WorldWideScience

Sample records for sensing zone method

  1. Remote Sensing Based Detection of Crop Phenology for Agricultural Zones in China Using a New Threshold Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taifeng Dong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of high temporal resolution satellite data has been emerging as an important tool to study crop phenology. Most methods to detect phenological events based on satellite data use thresholds to identify key events in the lifecycle of the crop. In this study, a new method was used to define such thresholds for identifying the start and end of the growing season (SOS/EOS for 43 different agricultural zones in China. The method used 2000–2003 NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR satellite data with a spatial resolution of eight kilometers and a temporal resolution of 15 days. Following data pre-processing, time series for the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI or N, slope of the NDVI curve (S, and difference (D between the NDVI value and a base NDVI value for bare land without snow were constructed. For each zone, an optimal set of threshold values for N, D, and S was determined, based on the remote sensing data and observed SOS/EOS data for 2003 at 261 agro-meteorological stations. Results were verified by comparing the accuracy of the new proposed NDS threshold method with the results of three other methods for SOS/EOS detection with remote sensing data. The findings of all four methods were compared to in situ SOS/EOS data from 2000 to 2002 for 110 agro-meteorological stations. Results show that the developed NDS threshold method had a significantly higher accuracy compared with other methods. The method is mainly limited by the observed data and the necessity of reestablishing the thresholds periodically.

  2. Curve fitting approach for measurement of cellular osmotic properties by the electrical sensing zone method. II. Membrane water permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Adam Z; Karlsson, Jens O M

    2010-04-01

    In a companion paper, we demonstrated that dynamic range limitations can confound measurement of the osmotically inactive volume using electrical sensing zone instruments (e.g., Coulter counters), and presented an improved parameter estimation method in which a lognormal function was fit to the cell volume distribution to allow extrapolation beyond the bounds of the data. Presently, we have investigated the effect of dynamic range limitations on measurement of the cell membrane water permeability (L(p)), and adapted the lognormal extrapolation method for estimation of L(p) from transient volume data. An alternative strategy (the volume limit adjustment method, in which the measured isotonic volume distribution is used to generate model predictions for curve fitting, and the bounds of the dynamic range are adjusted such that extrapolation is not required) was also developed. The performance of these new algorithms was compared to that of a conventional parameter estimation method. The best-fit L(p) values from in vitro experiments with mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells differed significantly for the different parameter estimation techniques (padjustment method was shown to be the most accurate (relative error 0.4+/-3.2%), whereas the conventional method underestimated L(p) by 19+/-2% for MIN6 cells. Parametric analysis revealed that the error associated with the conventional method was sensitive to the dynamic range and the width of the volume distribution. Our initial implementation of the lognormal extrapolation method also yielded significant errors, whereas accuracy of this algorithm improved after including a normalization scheme. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Remote sensing applications for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.

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  4. Analytical testing of the electrical sensing zone (ESZ) - method for the quantitation of particles in ground, surface and artificial water - laboratory and field sampling investigations; Analytische Erprobung der Electrical Sensing Zone (ESZ) - Methode fuer die Quantifizierung von Partikeln in Grund-, Oberflaechen- und Modellwasser - Labor- und Felduntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, P.L.; Schneider, P. [Hydroisotop-Piewak GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany); Eckardt, L. [C and E - Consulting und Engineering GmbH, Fachbereich Umweltlabor/Biotechnologie, Chemnitz-Gruena (Germany); Kuhn, K.; Lankau, R.; Dehnert, J. [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Geologie, Referat Grundwasser, Dresden (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Particles, included in the three environmental spheres of the Earth, are important components in water, soil and atmosphere. There is a wide-spread distribution of particles with a diameter between 0.5 {mu}m and 200 {mu}m in ground water, where they can play an active role as solid matter due to their immense surface and multivalent hydrochemical functions. Measurements of the number, volume and size distribution of particles were carried out after ground water sampling from aquifer by pumping and from surface water by dipping. Laboratory investigations using a Coulter trademark -Counter-instrument (Multisizer II), based on the electrical sensing zone (ESZ)-principle, were done for measuring particles in groundwater samples in Central Europe for the first time. Sampling in the field was carried out by pumping tests in boreholes situated in porous aquifers in the Freestate of Saxony (Germany). At the beginning of the tests marginal conditions of particle sampling like the interaction of oxidable ions like Fe(II) and Mn(II) with oxygen during contact of the groundwater samples with air or the influence of atmospheric born particles were analyzed. Besides some possibilities of chemical induced stabilization of the samples were discussed and technical protection systems tested. The following parameters were investigated by using the ESZ-method for particle detection and their influences to the total error of the whole method were analyzed: sample preparation using supersonics, reproducibility of the measuring results and standard deviation as well as effects of sample dilution. Marginal conditions of sample splitting, dilution, and storage as well as the influence of micro-biological growth and propagation were examinated. The magnitude of error of the analytical ESZ-method, following by the different and relevant influence factors were found about 2% or 4%. For that reason, the resulting error of the whole analytical laboratory method is not higher than 10%. All

  5. Portraying Urban Functional Zones by Coupling Remote Sensing Imagery and Human Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Portraying urban functional zones provides useful insights into understanding complex urban systems and establishing rational urban planning. Although several studies have confirmed the efficacy of remote sensing imagery in urban studies, coupling remote sensing and new human sensing data like mobile phone positioning data to identify urban functional zones has still not been investigated. In this study, a new framework integrating remote sensing imagery and mobile phone positioning data was developed to analyze urban functional zones with landscape and human activity metrics. Landscapes metrics were calculated based on land cover from remote sensing images. Human activities were extracted from massive mobile phone positioning data. By integrating them, urban functional zones (urban center, sub-center, suburbs, urban buffer, transit region and ecological area were identified by a hierarchical clustering. Finally, gradient analysis in three typical transects was conducted to investigate the pattern of landscapes and human activities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as an example, the conducted experiment shows that the pattern of landscapes and human activities in the urban functional zones in Shenzhen does not totally conform to the classical urban theories. It demonstrates that the fusion of remote sensing imagery and human sensing data can characterize the complex urban spatial structure in Shenzhen well. Urban functional zones have the potential to act as bridges between the urban structure, human activity and urban planning policy, providing scientific support for rational urban planning and sustainable urban development policymaking.

  6. Use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, presented in poster form addresses the use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management. Current and future applications in The Netherlands are highlighted with an outlook to technology and models that are involved. Applications include monitoring of the environment, oil spills,

  7. Methods for converting industrial zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talipova, L.; Kosyakov, E.; Polyakova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    In this article, industrial zones of Saint Petersburg and Hong Kong were considered. Competitive projects aimed at developing the grey belt of Saint Petersburg were considered. The methodology of the survey of reconstruction of the industrial zone of Hong Kong is also analyzed. The potential of the city’s grey belt lies in its location on the border of the city’s historical centre. Rational use of this potential will make it possible to achieve numerous objectives, including development of the city’s transport infrastructure, positioning of business functions, and organization of housing and the city’s system of green public spaces.

  8. Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

  9. GNSS remote sensing theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Xie, Feiqin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the theory and methods of GNSS remote sensing as well as its applications in the atmosphere, oceans, land and hydrology. It contains detailed theory and study cases to help the reader put the material into practice.

  10. Temperature sensing in multiple zones based on Brillouin fiber ring laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindez, C A; Madruga, F J; Ullan, A; Lopez-Higuera, J M [Photonics Engineering Group, Universidad de Cantabria, Av Castros s/n, 39005-Santander (Spain); Lopez-Amo, M, E-mail: galindezca@unican.e [Depto. IngenierIa Electrica y Electronica, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia s/n, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    A simple system for sensing temperature in multiple zones based on a multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser ring is presented. Optical fiber reels are serially concatenated and divided in zones (one per sensing area). Setting the Brillouin lasing in each spool of fiber generates a characteristic wavelength that depends on the fiber properties and the temperature in the zone. Thus, it is possible to measure temperature independently and accurately through heterodyne detection between two narrow laser signals. The proposed sensor integrates the temperature along the whole spool of fiber in each zone. These real time measurements were successfully checked in our laboratory.

  11. Larger Convergence Zones for Newton's Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Iterative technique applies over wider range of initial guesses. New theorem describes convergence zone of Newton's iterative method for finding zeros of real function. Involves two points, Xp and Xp*, called primary conjugate points. If exact solution lies between these points (Xp is less than Xz is less than Xp*) and no other conjugate points in interval, then according to theorem, subsequent iterations will converge upon exact solution if initial guess lies in interval.

  12. Sensing Methods for Detecting Analog Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Song, Chunyi; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper introduces a unified method of spectrum sensing for all existing analog television (TV) signals including NTSC, PAL and SECAM. We propose a correlation based method (CBM) with a single reference signal for sensing any analog TV signals. In addition we also propose an improved energy detection method. The CBM approach has been implemented in a hardware prototype specially designed for participating in Singapore TV white space (WS) test trial conducted by Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of the Singapore government. Analytical and simulation results of the CBM method will be presented in the paper, as well as hardware testing results for sensing various analog TV signals. Both AWGN and fading channels will be considered. It is shown that the theoretical results closely match with those from simulations. Sensing performance of the hardware prototype will also be presented in fading environment by using a fading simulator. We present performance of the proposed techniques in terms of probability of false alarm, probability of detection, sensing time etc. We also present a comparative study of the various techniques.

  13. Estimation of soil moisture in the root-zone from remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergson Guedes Bezerra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Field-based soil moisture measurements are cumbersome. Thus, remote sensing techniques are needed because allows field and landscape-scale mapping of soil moisture depth-averaged through the root zone of existing vegetation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of an empirical relationship to calculate soil moisture from remote sensing data of irrigated soils of the Apodi Plateau, in the Brazilian semiarid region. The empirical relationship had previously been tested for irrigated soils in Mexico, Egypt, and Pakistan, with promising results. In this study, the relationship was evaluated from experimental data collected from a cotton field. The experiment was carried out in an area of 5 ha with irrigated cotton. The energy balance and evaporative fraction (Λ were measured by the Bowen ratio method. Soil moisture (θ data were collected using a PR2 - Profile Probe (Delta-T Devices Ltd. The empirical relationship was tested using experimentally collected Λ and θ values and was applied using the Λ values obtained from the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL and three TM - Landsat 5 images. There was a close correlation between measured and estimated θ values (p<0.05, R² = 0.84 and there were no significant differences according to the Student t-test (p<0.01. The statistical analyses showed that the empirical relationship can be applied to estimate the root-zone soil moisture of irrigated soils, i.e. when the evaporative fraction is greater than 0.45.

  14. Using remote sensing to inform integrated coastal zone management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated coastal management (ICM) is a process for the management of the coast using an integrated approach, regarding all aspects of the coastal zone, including geographical and political boundaries, in an attempt to achieve sustainability....

  15. Remote Sensing Data for Coastal Zone Vulnerability Assessment- the Bay of Algiers Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabehi, Walid; Guerfi, Mokhtar; Mahi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Like many of South Mediterranean coastlines, the Algerian coastal zone and Algiers' bay specifically, is one of the most vulnerable zone. Because of the natural pressures occurring in the region such as earthquake, tsunami risk, erosion / accretion, marine intrusion, etc. Combined with other anthropogenic factors as urban sprawl, pollution, loss of biodiversity and economic value etc... A high degradation of this coastline is noticeable despite all the protection measures brought to these zones, which have sometimes increased its vulnerability.The aim of this work is to generate the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) map related to erosion and flooding. This index, created by Gornitz & White (1990), was particularly focused on "physical parameters of the coast" [3], Then it was improved by McLaughlin & Cooper (2010), who added a socio-economical approach by calculating parameters like demography, land use...etc. The index is obtained by integrating in a GIS, different vulnerability factors of the coastal area.. Many relevant parameters were derived from remote sensing, combined with other data; they are analyzed with a Multicriteria method after being grouped in three sub- indexes; coastal physical characteristics, coastal forcing and socioeconomic factors, in order to produce the CVI.

  16. Ultrasensitive biochemical sensing device and method of sensing analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchuk, Anatoliy

    2017-06-06

    Systems and methods biochemically sense a concentration of a ligand using a sensor having a substrate having a metallic nanoparticle array formed onto a surface of the substrate. A light source is incident on the surface. A matrix is deposited over the nanoparticle array and contains a protein adapted to binding the ligand. A detector detects s-polarized and p-polarized light from the reflective surface. Spacing of nanoparticles in the array and wavelength of light are selected such that plasmon resonance occurs with an isotropic point such that -s and -p polarizations of the incident light result in substantially identical surface Plasmon resonance, wherein binding of the ligand to the protein shifts the resonance such that differences between the -S and -P polarizations give in a signal indicative of presence of the ligand.

  17. Designing Zoning of Remote Sensing Drones for Urban Applications: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norzailawati, M. N.; Alias, A.; Akma, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses on-going research related to zoning regulation for the remote sensing drone in the urban applications. Timestamped maps are presented here follow a citation-based approach, where significant information is retrieved from the scientific literature. The emergence of drones in domestic air raises lots understandable issues on privacy, security and uncontrolled pervasive surveillance that require a careful and alternative solution. The effective solution is to adopt a privacy and property rights approach that create a drone zoning and clear drone legislatures. In providing a differential trend to other reviews, this paper is not limited to drones zoning and regulations, but also, discuss on trend remote sensing drones specification in designing a drone zones. Remote sensing drone will specific according to their features and performances; size and endurance, maximum airspeed and altitude level and particular references are made to the drones range. The implementation of laws zoning could lie with the urban planners whereby, a zoning for drone could become a new tactic used to specify areas, where drones could be used, will provide remedies for the harm that arise from drones, and act as a different against irresponsible behaviour. Finally, underlines the need for next regulations on guidelines and standards which can be used as a guidance for urban decision makers to control the drones' operating, thus ensuring a quality and sustainability of resilience cities simultaneously encouraging the revolution of technology.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of water quality in the coastal zone by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing as a tool in a waste management program is discussed. By monitoring both the pollution sources and the environmental quality, the interaction between the components of the exturaine system was observed. The need for in situ sampling is reduced with the development of improved calibrated, multichannel sensors. Remote sensing is used for: (1) pollution source determination, (2) mapping the influence zone of the waste source on water quality parameters, and (3) estimating the magnitude of the water quality parameters. Diffusion coefficients and circulation patterns can also be determined by remote sensing, along with subtle changes in vegetative patterns and density.

  19. Remote Sensing of Forest Cover in Boreal Zones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedykh, V. N.

    2011-12-01

    historically formed ecological properties of the forest. Constantly updated information will permit the regulation of human pressure on forests to ensure that there is no reduction in their role in the biosphere processes of carbon accumulation and release. Satellite monitoring within identified landscape requires initial quantitative information about forest, about other biotic components of landscapes, and about their abiotic environment determined through both ground-based measurements and remote sensing. Thus, a kind of passport should be kept for each landscape as a starting point for subsequent updating of remote sensing monitoring of forests and their habitats and the assessment of their changes. Implementation of such monitoring across the entire boreal zone of the Earth is possible on the basis of geographical and genetic typology of forest and phyto-geomorphological method of aerospace image interpretation. Both approaches are based on the use of relationships between topography and vegetation, and were successfully applied by the author to aerospace monitoring of the forest cover of West Siberian Plain.

  20. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in the musi basin using remote sensing data and gis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganapuram, Sreedhar; Vijaya Kumar, G.T.; Murali Krishna, I.V.; Kahya, Ercan; Demirel, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the groundwater availability for agriculture in the Musi basin. Remote sensing data and geographic information system were used to locate potential zones for groundwater in the Musi basin. Various maps (i.e., base, hydrogeomorphological, geological,

  1. Aerospace remote sensing of the coastal zone for water quality and biotic productivity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harriss, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing can provide the wide area synoptic coverage of surface waters which is required for studies of such phenomena as river plume mixing, phytoplankton dynamics, and pollutant transport and fate, but which is not obtainable by conventional oceanographic techniques. The application of several remote sensors (aircraftborne and spacecraftborne multispectral scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and active laser systems) to coastal zone research is discussed. Current measurement capabilities (particulates, chlorophyll a, temperature, salinity, ocean dumped materials, other pollutants, and surface winds and roughness) are defined and the results of recent remote sensing experiments conducted in the North Atlantic coastal zone are presented. The future development of remote sensing must rely on an integrated laboratory research program in optical physics. Recent results indicate the potential for separation of particulates into subsets by remote sensors.

  2. Parallel hyperspectral compressive sensing method on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, Sergio; Martín, Gabriel; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Remote hyperspectral sensors collect large amounts of data per flight usually with low spatial resolution. It is known that the bandwidth connection between the satellite/airborne platform and the ground station is reduced, thus a compression onboard method is desirable to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted. This paper presents a parallel implementation of an compressive sensing method, called parallel hyperspectral coded aperture (P-HYCA), for graphics processing units (GPU) using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA). This method takes into account two main properties of hyperspectral dataset, namely the high correlation existing among the spectral bands and the generally low number of endmembers needed to explain the data, which largely reduces the number of measurements necessary to correctly reconstruct the original data. Experimental results conducted using synthetic and real hyperspectral datasets on two different GPU architectures by NVIDIA: GeForce GTX 590 and GeForce GTX TITAN, reveal that the use of GPUs can provide real-time compressive sensing performance. The achieved speedup is up to 20 times when compared with the processing time of HYCA running on one core of the Intel i7-2600 CPU (3.4GHz), with 16 Gbyte memory.

  3. A planar conducting microstructure to guide and confine magnetic beads to a sensing zone

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2011-08-01

    A novel planar conducting microstructure is proposed to transport and confine magnetic micro/nano beads to a sensing zone. Manipulation and concentration of magnetic beads are achieved by employing square-shaped conducting micro-loops, with a few hundred nano-meters in thickness, arranged in a unique fashion. These microstructures are designed to produce high magnetic field gradients which are directly proportional to the force applied to manipulate the magnetic beads. Furthermore, the size of the microstructures allows greater maneuverability and control of magnetic beads than what could be achieved by permanent magnets. The aim of the microstructures is to guide magnetic beads from a large area and confine them to a smaller area where for example quantification would take place. Experiments were performed with different concentrations of 2 μm diameter magnetic beads. Experimental results showed that magnetic beads could be successfully guided and confined to the sensing zone. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quiet Zone Enhancement for a Target Location Using an Improved Virtual Sensing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbin Mu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Generating a quiet zone at a target location is the ultimate goal of active noise control (ANC. Generally, the best noise cancellation is achieved at the locations of error sensors. However, the distribution of physical error sensors at a given location is not always convenient or feasible. To overcome this challenge, a number of virtual sensing algorithms for ANC have been researched. Using the physical error signals and knowledge of the system, the adaptive least mean square (LMS virtual sensing algorithm estimates the error signal at a location that is remote from the physical error sensor, referred to as the virtual location. It achieves excellent performance under the assumption that the unknown primary path is fixed, but its performance decreases significantly if the path is constantly changing. This paper presents a real-time ANC system with an improved virtual sensing algorithm to solve this problem. The proposed system was tested to enhance the quiet zone in a constantly changing environment; an enhanced quiet zone was created, and the noise cancellation, especially at the target location, obviously improved.

  5. Annotated bibliography of remote sensing methods for monitoring desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A.S.; Robinove, Charles J.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are valuable for locating, assessing, and monitoring desertification. Remotely sensed data provide a permanent record of the condition of the land in a format that allows changes in land features and condition to be measured. The annotated bibliography of 118 items discusses remote sensing methods that may be applied to desertification studies.

  6. Meridional and seasonal variations in the satellite-sensed fraction of euphotic zone chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strass, Volker H.

    1990-10-01

    The key to estimating ocean primary production from satellite color images is to project accurately the total euphotic zone chlorophyll content from the remotely sensed signal, emitted from merely the near-surface reaches. In situ profiles of chlorophyll fluorescence and solar irradiance (and temperature), collected at different times of the phytoplankton growth season with a towed undulator along a section running from the Azores toward Greenland, are used for simulating satellite measurements. Given by the simulations, the satellite-sensed fraction of the euphotic zone chlorophyll content accounts for only 7.5% on average, and it varies meridionally and seasonally by several times of its mean value. The major variations are attributed to changes in the chlorophyll vertical distribution, which are related to the succession of growth phases during the phytoplankton seasonal cycle: the onset of the spring bloom, the development of the bloom to full spate, and the transition to oligotrophy. To improve satellite-based estimates of integral euphotic zone chlorophyll quantities, it is suggested that use be made of the sea surface temperature field as a predictor of the time-dependent meridional transitions between the different growth phases.

  7. Thermal infrared remote sensing sensors, methods, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techni

  8. Methods for Gas Sensing with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for gas sensing with single-walled carbon nanotubes are described. The methods comprise biasing at least one carbon nanotube and exposing to a gas environment to detect variation in temperature as an electrical response.

  9. Digital methods and remote sensing in archaeology archaeology in the age of sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This volume debuts the new scope of Remote Sensing, which was first defined as the analysis of data collected by sensors that were not in physical contact with the objects under investigation (using cameras, scanners, and radar systems operating from spaceborne or airborne platforms). A wider characterization is now possible: Remote Sensing can be any non-destructive approach to viewing the buried and nominally invisible evidence of past activity. Spaceborne and airborne sensors, now supplemented by laser scanning, are united using ground-based geophysical instruments and undersea remote sensing, as well as other non-invasive techniques such as surface collection or field-walking survey. Now, any method that enables observation of evidence on or beneath the surface of the earth, without impact on the surviving stratigraphy, is legitimately within the realm of Remote Sensing. The new interfaces and senses engaged in Remote Sensing appear throughout the book. On a philosophical level, this is about the landscap...

  10. Euphotic zone depth: Its derivation and implication to ocean-color remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping; Weidemann, Alan; Kindle, John; Arnone, Robert; Carder, Kendall L.; Davis, Curtiss

    2007-03-01

    Euphotic zone depth, z1%, reflects the depth where photosynthetic available radiation (PAR) is 1% of its surface value. The value of z1% is a measure of water clarity, which is an important parameter regarding ecosystems. Based on the Case-1 water assumption, z1% can be estimated empirically from the remotely derived concentration of chlorophyll-a ([Chl]), commonly retrieved by employing band ratios of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Recently, a model based on water's inherent optical properties (IOPs) has been developed to describe the vertical attenuation of visible solar radiation. Since IOPs can be near-analytically calculated from Rrs, so too can z1%. In this study, for measurements made over three different regions and at different seasons (z1% were in a range of 4.3-82.0 m with [Chl] ranging from 0.07 to 49.4 mg/m3), z1% calculated from Rrs was compared with z1% from in situ measured PAR profiles. It is found that the z1% values calculated via Rrs-derived IOPs are, on average, within ˜14% of the measured values, and similar results were obtained for depths of 10% and 50% of surface PAR. In comparison, however, the error was ˜33% when z1% is calculated via Rrs-derived [Chl]. Further, the importance of deriving euphotic zone depth from satellite ocean-color remote sensing is discussed.

  11. Benchmarking of Remote Sensing Segmentation Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal; Scarpa, G.; Gaetano, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2015), s. 2240-2248 ISSN 1939-1404 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : benchmark * remote sensing segmentation * unsupervised segmentation * supervised segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/RO/haindl-0445995.pdf

  12. Letrozole Determination by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis and UV Spectrophotometry Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Aura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Letrozole is a highly potent oral nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor triazole derivative. The aim of this study was to quantify letrozole from bulk, pharmaceutical formulation, and spiked urine samples by developing a simple, rapid and cost effective capillary electrophoresis method. Methods: A capillary zone electrophoresis method was optimized and validated. Additionally, an UV spectrophotometry method was used for comparing results. Results:The capillary zone electrophoresis method using a 90 mM sodium tetraborate background electrolyte proved to be an efficient method for determination of letrozole in a very short time, less than 2 minutes, using 20 kV voltage, 50 mbar/2 seconds pressure and 50°C temperature as optimum parameters. Additionally, the UV spectrophotometry method proved to be simple and efficient to quantify letrozole from bulk material and pharmaceutical formulation with linearity of response between 5 to 20 μg·mL-1 concentrations. For both methods, validation parameters, including linearity, detection and quantification limits were determined. Also we proved that our electrophoretic method has potential in analyzing letrozole from biological samples, obtaining encouraging results on estimation of letrozole from spiked urine samples without any special treatment. Conclusions: To quantify letrozole from bulk material, pharmaceutical preparations, and spiked urine samples the capillary zone electrophoresis method using a tetraborate sodium background electrolyte has proven to be simple and appropriate. Also a simple UV spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the same purposes.

  13. Deriving harmonised forest information in Europe using remote sensing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria

    the need for harmonised forest information can be satisfied using remote sensing methods. In conclusion, the study showed that it is possible to derive harmonised forest information of high spatial detail in Europe with remote sensing. The study also highlighted the imperative provision of accuracy...

  14. Hyperspectral remote sensing and analysis of intertidal zones: A contribution to monitor coastal biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, B. D.; Cogan, B. C.; Bartsch, Inka

    2007-01-01

    AbstractThis report deals with the use of hyperspectral remote sensing methods in rocky intertidal areas. These methods were evaluated in a pilot study analyzing hyperspectral imagery from the rocky intertidal of Helgoland. The paper discusses the potential of hyperspectral image analysis for monitoring elements of coastal diversity apparent in this area and discusses thepotential and limitations of the method. This is especially relevant for application-oriented monitoring of protected areas...

  15. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  16. Artificial groundwater recharge zones mapping using remote sensing and GIS: a case study in Indian Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amanpreet; Panda, S N; Kumar, K S; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    Artificial groundwater recharge plays a vital role in sustainable management of groundwater resources. The present study was carried out to identify the artificial groundwater recharge zones in Bist Doab basin of Indian Punjab using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) for augmenting groundwater resources. The study area has been facing severe water scarcity due to intensive agriculture for the past few years. The thematic layers considered in the present study are: geomorphology (2004), geology (2004), land use/land cover (2008), drainage density, slope, soil texture (2000), aquifer transmissivity, and specific yield. Different themes and related features were assigned proper weights based on their relative contribution to groundwater recharge. Normalized weights were computed using the Saaty's analytic hierarchy process. Thematic layers were integrated in ArcGIS for delineation of artificial groundwater recharge zones. The recharge map thus obtained was divided into four zones (poor, moderate, good, and very good) based on their influence to groundwater recharge. Results indicate that 15, 18, 37, and 30 % of the study area falls under "poor," "moderate," "good," and "very good" groundwater recharge zones, respectively. The highest recharge potential area is located towards western and parts of middle region because of high infiltration rates caused due to the distribution of flood plains, alluvial plain, and agricultural land. The least effective recharge potential is in the eastern and middle parts of the study area due to low infiltration rate. The results of the study can be used to formulate an efficient groundwater management plan for sustainable utilization of limited groundwater resources.

  17. Mapping agroecosystem zone using remote sensing for food security analysis in Bantul district Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murti, Sigit Heru

    2017-10-01

    Food security is one of the most important issue for Indonesia. The huge population number and high population growing rate has made the food security a critical issue. This paper describe the application of remote sensing data to (1) map agroecosystem zones in Bantul District, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2012 and (2) analyze the food security in the study area based on the resulting agro-ecosystem map. Bantul District is selected as the pilot area because this area is among the highest food crop production area in the Province. ALOS AVNIR-2 image accquired on 15 June 2010 was integrated with Indonesian Surface map (RBI map), soil types map, and slope steepness map. Population statistics data was also used to calculate the food needs. Field survey was conducted to obtain the crop field productivity information on each agro-ecosystem zone and assess the accuracy of the model. This research indicates that (1) Bantul District can be divided into three agroecosystem zones, where each zone has unique topograhic configuration and soil types composition, and (2) Bantul Distict is categorized as food secure area since the rice production in 2012 managed to cover the food needs of the people with the surplus of 33,208.6 tonnes of rice. However, when the analysis was conducted at sub-district level, there are four subdistrict with food insecurity where the food needs surpass the rice production. These sub-district are Kasihan Sub-district (-5,598.4 t), Banguntapan Sub-district (-2,483.4 t), Pajangan Sub-district (-1,039.6 t) and Dlingo Sub-district (-798.7 t).

  18. VNIR reflectance spectroscopy of natural carbonate rocks: implication for remote sensing identification of fault damage zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Mari, Giovanna; Carli, Cristian; Demurtas, Matteo; Massironi, Matteo; Di Toro, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) is a common technique used to study the mineral composition of Solar System bodies from remote sensed and in-situ robotic exploration. In the VNIR spectral range, both crystal field and vibrational overtone absorptions can be present with spectral characteristics (i.e. albedo, slopes, absorption band with different positions and depths) that vary depending on composition and texture (e.g. grain size, roughness) of the sensed materials. The characterization of the spectral variability related to the rock texture, especially in terms of grain size (i.e., both the size of rock components and the size of particulates), commonly allows to obtain a wide range of information about the different geological processes modifying the planetary surfaces. This work is aimed at characterizing how the grain size reduction associated to fault zone development produces reflectance variations in rock and mineral spectral signatures. To achieve this goal we present VNIR reflectance analysis of a set of fifteen rock samples collected at increasing distances from the fault core of the Vado di Corno fault zone (Campo Imperatore Fault System - Italian Central Apennines). The selected samples had similar content of calcite and dolomite but different grain size (X-Ray Powder Diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopes analysis). Consequently, differences in the spectral signature of the fault rocks should not be ascribed to mineralogical composition. For each sample, bidirectional reflectance spectra were acquired with a Field-Pro Spectrometer mounted on a goniometer, on crushed rock slabs reduced to grain size <800, <200, <63, <10 μm and on intact fault zone rock slabs. The spectra were acquired on dry samples, at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure. The source used was a Tungsten Halogen lamp with an illuminated spot area of ca. 0.5 cm2and incidence and emission angles of 30˚ and 0˚ respectively

  19. Remote sensing of the correlation between breakpoint oscillations and infragravity waves in the surf and swash zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, T.; Baldock, T. E.

    2017-04-01

    A novel remote sensing methodology to determine the dominant infragravity mechanism in the inner surf and swash zone in the field is presented. Video observations of the breakpoint motion are correlated with the shoreline motion and inner surf zone water levels to determine the relationship between the time-varying breakpoint oscillations and the shoreline motion. The results of 13 field data sets collected from three different beaches indicate that, inside the surf zone, the dominance of bound wave or breakpoint forcing is strongly dependent on the surf zone width and the type of short wave breaking. Infragravity generation by bound wave release was stronger for conditions with relatively narrow surf zones and plunging waves; breakpoint forcing was dominant for wider surf zones and spilling breaker conditions.

  20. Method to analyze remotely sensed spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Christopher L [Albuquerque, NM; Van Benthem, Mark H [Middletown, DE

    2009-02-17

    A fast and rigorous multivariate curve resolution (MCR) algorithm is applied to remotely sensed spectral data. The algorithm is applicable in the solar-reflective spectral region, comprising the visible to the shortwave infrared (ranging from approximately 0.4 to 2.5 .mu.m), midwave infrared, and thermal emission spectral region, comprising the thermal infrared (ranging from approximately 8 to 15 .mu.m). For example, employing minimal a priori knowledge, notably non-negativity constraints on the extracted endmember profiles and a constant abundance constraint for the atmospheric upwelling component, MCR can be used to successfully compensate thermal infrared hyperspectral images for atmospheric upwelling and, thereby, transmittance effects. Further, MCR can accurately estimate the relative spectral absorption coefficients and thermal contrast distribution of a gas plume component near the minimum detectable quantity.

  1. Identification of high risk zones for geological origin hazards using PALSAR-2 remote sensing data: Kelantan river basin, Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2016-01-01

    Identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for natural hazards of geological origin is one of the most important applications of advanced remote sensing technology. In this study, the recently launched Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2), remote sensing data were used to map geologic structural and topographical features in the Kelantan river basin for identification of high potential risk and...

  2. Mapping land slide occurrence zones using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques in Kelantan state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.; Misbari, S.

    2017-05-01

    Integration of satellite remote sensing data and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques is one of the most applicable approach for landslide mapping and identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones in tropical environments. Yearly, several landslides occur during heavy monsoon rainfall in Kelantan river basin, Peninsular Malaysia. In this investigation, Landsat-8 and Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) remote sensing data sets were integrated with GIS analysis for detect, map and characterize landslide occurrences during December 2014 flooding period in the Kelantan river basin. Landslides were determined by tracking changes in vegetation pixel data using Landsat-8 images that acquired before and after December 2014 flooding for the study area. The PALSAR-2 data were used for mapping of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments in the state of Kelantan. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach was used for landslide susceptibility mapping. Several factors such as slope, aspect, soil, lithology, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from remote sensing satellite data and fieldwork to apply AHP approach. Two main outputs of this study were landslide inventory occurrences map during 2014 flooding episode and landslide susceptibility map for entire the Kelantan state. Modelled/predicted landslides with susceptible map generated prior and post flood episode, confirmed that intense rainfall in the Kelantan have contributed to weightage of numerous landslides with various sizes. It is concluded that precipitation is the most influential factor that bare to landslide event.

  3. Transit Traffic Analysis Zone Delineating Method Based on Thiessen Polygon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A green transportation system composed of transit, busses and bicycles could be a significant in alleviating traffic congestion. However, the inaccuracy of current transit ridership forecasting methods is imposing a negative impact on the development of urban transit systems. Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ delineating is a fundamental and essential step in ridership forecasting, existing delineating method in four-step models have some problems in reflecting the travel characteristics of urban transit. This paper aims to come up with a Transit Traffic Analysis Zone delineation method as supplement of traditional TAZs in transit service analysis. The deficiencies of current TAZ delineating methods were analyzed, and the requirements of Transit Traffic Analysis Zone (TTAZ were summarized. Considering these requirements, Thiessen Polygon was introduced into TTAZ delineating. In order to validate its feasibility, Beijing was then taken as an example to delineate TTAZs, followed by a spatial analysis of office buildings within a TTAZ and transit station departure passengers. Analysis result shows that the TTAZs based on Thiessen polygon could reflect the transit travel characteristic and is of in-depth research value.

  4. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  5. Sound Zones: On Performance Prediction of Contrast Control Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency personal sound zones can be created by controlling the squared sound pressure in separate spatial confined control regions. Several methods have been proposed for realizing this scenario, with different constraints and performance. Extrapolating knowledge of the resulting acoustic...... separation from predicted results is a challenge as the obtainable performance relies on both physical setup and the chosen evaluation procedure. In this paper, the influence of the evaluation method is highlighted. Using the proposed evaluation four different control strategies for generation of low...

  6. POLARIZATION REMOTE SENSING PHYSICAL MECHANISM, KEY METHODS AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains,it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1 Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2 Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3 Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  7. Polarization Remote Sensing Physical Mechanism, Key Methods and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Wu, T.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Knjazihhin, J.; Asundi, A.; Yan, L.

    2017-09-01

    China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1) Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2) Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3) Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  8. A novel method for sensing rotational speed, linear displacement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We further demonstrate that such HTSC based magnetic sensors are capable of sensing the rotational speed, small displacement and direct current with good resolution. The experimental methods and results obtained are discussed. Keywords. Magnetic sensor; superconductor; rotational speed sensor; displacement ...

  9. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Magesh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of remote sensing data and the geographical information system (GIS for the exploration of groundwater resources has become a breakthrough in the field of groundwater research, which assists in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. In the present paper, various groundwater potential zones for the assessment of groundwater availability in Theni district have been delineated using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Survey of India toposheets and IRS-1C satellite imageries are used to prepare various thematic layers viz. lithology, slope, land-use, lineament, drainage, soil, and rainfall were transformed to raster data using feature to raster converter tool in ArcGIS. The raster maps of these factors are allocated a fixed score and weight computed from multi influencing factor (MIF technique. Moreover, each weighted thematic layer is statistically computed to get the groundwater potential zones. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into four categories, viz., very poor, poor, good, and very good zones. The result depicts the groundwater potential zones in the study area and found to be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  10. Simplified theory of plastic zones based on Zarka's method

    CERN Document Server

    Hübel, Hartwig

    2017-01-01

    The present book provides a new method to estimate elastic-plastic strains via a series of linear elastic analyses. For a life prediction of structures subjected to variable loads, frequently encountered in mechanical and civil engineering, the cyclically accumulated deformation and the elastic plastic strain ranges are required. The Simplified Theory of Plastic Zones (STPZ) is a direct method which provides the estimates of these and all other mechanical quantities in the state of elastic and plastic shakedown. The STPZ is described in detail, with emphasis on the fact that not only scientists but engineers working in applied fields and advanced students are able to get an idea of the possibilities and limitations of the STPZ. Numerous illustrations and examples are provided to support the reader's understanding.

  11. Proposed method for hazard mapping of landslide propagation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbulea, Manole-Stelian; Gogu, Radu; Manoli, Daniel-Marcel; Gaitanaru, Dragos Stefan; Priceputu, Adrian; Andronic, Adrian; Anghel, Alexandra; Liviu Bugea, Adrian; Ungureanu, Constantin; Niculescu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable development of communities situated in areas with landslide potential requires a fully understanding of the mechanisms that govern the triggering of the phenomenon as well as the propagation of the sliding mass, with catastrophic consequences on the nearby inhabitants and environment. Modern analysis methods for areas affected by the movement of the soil bodies are presented in this work, as well as a new procedure to assess the landslide hazard. Classical soil mechanics offer sufficient numeric models to assess the landslide triggering zone, such as Limit Equilibrium Methods (Fellenius, Janbu, Morgenstern-Price, Bishop, Spencer etc.), blocks model or progressive mobilization models, Lagrange-based finite element method etc. The computation methods for assessing the propagation zones are quite recent and have high computational requirements, thus not being sufficiently used in practice to confirm their feasibility. The proposed procedure aims to assess not only the landslide hazard factor, but also the affected areas, by means of simple mathematical operations. The method can easily be employed in GIS software, without requiring engineering training. The result is obtained by computing the first and second derivative of the digital terrain model (slope and curvature maps). Using the curvature maps, it is shown that one can assess the areas most likely to be affected by the propagation of the sliding masses. The procedure is first applied on a simple theoretical model and then used on a representative section of a high exposure area in Romania. The method is described by comparison with Romanian legislation for risk and vulnerability assessment, which specifies that the landslide hazard is to be assessed, using an average hazard factor Km, obtained from various other factors. Following the employed example, it is observed that using the Km factor there is an inconsistent distribution of the polygonal surfaces corresponding to different landslide

  12. Integration of Remote Sensing and other public GIS data source to identify suitable zones for groundwater exploitation by manual drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussi, Fabio; Fava, Francesco; Di Mauro, Biagio; Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia; DI Leo, Margherita; Hamidou Kane, Cheik; Faye, Gayane; Niang, Magatte; Wade, Souleye; Hamidou, Barry; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    In several countries of the world the situation of water supply is still critical, far from the international target defined by United Nations for 2015 (Millenium Development Goals) and producing a huge impact on health and living condition of the population. Manual drilling (it means techniques to drill boreholes for water using human or animal power) is well known and practiced for centuries in many countries. In recent years, it has been considered a potential strategy to increase water access in poor countries and has raised the attention of national governments and international organizations. Manual drilling is applicable only where hydrogeological context is suitable, according to the following conditions: thick layers of unconsolidated sediments and shallow water table. Mapping of zones with suitable hydrogeological context has been carried out in several countries in Africa, but the results have evident limitations; previous methods are based on existing direct data and qualitative experience, leading to unreliable interpretation when direct data are limited. This research aims to develop a methodology to estimate shallow hydrogeological features and asses the distribution of suitable zones for manual drilling through the integration of indirect information obtained from remote sensing and other existing source of data. The research is carried out in two different study areas, in Senegal and Guinea (Western Africa), with semi-arid climate, moderate vegetation cover, unconsolidated sandy and clay deposits overlaying sedimentary and igneous rocks A set of variables have been obtained through processing of three categories of data, listed below: - geology, geomorphology, soil and land cover, obtained from existing thematic maps; - vegetation phenology, apparent thermal inertia, and soil moisture, obtained from analysis of multitemporal optical (MOD13Q1), thermal (MOD11A1), and radar (ASAR) remotely sensed data: -morphometric parameters, obtained from public

  13. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

  14. Parallelized LEDAPS method for Remote Sensing Preprocessing Based on MPI

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Xionghua; ZHANG, Xu; GUO, Ying; MA, Yong; YANG, Yanchen

    2013-01-01

    Based on Landsat image, the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) uses radiation change detection method for image processing and offers the surface reflectivity products for ecosystem carbon sequestration and carbon reserves. As the accumulation of massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial LEDAPS for image processing has a long cycle that make a lot of difficulties in practical application. For this problem, this paper design a high performance parallel ...

  15. Novel feature extraction method for hyperspectral remote sensing image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhong; Zhao, Huijie

    2007-11-01

    In order to reduce high dimensions of hyperspectral remote sensing image and concentrate optimal information to reduced bands, this paper proposed a new method of feature extraction. The new method has two steps. The first step is to reduce the high dimensions by selecting high informative and low correlative bands according to the indexes calculated by a smart band selection method. The criterions that SBS method complied are: (1) The selected bands have the most information; (2) The selected bands have the smallest correlation with other bands. The second step is to decompose the selected bands by a novel second generation wavelet, predicting and updating subimages on rectangle and quincunx grids by Neville filters, finally using variance weighting as fusion weight. A 126-band HYMAP hyperspectral data was experimented in order to test the effect of the new method. The results showed classification accuracy is increased by using the novel feature extraction method.

  16. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  17. Assessment of Vegetation Variation on Primarily Creation Zones of the Dust Storms Around the Euphrates Using Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Amanollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, period frequency and effect domain of the dust storms that enter Iran from Iraq have increased. In this study, in addition to detecting the creation zones of the dust storms, the effect of vegetation cover variation on their creation was investigated using remote sensing. Moderate resolution image Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5 have been utilized to identify the primarily creation zones of the dust storms and to assess the vegetation cover variation, respectively. Vegetation cover variation was studied using Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI obtained from band 3 and band 4 of the Landsate satellite. The results showed that the surrounding area of the Euphrates in Syria, the desert in the vicinity of this river in Iraq, including the deserts of Alanbar Province, and the north deserts of Saudi Arabia are the primarily creation zones of the dust storms entering west and south west of Iran. The results of NDVI showed that excluding the deserts in the border of Syria and Iraq, the area with very weak vegetation cover have increased between 2.44% and 20.65% from 1991 to 2009. In the meanwhile, the retention pound surface areas in the south deserts of Syria as well as the deserts in its border with Iraq have decreased 6320 and 4397 hectares, respectively. As it can be concluded from the findings, one of the main environmental parameters initiating these dust storms is the decrease in the vegetation cover in their primarily creation zones.

  18. CRESTA : consortium on remote sensing of freight flows in congested border crossings and work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    "The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate the use of remote sensing and : geospatial information technologies to provide useful information for applications related to : the times trucks incur in various activities (activity...

  19. Application of a GIS-/remote sensing-based approach for predicting groundwater potential zones using a multi-criteria data mining methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Lim, Hwee San

    2017-07-01

    This study integrates the application of Dempster-Shafer-driven evidential belief function (DS-EBF) methodology with remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to analyze surface and subsurface data sets for the spatial prediction of groundwater potential in Perak Province, Malaysia. The study used additional data obtained from the records of the groundwater yield rate of approximately 28 bore well locations. The processed surface and subsurface data produced sets of groundwater potential conditioning factors (GPCFs) from which multiple surface hydrologic and subsurface hydrogeologic parameter thematic maps were generated. The bore well location inventories were partitioned randomly into a ratio of 70% (19 wells) for model training to 30% (9 wells) for model testing. Application results of the DS-EBF relationship model algorithms of the surface- and subsurface-based GPCF thematic maps and the bore well locations produced two groundwater potential prediction (GPP) maps based on surface hydrologic and subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics which established that more than 60% of the study area falling within the moderate-high groundwater potential zones and less than 35% falling within the low potential zones. The estimated uncertainty values within the range of 0 to 17% for the predicted potential zones were quantified using the uncertainty algorithm of the model. The validation results of the GPP maps using relative operating characteristic curve method yielded 80 and 68% success rates and 89 and 53% prediction rates for the subsurface hydrogeologic factor (SUHF)- and surface hydrologic factor (SHF)-based GPP maps, respectively. The study results revealed that the SUHF-based GPP map accurately delineated groundwater potential zones better than the SHF-based GPP map. However, significant information on the low degree of uncertainty of the predicted potential zones established the suitability of the two GPP maps for future development of

  20. System and method for evaluating wind flow fields using remote sensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John; Hirth, Brian; Guynes, Jerry

    2016-12-13

    The present invention provides a system and method for obtaining data to determine one or more characteristics of a wind field using a first remote sensing device and a second remote sensing device. Coordinated data is collected from the first and second remote sensing devices and analyzed to determine the one or more characteristics of the wind field. The first remote sensing device is positioned to have a portion of the wind field within a first scanning sector of the first remote sensing device. The second remote sensing device is positioned to have the portion of the wind field disposed within a second scanning sector of the second remote sensing device.

  1. MAPPING LOCAL CLIMATE ZONES WITH A VECTOR-BASED GIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lelovics

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined Local Climate Zones in a South-Hungarian city, using vector-based and raster-based databases. We calculated seven of the originally proposed ten physical (geometric, surface cover and radiative properties for areas which are based on the mobile temperature measurement campaigns earlier carried out in this city.As input data we applied 3D building database (earlier created with photogrammetric methods, 2D road database, topographic map, aerial photographs, remotely sensed reflectance information from RapidEye satellite image and our local knowledge about the area. The values of the properties were calculated by GIS methods developed for this purpose.We derived for the examined areas and applied for classification sky view factor, mean building height, terrain roughness class, building surface fraction, pervious surface fraction, impervious surface fraction and albedo.Six built and one land cover LCZ classes could be detected with this method on our study area. From each class one circle area was selected, which is representative for that class. Their thermal reactions were examined with the application of mobile temperature measurement dataset. The comparison was made in cases, when the weather was clear and calm and the surface was dry. We found that compact built-in types have more temperature surplus than open ones, and midrise types also have more than lowrise ones. According to our primary results, these categories provide a useful opportunity for intra- and inter-urban comparisons.

  2. Compressed sensing methods for DNA microarrays, RNA interference, and metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aditya; P, Deepthi; Renumadhavi, C H; Chandra, M Girish; Srinivasan, Rajgopal

    2015-02-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a sparse signal sampling methodology for efficiently acquiring and reconstructing a signal from relatively few measurements. Recent work shows that CS is well-suited to be applied to problems in genomics, including probe design in microarrays, RNA interference (RNAi), and taxonomic assignment in metagenomics. The principle of using different CS recovery methods in these applications has thus been established, but a comprehensive study of using a wide range of CS methods has not been done. For each of these applications, we apply three hitherto unused CS methods, namely, l1-magic, CoSaMP, and l1-homotopy, in conjunction with CS measurement matrices such as randomly generated CS m matrix, Hamming matrix, and projective geometry-based matrix. We find that, in RNAi, the l1-magic (the standard package for l1 minimization) and l1-homotopy methods show significant reduction in reconstruction error compared to the baseline. In metagenomics, we find that l1-homotopy as well as CoSaMP estimate concentration with significantly reduced time when compared to the GPSR and WGSQuikr methods.

  3. [Monitoring method of underground coal fire based on night thermal infrared remote sensing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Guo; Wu, Jian-Jun; Gu, Lei; Yang, Bo; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Chen

    2011-02-01

    Land surface temperature is higher in the zones of underground coal fire than in their surroundings areas. It is possible to monitor the coal fire and the heat anomalies using the remote sensing technology of thermal infrared. By taking the coal fire of Wuda in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as an example, the monitoring methods of underground coal fire were explored based on different seasons night ASTER thermal infrared images. By employing the TES-ADE algorithm and threshold segmentation method, land surface temperature was retrieved and coal fire areas were extracted. Finally the seasonal variation of surface temperature, the surface temperature differences between night and day, and the change and distribution of coal fire area were analyzed. The results showed that (1) it is effective to retrieve land surface temperature and to avoid the interference of sand, bare land and building based on the remote sensing of thermal infrared at night; (2) it is best time to extract the coal fire areas based on the winter night images of thermal infrared; (3) it is effective to monitor the change and distribution of coal fire areas based on the winter night images of thermal infrared.

  4. Method for sensing an analyte in a fluid and sensor unit for such method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, N.H.; Pedaci, F.; Barland, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides a method for sensing with a sensor system an analyte in an analyte fluid. The sensor system comprises a micron scale birefringent entity, a laser unit configured to generate polarized laser light, a polarization rotation device, wherein the laser unit and polarization rotation

  5. Euphotic Zone Depth: Its Derivation and Implication to Ocean-Color Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-16

    Morel, [4] To incorp~orate the dependence of subsurface light pigments , r a spectraly esolaed form [ Mre l, field on other water constituents (such as...chlorophyll fluorescence profile, the aver- 5 of 11 C03009 LEE ET AL.: EUPHOTIC ZONE DEPTH C03009 * Monterey Say ] p al Gutrof Mexico |. SO * Arabian Sea...Coastal ocean optical influences on reference wavelengths, respectively. In this updated QAA solar transmission and radiant heating rate, J. Geaphys

  6. Sensing Attribute Weights: A Novel Basic Belief Assignment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Zhuang, Miaoyan; Xie, Chunhe; Wu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Dempster–Shafer evidence theory is widely used in many soft sensors data fusion systems on account of its good performance for handling the uncertainty information of soft sensors. However, how to determine basic belief assignment (BBA) is still an open issue. The existing methods to determine BBA do not consider the reliability of each attribute; at the same time, they cannot effectively determine BBA in the open world. In this paper, based on attribute weights, a novel method to determine BBA is proposed not only in the closed world, but also in the open world. The Gaussian model of each attribute is built using the training samples firstly. Second, the similarity between the test sample and the attribute model is measured based on the Gaussian membership functions. Then, the attribute weights are generated using the overlap degree among the classes. Finally, BBA is determined according to the sensed attribute weights. Several examples with small datasets show the validity of the proposed method. PMID:28358325

  7. Modeling Flood Hazard Zones at the Sub-District Level with the Rational Model Integrated with GIS and Remote Sensing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asare-Kyei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust risk assessment requires accurate flood intensity area mapping to allow for the identification of populations and elements at risk. However, available flood maps in West Africa lack spatial variability while global datasets have resolutions too coarse to be relevant for local scale risk assessment. Consequently, local disaster managers are forced to use traditional methods such as watermarks on buildings and media reports to identify flood hazard areas. In this study, remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were combined with hydrological and statistical models to delineate the spatial limits of flood hazard zones in selected communities in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin. The approach involves estimating peak runoff concentrations at different elevations and then applying statistical methods to develop a Flood Hazard Index (FHI. Results show that about half of the study areas fall into high intensity flood zones. Empirical validation using statistical confusion matrix and the principles of Participatory GIS show that flood hazard areas could be mapped at an accuracy ranging from 77% to 81%. This was supported with local expert knowledge which accurately classified 79% of communities deemed to be highly susceptible to flood hazard. The results will assist disaster managers to reduce the risk to flood disasters at the community level where risk outcomes are first materialized.

