea has many aging reactors, evaluation of projects to extend the operation of old reactors and build new reactors will take place in the near future. In this context, it is crucial to collect and analyze data regarding the image of nuclear power. The big data analysis will allow the nuclear industry and the government to proactively respond to the public, which will lead to rational decisions and interaction with the public. Evaluation and prediction of nuclear policies will be made more reliable by using the big data methodologies and the results of this research. Nevertheless, there are certain limitations. First, this research did not analyze the individuals directly, but their group in an SNS. Applying the results to the individuals directly may create an ecological fallacy (Schwartz, 1994). Second, using only Twitter data could limit the scope of this research (Li et al., 2012). Nevertheless, the research collected ample datasets for the analysis, and the overall trend of opinions is not expected to differ even in other SNSs

  17. Gay Seouls: Expanding Religious Spaces for Non-Heterosexuals in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Joseph; Jung, Gowoon; Segura, Saul Serna; Phillips, Joe; Park, Jerry Z

    2017-09-08

    What Protestant congregations offer spaces for worship and dialogue among persons with different sexual orientations? The academic literature finds or assumes that non-heterosexuals are stigmatized or invisible in theologically conservative congregations and are welcomed in progressive, affirming congregations. This article develops an alternative claim that some conservative or evangelical congregations offer attractive spaces for non-heterosexuals to worship and dialogue. We illustrate with an exploratory study of four congregations in South Korea-two theologically progressive, two evangelical-whose pastors welcomed everybody regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. The "inclusive-evangelical" congregations retained conservative theology on sexuality (sexual relations only within heterosexual marriage) but offered more empathic dialogue with non-heterosexuals than did most evangelical congregations; they also provided more resources, conventional religious culture, and ties to traditional affective networks than the affirming-progressive congregations. Inclusive-evangelical congregations offer an institutional venue for non-heterosexual Christians in Korea to potentially reconcile three central values: conservative Christianity, traditional (Confucian) affective networks, and expressive individualism.

  18. Injury severity in delivery-motorcycle to vehicle crashes in the Seoul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Younshik; Song, Tai-Jin; Yoon, Byoung-Jo

    2014-01-01

    More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In addition, the fatality rate for motorcycle crashes is about 12% of the fatality rate for road traffic crashes, which is considered to be high, although motorcycle crashes account for only 5% of road traffic crashes in South Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes that have occurred during delivery. To examine the risk of different injury levels sustained under all crash types of vehicle-to-motorcycle, this study applied an ordered probit model. Based on the results, this study proposes policy implications to reduce the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Seoul criteria for PiB(-) subcortical vascular dementia based on clinical and MRI variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon Ha; Lee, Jae Hong; Seo, Sang Won; Ye, Byoung Seok; Cho, Hanna; Kim, Hee Jin; Noh, Young; Yoon, Cindy W; Chin, Ju Hee; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Seung; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Na, Duk L

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this study was to propose new criteria for differentiating Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-negative from PiB-positive subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) using clinical and MRI variables. We measured brain amyloid deposition using PiB-PET in 77 patients with SVaD. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for vascular dementia and had severe white matter hyperintensities on MRI, defined as a cap or band ≥ 10 mm as well as a deep white matter lesion ≥ 25 mm. Eleven models were considered to differentiate PiB(-) from PiB(+) SVaD using 4 variables, including age, number of lacunes, medial temporal atrophy (MTA), and APOE ε4. The ideal cutoff values in each of the 11 models were selected using the highest Youden index. A total of 49 of 77 patients (63.6%) tested negative for PiB retention, while 28 (36.4%) tested positive for PiB retention. The ideal model for differentiating PiB(-) from PiB(+) SVaD was as follows: age ≤ 75 years, ≥ 5 lacunes, and MTA ≤ 3, which together yielded an accuracy of 67.5%. When patients meet the DSM-IV criteria for vascular dementia and also have severe white matter hyperintensities, younger age, greater number of lacunes, and lesser MTA, these are predictive of a PiB(-) scan in patients with SVaD. This study provides Class II evidence that the combination of younger age, greater number of lacunes, and lesser MTA identifies patients with SVaD at lower risk of Alzheimer disease pathology.

  20. Twitter Analysis of Public Acceptance between Seoul and Gori of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seungkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Public acceptance is critical for sustaining nuclear power, and researchers have devised various methods to measure it (Stritar, 1996). Existing literatures suggest that rationality, emotion, knowledge of nuclear technology, trust, policy executor, and risk perception variables affect public acceptance. These attempts, however, have been limited to epistemological measurements using methods such as the Likert scale (Sjoberg and Drottz-Sjoberg, 2009; Slovic, 2000; Tanaka, 2004). Because such methods are standardized, it is difficult to reflect on emotions latent in individuals within the public. Moreover, surveys can be conducted only on people in a specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. Because big data methods are based on unstructured data, which contain the live experiences/opinions, and are virtually real-time with almost no delay between the events of concern and the data collection, big data analysis allows real-time identification of relationships among different variables and their significance (Graham and Shelton, 2013). In this research, we propose big data analysis as a solution and attempt to identify the attitudes of the public on nuclear energy using big data analysis. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis), and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze the public acceptance of nuclear technology. The trends and opinions of opinion leaders on SNSs should be monitored and responded to in real time. As demonstrated from the rejection of the extension of the Gori nuclear power plant, image and feeling are more important than the performance of the safety technology on the operation of a nuclear power plant. Because Korea has many aging reactors, evaluation of projects to extend the operation of old reactors and build new reactors will take place in the near future. In this context, it is crucial to collect and analyze data regarding the image of nuclear power. The big data analysis will allow the nuclear industry and the government to proactively respond to the public, which will lead to rational decisions and interaction with the public. Evaluation and prediction of nuclear policies will be made more reliable by using the big data methodologies and the results of this research. Nevertheless, there are certain limitations. First, this research did not analyze the individuals directly, but their group in an SNS. Applying the results to the individuals directly may create an ecological fallacy (Schwartz, 1994). Second, using only Twitter data could limit the scope of this research (Li et al., 2012). Nevertheless, the research collected ample datasets for the analysis, and the overall trend of opinions is not expected to differ even in other SNSs.