  8. A comparative performance study of sound zoning methods in a reflective environment

    OpenAIRE

    Olik, M; Coleman, P; Jackson, PJB; Francombe, J; Mason, R; Olsen, M; Møller, M; Bech, S

    2013-01-01

    Whilst sound zoning methods have typically been studied under anechoic conditions, it is desirable to evaluate the performance of various methods in a real room. Three control methods were implemented (delay and sum, DS; acoustic contrast control, ACC; and pressure matching, PM) on two regular 24-element loudspeaker arrays (line and circle). The acoustic contrast between two zones was evaluated and the reproduced sound fields compared for uniformity of energy distribution. ACC generated the h...

  9. Learning Methods of Remote Sensing In the 2013 Curriculum of Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lili Somantri, Nandi

    2016-11-01

    The new remote sensing material included in the subjects of geography in the curriculum of 1994. For geography teachers generation of 90s and over who in college do not get the material remote sensing, for teaching is a tough matter. Most teachers only give a theoretical matter, and do not carry out practical reasons in the lack of facilities and infrastructure of computer laboratories. Therefore, in this paper studies the importance about the method or manner of teaching remote sensing material in schools. The purpose of this paper is 1) to explain the position of remote sensing material in the study of geography, 2) analyze the Geography Curriculum 2013 Subjects related to remote sensing material, 3) describes a method of teaching remote sensing material in schools. The method used in this paper is a descriptive analytical study supported by the literature. The conclusion of this paper that the position of remote sensing in the study of geography is a method or a way to obtain spatial data earth's surface. In the 2013 curriculum remote sensing material has been applied to the study of land use and transportation. Remote sensing methods of teaching must go through a practicum, which starts from the introduction of the theory of remote sensing, data extraction phase of remote sensing imagery to produce maps, both visually and digitally, field surveys, interpretation of test accuracy, and improved maps.

  10. Geolgical Structure Mapping of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone, Peninsular Malaysia Using Palsar Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.

    2015-10-01

    The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) of peninsular Malaysia was selected as case study to evaluate the capability of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) satellite remote sensing data for structural geology mapping in tropical environments. The structural elements in the BRSZ were enhanced using multi-polarization configuration of PALSAR data at a regional scale. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detailed structural mapping. Numerous tectonic lineaments with consistent variation in trend, length and density were detected in the study area. Structural analysis of the BRSZ reveals that two distinct parts can be defined, a western part affected mainly by ductile fabrics in the Cameron Highlands and an eastern part affected mainly by brittle deformation in the BRSZ. Ductile deformation indicates several generation of folding in the Cameron Highlands. Several faults, joints and fractures represent brittle deformation events in the BRSZ. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of PALSAR satellite remote sensing data for mapping geological structures in tropical environments.

  11. GEOLGICAL STRUCTURE MAPPING OF THE BENTONG-RAUB SUTURE ZONE, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA USING PALSAR REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of peninsular Malaysia was selected as case study to evaluate the capability of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data for structural geology mapping in tropical environments. The structural elements in the BRSZ were enhanced using multi-polarization configuration of PALSAR data at a regional scale. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detailed structural mapping. Numerous tectonic lineaments with consistent variation in trend, length and density were detected in the study area. Structural analysis of the BRSZ reveals that two distinct parts can be defined, a western part affected mainly by ductile fabrics in the Cameron Highlands and an eastern part affected mainly by brittle deformation in the BRSZ. Ductile deformation indicates several generation of folding in the Cameron Highlands. Several faults, joints and fractures represent brittle deformation events in the BRSZ. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of PALSAR satellite remote sensing data for mapping geological structures in tropical environments.

  12. Resolution Enhancement Method Used for Force Sensing Resistor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Flores De Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tactile sensors are one of the major devices that enable robotic systems to interact with the surrounding environment. This research aims to propose a mathematical model to describe the behavior of a tactile sensor based on experimental and statistical analyses and moreover to develop a versatile algorithm that can be applied to different tactile sensor arrays to enhance the limited resolution. With the proposed algorithm, the resolution can be increased up to twenty times if multiple measurements are available. To verify if the proposed algorithm can be used for tactile sensor arrays that are used in robotic system, a 16×10 force sensing array (FSR is adopted. The acquired two-dimensional measurements were processed by a resolution enhancement method (REM to enhance the resolution, which can be used to improve the resolution for single image or multiple measurements. As a result, the resolution of the sensor is increased and it can be used as synthetic skin to identify accurate shapes of objects and applied forces.

  13. Remote sensing models and methods for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schowengerdt, Robert A

    1997-01-01

    This book is a completely updated, greatly expanded version of the previously successful volume by the author. The Second Edition includes new results and data, and discusses a unified framework and rationale for designing and evaluating image processing algorithms.Written from the viewpoint that image processing supports remote sensing science, this book describes physical models for remote sensing phenomenology and sensors and how they contribute to models for remote-sensing data. The text then presents image processing techniques and interprets them in terms of these models. Spectral, s

  14. Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) method for measurements of soil moisture in cropped fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of soil moisture at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. This study evaluates the applicability of the Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for integral quantification of seasonal soil moisture in the root zone at the scale of a field or small watershed, making use of the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator relative to other landscape materials. GANS measurements were performed at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations and seasonal conditions. Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a lowland Bornim farmland (Brandenburg) cropped with sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. At both sites depth profiles of soil moisture were measured at several locations in parallel by frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) for comparison and calibration. Initially, calibration parameters derived from a previous study with corn cover were tested under sunflower and winter rye periods at the same farmland. GANS soil moisture based on these parameters showed a large discrepancy compared to classical soil moisture measurements. Therefore, two new calibration approaches and four different ways of integration the soil moisture profile to an integral value for GANS were evaluated in this study. This included different sets of calibration parameters based on different growing periods of sunflower. New calibration parameters showed a good agreement with FDR network during sunflower period (RMSE = 0.023 m3 m-3), but they underestimated soil moisture in the winter rye period. The GANS approach resulted to be highly affected by temporal changes of biomass and crop types which suggest the need of neutron corrections for long-term observations with crop rotation. Finally

  15. Tools and Methods for the Registration and Fusion of Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshtasby, Arthur Ardeshir; LeMoigne, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Tools and methods for image registration were reviewed. Methods for the registration of remotely sensed data at NASA were discussed. Image fusion techniques were reviewed. Challenges in registration of remotely sensed data were discussed. Examples of image registration and image fusion were given.

  16. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed, Timor Leste using GIS, remote sensing and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Domingos; Shrestha, Sangam; Babel, Mukand S.; Ninsawat, Sarawut

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater plays an important role for socio-economic development of Comoro watershed in Timor Leste. Despite the significance of groundwater for sustainable development, it has not always been properly managed in the watershed. Therefore, this study seeks to identify groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed, using geographical information systems and remote sensing and analytic hierarchy process technique. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into five classes and validated with the recorded bore well yield data. It was found that the alluvial plain in the northwest along the Comoro River has very high groundwater potential zone which covers about 5.4 % (13.5 km2) area of the watershed. The high groundwater potential zone was found in the eastern part and along the foothills and covers about 4.8 % (12 km2) of the area; moderate zone covers about 2.0 % (5 km2) of the area and found in the higher elevation of the alluvial plain. The poor and very poor groundwater potential zone covers about 87.8 % (219.5 km2) of the watershed. The hilly terrain located in the southern and central parts of the study area has a poor groundwater potential zone due to higher degree of slope and low permeability of conglomerate soil type. The demarcation of groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed will be helpful for future planning, development and management of the groundwater resources.

  17. Remote sensing models and methods for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schowengerdt, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing is a technology that engages electromagnetic sensors to measure and monitor changes in the earth's surface and atmosphere. Normally this is accomplished through the use of a satellite or aircraft. This book, in its 3rd edition, seamlessly connects the art and science of earth remote sensing with the latest interpretative tools and techniques of computer-aided image processing. Newly expanded and updated, this edition delivers more of the applied scientific theory and practical results that helped the previous editions earn wide acclaim and become classroom and industry standa

  18. A dynamic zone estimation method using cumulative voxels for autonomous driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjo Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstacle avoidance and available road identification technologies have been investigated for autonomous driving of an unmanned vehicle. In order to apply research results to autonomous driving in real environments, it is necessary to consider moving objects. This article proposes a preprocessing method to identify the dynamic zones where moving objects exist around an unmanned vehicle. This method accumulates three-dimensional points from a light detection and ranging sensor mounted on an unmanned vehicle in voxel space. Next, features are identified from the cumulative data at high speed, and zones with significant feature changes are estimated as zones where dynamic objects exist. The approach proposed in this article can identify dynamic zones even for a moving vehicle and processes data quickly using several features based on the geometry, height map and distribution of three-dimensional space data. The experiment for evaluating the performance of proposed approach was conducted using ground truth data on simulation and real environment data set.

  19. A Novel Sensing Method and Sensing Algorithm Development for a Ubiquitous Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel technique which provides energy efficient circuit design for sensors networks. The overall system presented requires a minimum number of independently communicating sensors and sub-circuits which enable it to reduce the power consumption by setting unused sensors to idle. This technique reduces hardware requirements, time and interconnection problems with a supervisory control. Our proposed algorithm, which hands over the controls to two software mangers for the sensing and moving subsystems can greatly improve the overall system performance. Based on the experimental results, we observed that our system, which is using sensing and moving managers, the four sensors required only 3.4 mW power consumption when a robot arm is moved a total distance of 17 cm. This system is designed for robot applications but could be implemented to many other human environments such as “ubiquitous cities”, “smart homes”, etc.

  20. Novel Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Methods And Their Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    . The conjunction of these conditions can result in regimes where the signal strength is below the detection threshold of the sensor, resulting in missed detections. To overcome this limitation, there have been several proposals made in the research community towards the use of cooperation in spectrum sensing...

  1. Evaluation of air quality zone classification methods based on ambient air concentration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Brian; McBean, Ed; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Thé, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    Air quality zones are used by regulatory authorities to implement ambient air standards in order to protect human health. Air quality measurements at discrete air monitoring stations are critical tools to determine whether an air quality zone complies with local air quality standards or is noncompliant. This study presents a novel approach for evaluation of air quality zone classification methods by breaking the concentration distribution of a pollutant measured at an air monitoring station into compliance and exceedance probability density functions (PDFs) and then using Monte Carlo analysis with the Central Limit Theorem to estimate long-term exposure. The purpose of this paper is to compare the risk associated with selecting one ambient air classification approach over another by testing the possible exposure an individual living within a zone may face. The chronic daily intake (CDI) is utilized to compare different pollutant exposures over the classification duration of 3 years between two classification methods. Historical data collected from air monitoring stations in Kuwait are used to build representative models of 1-hr NO 2 and 8-hr O 3 within a zone that meets the compliance requirements of each method. The first method, the "3 Strike" method, is a conservative approach based on a winner-take-all approach common with most compliance classification methods, while the second, the 99% Rule method, allows for more robust analyses and incorporates long-term trends. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to model the CDI for each pollutant and each method with the zone at a single station and with multiple stations. The model assumes that the zone is already in compliance with air quality standards over the 3 years under the different classification methodologies. The model shows that while the CDI of the two methods differs by 2.7% over the exposure period for the single station case, the large number of samples taken over the duration period impacts the sensitivity

  2. Research on assessment and improvement method of remote sensing image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Hua, Nian; Yu, Yanbo; Zhao, Zhanping

    2018-01-01

    Remote sensing image quality assessment and improvement is an important part of image processing. Generally, the use of compressive sampling theory in remote sensing imaging system can compress images while sampling which can improve efficiency. A method of two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is proposed to reconstruct the remote sensing image to improve the quality of the compressed image in this paper, which contain the useful information of image and can restrain the noise. Then, remote sensing image quality influence factors are analyzed, and the evaluation parameters for quantitative evaluation are introduced. On this basis, the quality of the reconstructed images is evaluated and the different factors influence on the reconstruction is analyzed, providing meaningful referential data for enhancing the quality of remote sensing images. The experiment results show that evaluation results fit human visual feature, and the method proposed have good application value in the field of remote sensing image processing.

  3. Identification of erosional and inundation hazard zones in Ken-Betwa river linking area, India, using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtar, Ram; Singh, Chander Kumar; Shashtri, Satayanarayan; Mukherjee, Saumitra

    2011-11-01

    Ken-Betwa river link is one of the pilot projects of the Inter Linking of Rivers program of Government of India in Bundelkhand Region. It will connect the Ken and Betwa rivers through a system of dams, reservoirs, and canals to provide storage for excess rainfall during the monsoon season and avoid floods. The main objective of this study is to identify erosional and inundation prone zones of Ken-Betwa river linking site in India using remote sensing and geographic information system tools. In this study, Landsat Thematic Mapper data of year 2005, digital elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, and other ancillary data were analyzed to create various thematic maps viz. geomorphology, land use/land cover, NDVI, geology, soil, drainage density, elevation, slope, and rainfall. The integrated thematic maps were used for hazard zonation. This is based on categorizing the different hydrological and geomorphological processes influencing the inundation and erosion intensity. Result shows that the southern part of the study area which lies in Panna district of Madhya Pradesh, India, is more vulnerable than the other areas.

  4. Multi-offset GPR methods for hyporheic zone investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosten, T.R.; Bradford, J.H.; McNamara, J.P.; Gooseff, M.N.; Zarnetske, J.P.; Bowden, W.B.; Johnston, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Porosity of stream sediments has a direct effect on hyporheic exchange patterns and rates. Improved estimates of porosity heterogeneity will yield enhanced simulation of hyporheic exchange processes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) velocity measurements are strongly controlled by water content thus accurate measures of GPR velocity in saturated sediments provides estimates of porosity beneath stream channels using petrophysical relationships. Imaging the substream system using surface based reflection measurements is particularly challenging due to large velocity gradients that occur at the transition from open water to saturated sediments. The continuous multi-offset method improves the quality of subsurface images through stacking and provides measurements of vertical and lateral velocity distributions. We applied the continuous multi-offset method to stream sites on the North Slope, Alaska and the Sawtooth Mountains near Boise, Idaho, USA. From the continuous multi-offset data, we measure velocity using reflection tomography then estimate water content and porosity using the Topp equation. These values provide detailed measurements for improved stream channel hydraulic and thermal modelling. ?? 2009 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  5. Diagnostics of Oil Pollution Zones by Electro-Physical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostov, Sergey; Shabanov, Evgeniy

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the rationale and development of electro physical methods of control of the degree of soils pollution with petroleum products. The ranges of variation for the parameters of the pore space structure and wettability for the Kuzbass conditions are determined by inverse calculations on the basis of experimental data. The theoretical dependences are shown which allow us to assess the degree of soil pollution with oil products according to the results of longitudinal and areal electrical sounding. The study confirms the possibility of rapid prediction of the degree of soil contamination by measuring its electrical resistance. The database has been compiled for interpretation of the results of experimental sounding when monitoring the changes in the degree of contamination. The use of the express forecast of numerical values of the contamination factor was studied.

  6. Diagnostics of Oil Pollution Zones by Electro-Physical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prostov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the rationale and development of electro physical methods of control of the degree of soils pollution with petroleum products. The ranges of variation for the parameters of the pore space structure and wettability for the Kuzbass conditions are determined by inverse calculations on the basis of experimental data. The theoretical dependences are shown which allow us to assess the degree of soil pollution with oil products according to the results of longitudinal and areal electrical sounding. The study confirms the possibility of rapid prediction of the degree of soil contamination by measuring its electrical resistance. The database has been compiled for interpretation of the results of experimental sounding when monitoring the changes in the degree of contamination. The use of the express forecast of numerical values of the contamination factor was studied.

  7. Imaging and Non-Imaging Polarimetric Methods for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    specic mutual coherence structure that allows the average coherent two-point scattering from the medium to be probed. VCT develops a speckle eld...were trained. Four PhD dissertations were primarily supported by funding from this project 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...primarily supported by funding from this project. 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.1 Principal Accomplishments This project was carried out in the Advanced Sensing

  8. A coastal zone segmentation variational model and its accelerated ADMM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baoxiang; Chen, Ge; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yang, Huan

    2017-12-01

    Effective and efficient SAR image segmentation has a significant role in coastal zone interpretation. In this paper, a coastal zone segmentation model is proposed based on Potts model. By introducing edge self-adaption parameter and modifying noisy data term, the proposed variational model provides a good solution for the coastal zone SAR image with common characteristics of inherent speckle noise and complicated geometrical details. However, the proposed model is difficult to solve due to to its nonlinear, non-convex and non-smooth characteristics. Followed by curve evolution theory and operator splitting method, the minimization problem is reformulated as a constrained minimization problem. A fast alternating minimization iterative scheme is designed to implement coastal zone segmentation. Finally, various two-stage and multiphase experimental results illustrate the advantage of the proposed segmentation model, and indicate the high computation efficiency of designed numerical approximation algorithm.

  9. Proposal and Implementation of a Robust Sensing Method for DVB-T Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunyi; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a sensing method for TV signals of DVB-T standard to realize effective TV White Space (TVWS) Communication. In the TVWS technology trial organized by the Infocomm Development Authority (iDA) of Singapore, with regard to the sensing level and sensing time, detecting DVB-T signal at the level of -120dBm over an 8MHz channel with a sensing time below 1 second is required. To fulfill such a strict sensing requirement, we propose a smart sensing method which combines feature detection and energy detection (CFED), and is also characterized by using dynamic threshold selection (DTS) based on a threshold table to improve sensing robustness to noise uncertainty. The DTS based CFED (DTS-CFED) is evaluated by computer simulations and is also implemented into a hardware sensing prototype. The results show that the DTS-CFED achieves a detection probability above 0.9 for a target false alarm probability of 0.1 for DVB-T signals at the level of -120dBm over an 8MHz channel with the sensing time equals to 0.1 second.

  10. Multidate remote sensing approaches for digital zoning of terroirs at regional scales: case studies revisited and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Carey, Victoria A.; Gilliot, Jean-Marc

    2014-05-01

    Geospatial technologies prove more and more useful for characterizing terroirs and this, not only at the within-field scale: amongst innovating technologies revolutionizing approaches for digitally zoning viticultural areas, be they managed by individual or cooperative grape growers, or even unions of grape growers, multispectral satellite remote sensing data have been used for 15 years already at either regional or whole-vineyard scale, starting from single date-studies to multi-temporal processings. Regional remotely-sensed approaches for terroir mapping mostly use multispectral satellite images in conjunction with a set of ancillary morphometric and/or geomorphological and/or legacy soil data and time series data on grape/wine quality and climate. Two prominent case-studies of regional terroir mapping using SPOT satellite images with medium spatial resolution (20 m) were carried out in the Southern Rhone Valley (Côtes-du-Rhône controlled Appelation of origin) in Southern France and in the Stellenbosch-Paarl region (including 5 Wine of Origin wards: Simonsberg-Stellenbosch, Simonsberg-Paarl, Jonkershoek Valley, Banghoek and Papegaaiberg and portions of two further wards, namely, Franschoek and Devon Valley) in the South Western Cape of South Africa. In addition to emphasizing their usefulness for operational land management, our objective was to develop, compare and discuss both approaches in terms of formalization, spatial data handling and processing, sampling design, validation procedures and/or availability of uncertainty information. Both approaches essentially relied on supervised image classifiers based on the selection of reference training areas. For the Southern Rhone valley, viticultural terroirs were validated using an external sample of 91 vineyards planted with Grenache Noir and Syrah for which grape composition was available over a large 17 years-period: the validation procedure highlighted a strong vintage effect for each specific terroir. The

  11. A Novel Coherence Reduction Method in Compressed Sensing for DOA Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method named as coherent column replacement method is proposed to reduce the coherence of a partially deterministic sensing matrix, which is comprised of highly coherent columns and random Gaussian columns. The proposed method is to replace the highly coherent columns with random Gaussian columns to obtain a new sensing matrix. The measurement vector is changed accordingly. It is proved that the original sparse signal could be reconstructed well from the newly changed measurement vector based on the new sensing matrix with large probability. This method is then extended to a more practical condition when highly coherent columns and incoherent columns are considered, for example, the direction of arrival (DOA estimation problem in phased array radar system using compressed sensing. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method succeeds in identifying multiple targets in a sparse radar scene, where the compressed sensing method based on the original sensing matrix fails. The proposed method also obtains more precise estimation of DOA using one snapshot compared with the traditional estimation methods such as Capon, APES, and GLRT, based on hundreds of snapshots.

  12. METHOD OF MAXIMAL INFORMATIVE ZONE FOR VIRTUAL REFERENCE STATION DEVELOPMENT IN KINEMATIC SYSTEMS OF GPS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Eminov,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The existing actual material on experimental assessment of positioning error in VRS GPS networks is analyzed where the mobile receiver is provided with virtual reference station. The method of highly informative zone is suggested for removal of initial uncertainty in reference station selection with the aim to develop minimal GPS network consisting of three reference stations. Methodical recommendations and directions are given for the suggested method application.

  13. A Review of Ocean/Sea Subsurface Water Temperature Studies from Remote Sensing and Non-Remote Sensing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Akbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oceans/Seas are important components of Earth that are affected by global warming and climate change. Recent studies have indicated that the deeper oceans are responsible for climate variability by changing the Earth’s ecosystem; therefore, assessing them has become more important. Remote sensing can provide sea surface data at high spatial/temporal resolution and with large spatial coverage, which allows for remarkable discoveries in the ocean sciences. The deep layers of the ocean/sea, however, cannot be directly detected by satellite remote sensors. Therefore, researchers have examined the relationships between salinity, height, and temperature of the oceans/Seas to estimate their subsurface water temperature using dynamical models and model-based data assimilation (numerical based and statistical approaches, which simulate these parameters by employing remotely sensed data and in situ measurements. Due to the requirements of comprehensive perception and the importance of global warming in decision making and scientific studies, this review provides comprehensive information on the methods that are used to estimate ocean/sea subsurface water temperature from remotely and non-remotely sensed data. To clarify the subsurface processes, the challenges, limitations, and perspectives of the existing methods are also investigated.

  14. Regression Methods for Ophthalmic Glucose Sensing Using Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Rapp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel concept for in vivo sensing of glucose using metamaterials in combination with automatic learning systems. In detail, we use the plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT as sensor and evaluate the acquired data with support vector machines. The metamaterial can be integrated into a contact lens. This sensor changes its optical properties such as reflectivity upon the ambient glucose concentration, which allows for in situ measurements in the eye. We demonstrate that estimation errors below 2% at physiological concentrations are possible using simulations of the optical properties of the metamaterial in combination with an appropriate electrical circuitry and signal processing scheme. In the future, functionalization of our sensor with hydrogel will allow for a glucose-specific detection which is insensitive to other tear liquid substances providing both excellent selectivity and sensitivity.

  15. Identifying Attributes of CO2 Leakage Zones in Shallow Aquifers Using a Parametric Level Set Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A. Y.; Islam, A.; Wheeler, M.

    2016-12-01

    Leakage through abandoned wells and geologic faults poses the greatest risk to CO2 storage permanence. For shallow aquifers, secondary CO2 plumes emanating from the leak zones may go undetected for a sustained period of time and has the greatest potential to cause large-scale and long-term environmental impacts. Identification of the attributes of leak zones, including their shape, location, and strength, is required for proper environmental risk assessment. This study applies a parametric level set (PaLS) method to characterize the leakage zone. Level set methods are appealing for tracking topological changes and recovering unknown shapes of objects. However, level set evolution using the conventional level set methods is challenging. In PaLS, the level set function is approximated using a weighted sum of basis functions and the level set evolution problem is replaced by an optimization problem. The efficacy of PaLS is demonstrated through recovering the source zone created by CO2 leakage into a carbonate aquifer. Our results show that PaLS is a robust source identification method that can recover the approximate source locations in the presence of measurement errors, model parameter uncertainty, and inaccurate initial guesses of source flux strengths. The PaLS inversion framework introduced in this work is generic and can be adapted for any reactive transport model by switching the pre- and post-processing routines.

  16. Testing a simple field method for assessing nitrate removal in riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Michael G. Dosskey

    2008-01-01

    Being able to identify riparian sites that function better for nitrate removal from groundwater is critical to using efficiently the riparian zones for water quality management. For this purpose, managers need a method that is quick, inexpensive, and accurate enough to enable effective management decisions. This study assesses the precision and accuracy of a simple...

  17. A remote sensing method for mapping sillimanite mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Reda; El-Desoky, Hatem

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to analyze the spectral profiles of the sillimanite mineral to identify sillimanite mineralization in the Migif-Hafafit area in the southern Eastern Desert of Egypt. ASTER imagery and reference spectra of sillimanite from the USGS and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) spectral libraries were used to map the zones mineralized with sillimanite. The spectra of sillimanite in the JPL spectral library is presented at three different particle sizes coarse, medium, and fine (125-500, 45-125, and indicated that there are no significant changes in composition of the USGS and JPL samples, and the sillimanite samples collected from the study area. The position, depth, and full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the absorption features were calculated for all of the continuum-removed spectra. Results demonstrated that the absorption features attributes are affected by varying particle sizes. The occurrence of a prominent absorption feature in the SWIR spectra at 1.72 μm associated with absorption features at ∼1.40, ∼1.91 and 2.20-2.40 μm can be used to distinguish sillimanite mineral mixtures from the other hydroxylated and hydrated silicate minerals. This study suggests that spectral libraries should include spectra of different particle sizes and mineral mixtures.

  18. A boundary integral method for a dynamic, transient mode I crack problem with viscoelastic cohesive zone

    KAUST Repository

    Leise, Tanya L.

    2009-08-19

    We consider the problem of the dynamic, transient propagation of a semi-infinite, mode I crack in an infinite elastic body with a nonlinear, viscoelastic cohesize zone. Our problem formulation includes boundary conditions that preclude crack face interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation is preceeded by significant crazing in a thin region surrounding the crack tip. We present a combined analytical/numerical solution method that involves reducing the problem to a Dirichlet-to-Neumann map along the crack face plane, resulting in a differo-integral equation relating the displacement and stress along the crack faces and within the cohesive zone. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. New spectral methods in cloud and aerosol remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K. Sebastian; McBride, Patrick; Pilewskie, Peter; Feingold, Graham; Jiang, Hongli

    2010-05-01

    We present new remote sensing techniques that rely on spectral observations of clouds and aerosols in the solar wavelength range. As a first example, we show how the effects of heterogeneous clouds, aerosols of changing optical properties, and the surface within one pixel can be distinguished by means of their spectral signatures. This example is based on data from the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS, Houston, Texas, 2006), Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of polluted boundary layer clouds, and 3-dimensional radiative transfer calculations. In a second example, we show that the uncertainty of cloud retrievals can be improved considerably by exploiting the spectral information around liquid water absorption features in the near-infrared wavelength range. This is illustrated with spectral transmittance data from the NOAA International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic LOwer Troposphere (ICEALOT, 2008). In contrast to reflected radiance, transmitted radiance is only weakly sensitive to cloud effective drop radius, and only cloud optical thickness can be obtained from the standard dual-channel technique. We show that effective radius and liquid water path can also be retrieved with the new spectral approach, and validate our results with microwave liquid water path measurements.

  20. Identification of dominating factors affecting vadose zone vulnerability by a simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xi, Beidou; Cai, Wutian; Yang, Yang; Jia, Yongfeng; Li, Xiang; Lv, Yonggao; Lv, Ningqing; Huan, Huan; Yang, Jinjin

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of vadose zone vulnerability dominating factors (VDFs) are closely related to the migration and transformation mechanisms of contaminants in the vadose zone, which directly affect the state of the contaminants percolating to the groundwater. This study analyzes the hydrogeological profile of the pore water regions in the vadose zone, and conceptualizes the vadose zone as single lithologic, double lithologic, or multi lithologic. To accurately determine how the location of the pollution source influences the groundwater, we classify the permeabilities (thicknesses) of different media into clay-layer and non-clay-layer permeabilities (thicknesses), and introduce the maximum pollution thickness. Meanwhile, the physicochemical reactions of the contaminants in the vadose zone are represented by the soil adsorption and soil degradability. The VDFs are determined from the factors and parameters in groundwater vulnerability assessment. The VDFs are identified and sequenced in simulations and a sensitivity analysis. When applied to three polluted sites in China, the method improved the weighting of factors in groundwater vulnerability assessment, and increased the reliability of predicting groundwater vulnerability to contaminants. PMID:28387232

  1. Identification of dominating factors affecting vadose zone vulnerability by a simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xi, Beidou; Cai, Wutian; Yang, Yang; Jia, Yongfeng; Li, Xiang; Lv, Yonggao; Lv, Ningqing; Huan, Huan; Yang, Jinjin

    2017-04-01

    The characteristics of vadose zone vulnerability dominating factors (VDFs) are closely related to the migration and transformation mechanisms of contaminants in the vadose zone, which directly affect the state of the contaminants percolating to the groundwater. This study analyzes the hydrogeological profile of the pore water regions in the vadose zone, and conceptualizes the vadose zone as single lithologic, double lithologic, or multi lithologic. To accurately determine how the location of the pollution source influences the groundwater, we classify the permeabilities (thicknesses) of different media into clay-layer and non-clay-layer permeabilities (thicknesses), and introduce the maximum pollution thickness. Meanwhile, the physicochemical reactions of the contaminants in the vadose zone are represented by the soil adsorption and soil degradability. The VDFs are determined from the factors and parameters in groundwater vulnerability assessment. The VDFs are identified and sequenced in simulations and a sensitivity analysis. When applied to three polluted sites in China, the method improved the weighting of factors in groundwater vulnerability assessment, and increased the reliability of predicting groundwater vulnerability to contaminants.

  2. Integrating distributed temperature sensing and geological characterization to quantify spatiotemporal variability in subsurface heat transport within the Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. F. F.; Stumpf, A.; Luo, Y.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    This study is designed to investigate how the ambient ground temperature fluctuates with diurnal and seasonal changes under various hydrogeological system variations as part of the Intensively Managed Landscapes-Critical Zone Observatory. A fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) system is used to measure thermal profiles in two adjacent boreholes situated in a complex glaciated landscape. The test site is located in east-central Illinois on a terminal moraine of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The moraine crosses a buried preglacial bedrock valley that is 50 m deep. The valley fill contains alternating deposits of clayey glacial till and gravelly sand that have varying physical and hydrological properties. In the 100-m-deep borehole, a fiber-optic cable was installed without casing, sealed against the sidewall with grout. This borehole was drilled to the top of bedrock and penetrated a sequence of glacial sediments containing at least two aquifer units. Thick, Early Pleistocene glacial sand and gravel that penetrated near the bedrock forms an aquifer that is part of a regional groundwater system, the Mahomet Aquifer System. The aquifer system is primarily recharged by slow infiltration of surface waters and has been designated by the USEPA as a "Sole Source" of drinking water. At the same location, a second 40-m-deep borehole was drilled through Middle-Late Pleistocene till and fluvioglacial sediment, and a groundwater monitoring well was installed. Fiber-optic cable was attached along the outside of the casing, and the well was screened in a shallower, localized aquifer. At a broad scale, thermal variations in the subsurface appear to be correlated with sediment type. The basal sand and gravel aquifer exhibits a unique thermal profile deviating from patterns at shallower depths. Temperature measurements with 1-m and 0.1°C resolutions have being collected at various temporal scales, ranging from 30-minute to 2-week intervals, since June 2015. The initial

  3. Qualitative zoning of groundwater for drinking purposes in Lenjan plain using GQI method through GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohebbi Tafreshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new method has been presented specifically for zoning the quality of groundwater for drinking purposes; this method is the groundwater quality index (GQI method. The present research used the GQI method to qualitatively zoning of the Lenjan groundwater for drinking purposes. Methods: Three phases were applied in this research. In the first phase, working on the quality data of 38 wells within the studied plain, the raster map of quality concentration parameters, including pH, TDS, Cl, SO4, Ca, Mg, and Na parameters, was provided by interpolation using the kriging method in the ArcGIS software. In the second phase, the mentioned maps were standardized so that various bits of data can follow a common standard and scale. In the third phase, weight was applied to each standardized map, and ultimately the classification map for each parameter was drawn. The final GQI map was created by combining the mentioned classification maps. Results: The GQI values for Lenjan plain were rated from the minimum (67.48 to the maximum (90.05. The results showed an average to acceptable level of quality for drinking water. Conclusion: According to the final map, the central and southern parts of Lenjan plain, which have acceptable GQI rankings, are the best zones from which to use groundwater for drinking purposes.

  4. Gas-sensing enhancement methods for hydrothermal synthesized SnO2 based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yalei; Zhang, Wenlong; Yang, Bin; Liu, Jingquan; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Chunsheng

    2017-08-16

    The gas sensing enhancement methods for hydrothermal synthesized SnO2-based gas sensors could be performed from three areas: structural improvement, composition optimization and processing improvement, which were aimed to improve the performance of the gas sensors. There was 0-D, 1-D and 3-D structures reported in literatures. Controllable synthesis of different structures was deployed to increase specific surface area. Change of composition would intensively tailor the SnO2 structure, which affected the gas sensing performance. Besides, doping and compounding methods were adopted to promote gas-sensing performance by adjusting surface condition of SnO2 crystal and constructing heterojunction. As for processing area, it was very important to find the optimal reaction time and temperature. In this paper, gas-solid reaction rate constant was proposed to evaluate gas-sensing property and find the excellent hydrothermal synthesized SnO2-based gas sensor at present. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Examining the Role of Local Climate Zones in Urban Heat Island Assessment Using Remotely-Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcher, P. S.; Brunsell, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    More than half of the world population resides in urban areas where the urban heat island (UHI) effect enhances heat-related hazards. To mitigate the impacts of rising temperatures, it is necessary to develop tools to help public administrators formulate strategies to reduce heat exposure, increase access to cooling, and modify building design. We used Google Earth Engine's Landsat archive to classify local climate zones (LCZ) that consist of ten urban and seven non-urban classifications of land cover. To examine the influence of urban morphology on the surface energy balance (SEB) in high-density, medium-density, and low-density urban regions over one annual cycle, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products. We used the triangle method to examine variability in energy balance partitioning in relation to urban density. As urban density decreases, the variation of evapotranspiration increases. These results indicate that variations in the SEB can be detected using the LCZ classification method. The results from analysis in Fr-LST space of the annual cycles over several years can be used to detect changes in the SEB as urbanization increases.

  6. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for evaluation of groundwater quality in municipal corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, S S; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M Anji

    2007-03-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with >50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested.

  7. Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anji Reddy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with > 50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested.

  8. Remote Blood Pressure Waveform Sensing Method and Apparatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonelli, Lynn T

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is a non-contact method and apparatus for continuously monitoring a physiological event in a human or animal, such as blood pressure, which involves utilizing a laser-based...

  9. Reliability of knee joint position sense measurement: a comparison between goniometry and image capture methods

    OpenAIRE

    Irving, Fiona; Russell, Joseph; Smith, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Evaluate the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of hand-held goniometry compared to image capture (IMC) in the assessment of joint position sense (JPS) in healthy participants. Methodology: Repeated-measures observational study design was undertaken with 36 asymptomatic university students of both genders aged between 18 to 45 years. JPS in the knee was assessed by two assessors over two sessions (one-week interval) using hand-held goniometry and IMC methods. Joint position sense w...

  10. Integration of remote sensing and aeromagnetic data for mapping structural features and hydrothermal alteration zones in Wadi Allaqi area, South Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldosouky, Ahmed M.; Abdelkareem, Mohamed; Elkhateeb, Sayed O.

    2017-06-01

    Remote sensing and aeromagnetic data provided significant information for detecting potential areas of mineralization in Wadi Allaqi in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Application of band ratios and Crosta technique of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using Landsat-8 successfully highlighted the hydrothermal alteration zones and the structural elements represented by lithologic contacts and faults/fracture zones. Structural lineaments were also successfully extracted using remote sensing and aeromagnetic data. Center for Exploration Targeting (CET) Grid analysis and CET Porphyry Analysis techniques were applied for constructing the structural complexity heat map and probable near circular features of porphyry intrusions respectively. Combining data of lineaments, alteration zones and porphyry intrusions after obtaining a consequence of each map allowed predicting and mapping areas of probable high mineral resources. Overlaying the present sites of mineralization on the final map validated the prepared mineral predictive map. Overall results clearly revealed that areas of high structural complexity, fractures/faults density are in agreement with the detected areas of hydrothermal alterations which also matched with the known mineralization mines in the study area.

  11. Research on distributed optical fiber sensing data processing method based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Meifang; Wang, Luling; Wang, Jinming; Yan, Junhong; Zuo, Jing

    2018-01-01

    The pipeline leak detection and leak location problem have gotten extensive attention in the industry. In this paper, the distributed optical fiber sensing system is designed based on the heat supply pipeline. The data processing method of distributed optical fiber sensing based on LabVIEW is studied emphatically. The hardware system includes laser, sensing optical fiber, wavelength division multiplexer, photoelectric detector, data acquisition card and computer etc. The software system is developed using LabVIEW. The software system adopts wavelet denoising method to deal with the temperature information, which improved the SNR. By extracting the characteristic value of the fiber temperature information, the system can realize the functions of temperature measurement, leak location and measurement signal storage and inquiry etc. Compared with traditional negative pressure wave method or acoustic signal method, the distributed optical fiber temperature measuring system can measure several temperatures in one measurement and locate the leak point accurately. It has a broad application prospect.

  12. Information Extraction Method of Alpine Glaciers with Multitemporal and Multiangle Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Weibing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A glacier extraction method based on multitemporal and multiangle remote sensing images is proposed. Firstly, a "global-local" threshold segmentation method is applied to extract snow ice boundaries with multitemporal remote sensing images. Secondly, the glacier boundaries hidden by mountain shadows are restored with topographic features and multiangle information in different remote sensing images. Finally, the best glacier extents are the intersections of different glacier/snow extents. In order to validate the method, a glacier extraction is tested with 4 Landsat images during 2009-2010 in the western part of Tumur peak of the Tienshan Mountains. The results show that the proposed method performs well in extracting the glacier boundaries inside the mountain shadows with multiangle images.

  13. Determining canonical views of 3D object using minimum description length criterion and compressive sensing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Feng; Krim, Hamid

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we propose using two methods to determine the canonical views of 3D objects: minimum description length (MDL) criterion and compressive sensing method. MDL criterion searches for the description length that achieves the balance between model accuracy and parsimony. It takes the form of the sum of a likelihood and a penalizing term, where the likelihood is in favor of model accuracy such that more views assists the description of an object, while the second term penalizes lengthy description to prevent overfitting of the model. In order to devise the likelihood term, we propose a model to represent a 3D object as the weighted sum of multiple range images, which is used in the second method to determine the canonical views as well. In compressive sensing method, an intelligent way of parsimoniously sampling an object is presented. We make direct inference from Donoho1 and Candes'2 work, and adapt it to our model. Each range image is viewed as a projection, or a sample, of a 3D model, and by using compressive sensing theory, we are able to reconstruct the object with an overwhelming probability by scarcely sensing the object in a random manner. Compressive sensing is different from traditional compressing method in the sense that the former compress things in the sampling stage while the later collects a large number of samples and then compressing mechanism is carried out thereafter. Compressive sensing scheme is particularly useful when the number of sensors are limited or the sampling machinery cost much resource or time.

  14. Analysis of zone of vulnurability and impact of forest fires in forest ecosystems in north algeria by susing remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    The Forest in steppe present ecological diversity, and seen climatic unfavourable conditions in zone and impact of forest fires; we notes deterioration of physical environment particularly, deterioration of natural forest. This deterioration of forests provokes an unbalance of environment witch provokes a process of deterioration advanced in the ultimate stadium is desertification. By elsewhere, where climatic conditions are favourable, the fire is an ecological and acted agent like integral part of evolution of the ecosystems, the specific regeneration of plants are influenced greatly by the regime of fire (season of fire, intensity, interval), witch leads to the recuperation of the vegetation of meadow- fire. In this survey we used the pictures ALSAT-1 for detection of zones with risk of forest fire and their impact on the naturals forests in region named TLEMCEN in the north west of Algeria. A thematic detailed analysis of forests well attended ecosystems some processing on the picture ALSAT-1, we allowed to identify and classifying the forests in there opinion components flowers. We identified ampleness of fire on this zone also. Some parameters as the slope, the proximity to the road and the forests formations were studied in the goal of determining the zones to risk of forest fire. A crossing of diaper of information in a GIS according to a very determined logic allowed classifying the zones in degree of risk of fire in semi arid zone witch forest zone not encouraging the regeneration but permitting the installation of cash of steppe which encourages the desertification.

  15. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Vander Wal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC, controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine activation energies for the catalyst-assisted systems.

  16. Gas-sensing enhancement methods for hydrothermal synthesized SnO2-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yalei; Zhang, Wenlong; Yang, Bin; Liu, Jingquan; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Chunsheng

    2017-11-01

    Gas sensing for hydrothermal synthesized SnO2-based gas sensors can be enhanced in three ways: structural improvement, composition optimization, and processing improvement. There have been zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and three-dimensional structures reported in the literature. Controllable synthesis of different structures has been deployed to increase specific surface area. Change of composition would intensively tailor the SnO2 structure, which affected the gas-sensing performance. Furthermore, doping and compounding methods have been adopted to promote gas-sensing performance by adjusting surface conditions of SnO2 crystals and constructing heterojunctions. As for processing area, it is very important to find the optimal reaction time and temperature. In this paper, a gas-solid reaction rate constant was proposed to evaluate gas-sensing properties and find an excellent hydrothermal synthesized SnO2-based gas sensor.

  17. Remotely sensed estimation of forest canopy density: A comparison of the performance of four methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, C.; Leeuw, de J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Duren, van I.C.; Oosten, van H.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a number of alternative methods have been proposed to predict forest canopy density from remotely sensed data. To date, however, it remains difficult to decide which method to use, since their relative performance has never been evaluated. In this study the performance of: (1) an

  18. Application of electric and electromagnetic prospection methods for the investigation of geological fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, G.; Günther, T.; Musmann, P.; Grinat, M.

    2012-04-01

    Electric and electromagnetic prospection methods are applied in combination and investigated concerning their ability to image geological fault zones with depths up to a few km. Faults are prominent targets to explore because they bear possible flow paths for hydrothermal fluids. Therefore resistivity can become a valuable key parameter. Within the German Research Association gebo (Geothermal Energy and High Performance Drilling, www.gebo-nds.de) the electric/electromagnetic methods are operated alongside with the seismic exploration method. While seismic investigations yield information about the subsurface structure, electric and electromagnetic methods supplement these results with their ability to provide information about the resistivity distribution. Commonly used survey setups are analysed with respect to their investigation depth. Non-standard large-scale DC resistivity measurements in a dipole-dipole configuration energized by a high current source were applied in the field. Furthermore, Transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings with a high transmitter moment were carried out. The setup in the field was modified in order to reach greater investigation depths. The course of seismic reflectors was incorporated into the inversion of the DC resistivity data by structural constraints. Especially thin low-resistive layers, detected by a 1D interpretation of the TEM data show a correlation to the seismic reflectors. While the 2D DC results give information about the resistivity structure of the fault zone, layers of low resistivity that are poorly determined with the DC measurements can be observed with an adapted TEM survey setup. After an initial investigation of known shallow fault zones more emphasis will be attached to the exploration of deeper structures in the subsurface, significant for geothermal tasks. A concept for a suitable field survey design is under development, especially adapted to the specific geological features in the sedimentary basin of

  19. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  20. Identifying soil management zones in a sugarcane field using proximal sensed electromagnetic induction and gamma-ray spectrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerley, Claire; Huang, Jingyi; Nielson, Rod; Sefton, Michael; Triantafilis, John

    2017-04-01

    Over 70% of the Australian sugarcane industry operates in alluvial-estuarine areas characterised by sodic and infertile soils. There is a need to supply ameliorants and improve fertilisers and minimise off-farm pollution to the Great Barrier Reef. Therefore, information is required about the spatial variation in soils. However, traditional approaches are cost-prohibitive. Herein we showed how a digital soil mapping (DSM) approach can be used to identify soil management zones. In the first instance, ancillary data, including electromagnetic induction and gamma-ray spectrometry data were collected. Using a fuzzy k-means clustering algorithm management zones from two to six were identified. Using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis of various topsoil (0-0.3m) and subsoil (0.6-0.9m) physical (e.g. clay) and chemical (e.g. exchangeable sodium percentage [ESP], exchangeable calcium and magnesium) properties, 3 zones were determined from minimising the mean squared prediction error. To manage the moderately sodic topsoil ESP of zones 3A and 3C and sodic 3B, different gypsum requirements were prescribed. Lime can also be added differentially to address low exchangeable Ca in zone 3A, 3B and 3C. With regard to exchangeable Mg, zones 3A and 3C do not require any fertiliser, whereas zone 3A requires the addition of a moderate amount. The results were consistent with percentage yield variance, suggesting the lower yield in 3C due to topsoil sodicity and strongly sodic subsoil with higher clay content. We concluded that the DSM approach was successful in identifying soil management zones and can be used to improve structural stability and soil fertility.

  1. Systems and Methods for RFID-Enabled Pressure Sensing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  2. Optofluidic devices and methods for sensing single particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cuesta, Irene; Cabrini, Stefano

    2017-11-28

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to optofluidic devices. In one aspect, an optofluidic device includes a substrate, a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a cover. A channel having cross-sectional dimensions of less than about 100 nanometers is defined in a surface of the substrate. The first nanostructure is disposed on the substrate on a first side of the channel and proximate the channel. The second nanostructure is disposed on the substrate on a second side of the channel and proximate the channel. The first and the second nanostructures are disposed on a line that passes across the channel. The cover is disposed on the surface of the substrate.

  3. Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi

    1999-09-14

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  4. A Simulation Method for High-Cycle Fatigue-Driven Delamination using a Cohesive Zone Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Turon, A.; Lindgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    A novel computational method for simulating fatigue-driven mixed-mode delamination cracks in laminated structures under cyclic loading is presented. The proposed fatigue method is based on linking a cohesive zone model for quasi-static crack growth and a Paris' law-like model described...... on parameter fitting of any kind. The method has been implemented as a zero-thickness eight-node interface element for Abaqus and as a spring element for a simple finite element model in MATLAB. The method has been validated in simulations of mode I, mode II, and mixed-mode crack loading for both self......-similar and non-self-similar crack propagation. The method produces highly accurate results compared with currently available methods and is capable of simulating general mixed-mode non-self-similar crack growth problems....

  5. Depth compensating calculation method of computer-generated holograms using symmetry and similarity of zone plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Gong, Guanghong; Li, Ni

    2017-10-01

    Computer-generated hologram (CGH) is a promising 3D display technology while it is challenged by heavy computation load and vast memory requirement. To solve these problems, a depth compensating CGH calculation method based on symmetry and similarity of zone plates is proposed and implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU). An improved LUT method is put forward to compute the distances between object points and hologram pixels in the XY direction. The concept of depth compensating factor is defined and used for calculating the holograms of points with different depth positions instead of layer-based methods. The proposed method is suitable for arbitrary sampling objects with lower memory usage and higher computational efficiency compared to other CGH methods. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by numerical and optical experiments.

  6. An adaptive reentry guidance method considering the influence of blackout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Yao, Jianyao; Qu, Xiangju

    2018-01-01

    Reentry guidance has been researched as a popular topic because it is critical for a successful flight. In view that the existing guidance methods do not take into account the accumulated navigation error of Inertial Navigation System (INS) in the blackout zone, in this paper, an adaptive reentry guidance method is proposed to obtain the optimal reentry trajectory quickly with the target of minimum aerodynamic heating rate. The terminal error in position and attitude can be also reduced with the proposed method. In this method, the whole reentry guidance task is divided into two phases, i.e., the trajectory updating phase and the trajectory planning phase. In the first phase, the idea of model predictive control (MPC) is used, and the receding optimization procedure ensures the optimal trajectory in the next few seconds. In the trajectory planning phase, after the vehicle has flown out of the blackout zone, the optimal reentry trajectory is obtained by online planning to adapt to the navigation information. An effective swarm intelligence algorithm, i.e. pigeon inspired optimization (PIO) algorithm, is applied to obtain the optimal reentry trajectory in both of the two phases. Compared to the trajectory updating method, the proposed method can reduce the terminal error by about 30% considering both the position and attitude, especially, the terminal error of height has almost been eliminated. Besides, the PIO algorithm performs better than the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm both in the trajectory updating phase and the trajectory planning phases.

  7. Zoning Method to Predict Contaminant Sources in Turbulent-Type Cleanroom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. K.; Sung, H. G. [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, S. M.; Hwang, Y. K. [Korea Marine Equipment Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Particle contamination in a cleanroom is very complex with a complicated process and several pieces of spreading equipment. Detailed information on the locations of the contamination sources and the path of the contamination is needed for economical and efficient control of the contaminant particles in such a cleanroom. An allocation method was developed to quantitatively predict the contamination generated from the pollution sources. In this paper, we propose a zoning method to accelerate the computation time for estimating the contributions. Our results showed that we can quantitatively estimate the amount of contamination generated from pollution sources.

  8. A Soft Shadow Detection Method Based on MRF for Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shadows limit many remote sensing applications such as classification, target detection, and change detection. Most current shadow detection methods utilize the histogram threshold of spectral characteristics to distinguish the shadows and nonshadows directly, called “hard binary shadow.” Obviously, the performance of threshold-based methods heavily rely on the selected threshold. Simultaneously, these threshold-based methods do not take any spatial information into account. To overcome these shortcomings, a soft shadow description method is developed by introducing the concept of opacity into shadow detection, and MRF-based shadow detection method is proposed in order to make use of neighborhood information. Experiments on remote sensing images have shown that the proposed method can obtain more accurate detection results.

  9. Digital and interactive learning modules: a way to integrate remote sensing methods in secondary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kerstin; Goetzke, Roland; Hodam, Henryk

    2009-09-01

    Remote sensing only plays a tangential role in schools, regardless of the political claims to strengthen the support for teaching on the subject. A lot of the computer software explicitly developed for school lessons has not yet been implemented due to its complexity. Thereby, the subject is either not at all integrated into the curriculum or does not pass the step of an interpretation of analogue images. In fact, the subject of remote sensing requires a consolidation of physics and mathematics as well as competences in the fields of media and methods apart from the mere visual interpretation of satellite images. In order to integrate remote sensing in a sustainable manner digital, interactive and interdisciplinary learning modules promoting media and method qualifications as well as independent working are provided.

  10. Tailoring vocabularies for NLP in sub-domains: a method to detect unused word sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa L; Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Goryachev, Sergey; Wiechmann, Eduardo P

    2009-11-14

    We developed a method to help tailor a comprehensive vocabulary system (e.g. the UMLS) for a sub-domain (e.g. clinical reports) in support of natural language processing (NLP). The method detects unused sense in a sub-domain by comparing the relational neighborhood of a word/term in the vocabulary with the semantic neighborhood of the word/term in the sub-domain. The semantic neighborhood of the word/term in the sub-domain is determined using latent semantic analysis (LSA). We trained and tested the unused sense detection on two clinical text corpora: one contains discharge summaries and the other outpatient visit notes. We were able to detect unused senses with precision from 79% to 87%, recall from 48% to 74%, and an area under receiver operation curve (AUC) of 72% to 87%.

  11. Impact of the construction of a large dam on riparian vegetation cover at different elevation zones as observed from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christopher H.; Zhou, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    The impact of the construction of a large dam on riparian vegetation cover can be multifold. How the riparian vegetation cover changes at different elevation zones in response to the construction of a large dam and the subsequent impound of reservoir water is still an open question. In this study, we used satellite remote sensing data integrated with geographic information system (GIS) to monitor vegetation cover change at different riparian elevation zones on a large spatial scale, taking the Three Gorges Dam in China as an example. Due to the large scale of this newly formed reservoir, it is expected to impact the riparian vegetation canopy both directly and indirectly. We chose to monitor vegetation cover changes along the 100 km riparian stretch of river directly upstream of the Three Gorges Dam site, over the construction period of eleven years (2000-2010), using MODIS vegetation indices products, digital elevation model (DEM) data from ASTER, and the time series water level data of the Three Gorges reservoir as the data sources. Results show that non-vegetated area increased in the inundated zone (below 175 m), as expected; area of densely vegetated land cover increased within the elevation zone of 175-775 m and no change in vegetation cover was observed above 775 m in elevation. Regression analysis between the vegetation index data and the reservoir water level shows that increasing water levels have had a negative impact on vegetation cover below 175 m, a positive impact on vegetation cover is limited to the region between 175 and 775 m, and no significant impact was observed above 775 m. MODIS EVI product is less sensitive in mapping non-vegetated land cover change, but more sensitive in mapping vegetated land cover change, caused by the reservoir water level variation; both products are similar in effectively tracking a trend between land cover change in each elevation zone with time or with reservoir water level.

  12. Methods and approaches of utilizing ionic liquids as gas sensing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Gas monitoring is of increasing significance for a broad range of applications in the fields of environmental and civil infrastructures, climate and energy, health and safety, industry and commerce. Even though there are many gas detection devices and systems available, the increasing needs for better detection technologies that not only satisfy the high analytical standards but also meet additional device requirements (e.g., being robust to survive under field conditions, low cost, small, smart, more mobile), demand continuous efforts in developing new methods and approaches for gas detection. Ionic Liquids (ILs) have attracted a tremendous interest as potential sensing materials for the gas sensor development. Being composed entirely of ions and with a broad structural and functional diversity, i.e., bifunctional (organic/inorganic), biphasic (solid/liquid) and dual-property (solvent/electrolyte), they have the complementing attributes and the required variability to allow a systematic design process across many sensing components to enhance sensing capability especially for miniaturized sensor system implementation. The emphasis of this review is to describe molecular design and control of IL interface materials to provide selective and reproducible response and to synergistically integrate IL sensing materials with low cost and low power electrochemical, piezoelectric/QCM and optical transducers to address many gas detection challenges (e.g., sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility, speed, stability, cost, sensor miniaturization, and robustness). We further show examples to justify the importance of understanding the mechanisms and principles of physicochemical and electrochemical reactions in ILs and then link those concepts to developing new sensing methods and approaches. By doing this, we hope to stimulate further research towards the fundamental understanding of the sensing mechanisms and new sensor system development and integration, using simple

  13. Retrieving Leaf Area Index (LAI Using Remote Sensing: Theories, Methods and Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zheng

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to accurately and rapidly acquire leaf area index (LAI is an indispensable component of process-based ecological research facilitating the understanding of gas-vegetation exchange phenomenon at an array of spatial scales from the leaf to the landscape. However, LAI is difficult to directly acquire for large spatial extents due to its time consuming and work intensive nature. Such efforts have been significantly improved by the emergence of optical and active remote sensing techniques. This paper reviews the definitions and theories of LAI measurement with respect to direct and indirect methods. Then, the methodologies for LAI retrieval with regard to the characteristics of a range of remotely sensed datasets are discussed. Remote sensing indirect methods are subdivided into two categories of passive and active remote sensing, which are further categorized as terrestrial, aerial and satellite-born platforms. Due to a wide variety in spatial resolution of remotely sensed data and the requirements of ecological modeling, the scaling issue of LAI is discussed and special consideration is given to extrapolation of measurement to landscape and regional levels.

  14. Retrieving Leaf Area Index (LAI) Using Remote Sensing: Theories, Methods and Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guang; Moskal, L Monika

    2009-01-01

    The ability to accurately and rapidly acquire leaf area index (LAI) is an indispensable component of process-based ecological research facilitating the understanding of gas-vegetation exchange phenomenon at an array of spatial scales from the leaf to the landscape. However, LAI is difficult to directly acquire for large spatial extents due to its time consuming and work intensive nature. Such efforts have been significantly improved by the emergence of optical and active remote sensing techniques. This paper reviews the definitions and theories of LAI measurement with respect to direct and indirect methods. Then, the methodologies for LAI retrieval with regard to the characteristics of a range of remotely sensed datasets are discussed. Remote sensing indirect methods are subdivided into two categories of passive and active remote sensing, which are further categorized as terrestrial, aerial and satellite-born platforms. Due to a wide variety in spatial resolution of remotely sensed data and the requirements of ecological modeling, the scaling issue of LAI is discussed and special consideration is given to extrapolation of measurement to landscape and regional levels.

  15. Prediction of Root Zone Soil Moisture using Remote Sensing Products and In-Situ Observation under Climate Change Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G.; Panda, R. K.; Mohanty, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prediction of root zone soil moisture status at field level is vital for developing efficient agricultural water management schemes. In this study, root zone soil moisture was estimated across the Rana watershed in Eastern India, by assimilation of near-surface soil moisture estimate from SMOS satellite into a physically-based Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant (SWAP) model. An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) technique coupled with SWAP model was used for assimilating the satellite soil moisture observation at different spatial scales. The universal triangle concept and artificial intelligence techniques were applied to disaggregate the SMOS satellite monitored near-surface soil moisture at a 40 km resolution to finer scale (1 km resolution), using higher spatial resolution of MODIS derived vegetation indices (NDVI) and land surface temperature (Ts). The disaggregated surface soil moisture were compared to ground-based measurements in diverse landscape using portable impedance probe and gravimetric samples. Simulated root zone soil moisture were compared with continuous soil moisture profile measurements at three monitoring stations. In addition, the impact of projected climate change on root zone soil moisture were also evaluated. The climate change projections of rainfall were analyzed for the Rana watershed from statistically downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCMs). The long-term root zone soil moisture dynamics were estimated by including a rainfall generator of likely scenarios. The predicted long term root zone soil moisture status at finer scale can help in developing efficient agricultural water management schemes to increase crop production, which lead to enhance the water use efficiency.

  16. A method of measuring stacked objects volume based on laser sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qijie; Wu, Yijing; Li, Xianfa; Xu, Jiao; Meng, Qingxu

    2017-10-01

    Stacked objects volume measurement is now widely used in the fields of enterprise material management. It is significant to improve the efficiency of enterprise management and to reduce the cost of management and operation. The method based on laser sensing is one of the key methods to measure the stacked objects volume. This paper presents a laser sensing measurement method of stacked objects based on bottom plane extraction and real-time calibration. A calibration method for a laser scanning sensor and inertial measurement sensor is proposed. Three-dimensional reconstructions of stacked objects and volume calculations are carried out after acquisition and processing of point clouds. Volume measurement experiments of the single box and stacked boxes have been conducted respectively. Experimental results show that the measurement method is feasible and valid with good accuracy.

  17. AN IMPROVED AERIAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGE DEFOGGING METHOD BASED ON DARK CHANNEL PRIOR INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerial remote sensing image is widely used due to its high resolution, abundant information and convenient processing. However, its image quality is easily influenced by clouds and fog. In recent years, fog and haze air pollution is becoming more and more serious in the north of China and its influence on aerial remote sensing image quality is especially obvious. Considering the characters that aerial remote image is usually in huge amount of data and seldom covers sky area, this paper proposes an improved aerial remote sensing image defogging method based on dark channel prior information. First, a 2 % linear stretching is applied to eliminate the haze offset effect and provide a better initial value for later defogging processing. Then the dark channel prior image is obtained by calculating the minimum values of r, g, b channels of each pixel directly. Subsequently, according to the particularity of aerial image, the adaptive threshold t0 is set up to improve the defogging effect. Finally, to improve the color cast phenomenon, a way called automatic color method is introduced to enhance the visual effect of defogged image. Experiments are performed on normal image in fog and on aerial remote sensing image in fog. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can obtain the defogged image with better visual effect and image quality. Moreover, the improved method significantly balances the color information in the defogged image and efficiently avoids the color cast phenomenon.

  18. An Improved Aerial Remote Sensing Image Defogging Method Based on Dark Channel Prior Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Feng, W.; Wang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, L.

    2017-09-01

    Aerial remote sensing image is widely used due to its high resolution, abundant information and convenient processing. However, its image quality is easily influenced by clouds and fog. In recent years, fog and haze air pollution is becoming more and more serious in the north of China and its influence on aerial remote sensing image quality is especially obvious. Considering the characters that aerial remote image is usually in huge amount of data and seldom covers sky area, this paper proposes an improved aerial remote sensing image defogging method based on dark channel prior information. First, a 2 % linear stretching is applied to eliminate the haze offset effect and provide a better initial value for later defogging processing. Then the dark channel prior image is obtained by calculating the minimum values of r, g, b channels of each pixel directly. Subsequently, according to the particularity of aerial image, the adaptive threshold t0 is set up to improve the defogging effect. Finally, to improve the color cast phenomenon, a way called automatic color method is introduced to enhance the visual effect of defogged image. Experiments are performed on normal image in fog and on aerial remote sensing image in fog. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can obtain the defogged image with better visual effect and image quality. Moreover, the improved method significantly balances the color information in the defogged image and efficiently avoids the color cast phenomenon.

  19. An Efficient Multi-resolution Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Zhang, Q; Zhang, Q.

    This paper presents a novel energy based multiresolution spectrum sensing technique. By applying an efficient flexible FFT, the proposed method can focus on a small part of the interested bands with finer resolutions at low computational cost. The hardware implementation of the algorithm has been

  20. Identification of Hydrothermal Aquifer Zone using Geo-Electrical Method in Kaloling Sinjai District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantu L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is one of the natural resources which  emerged on the subsurface ofthe earth can be in a gaseous form (the vapor heat or in the form of hydrothermal. The geothermal Panggo that located at watersheds of Kalamisu river, was one of the three sources of hydrothermal system  existing in district Sinjai East. The existence of the geothermal system in this area will much give many advantagest if managed optimally. This research aims to map the spread of the hydrothermal aquifer zone at the subsurface and it potentials in Panggo village base on electrical properties. Methods used in this research were geo-electrical using Wenner and Schlumberger configurations.At all these research area, it is found the presence of zones which has low resistivity (< 20 Ωm, and it is interpreted as the spread of hydrothermal zones. The hydrothermal system appears at subsurface allegedly caused by the geological fault of Kalamisu across this region.

  1. Novel Door-opening Method for Six-legged Robots Based on Only Force Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Feng; Pan, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Current door-opening methods are mainly developed on tracked, wheeled and biped robots by applying multi-DOF manipulators and vision systems. However, door-opening methods for six-legged robots are seldom studied, especially using 0-DOF tools to operate and only force sensing to detect. A novel door-opening method for six-legged robots is developed and implemented to the six-parallel-legged robot. The kinematic model of the six-parallel-legged robot is established and the model of measuring the positional relationship between the robot and the door is proposed. The measurement model is completely based on only force sensing. The real-time trajectory planning method and the control strategy are designed. The trajectory planning method allows the maximum angle between the sagittal axis of the robot body and the normal line of the door plane to be 45º. A 0-DOF tool mounted to the robot body is applied to operate. By integrating with the body, the tool has 6 DOFs and enough workspace to operate. The loose grasp achieved by the tool helps release the inner force in the tool. Experiments are carried out to validate the method. The results show that the method is effective and robust in opening doors wider than 1 m. This paper proposes a novel door-opening method for six-legged robots, which notably uses a 0-DOF tool and only force sensing to detect and open the door.

  2. Seasonal variations in groundwater upwelling zones in a Danish lowland stream analyzed using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheswaran, Karthikeyan; Blemmer, Morten; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of groundwater inflows in a stream reach plays a major role in controlling the stream temperature, a vital component shaping the riverine ecosystem. In this study, the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system was installed in a small Danish lowland stream, Elverdamsåen, to as...

  3. A method of estimating sequential average unsaturated zone travel times from precipitation and water table level time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jina; Park, Eungyu; Han, Weon Shik; Kim, Kue-Young; Oh, Junho; Ha, Kyoochul; Yoon, Heesung; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2017-11-01

    A method to estimate sequential average unsaturated zone travel time with high temporal resolution has been developed. The method is built upon the conventional cross-correlogram analysis, while the estimation errors are significantly reduced by the proposed schemes. In addition, an analytical relationship between the estimated travel time and the corresponding parameter of a physically-based water table (WT) fluctuation model has been newly established. For validation, applications were performed using WT and precipitation data from two locations with contrasting properties. The method was found to derive distinct characteristics in the estimated travel time, which reflect the unsaturated hydraulics by estimating large means and variations in travel times for low permeability unsaturated zones; whereas, the values are typically small for highly permeable unsaturated zones. The overall results suggest that the proposed method can be potentially adopted to complement other methods in the assessment of groundwater vulnerability to surface contaminants and the hydraulic characterizations of unsaturated zones.

  4. Time domain averaging and correlation-based improved spectrum sensing method for cognitive radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghong; Bi, Guoan

    2014-12-01

    Based on the combination of time domain averaging and correlation, we propose an effective time domain averaging and correlation-based spectrum sensing (TDA-C-SS) method used in very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments. With the assumption that the received signals from the primary users are deterministic, the proposed TDA-C-SS method processes the received samples by a time averaging operation to improve the SNR. Correlation operation is then performed with a correlation matrix to determine the existence of the primary signal in the received samples. The TDA-C-SS method does not need any prior information on the received samples and the associated noise power to achieve improved sensing performance. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed TDA-C-SS method.

  5. Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Casey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for characterizing glacial surface debris include visible to thermal infrared hyper- and multispectral reflectance and emission signature identification, semi-quantitative mineral abundance indicies and spectral image composites. Satellite derived supraglacial debris mineral maps displayed the predominance of layered silicates, hydroxyl-bearing and calcite minerals on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Supraglacial mineral maps compared with satellite thermal data revealed correlations between glacier surface composition and glacier surface temperature. Glacier velocity displacement fields and shortwave, thermal infrared false color composites indicated the magnitude of mass flux at glacier confluences. The supraglacial debris mapping methods presented in this study can be used on a broader scale to improve, supplement and potentially reduce errors associated with glacier debris radiative property, composition, areal extent and mass flux quantifications.

  6. Land surface temperature as an indicator of the unsaturated zone thickness: A remote sensing approach in the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urqueta, Harry; Jódar, Jorge; Herrera, Christian; Wilke, Hans-G; Medina, Agustín; Urrutia, Javier; Custodio, Emilio; Rodríguez, Jazna

    2018-01-15

    Land surface temperature (LST) seems to be related to the temperature of shallow aquifers and the unsaturated zone thickness (∆Zuz). That relationship is valid when the study area fulfils certain characteristics: a) there should be no downward moisture fluxes in an unsaturated zone, b) the soil composition in terms of both, the different horizon materials and their corresponding thermal and hydraulic properties, must be as homogeneous and isotropic as possible, c) flat and regular topography, and d) steady state groundwater temperature with a spatially homogeneous temperature distribution. A night time Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image and temperature field measurements are used to test the validity of the relationship between LST and ∆Zuz at the Pampa del Tamarugal, which is located in the Atacama Desert (Chile) and meets the above required conditions. The results indicate that there is a relation between the land surface temperature and the unsaturated zone thickness in the study area. Moreover, the field measurements of soil temperature indicate that shallow aquifers dampen both the daily and the seasonal amplitude of the temperature oscillation generated by the local climate conditions. Despite empirically observing the relationship between the LST and ∆Zuz in the study zone, such a relationship cannot be applied to directly estimate ∆Zuz using temperatures from nighttime thermal satellite images. To this end, it is necessary to consider the soil thermal properties, the soil surface roughness and the unseen water and moisture fluxes (e.g., capillarity and evaporation) that typically occur in the subsurface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Induced Voltage Linear Extraction Method Using an Active Kelvin Bridge for Disturbing Force Self-Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an induced voltage linear extraction method for disturbing force self-sensing in the application of giant magnetostrictive actuators (GMAs. In this method, a Kelvin bridge combined with an active device is constructed instead of a conventional Wheatstone bridge for extraction of the induced voltage, and an additional GMA is adopted as a reference actuator in the self-sensing circuit in order to balance the circuit bridge. The linear fitting of the measurement data is done according to the linear relationship between the disturbing forces and the integral of the induced voltage. The experimental results confirm the good performance of the proposed method, and the self-sensitivity of the disturbing forces is better than 2.0 (mV·s/N.

  8. A Remote Sensing Image Fusion Method based on adaptive dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tongdi; Che, Zongxi

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses using a remote sensing fusion method, based on' adaptive sparse representation (ASP)', to provide improved spectral information, reduce data redundancy and decrease system complexity. First, the training sample set is formed by taking random blocks from the images to be fused, the dictionary is then constructed using the training samples, and the remaining terms are clustered to obtain the complete dictionary by iterated processing at each step. Second, the self-adaptive weighted coefficient rule of regional energy is used to select the feature fusion coefficients and complete the reconstruction of the image blocks. Finally, the reconstructed image blocks are rearranged and an average is taken to obtain the final fused images. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to other traditional remote sensing image fusion methods in both spectral information preservation and spatial resolution.

  9. Field diversity phase retrieval method for wavefront sensing in monolithic mirror space telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Yue, Dan; Gu, Zhiyuan

    2017-05-20

    To guarantee the uniqueness of the solution for the wavefront phase, a series of intensity images with known phase diversities is usually needed in the current phase retrieval wavefront sensing methods. However, to obtain these intensity images with deliberately added diversity phases, some additional instruments (e.g., beam splitters) or operations (e.g., adjustment of the focus) are usually needed, which can pose a challenge for wavefront sensing in space telescopes. This paper proposes a new concept for retrieving the wavefront phase of monolithic mirror space telescopes with perturbations, where the intensity measurements with phase diversities are directly obtained from different field positions of one image, without the need for any additional instruments or operations. To realize this new concept, we present a modified phase diversity method to account for the unknown phase diversities between these intensity measurements based on an in-depth understanding of the net aberration fields induced by misalignments and figure errors. Relevant simulations for different cases are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method. Since in this method the phase diversities between different intensity measurements are mainly induced by the diversities in the field position, we call it the field diversity phase retrieval method. This work can present great facility for wavefront sensing in monolithic mirror space telescopes.

  10. New method to estimate the fluorescence lifetime of the Erbium-doped-fiber temperature sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yancheng; Sun, Qiuhua; Yuan, Libo

    2002-09-01

    Erbium-doped fiber is a main component of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs), which is wildly used in optical communication. Erbium doped fiber is a good sensing material of fluorescence temperature sensors as well. The Erbium-doped-fiber temperature sensors can operate under high temperature up to 1100°C. Fluorescence sensors show considerable promise, with the advantage of being intensity independent. Following the termination of a square excitation light pulse, the fluorescence signal is an exponential decay, which decay lifetime depends on the temperature and can be measured by several methods. The decay acquisition and estimation methods are one kind of them. Different arithmetic is developed such as the Marquardt method, the Prony method and the log-fit method. A new estimation is given in this paper, basing on the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and the Taylor series. The fluorescence lifetime can be calculated from the items of the FFT with different accuracy. This method is especially designed for the long-fluorescence-lifetime system, for example, Erbium-doped fiber sensing with lifetime up to 10mn. However this method can be used for other fluorescence material also with a little shift. The advantages of this method include high accuracy, quick processing, independence on the base offset etc. The effect of this method is discussed and compared with other estimation methods by numerical simulation and experiment results.

  11. Extraction Method for Earthquake-Collapsed Building Information Based on High-Resolution Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    At present, the extraction of earthquake disaster information from remote sensing data relies on visual interpretation. However, this technique cannot effectively and quickly obtain precise and efficient information for earthquake relief and emergency management. Collapsed buildings in the town of Zipingpu after the Wenchuan earthquake were used as a case study to validate two kinds of rapid extraction methods for earthquake-collapsed building information based on pixel-oriented and object-oriented theories. The pixel-oriented method is based on multi-layer regional segments that embody the core layers and segments of the object-oriented method. The key idea is to mask layer by layer all image information, including that on the collapsed buildings. Compared with traditional techniques, the pixel-oriented method is innovative because it allows considerably rapid computer processing. As for the object-oriented method, a multi-scale segment algorithm was applied to build a three-layer hierarchy. By analyzing the spectrum, texture, shape, location, and context of individual object classes in different layers, the fuzzy determined rule system was established for the extraction of earthquake-collapsed building information. We compared the two sets of results using three variables: precision assessment, visual effect, and principle. Both methods can extract earthquake-collapsed building information quickly and accurately. The object-oriented method successfully overcomes the pepper salt noise caused by the spectral diversity of high-resolution remote sensing data and solves the problem of same object, different spectrums and that of same spectrum, different objects. With an overall accuracy of 90.38%, the method achieves more scientific and accurate results compared with the pixel-oriented method (76.84%). The object-oriented image analysis method can be extensively applied in the extraction of earthquake disaster information based on high-resolution remote sensing.

  12. Analytical solutions for the mathematical model describing the formation of liver zones via Adomian's method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaid, Abdelhalim

    2013-01-01

    The formation of liver zones is modeled by a system of two integropartial differential equations. In this research, we introduce the mathematical formulation of these integro-partial differential equations obtained by Bass et al. in 1987. For better understanding of this mathematical formulation, we present a medical introduction for the liver in order to make the formulation as clear as possible. In applied mathematics, the Adomian decomposition method is an effective procedure to obtain analytic and approximate solutions for different types of operator equations. This Adomian decomposition method is used in this work to solve the proposed model analytically. The stationary solutions (as time tends to infinity) are also obtained through it, which are in full agreement with those obtained by Bass et al. in 1987.

  13. Application of chaos analyses methods on East Anatolian Fault Zone fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamışlıoğlu, Miraç, E-mail: m.kamislioglu@gmail.com; Külahcı, Fatih, E-mail: fatihkulahci@firat.edu.tr [Nuclear Physics Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Fırat University, Elazig, TR-23119 (Turkey)

    2016-06-08

    Nonlinear time series analysis techniques have large application areas on the geoscience and geophysics fields. Modern nonlinear methods are provided considerable evidence for explain seismicity phenomena. In this study nonlinear time series analysis, fractal analysis and spectral analysis have been carried out for researching the chaotic behaviors of release radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) concentration occurring during seismic events. Nonlinear time series analysis methods (Lyapunov exponent, Hurst phenomenon, correlation dimension and false nearest neighbor) were applied for East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) Turkey and its surroundings where there are about 35,136 the radon measurements for each region. In this paper were investigated of {sup 222}Rn behavior which it’s used in earthquake prediction studies.

  14. Georadar and geoelectricity method to identify the determine zone of sliding landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimunthe, Y. K.; Hamid, A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the contrast between the sliding plane by observing the parameters of rock types, fractures, and faults that could potentially land slides in Bandar Baru, Lampung Barat, Indonesia by both methods of georadar and geoelectricity. This research uses radar reflection profiling configuration for georadar and dipole-dipole configuration for geoelectricity. For georadar data processing has been done with Reflexwave software and for geoelectricity, data processing has been done with Earthimager 2DINV software to interpret subsurface section. Results of research by both methods of georadar and geoelectricity shows the area of contact between the sand stone with resistivity value of 200–1449 Ωm and clay stone with a resistivity value of 32–100 Ωm at the limit depth of 9 m as a potential zone of sliding landslides where the physical properties of clay stone easily derail massive material on it.

  15. Source Zone Remediation of Tars at Former Manufactured Gas Plants Using Phyiscochemical Methods to Promote Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birak, P. S.; Hauswirth, S.; Miller, C. T.

    2009-12-01

    Tars are a byproduct from gas manufacturing that are present in the subsurface at many former manufactured gas plants (FMGPs). These dense non-aqueous phase liquids are largely composed of polycyclic aromatic compounds, including several known carcinogens. Once below the water table, tars are particularly difficult to remediate due to their viscous nature and ability to alter system wettability. For this study, we investigate the feasibility of mobilizing tars as a means of source zone remediation. Tar samples were obtained from two FMGPs. We measured tar viscosity as a function of temperature using a rotational viscometer. Viscosity was found to be very sensitive to temperature and decreased by orders of magnitude from 5 to 80 degrees C. In one-dimensional column experiments, we examined the removal efficiency of tar by thermal methods and alkaline flushing, as well as, using a combination of methods. Sodium hydroxide solutions effectively mobilized the majority of the tar mass as a continuous phase.

  16. Modeling foam delivery mechanisms in deep vadose-zone remediation using method of characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostapour, A; Kam, S I

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates foam delivery mechanisms in vadose-zone remediation by using Method of Characteristics (MoC), a mathematical tool long been used for the analysis of miscible and immiscible flooding in porous media in petroleum industry. MoC converts the governing material-balance partial differential equations into a series of ordinary differential equations, and the resulting solutions are in a form of wave propagation (more specifically, for chemical species and phase saturations) through the system as a function of time and space. Deep vadose-zone remediation has special features compared to other conventional remediation applications. They include, not limited to, a high level of heterogeneity, a very dry initial condition with low water saturation (S(w)), pollutants such as metals and radionuclides fully dissolved in groundwater, and a serious concern about downward migration during the remediation treatments. For the vadose-zone remediation processes to be successful, the injected aqueous phase should carry chemicals to react with pollutants and precipitate them for immobilization and stabilization purposes. As a result, foams are believed to be an effective means, and understanding foam flow mechanism in situ is a key to the optimal design of field applications. Results show that foam delivery mechanism is indeed very complicated, making the optimum injection condition field-specific. The five major parameters selected (i.e., initial saturation of the medium, injection foam quality, surfactant adsorption, foam strength, and foam stability) are shown to be all important, interacting with each other. Results also imply that although dry foam injection is generally recommended, too dry injection condition is found to hurt this process due to slow foam propagation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Saliency Guided Semi-Supervised Building Change Detection Method for High Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of up to date information of the Earth’s surface are an important application providing insights to urban planning, resources monitoring and environmental studies. A large number of change detection (CD methods have been developed to solve them by utilizing remote sensing (RS images. The advent of high resolution (HR remote sensing images further provides challenges to traditional CD methods and opportunities to object-based CD methods. While several kinds of geospatial objects are recognized, this manuscript mainly focuses on buildings. Specifically, we propose a novel automatic approach combining pixel-based strategies with object-based ones for detecting building changes with HR remote sensing images. A multiresolution contextual morphological transformation called extended morphological attribute profiles (EMAPs allows the extraction of geometrical features related to the structures within the scene at different scales. Pixel-based post-classification is executed on EMAPs using hierarchical fuzzy clustering. Subsequently, the hierarchical fuzzy frequency vector histograms are formed based on the image-objects acquired by simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC segmentation. Then, saliency and morphological building index (MBI extracted on difference images are used to generate a pseudo training set. Ultimately, object-based semi-supervised classification is implemented on this training set by applying random forest (RF. Most of the important changes are detected by the proposed method in our experiments. This study was checked for effectiveness using visual evaluation and numerical evaluation.

  18. A Robust Spectrum Sensing Method Based on Maximum Cyclic Autocorrelation Selection for Dynamic Spectrum Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Kazushi; Ariyoshi, Masayuki; Fujii, Takeo

    Spectrum sensing is an important function for dynamic spectrum access (DSA) type cognitive radio systems to detect opportunities for sharing the spectrum with a primary system. The key requirements for spectrum sensing are stability in controlling the probability of false alarm as well as detection performance of the primary signals. However, false alarms can be triggered by noise uncertainty at the secondary devices or unknown interference signals from other secondary systems in realistic radio environments. This paper proposes a robust spectrum sensing method against such uncertainties; it is a kind of cyclostationary feature detection (CFD) approaches. Our proposed method, referred to as maximum cyclic autocorrelation selection (MCAS), compares the peak and non-peak values of the cyclic autocorrelation function (CAF) to detect primary signals, where the non-peak value is the CAF value calculated at cyclic frequencies between the peaks. In MCAS, the desired probability of false alarm can be obtained by setting the number of the non-peak values. In addition, the multiple peak values are combined in MCAS to obtain noise reduction effect and coherent combining gain. Through computer simulations, we show that MCAS can control the probability of false alarm under the condition of noise uncertainty and interference. Furthermore, our method achieves better performance with much less computational complexity in comparison to conventional CFD methods.

  19. Validated Method for the Determination of Piroxicam by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis and Its Application to Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arın Gül Dal

    2014-01-01

    piroxicam in tablets. The separation of piroxicam was conducted in a fused-silica capillary by using 10 mM borate buffer (pH 9.0 containing 10% (v/v methanol as background electrolyte. The optimum conditions determined were 25 kV for separation voltage and 1 s for injection time. Analysis was carried out with UV detection at 204 nm. Naproxen sodium was used as an internal standard. The method was linear over the range of 0.23–28.79 µg/mL. The accuracy and precision were found to be satisfied within the acceptable limits (<2%. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.07 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. The method described here was applied to tablet dosage forms and the content of a tablet was found in the limits of USP-24 suggestions. To compare the results of capillary electrophoretic method, UV spectrophotometric method was developed and the difference between two methods was found to be insignificant. The capillary zone electrophoretic method developed in this study is rapid, simple, and suitable for routine analysis of piroxicam in pharmaceutical tablets.

  20. Theoretical analysis of metamaterial-gold auxiliary grating sensing structure for surface plasmon resonance sensing application based on polarization control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Cai, Haoyuan; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-12-01

    A metamaterial-gold multilayer sensing structure designed using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with an auxiliary grating is proposed for using in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor system based on the polarization control method. After numerical calculations and simulation analysis, it was found that the metamaterial sensing structure significantly improves the sensitivity of the SPR signal with intensity singularity. The metamaterial sensing structure also increases the penetration depth of evanescent wave, making it possible to detect low-molecular-weight biomolecules and larger cells such as bacteria. The auxiliary grating structure was designed to identify the refractive index of the sensing region on both sides of intensity singularity. The stability of recognition and the electric field intensity of the visible light band were also studied.

  1. What controls open-pore and residual currents in the first sensing zone of alpha-hemolysin nanopore? Combined experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Biase, Pablo M.; Ervin, Eric N.; Pal, Prithwish; Samoylova, Olga; Markosyan, Suren; Keehan, Michael G.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Noskov, Sergei Yu.

    2016-06-01

    The electrophoretic transport of single-stranded DNA through biological nanopores such as alpha-hemolysin (αHL) is a promising and cost-effective technology with the potential to revolutionize genomics. The rational design of pores with the controlled polymer translocation rates and high contrast between different nucleotides could improve significantly nanopore sequencing applications. Here, we apply a combination of theoretical and experimental methods in an attempt to elucidate several selective modifications in the pore which were proposed to be central for the effective discrimination between purines and pyrimidines. Our nanopore test set includes the wild type αHL and six mutants (E111N/M113X/K147N) in which the cross-section and chemical functionality of the first constriction zone of the pore are modified. Electrophysiological recordings were combined with all-atom Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD) and a recently developed Brownian Dynamics (BROMOC) protocol to investigate residual ion currents and pore-DNA interactions for two homo-polymers e.g. poly(dA)40 or poly(dC)40 blocking the pore. The calculated residual currents and contrast in the poly(dA)40/poly(dC)40 blocked pore are in qualitative agreement with the experimental recordings. We showed that a simple structural metric allows rationalization of key elements in the emergent contrast between purines and pyrimidines in the modified αHL mutants. The shape of the pore and its capacity for hydrogen bonding to a translocated polynucleotide are two essential parameters for contrast optimization. To further probe the impact of these two factors in the ssDNA sensing, we eliminated the effect of the primary constriction using serine substitutions (i.e. E111S/M113S/T145S/K147S) and increased the hydrophobic volume of the central residue in the secondary constriction (L135I). This pore modification sharply increased the contrast between Adenine (A) and Cytosine (C).The electrophoretic transport of single

  2. Unsupervised Remote Sensing Domain Adaptation Method with Adversarial Network and Auxiliary Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Suhui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important prerequisite when annotating the remote sensing images by machine learning is that there are enough training samples for training, but labeling the samples is very time-consuming. In this paper, we solve the problem of unsupervised learning with small sample size in remote sensing image scene classification by domain adaptation method. A new domain adaptation framework is proposed which combines adversarial network and auxiliary task. Firstly, a novel remote sensing scene classification framework is established based on deep convolution neural networks. Secondly, a domain classifier is added to the network, in order to learn the domain-invariant features. The gradient direction of the domain loss is opposite to the label loss during the back propagation, which makes the domain predictor failed to distinguish the sample's domain. Lastly, we introduce an auxiliary task for the network, which augments the training samples and improves the generalization ability of the network. The experiments demonstrate better results in unsupervised classification with small sample sizes of remote sensing images compared to the baseline unsupervised domain adaptation approaches.

  3. A New GIS based Application of Sequential Technique to Prospect Karstic Groundwater using Remotely Sensed and Geoelectrical Methods in Karstified Tepal Area, Shahrood, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoun Sharifi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, recognition of karstic water-bearing zones using the management of exploration data in Kal-Qorno valley, situated in the Tepal area of Shahrood, has been considered. For this purpose, the sequential exploration method was conducted using geological evidences and applying remote sensing and geoelectrical resistivity methods in two major phases including the regional and local scales. Thus, geological structures and lithological units in regional scale have been investigated for groundwater potential. In this regard, suitable potential maps have been provided in the geographical information system (GIS environment, using fuzzy data-driven and knowledge-driven methods. To obtain the final karstic water potential model, the prepared maps were combined using fuzzy ‘AND’ operator. In the local scale, geoelectrical surveys were conducted in the recognized high potential zones. Consequently, the results of geological investigations, analysis of lineaments extracted from satellite imagery and geoelectrical resistivity data modeling and interpretation were integrated to decide on the position of high yield extraction wells. As a result, karstic water zones in the study area were identified, and based on that, two suitable drilling locations to access and extract karstic groundwater in the study area have been suggested.

  4. [Online soft sensing method for freezing point of diesel fuel based on NIR spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-Hui

    2008-07-01

    To solve the problems of real-time online measurement for the freezing point of diesel fuel products, a soft sensing method by near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry was proposed. Firstly, the information of diesel fuel samples in the spectral region of 750-1 550 nm was extracted by spectrum analyzer, and the polynomial convolution algorithm was also applied in spectrogram smoothness, baseline correction and standardization. Principal component analysis (PCA) was then used to extract the features of NIR spectrum data sets, which not only reduced the number of input dimension, but increased their sensitivity to output. Finally the soft sensing model for freezing point was built using SVR algorithm. One hundred fifty diesel fuel samples were used as experimental materials, 100 of which were used as training (calibrating) samples and the others as testing samples. Four hundred and one dimensional original NIR absorption spectrum data sets, through PCA, were reduced to 6 dimensions. To investigate the measuring effect, the freezing points of the testing samples were estimated by four different soft sensing models, BP, SVR, PCA-BP and PCA+SVR. Experimental results show that (1) the soft sensing models using PCA to extract features are generally better than those used directly in spectrum wavelength domain; (2) SVR based model outperforms its main competitors-BP model in the limited training data, the error of which is only half of the latter; (3) The MSE between the estimated values by the presented method and the standard chemical values of freezing point by condensing method are less than 4.2. The research suggests that the proposed method can be used in fast measurement of the freezing point of diesel fuel products by NIRS.

  5. An improved constant evaporative fraction method for estimating daily evapotranspiration from remotely sensed instantaneous observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ronglin; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a primary mechanism for water and heat transfer between land and the atmosphere. One approach to estimate ET is from instantaneous remotely sensed data. The constant evaporative fraction (EF) method is then usually used to estimate integrated daily fluxes, which are typically underestimated values. Here we present a theoretical improvement to the conventional EF. The improved EF is shown to be robust and superior to the conventional approach, and it significantly reduces the underestimation bias.

  6. Augmented lagrange based on modified covariance matching criterion method for DOA estimation in compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Weijian; Qu, Xinggen; Liu, Lutao

    2014-01-01

    A novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method in compressed sensing (CS) is presented, in which DOA estimation is considered as the joint sparse recovery from multiple measurement vectors (MMV). The proposed method is obtained by minimizing the modified-based covariance matching criterion, which is acquired by adding penalties according to the regularization method. This minimization problem is shown to be a semidefinite program (SDP) and transformed into a constrained quadratic programming problem for reducing computational complexity which can be solved by the augmented Lagrange method. The proposed method can significantly improve the performance especially in the scenarios with low signal to noise ratio (SNR), small number of snapshots, and closely spaced correlated sources. In addition, the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) of the proposed method is developed and the performance guarantee is given according to a version of the restricted isometry property (RIP). The effectiveness and satisfactory performance of the proposed method are illustrated by simulation results.

  7. Mapping of groundwater prospective zones integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and geophysical techniques in El-Qaà Plain area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzied, Sara M.; Alrefaee, Hamed A.

    2017-11-01

    The geospatial mapping of groundwater prospective zones is essential to support the needs of local inhabitants and agricultural activities in arid regions such as El-Qaà area, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The study aims to locate new wells that can serve to cope with water scarcity. The integration of remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and geophysical techniques is a breakthrough for groundwater prospecting. Based on these techniques, several factors contributing to groundwater potential in El-Qaà Plain were determined. Geophysical data were supported by information derived from a digital elevation model, and from geologic, geomorphologic and hydrologic data, to reveal the promising sites. All the spatial data that represent the contributing factors were integrated and analyzed in a GIS framework to develop a groundwater prospective model. An appropriate weightage was specified to each factor based on its relative contribution towards groundwater potential, and the resulting map delineates the study area into five classes, from very poor to very good potential. The very good potential zones are located in the Quaternary deposits, with flat to gentle topography, dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels. The groundwater potential map was tested against the distribution of groundwater wells and cultivated land. The integrated methodology provides a powerful tool to design a suitable groundwater management plan in arid regions.

  8. Mapping of groundwater prospective zones integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and geophysical techniques in El-Qaà Plain area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzied, Sara M.; Alrefaee, Hamed A.

    2017-05-01

    The geospatial mapping of groundwater prospective zones is essential to support the needs of local inhabitants and agricultural activities in arid regions such as El-Qaà area, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The study aims to locate new wells that can serve to cope with water scarcity. The integration of remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and geophysical techniques is a breakthrough for groundwater prospecting. Based on these techniques, several factors contributing to groundwater potential in El-Qaà Plain were determined. Geophysical data were supported by information derived from a digital elevation model, and from geologic, geomorphologic and hydrologic data, to reveal the promising sites. All the spatial data that represent the contributing factors were integrated and analyzed in a GIS framework to develop a groundwater prospective model. An appropriate weightage was specified to each factor based on its relative contribution towards groundwater potential, and the resulting map delineates the study area into five classes, from very poor to very good potential. The very good potential zones are located in the Quaternary deposits, with flat to gentle topography, dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels. The groundwater potential map was tested against the distribution of groundwater wells and cultivated land. The integrated methodology provides a powerful tool to design a suitable groundwater management plan in arid regions.

  9. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping

  10. Impacts of LUCC on soil properties in the riparian zones of desert oasis with remote sensing data: a case study of the middle Heihe River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Penghui; Cheng, Liang; Li, Manchun; Zhao, Ruifeng; Duan, Yuewei

    2015-02-15

    Large-scale changes in land use and land cover over long timescales can induce significant variations in soil physicochemical properties, particularly in the riparian zones of arid regions. Frequent reclamation of wetlands and grasslands and intensive agricultural activity have induced significant changes in both land use/cover and soil physicochemical properties in the riparian zones of the middle Heihe River basin of China. The present study aims to explore whether land use/land cover change (LUCC) can well explain the variations in soil properties in the riparian zones of the middle Heihe River basin. To achieve this, we mapped LUCC and quantified the type of land use change using remote sensing images, topographic maps, and GIS analysis techniques. Forty-two sites were selected for soil and vegetation sampling. Then, physical and chemical experiments were employed to determine soil moisture, soil bulk density, soil pH, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total potassium, total phosphorous, available nitrogen, available potassium, and available phosphorous. The Independent-Samples Kruskal-Wallis Test, principal component analysis, and a scatter matrix were used to analyze the effects of LUCC on soil properties. The results indicate that the majority of the parameters investigated were affected significantly by LUCC. In particular, soil moisture and soil organic carbon can be explained well by land cover change and land use change, respectively. Furthermore, changes in soil moisture could be attributed primarily to land cover changes. Changes in soil organic carbon were correlated closely with the following land use change types: wetlands-arable, forest-grasslands, and grasslands-desert. Other parameters, including pH and total K, were also found to exhibit significant correlations with LUCC. However, changes in soil nutrients were shown to be induced most probably by human agricultural activity (i.e. fertilize, irrigation, tillage, etc.), rather than by simple

  11. A Context-Sensing Mobile Phone App (Q Sense) for Smoking Cessation: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Felix; Hopewell, Sarah; Lathia, Neal; Schalbroeck, Rik; Brown, Chloë; Mascolo, Cecilia; McEwen, Andy; Sutton, Stephen

    2016-09-16

    A major cause of lapse and relapse to smoking during a quit attempt is craving triggered by cues from a smoker's immediate environment. To help smokers address these cue-induced cravings when attempting to quit, we have developed a context-aware smoking cessation app, Q Sense, which uses a smoking episode-reporting system combined with location sensing and geofencing to tailor support content and trigger support delivery in real time. We sought to (1) assess smokers' compliance with reporting their smoking in real time and identify reasons for noncompliance, (2) assess the app's accuracy in identifying user-specific high-risk locations for smoking, (3) explore the feasibility and user perspective of geofence-triggered support, and (4) identify any technological issues or privacy concerns. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was used, where data collected by the app informed semistructured interviews. Participants were smokers who owned an Android mobile phone and were willing to set a quit date within one month (N=15). App data included smoking reports with context information and geolocation, end-of-day (EoD) surveys of smoking beliefs and behavior, support message ratings, and app interaction data. Interviews were undertaken and analyzed thematically (N=13). Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed separately and findings presented sequentially. Out of 15 participants, 3 (20%) discontinued use of the app prematurely. Pre-quit date, the mean number of smoking reports received was 37.8 (SD 21.2) per participant, or 2.0 (SD 2.2) per day per participant. EoD surveys indicated that participants underreported smoking on at least 56.2% of days. Geolocation was collected in 97.0% of smoking reports with a mean accuracy of 31.6 (SD 16.8) meters. A total of 5 out of 9 (56%) eligible participants received geofence-triggered support. Interaction data indicated that 50.0% (137/274) of geofence-triggered message notifications were tapped within 30 minutes of

  12. Study of Burn Scar Extraction Automatically Based on Level Set Method using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Dai, Qin; Liu, JianBo; Liu, ShiBin; Yang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Burn scar extraction using remote sensing data is an efficient way to precisely evaluate burn area and measure vegetation recovery. Traditional burn scar extraction methodologies have no well effect on burn scar image with blurred and irregular edges. To address these issues, this paper proposes an automatic method to extract burn scar based on Level Set Method (LSM). This method utilizes the advantages of the different features in remote sensing images, as well as considers the practical needs of extracting the burn scar rapidly and automatically. This approach integrates Change Vector Analysis (CVA), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) to obtain difference image and modifies conventional Level Set Method Chan-Vese (C-V) model with a new initial curve which results from a binary image applying K-means method on fitting errors of two near-infrared band images. Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI data sets are used to validate the proposed method. Comparison with conventional C-V model, OSTU algorithm, Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm are made to show that the proposed approach can extract the outline curve of fire burn scar effectively and exactly. The method has higher extraction accuracy and less algorithm complexity than that of the conventional C-V model. PMID:24503563

  13. A DATA FIELD METHOD FOR URBAN REMOTELY SENSED IMAGERY CLASSIFICATION CONSIDERING SPATIAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial correlation between pixels is important information for remotely sensed imagery classification. Data field method and spatial autocorrelation statistics have been utilized to describe and model spatial information of local pixels. The original data field method can represent the spatial interactions of neighbourhood pixels effectively. However, its focus on measuring the grey level change between the central pixel and the neighbourhood pixels results in exaggerating the contribution of the central pixel to the whole local window. Besides, Geary’s C has also been proven to well characterise and qualify the spatial correlation between each pixel and its neighbourhood pixels. But the extracted object is badly delineated with the distracting salt-and-pepper effect of isolated misclassified pixels. To correct this defect, we introduce the data field method for filtering and noise limitation. Moreover, the original data field method is enhanced by considering each pixel in the window as the central pixel to compute statistical characteristics between it and its neighbourhood pixels. The last step employs a support vector machine (SVM for the classification of multi-features (e.g. the spectral feature and spatial correlation feature. In order to validate the effectiveness of the developed method, experiments are conducted on different remotely sensed images containing multiple complex object classes inside. The results show that the developed method outperforms the traditional method in terms of classification accuracies.

  14. A Multi-Stage Method for Connecting Participatory Sensing and Noise Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyuan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment, and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1 spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2 multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3 dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic

  15. Information operator approach and iterative regularization methods for atmospheric remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doicu, A. [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)]. E-mail: adrian.doicu@dlr.de; Hilgers, S. [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Bargen, A. von [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Rozanov, A. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Eichmann, K.-U. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Savigny, C. von [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Burrows, J.P. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    In this study, we present the main features of the information operator approach for solving linear inverse problems arising in atmospheric remote sensing. This method is superior to the stochastic version of the Tikhonov regularization (or the optimal estimation method) due to its capability to filter out the noise-dominated components of the solution generated by an inappropriate choice of the regularization parameter. We extend this approach to iterative methods for nonlinear ill-posed problems and derive the truncated versions of the Gauss-Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt methods. Although the paper mostly focuses on discussing the mathematical details of the inverse method, retrieval results have been provided, which exemplify the performances of the methods. These results correspond to the NO{sub 2} retrieval from SCIAMACHY limb scatter measurements and have been obtained by using the retrieval processors developed at the German Aerospace Center Oberpfaffenhofen and Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen.

  16. Prediction of Potential Fishing Zones for Skipjack Tuna During the Northwest Monsoon Using Remotely Sensed Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Zainuddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of economically important fish in the Bay of Bone is Skipjack tuna which their distribution and migration are influenced by surrounding environment.  This study aims to investigate the relationship between skipjack tuna and their environments, and to predict potential fishing zones (PFZs for the fish in the Bone Bay-Flores Sea using satellite-based oceanography and catch data. Generalized additive models (GAMs were used to assess the relationship. A generalized linear model(GLM constructed from GAMs was used for prediction. Monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll-a during the northwest monsoon (December-January together with catch data were used for the year 2012-2013. We used the GAMs to assess the effect of the environment variables on skipjack tuna CPUE (catch per unit effort. The best GLM was selected to predict skipjack tuna abundance.  Results indicated that the highest CPUEs (fish/trip occurred in areas where SST and chlorophyll-a ranged from 29.5°-31.5°C and 0.15 - 0.25 mg m-3, respectively. The PFZs for skipjack were closely related to the spatial distribution of the optimum oceanographic conditions and these mainly developed in three locations, northern area of Bone Bay in December, in the middle area of the bay (4°-5.5°S and 120.5°-121.5°E during January and moved to the Flores Sea in February. The movement of skipjack concentration was consistent with the fishery data.  This suggests that the dynamics of the optimum oceanographic signatures provided a good indicator for predicting feeding grounds as hotspot areas for skipjack tuna in Bone Bay-Flores Sea during northwest monsoon.   Keywords:  skipjack tuna, potential fishing zones, satellite based-oceanographic data, Northwest monsoon

  17. METHOD OF GROUP OBJECTS FORMING FOR SPACE-BASED REMOTE SENSING OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grigoriev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Research findings of the specific application of space-based optical-electronic and radar means for the Earth remote sensing are considered. The subject matter of the study is the current planning of objects survey on the underlying surface in order to increase the effectiveness of sensing system due to the rational use of its resources. Method. New concept of a group object, stochastic swath and stochastic length of the route is introduced. The overview of models for single, group objects and their parameters is given. The criterion for the existence of the group object based on two single objects is formulated. The method for group objects formation while current survey planning has been developed and its description is presented. The method comprises several processing stages for data about objects with the calculation of new parameters, the stochastic characteristics of space means and validates the spatial size of the object value of the stochastic swath and stochastic length of the route. The strict mathematical description of techniques for model creation of a group object based on data about a single object and onboard special complex facilities in difficult conditions of registration of spatial data is given. Main Results. The developed method is implemented on the basis of modern geographic information system in the form of a software tool layout with advanced tools of processing and analysis of spatial data in vector format. Experimental studies of the forming method for the group of objects were carried out on a different real object environment using the parameters of modern national systems of the Earth remote sensing detailed observation Canopus-B and Resurs-P. Practical Relevance. The proposed models and method are focused on practical implementation using vector spatial data models and modern geoinformation technologies. Practical value lies in the reduction in the amount of consumable resources by means of

  18. Compressed Sensing Methods in Radio Receivers Exposed to Noise and Interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek

    implemented standard for mobile communication, implements performance parameters which not so long ago were available only for cable networks. There is also observed a trend to implement many radio receivers in a single integrated circuit. Radio receivers become more software-based, due to signicant increase...... of computational power avaialible in integrated circuits. Nevertheless, some necessary analog-domain processing is still a must. Analog elements are an obstacle in integrated implementation of radio receivers, digitization of radio receivers is desirable. Unfortunatelly, due to the constantly increasing trac......, there is a problem of interference, which makes digitization of radio receivers even more dicult. High-order low-pass lters are needed to remove interfering signals and secure a high-quality reception. In the mid-2000s a new method of signal acquisition, called compressed sensing, emerged. Compressed sensing...