  1. Urban containment policies and the protection of natural areas: the case of Seoul's greenbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Yeo-Chang Youn

    2006-01-01

    Countries around the world have responded to the problems associated with rapid urban growth and increasingly land-consumptive development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth. Of the array of growth management techniques, urban containment policies are considered by some to be a promising approach. This paper focuses...

  2. An analysis of the aspects attracting medical tourists : a case study in Seoul, South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Da ok

    2012-01-01

    Many countries recognized the potential of medicaltourism as an alternative source of economic growth. Especially after theeconomic crisis many Asian countries joined medical tourism in hopes to escapethe severe financial difficulty. However, yet only few countries have managedto become a famous medical tourism destination. With growing number ofcompetitors, newly joined countries of medical tourism, face the difficulty inintroducing them self as attractive medical tourism destination. South ...

  3. The Role and Magnitude of Order Flows in Seoul Foreign Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Shick Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we test the role of order flows in KRW/USD. We use transaction based high frequency data (electronic broker happened in 2006. For robustness check, we extend our analysis by combining exchange rates (indicative quotes v.s. transaction rate, frequency (transaction based time v.s. 1 minute through 1 day, and order flows (sign v.s. signed volume. The results show that order flow is an important variable for explaining the KRW/USD regardless of frequency and of choice of quotes. Based on Hasbrouck's measure we find that 14-28% of permanent exchange rate variation is due to private information. The magnitude is smaller than that of international currency presenting, for example, in Payne (2003. The discrepancy arises both from currency choice and from too short data span in Payne (2003.

  4. AIRFLOW PATTERNS AND STACK PRESSURE SIMULATION IN A HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING LOCATED IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoukhi Maatouk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Buoyancy forces due to air density difference between outdoor air and indoor air cause stack effect in high-rise buildings in cold climates. This stack effect occurs mainly at the core of the building such as the stairway and elevator shafts and causes many problems such as the energy loss caused by air flow, the blocked elevator door and discomfort due to inflowing of strong outdoor air. The main purpose of this work is to model the airflow pattern in a highrise building during the winter period by mean of COMIS. The presented building which is situated in Korea contains 30 floors above the ground level and 5 basement floors. Using COMIS, the simulation has been carried out for the entire building. However, the simulation failed due to the huge number of zones and interactions between them. Therefore, a model of building which contains 14 floors with 5 floors in the basement has been considered; and a simplified model based on the considered one has been constructed and compared with the 14 floors model. The simplified model consists on reducing the number of floors by combining a certain number of stories into one so that to enable the simulation to be carried on with a minimum number of zones and links. The result of the simulation shows that this approach could be used with accuracy still being satisfied. Therefore, the simplified procedure has been extended and applied to the high rise building model with 30 stories above the ground level and 5 stories in the basement. The effect of the exterior wall air-tightness of the building with 30 stories on the stack pressure and airflow by infiltration and/or by exfiltration has been investigated. The result shows that the total air by infiltration and/or exfiltration within the elevator shafts increases with the decrease of the level of the air-tightness of the exterior wall of the building. It has been also shown that a huge amount of air infiltrates through the shuttle and emergency elevator shafts from the basement.

  5. Relationships between summer air masses and mortality in Seoul: Comparison of weather-type classifications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, Jan; Huth, Radan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, 9-12 (2010), s. 536-543 ISSN 1474-7065 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC205/07/J044 Grant - others: Korea Research Foundation(KR) KRF-2006-C00005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Classification of weather types * Air masses * Biometeorology * Human mortality * East Asia Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2010

  6. Higher Education and the Asia-Pacific Century. Proceedings of the '88 PRAHE Seoul Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-hwan, Ed.; Lee, Wha-kuk, Ed.

    Proceedings of the Pacific Region Association for Higher Education (PRAHE) are presented, including 5 opening speeches, 6 plenary lectures, 7 invited lectures, and 13 general papers. Presentation topics include: higher education and societal change; educational exchange and the Pacific Rim; international cooperation through electronic media;…

  7. Sleepless in Seoul: Neoliberalism, English Fever, and Linguistic Insecurity among Korean Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinhyun

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the socially constructed nature of significant linguistic insecurity with regard to the English language in Korean society as informed by neoliberalism. It specifically explores how linguistic insecurity leads to the pursuit of linguistic perfectionism under the popular discourse of neoliberal personhood. Participants are…

  8. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    loads, in order to decrease traffic density and to connect subways to highways. Viaduct roads are ... frequency of the system, resonance occurs and thus causes the failure of the system (bridge, building etc.). For this ... disciplines such as control, early detection of machine faults, robotics, mechatronic systems etc. as well as ...