  19. A compressed sensing based method with support refinement for impulse noise cancelation in DSL

    KAUST Repository

    Quadeer, Ahmed Abdul

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a compressed sensing based method to suppress impulse noise in digital subscriber line (DSL). The proposed algorithm exploits the sparse nature of the impulse noise and utilizes the carriers, already available in all practical DSL systems, for its estimation and cancelation. Specifically, compressed sensing is used for a coarse estimate of the impulse position, an a priori information based maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) metric for its refinement, followed by least squares (LS) or minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimation for estimating the impulse amplitudes. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves higher rate as compared to other known sparse estimation algorithms in literature. The paper also demonstrates the superior performance of the proposed scheme compared to the ITU-T G992.3 standard that utilizes RS-coding for impulse noise refinement in DSL signals. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Documentation of archaeological sites in northern iraq using remote sensing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Matoušková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The MULINEM (The Medieval Urban Landscape in Northeastern Mesopotamia project is aiming to investigate a Late Sasanian and Islamic urban network in the land of Erbil, historic province of Hidyab (Adiabene that is located in the northern Iraq. The research of the hierarchical urban network in a defined area belongs to approaches rarely used in the study of the Islamic urbanism. The project focuses on the cluster of urban sites of the 6th–17th centuries A.D. This paper focuses on remote sensing analysis of historical sites with special interest of FORMOSAT-2 data that have been gained through a research announcement: Free FORMOSAT-2 satellite Imagery. Documentation of two archaeological sites (Makhmúr al-Qadima and Kushaf are introduced. FORMOSAT-2 data results have been compared to historic CORONA satellite data of mentioned historical sites purchased earlier by the University of West Bohemia. Remote sensing methods were completed using in-situ measurements.

  1. Documentation of archaeological sites in northern iraq using remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušková, E.; Pavelka, K.; Nováček, K.; Starková, L.

    2015-08-01

    The MULINEM (The Medieval Urban Landscape in Northeastern Mesopotamia) project is aiming to investigate a Late Sasanian and Islamic urban network in the land of Erbil, historic province of Hidyab (Adiabene) that is located in the northern Iraq. The research of the hierarchical urban network in a defined area belongs to approaches rarely used in the study of the Islamic urbanism. The project focuses on the cluster of urban sites of the 6th-17th centuries A.D. This paper focuses on remote sensing analysis of historical sites with special interest of FORMOSAT-2 data that have been gained through a research announcement: Free FORMOSAT-2 satellite Imagery. Documentation of two archaeological sites (Makhmúr al-Qadima and Kushaf) are introduced. FORMOSAT-2 data results have been compared to historic CORONA satellite data of mentioned historical sites purchased earlier by the University of West Bohemia. Remote sensing methods were completed using in-situ measurements.

  2. Electrochemical methods for autonomous chemical (phosphate and oxygen) monitoring in the ocean in the Oxygen Minimum Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonca, J.; Thouron, D.; Comtat, C.; Revsbech, N. P.; Garçon, V.

    2012-04-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ), mainly localized in the EBUS, are known to play a crucial role on climate evolution via greenhouse gases budgets and on marine ecosystems (respiratory barrier, modifications of the nitrogen cycle). Deoxygenation will have widespread consequences due to the role oxygen plays in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and other important elements such as Fe, S. Developing new sensors for improving our understanding of the coupled biogeochemical cycles (P-O-C-N) in these regions constitutes an immense challenge. Electrochemistry provides promising liquid reagentless methods by going further in miniaturization, decreasing the response time and energy requirements and thus increasing our observing capacities in the ocean. We present an electrochemical method for phosphate determination in seawater based on the anodic oxidation of molybdenum in seawater in order to create molybdophosphate complexes amperometrically detected on a gold electrode by means of amperometry or square-wave voltammetry. We propose a solution to address the silicate interference issue based on an appropriate ratio of proton/molybdate within an electrochemical cell using specialized membrane technology. The detection limit can be as low as 180 nM. An application of this method is presented in the OMZ offshore Peru. The results show excellent agreement when compared to colorimetry with an average deviation of 5.1%. This work is a first step to develop an autonomous in situ sensor for electrochemical detection of phosphate in seawater. The STOX sensor for the measurements of ultra-low oxygen concentrations was improved by decreasing the distance between the sensing and guard cathodes. The modification of the sensor tip was done by development of a method for gold plating on the front silicone rubber membrane in order to form a guard cathode. Then, the traditional and modified STOX sensors were compared and the preliminary studies showed a great potential

  3. Generalized transmission line method to study the far-zone radiation of antennas under a multilayer structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xuan Hui

    2008-01-01

    This book gives a step-by-step presentation of a generalized transmission line method to study the far-zone radiation of antennas under a multilayer structure. Normally, a radiation problem requires a full wave analysis which may be time consuming. The beauty of the generalized transmission line method is that it transforms the radiation problem for a specific type of structure, say the multilayer structure excited by an antenna, into a circuit problem that can be efficiently analyzed. Using the Reciprocity Theorem and far-field approximation, the method computes the far-zone radiation due to

  4. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  5. A Method of Spatial Mapping and Reclassification for High-Spatial-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizhou Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new classification method for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images based on a strategic mechanism of spatial mapping and reclassification. The proposed method includes four steps. First, the multispectral image is classified by a traditional pixel-based classification method (support vector machine. Second, the panchromatic image is subdivided by watershed segmentation. Third, the pixel-based multispectral image classification result is mapped to the panchromatic segmentation result based on a spatial mapping mechanism and the area dominant principle. During the mapping process, an area proportion threshold is set, and the regional property is defined as unclassified if the maximum area proportion does not surpass the threshold. Finally, unclassified regions are reclassified based on spectral information using the minimum distance to mean algorithm. Experimental results show that the classification method for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images based on the spatial mapping mechanism and reclassification strategy can make use of both panchromatic and multispectral information, integrate the pixel- and object-based classification methods, and improve classification accuracy.

  6. A Method of Spatial Mapping and Reclassification for High-Spatial-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhou; Liu, Jianbo; He, Guojin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new classification method for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images based on a strategic mechanism of spatial mapping and reclassification. The proposed method includes four steps. First, the multispectral image is classified by a traditional pixel-based classification method (support vector machine). Second, the panchromatic image is subdivided by watershed segmentation. Third, the pixel-based multispectral image classification result is mapped to the panchromatic segmentation result based on a spatial mapping mechanism and the area dominant principle. During the mapping process, an area proportion threshold is set, and the regional property is defined as unclassified if the maximum area proportion does not surpass the threshold. Finally, unclassified regions are reclassified based on spectral information using the minimum distance to mean algorithm. Experimental results show that the classification method for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images based on the spatial mapping mechanism and reclassification strategy can make use of both panchromatic and multispectral information, integrate the pixel- and object-based classification methods, and improve classification accuracy. PMID:24453808

  7. A Method of Road Extraction from High-resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Shape Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Xiaoqi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Road extraction from high-resolution remote sensing image is an important and difficult task.Since remote sensing images include complicated information,the methods that extract roads by spectral,texture and linear features have certain limitations.Also,many methods need human-intervention to get the road seeds(semi-automatic extraction,which have the great human-dependence and low efficiency.The road-extraction method,which uses the image segmentation based on principle of local gray consistency and integration shape features,is proposed in this paper.Firstly,the image is segmented,and then the linear and curve roads are obtained by using several object shape features,so the method that just only extract linear roads are rectified.Secondly,the step of road extraction is carried out based on the region growth,the road seeds are automatic selected and the road network is extracted.Finally,the extracted roads are regulated by combining the edge information.In experiments,the images that including the better gray uniform of road and the worse illuminated of road surface were chosen,and the results prove that the method of this study is promising.

  8. Numerical modeling of surf zone dynamics under weakly plunging breakers with SPH method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Christos V.; Memos, Constantine D.; Krestenitis, Yannis N.

    2016-02-01

    The wave breaking of weak plungers over a relatively mild slope is investigated in this paper. Numerical modeling aspects are studied, concerning the propagation and breaking of shore-normal, nonlinear and regular waves. The two-dimensional (2-D) kinematics and dynamics (fluctuating flow features and large 2-D eddies) of the wave-induced flow on a vertical cross-section over the entire surf zone are simulated with the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The academic 'open source' code SPHysics v.2 is employed and the viscosity treatment is based on a Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) approach, similarly to the Large Eddy Simulations (LES) concept. Thorough analysis of the turbulent flow scales determines the necessary refinement of the spatial resolution. The initial particle discretization reaches down to the demarcation point between integral turbulence length scales and Taylor micro-scales. A convolution-type integration method is implemented for the transformation of scattered Lagrangian particle data to Eulerian values at fixed gauges. A heuristic technique of ensemble-averaging is used for the discrimination of the fluctuating flow components from coherent structures and ordered wave motion. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data give encouraging results for several wave features. The wave-induced mean flows are simulated plausibly, and even the 'streaming' effect near the bed is reproduced. The recurring vorticity patterns are derived, and coherent 2-D structures inside the surf zone are identified. Fourier spectral analysis of velocities reveals isotropy of 2-D fluctuating dynamics up to rather high frequencies in shear intensified regions. The simulated Reynolds stresses follow patterns that define the characteristic mechanism of wave breaking for weak plungers. Persisting discrepancies at the incipient breaking region confirm the need for fine, massively 'parallel' 3-D SPS-SPH simulations.

  9. Implication of an improved field based snow particle size retrieval method for remote sensing of snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvander, S. M.; Brown, I. A.; Jansson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Snow particle size is an important parameter when studying snowpack properties as the size of the snow particles affects the snow density and the snow pack energy balance by changing albedo and backscattering properties. In this study we present an improved method that objectively provides detailed information on the size and size distribution of snow particles. The goal of this study was to first develop an efficient field sampling method that provides a quantitatively accurate snow particle size distribution and secondly to estimate how the various snow particle size distributions affect the reflectivity and backscatter of remotely sensed imagery. Our method is based on a two step approach of (i) the rectification of digital images of snow and (ii) the object oriented segmentation and classification of the photographed snow particles. We have tested the method at different spatial and temporal scales ranging from study sites on the East Antarctic ice sheet, sites with snow on sea ice within the Ross Sea to two field sites in Northern Sweden. In addition, we have compared the method to existing methods in terms of visual analysis of snow. The advantages of our method are that it is observer-independent and that it allows the determination of both the snow particle size and shape distribution from just one snow sample. Application of our method on the East Antarctic ice sheet showed a decreasing snow grain size towards the center of Antarctica and larger grains in the coastal areas. The data demonstrate further a regional snow particle size variability from 0.63 to 0.91 mm between the plateau and the coast. The local variability ranged between 0.23-1.03 mm within 10 by 10 square meter grid at the polar plateau. A comparison of the Antarctic dataset with AMSR-E, MOA, MODIS and MERIS satellite imagery showed a strong correlation with the 89GHz AMSR-E H-pol data at r2 = 0.68-0.73. The results indicate that our method provides a quick but objective field approach to

  10. Shape and Stress Sensing of Multilayered Composite and Sandwich Structures Using an Inverse Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerracchio, Priscilla; Gherlone, Marco; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The marked increase in the use of composite and sandwich material systems in aerospace, civil, and marine structures leads to the need for integrated Structural Health Management systems. A key capability to enable such systems is the real-time reconstruction of structural deformations, stresses, and failure criteria that are inferred from in-situ, discrete-location strain measurements. This technology is commonly referred to as shape- and stress-sensing. Presented herein is a computationally efficient shape- and stress-sensing methodology that is ideally suited for applications to laminated composite and sandwich structures. The new approach employs the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) as a general framework and the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) as the underlying plate theory. A three-node inverse plate finite element is formulated. The element formulation enables robust and efficient modeling of plate structures instrumented with strain sensors that have arbitrary positions. The methodology leads to a set of linear algebraic equations that are solved efficiently for the unknown nodal displacements. These displacements are then used at the finite element level to compute full-field strains, stresses, and failure criteria that are in turn used to assess structural integrity. Numerical results for multilayered, highly heterogeneous laminates demonstrate the unique capability of this new formulation for shape- and stress-sensing.

  11. STUDY ON OIL-GAS RESERVOIR DETECTING METHODS USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Tian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil-gas reservoir exploration using hyperspectral remote sensing, which based on the theory of hydrocarbon microseepage information and fine spectral response of target, is a new direction for the application of remote sensing technology. In this paper, Qaidam Basin and Liaodong Bay in China were selected as the study areas. Based on the hydrocarbon microseepage theory, the analysis of crude oil in soil in Qaidam Basin and spectral experiment of crude oil in sea water in Liaodong Bay, Hyperion hyperspectral remote sensing images were used to develop the method of oil-gas exploration. The results indicated that the area of oil-gas reservoir in Qaidam Basin could be delimited in two ways: the oil-gas reservoir can be obtained directly by the absorption bands near 1730nm in Hyperion image; and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU and Spectral Angle Matching (SAM of alteration mineral (e.g. kaolinite, illite could be used to indirectly detect the target area in Qaidam Basin. In addition, combined with the optimal bands in the region of visible/near-infrared, SAM was used to extract the thin oil slick of microseepage in Liaodong Bay. Then the target area of oil-gas reservoir in Liaodong Bay can be delineated.

  12. RESEARCH ON DIFFERENTIAL CODING METHOD FOR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING DATA COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Data compression, in the process of Satellite Earth data transmission, is of great concern to improve the efficiency of data transmission. Information amounts inherent to remote sensing images provide a foundation for data compression in terms of information theory. In particular, distinct degrees of uncertainty inherent to distinct land covers result in the different information amounts. This paper first proposes a lossless differential encoding method to improve compression rates. Then a district forecast differential encoding method is proposed to further improve the compression rates. Considering the stereo measurements in modern photogrammetry are basically accomplished by means of automatic stereo image matching, an edge protection operator is finally utilized to appropriately filter out high frequency noises which could help magnify the signals and further improve the compression rates. The three steps were applied to a Landsat TM multispectral image and a set of SPOT-5 panchromatic images of four typical land cover types (i.e., urban areas, farm lands, mountain areas and water bodies. Results revealed that the average code lengths obtained by the differential encoding method, compared with Huffman encoding, were more close to the information amounts inherent to remote sensing images. And the compression rates were improved to some extent. Furthermore, the compression rates of the four land cover images obtained by the district forecast differential encoding method were nearly doubled. As for the images with the edge features preserved, the compression rates are average four times as large as those of the original images.

  13. Backtracking-Based Iterative Regularization Method for Image Compressive Sensing Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a variant of the iterative shrinkage-thresholding (IST algorithm, called backtracking-based adaptive IST (BAIST, for image compressive sensing (CS reconstruction. For increasing iterations, IST usually yields a smoothing of the solution and runs into prematurity. To add back more details, the BAIST method backtracks to the previous noisy image using L2 norm minimization, i.e., minimizing the Euclidean distance between the current solution and the previous ones. Through this modification, the BAIST method achieves superior performance while maintaining the low complexity of IST-type methods. Also, BAIST takes a nonlocal regularization with an adaptive regularizor to automatically detect the sparsity level of an image. Experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms the original IST method and several excellent CS techniques.

  14. Fluorescence Sensing of Nitrite Ions on Polyvinylpyrrolidone/Zinc Oxide Composites Prepared by Impregnation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliati, L.; So'ad, S. Z. M.; Alim, N. S.; Lintang, H. O.

    2017-05-01

    A series of polyvinylpyrrolidone/zinc oxide (PVP/ZnO) composites with different loading amounts of PVP was prepared by an impregnation method. Successful formation of the composites was analyzed by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible (DR UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopies. Prepared composites were then further tested as fluorescence sensors by conducting quenching studies in the presence of nitrite ions (NO2 -). Among the prepared composites, the ZnO with 1% PVP exhibited the highest sensing performance for the NO2 -detection (Ksv = 0.07 µM-1). The efficiency of the composite was ca. 1.7 and 1.4 times higher than the bare ZnO and the best composite prepared by the physical mixing method, respectively. These results suggested that impregnation method is a suitable method to prepare the PVP/ZnO composites as fluorescence sensor for the NO2 -detection.

  15. Multi-source remote sensing image fusion method based on sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianchuan; Gao, Guanyin

    2014-11-01

    To improve the quality of the fused image, we propose a remote sensing image fusion method based on sparse representation. In the method, first, the source images are divided into patches and each patch is represented with sparse coefficients using an overcomplete dictionary. Second, the larger value of sparse coefficients of panchromatic (Pan) image is set to 0. Third, Then the coefficients of panchromatic (Pan) and multispectral (MS) image are combined with the linear weighted averaging fusion rule. Finally, the fused image is reconstructed from the combined sparse coefficients and the dictionary. The proposed method is compared with intensity-hue-saturation (IHS), Brovey transform (Brovey), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), principal component analysis (PCA) and fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT) methods on several pairs of multifocus images. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach performs better in both subjective and objective qualities.

  16. A directed matched filtering algorithm (DMF) for discriminating hydrothermal alteration zones using the ASTER remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereydooni, H.; Mojeddifar, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study introduced a different procedure to implement matched filtering algorithm (MF) on the ASTER images to obtain the distribution map of alteration minerals in the northwestern part of the Kerman Cenozoic Magmatic Arc (KCMA). This region contains many areas with porphyry copper mineralization such as Meiduk, Abdar, Kader, Godekolvari, Iju, Serenu, Chahfiroozeh and Parkam. Also argillization, sericitization and propylitization are the most common types of hydrothermal alteration in the area. Matched filtering results were provided for alteration minerals with a matched filtering score, called MF image. To identify the pixels which contain only one material (endmember), an appropriate threshold value should be used to the MF image. The chosen threshold classifies a MF image into background and target pixels. This article argues that the current thresholding process (the choice of a threshold) shows misclassification for MF image. To address the issue, this paper introduced the directed matched filtering (DMF) algorithm in which a spectral signature-based filter (SSF) was used instead of the thresholding process. SSF is a user-defined rule package which contains numeral descriptions about the spectral reflectance of alteration minerals. On the other hand, the spectral bands are defined by an upper and lower limit in SSF filter for each alteration minerals. SSF was developed for chlorite, kaolinite, alunite, and muscovite minerals to map alteration zones. The validation proved that, at first: selecting a contiguous range of MF values could not identify desirable results, second: unexpectedly, considerable frequency of pure pixels was observed in the MF scores less than threshold value. Also, the comparison between DMF results and field studies showed an accuracy of 88.51%.

  17. A Study on a Control Method with a Ventilation Requirement of a VAV System in Multi-Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jun Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to propose a control method with a ventilation requirement of variable air volume (VAV system in multi-zone. In order to control the VAV system inmulti-zone, it is essential to control the terminal unit installed in each zone. A VAV terminal unit with conventional control method using a fixed minimum air flow can cause indoor air quality (IAQ issues depending on the variation in the number of occupants. This research proposes a control method with a ventilation requirement of the VAV terminal unit and AHU inmulti-zone. The integrated control method with an air flow increase model in the VAV terminal unit, AHU, and outdoor air intake rate increase model in the AHU was based on the indoor CO2 concentration. The conventional and proposed control algorithms were compared through a TRNSYS simulation program. The proposed VAV terminal unit control method satisfies all the conditions of indoor temperature, IAQ, and stratification. An energy comparison with the conventional control method showed that the method satisfies not only the indoor thermal comfort, IAQ, and stratification issue, but also reduces the energy consumption.

  18. A multi-factor designation method for mapping particulate-pollution control zones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y; Xie, S D

    2011-09-01

    A multi-factor designation method for mapping particulate-pollution control zones was brought out through synthetically considering PM(10) pollution status, PM(10) anthropogenic emissions, fine particle pollution, long-range transport and economic situation. According to this method, China was divided into four different particulate-pollution control regions: PM Suspended Control Region, PM(10) Pollution Control Region, PM(2.5) Pollution Control Region and PM(10) and PM(2.5) Common Control Region, which accounted for 69.55%, 9.66%, 4.67% and 16.13% of China's territory, respectively. The PM(10) and PM(2.5) Common Control Region was mainly distributed in Bohai Region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, eastern of Sichuan province and Chongqing municipality, calling for immediate control of both PM(10) and PM(2.5). Cost-effective control effects can be achieved through concentrating efforts on PM(10) and PM(2.5) Common Control Region to address 60.32% of national PM(10) anthropogenic emissions. Air quality in districts belonging to PM(2.5) Pollution Control Region suggested that Chinese national ambient air quality standard for PM(10) was not strict enough. The result derived from application to China proved that this approach was feasible for mapping pollution control regions for a country with vast territory, complicated pollution characteristics and limited available monitoring data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative performance study of sound zoning methods in a reflective environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olik, Marek; Francombe, Jon; Coleman, Philip

    2013-01-01

    -element loudspeaker arrays (line and circle). The acoustic contrast between two zones was evaluated and the reproduced sound fields compared for uniformity of energy distribution. ACC generated the highest contrast, whilst PM produced a uniform bright zone. Listening tests were also performed using...

  20. A Novel Mosaic Quality Measurement Method for UAV Surveillance and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukyazi, T.; Bayraktar, S.; Lazoglu, I.

    2013-10-01

    A novel hardware independent real-time aerial image stabilization and mosaicing system is developed for mini UAV surveillance and remote sensing operations. In order to measure the quality of the constructed mosaics, several in-door and flight tests were performed. A novel mosaic quality measurement method utilizing 5 axis CNC for 3D positioning of the camera and printed high resolution aerial images for ground truth information is described. Results of the path following tests employing several state of art registration algorithms are provided. Mosaics constructed in real-time during flight tests are presented.

  1. Estimating actual evapotranspiration from remote sensing imagery using R: the package 'TriangleMethod'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, David; Huber García, Verena; Marzahn, Philip; Ludwig, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Actual evaporation (Eta) is an essential variable to assess water availability, drought risk and food security, among others. Measurements of Eta are however limited to a small footprint, hampering a spatially explicit analysis and application and are very often not available at all. To overcome the problem of data scarcity, Eta can be assessed by various remote sensing approaches such as the Triangle Method (Jiang & Islam, 1999). Here, Eta is estimated by using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST). In this study, the R-package 'TriangleMethod' was compiled to efficiently perform the calculations of NDVI and processing LST to finally derive Eta from the applied data set. The package contains all necessary calculation steps and allows easy processing of a large data base of remote sensing images. By default, the parameterization for the Landsat TM and ETM+ sensors are implemented, however, the algorithms can be easily extended to additional sensors. The auxiliary variables required to estimate Eta with this method, such as elevation, solar radiation and air temperature at the overpassing time, can be processed as gridded information to allow for a better representation of the study area. The package was successfully applied in various studies in Spain, Palestine, Costa Rica and Canada.

  2. Compressed sensing MRI via fast linearized preconditioned alternating direction method of multipliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Du, Hongwei; Wu, Linna; Jin, Jiaquan; Qiu, Bensheng

    2017-04-27

    The challenge of reconstructing a sparse medical magnetic resonance image based on compressed sensing from undersampled k-space data has been investigated within recent years. As total variation (TV) performs well in preserving edge, one type of approach considers TV-regularization as a sparse structure to solve a convex optimization problem. Nevertheless, this convex optimization problem is both nonlinear and nonsmooth, and thus difficult to handle, especially for a large-scale problem. Therefore, it is essential to develop efficient algorithms to solve a very broad class of TV-regularized problems. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm referred to as the fast linearized preconditioned alternating direction method of multipliers (FLPADMM), to solve an augmented TV-regularized model that adds a quadratic term to enforce image smoothness. Because of the separable structure of this model, FLPADMM decomposes the convex problem into two subproblems. Each subproblem can be alternatively minimized by augmented Lagrangian function. Furthermore, a linearized strategy and multistep weighted scheme can be easily combined for more effective image recovery. The method of the present study showed improved accuracy and efficiency, in comparison to other methods. Furthermore, the experiments conducted on in vivo data showed that our algorithm achieved a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lower relative error (Rel.Err), and better structural similarity (SSIM) index in comparison to other state-of-the-art algorithms. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm exhibits superior performance in accuracy and efficiency than conventional compressed sensing MRI algorithms.

  3. Detection of the power lines in UAV remote sensed images using spectral-spatial methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Rishav; Krishna, Nandigam Hari; Ramesh, K N; Senthilnath, J; Anand, Gautham

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, detection of the power lines on images acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing is carried out using spectral-spatial methods. Spectral clustering was performed using Kmeans and Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to classify the pixels into the power lines and non-power lines. The spectral clustering methods used in this study are parametric in nature, to automate the number of clusters Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) is used. The UAV remote sensed image is clustered into the number of clusters determined by DBI. The k clustered image is merged into 2 clusters (power lines and non-power lines). Further, spatial segmentation was performed using morphological and geometric operations, to eliminate the non-power line regions. In this study, UAV images acquired at different altitudes and angles were analyzed to validate the robustness of the proposed method. It was observed that the EM with spatial segmentation (EM-Seg) performed better than the Kmeans with spatial segmentation (Kmeans-Seg) on most of the UAV images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Spectrum Sensing Method Based on Signal Feature and Clustering Algorithm in Cognitive Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of difficulty in determining the threshold in spectrum sensing technologies based on the random matrix theory, a spectrum sensing method based on clustering algorithm and signal feature is proposed for Cognitive Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks. Firstly, the wireless communication signal features are obtained according to the sampling signal covariance matrix. Then, the clustering algorithm is used to classify and test the signal features. Different signal features and clustering algorithms are compared in this paper. The experimental results show that the proposed method has better sensing performance.

  5. A Novel Unsupervised Segmentation Quality Evaluation Method for Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The segmentation of a high spatial resolution remote sensing image is a critical step in geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA. Evaluating the performance of segmentation without ground truth data, i.e., unsupervised evaluation, is important for the comparison of segmentation algorithms and the automatic selection of optimal parameters. This unsupervised strategy currently faces several challenges in practice, such as difficulties in designing effective indicators and limitations of the spectral values in the feature representation. This study proposes a novel unsupervised evaluation method to quantitatively measure the quality of segmentation results to overcome these problems. In this method, multiple spectral and spatial features of images are first extracted simultaneously and then integrated into a feature set to improve the quality of the feature representation of ground objects. The indicators designed for spatial stratified heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation are included to estimate the properties of the segments in this integrated feature set. These two indicators are then combined into a global assessment metric as the final quality score. The trade-offs of the combined indicators are accounted for using a strategy based on the Mahalanobis distance, which can be exhibited geometrically. The method is tested on two segmentation algorithms and three testing images. The proposed method is compared with two existing unsupervised methods and a supervised method to confirm its capabilities. Through comparison and visual analysis, the results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method and demonstrated the reliability and improvements of this method with respect to other methods.

  6. A Novel Unsupervised Segmentation Quality Evaluation Method for Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han; Tang, Yunwei; Jing, Linhai; Li, Hui; Ding, Haifeng

    2017-10-24

    The segmentation of a high spatial resolution remote sensing image is a critical step in geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA). Evaluating the performance of segmentation without ground truth data, i.e., unsupervised evaluation, is important for the comparison of segmentation algorithms and the automatic selection of optimal parameters. This unsupervised strategy currently faces several challenges in practice, such as difficulties in designing effective indicators and limitations of the spectral values in the feature representation. This study proposes a novel unsupervised evaluation method to quantitatively measure the quality of segmentation results to overcome these problems. In this method, multiple spectral and spatial features of images are first extracted simultaneously and then integrated into a feature set to improve the quality of the feature representation of ground objects. The indicators designed for spatial stratified heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation are included to estimate the properties of the segments in this integrated feature set. These two indicators are then combined into a global assessment metric as the final quality score. The trade-offs of the combined indicators are accounted for using a strategy based on the Mahalanobis distance, which can be exhibited geometrically. The method is tested on two segmentation algorithms and three testing images. The proposed method is compared with two existing unsupervised methods and a supervised method to confirm its capabilities. Through comparison and visual analysis, the results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method and demonstrated the reliability and improvements of this method with respect to other methods.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Land Mobile Prediction Methods and Modeling of Radio Planning Tool Parameters along Indian Rail Road Rural Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. N. Prasad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication networks in rural zones were not given enough importance and emphasis unlike their urban counter parts due to the unattractive revenues and economic considerations for the cellular operators. In order to identify the suitable prediction methods for Indian rail road rural zones, train-based measurements were conducted in the northern and western rural zones along rail roads. These were carried out by recording the carriers emitted by the trackside base stations inside the moving train. The observed signal levels converted into path losses were compared initially with various conventional prediction methods. The observed results were also compared with the predicted results of radio planning tool utilizing digital terrain data. The constants of the model incorporated in the radio planning tool were tuned separately for north Indian and west Indian base stations based on the observed results. The suitability of the models has been evaluated in terms of standard statistical parameters.

  8. Automatic Registration Method for Optical Remote Sensing Images with Large Background Variations Using Line Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Shi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Image registration is an essential step in the process of image fusion, environment surveillance and change detection. Finding correct feature matches during the registration process proves to be difficult, especially for remote sensing images with large background variations (e.g., images taken pre and post an earthquake or flood. Traditional registration methods based on local intensity probably cannot maintain steady performances, as differences are significant in the same area of the corresponding images, and ground control points are not always available in many disaster images. In this paper, an automatic image registration method based on the line segments on the main shape contours (e.g., coastal lines, long roads and mountain ridges is proposed for remote sensing images with large background variations because the main shape contours can hold relatively more invariant information. First, a line segment detector called EDLines (Edge Drawing Lines, which was proposed by Akinlar et al. in 2011, is used to extract line segments from two corresponding images, and a line validation step is performed to remove meaningless and fragmented line segments. Then, a novel line segment descriptor with a new histogram binning strategy, which is robust to global geometrical distortions, is generated for each line segment based on the geometrical relationships,including both the locations and orientations of theremaining line segments relative to it. As a result of the invariance of the main shape contours, correct line segment matches will have similar descriptors and can be obtained by cross-matching among the descriptors. Finally, a spatial consistency measure is used to remove incorrect matches, and transformation parameters between the reference and sensed images can be figured out. Experiments with images from different types of satellite datasets, such as Landsat7, QuickBird, WorldView, and so on, demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is

  9. A Surface-Based Spatial Registration Method Based on Sense Three-Dimensional Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifeng; Xu, Xiufang; Wang, Manning

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a surface-based registration method based on a low-cost, hand-held Sense three-dimensional (3D) scanner in image-guided neurosurgery system. The scanner was calibrated prior and fixed on a tripod before registration. During registration, a part of the head surface was scanned at first and the spatial position of the adapter was recorded. Then the scanner was taken off from the tripod and the entire head surface was scanned by moving the scanner around the patient's head. All the scan points were aligned to the recorded spatial position to form a unique point cloud of the head by the automatic mosaic function of the scanner. The coordinates of the scan points were transformed from the device space to the adapter space by a calibration matrix, and then to the patient space. A 2-step patient-to-image registration method was then performed to register the patient space to the image space. The experimental results showed that the mean target registration error of 15 targets on the surface of the phantom was 1.61±0.09 mm. In a clinical experiment, the mean target registration error of 7 targets on the patient's head surface was 2.50±0.31 mm, which was sufficient to meet clinical requirements. It is feasible to use the Sense 3D scanner for patient-to-image registration, and the low-cost Sense 3D scanner can take the place of the current used scanner in the image-guided neurosurgery system.

  10. Measurement of serum albumin by capillary zone electrophoresis, bromocresol green, bromocresol purple, and immunoassay methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duly, E B; Grimason, S; Grimason, P; Barnes, G; Trinick, T R

    2003-01-01

    Background/Aims: The introduction of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to this laboratory has highlighted discrepancies in albumin measured on an Abbott Aeroset by bromocresol green (BCG) and that calculated by CZE on the basis of total protein measured by Biuret. Methods: This study examined differences in albumin estimation by CZE, Abbott Aeroset BCG, and Aeroset bromocresol purple (BCP), and compared these with albumin estimated by Beckman Array immunoassay. Results: Altman and Bland analysis of results showed a positive bias of BCG with CZE (4.51 g/litre; 95% limits of agreement, 3.77 to 5.26; n = 72) and BCP (3.85 g/litre; 95% limits of agreement, −1.42 to 9.12; n = 72). CZE and BCP agreed closely (0.67 g/litre; 95% limits of agreement, −4.39 to 3.06; n = 72). Analysis of 57 of those samples in which BCG and CZE differed ≥ 5 g/litre showed a positive bias of BCG with immunoassay (8.35 g/litre; 95% limits of agreement, 1.54 to 15.16; n =57), with good agreement between CZE and immunoassay (−0.44 g/litre; 95% limits of agreement, −2.82 to 1.94; n = 57). Conclusions: BCP is superior to BCG for the assay of albumin and has replaced BCG as the routine test for albumin in this laboratory. PMID:14514785

  11. A wave equation migration method for receiver function imaging: 2. Application to the Japan subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Wen, Lianxing; Zheng, Tianyu

    2005-11-01

    The newly developed wave equation poststack depth migration method for receiver function imaging is applied to study the subsurface structures of the Japan subduction zone using the Fundamental Research on Earthquakes and Earth's Interior Anomalies (FREESIA) broadband data. Three profiles are chosen in the subsurface imaging, two in northeast (NE) Japan to study the subducting Pacific plate and one in southwest (SW) Japan to study the Philippine Sea plate. The descending Pacific plate in NE Japan is well imaged within a depth range of 50-150 km. The slab image exhibits a little more steeply dipping angle (˜32°) in the south than in the north (˜27°), although the general characteristics between the two profiles in NE Japan are similar. The imaged Philippine Sea plate in eastern SW Japan, in contrast, exhibits a much shallower subduction angle (˜19°) and is only identifiable at the uppermost depths of no more than 60 km. Synthetic tests indicate that the top 150 km of the migrated images of the Pacific plate is well resolved by our seismic data, but the resolution of deep part of the slab images becomes poor due to the limited data coverage. Synthetic tests also suggest that the breakdown of the Philippine Sea plate at shallow depths reflects the real structural features of the subduction zone, rather than caused by insufficient coverage of data. Comparative studies on both synthetics and real data images show the possibility of retrieval of fine-scale structures from high-frequency contributions if high-frequency noise can be effectively suppressed and a small bin size can be used in future studies. The derived slab geometry and image feature also appear to have relatively weak dependence on overlying velocity structure. The observed seismicity in the region confirms the geometries inferred from the migrated images for both subducting plates. Moreover, the deep extent of the Pacific plate image and the shallow breakdown of the Philippine Sea plate image are

  12. Temperature and electrolyte optimization of the α-hemolysin latch sensing zone for detection of base modification in double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert P; Fleming, Aaron M; Jin, Qian; Burrows, Cynthia J; White, Henry S

    2014-08-19

    The latch region of the wild-type protein pore α-hemolysin (α-HL) constitutes a sensing zone for individual abasic sites (and furan analogs) in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The presence of an abasic site or furan within a DNA duplex, electrophoretically captured in the α-HL vestibule and positioned at the latch region, can be detected based on the current blockage prior to duplex unzipping. We investigated variations in blockage current as a function of temperature (12-35°C) and KCl concentration (0.15-1.0 M) to understand the origin of the current signature and to optimize conditions for identifying the base modification. In 1 M KCl solution, substitution of a furan for a cytosine base in the latch region results in an ∼ 8 kJ mol(-1) decrease in the activation energy for ion transport through the protein pore. This corresponds to a readily measured ∼ 2 pA increase in current at room temperature. Optimal resolution for detecting the presence of a furan in the latch region is achieved at lower KCl concentrations, where the noise in the measured blockage current is significantly lower. The noise associated with the blockage current also depends on the stability of the duplex (as measured from the melting temperature), where a greater noise in the measured blockage current is observed for less stable duplexes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An effective method based on reference point for glucose sensing at 1100-1600nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaxiang; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yue

    2011-03-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose sensing by near-infrared spectroscopy is easily interrupted by the strong background variations compared to the weak glucose signals. In this work, according to the distribution of diffuse reflectance intensity at different source-detector separations, a method based on a reference point and a measuring point, where the diffuse reflectance intensity is insensitive and most sensitive to the variation of glucose concentration, respectively, is applied. And the data processing method based on the information of two points is investigated to improve the precision of glucose sensing. Based on the Monte Carlo simulation in 5% intralipid solution model, the corresponding optical probe is designed which includes two detecting points: a reference point located at 1.3-1.7mm and a measuring point located at 1.7-2.1mm. Using the probe, the in vitro experiment with different glucose concentrations in the intralipid solution is conducted at 1100-1600nm. As a result, compared to the PLS model built by the signal of the measuring point, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and root mean square error of cross calibration (RMSEC) of the corrected model built by reference point and measuring point reduces by 45.10%, and 32.15% respectively.

  14. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  15. Simulation Methods for High-Cycle Fatigue-Driven Delamination using Cohesive Zone Models - Fundamental Behavior and Benchmark Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Lindgaard, Esben; Turon, A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel computational method for simulating fatigue-driven delamination cracks in composite laminated structures under cyclic loading based on a cohesive zone model [2] and new benchmark studies with four other comparable methods [3-6] are presented. The benchmark studies describe and compare...... the traction-separation response in the cohesive zone and the transition phase from quasistatic to fatigue loading for each method. Furthermore, the accuracy of the predicted crack growth rate is studied and compared for each method. It is shown that the method described in [2] is significantly more accurate...... experimentally and/or depend on the problem and are therefore not possible to determine in advance which is needed in order to do predictive simulation studies....

  16. Application of remote sensing methods and GIS in erosive process investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern geomorphologic investigations of condition and change of the intensity of erosive process should be based on application of remote sensing methods which are based on processing of aerial and satellite photographs. Using of these methods is very important because it enables good possibilities for realizing regional relations of the investigated phenomenon, as well as the estimate of spatial and temporal variability of all physical-geographical and anthropogenic factors influencing given process. Realizing process of land erosion, on the whole, is only possible by creating universal data base, as well as by using of appropriate software, more exactly by establishing uniform information system. Geographical information system, as the most effective one, the most complex and the most integral system of information about the space enables unification as well as analytical and synthetically processing of all data.

  17. Elevation change and remote-sensing mass-balance methods on the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is virtually impossible to obtain with traditional ground-based methods alone due to its vast size. It is thus desirable to develop mass-balance methods depending on remote sensing instead and this field has experienced a dramatic development within...... of measured surface elevation change over a 50x50~km part of the western Greenland Ice-Sheet margin near Kangerlussuaq. In this region, the mean observed elevation change has been -0.5~m from 2000 to 2003. However, the change is unevenly distributed with the northern and central part generally in balance...... the last decade. Large amounts of data have been collected from satellite and airborne platforms, yielding surface elevation changes and surface velocity fields. Here we present data from the Greenland Ice-Sheet margin acquired with a new small-scale airborne system, designed for regional high...

  18. Optical power transfer and communication methods for wireless implantable sensing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb-U-Rahman, Muhammad; Adalian, Dvin; Chang, Chieh-Feng; Scherer, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasmall scale implants have recently attracted focus as valuable tools for monitoring both acute and chronic diseases. Semiconductor optical technologies are the key to miniaturizing these devices to the long-sought sub-mm scale, which will enable long-term use of these devices for medical applications. This can also enable the use of multiple implantable devices concurrently to form a true body area network of sensors. We demonstrate optical power transfer techniques and methods to effectively harness this power for implantable devices. Furthermore, we also present methods for optical data transfer from such implants. Simultaneous use of these technologies can result in miniaturized sensing platforms that can allow for large-scale use of such systems in real world applications.

  19. Surface profile and stress field evaluation using digital gradient sensing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, C.; Sundaram, B. M.; Huang, L.; Tippur, H. V.

    2016-09-01

    Shape and surface topography evaluation from measured orthogonal slope/gradient data is of considerable engineering significance since many full-field optical sensors and interferometers readily output such a data accurately. This has applications ranging from metrology of optical and electronic elements (lenses, silicon wafers, thin film coatings), surface profile estimation, wave front and shape reconstruction, to name a few. In this context, a new methodology for surface profile and stress field determination based on a recently introduced non-contact, full-field optical method called digital gradient sensing (DGS) capable of measuring small angular deflections of light rays coupled with a robust finite-difference-based least-squares integration (HFLI) scheme in the Southwell configuration is advanced here. The method is demonstrated by evaluating (a) surface profiles of mechanically warped silicon wafers and (b) stress gradients near growing cracks in planar phase objects.

  20. Dynamic stepping information process method in mobile bio-sensing computing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Seong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the interest toward human longevity free from diseases is being converged as one system frame along with the development of mobile computing environment, diversification of remote medical system and aging society. Such converged system enables implementation of a bioinformatics system created as various supplementary information services by sensing and gathering health conditions and various bio-information of mobile users to set up medical information. The existing bio-information system performs static and identical process without changes after the bio-information process defined at the initial system configuration executes the system. However, such static process indicates ineffective execution in the application of mobile bio-information system performing mobile computing. Especially, an inconvenient duty of having to perform initialization of new definition and execution is accompanied during the process configuration of bio-information system and change of method. This study proposes a dynamic process design and execution method to overcome such ineffective process.

  1. Spatial Pattern of Great Lakes Estuary Processes from Water Quality Sensing and Geostatistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Minsker, B. S.; Bailey, B.; Collingsworth, P.

    2014-12-01

    Mixing of river and lake water can alter water temperature, conductivity, and other properties that influence ecological processes in freshwater estuaries of the Great Lakes. This study uses geostatistical methods to rapidly visualize and understand water quality sampling results and enable adaptive sampling to remove anomalies and explore interesting phenomena in more detail. Triaxus, a towed undulating sensor package, was used for collecting various physical and biological water qualities in three estuary areas of Lake Michigan in Summer 2011. Based on the particular sampling pattern, data quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) processes, including sensor synchronization, upcast and downcast separation, and spatial outlier removal are first applied. An automated kriging interpolation approach that considers trend and anisotropy is then proposed to estimate data on a gridded map for direct visualization. Other methods are explored with the data to gain more insights on water quality processes. Local G statistics serve as a supplementary tool to direct visualization. The method identifies statistically high value zones (hot spots) and low value zones (cold spots) in water chemistry across the estuaries, including locations of water sources and intrusions. In addition, chlorophyll concentration distributions are different among sites. To further understand the interactions and differences between river and lake water, K-means clustering algorithm is used to spatially cluster the water based on temperature and specific conductivity. Statistical analysis indicates that clusters with significant river water can be identified from higher turbidity, specific conductivity, and chlorophyll concentrations. Different ratios between zooplankton biomass and density indicate different zooplankton structure across clusters. All of these methods can contribute to improved near real-time analysis of future sampling activity.

  2. Block based compressive sensing method of microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography for breast tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuangli; Zhao, Zhiqin; Zhu, Xiaozhang; Lu, Yanxi; Wang, Bingwen; Nie, Zaiping; Liu, Qing-Huo

    2017-07-01

    Microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography (MITAT) is a developing non-ionized technique which has great potential in early breast tumor detection. In our previous work, an imaging method, CS-MITAT, was proposed, which applied the compressive sensing theory in MITAT and achieved a good image. The method converts a signal model into an unconstrained optimization problem with ℓ1 norm regularization, which only exploits the spatial sparsity of targets. In this paper, based on the block sparsity of thermoacoustic signals and target distribution in MITAT, the signals to be detected can be grouped into several blocks and the summation of ℓ2 norm regularization is used to replace the ℓ1 norm regularization of the CS-MITAT method. The combination of ℓ2 and ℓ1 norm regularizations helps the aggregation of nonzero elements which are accumulated in blocks. A priori structural constraint is added to form a more realistic signal model which can improve the image quality. Compared with the conventional approach of time reversal mirror and the method of gradient projection for sparse reconstruction, the alternating direction method of multipliers is applied to solve the convex optimization problem. Simulations and experiments on a real breast tumor demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Method and System for Physiologically Modulating Videogames and Simulations which Use Gesture and Body Image Sensing Control Input Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Stephens, Chad L. (Inventor); Habowski, Tyler (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Method for physiologically modulating videogames and simulations includes utilizing input from a motion-sensing video game system and input from a physiological signal acquisition device. The inputs from the physiological signal sensors are utilized to change the response of a user's avatar to inputs from the motion-sensing sensors. The motion-sensing system comprises a 3D sensor system having full-body 3D motion capture of a user's body. This arrangement encourages health-enhancing physiological self-regulation skills or therapeutic amplification of healthful physiological characteristics. The system provides increased motivation for users to utilize biofeedback as may be desired for treatment of various conditions.

  4. An Alternative Method of Spatial Autocorrelation for Chlorophyll Detection in Water Bodies Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá T. Guimarães

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Additional measures of in situ water quality monitoring in natural environments can be obtained through remote sensing because certain elements in water modify its spectral behavior. One of the indicators of water quality is the presence of algae, and the aim of this study was to propose an alternative method for the quantification of chlorophyll in water by correlating spectral data, infrared images, and limnology data. The object of study was an artificial lake located at Unisinos University, São Leopoldo/RS, Brazil. The area has been mapped with a modified NGB (near infrared (N, green (G and blue (B camera coupled to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. From the orthorectified and georeferenced images, a modified normalized difference vegetation index (NDVImod image has been generated. Additionally, 20 sampling points have been established on the lake. At these points, in situ spectral analysis with a spectroradiometer has been performed, and water samples have been collected for laboratory determination of chlorophyll concentrations. The correlation resulted in two models. The first model, based on the multivariate analysis of spectral data, and the second model, based on polynomial equations from NDVI, had coefficients of determination (R2 of 0.86 and 0.51, respectively. This study confirmed the applicability of remote sensing for water resource management using UAVs, which can be characterized as a quick and easy methodology.

  5. An Adaptive 6-DOF Tracking Method by Hybrid Sensing for Ultrasonic Endoscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyang Du

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel hybrid sensing method for tracking an ultrasonic endoscope within the gastrointestinal (GI track is presented, and the prototype of the tracking system is also developed. We implement 6-DOF localization by sensing integration and information fusion. On the hardware level, a tri-axis gyroscope and accelerometer, and a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG sensor array are attached at the end of endoscopes, and three symmetric cylindrical coils are placed around patients’ abdomens. On the algorithm level, an adaptive fast quaternion convergence (AFQC algorithm is introduced to determine the orientation by fusing inertial/magnetic measurements, in which the effects of magnetic disturbance and acceleration are estimated to gain an adaptive convergence output. A simplified electro-magnetic tracking (SEMT algorithm for dimensional position is also implemented, which can easily integrate the AFQC’s results and magnetic measurements. Subsequently, the average position error is under 0.3 cm by reasonable setting, and the average orientation error is 1° without noise. If magnetic disturbance or acceleration exists, the average orientation error can be controlled to less than 3.5°.

  6. Improved method for discriminating agricultural crops using geostatistics and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Costanza; Tarantino, Cristina; Pasquariello, Guido; Basso, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Reliable land cover mapping of agricultural areas require high resolution remote sensing and robust classification techniques. In this paper, we propose the integration of spectral information with spatial information using the traditional statistical supervised classifier ``Maximum Likelihood'' and a geostatistical tool, ``Indicator Kriging'' algorithm, for the development of land cover maps by supervised classification from remotely sensed data at medium and high spatial resolution. The proposed method showed better results in classes' discrimination with smoother resulting maps than the ones produced using only spectral information. Two different satellites imagery were analyzed: a Landsat TM5 image at medium spatial resolution acquired during 2006 and an Ikonos II image at higher spatial resolution acquired during 2008. The better performance of the ``combined'' approach compared to the traditional Maximum Likelihood technique was confirmed by confusion matrix. The overall accuracy increases from 76.16% to 85.96% for LandsatTM image and from 71.56% to 80.25% for the IKONOS image.

  7. A COMPRESSED SENSING METHOD WITH ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR LIDAR FEATURE CLASSIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Josef D [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We present an innovative way to autonomously classify LiDAR points into bare earth, building, vegetation, and other categories. One desirable product of LiDAR data is the automatic classification of the points in the scene. Our algorithm automatically classifies scene points using Compressed Sensing Methods via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithms utilizing a generalized K-Means clustering algorithm to extract buildings and foliage from a Digital Surface Models (DSM). This technology reduces manual editing while being cost effective for large scale automated global scene modeling. Quantitative analyses are provided using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves to show Probability of Detection and False Alarm of buildings vs. vegetation classification. Histograms are shown with sample size metrics. Our inpainting algorithms then fill the voids where buildings and vegetation were removed, utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques and Partial Differential Equations (PDE) to create an accurate Digital Terrain Model (DTM) [6]. Inpainting preserves building height contour consistency and edge sharpness of identified inpainted regions. Qualitative results illustrate other benefits such as Terrain Inpainting s unique ability to minimize or eliminate undesirable terrain data artifacts. Keywords: Compressed Sensing, Sparsity, Data Dictionary, LiDAR, ROC, K-Means, Clustering, K-SVD, Orthogonal Matching Pursuit

  8. A Method of Data Recovery Based on Compressive Sensing in Wireless Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical structural health monitoring (SHM process based on wireless sensor network (WSN, data loss often occurs during the data transmission between sensor nodes and the base station, which will affect the structural data analysis and subsequent decision making. In this paper, a method of recovering lost data in WSN based on compressive sensing (CS is proposed. Compared with the existing methods, it is a simple and stable data recovery method and can obtain lower recovery data error for one-dimensional SHM’s data loss. First, response signal x is measured onto the measurement data vector y through inner products with random vectors. Note that y is the linear projection of x and y is permitted to be lost in part during the transmission. Next, when the base station receives the incomplete data, the response signal x can be reconstructed from the data vector y using the CS method. Finally, the test of active structural damage identification on LF-21M aviation antirust aluminum plate is proposed. The response signal gathered from the aluminum plate is used to verify the data recovery ability of the proposed method.

  9. [Method of Remote Sensing Identification for Mineral Types Based on Multiple Spectral Characteristic Parameters Matching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Ming, Yan-fang; Han, Liu-sheng; Ren, Zhong-liang; Guo, Ya-min

    2015-10-01

    The traditional mineral mapping methods with remote sensing data, based on spectral reflectance matching techniques, shows low accuracy, for obviously being affected by the image quality, atmospheric and other factors. A new mineral mapping method based on multiple types of spectral characteristic parameters is presented in this paper. Various spectral characteristic parameters are used together to enhanced the stability in the situation of atmosphere and environment background affecting. AVIRIS (Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data of Nevada Cuprite are selected to determine the mineral types with this method. Typical mineral spectral data are also obtained from USGS (United States Geological Survey) spectral library to calculate the spectral characteristic parameters. A mineral identification model based on multiple spectral characteristic parameters is built by analyzing the various characteristic parameters, and is applied in the mineral mapping experiment in Cuprite area. The mineral mapping result produced by Clark et al. in 1995 is used to evaluate the effect of this method, results show, that mineral mapping results with this method can obtain a high precision, the overall mineral identification accuracy is 78.96%.

  10. Using multivariate geostatistical methods and geographical clustering to delineate homogeneous winegrowing zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luis L.; García, Abelardo

    2014-05-01

    Characterization of homogeneous zones is difficult because of the complex combination of factors which could affect it. In winegrowing regions, zoning studies not only define areas according to their potential to produce specific wines but also identify the key drivers behind their variability and optimize vineyard management for sustainable viticulture. With the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the main vine-related environmental variables and using this information to determine different zones, climate and topographical data were obtained in Extremadura (southwestern Spain), an important wine region. Thus, accurate maps of all climate indices were produced by using regression-kriging as the most suitable algorithm in which exhaustive secondary information on elevation was incorporated. Maps of topography-derived variables were obtained using GIS tools. Later, principal component analysis and multivariate geographic classification were carried out to define areas of similar characteristics, resulting in three zones. This territory zonification constitutes a basic tool for rational region management, demarcation of production areas, studying new cultivar suitability and its interaction with environment, and it can be the basis for viticultural zoning at larger scales. Finally, the suitability of the territory belonging to the Ribera del Guadiana Denomination of Origin for viticulture was analyzed

  11. Methods based on remote sensing data for environmental monitoring to support National and Regional Protection Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, V.; Lasaponara, R.; Macchiato, F. M.; Simoniello, T.

    2001-05-01

    Remote sensing provides useful data for environmental monitoring nevertheless, efforts are required to test and evaluate methods and techniques to be applied for operational applications. Since 1994, in the context of several projects founded by the Italian Environment Protection Agency (ANPA) and Environmental Department of Basilicata Region, we have experienced the use of remote sensing for environmental monitoring in operative contexts. Particularly, we have developed and tested methodologies based on the integration of remote sensed data aimed at: estimations of space/temporal dynamics of surface parameters (such as temperature and vegetation indexes), forest fire detection and danger estimation, risk assessment, change detection, desertification, alpine ice monitoring, etc. Some examples are briefly summarized below. The action C of Timoran projects was devoted to forest fire monitoring. We devised a dynamic short time fire forecasting based on the integration of remote sensing and GIS. A daily fire susceptibility assessment was performed, from NOAA-AVHRR exploiting the cross analysis of the temporal evolution of NDVI and the middle-infrared channel. Four danger classes have been obtained (low, moderate, high and very high). We also estimated the expected fire severity combining and integrating different danger variables, such as: (1) fire susceptibility (water stress) performed using satellite AVHRR data, (2) fuel type, (3) incidence of topography, (4) wind forecast, obtained from meteorological models. Potential and limitations of AVHRR for fire detection were evaluated in the Italian ecosystems. At present we are working on evaluating the effectiveness of Landsat-TM imagery for mapping burned area in heterogeneous regions, characterized by different cover types, rough topography and complex ecosystems. In the context of "Devising of environmental indicators based on remote sensing data" project, funded by ANPA, we investigated on an AVHRR time series from

  12. Optical and bio-sensing characteristics of ZnO nanotubes grown by hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, T; Mandal, S; Mishra, P; Dhar, A; Manna, I; Ray, S K

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on copper substrates by hydrothermal method at an optimized growth temperature of -95 degrees C. Structural properties were investigated by field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Distinct morphologies were found to be formed at different growth times. The formation of nanotubes mainly involved the initial nucleation followed by the growth of nanorods at 95 degrees C, and then with the increase of dissolution time at room temperature, the preferential chemical dissolution of the metastable Zn-rich [0001] polar surfaces resulted in removing the atoms from the surfaces, thus leading to the thinning of the wall of the nanostructures. Completely hollow ZnO nanotubes could be obtained at a high dissolution time. The room temperature photoluminescence and optical absorption properties of ZnO nanotubes have been studied as a function of dissolution time. The efficacy of ZnO nanotubes for glucose sensing applications has been studied.

  13. A robust anomaly based change detection method for time-series remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoujing, Yin; Qiao, Wang; Chuanqing, Wu; Xiaoling, Chen; Wandong, Ma; Huiqin, Mao

    2014-03-01

    Time-series remote sensing images record changes happening on the earth surface, which include not only abnormal changes like human activities and emergencies (e.g. fire, drought, insect pest etc.), but also changes caused by vegetation phenology and climate changes. Yet, challenges occur in analyzing global environment changes and even the internal forces. This paper proposes a robust Anomaly Based Change Detection method (ABCD) for time-series images analysis by detecting abnormal points in data sets, which do not need to follow a normal distribution. With ABCD we can detect when and where changes occur, which is the prerequisite condition of global change studies. ABCD was tested initially with 10-day SPOT VGT NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) times series tracking land cover type changes, seasonality and noise, then validated to real data in a large area in Jiangxi, south of China. Initial results show that ABCD can precisely detect spatial and temporal changes from long time series images rapidly.

  14. A new method for detecting interactions between the senses in event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Röder, B.

    2006-01-01

    not contain common activity: This activity would be subtracted twice from one ERP and would, therefore, contaminate the result. In the present study, ERPs to unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli (T) were recorded. We demonstrate that (T + TAV) - (TA + TV) is equivalent to AV......Event-related potentials (ERPs) can be used in multisensory research to determine the point in time when different senses start to interact, for example, the auditory and the visual system. For this purpose, the ERP to bimodal stimuli (AV) is often compared to the sum of the ERPs to auditory (A......) and visual (V) stimuli: AV - (A + V). If the result is non-zero, this is interpreted as an indicator for multisensory interactions. Using this method, several studies have demonstrated auditory-visual interactions as early as 50 ms after stimulus onset. The subtraction requires that A, V, and AV do...

  15. Sensing/actuating materials made from carbon nanotube polymer composites and methods for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An electroactive sensing or actuating material comprises a composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation of the composite when such composite is affected by an external stimulus. In another embodiment, the composite comprises a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic that is also incorporated in the polymer matrix. The method for making the three-phase composite comprises either incorporating the carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix before incorporation of the particles of ceramic or mixing the carbon nanotubes and particles of ceramic together in a solution before incorporation in the polymer matrix.

  16. Method of Making an Electroactive Sensing/Actuating Material for Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive sensing or actuating material comprises a composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation of the composite when such composite is affected by an external stimulus. In another embodiment, the composite comprises a, third component of micro -sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic that is also incorporated in the polymer matrix. The method for making the three-phase composite comprises either incorporating the carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix before incorporation of the particles of ceramic or mixing the carbon nanotubes and particles of ceramic together in a solution before incorporation in the polymer matrix.

  17. Human Blood Cell Sensing with Platinum Black Electroplated Impedance Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Siyang; Nandra, Mandheerej S.; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2007-01-01

    AC impedance sensing is an important method for biological cell analysis in flow cytometry. For micro impedance cell sensors, downsizing electrodes increases the double layer impedance of the metal-electrolyte interface, thus leaves no sensing zone in frequency domain and reduces the sensitivity significantly. We proposed using platinum black electroplated electrodes to solve the problem. In this paper, using this technique we demonstrated human blood cell sensing with high signal to noise ra...

  18. Photo-acoustic and video-acoustic methods for sensing distant sound sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Long range telescopic video imagery of distant terrestrial scenes, aircraft, rockets and other aerospace vehicles can be a powerful observational tool. But what about the associated acoustic activity? A new technology, Remote Acoustic Sensing (RAS), may provide a method to remotely listen to the acoustic activity near these distant objects. Local acoustic activity sometimes weakly modulates the ambient illumination in a way that can be remotely sensed. RAS is a new type of microphone that separates an acoustic transducer into two spatially separated components: 1) a naturally formed in situ acousto-optic modulator (AOM) located within the distant scene and 2) a remote sensing readout device that recovers the distant audio. These two elements are passively coupled over long distances at the speed of light by naturally occurring ambient light energy or other electromagnetic fields. Stereophonic, multichannel and acoustic beam forming are all possible using RAS techniques and when combined with high-definition video imagery it can help to provide a more cinema like immersive viewing experience. A practical implementation of a remote acousto-optic readout device can be a challenging engineering problem. The acoustic influence on the optical signal is generally weak and often with a strong bias term. The optical signal is further degraded by atmospheric seeing turbulence. In this paper, we consider two fundamentally different optical readout approaches: 1) a low pixel count photodiode based RAS photoreceiver and 2) audio extraction directly from a video stream. Most of our RAS experiments to date have used the first method for reasons of performance and simplicity. But there are potential advantages to extracting audio directly from a video stream. These advantages include the straight forward ability to work with multiple AOMs (useful for acoustic beam forming), simpler optical configurations, and a potential ability to use certain preexisting video recordings. However

  19. Method for Multiple Targets Tracking in Cognitive Radar Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A multiple targets cognitive radar tracking method based on Compressed Sensing (CS is proposed. In this method, the theory of CS is introduced to the case of cognitive radar tracking process in multiple targets scenario. The echo signal is sparsely expressed. The designs of sparse matrix and measurement matrix are accomplished by expressing the echo signal sparsely, and subsequently, the restruction of measurement signal under the down-sampling condition is realized. On the receiving end, after considering that the problems that traditional particle filter suffers from degeneracy, and require a large number of particles, the particle swarm optimization particle filter is used to track the targets. On the transmitting end, the Posterior Cramér-Rao Bounds (PCRB of the tracking accuracy is deduced, and the radar waveform parameters are further cognitively designed using PCRB. Simulation results show that the proposed method can not only reduce the data quantity, but also provide a better tracking performance compared with traditional method.

  20. A three-step reconstruction method for fluorescence molecular tomography based on compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yansong; Jha, Abhinav K.; Dreyer, Jakob K.; Le, Hanh N. D.; Kang, Jin U.; Roland, Per E.; Wong, Dean F.; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a promising tool for real time in vivo quantification of neurotransmission (NT) as we pursue in our BRAIN initiative effort. However, the acquired image data are noisy and the reconstruction problem is ill-posed. Further, while spatial sparsity of the NT effects could be exploited, traditional compressive-sensing methods cannot be directly applied as the system matrix in FMT is highly coherent. To overcome these issues, we propose and assess a three-step reconstruction method. First, truncated singular value decomposition is applied on the data to reduce matrix coherence. The resultant image data are input to a homotopy-based reconstruction strategy that exploits sparsity via l1 regularization. The reconstructed image is then input to a maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm that retains the sparseness of the input estimate and improves upon the quantitation by accurate Poisson noise modeling. The proposed reconstruction method was evaluated in a three-dimensional simulated setup with fluorescent sources in a cuboidal scattering medium with optical properties simulating human brain cortex (reduced scattering coefficient: 9.2 cm-1, absorption coefficient: 0.1 cm-1 and tomographic measurements made using pixelated detectors. In different experiments, fluorescent sources of varying size and intensity were simulated. The proposed reconstruction method provided accurate estimates of the fluorescent source intensity, with a 20% lower root mean square error on average compared to the pure-homotopy method for all considered source intensities and sizes. Further, compared with conventional l2 regularized algorithm, overall, the proposed method reconstructed substantially more accurate fluorescence distribution. The proposed method shows considerable promise and will be tested using more realistic simulations and experimental setups.

  1. A robust and quick method to validate large scale flood inundation modelling with SAR remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G. J.; Neal, J. C.; Bates, P. D.

    2011-12-01

    data but also a more robust and quick method to assess model skill than most existing model performance statistics. Existing fit statistics rely most often on fit statistics between a classified remotely sensed image and a model simulation, but this type of assessment becomes quickly impractical at very large scales. Therefore, we propose a quick and robust method to verify model skill based on computing differences between model and SAR image loadings of a principal component analysis for the period of image availability. Although the power of the method to discriminate between models of different hydraulic parameterizations is expected to be relatively limited, our findings show that it may be a quick and objective procedure to inform about model credibility over very large scales by separating out poorly performing models. [1] Bates, P. D., Horritt, M. S., & Fewtrell, T. J. (2010). A simple inertial formulation of the shallow water equations for efficient two dimensional flood inundation modelling. Journal of Hydrology, 387, 33-45.

  2. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine an activation energy for the catalyst-assisted systems.

  3. Linking pesticides and human health: a geographic information system (GIS) and Landsat remote sensing method to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure

    OpenAIRE

    VoPham, Trang; Wilson, John P.; Ruddell, Darren; Rashed, Tarek; Brooks, Maria M.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Weissfeld, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate pesticide exposure estimation is integral to epidemiologic studies elucidating the role of pesticides in human health. Humans can be exposed to pesticides via residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications (drift). We present an improved geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing method, the Landsat method, to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure through matching pesticide applications to crops classified from temporally concurrent Landsat satellite remo...

  4. Modeling the dynamics of driver's dilemma zone perception using machine learning methods for safer intersection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The "dilemma zone" (DZ) is defined as the area where drivers approaching a signalized intersection must decide to either proceed or stop at the onset of the yellow indication. Drivers that might perceive themselves to be too close to an intersection ...

  5. [New methodic approach to hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic energy absorption in near-field zone of irradiation source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perov, S Yu; Bogachova, E V; Belaya, O V

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, essential objective of hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic energy absorption of mobile radio-frequency devices is specification of new approach with consideration of russian and international regulation principles. This approach enables to ealuate correctly users' actual exposure conditions and consider energy absorption by human in near-field zone of the irradiation source. The work is aimed to study applicability of hypothesis on possible relations between magnetic part of electromagnetic field and specific absorbed capacity. This hypothesis is considered a basis for designing a new methodic approach to hygienic evaluation of individual mobile communication devices in near-field zone of the source. Analysis of the data obtained demonstrates that visible difference between suggested and classic methods decreases with higher frequency. Every studied source in its near-field zone can be characterized by optimal conditions for the suggested method usage with error less than 2 dB. The study results on relations between decreasing electromagnetic energy and specific absorbed capacity value make possible further improvement of methods controlling electromagnetic field levels in assessment of personal mobile radio communication devices.

  6. A study on quantitative estimation method of groundwater contamination vulnerability in unsaturated zones, Southeastern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J. O.; Choi, J. J.; Kim, M. G.; Nho, J. G.; Choo, C. O.; Jeong, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    We performed a hydrogeological analysis for better understanding integrated surface-groundwater in unsaturated zones and landfills as a preliminary approach because there is still an urgent need for desirable implementation of the groundwater protection policy of the country. For this study, the characterization of groundwater flow in unsaturated zones composed of soil and landfill in Yangsan, southeastern Korea was made using HYDRUS-1D code that incorporates simulation tools for water flow and complex solutes. For comparison of the permissibility data obtained in the field, one test-bed was constructed in Andong, middle eastern Korea. It is noteworthy to mention that Yangsan is famous for its unique geological position because it is located between alluvium and a river called Yangsancheon along Yangsan fault that is the largest one among major faults in southeastern Korea. Underground layers in alluvium identified by drilling are composed of landfill (8 m depth), silt and sand (22 m depth), regolith (26 m) and weathered zone (30 m depth) from the top. Pressure heads showed significant fluctuation at depths of 20 25 m and water content showed sufficient water content in landfills. Hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic capacity were variable at 23 m depth. Water flux greatly decreased at the zones of silt, sand and regolith while it increased at the weathered zone. In summary, water content increased with decreasing hydraulic conductivity. It is evident that the water level increased during the rainy seasons, which is interpreted to be affected by rainfall. It can be concluded that the study area is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity because its hydrogeological data represent the unique properties typical of gravel or coarse sand areas. Hydraulic conductivity measured by a time lag of the peak point at the test-bed showed 10-3 10-4 cm/sec, corresponding to the data obtained by HYDRUS-1D. This study was supported by the project 2015000530003, GAIA program of

  7. METHOD OF RADIOMETRIC DISTORTION CORRECTION OF MULTISPECTRAL DATA FOR THE EARTH REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grigoriev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with technologies of ground secondary processing of heterogeneous multispectral data. The factors of heterogeneous data include uneven illumination of objects on the Earth surface caused by different properties of the relief. A procedure for the image restoration of spectral channels by means of terrain distortion compensation is developed. The object matter of this paper is to improve the quality of the results during image restoration of areas with large and medium landforms. Methods. Researches are based on the elements of the digital image processing theory, statistical processing of the observation results and the theory of multi-dimensional arrays. Main Results. The author has introduced operations on multidimensional arrays: concatenation and elementwise division. Extended model description for input data about the area is given. The model contains all necessary data for image restoration. Correction method for multispectral data radiometric distortions of the Earth remote sensing has been developed. The method consists of two phases: construction of empirical dependences for spectral reflectance on the relief properties and restoration of spectral images according to semiempirical data. Practical Relevance. Research novelty lies in developme nt of the application theory of multidimensional arrays with respect to the processing of multispectral data, together with data on the topography and terrain objects. The results are usable for development of radiometric data correction tools. Processing is performed on the basis of a digital terrain model without carrying out ground works connected with research of the objects reflective properties.

  8. A Method for Remotely Sensing Vital Signs of Human Subjects Outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Jin, Jingxi; Lv, Hao; Li, Sheng; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-06-24

    After chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions, finding survivors is a huge challenge. Although human bodies can be found by smart vehicles and drones equipped with cameras, it is difficult to verify if the person is alive or dead this way. This paper describes a continuous wave radar sensor for remotely sensing the vital signs of human subjects. Firstly, a compact and portable 24 GHz Doppler radar system is designed to conduct non-contact detection of respiration signal. Secondly, in order to improve the quality of the respiration signals, the self-correlation and adaptive line enhancer (ALE) methods are proposed to minimize the interferences of any moving objects around the human subject. Finally, the detection capabilities of the radar system and the signal processing method are verified through experiments which show that human respiration signals can be extracted when the subject is 7 m away outdoors. The method provided in this paper will be a promising way to search for human subjects outdoors.

  9. A Method for Remotely Sensing Vital Signs of Human Subjects Outdoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuantao Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions, finding survivors is a huge challenge. Although human bodies can be found by smart vehicles and drones equipped with cameras, it is difficult to verify if the person is alive or dead this way. This paper describes a continuous wave radar sensor for remotely sensing the vital signs of human subjects. Firstly, a compact and portable 24 GHz Doppler radar system is designed to conduct non-contact detection of respiration signal. Secondly, in order to improve the quality of the respiration signals, the self-correlation and adaptive line enhancer (ALE methods are proposed to minimize the interferences of any moving objects around the human subject. Finally, the detection capabilities of the radar system and the signal processing method are verified through experiments which show that human respiration signals can be extracted when the subject is 7 m away outdoors. The method provided in this paper will be a promising way to search for human subjects outdoors.

  10. Image quality enhancement method for on-orbit remote sensing cameras using invariable modulation transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Liu, Zilong

    2017-07-24

    Remote sensing cameras in the visible/near infrared range are essential tools in Earth-observation, deep-space exploration, and celestial navigation. Their imaging performance, i.e. image quality here, directly determines the target-observation performance of a spacecraft, and even the successful completion of a space mission. Unfortunately, the camera itself, such as a optical system, a image sensor, and a electronic system, limits the on-orbit imaging performance. Here, we demonstrate an on-orbit high-resolution imaging method based on the invariable modulation transfer function (IMTF) of cameras. The IMTF, which is stable and invariable to the changing of ground targets, atmosphere, and environment on orbit or on the ground, depending on the camera itself, is extracted using a pixel optical focal-plane (PFP). The PFP produces multiple spatial frequency targets, which are used to calculate the IMTF at different frequencies. The resulting IMTF in combination with a constrained least-squares filter compensates for the IMTF, which represents the removal of the imaging effects limited by the camera itself. This method is experimentally confirmed. Experiments on an on-orbit panchromatic camera indicate that the proposed method increases 6.5 times of the average gradient, 3.3 times of the edge intensity, and 1.56 times of the MTF value compared to the case when IMTF is not used. This opens a door to push the limitation of a camera itself, enabling high-resolution on-orbit optical imaging.

  11. A High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Segmentation Method by Combining Superpixels with Minimum Spanning Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Zhipeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is the basic and key step of object-oriented remote sensing image analysis. Conventional image segmentation method is sensitive to image noise and hard to determine the correct segmentation scale. To solve these problems, a novel image segmentation method by combining superpixels with minimum spanning tree was proposed in this paper. First, the image is over-segmented by simple linear iterative clustering algorithm to obtain superpixels. Then, superpixels are firstly clustered by regionalization with dynamically constrained agglomerative clustering and partitioning algorithm using the initial segmentation number and the sum of squared deviations (SSD, local variance (LV, rate of LV change (ROC-LV index of graphs corresponding to the segmentation number are obtained. So the suitable image segmentation number is determined according to the SSD, LV, ROC-LV index of graphs corresponding to segmentation number. Finally, superpixels are reclustered by regionalization with dynamically constrained agglomerative clustering and partitioning algorithm based on the suitable segmentation number. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can obtain good segmentation results.

  12. A novel electrical potential sensing method for in vitro stent fracture monitoring and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Tijing, Leonard D; Yun, Yeoheung; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary investigation and prototype fabrication of a novel potential sensing method to continuously monitor vascular stent fractures. A potential measurement system consisting of Wheatstone bridge circuit and signal conditioning circuit was designed for the cardiovascular stent durability and fatigue test. Each end of a bare and polyurethane-covered Nitinol vascular stent was electrically connected to the potential measurement system and then immersed either in simulated body fluid (SBF) media or distilled water at 36.4 ± 1 °C. When the stent experienced fracture (i.e., a cut), its electrical potential decreased with an increase in electrical resistance. This method successfully measured fractures in the stent regardless of location. Furthermore, the number of cycles at the onset of stent fracture was accurately detected and continuously monitored using this technique. Thus, the present fracture detection method, which to our knowledge is the first ever report to use electrical potential measurement for stent durability test, gives a fast, real-time, accurate and efficient detection of fractures in stent during in vitro fatigue and durability test.

  13. A Sense Retrieving Method from a Noun for the Commonsense Feeling Judgment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Hirokazu; Horiguchi, Atsushi; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

    When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take proper actions. This is possible because we have "commonsense" concerning the word, which is built up from knowledge that is stored through long time experience. Among the commonsense we use in our every day lives it is thought that there are the commonsense concerning; quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover emotion such as happy or sad. In order for computers to understand the meaning and become closer to human beings, it is thought that the construction of a "Commonsense Judgment System" which deals with these "commonsense" is necessary. A subsystem needed for the "Commonsense Judgment System" is the system that judges the commonsense concerning the characteristics of words, namely the "Commonsense Feeling Judgment System." This paper proposes a mechanism to associate the characteristics of a word based on our five senses, such as an apple is red, with a knowledge base consisting of basic words. When aiming to realize this "Commonsense Feeling Judgment System" and trying to make a computer have the same commonsense and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words, which are given to the computer as knowledge before hand, is not a problem since it can refer to that knowledge. But when an unknown word, non-registered knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, is proposed. By using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries, the closeness of meaning is put into consideration. With this process, it is possible to understand a word that does not exist in the knowledge base. This study aims to

  14. NAVIGATION AND REMOTE SENSING PAYLOADS AND METHODS OF THE SARVANT UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Molina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a large number of scenarios and missions, the technical, operational and economical advantages of UAS-based photogrammetry and remote sensing over traditional airborne and satellite platforms are apparent. Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR or combined optical/SAR operation in remote areas might be a case of a typical "dull, dirty, dangerous" mission suitable for unmanned operation – in harsh environments such as for example rain forest areas in Brazil, topographic mapping of small to medium sparsely inhabited remote areas with UAS-based photogrammetry and remote sensing seems to be a reasonable paradigm. An example of such a system is the SARVANT platform, a fixed-wing aerial vehicle with a six-meter wingspan and a maximumtake- of-weight of 140 kilograms, able to carry a fifty-kilogram payload. SARVANT includes a multi-band (X and P interferometric SAR payload, as the P-band enables the topographic mapping of densely tree-covered areas, providing terrain profile information. Moreover, the combination of X- and P-band measurements can be used to extract biomass estimations. Finally, long-term plan entails to incorporate surveying capabilities also at optical bands and deliver real-time imagery to a control station. This paper focuses on the remote-sensing concept in SARVANT, composed by the aforementioned SAR sensor and envisioning a double optical camera configuration to cover the visible and the near-infrared spectrum. The flexibility on the optical payload election, ranging from professional, medium-format cameras to mass-market, small-format cameras, is discussed as a driver in the SARVANT development. The paper also focuses on the navigation and orientation payloads, including the sensors (IMU and GNSS, the measurement acquisition system and the proposed navigation and orientation methods. The latter includes the Fast AT procedure, which performs close to traditional Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO and better than Direct Sensor

  15. Implementation of Active Teaching Methods and Emerging Topics in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student's team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI) for identifying deep and surface approaches to

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE TEACHING METHODS AND EMERGING TOPICS IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kosmatin Fras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student’s team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI for identifying deep and

  17. New method of measuring wrist joint position sense avoiding cutaneous and visual inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laskowski Edward R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspects of afferent inputs, generally termed proprioception, are being increasingly studied. Extraneous factors such as cutaneous inputs can dramatically interfere while trying to design studies in order to determine the participation of the different structures involved in proprioception in the wrist position sense. We tried to determine validity and repeatability of a new wrist joint position measurement device using methodology designed to minimize extraneous factors and isolate muscle and joint inputs. Methods In order to test the reliability of the system, eighty young-adult subjects without musculoskeletal or neurologic impairments affecting the right upper extremity were tested using a custom made motion tracking system. Testing consisted of two conditions: active reproduction of active placement and passive reproduction of passive placement. Subjects performed two repetitions of each target position (10, 20, and 30° of flexion and extension presented in a random order. Test- retest reliability was then tested. Results The average constant error in the passive condition was -0.7° ± 4.7° as compared to the active condition at 3.7° ± 5.1°. Average absolute error in the passive condition was 4.9° ± 2.9° compared to the active condition in which absolute error was 5.9° ± 3.5°. Discussion Test-retest repeatability in both conditions was less than the 5° magnitude typical of clinical goniometry. Errors in the active condition (less than 2° were slightly smaller than the passive condition, and the passive condition was also associated with poorer consistency between apparatus sensors and skin sensors. Conclusions The current system for measurement of wrist joint proprioception allows the researcher to decrease extraneous influences that may affect joint position sense awareness, and will help in future study aiming to determine precisely the role of the different structure involved in proprioception.

  18. 3d noncontact humidity sensing technologies and methods of use thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-09-08

    Noncontact sensing components are provided herein, in an aspect, they can be for an electronic device. The noncontact sensing components can contain a semiconductor layer having a r-GO portion and a CNT portion. The noncontact sensing components can be used to detect the presence or movement of a humidity source in the vicinity of the noncontact sensing component. The resistance/humidity response of the component can be based on the combined contribution of carbon nanotube (positive resistance variation) and reduced-graphene oxide (negative resistance variation) behaviors.

  19. Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient of Downwelling Irradiance: An Evaluation of Remote Sensing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Darecki, Miroslaw; Carder, Kendall L.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Stramski, Dariusz; Rhea, W. Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength lambda from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda). There are two standard methods for the derivation of K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) from reflectance has also been developed. In this study, using K(sup -)(sub d)(490) and K(sup -)(sub d)(443) as examples, we compare the K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) values derived from the three methods using data collected in three different regions that cover oceanic and coastal waters, with K(sup -)(sub d)(490) ranging from approximately 0.04 to 4.0 per meter. The derived values are compared with the data calculated from in situ measurements of the vertical profiles of downwelling irradiance. The comparisons show that the two standard methods produced satisfactory estimates of K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) in oceanic waters where attenuation is relatively low but resulted in significant errors in coastal waters. The newly developed semianalytical method appears to have no such limitation as it performed well for both oceanic and coastal waters. For all data in this study the average of absolute percentage difference between the in situ measured and the semianalytically derived K(sup -)(sub d) is approximately 14% for lambda = 490 nm and approximately 11% for lambda = 443 nm.

  20. Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

    2000-08-29

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  1. MRT letter: extended depth from focus reconstruction method for stretch zone measurement in 15-5PH steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira Caltabiano, Pietro Carelli Reis; Rosa, Paulo Henrique Santos; De Campos, Kamila Amato; De Oliveira Hein, Luis Rogerio

    2012-09-01

    The stretch zone width (SZW) data for 15-5PH steel CTOD specimens fractured at -150°C to + 23°C temperature were measured based on focused images and 3D maps obtained by extended depth-of-field reconstruction from light microscopy (LM) image stacks. This LM-based method, with a larger lateral resolution, seems to be as effective for quantitative analysis of SZW as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), permitting to clearly identify stretch zone boundaries. Despite the worst sharpness of focused images, a robust linear correlation was established to fracture toughness (K(C) ) and SZW data for the 15-5PH steel tested specimens, measured at their center region. The method is an alternative to evaluate the boundaries of stretched zones, at a lower cost of implementation and training, since topographic data from elevation maps can be associated with reconstructed image, which summarizes the original contrast and brightness information. Finally, the extended depth-of-field method is presented here as a valuable tool for failure analysis, as a cheaper alternative to investigate rough surfaces or fracture, compared to scanning electron or confocal light microscopes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Turbidite event history--Methods and implications for Holocene paleoseismicity of the Cascadia subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, Chris; Nelson, C. Hans; Morey, Ann E.; Johnson, Joel E.; Patton, Jason R.; Karabanov, Eugene; Gutierrez-Pastor, Julia; Eriksson, Andrew T.; Gracia, Eulalia; Dunhill, Gita; Enkin, Randolph J.; Dallimore, Audrey; Vallier, Tracy; Kayen, Robert; Kayen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Turbidite systems along the continental margin of Cascadia Basin from Vancouver Island, Canada, to Cape Mendocino, California, United States, have been investigated with swath bathymetry; newly collected and archive piston, gravity, kasten, and box cores; and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Holocene turbidite record as a paleoseismic record for the Cascadia subduction zone. The Cascadia Basin is an ideal place to develop a turbidite paleoseismologic method and to record paleoearthquakes because (1) a single subduction-zone fault underlies the Cascadia submarine-canyon systems; (2) multiple tributary canyons and a variety of turbidite systems and sedimentary sources exist to use in tests of synchronous turbidite triggering; (3) the Cascadia trench is completely sediment filled, allowing channel systems to trend seaward across the abyssal plain, rather than merging in the trench; (4) the continental shelf is wide, favoring disconnection of Holocene river systems from their largely Pleistocene canyons; and (5) excellent stratigraphic datums, including the Mazama ash and distinguishable sedimentological and faunal changes near the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, are present for correlating events and anchoring the temporal framework. Multiple tributaries to Cascadia Channel with 50- to 150-km spacing, and a wide variety of other turbidite systems with different sedimentary sources contain 13 post-Mazama-ash and 19 Holocene turbidites. Likely correlative sequences are found in Cascadia Channel, Juan de Fuca Channel off Washington, and Hydrate Ridge slope basin and Astoria Fan off northern and central Oregon. A probable correlative sequence of turbidites is also found in cores on Rogue Apron off southern Oregon. The Hydrate Ridge and Rogue Apron cores also include 12-22 interspersed thinner turbidite beds respectively. We use 14C dates, relative-dating tests at channel confluences, and

  3. Mapping and predicting sinkholes by integration of remote sensing and spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshleger, N.; Basson, U.; Azaria, I.

    2013-08-01

    The Dead Sea coastal area is exposed to the destructive process of sinkhole collapse. The increase in sinkhole activity in the last two decades has been substantial, resulting from the continuous decrease in the Dead Sea's level, with more than 1,000 sinkholes developing as a result of upper layer collapse. Large sinkholes can reach 25 m in diameter. They are concentrated mainly in clusters in several dozens of sites with different characteristics. In this research, methods for mapping, monitoring and predicting sinkholes were developed using active and passive remote-sensing methods: field spectrometer, geophysical ground penetration radar (GPR) and a frequency domain electromagnetic instrument (FDEM). The research was conducted in three stages: 1) literature review and data collection; 2) mapping regions abundant with sinkholes in various stages and regions vulnerable to sinkholes; 3) analyzing the data and translating it into cognitive and accessible scientific information. Field spectrometry enabled a comparison between the spectral signatures of soil samples collected near active or progressing sinkholes, and those collected in regions with no visual sign of sinkhole occurrence. FDEM and GPR investigations showed that electrical conductivity and soil moisture are higher in regions affected by sinkholes. Measurements taken at different time points over several seasons allowed monitoring the progress of an 'embryonic' sinkhole.

  4. Progress in remote sensing of global land surface heat fluxes and evaporations with a turbulent heat exchange parameterization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelong; Su, Bob

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing has provided us an opportunity to observe Earth land surface with a much higher resolution than any of GCM simulation. Due to scarcity of information for land surface physical parameters, up-to-date GCMs still have large uncertainties in the coupled land surface process modeling. One critical issue is a large amount of parameters used in their land surface models. Thus remote sensing of land surface spectral information can be used to provide information on these parameters or assimilated to decrease the model uncertainties. Satellite imager could observe the Earth land surface with optical, thermal and microwave bands. Some basic Earth land surface status (land surface temperature, canopy height, canopy leaf area index, soil moisture etc.) has been produced with remote sensing technique, which already help scientists understanding Earth land and atmosphere interaction more precisely. However, there are some challenges when applying remote sensing variables to calculate global land-air heat and water exchange fluxes. Firstly, a global turbulent exchange parameterization scheme needs to be developed and verified, especially for global momentum and heat roughness length calculation with remote sensing information. Secondly, a compromise needs to be innovated to overcome the spatial-temporal gaps in remote sensing variables to make the remote sensing based land surface fluxes applicable for GCM model verification or comparison. A flux network data library (more 200 flux towers) was collected to verify the designed method. Important progress in remote sensing of global land flux and evaporation will be presented and its benefits for GCM models will also be discussed. Some in-situ studies on the Tibetan Plateau and problems of land surface process simulation will also be discussed.

  5. Studying the correlation between different word sense disambiguation methods and summarization effectiveness in biomedical texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Alberto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD attempts to solve lexical ambiguities by identifying the correct meaning of a word based on its context. WSD has been demonstrated to be an important step in knowledge-based approaches to automatic summarization. However, the correlation between the accuracy of the WSD methods and the summarization performance has never been studied. Results We present three existing knowledge-based WSD approaches and a graph-based summarizer. Both the WSD approaches and the summarizer employ the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS Metathesaurus as the knowledge source. We first evaluate WSD directly, by comparing the prediction of the WSD methods to two reference sets: the NLM WSD dataset and the MSH WSD collection. We next apply the different WSD methods as part of the summarizer, to map documents onto concepts in the UMLS Metathesaurus, and evaluate the summaries that are generated. The results obtained by the different methods in both evaluations are studied and compared. Conclusions It has been found that the use of WSD techniques has a positive impact on the results of our graph-based summarizer, and that, when both the WSD and summarization tasks are assessed over large and homogeneous evaluation collections, there exists a correlation between the overall results of the WSD and summarization tasks. Furthermore, the best WSD algorithm in the first task tends to be also the best one in the second. However, we also found that the improvement achieved by the summarizer is not directly correlated with the WSD performance. The most likely reason is that the errors in disambiguation are not equally important but depend on the relative salience of the different concepts in the document to be summarized.

  6. Participatory Bluetooth Sensing: A Method for Acquiring Spatio-Temporal Data about Participant Mobility and Interactions at Large Scale Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of data to capture human mobility and interactions during large-scale events is a challenging task. In this paper we discuss a mobile sensing method for mapping the mobility of crowds at large scale events using a participatory Bluetooth sensing approach. This non-invasive technique...... for collecting spatio-temporal data about participant mobility and social interactions uses the capabilities of Bluetooth capable smartphones carried by participants. As a proof-of-concept we present a field study with deployment of the method in a large music festival with 130 000 participants where a small...... subset of participants installed Bluetooth sensing apps on their personal smartphones. Our software module uses location and Bluetooth scans to utilize smartphones as provisional scanners that are present with higher frequency in regions with high density of participants. We discuss the initial results...

  7. An Active-Distributed Temperature Sensing method to quantify groundwater - surface water exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nataline; Bour, Olivier; Lavenant, Nicolas; Faucheux, Mickaël; Fovet, Ophélie; Longuevergne, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Understanding and quantifying groundwater and surface water interactions are key elements for the management of water quality and quantity, but also for the preservation of groundwater dependent ecosystems and riparian habitat. We developed a methodology to quantify groundwater and surface water interactions, by setting up an active heat tracer experiment using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS). The experimental setup consists in heating an armoured fiber-optic cable that has been previously deployed along the streambed within the sediments. Then, the increase in temperature along the heated cable is a function of the thermal properties of the sediments and of the fluid flow velocity within the sediments. The cable is heated electrically through the steel armouring of the cable while the elevations in temperature are continuously monitored. We tested this methodology on the Kerbernez catchment, located in south-western Brittany (France) and which is part of the AgrHys hydrological observatory. We deploy the cable in a first-order stream within this small agricultural catchment (0.12 km2). Temperature was monitored along 60 meters of stream with a spatial and temporal resolution respectively equal to 29 cm and 30 s. To interpret the data, we used an analytical solution developed for geothermal energy that considers advection and conduction of temperature in porous media. To validate the use of the analytical solution and to define the limits of the method, a 2D numerical model has been developed. This model simulates heat transport and conduction with steady state fluid flow using the Conjugate Heat Transfer module of COMSOL Multiphysics ®. During heating and cooling, the measured temperature was particularly variable along the section with temperature increases that range between 16 to 36°C. This variability can directly be associated with local variations of water fluxes by applying the appropriate analytical solution. Henceforth, it is

  8. Application of geoelectric and electromagnetic methods for the detection of failing zones and brine rising zones in the vicinity of a potential CO2-storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Rainer; Krause, Yvonne; Schafrik, Wlad

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the project "brine - CO2 storage in eastern Brandenburg" geophysical investigations are conducted by the German Research Center for Geoscience (GFZ), Potsdam and the Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU), Cottbus on different scales in order to investigate underground situations and evaluate methods suitable for a salinization early warning system. The research of BTU is focused on the distribution of underground structures up to a maximum depth of 200m. Of prevalent interest are the detection capabilities for near surface failing zones which might serve as favored pathways for brine migration and the status-quo of the freshwater-saltwater boundary. Geophysical investigations with the frequency domain electromagnetic (FDEM) and direct current (DC) geoelectric methods are qualified for the identification and monitoring of brine displacement as the measuring parameter is the resistivity/conductivity of the subsurface. In eastern Brandenburg the Oligocene Rupelian clay represents the barrier horizon separating the freshwater and saline aquifers. Due to postglacial processes this layer is locally reduced or totally eroded and might enhance upward brine migration during pressure increase. The areas of investigation were selected by known high fluid conductivity values (hydro chemical indication) and the potential presence of quaternary erosion channels in the Rupelian clay (geological indication). The geophysical results yield a vertical and horizontal resistivity/conductivity distribution. The interpretation is done by lithology profiles of nearby boreholes and correlation with fluid conductivities in groundwater wells. The results of FDEM and DC on coincident profiles are generally in accordance and show that both methods are suitable with DC geoelectrics supplementing a higher resolution close to the surface (max. 80m depth) and the electromagnetics adding coarser/less detailed conductivity information of the deeper underground (down to

  9. Evaluation of Modeling Schemes to Estimate Evapotranspiration and Root Zone Soil Water Content over Vineyard using a Scintillometer and Remotely Sensed Surface Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Gonzalez-Piqueras, J.; Isidro, C., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa) and root zone soil water content (SMC) are key operational variable to monitor water consumption and water stress condition for improve vineyard grapes productivity and quality. This analysis, evaluates the estimation of ETa and SMC based on two modeling approaches. The first approach is a hybrid model that couples a thermal-based two source energy balance (TSEB) model (Norman et al. 1995) and water balance model to estimate the two variable (Geli 2012). The second approach is based on Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS)-based estimates of sensible heat flux. The LAS-based estimates of sensible heat fluxes were used to calculate latent heat flux as the residual of surface energy balance equation on hourly basis which was converted to daily ETa. The calculated ETa from the scintillometer was then couple with the water balance approach to provide updated ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS. Both estimates of ETa and SMC based on LAS (i.e. ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS) and TSEB (ETa_TSEB and SMC_TSEB) were compared with ground-based observation from eddy covariance and soil water content measurements at multiple depths. The study site is an irrigated vineyard located in Central Spain Primary with heterogeneous surface conditions in term of irrigation practices and the ground based observation over the vineyard were collected during the summer of 2007. Preliminary results of the inter-comparison of the two approaches suggests relatively good between both modeling approaches and ground-based observations with RMSE lower than 1.2 mm/day for ETa and lower than 20% for SMC. References Norman, J. M., Kustas, W. P., & Humes, K. S. (1995). A two-source approach for estimating soil and vegetation energy fluxes in observations of directional radiometric surface temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 77, 263293. Geli, Hatim M. E. (2012). Modeling spatial surface energy fluxes of agricultural and riparian vegetation using remote sensing, Ph. D. dissertation

  10. Comparison of various remote sensing classification methods for landslide detection using ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escape, Carmille Marie; Kristia Alemania, Maneka; Luzon, Paul Kenneth; Felix, Raquel; Salvosa, Sheena; Aquino, Dakila; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive landslide inventory is vital in landslide hazard analysis. It provides statistical and spatial distributions at a given time which can be used as parameter for susceptibility and classification modelling. It is usually derived from historical data, field surveys, and manual interpretation of aerial and satellite images. However, historical data is not always available and complete, intensive field surveys are impractical for large-scale studies, and manual analysis of aerial and spectral images can be tedious and time-consuming. With the advancement of spectral remote sensing systems, different automated procedures for image classification have been developed. To test the effectiveness of various automated image classification methods, we compared several procedures utilizing spectral images taken after the Mw 7.2 Bohol (Philippines) earthquake on October 15, 2013 instead of a comprehensive landslide inventory. These procedures included: 1.) an unsupervised ISODATA clustering classification, 2.) a supervised maximum likelihood classification using raw spectral bands, 3.) another supervised classification using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and 4.) a manual reclassification of NDVI values using specific ranges. We used the fourth method to highlight the difference between using its unbiased mathematical data with supervised classification training sites that has an added human factor. We then compared each image classification with the manual inventory done to determine its accuracy. The unsupervised classification had the lowest accuracy and reliability in distinguishing the landslides. The supervised classification using raw spectral bands, though it showed clear regions of landslides, only distinguished 75% of the landslides manually inventoried. Both methods that involved NDVI were more useful for landslide identification but had different advantages. The supervised classification with NDVI was more useful in pinpointing

  11. A Smart Washer for Bolt Looseness Monitoring Based on Piezoelectric Active Sensing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyue Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Piezoceramic based active sensing methods have been researched to monitor preload on bolt connections. However, there is a saturation problem involved with this type of method. The transmitted energy is sometimes saturated before the maximum preload which is due to it coming into contact with flat surfaces. When it comes to flat contact surfaces, the true contact area will easily saturate with the preload. The design of a new type of bolt looseness monitoring sensor, a smart washer, is to mitigate the saturation problem. The smart washer is composed of two annular disks with contact surfaces that are machined into convex and concave respectively, to eliminate the complete flat contact surfaces and to reduce the saturation effect. One piezoelectric patch is bonded on the non-contact surface of each annular disk. These two mating annular disks form a smart washer. One of the two piezoelectric patches serves as an actuator to generate an ultrasonic wave that propagates through the contact surface; the other one serves as a sensor to detect the propagated waves. The wave energy propagated through the contact surface is proportional to the true contact area which is determined by the bolt preload. The time reversal method is used to extract the peak of the focused signal as the index of the transmission wave energy; then, the relationship between the signal peak and bolt preload is obtained. Experimental results show that the focused signal peak value changes with the bolt preload and presents an approximate linear relationship when the saturation problem is experienced. The proposed smart washer can monitor the full range of the rated preload.

  12. Imaging Fluid-Rich Zones by Magnetotelluric Method at South Marmara Region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Özlem; Bülent Tank, Sabri; Tolak Çiftçi, Elif; Kaya, Tülay; Ogawa, Yasuo; Honkura, Yoshimori; Kemal Tunçer, Mustafa; Matsushima, Masaki; Oshiman, Naoto; Çelik, Cengiz

    2013-04-01

    After the mainshock of 1999 İzmit (Turkey) earthquake, scientists have undertaken various kinds of observations in the Marmara region in order to increase understanding of crustal properties of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). Most of these studies focused on the east Marmara region since the destructive earthquakes were occurring there. Considering the westward migration of significant earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), the next destructive earthquake is likely to occur beyond the westernmost part of 1999 İzmit earthquake epicenter, in or around Marmara Sea. For this reason, south of Marmara Sea was chosen as the survey area. Wide-band (320-0.0005 Hz) magnetotelluric (MT) data at sixteen sounding locations along two parallel profiles at south Marmara region were collected to improve the understanding of the crustal electrical conductivity structure. Both profiles are crossing several branches of North Anatolian Fault. The results were achieved by performing two-dimensional (2D) inversions of MT data with the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. These results show a relatively complex structure down to 4 km depth. The electrical resistivity pattern below this depth indicates a simpler structure with conductors (10 Ωm) beneath the northern ends of both profiles. While these deep conductive zones are attributed to partially melting in the crust, the highly resistive zones are associated with low fluid condition and high rigidity. In addition, the features characterized in geo-electric models correlate well with known faults in the survey area. The South Marmara Fault (SMF) possibly corresponds to a lateral resistive-conductive interface between Manyas-Karacabey basin and Bandirma-Karada uplift on the west (PW) and Uluabat uplift and Mudanya uplift on the east (PE) profiles.

  13. Crystal growth and magnetic properties of GdFeO3 crystals by floating zone method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anhua; Wang, Zhanliang; Wang, Bo; Ban, Xiaolei; Jiang, Linwen; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Shujuan; Cao, Shixun

    2014-05-01

    GdFeO3 and other rare earth substituted crystals with distorted orthorhombic pervoskite-like structure (space group Pbnm) have attracted much attention due to their remarkable magnetic properties of primary significance for technological applications. In the present work, the floating zone growth of GdFeO3 crystals has been systematically investigated and high quality GdFeO3 crystal was obtained by optimized process. The intrinsic magnetic properties of GdFeO3 crystal were investigated. GdFeO3 crystal displayed paramagnetic characteristic at low temperature, as temperature increased, a transition from paramagnetism to antiferromagnetism was observed.

  14. Resolution enhancement of tri-stereo remote sensing images by super resolution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Caglayan; Akoguz, Alper; Unal, Gozde; Sertel, Elif

    2016-10-01

    Super resolution (SR) refers to generation of a High Resolution (HR) image from a decimated, blurred, low-resolution (LR) image set, which can be either a single frame or multi-frame that contains a collection of several images acquired from slightly different views of the same observation area. In this study, we propose a novel application of tri-stereo Remote Sensing (RS) satellite images to the super resolution problem. Since the tri-stereo RS images of the same observation area are acquired from three different viewing angles along the flight path of the satellite, these RS images are properly suited to a SR application. We first estimate registration between the chosen reference LR image and other LR images to calculate the sub pixel shifts among the LR images. Then, the warping, blurring and down sampling matrix operators are created as sparse matrices to avoid high memory and computational requirements, which would otherwise make the RS-SR solution impractical. Finally, the overall system matrix, which is constructed based on the obtained operator matrices is used to obtain the estimate HR image in one step in each iteration of the SR algorithm. Both the Laplacian and total variation regularizers are incorporated separately into our algorithm and the results are presented to demonstrate an improved quantitative performance against the standard interpolation method as well as improved qualitative results due expert evaluations.

  15. Real-Time Compressive Sensing MRI Reconstruction Using GPU Computing and Split Bregman Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS has been shown to enable dramatic acceleration of MRI acquisition in some applications. Being an iterative reconstruction technique, CS MRI reconstructions can be more time-consuming than traditional inverse Fourier reconstruction. We have accelerated our CS MRI reconstruction by factors of up to 27 by using a split Bregman solver combined with a graphics processing unit (GPU computing platform. The increases in speed we find are similar to those we measure for matrix multiplication on this platform, suggesting that the split Bregman methods parallelize efficiently. We demonstrate that the combination of the rapid convergence of the split Bregman algorithm and the massively parallel strategy of GPU computing can enable real-time CS reconstruction of even acquisition data matrices of dimension 40962 or more, depending on available GPU VRAM. Reconstruction of two-dimensional data matrices of dimension 10242 and smaller took ~0.3 s or less, showing that this platform also provides very fast iterative reconstruction for small-to-moderate size images.

  16. A Method to Analyze the Potential of Optical Remote Sensing for Benthic Habitat Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the number and type of benthic classes that are able to be spectrally identified in shallow water remote sensing is important in understanding its potential for habitat mapping. Factors that impact the effectiveness of shallow water habitat mapping include water column turbidity, depth, sensor and environmental noise, spectral resolution of the sensor and spectral variability of the benthic classes. In this paper, we present a simple hierarchical clustering method coupled with a shallow water forward model to generate water-column specific spectral libraries. This technique requires no prior decision on the number of classes to output: the resultant classes are optically separable above the spectral noise introduced by the sensor, image based radiometric corrections, the benthos’ natural spectral variability and the attenuating properties of a variable water column at depth. The modeling reveals the effect reducing the spectral resolution has on the number and type of classes that are optically distinct. We illustrate the potential of this clustering algorithm in an analysis of the conditions, including clustering accuracy, sensor spectral resolution and water column optical properties and depth that enabled the spectral distinction of the seagrass Amphibolis antartica from benthic algae.

  17. A Heterogeneous Sensing System-Based Method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The indoor environment has brought new challenges for micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in terms of their being able to execute tasks with high positioning accuracy. Conventional positioning methods based on GPS are unreliable, although certain circumstances of limited space make it possible to apply new technologies. In this paper, we propose a novel indoor self-positioning system of UAV based on a heterogeneous sensing system, which integrates data from a structured light scanner, ultra-wideband (UWB, and an inertial navigation system (INS. We made the structured light scanner, which is composed of a low-cost structured light and camera, ourselves to improve the positioning accuracy at a specified area. We applied adaptive Kalman filtering to fuse the data from the INS and UWB while the vehicle was moving, as well as Gauss filtering to fuse the data from the UWB and the structured light scanner in a hovering state. The results of our simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed strategy significantly improves positioning accuracy in motion and also in the hovering state, as compared to using a single sensor.

  18. A Heterogeneous Sensing System-Based Method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Indoor Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Li, Kang; Liang, Guoyuan; Chen, Haoyao; Huang, Sheng; Wu, Xinyu

    2017-08-10

    The indoor environment has brought new challenges for micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in terms of their being able to execute tasks with high positioning accuracy. Conventional positioning methods based on GPS are unreliable, although certain circumstances of limited space make it possible to apply new technologies. In this paper, we propose a novel indoor self-positioning system of UAV based on a heterogeneous sensing system, which integrates data from a structured light scanner, ultra-wideband (UWB), and an inertial navigation system (INS). We made the structured light scanner, which is composed of a low-cost structured light and camera, ourselves to improve the positioning accuracy at a specified area. We applied adaptive Kalman filtering to fuse the data from the INS and UWB while the vehicle was moving, as well as Gauss filtering to fuse the data from the UWB and the structured light scanner in a hovering state. The results of our simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed strategy significantly improves positioning accuracy in motion and also in the hovering state, as compared to using a single sensor.