  10. Application of the "Behind the Barriers" resilience conceptual model to a flooded rail transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzva, Michael; Barroca, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The vulnerability of guided transport systems facing natural hazards is a burning issue for the urban risks management. Experience feedbacks on guided transport systems show they are particularly vulnerable to natural risks, especially flood risks. Besides, the resilience concept is used as a systemic approach for making an accurate analysis of the effect of these natural risks on rail guided transport systems. In this context, several conceptual models of resilience are elaborated for presenting the various possible resilience strategies applied to urban technical systems. One of this resilience conceptual model is the so-called "Behind The Barriers" model based on the identification of four complementary types of resilience: (i) cognitive resilience, linked to knowledge of the risk and the potential failures; (ii) functional resilience, representing the capacity of a system to protect itself from damage while continuing to provide services; (iii) correlative resilience, that characterises the relationship between service demand and the capacity of the system to respond; (iv) organisational resilience, expressing the capacity to mobilise an area much wider than the one affected. In addition to the work already published during the 7th Resilience Engineering Symposium, the purpose of this paper is to offer an application of a resilience conceptual model, the "Behind the Barriers" model, relating to a specific urban technical system, the public guided transport system, and facing a particular risk, a flood hazard. To do that, the paper is focused on a past incident on a French Intercity railway line as a studied case. Indeed, on June 18th and 19th 2013, the rise of the level of the "Gave de Pau" river, located in the municipality of Coarraze, caused many disorders on the intercity line serving the cities of Tarbes, Pau and Lourdes . Among the disorders caused by the flooding, about 100 meters of railway embankments were collapsed. With a constraint to reopen the

  11. Ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossler

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with - controlled area ventilation systems - ventilation systems for switchgear-building and control-room - other ventilation systems for safety equipments - service systems for ventilation systems. (orig./RW)

  12. Full Random Coefficients Multilevel Modeling of the Relationship between Land Use and Trip Time on Weekdays and Weekends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyoung Tommy Gim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interests in weekend trips are increasing, but few have studied how they are affected by land use. In this study, we analyze the relationship between compact land use characteristics and trip time in Seoul, Korea by comparing two research models, each of which uses the weekday and weekend data of the same travelers. To secure sufficient numbers of subjects and groups, full random coefficients multilevel models define the trip as level one and the neighborhood as level two, and find that level-two land use characteristics account for less variation in trip time than level-one individual characteristics. At level one, weekday trip time is found to be reduced by the choice of the automobile as a travel mode, but not by its ownership per se. In addition, it becomes reduced if made by high income travelers and extended to travel to quality jobs. Among four land use characteristics at level two, population density, road connectivity, and subway availability are shown to be significant in the weekday model. Only subway availability has a positive relationship with trip time and this finding is consistent with the level-one result that the choice of automobile alternatives increases trip time. The other land use characteristic, land use balance, turns out to be a single significant land use variable in the weekend model, implying that it is concerned mainly with non-work, non-mandatory travel.

  13. Sustainability of urban systems and most important problems related to environmental geological components; Sostenibilita` dei sistemi urbani e principali problematiche geologico-territoriali: L`analisi di dati di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, Francesco; Basili, Mauro; Del Ciello, Roberto [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-10-01

    The most important aspects of environmental geology, related to the urban syatems are analysed in this paper; the term urban system is here preferred to urban environment, since the second one refers to a part of a complex system, that comprises social, economic, etc. environments. All the possible environmental impacts have been described to evaluate how the urban system is affected by the environmental geological components. They are subdivided into urban impacts on the environment and environmental impacts on the cities. The environmental changes induced by: quarries, natural surfaces waterproofing, drained marshes, subways for transportation networks, bridges and gully-holes, topography changes, natural hollows filling up and ground piles, loss of the natural conditions for river beds, loss of soils, falls in piezometry and connected subsistence phenomena, are classified into the firdt type of impacts, also defined as anthropic risks. The pollution of soils, surface waters (marine and fluvial), groundwater and the impact of watse management and their restorage were also dealth with. The geological risks have also been analyzed as pressure factors from the environmenton the cities. They are generally interrelated and in some cases added up. The main instruments to help monitor and manage the environment are also described. They are monitoring networks that constitute a part of the Informative Environmental Systems. A great relevance is given to the indicators and indexes of the environmental quality, either for the measurement of the quality of life that for the measurement of environmental sustainability of cities. The scientific use of such indicators and indexes is presently a subject of debate world-wide. The authors consider is correct to delineate concise indexes, obtained from state indicators for the quality of life. They are represented by the umber of days/per year in which a service was suspended, or the environment didn`t present the characteristics

  14. Using Visual Information to Determine the Subjective Valuation of Public Space for Transportation : Application to Subway Crowding Costs in NYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    The objective of this project is to explore the role of visual information in determining the users subjective valuation of multidimensional trip attributes that are relevant in decision-making, but are neglected in standard travel demand models. ...

  15. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locomotive unit-hours in the common yards. (2) Way: Where the tracks at any one location are used in common..., ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged...

  16. The politics of large infrastructure investment decision-making : the case of the second avenue subway case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Over the past few decades, urbanization and economic growth have intensified the need for more efficient urban and : regional transportation, including the expansion and reorganization of existing transportation networks. Given such : huge investment...

  17. Broadband hybrid electromagnetic and piezoelectric energy harvesting from ambient vibrations and pneumatic vortices induced by running subway trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and : trajectory matching multi-pole magnets was investigated. The magnets were aligned in an alternatively : magnetized formation of 6 magnets to...

  18. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  19. 75 FR 65049 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Omnibus Household Survey Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ...; Privately owned vehicle; Taxi; Rail transit (subway, streetcar, or light rail); Commuter rail; Transit... owned vehicle; Taxi; Rail transit (subway, streetcar, or light rail); Commuter rail; Water... (subway, streetcar, or light rail); Commuter rail; Water transportation (taxis, ferries, ships); Transit...

  20. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  1. 49 CFR 1580.3 - Terms used in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., heavy, or rapid rail system, monorail, inclined plane, funicular, cable car, trolley, or automated... uses diesel or electric powered locomotives and railroad passenger cars to serve an urban area, its... multiple cars; also referred to as subways, metros, or regional rail. High Threat Urban Area (HTUA) means...

  2. Noise assessment inside the second-line of the Greater Cairo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Noise has adverse effects on psychological, biological, immunological and hormonal systems of the body. ... subway trains. 1. Introduction. Noise is considered a basic form of physical air pollution. It is a significant cause of hearing loss, in addition to many other adverse effects on health. Noise pollution is considered an. 47 ...

  3. Will Climate Change the Future of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    rail terminals, roads, bridges, locks, canals, light rail , subways, freight and commuter railways; and pipelines.201 The Committee on Climate Change...IBSGP Intercity Bus Security Grant Program IPR Intercity Passenger Rail -AMTRAK Program NIMS National Incident Management System NIPP National... runoff from adjacent facilities in heavily populated coastal areas or carried long distances by rivers flowing into estuaries and coastal waters.24

  4. Volatilization of PM2.5 Inorganic Ions in a Filter Pack System with Backup Filter and Denuders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of PM2.5 inorganic ions were measured at the rooftop of the 5-story building on the hill (37.02oN, 127.16oE, 167 m above sea level) in the Global Campus of Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul, Korea. The measurements were made four times during one-year span between 2011 and 2012 by considering the climate of Korea with distinct seasonal variations: July 29 to August 26 (summer); September 14 to October 13 (fall); November 28 to January 4 (winter); February 14 to May 31 (spring). A filter pack system was composed of PM2.5 cyclone, two annular denuders, Teflon filter, nylon filter, and an annular denuder, in series. Two annular denuders were to remove acidic and basic gases prior to collecting particles on the Teflon filter. Nylon filter and an annular denuder were to back up the Teflon filter by absorbing acidic and basic gases, respectively, which were volatilized from collected particles on the Teflon filter. Samplings were made for 24 hours every day. Extracts from filters and denuders were analyzed by ion chromatography to measure concentrations of anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-) and cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Na+, K+). The amounts of ionic species absorbed at the backup nylon filter and denuder were examined in terms of meteorological parameters, the amounts of gases removed in front of the Teflon filter, and the amounts of particulate ions collected on the Teflon filter. Major factors to affect the volatilization from particles collected on the Teflon filter were discussed.

  5. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  6. Design, Fabrication, and Implementation of an Array-Type MEMS Piezoresistive Intelligent Pressure Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the radiosonde requirement of high sensitivity and linearity, this study designs and implements a monolithically integrated array-type piezoresistive intelligent pressure sensor system which is made up of two groups of four pressure sensors with the pressure range of 0–50 kPa and 0–100 kPa respectively. First, theoretical models and ANSYS (version 14.5, Canonsburg, PA, USA finite element method (FEM are adopted to optimize the parameters of array sensor structure. Combing with FEM stress distribution results, the size and material characteristics of the array-type sensor are determined according to the analysis of the sensitivity and the ratio of signal to noise (SNR. Based on the optimized parameters, the manufacture and packaging of array-type sensor chips are then realized by using the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS and microelectromechanical system (MEMS process. Furthermore, an intelligent acquisition and processing system for pressure and temperature signals is achieved. The S3C2440A microprocessor (Samsung, Seoul, Korea is regarded as the core part which can be applied to collect and process data. In particular, digital signal storage, display and transmission are realized by the application of a graphical user interface (GUI written in QT/E. Besides, for the sake of compensating the temperature drift and nonlinear error, the data fusion technique is proposed based on a wavelet neural network improved by genetic algorithm (GA-WNN for average measuring signal. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using a S3C2440A microprocessor. Finally, the results of calibration and test experiments achieved with the temperature ranges from −20 to 20 °C show that: (1 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity of the array-type pressure sensor are 8330 × 10−4 and 0.052 mV/V/kPa in the range of 0–50 kPa, respectively; (2 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity are 8129 × 10−4 and 0.020 mV/V/kPa in the

  7. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  8. Closure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kube, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates generally to gas-cooled nuclear reactor systems and, more particularly, to an improved closure system for a pressure vessel in such a system wherein a penetration is provided for accommodating a heat exchanger. (author)

  9. Lymph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic system ... neck, under the arms, and groin. The lymph system includes the: Tonsils Adenoids Spleen Thymus ... JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ...