  19. Methods for flexible sample-size design in clinical trials: Likelihood, weighted, dual test, and promising zone approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Weichung Joe; Li, Gang; Wang, Yining

    2016-03-01

    Sample size plays a crucial role in clinical trials. Flexible sample-size designs, as part of the more general category of adaptive designs that utilize interim data, have been a popular topic in recent years. In this paper, we give a comparative review of four related methods for such a design. The likelihood method uses the likelihood ratio test with an adjusted critical value. The weighted method adjusts the test statistic with given weights rather than the critical value. The dual test method requires both the likelihood ratio statistic and the weighted statistic to be greater than the unadjusted critical value. The promising zone approach uses the likelihood ratio statistic with the unadjusted value and other constraints. All four methods preserve the type-I error rate. In this paper we explore their properties and compare their relationships and merits. We show that the sample size rules for the dual test are in conflict with the rules of the promising zone approach. We delineate what is necessary to specify in the study protocol to ensure the validity of the statistical procedure and what can be kept implicit in the protocol so that more flexibility can be attained for confirmatory phase III trials in meeting regulatory requirements. We also prove that under mild conditions, the likelihood ratio test still preserves the type-I error rate when the actual sample size is larger than the re-calculated one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evapotranspiration in a cottonwood (Populus fremontii) restoration plantation estimated by sap flow and remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P.; Jetton, A.; Fleming, J.; Didan, K.; Glenn, E.; Erker, J.; Morino, K.; Milliken, J.; Gloss, S.

    2007-01-01

    Native tree plantations have been proposed for the restoration of wildlife habitat in human-altered riparian corridors of western U.S. rivers. Evapotranspiration (ET) by riparian vegetation is an important, but poorly quantified, term in river water budgets. Native tree restoration plots will potentially increase ET. We used sap flow sensors and satellite imagery to estimate ET in a 8 ha, cottonwood (Populus fremontii) restoration plot on the Lower Colorado River. Biometric methods were used to scale leaf area to whole trees and stands of trees. This technique was used to validate our estimates of ET obtained by scaling from branch level to stand (or plot) level measurements of ET. Cottonwood trees used 6-10 mm day-1 of water during the peak of the growing season as determined by sap flow sensors, and annual rates scaled by time-series MODIS satellite imagery were approximately 1.2 m year-1. Although irrigation was not quantified, the field had been flood irrigated at 2 week intervals during the 3 years prior to the study, receiving approximately 2 m year-1 of water. A frequency-domain electromagnetic induction survey of soil moisture content showed that the field was saturated (26-28% gravimetric water content) at the 90-150 cm soil depth under the field. Trees were apparently rooted into the saturated soil, and considerable saving of water could potentially be achieved by modifying the irrigation regime to take into account that cottonwoods are phreatophytes. The study showed that cottonwood ET can be monitored by remote sensing methods calibrated with ground measurements with an accuracy or uncertainty of 20-30% in western riparian corridors. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A semisupervised support vector regression method to estimate biophysical parameters from remotely sensed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, Davide; Demir, Begüm; Bruzzone, Lorenzo

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel semisupervised learning (SSL) technique defined in the context of ɛ-insensitive support vector regression (SVR) to estimate biophysical parameters from remotely sensed images. The proposed SSL method aims to mitigate the problems of small-sized biased training sets without collecting any additional samples with reference measures. This is achieved on the basis of two consecutive steps. The first step is devoted to inject additional priors information in the learning phase of the SVR in order to adapt the importance of each training sample according to distribution of the unlabeled samples. To this end, a weight is initially associated to each training sample based on a novel strategy that defines higher weights for the samples located in the high density regions of the feature space while giving reduced weights to those that fall into the low density regions of the feature space. Then, in order to exploit different weights for training samples in the learning phase of the SVR, we introduce a weighted SVR (WSVR) algorithm. The second step is devoted to jointly exploit labeled and informative unlabeled samples for further improving the definition of the WSVR learning function. To this end, the most informative unlabeled samples that have an expected accurate target values are initially selected according to a novel strategy that relies on the distribution of the unlabeled samples in the feature space and on the WSVR function estimated at the first step. Then, we introduce a restructured WSVR algorithm that jointly uses labeled and unlabeled samples in the learning phase of the WSVR algorithm and tunes their importance by different values of regularization parameters. Experimental results obtained for the estimation of single-tree stem volume show the effectiveness of the proposed SSL method.

  2. A New Hybrid Method for Remote Sensing Time Series Reconstruction in Support of Land Surface Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Munoz, A.; Didan, K.; Riveracamacho, J.; Yitayew, M.

    2010-12-01

    Remote sensing vegetation indices (NDVI, EVI, and EVI2) are proxies for studying vegetation states and enable the effective and consistent monitoring of global vegetation. Records of daily global satellite images are available from the last three decades, however, the presence of clouds, aerosols, variable viewing geometry and less than ideal processing techniques makes it difficult to obtain high quality data every time; resulting in incomplete daily coverage (80% of the data is either missing or useless sometimes). In order to improve the temporal frequency and coverage, gap fill techniques are usually employed. There are several methods that are mostly based on the use of complex Fourier Transform (TF) functions, Gaussian fitting models, or simple compositing techniques. The first two methods are extremely CPU and memory intensive and the results tend to be biased towards the periods of time when data is available . The composite-method sacrifices the temporal frequency in order to achieve higher quality data over longer periods of time by combining several images into one to insure the elimination of problematic data Long composite period interval tend to inhibit proper change detection during periods of rapid change and periods of land cover disturbance. Because this method is based on maximizing the vegetation index value during the composite period, longer composite interval will shift the start of season towards later dates, the end of season towards earlier dates, and consequently shorter growing season. These slight errors and uncertainties interfere with accurate change detection as they add a level of uncertainty to the estimated Phenology parameters. In this research we’re developing a new technique that aims at producing consistently high quality vegetation index data, while preserving adequate temporal resolution to support accurate phenological studies. This method involves finding the optimum number of days for compositing and then using an

  3. Room-Temperature H2 Gas Sensing Characterization of Graphene-Doped Porous Silicon via a Facile Solution Dropping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nu Si A. Eom

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a graphene-doped porous silicon (G-doped/p-Si substrate for low ppm H2 gas detection by an inexpensive synthesis route was proposed as a potential noble graphene-based gas sensor material, and to understand the sensing mechanism. The G-doped/p-Si gas sensor was synthesized by a simple capillary force-assisted solution dropping method on p-Si substrates, whose porosity was generated through an electrochemical etching process. G-doped/p-Si was fabricated with various graphene concentrations and exploited as a H2 sensor that was operated at room temperature. The sensing mechanism of the sensor with/without graphene decoration on p-Si was proposed to elucidate the synergetic gas sensing effect that is generated from the interface between the graphene and p-type silicon.

  4. A temporal and spatial scaling method for quantifying daily photosynthesis using remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Chen, W.; Sarich, M. [Intermap Technologies Ltd., Nepean, ON (Canada); Cihlar, J. [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Goulden, M. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Remote sensing to monitor the behaviour of terrestrial ecosystems over large areas was discussed. For this type of application the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) was developed, with the subsequent incorporation of the more advanced photosynthetic model. The new model improves the methodology through analytical spatial and temporal integration of canopy photosynthesis processes, and is suitable for regional remote sensing applications at moderate resolutions of 250 to 1000 m. 10 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>−1.5 m d−1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ∼0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8–9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  6. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>-1.5 m d-1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ˜0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8-9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  7. Characterizing fractures and shear zones in crystalline rock using seismic and GPR methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Jordi, Claudio; Laaksonlaita, Niko; Gischig, Valentin; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the natural or artificially created hydraulic conductivity of a rock mass is critical for the successful exploitation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The hydraulic response of fractured crystalline rock is largely governed by the spatial organization of permeable fractures. Defining the 3D geometry of these fractures and their connectivity is extremely challenging, because fractures can only be observed directly at their intersections with tunnels or boreholes. Borehole-based and tunnel-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic measurements have the potential to image fractures and other heterogeneities between and around boreholes and tunnels, and to monitor subtle time-lapse changes in great detail. We present the analysis of data acquired in the Grimsel rock laboratory as part of the In-situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC) experiment, in which a series of stimulation experiments have been and will be performed. The experiments in the granitic rock range from hydraulic fracturing to controlled fault-slip experiments. The aim is to obtain a better understanding of coupled seismo-hydro-mechanical processes associated with high-pressure fluid injections in crystalline rocks and their impact on permeability creation and enhancement. GPR and seismic data have been recorded to improve the geological model and characterize permeable fractures and shear zones. The acquired and processed data include reflection GPR profiles measured from tunnel walls, single-borehole GPR images, and borehole-to-borehole and tunnel-to-tunnel seismic and GPR tomograms. The reflection GPR data reveal the geometry of shear zones up to a distance of 30 m from the tunnels and boreholes, but the interpretation is complicated by the geometrical ambiguity around tunnels and boreholes and by spurious reflections from man-made structures such as boreholes. The GPR and seismic traveltime tomography results reveal brittle fractured rock between two ductile shear zones. The

  8. Presentation of the DSIP method for study of recrystallization process in subsurface zone induced by sandblasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryzek, Jerzy, E-mail: Jerzy.Dryzek@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-01-10

    In the paper we demonstrate the application of the positron annihilation experimental technique based on the scan of the positron implantation profile for observation of the recrystallization process in the subsurface zone (SZ). The SZ was created in the copper sample whose surface was exposed to a sandblasting treatment and then annealed at different temperatures. Application of {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga positron source allows us to scan the depth of c.a. 150 {mu}m. It was found that recrystallization goes faster close to the surface than in deeper regions. The complete rebuilding of the microstructure takes place at temperature of 600 deg. C. Some changes in the defect structure begin at temperature of 300 {sup 0}C.

  9. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste(HDW) by reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE)method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-06-10

    This paper describes the first application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford Defense Waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using Synthetic Hanford Waste (SHW), followed by the analysis of 4 real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as electroosmotic flow modifier in borate buffer at pH 9.2 to decrease the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in order to enhance the speed of analysis and the resolution of nitrate and nitrite in high ionic strength HDW samples. The application of this capillary zone electrophoresis method, when compared with ion chromatography for two major components of HDW, nitrate and nitrite slightly reduced analysis time, eliminated most pre-analysis handling of the highly radioactive sample, and cut analysis wastes by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The analysis of real HDW samples that were validated by using sample spikes showed a concentration range of 1.03 to 1.42 M for both nitrate. The migration times of the real HDW and the spiked HDW samples were within a precision of less than 3% relative standard deviation. The selectivity ratio test used for peak confirmation of the spiked samples was within 96% of the real sample. Method reliability was tested by spiking the matrix with 72.4 mM nitrate and nitrite. Recoveries for these spiked samples were 93-103%.

  10. Benthic Habitat and Zone Maps of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 1999 - Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are 30 habitat and zone PDF products. This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science,...

  11. Application of remote sensing and GIS for the demarcation of groundwater potential zones of a river basin in Kerala, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Gopinath, G.; Seralathan, P.

    al. 2001,Sreedevi et al. 2005). For the delineation of groundwater-prospecting zones it is necessary to integrate data from various terrain characteristics (topography, lithology, geological structures, depth of weathering, extent of fractures, slope... for the purpose. The entire base maps were transformed to a common format for further analysis and identification of groundwater prospect zones (Pratap et al. 2000). Further, each theme was assigned a weight depending on its influence on the movement and storage...

  12. TEM Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Transition Zone Between Steel Tube and An Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Coating Produced by CMT Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Rozmus-Górnikowska; M. Blicharski

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of the transition zone between 16Mo3 steel and Inconel 625 weld overlay coating produced by the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) method...

  13. Connotations of pixel-based scale effect in remote sensing and the modified fractal-based analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guixiang; Ming, Dongping; Wang, Min; Yang, Jianyu

    2017-06-01

    Scale problems are a major source of concern in the field of remote sensing. Since the remote sensing is a complex technology system, there is a lack of enough cognition on the connotation of scale and scale effect in remote sensing. Thus, this paper first introduces the connotations of pixel-based scale and summarizes the general understanding of pixel-based scale effect. Pixel-based scale effect analysis is essentially important for choosing the appropriate remote sensing data and the proper processing parameters. Fractal dimension is a useful measurement to analysis pixel-based scale. However in traditional fractal dimension calculation, the impact of spatial resolution is not considered, which leads that the scale effect change with spatial resolution can't be clearly reflected. Therefore, this paper proposes to use spatial resolution as the modified scale parameter of two fractal methods to further analyze the pixel-based scale effect. To verify the results of two modified methods (MFBM (Modified Windowed Fractal Brownian Motion Based on the Surface Area) and MDBM (Modified Windowed Double Blanket Method)); the existing scale effect analysis method (information entropy method) is used to evaluate. And six sub-regions of building areas and farmland areas were cut out from QuickBird images to be used as the experimental data. The results of the experiment show that both the fractal dimension and information entropy present the same trend with the decrease of spatial resolution, and some inflection points appear at the same feature scales. Further analysis shows that these feature scales (corresponding to the inflection points) are related to the actual sizes of the geo-object, which results in fewer mixed pixels in the image, and these inflection points are significantly indicative of the observed features. Therefore, the experiment results indicate that the modified fractal methods are effective to reflect the pixel-based scale effect existing in remote sensing

  14. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Wanneng; Zou, Kunlin

    2016-01-01

    Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC) tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing. PMID:27854322

  15. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Wanneng; Zou, Kunlin

    2016-11-16

    Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC) tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  16. Measurement of serum albumin by capillary zone electrophoresis, bromocresol green, bromocresol purple, and immunoassay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duly, E B; Grimason, S; Grimason, P; Barnes, G; Trinick, T R

    2003-10-01

    The introduction of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to this laboratory has highlighted discrepancies in albumin measured on an Abbott Aeroset by bromocresol green (BCG) and that calculated by CZE on the basis of total protein measured by Biuret. This study examined differences in albumin estimation by CZE, Abbott Aeroset BCG, and Aeroset bromocresol purple (BCP), and compared these with albumin estimated by Beckman Array immunoassay. Altman and Bland analysis of results showed a positive bias of BCG with CZE (4.51 g/litre; 95% limits of agreement, 3.77 to 5.26; n = 72) and BCP (3.85 g/litre; 95% limits of agreement, -1.42 to 9.12; n = 72). CZE and BCP agreed closely (0.67 g/litre; 95% limits of agreement, -4.39 to 3.06; n = 72). Analysis of 57 of those samples in which BCG and CZE differed > or = 5 g/litre showed a positive bias of BCG with immunoassay (8.35 g/litre; 95% limits of agreement, 1.54 to 15.16; n =57), with good agreement between CZE and immunoassay (-0.44 g/litre; 95% limits of agreement, -2.82 to 1.94; n = 57). BCP is superior to BCG for the assay of albumin and has replaced BCG as the routine test for albumin in this laboratory.

  17. Method for Forming Fiber Reinforced Composite Bodies with Graded Composition and Stress Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Smialek, James A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A near-net, complex shaped ceramic fiber reinforced silicon carbide based composite bodies with graded compositions and stress zones is disclosed. To provide the composite a fiber preform is first fabricated and an interphase is applied by chemical vapor infiltration, sol-gel or polymer processes. This first body is further infiltrated with a polymer mixture containing carbon, and/or silicon carbide, and additional oxide, carbide, or nitride phases forming a second body. One side of the second body is spray coated or infiltrated with slurries containing high thermal expansion and oxidation resistant. crack sealant phases and the other side of this second body is coated with low expansion phase materials to form a third body. This third body consisting of porous carbonaceous matrix surrounding the previously applied interphase materials, is then infiltrated with molten silicon or molten silicon-refractory metal alloys to form a fourth body. The resulting fourth body comprises dense composites consisting of fibers with the desired interphase which are surrounded by silicon carbide and other second phases materials at the outer and inner surfaces comprising material of silicon, germanium, refractory metal suicides, borides, carbides, oxides, and combinations thereof The resulting composite fourth body has different compositional patterns from one side to the other.

  18. GAEC cross-compliance standard Vegetation buffer on water courses: possible methods of detection by Remote Sensing products and existing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Tosi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Agency for Agricultural Payments National Payment Agency (AGEA in Italy, in order to manage and control EU farmer subsidies in Agriculture, is supported by SIN, an owned public/private company, aiming at facing technical solutions and innovation developments. Since 2005 SIN-AGEA have been testing and performing innovation tools and methods, especially in CAP cross compliance application. A vegetation buffer strip is requested, flanking pre-defined water streams, by Reg. EC 73/2009, CAP cross compliance policies, with pertinence from 2012. Due to the existing collaboration agreement JRC-AGEA-SIN, and the Rete Rurale Nazionale, tests and feasibility have been started to: - improve the knowledge of cross compliance; - identify feasible farmer obligations and clear rules of behaviour; - develop updated controls methods; - integrate available territorial information, creating awareness and user connection The paper faces criteria definition for water streams identification, application areas, different risk zones, buffer width, efficiency indicators, through: existing data, new Remote Sensing (RS products and GIS tools for watersheds characterization. A shared decision, both for methodology and homogeneous farmer commitments at national/EU level, using validated layers/data set, at contained costs, is the main target.

  19. A Method for Combining Experimentation and Molecular Dynamics Simulation to Improve Cohesive Zone Models for Metallic Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhalter, J. D.; Glaessgen, E. H.; Ingraffea, A. R.; Aquino, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Fracture processes within a material begin at the nanometer length scale at which the formation, propagation, and interaction of fundamental damage mechanisms occur. Physics-based modeling of these atomic processes quickly becomes computationally intractable as the system size increases. Thus, a multiscale modeling method, based on the aggregation of fundamental damage processes occurring at the nanoscale within a cohesive zone model, is under development and will enable computationally feasible and physically meaningful microscale fracture simulation in polycrystalline metals. This method employs atomistic simulation to provide an optimization loop with an initial prediction of a cohesive zone model (CZM). This initial CZM is then applied at the crack front region within a finite element model. The optimization procedure iterates upon the CZM until the finite element model acceptably reproduces the near-crack-front displacement fields obtained from experimental observation. With this approach, a comparison can be made between the original CZM predicted by atomistic simulation and the converged CZM that is based on experimental observation. Comparison of the two CZMs gives insight into how atomistic simulation scales.

  20. A Method for Structure–Activity Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Signaling Peptides from Naturally Transformable Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian XiaoLin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many species of streptococci secrete and use a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP to initiate quorum sensing for induction of genetic competence, bacteriocin production, and other activities. These signaling molecules are small, unmodified peptides that induce powerful strain-specific activity at nano-molar concentrations. This feature has provided an excellent opportunity to explore their structure–function relationships. However, CSP variants have also been identified in many species, and each specifically activates its cognate receptor. How such minor changes dramatically affect the specificity of these peptides remains unclear. Structure–activity analysis of these peptides may provide clues for understanding the specificity of signaling peptide–receptor interactions. Here, we use the Streptococcus mutans CSP as an example to describe methods of analyzing its structure–activity relationship. The methods described here may provide a platform for studying quorum-sensing signaling peptides of other naturally transformable streptococci.

  1. A Method for Structure–Activity Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Signaling Peptides from Naturally Transformable Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syvitski Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many species of streptococci secrete and use a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP to initiate quorum sensing for induction of genetic competence, bacteriocin production, and other activities. These signaling molecules are small, unmodified peptides that induce powerful strain-specific activity at nano-molar concentrations. This feature has provided an excellent opportunity to explore their structure–function relationships. However, CSP variants have also been identified in many species, and each specifically activates its cognate receptor. How such minor changes dramatically affect the specificity of these peptides remains unclear. Structure–activity analysis of these peptides may provide clues for understanding the specificity of signaling peptide–receptor interactions. Here, we use the Streptococcus mutans CSP as an example to describe methods of analyzing its structure–activity relationship. The methods described here may provide a platform for studying quorum-sensing signaling peptides of other naturally transformable streptococci.

  2. Systematic analysis of geo-location and spectrum sensing as access methods to TV white space

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mauwa, H

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available in the literature have placed much emphasis on the limitations of the spectrum sensing approach and mainly based on the developed world environment ignoring the performance requirements of the geo-location database approach and how the absence of these requirements...

  3. Dynamic rupture simulations on complex fault zone structures with off-fault plasticity using the ADER-DG method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollherr, Stephanie; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Igel, Heiner

    2015-04-01

    In dynamic rupture models, high stress concentrations at rupture fronts have to to be accommodated by off-fault inelastic processes such as plastic deformation. As presented in (Roten et al., 2014), incorporating plastic yielding can significantly reduce earlier predictions of ground motions in the Los Angeles Basin. Further, an inelastic response of materials surrounding a fault potentially has a strong impact on surface displacement and is therefore a key aspect in understanding the triggering of tsunamis through floor uplifting. We present an implementation of off-fault-plasticity and its verification for the software package SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method. The software recently reached multi-petaflop/s performance on some of the largest supercomputers worldwide and was a Gordon Bell prize finalist application in 2014 (Heinecke et al., 2014). For the nonelastic calculations we impose a Drucker-Prager yield criterion in shear stress with a viscous regularization following (Andrews, 2005). It permits the smooth relaxation of high stress concentrations induced in the dynamic rupture process. We verify the implementation by comparison to the SCEC/USGS Spontaneous Rupture Code Verification Benchmarks. The results of test problem TPV13 with a 60-degree dipping normal fault show that SeisSol is in good accordance with other codes. Additionally we aim to explore the numerical characteristics of the off-fault plasticity implementation by performing convergence tests for the 2D code. The ADER-DG method is especially suited for complex geometries by using unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Local adaptation of the mesh resolution enables a fine sampling of the cohesive zone on the fault while simultaneously satisfying the dispersion requirements of wave propagation away from the fault. In this context we will investigate the influence of off-fault-plasticity on geometrically complex fault zone structures like subduction

  4. Growth of large size lithium niobate single crystals of high quality by tilting-mirror-type floating zone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, E-mail: razzaque_ru2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-15

    Large size high quality LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals were grown successfully by tilting-mirror-type floating zone (TMFZ) technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, etch pits density measurement, Impedance analysis, Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The effect of mirror tilting during growth on the structural, electrical, optical properties and defect density of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystals were investigated. It was found that the defect density in the crystals reduced for tilting the mirror in the TMFZ method. The chemical analysis revealed that the grown crystals were of high quality with uniform composition. The single crystals grown by TMFZ method contains no low-angle grain boundaries, indicating that they can be used for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. (author)

  5. Hybridization of Sensing Methods of the Search Domain and Adaptive Weighted Sum in the Pareto Approximation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Karpenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the relatively new and rapidly developing class of methods to solve a problem of multi-objective optimization, based on the preliminary built finite-dimensional approximation of the set, and thereby, the Pareto front of this problem as well. The work investigates the efficiency of several modifications of the method of adaptive weighted sum (AWS. This method proposed in the paper of Ryu and Kim Van (JH. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Wan is intended to build Pareto approximation of the multi-objective optimization problem.The AWS method uses quadratic approximation of the objective functions in the current sub-domain of the search space (the area of trust based on the gradient and Hessian matrix of the objective functions. To build the (quadratic meta objective functions this work uses methods of the experimental design theory, which involves calculating the values of these functions in the grid nodes covering the area of trust (a sensing method of the search domain. There are two groups of the sensing methods under consideration: hypercube- and hyper-sphere-based methods. For each of these groups, a number of test multi-objective optimization tasks has been used to study the efficiency of the following grids: "Latin Hypercube"; grid, which is uniformly random for each measurement; grid, based on the LP  sequences.

  6. A preliminary verification of the floating reference measurement method for non-invasive blood glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiaolin; Liu, Rong; Fu, Bo; Xu, Kexin

    2017-06-01

    In the non-invasive sensing of blood glucose by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the spectrum is highly susceptible to the unstable and complicated background variations from the human body and the environment. In in vitro analyses, background variations are usually corrected by the spectrum of a standard reference sample that has similar optical properties to the analyte of interest. However, it is hard to find a standard sample for the in vivo measurement. Therefore, the floating reference measurement method is proposed to enable relative measurements in vivo, where the spectra under some special source-detector distance, defined as the floating reference position, are insensitive to the changes in glucose concentration due to the absorption effect and scattering effect. Because the diffuse reflectance signals at the floating reference positions only reflect the information on background variations during the measurement, they can be used as the internal reference. In this paper, the theoretical basis of the floating reference positions in a semi-infinite turbid medium was discussed based on the steady-state diffusion equation and its analytical solutions in a semi-infinite turbid medium (under the extrapolated boundary conditions). Then, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations and in vitro experiments based on a custom-built continuous-moving spatially resolving double-fiber NIR measurement system, configured with two types of light source, a super luminescent diode (SLD) and a super-continuum laser, were carried out to verify the existence of the floating reference position in 5%, 10% and 20% Intralipid solutions. The results showed that the simulation values of the floating reference positions are close to the theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of approximately 0.3 mm in 1100-1320 nm. Great differences can be observed in 1340-1400 nm because the optical properties of Intralipid in this region don not satisfy the conditions of the steady

  7. New insights into urban planning of Caričin Grad: The application of modern sensing and detection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanišević Vujadin; Bugarski Ivan; Stamenković Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Caričin Grad, Justiniana Prima, urban planning, fortification, settlement, aerial photography, geophysical surveys, LiDAR, photogrammetry, excavations, GIS. Thanks to the application of modern non-destructive sensing and detection methods, in recent years a series of new data on urban planning in Caričin Grad was obtained. For the most part, the current research programme studies the Upper Town’s northern plateau, wooded until recently and hence the only pr...

  8. Imaging of the Deep Structure and Extension of the North Anatolian Fault Zone by Magnetotelluric Method Beneath the Marmara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Kasaya, T.; Tank, B.; Honkura, Y.; Tuncer, M. K.; Oshiman, N.; Matsushima, M.

    2011-12-01

    Relative motions of the Arabian and African plates with respect to stable Eurasian plate resulted in westward movement of the Anatolian block and produced two main fault zones in Turkey. The most active one, the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), hosted destructive earthquakes during the history causing not only damage in the buildings but also thousands of causalities. The migration of large earthquakes along the NAFZ from east to west in 20th century, occurrence of the last earthquakes (1999 Izmit and Duzce) by the side of Marmara Sea, and owning the fault segment which has not ruptured since 1766 made the Marmara Sea a potential location for the next large rupture on the NAFZ. Seismic, geodetic and other studies showed complexity of the structure suggesting various estimates about the extension of the NAFZ through the Marmara Sea. In this study, we benefit from the high depth resolution of the Magnetotelluric (MT) method to resolve the electrical resistivity structure beneath the Marmara Sea and disclose its relation with the geologic structure. In order to investigate extension of the NAFZ beneath the Marmara Sea we deployed long period ocean bottom electromagnetic data at 16 sites which form 4 profiles perpendicular to the possible traces of the NAFZ. Variation of the geoelectric strike from east to west demonstrates different oriented faults in the Marmara Sea. The highly conductive anomaly in electrical resistivity models extends from crustal depths to the lithosphere and merges with the melted mantle material. This conductive anomaly is surrounded by relatively resistive anomalies which imply continuation of the fault structure from land to the Marmara Sea. Our results clear the location of the highly conductive and resistive anomalies that has crucial implications in two aspects; conductive anomaly may trigger the micro-seismic activity and resistive anomalies may refer to the asperity zones where stress accumulation result in large earth quakes.

  9. Identification of groundwater prospective zones by using remote ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 114; Issue 5. Identification of groundwater prospective zones by using remote sensing and geoelectrical methods in Jharia and Raniganj coalfields, Dhanbad district, Jharkhand state. Basudeo Rai A Tiwari V S Dubey. Volume 114 Issue 5 October 2005 pp 515-522 ...

  10. ZONES D’INTERFAÇAGE GEOGRAPHIQUE ET METHODE DE COMPARAISON AUTOMATIQUE DE DONNEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Fuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de l’analyse d’un territoire sur le plan géophysique, et dans le but d’en identifier les ressources naturelles, de nombreuses informations sont acquises. Il s’agit de classifier, caractériser, et interpréter des mesures obtenues par campagnes de navigation sismique, par carottage, acquises dans des puits de forage, ou encore par campagnes de prélèvement d’échantillons. La problématique qui accompagne cette analyse de territoire concerne d’une part la gestion des données complexes et volumineuses dans leurs lieux de stockage. D’autre part la question de l’aide à l’interprétation est posée lorsqu’il s’agit de classifier et comparer de la manière la plus automatique possible ces représentations et caractérisations du territoire. Dans ce contexte ont été développés la méthodologie et les programmes LAC (Logiciel Automatique de Comparaisons.L’un des mécanismes mis en place dans cette méthodologie concerne l’interaction entre un système de filtrage à tamis de critères de comparaison et un système de seuillage pour définir une résolution de comparaison et de regroupement. Cette résolution représente un élément clé de l’analyse car elle permet de détecter des zones d’interfaçage, de frontière, ou de changement de milieu, tout en qualifiant un caractère plus ou moins progressif de ces frontières. Après une première description de la méthodologie LAC, nous voyons de quelle manière elle s’applique aux données de géosciences et comment on peut la décliner sur le plan géographique.

  11. A Micro-Pressure Sensing Method Based on the Micropatterned Electrodes Filled with the Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the core component of the sense of touch, flexible pressure sensors are critical to synchronized interactions with the surrounding environment. Here, we introduce a new type of flexible capacitive pressure sensor based on a template of electrodes, with a one-dimensional pyramid micropatterned structure on a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS substrate and a dielectric layer of polystyrene (PS microspheres. The proposed sensor exhibits a stable and high sensing sensitivity of 0.741 kPa−1 to capacitance, good durability over 1000 cycles, and fast response time (<150 ms. Our flexible capacitive sensor responds not only to pressure but also to bending forces. Our device can be used to monitor the location and distribution of weight pressure. The proposed capacitive pressure sensor has itself been applied foreground in lots of aspects, such as electronic skins, wearable robotics, and biomedical devices.

  12. Word sense disambiguation in the clinical domain: a comparison of knowledge-rich and knowledge-poor unsupervised methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasin, Rachel; Rumshisky, Anna; Uzuner, Ozlem; Szolovits, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate state-of-the-art unsupervised methods on the word sense disambiguation (WSD) task in the clinical domain. In particular, to compare graph-based approaches relying on a clinical knowledge base with bottom-up topic-modeling-based approaches. We investigate several enhancements to the topic-modeling techniques that use domain-specific knowledge sources. The graph-based methods use variations of PageRank and distance-based similarity metrics, operating over the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Topic-modeling methods use unlabeled data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC II) database to derive models for each ambiguous word. We investigate the impact of using different linguistic features for topic models, including UMLS-based and syntactic features. We use a sense-tagged clinical dataset from the Mayo Clinic for evaluation. The topic-modeling methods achieve 66.9% accuracy on a subset of the Mayo Clinic's data, while the graph-based methods only reach the 40-50% range, with a most-frequent-sense baseline of 56.5%. Features derived from the UMLS semantic type and concept hierarchies do not produce a gain over bag-of-words features in the topic models, but identifying phrases from UMLS and using syntax does help. Although topic models outperform graph-based methods, semantic features derived from the UMLS prove too noisy to improve performance beyond bag-of-words. Topic modeling for WSD provides superior results in the clinical domain; however, integration of knowledge remains to be effectively exploited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Linking pesticides and human health: a geographic information system (GIS) and Landsat remote sensing method to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VoPham, Trang; Wilson, John P; Ruddell, Darren; Rashed, Tarek; Brooks, Maria M; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2015-08-01

    Accurate pesticide exposure estimation is integral to epidemiologic studies elucidating the role of pesticides in human health. Humans can be exposed to pesticides via residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications (drift). We present an improved geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing method, the Landsat method, to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure through matching pesticide applications to crops classified from temporally concurrent Landsat satellite remote sensing images in California. The image classification method utilizes Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values in a combined maximum likelihood classification and per-field (using segments) approach. Pesticide exposure is estimated according to pesticide-treated crop fields intersecting 500 m buffers around geocoded locations (e.g., residences) in a GIS. Study results demonstrate that the Landsat method can improve GIS-based pesticide exposure estimation by matching more pesticide applications to crops (especially temporary crops) classified using temporally concurrent Landsat images compared to the standard method that relies on infrequently updated land use survey (LUS) crop data. The Landsat method can be used in epidemiologic studies to reconstruct past individual-level exposure to specific pesticides according to where individuals are located.

  14. Simple method for self-referenced and lable-free biosensing by using a capillary sensing element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Chen, Shimeng; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Zigeng; Wei, Peng

    2017-05-15

    We demonstrated a simple method for self-reference and label free biosensing based on a capillary sensing element and common optoelectronic devices. The capillary sensing element is illuminated by a light-emitting diode (LED) light source and detected by a webcam. Part of gold film that deposited on the tubing wall is functionalized to carry on the biological information in the excited SPR modes. The end face of the capillary was monitored and separate regions of interest (ROIs) were selected as the measurement channel and the reference channel. In the ROIs, the biological information can be accurately extracted from the image by simple image processing. Moreover, temperature fluctuation, bulk RI fluctuation, light source fluctuation and other factors can be effectively compensated during detection. Our biosensing device has a sensitivity of 1145%/RIU and a resolution better than 5.287 × 10-4 RIU, considering a 0.79% noise level. We apply it for concanavalin A (Con A) biological measurement, which has an approximately linear response to the specific analyte concentration. This simple method provides a new approach for multichannel SPR sensing and reference-compensated calibration of SPR signal for label-free detection.

  15. A Building Energy Efficiency Optimization Method by Evaluating the Effective Thermal Zones Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency is strongly linked to the operations and control systems, together with the integrated performance of passive and active systems. In new high quality buildings in particular, where these two latter aspects have been already implemented at the design stage, users’ perspective, obtained through post-occupancy assessment, has to be considered to reduce whole energy requirement during service life. This research presents an innovative and low-cost methodology to reduce buildings’ energy requirements through post-occupancy assessment and optimization of energy operations using effective users’ attitudes and requirements as feedback. As a meaningful example, the proposed method is applied to a multipurpose building located in New York City, NY, USA, where real occupancy conditions are assessed. The effectiveness of the method is tested through dynamic simulations using a numerical model of the case study, calibrated through real monitoring data collected on the building. Results show that, for the chosen case study, the method provides optimized building energy operations which allow a reduction of primary energy requirements for HVAC, lighting, room-electricity, and auxiliary supply by about 21%. This paper shows that the proposed strategy represents an effective way to reduce buildings’ energy waste, in particular in those complex and high-efficiency buildings that are not performing as well as expected during the concept-design-commissioning stage, in particular due to the lack of feedback after the building handover.

  16. Methods for pore water extraction from unsaturated zone tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires an understanding of the chemistry of the water that moves through the host rock. The uniaxial compression method used to extract pore water from samples of tuffaceous borehole core was successful only for nonwelded tuff. An ultracentrifugation method was adopted to extract pore water from samples of the densely welded tuff of the proposed repository horizon. Tests were performed using both methods to determine the efficiency of pore water extraction and the potential effects on pore water chemistry. Test results indicate that uniaxial compression is most efficient for extracting pore water from nonwelded tuff, while ultracentrifugation is more successful in extracting pore water from densely welded tuff. Pore water splits collected from a single nonwelded tuff core during uniaxial compression tests have shown changes in pore water chemistry with increasing pressure for calcium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. Pore water samples collected from the intermediate pressure ranges should prevent the influence of re-dissolved, evaporative salts and the addition of ion-deficient water from clays and zeolites. Chemistry of pore water splits from welded and nonwelded tuffs using ultracentrifugation indicates that there is no substantial fractionation of solutes.

  17. Digitise this! A quick and easy remote sensing method to monitor the daily extent of dredge plumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Evans

    Full Text Available Technological advancements in remote sensing and GIS have improved natural resource managers' abilities to monitor large-scale disturbances. In a time where many processes are heading towards automation, this study has regressed to simple techniques to bridge a gap found in the advancement of technology. The near-daily monitoring of dredge plume extent is common practice using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS imagery and associated algorithms to predict the total suspended solids (TSS concentration in the surface waters originating from floods and dredge plumes. Unfortunately, these methods cannot determine the difference between dredge plume and benthic features in shallow, clear water. This case study at Barrow Island, Western Australia, uses hand digitising to demonstrate the ability of human interpretation to determine this difference with a level of confidence and compares the method to contemporary TSS methods. Hand digitising was quick, cheap and required very little training of staff to complete. Results of ANOSIM R statistics show remote sensing derived TSS provided similar spatial results if they were thresholded to at least 3 mg L(-1. However, remote sensing derived TSS consistently provided false-positive readings of shallow benthic features as Plume with a threshold up to TSS of 6 mg L(-1, and began providing false-negatives (excluding actual plume at a threshold as low as 4 mg L(-1. Semi-automated processes that estimate plume concentration and distinguish between plumes and shallow benthic features without the arbitrary nature of human interpretation would be preferred as a plume monitoring method. However, at this stage, the hand digitising method is very useful and is more accurate at determining plume boundaries over shallow benthic features and is accessible to all levels of management with basic training.

  18. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castañón–Puga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs. This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  19. An improved method for delineating source protection zones for karst springs based on analysis of recession curve data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civita, Massimo V.

    2008-08-01

    A standard method for delineating source protection zones, particularly for karst and carbonate springs, has been improved. The method, based on recession curve analysis, defines four vulnerability scenarios with an evaluation of the appropriate dimensions of the protection areas, accommodating situations where field-test data are not available. The new approach makes it easier to separate the components of the spring discharge hydrograph. The objective is to achieve simplification, and an effective, more rigorous, procedure in the determination of the parameters used by Mangin’s model—Mangin A (1975) Contribution a l’étude hydrodynamique des aquifères karstiques-Troisieme partie: Constitution et fonctionnement des aquifères karstiques (Contribution to the hydrodynamic study of karst aquifers, part 3: formation and work of karst aquifers). Ann Speleol 30(1):21 124. The original procedure, plus the lack of sufficient data, was open to subjective interpretation. With the aid of modern technology, a very large quantity of data is now available and it is necessary to process it using denoise type computer-based filters before passing to interpretation. Working with discharge data series, a statistical approach is proposed to give an analytical solution for determining the values of fundamental parameters of the recession curve model. The new procedure is defined and compared with the original methodology. The new approach has been tested and applied to a number of karst springs in Italy. A case history for a spring located in the Piedmont region of the Maritime Alps, is presented. The proposed new procedure can be utilised to mark the limits of the protection zones of tapped groundwater supplied for potable use, as required by European and local legislation.

  20. Combining the Pixel-based and Object-based Methods for Building Change Detection Using High-resolution Remote Sensing Images

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Zhiqiang; ZHANG Xinchang; XIN Qinchuan; YANG Xiaoling

    2018-01-01

    Timely and accurate change detection of buildings provides important information for urban planning and management.Accompanying with the rapid development of satellite remote sensing technology,detecting building changes from high-resolution remote sensing images have received wide attention.Given that pixel-based methods of change detection often lead to low accuracy while object-based methods are complicated for uses,this research proposes a method that combines pixel-based and object-based...

  1. Factors affecting women’s intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Meskele,Mengistu; Mekonnen, Wubegzier

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in Janua...

  2. Root Apex Transition Zone as Oscillatory Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Baluska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command centre. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwins, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

  3. Using remote sensing in support of environmental management: A framework for selecting products, algorithms and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Helen M; Gilbertson, Jason; Lück-Vogel, Melanie; Kemp, Jaco; Munch, Zahn

    2016-11-01

    Traditionally, to map environmental features using remote sensing, practitioners will use training data to develop models on various satellite data sets using a number of classification approaches and use test data to select a single 'best performer' from which the final map is made. We use a combination of an omission/commission plot to evaluate various results and compile a probability map based on consistently strong performing models across a range of standard accuracy measures. We suggest that this easy-to-use approach can be applied in any study using remote sensing to map natural features for management action. We demonstrate this approach using optical remote sensing products of different spatial and spectral resolution to map the endemic and threatened flora of quartz patches in the Knersvlakte, South Africa. Quartz patches can be mapped using either SPOT 5 (used due to its relatively fine spatial resolution) or Landsat8 imagery (used because it is freely accessible and has higher spectral resolution). Of the variety of classification algorithms available, we tested maximum likelihood and support vector machine, and applied these to raw spectral data, the first three PCA summaries of the data, and the standard normalised difference vegetation index. We found that there is no 'one size fits all' solution to the choice of a 'best fit' model (i.e. combination of classification algorithm or data sets), which is in agreement with the literature that classifier performance will vary with data properties. We feel this lends support to our suggestion that rather than the identification of a 'single best' model and a map based on this result alone, a probability map based on the range of consistently top performing models provides a rigorous solution to environmental mapping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping genetic and phylogenetic diversity of a temperate forest using remote sensing based upscaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriba, C. G.; Yamasaki, E.; Leiterer, R.; Tedder, A.; Shimizu, K.; Morsdorf, F.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Functioning and resilience of forest ecosystems under environmental pressures increases when biodiversity at genetic, species, canopy and ecosystem level is higher. Therefore mapping and monitoring diversity becomes a necessity to assess changes in ecosystems and understanding their consequences. Diversity can be assessed by using different metrics, such as diversity of functional traits or genetic diversity amongst others. In-situ approaches have provided useful, but usually spatially constrained information, often dependent on expert knowledge. We propose using remote sensing in combination with in-situ sampling at different spatial scales. We map phylogenetic and genetic diversity using airborne imaging spectroscopy in combination with terrestrial and airborne laser scanning, as well as exhaustive in-situ sampling schemes. To this end, we propose to link leaf optical properties using a taxonomic approach (spectranomics) to genetic and phylogenetic diversity. The test site is a managed mixed temperate forest on the south-facing slope of Laegern Mountain, Switzerland (47°28'42.0" N, 8°21'51.8" E, 682 m.a.s.l.). The intensive sampling area is roughly 300m x 300m and dominant species are European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Ash (Fraxinus excelsior). We perform phylogenetic and intraspecific genetic variation analyses for the five most dominant tree species at the test site. For these species, information on functional biochemical and architectural plant traits diversity is retrieved from imaging spectroscopy and laser scanning data and validated with laboratory and in-situ measurements. To assess regional-scale genetic diversity, the phylogenetic and genetic signals are quantified using the remote sensing data, resulting in spatially distributed intra-specific genetic variation. We discuss the usefulness of combined remote sensing and in-situ sampling, to bridge diversity scales from genetic to canopy level.

  5. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  6. Development of monitoring method of coffee leaf rust fungus (Hemileia vastatrix) infected area using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhama, N.; Ikeda, K.; Imai, M.; Watanabe, K.; Marpaung, F.; Yoshii, T.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2008, coffee leaf rust fungus (Hemileia vastatrix) has expanded its infection in Latin America, and early trimming and burning infected trees have been only effective countermeasures to prevent spreading infection. Although some researchers reported a case about the monitoring of coffee leaf rust using satellite remote sensing in 1970s, the spatial resolution was unsatisfied, and therefore, further technological development has been required. The purpose of this research is to develop effective method of discovering coffee leaf rust infected areas using satellite remote sensing. Annual changes of vegetation indices, i.e. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Structure Insensitive Pigment Index (MSIPI), around Cuchumatanes Mountains, Republic of Guatemala, were analyzed by Landsat 7 images. Study fields in the research were limited by the coffee farm areas based on a previous paper about on site surveys in different damage areas. As the result of the analysis, the annual change of NDVI at the coffee farm areas with damages tended to be lower than those without damages. Moreover, the decline of NDVI appear from 2008 before the damage was reported. On the other hand, the change of MSIPI had no significant difference. NDVI and MSIPI are mainly related to the amount of chlorophyll and carotenoid in the leaves respectively. This means that the infected coffee leaves turned yellow without defoliation. This situation well matches the symptom of coffee leaf rust. The research concluded that the property of infected leaves turning yellow is effective to monitoring of infection areas by satellite remote sensing.

  7. Survey and Zoning of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Using Geostatistical Methods in GIS (Case Study: Miankangi Region in Sistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hashemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to provide a database, it is essential having access to accurate information on soil spatial variation for soil sustainable management such as proper application of fertilizers. Spatial variations in soil properties are common but it is important for understanding these changes, particularly in agricultural lands for careful planning and land management. Materials and Methods: To this end, in winter 1391, 189 undisturbed soil samples (0-30 cm depth in a regular lattice with a spacing of 500 m were gathered from the surface of Miankangi land, Sistan plain, and their physical and chemical properties were studied. The land area of the region is about 4,500 hectares; the average elevation of studied area is 489.2 meters above sea level with different land uses. Soil texture was measured by the hydrometer methods (11, Also EC and pH (39, calcium carbonate equivalent (37 and the saturation percentage of soils were determined. Kriging, Co-Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighting and Local Polynomial Interpolation techniques were evaluated to produce a soil characteristics map of the study area zoning and to select the best geostatistical methods. Cross-validation techniques and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE were used. Results and Discussion: Normalized test results showed that all of the soil properties except calcium carbonate and soil clay content had normal distribution. In addition, the results of correlation test showed that the soil saturation percentage was positively correlated with silt content (r=0.43 and p

  8. A quick method for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and sorbic acid in fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yajun; Wu, Mingjia

    2005-02-15

    A method of quickly determining ascorbic acid and sorbic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection was developed. The choice of background electrolyte, wavelength, injection time and applied voltage were discussed. Ascorbic acid and sorbic acid were well separated in 80mmolL(-1) boric acid-5mmolL(-1)borax (pH = 8.0) in 5min at the detecting wavelength of 270nm. Under the optimum condition, the method has linear ranges of 2.54-352.00mgL(-1) for ascorbic acid and 1.08-336.39mgL(-1) for sorbic acid with the detection limit of 1.70mgL(-1) for ascorbic acid and 0.54mgL(-1) for sorbic acid, respectively. Other organic acids in fruit juices have no effect on the detection. This method is very feasible and simple and can be used to detect ascorbic acid and sorbic acid in fruit juices.

  9. Microhardness with depth sensing indentation. Instruments methods and applications; Mesure de durete submicronique instrumentee. Methode et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poissonnet, S

    1999-07-01

    The study of applied surface layer or modified layers lead to the development of depth sensing indentation instruments in which measurements of penetration depth replaces optical measurements of surface impressions and sub-micron hardness may be determined. Indentation curves, depth-load, of elastoplastic materials give informations about plasticity and elasticity. After a description of the micro-indentation techniques we show few applications. Irradiation effects are measured in different materials like hafnium diboride, stainless steel or kapton. Hardness in oxide formed on metal study give informations. All these examples show that the nano-indentation is a powerful mean in the physical studies of materials because of a good statistic may be obtained and we have access to thin samples and to small phases. (author)

  10. Comparing Three Approaches of Evapotranspiration Estimation in Mixed Urban Vegetation: Field-Based, Remote Sensing-Based and Observational-Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Nouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being the driest inhabited continent, Australia has one of the highest per capita water consumptions in the world. In addition, instead of having fit-for-purpose water supplies (using different qualities of water for different applications, highly treated drinking water is used for nearly all of Australia’s urban water supply needs, including landscape irrigation. The water requirement of urban landscapes, particularly urban parklands, is of growing concern. The estimation of evapotranspiration (ET and subsequently plant water requirements in urban vegetation needs to consider the heterogeneity of plants, soils, water, and climate characteristics. This research contributes to a broader effort to establish sustainable irrigation practices within the Adelaide Parklands in Adelaide, South Australia. In this paper, two practical ET estimation approaches are compared to a detailed Soil Water Balance (SWB analysis over a one year period. One approach is the Water Use Classification of Landscape Plants (WUCOLS method, which is based on expert opinion on the water needs of different classes of landscape plants. The other is a remote sensing approach based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite. Both methods require knowledge of reference ET calculated from meteorological data. The SWB determined that plants consumed 1084 mm·yr−1 of water in ET with an additional 16% lost to drainage past the root zone, an amount sufficient to keep salts from accumulating in the root zone. ET by MODIS EVI was 1088 mm·yr−1, very close to the SWB estimate, while WUCOLS estimated the total water requirement at only 802 mm·yr−1, 26% lower than the SWB estimate and 37% lower than the amount actually added including the drainage fraction. Individual monthly ET by MODIS was not accurate, but these errors were cancelled out to give good agreement on an annual time step. We

  11. Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, W C; Aggarwal, P K; Aureli, A; Bokuniewicz, H; Cable, J E; Charette, M A; Kontar, E; Krupa, S; Kulkarni, K M; Loveless, A; Moore, W S; Oberdorfer, J A; Oliveira, J; Ozyurt, N; Povinec, P; Privitera, A M G; Rajar, R; Ramessur, R T; Scholten, J; Stieglitz, T; Taniguchi, M; Turner, J V

    2006-08-31

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of near-shore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. A joint project of UNESCO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has examined several methods of SGD assessment and carried out a series of five intercomparison experiments in different hydrogeologic environments (coastal plain, karst, glacial till, fractured crystalline rock, and volcanic terrains). This report reviews the scientific and management significance of SGD, measurement approaches, and the results of the intercomparison experiments. We conclude that while the process is essentially ubiquitous in coastal areas, the assessment of its magnitude at any one location is subject to enough variability that measurements should be made by a variety of techniques and over large enough spatial and temporal scales to capture the majority of these changing conditions. We feel that all the measurement techniques described here are valid although they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is recommended that multiple approaches be applied whenever possible. In addition, a continuing effort is required in order to capture long-period tidal fluctuations, storm effects, and seasonal variations.

  12. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Feulner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF. The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor.

  13. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Hottner, Kathrin; Redel, Sabrina; Müller, Andreas; Moos, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor. PMID:28218700

  14. A KERNEL METHOD BASED ON TOPIC MODEL FOR VERY HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION (VHSR REMOTE SENSING IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A kernel-based method for very high spatial resolution remote sensing image classification is proposed in this article. The new kernel method is based on spectral-spatial information and structure information as well, which is acquired from topic model, Latent Dirichlet Allocation model. The final kernel function is defined as K = u1Kspec + u2Kspat + u3Kstru, in which Kspec, Kspat, Kstru are radial basis function (RBF and u1 + u2 + u3 = 1. In the experiment, comparison with three other kernel methods, including the spectral-based, the spectral- and spatial-based and the spectral- and structure-based method, is provided for a panchromatic QuickBird image of a suburban area with a size of 900 × 900 pixels and spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The result shows that the overall accuracy of the spectral- and structure-based kernel method is 80 %, which is higher than the spectral-based kernel method, as well as the spectral- and spatial-based which accuracy respectively is 67 % and 74 %. What's more, the accuracy of the proposed composite kernel method that jointly uses the spectral, spatial, and structure information is highest among the four methods which is increased to 83 %. On the other hand, the result of the experiment also verifies the validity of the expression of structure information about the remote sensing image.