  10. APAN上におけるDVTSを用いた国際高品位遠隔カンファレンス

    OpenAIRE

    水島, 洋; 中島, 直樹; 入沢, 厚; Kim, Young-Woo; 清水, 周次; 永田, 宏; 田中, 博

    2004-01-01

    We have performed International High Quality TV Conference between Hawaii, Tokyo, Fukuoka, and Seoul. We used APAN/JAMINA network between Tokyo and Hawaii, JGN network between Tokyo and Fukuoka, and Genkai network between Fukuoka and Seoul. All networks had more than 100Mbps capability. DVTS system was used for DV quality transmission of audio and video. Multipoint connection was managed at Meinohama Operation Center. After the success of this conference, we also performed TV conference inclu...

  11. INIS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokalski, A.

    1982-01-01

    History, organizational structure and operation principles of INIS system are presented. The preparation of input, checking and data processing as well as output production, computer forms of files and information retrieval systems are described in detail. The active participation of Poland in the system is emphasized. The possible ways of system development are presented. (author)

  12. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  13. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...

  14. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  15. Intelligent Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The autonomous systems (AS) project, led by NASA Ames, is developing software for system operation automation. AS technology will help astronauts make more decisions...

  16. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  17. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  18. Tear System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and symptoms may result from the tear drainage system becoming obstructed at any point from the puncta ... specializes in the eyelids, orbit, and tear drain system. It’s also important that he or she is ...

  19. Biliary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum . This helps the body digest food. It also assists ... from the liver to the duodenum. The biliary system includes: The gallbladder Bile ducts and certain cells ...

  20. Development and optimization of a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for atorvastatin calcium by using D-optimal mixture design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeom DW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dong Woo Yeom,1 Ye Seul Song,1 Sung Rae Kim,1 Sang Gon Lee,1 Min Hyung Kang,1 Sangkil Lee,2 Young Wook Choi1 1College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 2College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu, Republic of Korea Abstract: In this study, we developed and optimized a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS formulation for improving the dissolution and oral absorption of atorvastatin calcium (ATV, a poorly water-soluble drug. Solubility and emulsification tests were performed to select a suitable combination of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. A d-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the concentration of components used in the SMEDDS formulation for achieving excellent physicochemical characteristics, such as small droplet size and high dissolution. The optimized ATV-loaded SMEDDS formulation containing 7.16% Capmul MCM (oil, 48.25% Tween 20 (surfactant, and 44.59% Tetraglycol (cosurfactant significantly enhanced the dissolution rate of ATV in different types of medium, including simulated intestinal fluid, simulated gastric fluid, and distilled water, compared with ATV suspension. Good agreement was observed between predicted and experimental values for mean droplet size and percentage of the drug released in 15 minutes. Further, pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that the optimized SMEDDS formulation considerably enhanced the oral absorption of ATV, with 3.4-fold and 4.3-fold increases in the area under the concentration-time curve and time taken to reach peak plasma concentration, respectively, when compared with the ATV suspension. Thus, we successfully developed an optimized ATV-loaded SMEDDS formulation by using the d-optimal mixture design, that could potentially be used for improving the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. Keywords: atorvastatin, SMEDDS, d-optimal mixture design, optimization, dissolution, bioavailability 

  1. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  2. Watchdog System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Jensen, Morten Bornø

    This deliverable is part of WP4. Overall WP4 is motivated by the need for automatic systems that can ease the task of annotating massive amounts of traffic data. Concretely this deliverable is related to WP4.2 - the watchdog system. The idea with the watchdog is to develop a system that can remov...

  3. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system programmers should take into consideration all possi- bilities and write programs that do not fail. Responsiveness: Embedded systems should respond to events as soon as possible. For example, a patient monitoring system should process the patient'S heart signals quickly and immedi- ately notify if any abnormality ...

  4. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  5. Creative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Opsamling af diskussioner på konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems i september/oktober 2007. Konferencen og Udstillingen Creative Systems sætter fokus på systemer som en positiv drivkraft i den kreative skabelsesproces. CINARK inviterede fire internationale kapaciteter, som indenfor hver...

  6. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  7. Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Digestive System KidsHealth / For Parents / Digestive System What's in this ... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  8. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sumer electronic systems, they are cost sensitive. Thus their cost must be low. Robustness: Embedded systems should be robust since they operate in a harsh environment. They should endure vibrations, power supply fluctuations and excessive heat. Due to limited power supply in an embedded system, the power ...

  9. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  10. Multifunction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wauthier, J.; Fiori, R.

    1990-01-01

    The development, the characteristics and the applications of a multifunction system are presented. The system is used on the RBES laboratory pipes, at Marcoule. The system was developed in order to allow, without time loss, the modification of the circuit function by replacing only one component. The following elements form the multifunction system: a fixed base, which is part of the tube, a removable piece, which is inserted into the base, a cover plate and its locking system. The material, chosen among commercial trade marks, required small modifications in order to be used in the circuit [fr

  11. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective an...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities.......The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...