  15. A Decision Mixture Model-Based Method for Inshore Ship Detection Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukun Bi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of optical remote sensing satellites, ship detection and identification based on large-scale remote sensing images has become a significant maritime research topic. Compared with traditional ocean-going vessel detection, inshore ship detection has received increasing attention in harbor dynamic surveillance and maritime management. However, because the harbor environment is complex, gray information and texture features between docked ships and their connected dock regions are indistinguishable, most of the popular detection methods are limited by their calculation efficiency and detection accuracy. In this paper, a novel hierarchical method that combines an efficient candidate scanning strategy and an accurate candidate identification mixture model is presented for inshore ship detection in complex harbor areas. First, in the candidate region extraction phase, an omnidirectional intersected two-dimension scanning (OITDS strategy is designed to rapidly extract candidate regions from the land-water segmented images. In the candidate region identification phase, a decision mixture model (DMM is proposed to identify real ships from candidate objects. Specifically, to improve the robustness regarding the diversity of ships, a deformable part model (DPM was employed to train a key part sub-model and a whole ship sub-model. Furthermore, to improve the identification accuracy, a surrounding correlation context sub-model is built. Finally, to increase the accuracy of candidate region identification, these three sub-models are integrated into the proposed DMM. Experiments were performed on numerous large-scale harbor remote sensing images, and the results showed that the proposed method has high detection accuracy and rapid computational efficiency.

  16. A Decision Mixture Model-Based Method for Inshore Ship Detection Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Fukun; Chen, Jing; Zhuang, Yin; Bian, Mingming; Zhang, Qingjun

    2017-06-22

    With the rapid development of optical remote sensing satellites, ship detection and identification based on large-scale remote sensing images has become a significant maritime research topic. Compared with traditional ocean-going vessel detection, inshore ship detection has received increasing attention in harbor dynamic surveillance and maritime management. However, because the harbor environment is complex, gray information and texture features between docked ships and their connected dock regions are indistinguishable, most of the popular detection methods are limited by their calculation efficiency and detection accuracy. In this paper, a novel hierarchical method that combines an efficient candidate scanning strategy and an accurate candidate identification mixture model is presented for inshore ship detection in complex harbor areas. First, in the candidate region extraction phase, an omnidirectional intersected two-dimension scanning (OITDS) strategy is designed to rapidly extract candidate regions from the land-water segmented images. In the candidate region identification phase, a decision mixture model (DMM) is proposed to identify real ships from candidate objects. Specifically, to improve the robustness regarding the diversity of ships, a deformable part model (DPM) was employed to train a key part sub-model and a whole ship sub-model. Furthermore, to improve the identification accuracy, a surrounding correlation context sub-model is built. Finally, to increase the accuracy of candidate region identification, these three sub-models are integrated into the proposed DMM. Experiments were performed on numerous large-scale harbor remote sensing images, and the results showed that the proposed method has high detection accuracy and rapid computational efficiency.

  17. Study on the extraction method of tidal flat area in northern Jiangsu Province based on remote sensing waterlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xiangyang; Xu, Ning; Liu, Chaoshun; Gao, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Reclamation caused a significant dynamic change in the coastal zone, the tidal flat zone is an unstable reserve land resource, it has important significance for its research. In order to realize the efficient extraction of the tidal flat area information, this paper takes Rudong County in Jiangsu Province as the research area, using the HJ1A/1B images as the data source, on the basis of previous research experience and literature review, the paper chooses the method of object-oriented classification as a semi-automatic extraction method to generate waterlines. Then waterlines are analyzed by DSAS software to obtain tide points, automatic extraction of outer boundary points are followed under the use of Python to determine the extent of tidal flats in 2014 of Rudong County, the extraction area was 55182hm2, the confusion matrix is used to verify the accuracy and the result shows that the kappa coefficient is 0.945. The method could improve deficiencies of previous studies and its available free nature on the Internet makes a generalization.

  18. Safety Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  19. Towards a new paradigm for innovative training methods for capacity building in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Manikavelu, P. M. Bala; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    Everybody uses a bulb to illustrate an idea but nobody shows where the current comes from. Majority of remote sensing user community comes from natural and social sciences domain while remote sensing technology evolves from physical and engineering sciences. To ensure inculcation and internalization of remote sensing technology by application/resource scientists, trainer needs to transfer physical and engineering concepts in geometric manner. Here, the steering for the transfer of knowledge (facts, procedures, concepts and principles) and skills (thinking, acting, reacting and interacting) needs to take the trainees from Known to Unknown, Concrete to Abstract, Observation to Theory and Simple to Complex. In the initial stage of training/education, experiential learning by instructor led exploring of thematic details in false colour composite (FCC) as well as in individual black and white spectral band(s) imagery by trainees not only creates interest, confidence build-up and orientation towards purposeful learning but also helps them to overcome their inhibitions towards the physical and engineering basal. The methodology to be adopted has to inculcate productive learning, emphasizing more on thinking and trial and error aspects as opposed to reproductive learning based dominantly on being told and imitation. The delivery by trainer needs to ensure dynamic, stimulating and effective discussions through deluging questions pertaining to analysis, synthesis and evaluation nature. This would ensure proactive participation from trainees. Hands-on module leads to creative concretization of concepts. To keep the trainees inspired to learn in an auto mode during post-training period, they need to consciously swim in the current and emerging knowledge pool during training programme. This is achieved through assignment of seminar delivery task to the trainees. During the delivery of seminar, peers and co-trainees drive the trainee to communicate the seminar content not only

  20. Estimation of Water Stress in Grapevines Using Proximal and Remote Sensing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Matese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of climate change and its impacts on plant physiology, optimizing water usage and improving irrigation practices play a crucial role in crop management. In recent years, new optical remote sensing techniques have become widespread since they allow a non-invasive evaluation of plant water stress dynamics in a timely manner. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV currently represent one of the most advanced platforms for remote sensing applications. In this study, remote and proximal sensing measurements were compared with plant physiological variables, with the aim of testing innovative services and support systems to farmers for optimizing irrigation practices and scheduling. The experiment, conducted in two vineyards located in Sardinia, Italy, consisted of two regulated deficit irrigation (RDI treatments and two reference treatments maintained under stress and well-watered conditions. Indicators of crop water status (Crop Water Stress Index—CWSI—and linear thermal index were calculated from UAV images and ground infrared thermal images and then related to physiological measurements. The CWSI values for moderate water deficit (RDI-1 were 0.72, 0.28 and 0.43 for ‘Vermentino’, ‘Cabernet’ and ‘Cagnulari’ respectively, while for severe (RDI-2 water deficit the values were 0.90, 0.34 and 0.51. The highest differences for net photosynthetic rate (Pn and stomatal conductance (Gs between RDI-1 and RDI-2 were observed in ‘Vermentino’. The highest significant correlations were found between CWSI with Pn (R = −0.80, with ΦPSII (R = −0.49 and with Fv’/Fm’ (R = −0.48 on ‘Cagnulari’, while a unique significant correlation between CWSI and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ (R = 0.47 was found on ‘Vermentino’. Pn, as well as the efficiency of light use by the photosystem II (PSII, declined under stress conditions and when CWSI values increased. Under the experimental water stress conditions, grapevines were able to recover

  1. Humidity Sensing Elements Based on Zn-doped TiO2 Films Prepared via a Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezditza Nenova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Humidity sensing elements have been prepared via a sol-gel method on the basis of titanium n-butoxide, doped with ZnO. By this method Zn-modified titania films have been deposited on alumina substrates with interdigitated silver palladium electrodes and subsequent sintering at temperatures of 400°С and 800°С. Scanning electron microscopy has been employed to determine the surface morphology of the films obtained. Structural and compositional characterization has been done by X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrical measurements of the characteristics and parameters of the obtained samples have been taken by an impedance analyzer within a frequency range from 100Hz to 1MHz. The impact of the Zn-dopant and sintering temperature on the samples electrical properties has been studied. The samples obtained by the sol-gel method described can be used as humidity sensing elements which change their resistance given changes in relative humidity at frequencies of up to about 1kHz.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6244

  2. Attenuation of Lg waves in the New Madrid seismic zone of the central United States using the coda normalization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, Nima; Pezeshk, Shahram; Sedaghati, Farhad

    2017-08-01

    Unique properties of coda waves are employed to evaluate the frequency dependent quality factor of Lg waves using the coda normalization method in the New Madrid seismic zone of the central United States. Instrument and site responses are eliminated and source functions are isolated to construct the inversion problem. For this purpose, we used 121 seismograms from 37 events with moment magnitudes, M, ranging from 2.5 to 5.2 and hypocentral distances from 120 to 440 km recorded by 11 broadband stations. A singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm is used to extract Q values from the data, while the geometric spreading exponent is assumed to be a constant. Inversion results are then fitted with a power law equation from 3 to 12 Hz to derive the frequency dependent quality factor function. The final results of the analysis are QVLg (f) = (410 ± 38) f0.49 ± 0.05 for the vertical component and QHLg (f) = (390 ± 26) f0.56 ± 0.04 for the horizontal component, where the term after ± sign represents one standard error. For stations within the Mississippi embayment with an average sediment depth of 1 km around the Memphis metropolitan area, estimation of quality factor using the coda normalization method is not well-constrained at low frequencies (f site effects, or even a change in coda wave scattering regime which can exacerbate the scatter of the data.

  3. Variations of mesoscale and large-scale sea ice morphology in the 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment as observed by microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Gloersen, P.; Josberger, E. G.; Johannessen, O. M.; Guest, P. S.; Mognard, N.; Shuchman, R.; Burns, B. A.; Lannelongue, N.; Davidson, K. L.

    1987-06-01

    During the summer 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait and Greenland Sea (MIZEX '84), passive and active microwave sensors on five aircraft and the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) acquired synoptic sequential observations which when combined give a comprehensive sequential description of the mesoscale and large-scale ice morphology variations during the period June 9 through July 16, 1984. The high-resolution ice concentration distributions in these images agree well with the low-resolution SMMR distributions. For diffuse ice edges the 30% SMMR ice concentration isopleth corresponds to the ice edge, while for compact conditions the ice edge falls within the 40 to 50% SMMR isopleths. Throughout the experiment, ice edge meanders and eddies repeatedly formed, moved, and disappeared, but the ice edge remained within a 100-km-wide zone. The ice pack behind this alternately diffuse and compact edge underwent rapid and pronounced variations in ice concentration over a 200-km-wide zone. The aircraft microwave images show the complex structures and ephemeral nature of the mesoscale sea ice morphology. The difference in oceanographic forcing between the eastern and western sectors of the experiment area generated pronounced ice morphology differences. On the Yermak Plateau, from 3°E to 10°E, the weak ocean circulation allowed the wind to be the dominant force in determining the ice morphology. To the southwest of this region, over the Molloy Deep and the Greenland continental shelf break, from 3°E to 8°W, the ice morphology was dominated by the energetic East Greenland Current with its associated eddies and meanders.

  4. A remote sensing method for estimating regional reservoir area and evaporative loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Gorelick, Steven M.; Zimba, Paul V.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Evaporation from the water surface of a reservoir can significantly affect its function of ensuring the availability and temporal stability of water supply. Current estimations of reservoir evaporative loss are dependent on water area derived from a reservoir storage-area curve. Such curves are unavailable if the reservoir is located in a data-sparse region or questionable if long-term sedimentation has changed the original elevation-area relationship. We propose a remote sensing framework to estimate reservoir evaporative loss at the regional scale. This framework uses a multispectral water index to extract reservoir area from Landsat imagery and estimate monthly evaporation volume based on pan-derived evaporative rates. The optimal index threshold is determined based on local observations and extended to unobserved locations and periods. Built on the cloud computing capacity of the Google Earth Engine, this framework can efficiently analyze satellite images at large spatiotemporal scales, where such analysis is infeasible with a single computer. Our study involves 200 major reservoirs in Texas, captured in 17,811 Landsat images over a 32-year period. The results show that these reservoirs contribute to an annual evaporative loss of 8.0 billion cubic meters, equivalent to 20% of their total active storage or 53% of total annual water use in Texas. At five coastal basins, reservoir evaporative losses exceed the minimum freshwater inflows required to sustain ecosystem health and fishery productivity of the receiving estuaries. Reservoir evaporative loss can be significant enough to counterbalance the positive effects of impounding water and to offset the contribution of water conservation and reuse practices. Our results also reveal the spatially variable performance of the multispectral water index and indicate the limitation of using scene-level cloud cover to screen satellite images. This study demonstrates the advantage of combining satellite remote sensing and

  5. New method of measuring wrist joint position sense avoiding cutaneous and visual inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Andre; Harbst, Kimberly; Kaufman, Kenton R; Hansen, Diana K; Laskowski, Edward R; Berger, Richard A

    2010-02-10

    Aspects of afferent inputs, generally termed proprioception, are being increasingly studied. Extraneous factors such as cutaneous inputs can dramatically interfere while trying to design studies in order to determine the participation of the different structures involved in proprioception in the wrist position sense. We tried to determine validity and repeatability of a new wrist joint position measurement device using methodology designed to minimize extraneous factors and isolate muscle and joint inputs. In order to test the reliability of the system, eighty young-adult subjects without musculoskeletal or neurologic impairments affecting the right upper extremity were tested using a custom made motion tracking system. Testing consisted of two conditions: active reproduction of active placement and passive reproduction of passive placement. Subjects performed two repetitions of each target position (10, 20, and 30 degrees of flexion and extension) presented in a random order. Test- retest reliability was then tested. The average constant error in the passive condition was -0.7 degrees +/- 4.7 degrees as compared to the active condition at 3.7 degrees +/- 5.1 degrees. Average absolute error in the passive condition was 4.9 degrees +/- 2.9 degrees compared to the active condition in which absolute error was 5.9 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees. Test-retest repeatability in both conditions was less than the 5 degrees magnitude typical of clinical goniometry. Errors in the active condition (less than 2 degrees ) were slightly smaller than the passive condition, and the passive condition was also associated with poorer consistency between apparatus sensors and skin sensors. The current system for measurement of wrist joint proprioception allows the researcher to decrease extraneous influences that may affect joint position sense awareness, and will help in future study aiming to determine precisely the role of the different structure involved in proprioception.

  6. Method to estimate drag coefficient at the air/ice interface over drifting open pack ice from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, U.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge in near real time, of the surface drag coefficient for drifting pack ice is vital for predicting its motions. And since this is not routinely available from measurements it must be replaced by estimates. Hence, a method for estimating this variable, as well as the drag coefficient at the water/ice interface and the ice thickness, for drifting open pack ice was developed. These estimates were derived from three-day sequences of LANDSAT-1 MSS images and surface weather charts and from the observed minima and maxima of these variables. The method was tested with four data sets in the southeastern Beaufort sea. Acceptable results were obtained for three data sets. Routine application of the method depends on the availability of data from an all-weather air or spaceborne remote sensing system, producing images with high geometric fidelity and high resolution.

  7. PREFACE: 1st METECH workshop - From deep-sea to coastal zones: Methods and Techniques for studying Palaeoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Pires, C.; St-Onge, G.

    2008-10-01

    Reconstructing past climate and past ocean circulation demands the highest possible precision and accuracy which urges the scientific community to look at different sediment records such as the ones from coastal zones to deep-sea with a more complete set of technical and methodological tools. However, the information given by each tool varies in precision, accuracy and in significance according to their environmental settings. It is therefore essential to compare tools. With that in mind, and as part of the International year of Planet Earth, a workshop entitled `From deep-sea to coastal zones: Methods and Techniques for studying palaeoenvironments' took place in Faro (Portugal), from 25-29 February 2008 in order to: present several methods and techniques that can be used for studying sediments from deep-sea to coastal zones, namely for reconstructing palaeoenvironments in order to document past climatic changes and short to long-term environmental processes; allow cross experience between different fields and specialties, either from deep-sea to coastal zones or from micropaleontology to geochemistry; give the opportunity to students from different universities and countries to attend the workshop; publish a special volume on the presented methods and techniques during the workshop. The workshop was organized in four non-parallel sessions dealing with the use of micropaleontology, isotopes, biogeochemistry and sedimentology, as tools for palaeoenvironmental studies. The present IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science proceedings reflect this organization and papers are published in each theme. The papers are either short reviews or case studies and are highlighted below. The remains of microorganisms found in sediments are the main proxies used in micropaleontological studies. However, the link between fossilized remains and their living origin is not easy to reconstruct only based on the geologic/sedimentary record. Accordingly, Barbosa presents a

  8. [Evaluation of total energy expenditure in adult, overweight and free-living subjects. A comparison between two methods: Factorial Method vs SenseWear Armband "Metabolic Holter"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giobbi, G

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of SenseWear Armband functional and structural characteristics and comparison between TEE value from Factorial Method and Metabolic Holter. The study has involved a homogeneous group of 21 adult, overweight (25BMI30 Kg/m(2)) and free-living subjects, 9 men and 12 women, with an average age of 34.9 +/- 14.5 (20-60 years old). TEE valuation has been performed for each subject by means of Factorial Method and, secondly, through the application of SenseWear Armband (Bodymedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA). Values recorded by Armband overestimate Factorial values of 14%. The Student's t Test has reported significant results (t = 3.540; p = 0.002). Spearman's Correlation has showed the following values of r = 0.696 and p = 0.001. The analysed methods can't be superimposed because the study has showed a signifi cant difference between the reported values. In spite of all that, Spearman study has highlighted a remarkable statistic relation between the techniques. In conclusion, SWA and FM seem to allow a corresponding diagnosis.

  9. Into the environment of mosquito-borne disease: A spatial analysis of vector distribution using traditional and remotely sensed methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heidi E.

    Spatially explicit information is increasingly available for infectious disease modeling. However, such information is reluctantly or inappropriately incorporated. My dissertation research uses spatially explicit data to assess relationships between landscape and mosquito species distribution and discusses challenges regarding accurate predictive risk modeling. The goal of my research is to use remotely sensed environmental information and spatial statistical methods to better understand mosquito-borne disease epidemiology for improvement of public health responses. In addition to reviewing the progress of spatial infectious disease modeling, I present four research projects. I begin by evaluating the biases in surveillance data and build up to predictive modeling of mosquito species presence. In the first study I explore how mosquito surveillance trap types influence estimations of mosquito populations. Then. I use county-based human surveillance data and landscape variables to identify risk factors for West Nile virus disease. The third study uses satellite-based vegetation indices to identify spatial variation among West Nile virus vectors in an urban area and relates the variability to virus transmission dynamics. Finally, I explore how information from three satellite sensors of differing spatial and spectral resolution can be used to identify and distinguish mosquito habitat across central Connecticut wetlands. Analyses presented here constitute improvements to the prediction of mosquito distribution and therefore identification of disease risk factors. Current methods for mosquito surveillance data collection are labor intensive and provide an extremely limited, incomplete picture of the species composition and abundance. Human surveillance data offers additional challenges with respect to reporting bias and resolution, but is nonetheless informative in identifying environmental risk factors and disease transmission dynamics. Remotely sensed imagery supports

  10. A New Method to Measure Temperature and Burner Pattern Factor Sensing for Active Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The determination of the temperatures of extended surfaces which exhibit non-uniform temperature variation is very important for a number of applications including the "Burner Pattern Factor" (BPF) of turbine engines. Exploratory work has shown that use of BPF to control engine functions can result in many benefits, among them reduction in engine weight, reduction in operating cost, increase in engine life, while attaining maximum engine efficiency. Advanced engines are expected to operate at very high temperature to achieve high efficiency. Brief exposure of engine components to higher than design temperatures due to non-uniformity in engine burner pattern can reduce engine life. The engine BPF is a measure of engine temperature uniformity. Attainment of maximum temperature uniformity and high temperatures is key to maximum efficiency and long life. A new approach to determine through the measurement of just one radiation spectrum by a multiwavelength pyrometer is possible. This paper discusses a new temperature sensing approach and its application to determine the BPF.

  11. Study of time dynamics of seismicity for the Mexican subduction zone by means of the visibility graph method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rojas, Alejandro; Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Flores, Leticia

    2015-04-01

    By using the method of the visibility graph (VG), five magnitude time series extracted from the seismic catalog of the Mexican subduction zone were investigated. The five seismic sequences represent the seismicity which occurred between 2005 and 2012 in five seismic areas: Guerrero, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Jalisco and Michoacan. Among the five seismic sequences, the Jalisco sequence shows VG properties significantly different from those shown by the other four. Such a difference could be inherent in the different tectonic settings of Jalisco with respect to those characterizing the other four areas. The VG properties of the seismic sequences have been put in relationship with the more typical seismological characteristics (b-value and a-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law). The present study was supported by the Bilateral Project Italy-Mexico "Experimental Stick-slip models of tectonic faults: innovative statistical approaches applied to synthetic seismic sequences", jointly funded by MAECI (Italy) and AMEXCID (Mexico) in the framework of the Bilateral Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation PE 2014-2016

  12. Catalyst-Free Vapor-Phase Method for Direct Integration of Gas Sensing Nanostructures with Polymeric Transducing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Vallejos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten oxide nanoneedles (NNs are grown and integrated directly with polymeric transducing platforms for gas sensors via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD method. Material analysis shows the feasibility to grow highly crystalline nanomaterials in the form of NNs with aspect ratios between 80 and 200 and with high concentration of oxygen vacancies at the surface, whereas gas testing demonstrates moderate sensing responses to hydrogen at concentrations between 10 ppm and 50 ppm, which are comparable with results for tungsten oxide NNs grown on silicon transducing platforms. This method is demonstrated to be an attractive route to fabricate next generation of gas sensors devices, provided with flexibility and functionality, with great potential in a cost effective production for large-scale applications.

  13. Role of Remote Sensing and Geographyc Information System Mapping for Protected Areas Land Rice Field Subak, Buffer Zones, and Area Conversion (Case Studies In Gianyar Regency, Bali Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanya, Indayati; Netera Subadiyasa, N.

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of rice fields in Bali 2579 ha/year, Law Number 41 of 2009 [1] and five of Government Regulation (GR), mandates the Local Government (LG) has a Regional Regulation (RR) or Rule Regent/Mayor, on the protection of agricultural land sustainable food (PALSF). Yet none provincial government of Bali has PALSF; although Subak as world cultural heritage. Similarly, Gianyar regency development strategy directed to integrate agriculture with tourism. Landsat 8 images, Word View Coverage 2015 Gianyar district and ArcGIS 10.3 software used for of rice field mapping and zoning of land protection Subak. Ten thematic maps (watersheds, land use, irrigation, relief/slope, rainfall, spatial planning, land suitability, productivity, the distance from downtown) as a variable parameter, weighted and balanced numerically. Numerical classification agricultura land using for the overlay menu and reselek. The total value of >125 as rice need to be protected, 100-125 value for buffer zone, and the value of 100, 50-100 and <50 respectively to rice fields that need to be protected, wetland buffer, and rice fields can be converted. Region Subak sustainable of rice field protection, buffer and can be converted in a row for the next 20 years is 10973 ha, 3855 ha and 311 ha. For the next 40 years Subak conserved of rice field (8019 ha), buffer (5855 ha), and can be converted (3124 ha). Subak land pattern of spread can be converted to an supply of land for non-agricultural development of the region downstream to the access road Ida Bagus Matera (Jln. Province / national) in the coastal areas of Gianyar.

  14. TRANSFORMATION METHODS FOR USING COMBINATION OF REMOTELY SENSED DATA AND CADASTRAL MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ş. Ö. Dönmez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine using cadastral maps as base maps for aerial orthophotos, two different 2D transformation methods were applied between various coordinate systems. Study area was chosen from Kagithane district in Istanbul. The used data is an orthophoto (30 cm spatial resolution, and cadastral map (1:1000 taken from land office, containing the same region. Transformation methods are chosen as; 1st Order Polynomial Transformation and Helmert 2D Transformation within this study. The test points, used to determine the coefficients between the datums, were 26 common traverse points and the check points, used to compare the transformed coordinates to reliable true coordinates, were 10 common block corners. The transformation methods were applied using Matlab software. After applying the methods, residuals were calculated and compared between each transformation method in order to use cadastral maps as reliable vector data.

  15. TEM Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Transition Zone Between Steel Tube and An Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Coating Produced by CMT Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.; Blicharski M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of the transition zone between 16Mo3 steel and Inconel 625 weld overlay coating produced by the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) method. Investigations were primarily carried out through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on thin foils prepared by FIB (Focus Ion Beam).

  16. TEM Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Transition Zone Between Steel Tube and An Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Coating Produced by CMT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of the transition zone between 16Mo3 steel and Inconel 625 weld overlay coating produced by the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT method. Investigations were primarily carried out through transmission electron microscopy (TEM on thin foils prepared by FIB (Focus Ion Beam.

  17. Performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating filter-based strain/temperature sensing system based on a modified Gaussian function approximation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching; Wang, Chao-Hsiang

    2011-09-20

    This paper analyzes the performance of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter-based strain and/or temperature sensing system based on a modified Gaussian function (MGF) approximation method. Instead of using a conventional Gaussian function, we propose the MGF, which can capture the characteristics of the sidelobes of the reflected spectrum, to model the FBG sensor and filter. We experimentally demonstrate that, by considering the contributions of the sidelobes with the MGF approximation method, behaviors of the FBG filter-based FBG displacement and/or temperature sensing system can be predicted more accurately. The predicted behaviors include the saturation, the sensitivity, the sensing range, and the optimal initial Bragg wavelengths of the FBG sensing system.

  18. Sensing performance of palladium-functionalized WO{sub 3} nanowires by a drop-casting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chávez, F., E-mail: f_perez_s@hotmail.com [Department of Physical-Chemical Materials, ICUAP-BUAP, 72000, Puebla (Mexico); Pérez-Sánchez, G.F. [Department of Physical-Chemical Materials, ICUAP-BUAP, 72000, Puebla (Mexico); Goiz, O. [Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV-IPN, 07360, México, D.F (Mexico); Zaca-Morán, P. [Department of Physical-Chemical Materials, ICUAP-BUAP, 72000, Puebla (Mexico); Peña-Sierra, R.; Morales-Acevedo, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV-IPN, 07360, México, D.F (Mexico); Felipe, C. [Department of Biosciences and Engineering, CIIEMAD-IPN, 07340, México, D.F (Mexico); Soledad-Priego, M. [Faculty of Electronics Sciences, FCE, 72000, Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    In this work, we show a simple way to functionalize tungsten oxide nanowires (WO{sub 3}-NWs) using a saturated palladium chloride (PdCl{sub 2}) solution deposited by a drop-casting method. WO{sub 3}-NWs were synthesized by close-spaced chemical vapor deposition (CSVT). The morphological and structural characterizations showed that the diameters of WO{sub 3}-NWs are in the range from 50 to 200 nm with lengths above 10 μm, and correspond to the orthorhombic phase of WO{sub 3}, respectively. The sensor was fabricated using the WO{sub 3}-NWs and tested with hydrogen and volatile organic compounds (VCO's). A comparative study was done on the sensing performance, before and after the Palladium functionalization of the WO{sub 3}-NWs, considering a wide range of gas concentrations and moderate operating temperatures (100–400 °C). The results show that this simple functionalization process significantly increases the sensor sensitivity and reduces the time constants. In addition, it has been shown that at 300 °C the decorated sensor becomes more selective to hydrogen and xylene for all concentrations considered in this research. Finally, the mechanisms involved in improving the gas sensing properties of WO{sub 3}-NWs functionalized with Palladium are discussed.

  19. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance to Predict Appropriate Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy in Ischemic and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy Patients Using Late Gadolinium Enhancement Border Zone: Comparison of Four Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, Robert; Chaudhry, Uzma; van der Pals, Jesper; Engblom, Henrik; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar; Wu, Katherine C; Borgquist, Rasmus; Carlsson, Marcus

    2017-09-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) border zone on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has been proposed as an independent predictor of ventricular arrhythmias. The purpose was to determine whether size and heterogeneity of LGE predict appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) patients and to evaluate 4 LGE border-zone algorithms. ICM and NICM patients who underwent LGE cardiac magnetic resonance imaging prior to ICD implantation were retrospectively included. Two semiautomatic algorithms, expectation maximization, weighted intensity, a priori information and a weighted border zone algorithm, were compared with a modified full-width half-maximum and a 2-3SD threshold-based algorithm (2-3SD). Hazard ratios were calculated per 1% increase in LGE. A total of 74 ICM and 34 NICM were followed for 63 months (1-140) and 52 months (0-133), respectively. ICM patients had 27 appropriate ICD events, and NICM patients had 7 ICD events. In ICM patients with primary prophylactic ICD, LGE border zone predicted ICD therapy in univariable and multivariable analysis measured by the expectation maximization, weighted intensity, a priori information, weighted border zone, and modified full-width half-maximum algorithms (hazard ratios 1.23, 1.22, and 1.05, respectively; P<0.05; negative predictive value 92%). For NICM, total LGE by all 4 methods was the strongest predictor (hazard ratios, 1.03-1.04; P<0.05), though the number of events was small. Appropriate ICD therapy can be predicted in ICM patients with primary prevention ICD by quantifying the LGE border zone. In NICM patients, total LGE but not LGE border zone had predictive value for ICD therapy. However, the algorithms used affects the predictive value of these measures. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. How Robust Are Burn Severity Indices When Applied in a New Region? Evaluation of Alternate Field-Based and Remote-Sensing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alina Cansler; Donald McKenzie

    2012-01-01

    Remotely sensed indices of burn severity are now commonly used by researchers and land managers to assess fire effects, but their relationship to field-based assessments of burn severity has been evaluated only in a few ecosystems. This analysis illustrates two cases in which methodological refinements to field-based and remotely sensed indices of burn severity developed in one location did not show the same improvement when used in a new location. We evaluated three methods of assessing burn...

  1. Acoustic method of investigating the material properties and humidity sensing behavior of polymer coated piezoelectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Cinzia

    2006-09-01

    The relative humidity (RH) sensing behavior of a polymeric film was investigated by means of polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay lines implemented on single crystal piezoelectric substrates, such as quartz and LiNbO3, and on thin piezoelectric polycrystalline films, such as ZnO and AlN, on Si and GaAs. The same SAW delay line configuration was implemented on each substrate and the obtained devices' operating frequency was in the range of 105-156MHz, depending on the type of the substrate, on its crystallographic orientation, and on the SAW propagation direction. The surface of each SAW device was covered by the same type RH sensitive film of the same thickness and the RH sensitivity of each polymer coated substrate, i.e., the SAW relative phase velocity shift per RH unit changes, was investigated in the 0%—80% RH range. The perturbational approach was used to relate the SAW sensor velocity response to the RH induced changes in the physical parameters of the sensitive polymer film: the incremental change in the mass density and shear modulus of the polymer film per unit RH change were estimated. The shift of the bare SAW delay lines operating frequency induced by the presence of the polymer film, at RH =0% and at T =-10°C, allowed the experimental estimation of the mass sensitivity values of each substrate. These values were in good accordance with those reported in the literature and with those theoretically evaluated by exact numerical calculation. The shift of the bare SAW delay lines propagation loss induced by the polymer coating of the device surface, at RH =0% and at ambient temperature, allowed the experimental estimation of the elastic sensitivity of each substrate. These values were found in good accordance with those available from the literature. The temperature coefficient of delay and the electromechanical coupling coefficient of the bare substrates were also estimated. The membrane sensitivity to ethanol, methanol and isopropylic

  2. A data-driven epidemiological prediction method for dengue outbreaks using local and remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczak Anna L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is the most common arboviral disease of humans, with more than one third of the world’s population at risk. Accurate prediction of dengue outbreaks may lead to public health interventions that mitigate the effect of the disease. Predicting infectious disease outbreaks is a challenging task; truly predictive methods are still in their infancy. Methods We describe a novel prediction method utilizing Fuzzy Association Rule Mining to extract relationships between clinical, meteorological, climatic, and socio-political data from Peru. These relationships are in the form of rules. The best set of rules is automatically chosen and forms a classifier. That classifier is then used to predict future dengue incidence as either HIGH (outbreak or LOW (no outbreak, where these values are defined as being above and below the mean previous dengue incidence plus two standard deviations, respectively. Results Our automated method built three different fuzzy association rule models. Using the first two weekly models, we predicted dengue incidence three and four weeks in advance, respectively. The third prediction encompassed a four-week period, specifically four to seven weeks from time of prediction. Using previously unused test data for the period 4–7 weeks from time of prediction yielded a positive predictive value of 0.686, a negative predictive value of 0.976, a sensitivity of 0.615, and a specificity of 0.982. Conclusions We have developed a novel approach for dengue outbreak prediction. The method is general, could be extended for use in any geographical region, and has the potential to be extended to other environmentally influenced infections. The variables used in our method are widely available for most, if not all countries, enhancing the generalizability of our method.

  3. A method to determine the protection zone of chemical industrial park considering air quality, health risk and environmental risk: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingang; Zhang, Mingbo; Li, Dong; Liu, Jia

    2017-10-04

    In China, chemical enterprises are required to cluster into a large number of chemical industrial parks (CIPs), which increase risks and threats to the environment and human being's health due to aggregation of the complicated chemical process and huge unit scale. Setting a scientific and reasonable protection zone around CIP is a very efficient way to protect surrounding people's health. A method was designed to determine the comprehensive protection zone of CIP, taking into account multiple factors: air quality, health risk and environmental risk. By establishing a comprehensive and multi-levels index system, the protection zone and the corresponding environmental risk management countermeasures can be proposed hierarchically, which are very important to the development and environmental risk management of CIP. A CIP located in coastal area of Shandong Province was studied, and it is turned out that the method to determine the protection zone of chemical industrial park considering air quality, health risk and environmental risk has great advantages compared with other methods.

  4. An spatial zoning of Saffron cultivation based on climatic factors using hierarchical analysis process method (Case Study: Torbate Hydariyeh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdieh rashid sorkh abadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between of effective factors in agricultural crops production, climatic conditions is an important task from the view of environmental variables. On the other hand the basic in agricultural development is having detailed knowledge of the environmental characteristics in any place and applying specific management. Saffron as the world's most valuable agricultural and medicinal product is among the plants that has acquired a significant role in the economic and social conditions of arid and semi-arid areas of Southern and Central Khorasan. Thereafter, this study with purpose of climatic conditions evaluation for Saffron cultivation in Torbate Heidariyeh City was conducted. For this reason, climatic data of 10 meteorological stations in the province was selected and with the help of Arc GIS software environment, the modeling and spatial analysis of information was conducted. using of suitable climatic conditions in different growth stages of Saffron, information layers were classified and the value of the maps was determined. Finally for the integrating of information layers using multi-criteria decision-making methods were used based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, climatic potential map of Saffron cultivation in Torbate Heidariyeh City was prepared. The results of the study showed that the effect of rainfall, temperature and solar radiation climatic factors, appropriate the different growth stages, in each region is different and from the total 9570.2071 sq kms area of the Torbate Hidariyeh city according to Saffron cultivation zoning, 6% has a very good quality, 56% of the area has a good quality, 28% has relative conditions for cultivation, 8.5% has poor and 1.5% of the area has a quite unsuitable quality for the cultivation of Saffron.

  5. An experimental method for investigating phase transformations in the heat affected zone of welds using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J.W.; Wong, J.; Froba, M.; Waide, P.A.; Larson, E.M.

    1995-05-26

    Although welding is an established technology used in many industrial settings, it is least understand terms of the phases that actually exist, the variation of their spatial disposition with time, and the rate of transformation from one phase to another at various thermal coordinates in the vicinity of the weld. With the availability of high flux and, more recently, high brightness synchrotron x-radiation sources, a number of diffraction and spectroscopic methods have been developed for structural characterization with improved spatial and temporal resolutions to enable in-situ measurements of phases under extreme temperature, pressure and other processing conditions not readily accessible with conventional sources. This paper describes the application of spatially resolved x-ray diffraction (SRXRD) for in-situ investigations of phase transformations in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of fusion welds. Results are presented for gas tungsten (GTA) welds in commercially pure titanium that show the existence of the high temperature bcc {beta}-phase in a 3.3 {plus_minus} 0.3 mm wide HA band adjacent to the liquid weld pool. Phase concentration profiles derived from the SRXRD data further show the co-existence of both the low temperature hcp ({alpha}-phase and the {beta}-phase in the partially, transformed region of the HA. These results represent the first direct observations of solid state phase transformations and mapping of phase boundaries in fusion welds. SRXRD experiments of this type are needed as experimental input for modeling of kinetics of phase transformations and microstructural evolution under the highly non-isothermal conditions produced during welding.

  6. Low-Complexity Spatial-Temporal Filtering Method via Compressive Sensing for Interference Mitigation in a GNSS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compressive sensing based array processing method is proposed to lower the complexity, and computation load of array system and to maintain the robust antijam performance in global navigation satellite system (GNSS receiver. Firstly, the spatial and temporal compressed matrices are multiplied with array signal, which results in a small size array system. Secondly, the 2-dimensional (2D minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamformer is employed in proposed system to mitigate the narrowband and wideband interference simultaneously. The iterative process is performed to find optimal spatial and temporal gain vector by MVDR approach, which enhances the steering gain of direction of arrival (DOA of interest. Meanwhile, the null gain is set at DOA of interference. Finally, the simulated navigation signal is generated offline by the graphic user interface tool and employed in the proposed algorithm. The theoretical analysis results using the proposed algorithm are verified based on simulated results.

  7. An impedance method for spatial sensing of 3D cell constructs – towards applications in tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canali, Chiara; Mazzoni, Chiara; Larsen, Layla Bashir

    2015-01-01

    We present the characterisation and validation of multiplexed 4-terminal (4T) impedance measurements as a method for sensing the spatial location of cell aggregates within large three-dimensional (3D) gelatin scaffolds. The measurements were performed using an array of four rectangular chambers......, each having eight platinum needle electrodes for parallel analysis. The electrode positions for current injection and voltage measurements were optimised by means of finite element simulations to maximise the sensitivity field distribution and spatial resolution. Eight different 4T combinations were...... experimentally tested in terms of the spatial sensitivity. The simulated sensitivity fields were validated using objects (phantoms) with different conductivity and size placed in different positions inside the chamber. This provided the detection limit (volume sensitivity) of 16.5%, i.e. the smallest detectable...

  8. Comparison of three different approaches to estimate evapotranspiration over large areas: remotely sensed method, complementary approach and SVAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, Maliko; Baille, Alain; Taylor, Christopher; Harris, Phil

    2010-05-01

    Methods able to accurately estimate ET over large areas are important for many applications. Spatial mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) is a prerequisite to a wide range of studies in hydrology, forestry, land and crop management, irrigation, water resources planning, etc. In this study, three different approaches to estimate ET over large areas are compared and evaluated. (1) The first one is a variant of the so-called "triangle" method (Jiang et al., 2004), which uses almost exclusively remote sensing data. Vegetation Fraction (Fv) - from the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) - and surface temperature (Ts) were obtained from MODIS products at satellite overpass. The graphical analysis of the Ts-Fv space allows estimating the evaporative fraction (EF), which is then used to derive ET. (2) The second method is the Advection-Aridity (AA) model (Brusaert et al., 1979). This simple approach, which only requires routinely available meteorological data, assumes that a complementary relationship exists between Potential Evapotranspiration (ETpot) and Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa). Although questioned for the lack of scientific basis of the complementary assumption, the AA model is currently used in hydrological applications requiring spatial mapping of ET. (3) The third method relies on the use of a land surface scheme ("JULES" - the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) which is integrated within the UK Met Office climate model. This approach, based on equations that take into account the different biophysical processes involved in land surface environment, is likely to be the most reliable in theory but in practice it may be limited by the availability of parameters describing the soil and vegetation in a particular area, required to solve the set of equations describing land-atmosphere interactions. The three methods were applied to ET mapping of the Segura River Basin, a semi-arid region of South-Eastern Spain. Results from the case-study are presented

  9. Variation of Routine Soil Analysis When Compared with Hyperspectral Narrow Band Sensing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. M. Demattê

    2010-08-01

    (using 474 observations these attributes were B8 (1,350–1,417 nm, B10 (1,417–1,449 nm, B11 (1,449–1,793 nm, B15 (1,927–2,102 nm, B16 (2,101–2,139 nm, and B17 (2,139–2,206 nm; B7 (975–1,350 nm, B10, B11, B16, B19 (2,206–2,258 nm and B21 (2,258–2,389 nm for clay and sand, respectively. The bands selected to model sand and clay, by orbital data, were 3, 5 and 7 of TM-Landsat-5 and 2, 5 and 7 sand and clay, respectively. The use of soil analysis methodology by ground remote sensing constitutes an alternative to traditional routine laboratory analysis.

  10. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Erin A.; Schaeffer, Blake A.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Loftin, Keith A.; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying cyanoHABs in multiple water bodies and across geo-political boundaries. An assessment method was developed using MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) imagery to quantify cyanoHAB surface area extent, transferable to different spatial areas, in Florida, Ohio, and California for the test period of 2008 to 2012. Temporal assessment was used to evaluate changes in satellite resolvable inland waterbodies for each state of interest. To further assess cyanoHAB risk within the states, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recreational guidance level thresholds were used to categorize surface area of cyanoHABs into three risk categories: low, moderate, and high-risk bloom area. Results showed that in Florida, the area of cyanoHABs increased largely due to observed increases in high-risk bloom area. California exhibited a slight decrease in cyanoHAB extent, primarily attributed to decreases in Northern California. In Ohio (excluding Lake Erie), little change in cyanoHAB surface area was observed. This study uses satellite remote sensing to quantify changes in inland cyanoHAB surface area across numerous water bodies within an entire state. The temporal assessment method developed here will be relevant into the future as it is transferable to the Ocean Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on Sentinel-3A/3B missions.

  11. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Erin A; Schaeffer, Blake A; Stumpf, Richard P; Loftin, Keith A; Werdell, P Jeremy

    2017-07-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying cyanoHABs in multiple water bodies and across geo-political boundaries. An assessment method was developed using MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) imagery to quantify cyanoHAB surface area extent, transferable to different spatial areas, in Florida, Ohio, and California for the test period of 2008 to 2012. Temporal assessment was used to evaluate changes in satellite resolvable inland waterbodies for each state of interest. To further assess cyanoHAB risk within the states, the World Health Organization's (WHO) recreational guidance level thresholds were used to categorize surface area of cyanoHABs into three risk categories: low, moderate, and high-risk bloom area. Results showed that in Florida, the area of cyanoHABs increased largely due to observed increases in high-risk bloom area. California exhibited a slight decrease in cyanoHAB extent, primarily attributed to decreases in Northern California. In Ohio (excluding Lake Erie), little change in cyanoHAB surface area was observed. This study uses satellite remote sensing to quantify changes in inland cyanoHAB surface area across numerous water bodies within an entire state. The temporal assessment method developed here will be relevant into the future as it is transferable to the Ocean Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on Sentinel-3A/3B missions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New insights into urban planning of Caričin Grad: The application of modern sensing and detection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanišević Vujadin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caričin Grad, Justiniana Prima, urban planning, fortification, settlement, aerial photography, geophysical surveys, LiDAR, photogrammetry, excavations, GIS. Thanks to the application of modern non-destructive sensing and detection methods, in recent years a series of new data on urban planning in Caričin Grad was obtained. For the most part, the current research programme studies the Upper Town’s northern plateau, wooded until recently and hence the only previously unexplored unit of the city. In the course of this programme, the classical research method - the excavations started in 2009 - is for the first time combined with the systematic application of airborne and terrestrial sensing and detection techniques. The analysis of historic aerial photographs and topographic plans proved to be very useful as well. Along with them, LiDAR-derived DTMs, photogrammetric DEMs, different geophysical and orthophotographic plans are stored in the GIS database for Caričin Grad and the Leskovac Basin. In this way almost 80 percent of the plateau area was defined, and the obtained plan is hypothetical only to a small extent, which particularly refers to the unexcavated northern rampart of the Upper Town. Each source provided relevant information for the reconstruction of both the rampart and the settlement, which points to the value of a holistic approach to documentation from various dates. The first source to be studied were archival aerial photographs of Caričin Grad from 1938 and 1947 (Figs. 1, 2.1. The latter one was originally processed by Aleksandar Deroko and Svetozar Radojči}, who drew the plan of the town after it, labelling the unexplored Upper Town’s northern plateau as “a probable habitation area”. The route of the northern rampart was aslo rather precisely determined by the authors (Fig. 2.2. Recently, these photographs were rectified and georeferenced in the GIS. The 1938 shot reveals the position of some towers as well, and it is

  13. Paleopiezometry – the new investigation method applied to the Penninic suture zone in comparison to the Meliata-Hallstatt suture zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Zákršmidová

    2016-04-01

    thin-sections from Bôrka nappe (23.7 – 42.7.m; but also 174.0 – 403.20.m in the case of grains, which undergone the static recrystallization in the rear parts of the Bôrka nappe. Based on all these measurements, the method of paleopiezometry seems to be a usable tool for determination of differential stresses, which contribute to reveal a geological and tectonic interpretation of geodynamic history.

  14. A Novel Method to Balance Inverted Pendulum by Angle Sensing Using Fuzzy Logic Supervised PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inverted pendulum system is a nonlinear unstable system, an ideal experiment platform for teaching control theories and conducting various control experiments. Many abstract control concepts, such as the stability and the controllability of a control system, can all be shown visually through the inverted pendulum system. In addition to educational purposes, an inverted pendulum is also a research area for many researchers of modern control theories. Through the continuous research on new ways of controlling inverted pendulum, researchers have developed new control methods, and apply them to the high tech areas such as aeronautical engineering and robotics. Thanks to the characteristics of the system, such as high-order, instability multi-variables, non-linearity and strong coupling. This paper highlights the application and stability of inverted pendulum using fuzzy logic supervised PID controller. We are trying to propose a new method to control inverted pendulum using angle sensor.

  15. Optical Remote Sensing Method to Estimate Green Tide Biomass Based on Floating Algae Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lianbo; Hu, Chuanmin; He, Mingxia

    2014-11-01

    Floating Algae Index (FAI) has been developed to detect various floating algae in open ocean environments using the medium-resolution (250- and 500-m) data from operational MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments. FAI method has been routinely used to identify and calculate the covering area of green tide in the Yellow Sea (YS) since 2009. In addition to green tide covering area, knowledge of the biomass is also important in studying green tide recycling, nutrient load, carbon cycling and for government management. In this study, in situ experiments were conducted to simultaneously measure the biomass and reflectance spectra of green tide on the sea surface in coastal waters off Qingdao on 9 and 11 June 2013. The in situ measurements showed high correlation between green tide biomass and FAI, from which an empirical method to estimate biomass using FAI could be developed.

  16. Nanostructured antimony tin oxide synthesized via chemical precipitation method: its characterization and application in humidity sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, B. C.; Singh, Rama; Singh, Satyendra; Kumar, Ritesh; Srivastava, Richa

    2012-01-01

    In present investigation we report the synthesis of antimony tin oxide nanoparticles via chemical precipitation method. The synthesized material was characterized using X-ray diffractometer, Scanning Electron Microscope, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. XRD shows the crystalline nature of the synthesized material and the crystallite size was estimated by using Debye-Scherer equation and its minimum value was 3 nm. Pelletization of synthesized material was done using hydraulic press machine...

  17. Tactile sensing of prostate cancer : a resonance sensor method evaluated using human prostate tissue in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jalkanen, Ville

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in men in Europe and the USA. The methods presently used to detect and diagnose prostate cancer are inexact, and new techniques are needed. Prostate tumours can be regarded as harder than the surrounding normal healthy glandular tissue, and therefore it is of interest to be able to reliably measure prostate tissue stiffness. In this dissertation the approach was to evaluate tactile resonance sensor technology and its ability to measure mecha...

  18. Methods to Study Quorum Sensing-Dependent Virulence and Movement of Phytopathogens In Planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Chalupowicz, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication mediated by the diffusible signal factor (DSF) is a common form of gene regulation and plays an important role in virulence of many plant pathogenic bacteria including Xanthomonas spp. Here we describe several approaches to study the involvement of DSF-dependent QS system of the plant pathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii (Xhp) as an example of the Xanthomonas spp. The methods described include detection and measurement of DSF, movement in planta, colonization, and aggregate formation.

  19. Water Quality Sensing and Spatio-Temporal Monitoring Structure with Autocorrelation Kernel Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván P. Vizcaíno

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollution on water resources is usually analyzed with monitoring campaigns, which consist of programmed sampling, measurement, and recording of the most representative water quality parameters. These campaign measurements yields a non-uniform spatio-temporal sampled data structure to characterize complex dynamics phenomena. In this work, we propose an enhanced statistical interpolation method to provide water quality managers with statistically interpolated representations of spatial-temporal dynamics. Specifically, our proposal makes efficient use of the a priori available information of the quality parameter measurements through Support Vector Regression (SVR based on Mercer’s kernels. The methods are benchmarked against previously proposed methods in three segments of the Machángara River and one segment of the San Pedro River in Ecuador, and their different dynamics are shown by statistically interpolated spatial-temporal maps. The best interpolation performance in terms of mean absolute error was the SVR with Mercer’s kernel given by either the Mahalanobis spatial-temporal covariance matrix or by the bivariate estimated autocorrelation function. In particular, the autocorrelation kernel provides with significant improvement of the estimation quality, consistently for all the six water quality variables, which points out the relevance of including a priori knowledge of the problem.

  20. A High-Fidelity Haze Removal Method Based on HOT for Visible Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatially varying haze is a common feature of most satellite images currently used for land cover classification and mapping and can significantly affect image quality. In this paper, we present a high-fidelity haze removal method based on Haze Optimized Transformation (HOT, comprising of three steps: semi-automatic HOT transform, HOT perfection and percentile based dark object subtraction (DOS. Since digital numbers (DNs of band red and blue are highly correlated in clear sky, the R-squared criterion is utilized to search the relative clearest regions of the whole scene automatically. After HOT transform, spurious HOT responses are first masked out and filled by means of four-direction scan and dynamic interpolation, and then homomorphic filter is performed to compensate for loss of HOT of masked-out regions with large areas. To avoid patches and halo artifacts, a procedure called percentile DOS is implemented to eliminate the influence of haze. Scenes including various land cover types are selected to validate the proposed method, and a comparison analysis with HOT and Background Suppressed Haze Thickness Index (BSHTI is performed. Three quality assessment indicators are selected to evaluate the haze removed effect on image quality from different perspective and band profiles are utilized to analyze the spectral consistency. Experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method for haze removal and the superiority of it in preserving the natural color of object itself, enhancing local contrast, and maintaining structural information of original image.