  12. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  13. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  14. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  15. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  16. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  17. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  18. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  19. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  20. Dual-Doppler radar analysis of a near-shore line-shaped convective system on 27 July 2011, Korea: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Tae Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the summer rainy season, the Korean Peninsula is frequently influenced by severe weather phenomena such as floods and rain-induced landslides. A band-shaped precipitation system associated with unstable atmospheric conditions occurred over northwest Korea on 27 July 2011. This precipitation system produced heavy rainfall over the Seoul metropolitan area, which received over 80 mm h−1 of rainfall and suffered 70 weather-related fatalities. To investigate the precipitation system, we used diverse meteorological data of environmental condition and estimated three-dimensional wind field from dual-Doppler radar measurements of vertical air motion. Environmental conditions included high equivalent potential temperature (θe of over 355 K at low levels, and low θe of under 330 K at middle levels, causing vertical instability. Furthermore, a pressure trough was located to the northwest of Korea, favouring the development of the band-shaped precipitation system. The tip of the band-shaped precipitation system was made up of line-shaped convective systems (LSCSs that caused flooding and landslides, and the LSCSs were continuously enhanced by merging between new cells and the pre-existing cell. The position of merging moved from the coast to offshore areas and influenced the positioning of the regions of enhanced convection. In turn, this affected the roughness of the convective cell and the internal structure of the enhanced convective regions. Onshore, the convective area was higher than in offshore areas because of strong convergence (≤−4×10−4 s−1 at low levels caused by friction over land. The strong convergence generated strong updraft (≥4 m s−1 that influenced the height of the convective area. The convective region offshore was wider than that onshore because of weak convergence (≥−2.2×10−4 s−1 at low levels. Updraft in offshore areas was weak (≤3 m s−1 compared with onshore, resulting in a lower and wider convective

  1. Vacuum system

    OpenAIRE

    Gröbner, Oswald

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum system of a particle accelerator must provide the necessary conditions for the high energy beam to avoid loss of particles and deterioration of the beam quality. In this talk we will review basic design concepts, vacuum components and procedures required for an accelerator vacuum system.

  2. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs to do: B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses ... like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has ... that invades the body is called an antigen (pronounced: AN-tih-jun). ...

  3. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...

  4. GEOMASS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2009-03-01

    As a part of the research and development regarding characterisation of deep geological environment, the GEOMASS (GEOLOGICAL MODELLING ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION SOFTWARE) system has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to carry out geological and hydrogeological modelling and groundwater flow simulation and so on. The GEOMASS system integrates a commercial geological interpretation system (EarthVision), which is used for geological modelling and visualisation, with a proprietary code for groundwater flow (FracAffinity). This integrated system allows users to make rapid improvement of models as data increases. Also, it is possible to perform more realistic groundwater flow simulation due to the capability of modelling the rock mass as a continuum with discrete hydro-structural features in the rock mass. This paper consists of 'Overview of GEOMASS system', FracAffinity Theoretical Background' and 'FracAffinity User Guide' and is edited as a GEOMASS system manual. 'Overview of GEOMASS system' describes the outline of this system. 'FracAffinity Theoretical Background' describes the information of technical background of FracAffinity software. FracAffinity User Guide' describes the structure of the FracAffinity input files, the usage of FracAffinity Interface and flow-solver. Updating of the FracAffinity has been continued as needed and FracAffinity version3.3 is the latest version at present (July 2008). (author)

  5. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Suresh Babu is currently a fourth year undergraduate student in the Department of. Computer Science and. Engineering, Narayana. Engineering College,. Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. He would like to work in operating systems, computer networks and also in Internet security concepts. Keywords. Operating systems, file sys-.

  6. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The process concept and concurrency are at the heart of modern operating systems (OS). A process is the unit of work in a computer system. A process must be in main memory during execution. To improve the utilization of central processing unit. (CPU) as well as the speed of its response to its users, the computer must ...

  7. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  8. Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Yoichi

    1987-01-10

    In the wake of the oil shock in 1973, the need for developing more effective energy systems has been mounting. The dominant views and topics for power generation systems in terms of scale merit shifted from the advocacy of centralization/scaling-up of facilities to the soft energy path theory insisting on the efficiency of dispersed small-scale plants, followed by the recent holonic path theory which maintains that large and small scale plants should be centralized or dispersed in an optimum manner. At the same time, an autonomous-type system concept has emerged which points out that the energy systems can be operated efficiently through mutual coordination and cooperation between the suppliers and users to find a balance point that meets the market principle, while abolishing the conventional suppliers-governed system. As a result, the load management system based on time-of-use pricing or adaptive pricing is expected to be adopted widely in near future. All these new theories are aimed at developing flexible and reasonable system structures that can be adapted to the changing circumstances. (4 figs, 17 refs)

  9. Retrospective study on traumatic dental injuries in preschool children at Kyung Hee Dental Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Chul; Park, Jae Hong; Pae, Ahran; Kim, Jong Ryul

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the traumatic dental injuries (TDI) of Korean preschoolers by investigating the occurrence, type, area, cause, injured region, seasonal variation and the interval between injury and treatment. In this study, data from 1856 preschoolers aged 4 months to 6 years and 11 months (mean age : 3.6 +/- 1.6) were used, out of a total of 2761 patients who attended the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Kyung Hee Dental Hospital for TDI between January 1998 and December 2007. All the data were statistically analysed using the anova and chi-square statics. Most of the patients were 1-2, 2-3 years old (24.5%, 25.4%) and boys were 1.67 times more likely to have TDI. The most common cause, location and seasonal variation of the trauma, were respectively falling (50.8%), at home (48.8%) and late spring. The treatment intervals usually occurred within a day. Most of the injuries involved single (47%) or double (38%) tooth/teeth. However, car accidents or sports trauma often involved multiple teeth. In both primary and permanent dentition, the most common teeth injured were maxillary central incisors (72.6%), and periodontal injury was caused by subluxation or concussion. Among the various types of hard tissue injuries, enamel fracture in the primary dentition (35.0%) and enamel-dentin fracture in the permanent dentition (45.8%) were the most common types.

  10. Proceedings of the Pacific Conference on Operations Research, Held April 23-28, 1979, Seoul, Korea. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    used Gompertz curve in evaluating an environment-saving process in petrolium refinery industry, and Bossert [4] applied Logistic curve to electric...following forecast [15]. The average growth rate in world petrolium demand would increase from 55.7 million barrels per day in 1973 to 92.5 million...TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING IN PERSPECTIVI OECD, Paris, 1967 [111 Lakhani, H., DIFFUSION OF ENVIRONMENT SAVING TECHNO- LOGICAL CHANGE - A PETROLIUM REFINERY CASE

  11. Mapping the Distribution Pattern of Gentrification near Urban Parks in the Case of Gyeongui Line Forest Park, Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonku Kwon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to map the distribution pattern of gentrification, showing the adverse effect of urban parks. The study adopted the perspective that urban parks, which have thus far been featured in urban planning without much criticism, may actually bring about unintended effects. This study employed a theory of gentrification that has received increasing interest in urban sociology to investigate the other side of the gentrification phenomenon. We identified urban parks as the cause of the gentrification from the start, and verified and visualised the phenomenon in the case of the Gyeongui Line Forest Park. We determined that the area with the higher possibility of gentrification was that within 600 m of the park. Big data accumulated over the past decade were used to prepare a proactive, systematic procedure to address gentrification, which is materialising in diverse forms. Through this study, we contribute to debates on the environmental justice of urban parks. Small changes in urban space can strongly affect our healthy lifestyles and urban sustainability. From this perspective, our study’s research process and its results could provide indications of how to structure and manage new urban planning projects in the future.

  12. Kimpo-iap K-14, Seoul, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-30

    700 󈨡. 74a-9 4 9 0 3 -9- a5j VDE T~ 2pavT4 60 61 9 196 6_ 0 91.7 93.9 95.2 9:,, 95.�.4 96t7 9790 97,2 97i3 97.9 97.3 97.3 97.3 9704 ’ 400 92,1...99.5 99,1 9991go L0O. 0100 i O 9.0 TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS 2033 USAF ETAC A 64 0-14.5 (OL A) mIcus t OTfOIIOS oM POR Mt O OTE 77, 7 -7 -777, - - -A...70.0 70.0 > 0000 0100 0 5. 11#6 702 70:; 71 72 72;3 72,3 72E. 72.5 72.5 72.0 72.5 72.5 62.0 66.0 68.9 70,5 71.2 72,2 72,6 72,8 72.8 73,0 73.0 73*0

  13. Ten-Year Results of Home Vision-Screening Test in Children Aged 3-6 Years in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Hun; Kim, Ungsoo Samuel

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the prevalence of refractive error and amblyopia among three- to six-year-old children during the period from 2002 to 2011. About 31,400 children annually (from 16,592 to 40,816) during the period from 2002 to 2011 were enrolled. The preschool vision screening was performed by the Korean Foundation for the Prevention of Blindness (KFPB) annually during a period that extended from March to September. We reviewed the KFPB annual report about the home vision-screening test as performed during the period from 2002 to 2011. Changes in the prevalence and types of refractive error, strabismus, and amblyopia that manifested throughout this period were analyzed. The prevalence of refractive errors ranged from 1.10% in 2002 to 0.42% in 2011. The prevalence of hyperopia and myopia changed little throughout the 10-year study period. Myopia and hyperopia were equally common among the population examined (χ(2)-test, p = 0.137). The prevalence of anisometropia decreased over time. The annual prevalence of amblyopia ranged from 0.39% to 0.06%, while the overall prevalence of amblyopia dropped from 0.25% in 2002 to 0.06% in 2011. The prevalence of strabismus was highest in 2006 (0.30%) and had decreased by 0.06% in 2011. The type of strabismus showed no significant difference over time (χ(2)-test, p = 0.579). The prevalence of amblyopia, refractive error, anisometropia, and strabismus was lower in 2011 than in early 2000. The prevalence of hyperopia and myopia as well as strabismus remained similar throughout the study period.

  14. Urban and Industrial VOC Emissions in the Seoul Metropolitan Area and Surrounding Region during the KORUS-AQ Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Hughes, S.; Vizenor, N.; Emmons, L. K.; Barré, J.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, J.; Schroeder, J.; Knote, C. J.; Fried, A.; Armin, W.; Min, K. E.; Jeong, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Korea-United States Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ) took place in May and June, 2016 to better understand air pollution in Korea. During the campaign 2650 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft and analyzed for more than 80 C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including alkanes, aromatics, alkenes, halocarbons and organic nitrates. Approximately 300 samples were collected at low altitude (Air in the SMA was rich in VOCs such as ethane, propane, toluene, ethyne and n-butane, reflecting a mix of source influences including natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, vehicle exhaust and industrial solvents. Aromatics (e.g., toluene, xylenes) and alkenes (e.g., isoprene) were strong contributors to OH reactivity in the SMA. The Daesan plumes were rich in VOCs such as ethene, benzene and n-hexane, and at least 25 VOCs showed their highest mixing ratios of the mission in these plumes. Because some of the emitted industrial compounds are known carcinogens (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene), more work is needed to assess potential long-term health effects for facility workers and local residents. Ongoing work includes further clarifying specific source influences in the SMA, assessing emission inventories and the contribution of individual VOCs to ozone production, and linking the airborne data to ground-based measurements.

  15. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-04-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R(2) around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control.

  16. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-01-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast fo...

  17. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea after Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…

  18. Novel influenza A (H1N1) infection: chest CT findings from 21 cases in Seoul, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, S.S., E-mail: sinisim@ewha.ac.k [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Y.J. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical care medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Aim: To retrospectively evaluate the computed tomography (CT) appearances of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. Materials and methods: Chest CT images obtained at clinical presentation in 21 patients (eight men, 13 women; mean age, 37 years; age range, 6-82 years) with confirmed novel influenza A (H1N1) infection were assessed. The radiological appearances of pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities, distribution, and extent of involvement on initial chest CT images were documented. The study group was divided on the basis of age [group 1, patients <18 years old (n = 8); group 2, patients {>=}18 years old (n = 13)]. Medical records were reviewed for underlying medical conditions and laboratory findings. The occurrence of recognizable CT patterns was compared for each group using the images from the initial CT examination. Results: The most common CT pattern observed in all patients was ground-glass attenuated (GGA) lesions (20/21, 95%). Bronchial wall thickening (9/21, 43%) was the second most common CT finding. Other common CT findings were consolidation (6/21, 29%), pleural effusion (6/21, 29%), pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum (5/21, 24%), and atelectasis (5/21, 24%). Among these, atelectasis and pneumomediastinum (pneumothorax) were only observed in group 1. The GGA lesions showed predilections for diffuse multifocal (10/20, 50%) or lower zone (8/20, 40%) distribution. Involvement of central lung parenchyma (12/20, 60%) was more common than a mixed peripheral and central pattern (6/20, 30%) or a subpleural pattern (2/20, 10%) at the time of presentation. Patchy GGA lesions were more frequent (18/20, 90%) than diffuse GGA lesions, and 75% (15/20) of these lesions had a bronchovascular distribution. Bilateral disease was present in all patients with GGA lesions. Bronchial wall thickening was predominantly centrally located and the distribution of the consolidation was non-specific. Conclusion: The predominantly centrally located GGA lesions, with common multifocal or bilateral involvement, peribronchovascular distribution, and patchy appearance are the more distinctive CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. Pneumomediastinum and atelectasis resulting from this disease are more common in young patients under the age of 18 years.

  19. Novel influenza A (H1N1) infection: chest CT findings from 21 cases in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, S.S.; Kim, Y.; Ryu, Y.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To retrospectively evaluate the computed tomography (CT) appearances of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. Materials and methods: Chest CT images obtained at clinical presentation in 21 patients (eight men, 13 women; mean age, 37 years; age range, 6-82 years) with confirmed novel influenza A (H1N1) infection were assessed. The radiological appearances of pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities, distribution, and extent of involvement on initial chest CT images were documented. The study group was divided on the basis of age [group 1, patients <18 years old (n = 8); group 2, patients ≥18 years old (n = 13)]. Medical records were reviewed for underlying medical conditions and laboratory findings. The occurrence of recognizable CT patterns was compared for each group using the images from the initial CT examination. Results: The most common CT pattern observed in all patients was ground-glass attenuated (GGA) lesions (20/21, 95%). Bronchial wall thickening (9/21, 43%) was the second most common CT finding. Other common CT findings were consolidation (6/21, 29%), pleural effusion (6/21, 29%), pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum (5/21, 24%), and atelectasis (5/21, 24%). Among these, atelectasis and pneumomediastinum (pneumothorax) were only observed in group 1. The GGA lesions showed predilections for diffuse multifocal (10/20, 50%) or lower zone (8/20, 40%) distribution. Involvement of central lung parenchyma (12/20, 60%) was more common than a mixed peripheral and central pattern (6/20, 30%) or a subpleural pattern (2/20, 10%) at the time of presentation. Patchy GGA lesions were more frequent (18/20, 90%) than diffuse GGA lesions, and 75% (15/20) of these lesions had a bronchovascular distribution. Bilateral disease was present in all patients with GGA lesions. Bronchial wall thickening was predominantly centrally located and the distribution of the consolidation was non-specific. Conclusion: The predominantly centrally located GGA lesions, with common multifocal or bilateral involvement, peribronchovascular distribution, and patchy appearance are the more distinctive CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. Pneumomediastinum and atelectasis resulting from this disease are more common in young patients under the age of 18 years.

  20. Highlights of the first Asian and Oceanic Congress for radiation protection (AOCRP-1), Oct. 20-24, 2002, Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.; Sharma, R.C.; Pradhan, A.S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Various topics relevant to radiation protection aspects covered in the congress are overviewed. The topics covered include radiation protection in nuclear power plants, radiation protection in medicine, radiation protection in radioisotope production, biological effects from exposure to power line magnetic fields and mobile phones and methods to achieve success in occupational dose reduction