  1. Method and apparatus for remote sensing of molecular species at nanoscale utilizing a reverse photoacoustic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming [Oviedo, FL; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Hedden, David [Lenoir City, TN

    2010-02-23

    A method and apparatus for identifying a sample, involves illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, transmitting an acoustic signal against the sample from one portion and receiving a resulting acoustic signal on another portion, detecting a change of phase in the acoustic signal corresponding to the light of varying wavelengths, and analyzing the change of phase in the acoustic signal for the varying wavelengths of illumination to identify the sample. The apparatus has a controlled source for illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, a transmitter for transmitting an acoustic wave, a receiver for receiving the acoustic wave and converting the acoustic wave to an electronic signal, and an electronic circuit for detecting a change of phase in the acoustic wave corresponding to respective ones of the varying wavelengths and outputting the change of phase for the varying wavelengths to allow identification of the sample. The method and apparatus can be used to detect chemical composition or visual features. A transmission mode and a reflection mode of operation are disclosed. The method and apparatus can be applied at nanoscale to detect molecules in a biological sample.

  2. Water Quality Sensing and Spatio-Temporal Monitoring Structure with Autocorrelation Kernel Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno, Iván P; Carrera, Enrique V; Muñoz-Romero, Sergio; Cumbal, Luis H; Rojo-Álvarez, José Luis

    2017-10-16

    Pollution on water resources is usually analyzed with monitoring campaigns, which consist of programmed sampling, measurement, and recording of the most representative water quality parameters. These campaign measurements yields a non-uniform spatio-temporal sampled data structure to characterize complex dynamics phenomena. In this work, we propose an enhanced statistical interpolation method to provide water quality managers with statistically interpolated representations of spatial-temporal dynamics. Specifically, our proposal makes efficient use of the a priori available information of the quality parameter measurements through Support Vector Regression (SVR) based on Mercer's kernels. The methods are benchmarked against previously proposed methods in three segments of the Machángara River and one segment of the San Pedro River in Ecuador, and their different dynamics are shown by statistically interpolated spatial-temporal maps. The best interpolation performance in terms of mean absolute error was the SVR with Mercer's kernel given by either the Mahalanobis spatial-temporal covariance matrix or by the bivariate estimated autocorrelation function. In particular, the autocorrelation kernel provides with significant improvement of the estimation quality, consistently for all the six water quality variables, which points out the relevance of including a priori knowledge of the problem.

  3. Seismicity, shear failure and modes of deformation in deep subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul R.; Giardini, Domenico

    1992-01-01

    The joint hypocentral determination method is used to relocate deep seismicity reported in the International Seismological Center catalog for earthquakes deeper than 400 km in the Honshu, Bonin, Mariannas, Java, Banda, and South America subduction zones. Each deep seismic zone is found to display planar features of seismicity parallel to the Harvard centroid-moment tensor nodal planes, which are identified as planes of shear failure. The sense of displacement on these planes is one of resistance to deeper penetration.

  4. AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Georgakarakos, Nikolaos, E-mail: siegfried.eggl@univie.ac.at, E-mail: elke.pilat-lohinger@univie.ac.at [128 V. Olgas str., Thessaloniki 546 45 (Greece)

    2012-06-10

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

  5. A Poisson method application to the assessment of the earthquake hazard in the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türker, Tuğba, E-mail: tturker@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geophysics, Trabzon/Turkey (Turkey); Bayrak, Yusuf, E-mail: ybayrak@agri.edu.tr [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Ağrı/Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one from the most important strike-slip fault zones in the world and located among regions in the highest seismic activity. The NAFZ observed very large earthquakes from the past to present. The aim of this study; the important parameters of Gutenberg-Richter relationship (a and b values) estimated and this parameters taking into account, earthquakes were examined in the between years 1900-2015 for 10 different seismic source regions in the NAFZ. After that estimated occurrence probabilities and return periods of occurring earthquakes in fault zone in the next years, and is being assessed with Poisson method the earthquake hazard of the NAFZ. The Region 2 were observed the largest earthquakes for the only historical period and hasn’t been observed large earthquake for the instrumental period in this region. Two historical earthquakes (1766, M{sub S}=7.3 and 1897, M{sub S}=7.0) are included for Region 2 (Marmara Region) where a large earthquake is expected in the next years. The 10 different seismic source regions are determined the relationships between the cumulative number-magnitude which estimated a and b parameters with the equation of LogN=a-bM in the Gutenberg-Richter. A homogenous earthquake catalog for M{sub S} magnitude which is equal or larger than 4.0 is used for the time period between 1900 and 2015. The database of catalog used in the study has been created from International Seismological Center (ISC) and Boğazici University Kandilli observation and earthquake research institute (KOERI). The earthquake data were obtained until from 1900 to 1974 from KOERI and ISC until from 1974 to 2015 from KOERI. The probabilities of the earthquake occurring are estimated for the next 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 years in the 10 different seismic source regions. The highest earthquake occur probabilities in 10 different seismic source regions in the next years estimated that the region Tokat-Erzincan (Region 9) %99

  6. A standardised graphic method for describing data privacy frameworks in primary care research using a flexible zone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Ohmann, Christian; Verheij, Robert A; van Veen, Evert-Ben; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Taweel, Adel; Delaney, Brendan C

    2014-12-01

    To develop a model describing core concepts and principles of data flow, data privacy and confidentiality, in a simple and flexible way, using concise process descriptions and a diagrammatic notation applied to research workflow processes. The model should help to generate robust data privacy frameworks for research done with patient data. Based on an exploration of EU legal requirements for data protection and privacy, data access policies, and existing privacy frameworks of research projects, basic concepts and common processes were extracted, described and incorporated into a model with a formal graphical representation and a standardised notation. The Unified Modelling Language (UML) notation was enriched by workflow and own symbols to enable the representation of extended data flow requirements, data privacy and data security requirements, privacy enhancing techniques (PET) and to allow privacy threat analysis for research scenarios. Our model is built upon the concept of three privacy zones (Care Zone, Non-care Zone and Research Zone) containing databases, data transformation operators, such as data linkers and privacy filters. Using these model components, a risk gradient for moving data from a zone of high risk for patient identification to a zone of low risk can be described. The model was applied to the analysis of data flows in several general clinical research use cases and two research scenarios from the TRANSFoRm project (e.g., finding patients for clinical research and linkage of databases). The model was validated by representing research done with the NIVEL Primary Care Database in the Netherlands. The model allows analysis of data privacy and confidentiality issues for research with patient data in a structured way and provides a framework to specify a privacy compliant data flow, to communicate privacy requirements and to identify weak points for an adequate implementation of data privacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  7. Development of groundwater vulnerability zones in a data-scarce eogenetic karst area using Head-Guided Zonation and particle-tracking simulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, Dua K S Y; Imteaz, Monzur Alam; Arulrajah, Arul

    2017-10-01

    Delineation of groundwater vulnerability zones based on a valid groundwater model is crucial towards an accurate design of management strategies. However, limited data often restrain the development of a robust groundwater model. This study presents a methodology to develop groundwater vulnerability zones in a data-scarce area. The Head-Guided Zonation (HGZ) method was applied on the recharge area of Oemau Spring in Rote Island, Indonesia, which is under potential risk of contamination from rapid land use changes. In this method the model domain is divided into zones of piecewise constant into which the values of subsurface properties are assigned in the parameterisation step. Using reverse particle-tracking simulation on the calibrated and validated groundwater model, the simulation results (travel time and pathline trajectory) were combined with the potential groundwater contamination risk from human activities (land use type and current practice) to develop three vulnerability zones. The corresponding preventive management strategies were proposed to protect the spring from contamination and to ensure provision of safe and good quality water from the spring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei

    2014-06-01

    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate {O}(1/k^2). In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques.

  9. Synthesis of large scale graphene oxide using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method and its application in humidity sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Yuming, E-mail: yumingchen@fudan.edu.cn [Institute for Electric Light Sources, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 00433 (China)

    2016-03-14

    Large scale graphene oxide (GO) is directly synthesized on copper (Cu) foil by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method under 500 °C and even lower temperature. Compared to the modified Hummer's method, the obtained GO sheet in this article is large, and it is scalable according to the Cu foil size. The oxygen-contained groups in the GO are introduced through the residual gas of methane (99.9% purity). To prevent the Cu surface from the bombardment of the ions in the plasma, we use low intensity discharge. Our experiment reveals that growth temperature has important influence on the carbon to oxygen ratio (C/O ratio) in the GO; and it also affects the amount of π-π* bonds between carbon atoms. Preliminary experiments on a 6 mm × 12 mm GO based humidity sensor prove that the synthesized GO reacts well to the humidity change. Our GO synthesis method may provide another channel for obtaining large scale GO in gas sensing or other applications.

  10. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei

    2014-06-21

    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate [Formula: see text]. In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques.

  11. Robust one pot synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles by simple redox method and absorbance recovered sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mahwish; El Ashry, El Sayed H; Kanwal, Shamsa

    2012-01-01

    Conventional synthesis of silver nanoparticles employs a reducing agent and a capping agent. In this report water-soluble silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared facilely by chemical reduction of Ag(I) ions. 4-Amino-3-(d-gluco-pentitol-1-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione (AGTT) was used both as reducing and stabilizing agent. Direct heating methodology was found to be more suitable for achieving particles with a hydrodynamic diameter of ~20 nm. AGTT exists as tautomer in solution form and our studies indicate that -NH(2) group is involved in the reduction and stabilization of Ag(+) and thione (Δ=S) group of AGTT is possibly involved in stabilizing the nanoparticles via coordinate covalent linkage. Characterization of synthesized silver nanoparticles was performed by UV-vis, FT-IR and by FESEM. Based on the absorption properties of synthesized AgNPs, we used AgNPs to detect bovine serum albumin (BSA) and AgNPs-BSA composite nanoprobe was further applied to detect Cu(2+) based on absorbance recovery. The proposed method has advantages over existing methods in terms of rapid synthesis and stability of AgNPs and their applications. Analysis is reproducible, cost effective and highly sensitive. The lowest detectable concentration of BSA in this approach is 3 nM, and for Cu(2+) it can detect upto 200 pM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Generalized linear sampling method for elastic-wave sensing of heterogeneous fractures

    CERN Document Server

    Pourahmadian, Fatemeh; Haddar, Houssem

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical foundation is developed for active seismic reconstruction of fractures endowed with spatially-varying interfacial condition (e.g.~partially-closed fractures, hydraulic fractures). The proposed indicator functional carries a superior localization property with no significant sensitivity to the fracture's contact condition, measurement errors, and illumination frequency. This is accomplished through the paradigm of the $F_\\sharp$-factorization technique and the recently developed Generalized Linear Sampling Method (GLSM) applied to elastodynamics. The direct scattering problem is formulated in the frequency domain where the fracture surface is illuminated by a set of incident plane waves, while monitoring the induced scattered field in the form of (elastic) far-field patterns. The analysis of the well-posedness of the forward problem leads to an admissibility condition on the fracture's (linearized) contact parameters. This in turn contributes toward establishing the applicability of the $F_\\sharp...

  13. Non-contact current and voltage sensing method using a clamshell housing and a ferrite cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of measurement using a detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient technique for to measuring current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  14. Carbon nanotube switches for memory, RF communications and sensing applications, and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor); Wong, Eric W. (Inventor); Baron, Richard L. (Inventor); Epp, Larry (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Switches having an in situ grown carbon nanotube as an element thereof, and methods of fabricating such switches. A carbon nanotube is grown in situ in mechanical connection with a conductive substrate, such as a heavily doped silicon wafer or an SOI wafer. The carbon nanotube is electrically connected at one location to a terminal. At another location of the carbon nanotube there is situated a pull electrode that can be used to elecrostatically displace the carbon nanotube so that it selectively makes contact with either the pull electrode or with a contact electrode. Connection to the pull electrode is sufficient to operate the device as a simple switch, while connection to a contact electrode is useful to operate the device in a manner analogous to a relay. In various embodiments, the devices disclosed are useful as at least switches for various signals, multi-state memory, computational devices, and multiplexers.

  15. Remote sensing of freeze-thaw transitions in Arctic soils using the complex resistivity method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yuxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hubbard, Susan S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Ulrich, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Our ability to monitor freeze - thaw transitions is critical to developing a predictive understanding of biogeochemical transitions and carbon dynamics in high latitude environments. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments to explore the potential of the complex resistivity method for monitoring the freeze - thaw transitions of the arctic permafrost soils. Samples for the experiment were collected from the upper active layer of Gelisol soils at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow Alaska. Freeze - thaw transitions were induced through exposing the soil column to controlled temperature environments at 4 C and -20 C. Complex resistivity and temperature measurements were collected regularly during the freeze - thaw transitions using electrodes and temperature sensors installed along the column. During the experiments, over two orders of magnitude of resistivity variations were observed when the temperature was increased or decreased between -20 C and 0 C. Smaller resistivity variations were also observed during the isothermal thawing or freezing processes that occurred near 0 C. Single frequency electrical phase response and imaginary conductivity at 1 Hz were found to be exclusively related to the unfrozen water in the soil matrix, suggesting that these geophysical 24 attributes can be used as a proxy for the monitoring of the onset and progression of the freeze - thaw transitions. Spectral electrical responses and fitted Cole Cole parameters contained additional information about the freeze - thaw transition affected by the soil grain size distribution. Specifically, a shift of the observed spectral response to lower frequency was observed during isothermal thawing process, which we interpret to be due to sequential thawing, first from fine then to coarse particles within the soil matrix. Our study demonstrates the potential of the complex resistivity method for remote monitoring of freeze - thaw transitions in arctic soils. Although

  16. Analytical Methods for Determining the Motion of a Rigid Body Equipped with Internal Motion-Sensing Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    correctly placed internal motion-sensing transducers. These expressions are in a form that is easily converted Into computer programs for analytis of...Internal motion-sensing transducers. These expressions are In a form that is easily converted into computer programs for analysis of data taken by motion...sensing transducers in any sort of free vehicle. Thus they are appropriate for use in experimental studies In which the motion of tc.. pedoes , missiles

  17. Identification of Land Degradation and Method of Solution in Zone of Baturagung Hill at Gunung Kidul Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Baturagung hill is a folded hill range consisting mainly of Tertiary volcanic rocks which have been undergoing severe faulting, jointing and weathering. Lies on the altitude between 200 and 700 meter from see level, the area is characterized by sloping to steep relief with 30% to >40% of slope, and shallow soils with scattered outcrops. Such geomorphological setting has made the area subject to intense soil erosion and masswasthing. Mining activates has also been accounted for the explanation of the current heightened land degradation in the area. The present paper, accordingly, is intended to identify the land degradation by considering mass movement, bare land, and mining activity parameters. The present paper founds that the Baturagung hill can be divided into three zones, namely: (1 the zone of no to low degradation (hill slope and inter-hill valley; (2 the zone of high degradation rate (within the area having 30 to 40% of slope; and (3 the zone of severe degradation (within the area having slope of more than 45%.

  18. [Spatiotemporal dynamics of land use and land cover changes in different reclamation zones of Yangtze Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong-Guang; Li, Xiu-Zhen; He, Yan-Long; Jia, Yue; Ma, Zhi-Gang

    2010-02-01

    Based on the TM and ETM remotely sensed images of Yangtze Estuary in 1987, 1995, 2000, and 2006, and by using RS, GIS, and mathematical statistical methods, this paper analyzed the dynamic changes of land use and land cover in different reclamation zones of the estuary. In terms of relative area occupied by each land use type, grassland showed significant spatial differences (P reclamation zones, while greenhouse land and paddy field showed significant temporal differences (P reclamation time, there was no significant difference in the land use diversity index among the reclamation zones. In terms of land use change rates, no significant spatial difference was observed among the reclamation zones, while greenhouse land and built-up area showed significant temporal differences. In terms of land use intensity and transformation direction, different reclamation zones had no significant differences. The land use dynamic changes in different reclamation zones of the estuary were mainly affected by reclamation time.

  19. [Use of modern contraceptive methods in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: prevalence and barriers in the health zone of Dibindi, Mbuji-Mayi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntambue, Abel Mukengeshayi; Tshiala, Rachel Ngalula; Malonga, Françoise Kaj; Ilunga, Tabitha Mpoyi; Kamonayi, Josaphat Mulumba; Kazadi, Simon Tshimankinda; Matungulu, Charles Matungu; Musau, Angel Nkola; Mulamba, Diese; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Donnen, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine modern contraceptive prevalence and the barriers to using modern contraceptive methods among the couples in Dibindi health zone, Mbuji-Mayi, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from May to June 2015. Nonpregnant married women aged 15-49 years old at the time of the investigation, living in Dibindi health zone for two years and having freely consented to participate in the study were included. Data were collected by open-ended interview of these women. Modern contraceptive prevalence was referred to women who were currently using, at the time of the investigation, modern contraceptives. The comparison between proportions was performed at the significance threshold of 5%. Bonferroni's test was used to compare, two by two, the proportions of barriers to using modern contraceptive methods. Modern contraceptive prevalence in Dibindi was 18.4% in 2015. It was low with regard to family planning services available in this health zone. Several women refused to use modern contraceptive methods despite available information because of their desire for motherhood, religious prohibition, opposition on the part of their husband and fear of side effects. Sufficient client-centered or couple-centered information and family planning information should be strengthened in order to eliminate the false beliefs and to increase the use of modern contraceptive methods.

  20. Trauma training course: innovative teaching models and methods for training health workers in active conflict zones of Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Charles H; Tyler, Francis J; Davis, Julia; Shapiro, Douglas R; Richards, Adam; Richard, Matthew; Lee, Thomas J; Colton, Taryn L; Berk, Louis; Rauch, Loren; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Hahn, Richard; Stock, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Myanmar has struggled through decades of internal conflict, which has negatively impacted the country's health outcomes. Recent government changes have brought hope and reduced conflict. The ethnic minority groups have suffered the brunt of the health consequences and reside in regions that lack health infrastructure, resources, and providers. Due to the chronic lack of healthcare providers within conflict areas, health workers (HWs) have been trained in an effort to fill the void. Research has shown that these non-physician clinicians positively impact health outcomes in developing countries. These HWs are supported by community-based organizations in collaboration with foreign non-governmental organizations. Started in 2000, the trauma training course was developed to meet the educational needs of these HWs. Essential procedures for HWs in conflict zones were identified, and teaching methods were adapted to develop models that were simple, reproducible, cost effective, and able to facilitate effective learning within the limitations of these challenging environments. This paper presents simulation models developed to teach trauma injury evaluation and management in resource-limited settings to HWs. Material and construction of the models described include breathing, chest, cricothyroidotomy, circulation, wound repair, fracture/dislocation, splinting, fasciotomy/amputation, and an animal model. In 2013, a pre/post test and post-training evaluation were completed, which demonstrated an increase in understanding of the material and satisfaction with the training. The simulation models described engage the HWs in clinical skills practice specific to injury management, which builds upon the HWs existing knowledge and facilitates an increased understanding of life-saving procedures. Through observation of the HW performance and HW feedback, these simulation models have increased the understanding of trauma management. Limitations include lack of a graduated learning

  1. Stope Stability Assessment and Effect of Horizontal to Vertical Stress Ratio on the Yielding and Relaxation Zones Around Underground Open Stopes Using Empirical and Finite Element Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mohammadali; Apel, Derek; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Predicting the stability of open stopes can be a challenging task for underground mine engineers. For decades, the stability graph method has been used as the first step of open stope design around the world. However, there are some shortcomings with this method. For instance, the stability graph method does not account for the relaxation zones around the stopes. Another limitation of the stability graph is that this method cannot to be used to evaluate the stability of the stopes with high walls made of backfill materials. However, there are several analytical and numerical methods that can be used to overcome these limitations. In this study, both empirical and numerical methods have been used to assess the stability of an open stope located between mine levels N9225 and N9250 at Diavik diamond underground mine. It was shown that the numerical methods can be used as complementary methods along with other analytical and empirical methods to assess the stability of open stopes. A three dimensional elastoplastic finite element model was constructed using Abaqus software. In this paper a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the impact of the stress ratio "k" on the extent of the yielding and relaxation zones around the hangingwall and footwall of the understudy stope.

  2. Sensing the public's reaction to crime news using the 'Links Correspondence Method'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampoltshammer, Thomas J; Kounadi, Ourania; Sitko, Izabela; Hawelka, Bartosz

    2014-08-01

    Public media such as TV or newspapers, paired with crime statistics from the authority, raise awareness of crimes within society. However, in today's digital society, other sources rapidly gain importance as well. The Internet and social networks act heavily as information distribution platforms. Therefore, this paper aims at exploring the influence of the social Web service Twitter as an information distribution platform for crime news. In order to detect messages with crime-related contents, the Links Correspondence Method (LCM) is introduced, which gathers and investigates Twitter messages related to crime articles via associated Web links. Detected crime tweets are analysed in regard to the distance between the location of an incident and the location of associated tweets, as well as regards demographic aspects of the corresponding crime news. The results show that there exists a spatial dependency regarding the activity space of a user (and the crime-related tweets of this user) and the actual location of the crime incident. Furthermore, the demographic analysis indicates that the type of a crime as well as the gender of the victim has great influence on whether the crime incident is spread via Twitter or not.

  3. Method and Apparatus for In-Process Sensing of Manufacturing Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, D.A.; Dave, V.R.; Cola, M.J.; Carpenter, R.W.

    2005-02-22

    A method for determining the quality of an examined weld joint comprising the steps of providing acoustical data from the examined weld joint, and performing a neural network operation on the acoustical data determine the quality of the examined weld joint produced by a friction weld process. The neural network may be trained by the steps of providing acoustical data and observable data from at least one test weld joint, and training the neural network based on the acoustical data and observable data to form a trained neural network so that the trained neural network is capable of determining the quality of a examined weld joint based on acoustical data from the examined weld joint. In addition, an apparatus having a housing, acoustical sensors mounted therein, and means for mounting the housing on a friction weld device so that the acoustical sensors do not contact the weld joint. The apparatus may sample the acoustical data necessary for the neural network to determine the quality of a weld joint.

  4. Quaternion-based strap-down integration method for applications of inertial sensing to gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, A M

    2005-01-01

    The proposed strap-down integration method exploits the cyclical nature of human gait: during the gait swing phase, the quaternion-based attitude representation is integrated using a gyroscope from initial conditions that are determined during stance by an accelerometer. Positioning requires double time integration of the gravity-compensated accelerometer signals during swing. An interpolation technique applied to attitude quaternions was developed to improve the accuracy of orientation and positioning estimates by accounting for the effect of sensor bias and scale factor drifts. A simulation environment was developed for the analysis and testing of the proposed algorithm on a synthetic movement trajectory. The aim was to define the true attitude and positioning used in the computation of estimation errors. By thermal modelling, the changes of bias and scale factor of the inertial sensors, calibrated at a single reference temperature, were analysed over a range of +/- 10 degrees C, for measurement noise standard deviations up to sigma(g) = 2.5 degrees s(-1) (gyroscope) and sigma(a) = 0.05 m s(-2) (accelerometer). The compensation technique reduced the maximum root mean square errors (RMSEs) to: RMSE(theta) = 14.6 degrees (orientation) and RMSE(d) = 17.7cm (positioning) for an integration interval of one gait cycle (an improvement of 3 degrees and 7 cm); RMSE(theta) = 14.8 degrees and RMSE(d) = 30.0 cm for an integration interval of two gait cycles (an improvement of 11 degrees and 262 cm).

  5. Moving fluid mud sondes, optical and acoustic sensing methods in support of coastal waterway dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Rotkiske, Tyler

    2015-10-01

    Airborne, Satellite and In-Situ optical and acoustical imaging provides a means to characterize surface and subsurface water conditions in shallow marine systems. An important research topic to be studied during dredging operations in harbors and navigable waterways is the movement of fluidized muds before, during and after dredging operations. The fluid movement of the surficial sediments in the form of flocs, muck and mud is important to estimate in order to model the transport of solids material during dredging operations. Movement of highly turbid bottom material creates a lutocline or near bottom nephelometric layers, reduces the penetration of light reaching the water bottom. Monitoring and measurement systems recently developed for use in shallow marine areas, such as the Indian River Lagoon are discussed. Newly developed passive sondes and subsurface imaging are described. Methods and techniques for quantifying the mass density flux of total particulate matter demonstrate the use of multiple sensor systems for environmental monitoring and provide directional fluxes and movement of the fluidized solids. Airborne imaging of dredge site provide wide area surveillance during these activities. Passive sondes, optical imaging and acoustical sensors are used to understand horizontal and vertical mass flux processes. The passive sondes can be directionally oriented and are deployed during optical particle velocimetry system (OPVS) imaging of the flocs, particles and colloidal material motion. Comparison of the image based particle velocities are compared to electromagnetic and acoustic velocity imaging results. The newly developed imaging system provides a pathway for integration of subsurface hyperspectral imaging for particle compositional analysis.

  6. A Novel Passive Wireless Sensing Method for Concrete Chloride Ion Concentration Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach for concrete chloride ion concentration measuring based on passive and wireless sensor tag is proposed. The chloride ion sensor based on RFID communication protocol is consisting of an energy harvesting and management circuit, a low dropout voltage regulator, a MCU, a RFID tag chip and a pair of electrodes. The proposed sensor harvests energy radiated by the RFID reader to power its circuitry. To improve the stability of power supply, a three-stage boost rectifier is customized to rectify the harvested power into dc power and step-up the voltage. Since the measured data is wirelessly transmitted, it contains miscellaneous noises which would decrease the accuracy of measuring. Thus, in this paper, the wavelet denoising method is adopted to denoise the raw data. Besides, a monitoring software is developed to display the measurement results in real-time. The measurement results indicate that the proposed passive sensor tag can achieve a reliable communication distance of 16.3 m and can reliably measure the chloride ion concentration in concrete.

  7. Gas assisted method synthesis nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots and Hg (II) sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yamei; Wang, Nan; He, Zhanhang

    2017-06-01

    Nitrogen-doped fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was prepared by gas-assisted method using cellulose as precursors under ammonia atmosphere, which not only exhibited excellent photoluminescent properties, but also showed highly selective and sensitive detection of mercury ion. The nitrogen-doped CQDs displayed excitation wavelength dependent fluorescent behavior with outstanding dispersibility. Moreover, they exhibited high tolerance to various external conditions, such as storage time, pH value, and ionic strength. The rapid detection of Hg (II) by one-step operation within 1 min and the good linear correlation between I0/I and Hg (II) concentration in the range of 10-100 nM made the nitrogen-doped CQDs a promising nanoprobe for Hg (II) detection. The detection limit of the nitrogen-doped CQDs is about 7.7 nM. Such a nanoprobe has been successfully applied for the analysis of Hg (II) in natural water samples, demonstrating excellent practical feasibility.

  8. Early forecasting of crop condition using an integrative remote sensing method for corn and soybeans in Iowa and Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bumsuk; Lee, Jihye; Kang, Sinkyu

    2017-04-01

    The weather-related risks in crop production is not only crucial for farmers but also for market participants and policy makers since securing food supply is an important issue for society. While crop growth condition and phenology are essential information about such risks, the extensive observations on those are often non-existent in many parts of the world. In this study, we have developed a novel integrative approach to remotely sense crop growth condition and phenology at a large scale. For corn and soybeans in Iowa and Illinois of USA (2003-2014), we assessed crop growth condition and crop phenology by EO data and validated it against the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Statistics System (NASS) crop statistics. For growth condition, we used two distinguished approaches to acquire crop condition indicators: a process-based crop growth modelling and a satellite NDVI based method. Based on their pixel-wise historic distributions, we determined relative growth conditions and scaled-down to the state-level. For crop phenology, we calculated three crop phenology metrics [i.e., start of season (SOS), end of season (EOS), and peak of season (POS)] at the pixel level from MODIS 8-day Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The estimates were compared with the Crop Progress and Condition (CPC) data of NASS. For the condition, the state-level 10-day estimates showed a moderate agreement (RMSE 70%). Notably, the condition estimates corresponded to the severe soybeans disease in 2003 and the drought in 2012 for both crops. For the phenology, the average RMSE of the estimates was 8.6 day for the all three metrics. The average |ME| was smaller than 1.0 day after bias correction. The proposed method enables us to evaluate crop growth at any given period and place. Global climate changes are increasing the risk in agricultural production such as long-term drought. We hope that the presented remote sensing method for crop condition

  9. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    Studying of the space-time correlation and consequences effect between tectonic events and other geological processes that have created modern earth structure still remains as one of the most important problems in geology. This problem is especially important for the East Caucasus-South Caspian geodynamic zone. Being situated at the eastern part of the Caucasian strait, this zone refers to a center of Alpine-Himalayan active folded belt, and is known as a complex tectonic unit with jointing heterogeneous structural-substantial complexes arising from different branches of the belt (Doburja-Caucasus-Kopetdag from the north and Pyrenean-Alborz from the south with Kura and South Caspian zone). According to GPS and precise leveling data, activity of regional geodynamic processes shows intensive horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's crust as conditioned by collision of the Arabian and Eurasian continental plates continuing since the end of Miocene. So far studies related to the regional of geology-geophysical data, periodically used for the geological and tectonic modeling of the environment mainly based on the fixing ideology. There still remains a number of uncertainties in solution of issues related to regional geology, tectonics and magmatism, structure and interrelation of different structural zones, space-time interrelations between onshore and offshore complexes, etc. At the same time large dataset produced by surface geological surveys, deep geological mapping of on- and offshore areas with the use of seismic and electrical reconnaissance and geophysical field zoning methods, deep well drilling and remote sensing activities. Conducted new studies produced results including differentiation of formerly unknown nappe complexes of the different ages and scales within the structure of mountain-fold zones, identification of new zones containing ophiolites in their section, outlining of currently active faulting areas, geophysical interpretation of the deep

  10. The Linearized Bregman Method for Frugal Full-waveform Inversion with Compressive Sensing and Sparsity-promoting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xintao; Tang, Genyang; Peng, Ronghua; Liu, Shaoyong

    2017-12-01

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) reconstructs the subsurface properties from acquired seismic data via minimization of the misfit between observed and simulated data. However, FWI suffers from considerable computational costs resulting from the numerical solution of the wave equation for each source at each iteration. To reduce the computational burden, constructing supershots by combining several sources (aka source encoding) allows mitigation of the number of simulations at each iteration, but it gives rise to crosstalk artifacts because of interference between the individual sources of the supershot. A modified Gauss-Newton FWI (MGNFWI) approach showed that as long as the difference between the initial and true models permits a sparse representation, the ℓ_1 -norm constrained model updates suppress subsampling-related artifacts. However, the spectral-projected gradient ℓ_1 (SPGℓ_1 ) algorithm employed by MGNFWI is rather complicated that makes its implementation difficult. To facilitate realistic applications, we adapt a linearized Bregman (LB) method to sparsity-promoting FWI (SPFWI) because of the efficiency and simplicity of LB in the framework of ℓ_1 -norm constrained optimization problem and compressive sensing. Numerical experiments performed with the BP Salt model, the Marmousi model and the BG Compass model verify the following points. The FWI result with LB solving ℓ_1 -norm sparsity-promoting problem for the model update outperforms that generated by solving ℓ_2 -norm problem in terms of crosstalk elimination and high-fidelity results. The simpler LB method performs comparably and even superiorly to the complicated SPGℓ_1 method in terms of computational efficiency and model quality, making the LB method a viable alternative for realistic implementations of SPFWI.

  11. Remote sensing of spring phenology in northeastern forests: A comparison of methods, field metrics and sources of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine White; Jennifer Pontius; Paul. Schaberg

    2014-01-01

    Current remote sensing studies of phenology have been limited to coarse spatial or temporal resolution and often lack a direct link to field measurements. To address this gap, we compared remote sensing methodologies using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery to extensive field measurements in a mixed northern hardwood forest. Five vegetation indices, five mathematical...

  12. Validation of a side-scan sonar method for quantifying walleye spawning habitat availability in the littoral zone of northern Wisconsin Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jacob T.; Sloss, Brian L.; Isermann, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has generally ignored the potential effects of spawning habitat availability and quality on recruitment of Walleye Sander vitreus, largely because information on spawning habitat is lacking for many lakes. Furthermore, traditional transect-based methods used to describe habitat are time and labor intensive. Our objectives were to determine if side-scan sonar could be used to accurately classify Walleye spawning habitat in the nearshore littoral zone and provide lakewide estimates of spawning habitat availability similar to estimates obtained from a transect–quadrat-based method. Based on assessments completed on 16 northern Wisconsin lakes, interpretation of side-scan sonar images resulted in correct identification of substrate size-class for 93% (177 of 191) of selected locations and all incorrect classifications were within ± 1 class of the correct substrate size-class. Gravel, cobble, and rubble substrates were incorrectly identified from side-scan images in only two instances (1% misclassification), suggesting that side-scan sonar can be used to accurately identify preferred Walleye spawning substrates. Additionally, we detected no significant differences in estimates of lakewide littoral zone substrate compositions estimated using side-scan sonar and a traditional transect–quadrat-based method. Our results indicate that side-scan sonar offers a practical, accurate, and efficient technique for assessing substrate composition and quantifying potential Walleye spawning habitat in the nearshore littoral zone of north temperate lakes.

  13. Smart Sensing of the Aux. Feed-water Pump Performance in NPP Severe Accidents Using Advanced GMDH Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to develop and verify the models, a number of data obtained by simulating station black out (SBO) scenario for the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) using MARS code were used. Most of monitoring systems for component have been suggested by using the directly measured data. However, it is very difficult to acquire data related to safety-critical component' status. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the new method that combines the data-based equipped with learning system and data miming technique. Many data-based modeling methods have been applied successfully to nuclear engineering area, such as signal validation, plant diagnostics and event identification. Also, the data miming is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information. In this study, the smart sensing technique was developed using advanced group method of data handing (GMDH) model. The original GMDH is an inductive self organizing algebraic model. The advanced GMDH model is equipped with a fuzzy concept. The proposed advanced GMDH model enhances the original GMDH model by reducing the effect of outliers and noise. The advanced GMDH uses different weightings according to their importance which is specified by the fuzzy membership grade. The developed model was verified using SBO accident simulation data for the OPR1000 nuclear power plant acquired with MARS code. Also, the advanced GMDH model was trained using the simulated development data and verified with simulated test data. The development and test data sets were independent. The simulation results show that the performance of the developed advanced GMDH model was very satisfactory, as shown in Table 1. Therefore, if the developed model can be optimized using diverse and specific data, it will be possible to predict the performance of Aux. feed water pump accurately.

  14. Wireless Chemical Sensing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A wireless chemical sensor includes an electrical conductor and a material separated therefrom by an electric insulator. The electrical conductor is an unconnected open-circuit shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the first electrical conductor resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The material is positioned at a location lying within at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses so-generated. The material changes in electrical conductivity in the presence of a chemical-of-interest.

  15. [The polarization characteristics distribution and correction method of the polarization coupling error in ocean remote sensing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Wang, Shu-Peng; Gu, Xing-Fa; Yu, Tao; Fang, Li

    2012-06-01

    With the development of the quantitative researches using ocean color remote sensing data sets, study on reducing the uncertainty of the response of the ocean color remote sensors to the polarization characteristics of the target has been attracting more and more attention recently. Taking MODIS as an example, the polarization distribution in the whole field of view was analyzed. For the atmosphere path radiance and the apparent radiance considering the coupling between ocean surface and atmosphere, the polarization distribution has a strong relation with the imaging geometry. Compared to the contribution of the polarization from the rough sea surface, the contribution from the atmosphere is dominated. Based on the polarization characteristics in the field of view, the influence of the polarization coupling error on the quality of the satellite data was studied with the assumption of different polarization sensitivities. It was found that errors due to polarization sensitivity in the field of view are lower than water leaving radiance only when the polarization sensitivity is less than 2%. And in this case it can meet the need of the retrieval of water leaving radiative products. The method of the compensation for the polarization coupling error due to the atmosphere is proposed, which proved to be effective to improve the utilization of satellite data and the accuracy of measured radiance by remote sensor.

  16. Deforestation and Rice: Using Methods in Modeling and Remote Sensing to Project Patterns of Forest Change in Eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Fischer, R.; Huth, A.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the species rich tropics, forest conservation is often eclipsed by anthropogenic disturbance, resulting in a heightened need for an accurate assessment of biomass and the gaining of predictive capability before these ecosystems disappear. The combination of multi-temporal remote sensing data, field data and forest growth modeling to quantify carbon stocks and flux is therefore of great importance. In this study, we utilize these methods to (1) improve forest biomass and carbon flux estimates for the study region in Eastern Madagascar, and (2) initialize an individual-based growth model that incorporates the anthropogenic factors causing deforestation to project ecosystem response to future environmental change. Recent studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between the international rice market and rates of deforestation in tropical countries such as Madagascar (see Minten et al., 2006). Further, although law protects the remaining forest areas, dictatorships and recent political unrest have lead to poor or non-existent enforcement of precious wood and forest protection over the past 35 years. Our approach combined multi-temporal remote sensing analysis and ecological modeling using a theoretical and mathematical approach to assess biomass change and to understand how tree growth and life history (growth response patterns) relate to past and present economic variability in Madagascar forests of the eastern Toamasina region. We measured rates of change of deforestation with respect to politics and the price of rice by classifying and comparing biomass using 30m Landsat during 5 political regime time periods (1985-1992, 1993-1996, 1997-2001, 2002-2008, 2009 to present). Forest biomass estimations were calibrated using forest inventory data collected over 3 growing seasons over the study region (130 small circular plots in primary forest). This information was then built into the previously parameterized (Armstrong et al., in prep and Fischer et al in

  17. Validation of an innovative method, based on tilt sensing, for the assessment of activity and body position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmati-Carrion, M A; Middleton, B; Revell, V L; Skene, D J; Rol, M A; Madrid, J A

    2015-06-01

    Since there is less movement during sleep than during wake, the recording of body movements by actigraphy has been used to indirectly evaluate the sleep-wake cycle. In general, most actigraphic devices are placed on the wrist and their measures are based on acceleration detection. Here, we propose an alternative way of measuring actigraphy at the level of the arm for joint evaluation of activity and body position. This method analyzes the tilt of three axes, scoring activity as the cumulative change of degrees per minute with respect to the previous sampling, and measuring arm tilt for the body position inference. In this study, subjects (N = 13) went about their daily routine for 7 days, kept daily sleep logs, wore three ambulatory monitoring devices and collected sequential saliva samples during evenings for the measurement of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). These devices measured motor activity (arm activity, AA) and body position (P) using the tilt sensing of the arm, with acceleration (wrist acceleration, WA) and skin temperature at wrist level (WT). Cosinor, Fourier and non-parametric rhythmic analyses were performed for the different variables, and the results were compared by the ANOVA test. Linear correlations were also performed between actimetry methods (AA and WA) and WT. The AA and WA suitability for circadian phase prediction and for evaluating the sleep-wake cycle was assessed by comparison with the DLMO and sleep logs, respectively. All correlations between rhythmic parameters obtained from AA and WA were highly significant. Only parameters related to activity levels, such as mesor, RA (relative amplitude), VL5 and VM10 (value for the 5 and 10 consecutive hours of minimum and maximum activity, respectively) showed significant differences between AA and WA records. However, when a correlation analysis was performed on the phase markers acrophase, mid-time for the 10 consecutive hours of highest (M10) and mid-time for the five consecutive hours

  18. .A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  19. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing (Harmful Algae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  20. Toward practical gas sensing with highly reduced graphene oxide: a new signal processing method to circumvent run-to-run and device-to-device variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ganhua; Park, Sungjin; Yu, Kehan; Ruoff, Rodney S; Ocola, Leonidas E; Rosenmann, Daniel; Chen, Junhong

    2011-02-22

    Graphene is worth evaluating for chemical sensing and biosensing due to its outstanding physical and chemical properties. We first report on the fabrication and characterization of gas sensors using a back-gated field-effect transistor platform with chemically reduced graphene oxide (R-GO) as the conducting channel. These sensors exhibited a 360% increase in response when exposed to 100 ppm NO(2) in air, compared with thermally reduced graphene oxide sensors we reported earlier. We then present a new method of signal processing/data interpretation that addresses (i) sensing devices with long recovery periods (such as required for sensing gases with these R-GO sensors) as well as (ii) device-to-device variations. A theoretical analysis is used to illuminate the importance of using the new signal processing method when the sensing device suffers from slow recovery and non-negligible contact resistance. We suggest that the work reported here (including the sensor signal processing method and the inherent simplicity of device fabrication) is a significant step toward the real-world application of graphene-based chemical sensors.

  1. Toward practical gas sensing with highly reduced graphene oxide: a new signal processing method to circumvent run-to-run and device-to-device variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, G.; Park, S.; Ruoff, R. S.; Ocola, L. E.; Chen, J. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (Univ. of Wisconsin); (Univ. of Texas)

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is worth evaluating for chemical sensing and biosensing due to its outstanding physical and chemical properties. We first report on the fabrication and characterization of gas sensors using a back-gated field-effect transistor platform with chemically reduced graphene oxide (R-GO) as the conducting channel. These sensors exhibited a 360% increase in response when exposed to 100 ppm NO{sub 2} in air, compared with thermally reduced graphene oxide sensors we reported earlier. We then present a new method of signal processing/data interpretation that addresses (i) sensing devices with long recovery periods (such as required for sensing gases with these R-GO sensors) as well as (ii) device-to-device variations. A theoretical analysis is used to illuminate the importance of using the new signal processing method when the sensing device suffers from slow recovery and non-negligible contact resistance. We suggest that the work reported here (including the sensor signal processing method and the inherent simplicity of device fabrication) is a significant step toward the real-world application of graphene-based chemical sensors.

  2. Toward practical gas sensing with highly reduced graphene oxide : a new signal processing method to circumvent run-to-run and device-to-device variations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocola, L. E.; Park, S.; Yu, K.; Ruoff, R. S.; Ocola, L. E.; Rosenmann, D.; Chen, J.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee; Univ. of Texas at Austin

    2011-01-04

    Graphene is worth evaluating for chemical sensing and biosensing due to its outstanding physical and chemical properties. We first report on the fabrication and characterization of gas sensors using a back-gated field-effect transistor platform with chemically reduced graphene oxide (R-GO) as the conducting channel. These sensors exhibited a 360% increase in response when exposed to 100 ppm NO{sub 2} in air, compared with thermally reduced graphene oxide sensors we reported earlier. We then present a new method of signal processing/data interpretation that addresses (i) sensing devices with long recovery periods (such as required for sensing gases with these R-GO sensors) as well as (ii) device-to-device variations. A theoretical analysis is used to illuminate the importance of using the new signal processing method when the sensing device suffers from slow recovery and non-negligible contact resistance. We suggest that the work reported here (including the sensor signal processing method and the inherent simplicity of device fabrication) is a significant step toward the real-world application of graphene-based chemical sensors.

  3. Accuracy of Sea Ice Data from Remote Sensing Methods, its Impact on Safe Speed Determination and Planning of Voyage in Ice-Covered Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pastusiak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The data related to ice floe concentration and ice thickness were analysed. Sources of data have been verified by visual observation and by comparison in between information from different remote sensing sources. The results of this work exceeded initial expectations. The discrepancies of the information provided by various data sources result from the error of the measurement method, which can be as high as 15% of the concentration of ice floes. It should also be borne in mind that the more generalized information about the state of the ice cover, the lower probability of detection of ice floe patches of a high concentration and spatial extent. Each vessel that is planning voyage in ice should take into consideration inaccurate estimation of concentration and thickness of ice floes received by means of satellite remote sensing methods. The method of determining permissible speed of various ice class vessel in ice on basis of safe speed graph for the icebreaker was developed. A well-defined equation approximates relationship between speed of the icebreaker and the vessels of specified ice classes. Average distance of 24.1 Nm from sea ice extent line was related to all analysed lines representing 30-40% ice floe concentration (IUP product excluded and 30.6 Nm for analysed lines representing 70-81-91% ice floe concentration. The maximal average distance of the furthest analysed line (IUP product excluded was equal 37.2 Nm. The average standard deviation of that results was equal 8.3 Nm only. Average distances of analysed lines from sea ice extent line to maximal ice data values were found as follow: 8.4 Nm (23% for NSIDC-CCAR ice age, 12.3 Nm (33% for minimal distance of 30-40% ice concentration, 15.4 Nm (41% for OSISAF ice type “ambiguous” zone from Open Water side, 25 Nm (67% for minimal distance of 70-81-91% ice concentration, 26.6 Nm (72% for OSISAF ice type “ambiguous” zone from 1st year ice age side, 35.9 Nm (97% for maximal distance

  4. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin

    2015-10-30

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  5. A resolution analysis of two geophysical imaging methods for characterizing and monitoring hydrologic conditions in the Vadose zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, James Robert; Hammond, Gary.; Alumbaugh, David L. (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); La Brecque, D.J. (Multi-Phase Technologies, LLC, Sparks, NV)

    2007-06-01

    This research project analyzed the resolution of two geophysical imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR), for monitoring subsurface flow and transport processes within the vadose zone. The study was based on petrophysical conversion of moisture contents and solute distributions obtained from unsaturated flow forward modeling. This modeling incorporated boundary conditions from a potable water and a salt tracer infiltration experiment performed at the Sandia-Tech Vadose Zone (STVZ) facility, and high-resolution spatial grids (6.25-cm spacing over a 1700-m domain) and incorporated hydraulic properties measured on samples collected from the STVZ. The analysis process involved petrophysical conversion of moisture content and solute concentration fields to geophysical property fields, forward geophysical modeling using the geophysical property fields to obtain synthetic geophysical data, and finally, inversion of this synthetic data. These geophysical property models were then compared to those derived from the conversion of the hydrologic forward modeling to provide an understanding of the resolution and limitations of the geophysical techniques.

  6. Optimal Control Method of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations and Its Application to Heat Transfer Model in Continuous Cast Secondary Cooling Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work is devoted to a class of optimal control problems of parabolic partial differential equations. Because of the partial differential equations constraints, it is rather difficult to solve the optimization problem. The gradient of the cost function can be found by the adjoint problem approach. Based on the adjoint problem approach, the gradient of cost function is proved to be Lipschitz continuous. An improved conjugate method is applied to solve this optimization problem and this algorithm is proved to be convergent. This method is applied to set-point values in continuous cast secondary cooling zone. Based on the real data in a plant, the simulation experiments show that the method can ensure the steel billet quality. From these experiment results, it is concluded that the improved conjugate gradient algorithm is convergent and the method is effective in optimal control problem of partial differential equations.

  7. Using the Resistivity Imaging Method to Monitor the Dynamic Effects on the Vadose Zone During Pumping Tests at the Pengtsuo Site in Pingtung, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yu Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a time-lapse monitoring study during a well-pumping test at the Pengtsuo site in Pingtung, Taiwan. Water-level gauges were installed in four wells (P1, W1, O1, and O2 at the Pengtsuo site with different screen depths for the observation. We designed the pumping test to be executed in three phases: the background, the stepwise-pumping, and the continuous-pumping phases. The survey line crossed the four wells so that a comparison would be possible between the resistivity measurements and the water-level records. The resistivity differences relative to the pre-pumping background show that electrical resistivity imaging (ERI can resolve changes due to dewatering from pumping activity. The time-lapse resistivity images reveal that the maximum resistivity increase took place at the locations in the vadose zone instead of at the groundwater surface. The variation in the resistivity differences in the vadose zone correlated to the change in groundwater level in the stepwise phase. On the other hand, the resistivity-difference change was not fully consistent with the groundwater-level change in the continuous-pumping phase. We attribute the abnormal ERI signals to the dynamic non-equilibrium of the water movement in the vadose zone. The findings suggest that pumping designs can affect the changing resistivity differences and water-content distribution patterns. We show the potential of the ER method to reveal both the water flow and water-content changes in the vadose zone with different transient boundary conditions.

  8. Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: Introduction to experimental methods and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Steven; Menon, Manoj; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Souza, Danielle Maia de; Davidsdotir, Brynhildur; Duffy, Christopher; Lair, Georg J.; Kram, Pavel; Lamacova, Anna; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, David; Rousseva, Svetla; de Ruiter, Peter; van Gaans, Pauline; Weng, Liping; White, Tim; Zhang, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach

  9. A Study of the CO Sensing Responses of Cu-, Pt- and Pd-Activated SnO2 Sensors: Effect of Precipitation Agents, Dopants and Doping Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangirala, Venkata Krishna Karthik; Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura; Olvera, María De La Luz

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis of Cu, Pt and Pd doped SnO2 powders and a comparative study of their CO gas sensing performance. Dopants were incorporated into SnO2 nanostructures using chemical and impregnation methods by using urea and ammonia as precipitation agents. The synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The presence of dopants within the SnO2 nanostructures was evidenced from the HR-TEM results. Powders doped utilizing chemical methods with urea as precipitation agent presented higher sensing responses compared to the other forms, which is due to the formation of uniform and homogeneous particles resulting from the temperature-assisted synthesis. The particle sizes of doped SnO2 nanostructures were in the range of 40–100 nm. An enhanced sensing response around 1783 was achieved with Cu-doped SnO2 when compared with two other dopants i.e., Pt (1200) and Pd:SnO2 (502). The high sensing response of Cu:SnO2 is due to formation of CuO and its excellent association and dissociation with adsorbed atmospheric oxygen in the presence of CO at the sensor operation temperature, which results in high conductance. Cu:SnO2 may thus be an alternative and cost effective sensor for industrial applications. PMID:28467372

  10. Harmful Algal Blooms of the West Florida Shelf and Campeche Bank: Visualization and Quantification using Remote Sensing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ramos, Inia Mariel

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are natural phenomena that can have negative impacts on marine ecosystems on which human health and the economy of some Gulf States depends. Many of the HABs in the GOM are dominated by the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Non-toxic phytoplankton taxa such as Scrippsiella sp. also form intense blooms off the Mexican coast that result in massive fish mortality and economic losses, particularly as they may lead to anoxia. The main objectives of this dissertation were to (1) evaluate and improve the techniques developed for detection of Karenia spp. blooms on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) using satellite remote sensing methods, (2) test the use of these methods for waters in the GOM, and (3) use the output of these techniques to better understand the dynamics and evolution of Karenia spp. blooms in the WFS and off Mexico. The first chapter of this dissertation examines the performance of several Karenia HABs detection techniques using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images and historical ground truth observations collected on the WFS from August 2002 to December 2011. A total of 2323 in situ samples collected by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute to test for Karenia spp. matched pixels with valid ocean color satellite observations over this period. This dataset was used to systematically optimize variables and coefficients used in five published HAB detection methods. Each technique was tested using a set of metrics that included the F-Measure (FM). Before optimization, the average FM for all techniques was 0.47. After optimization, the average FM increased to 0.59, and false positives decreased ~50%. The addition of a Fluorescence Line Height (FLH) criterion improved the performance of every method. A new practical method was developed using a combination of FLH and Remote Sensing Reflectance at 555 nm (Rrs555-FLH). The new method resulted in an FM of 0.62 and 3

  11. Characterizing a large shear-zone with seismic and magnetotelluric methods: The case of the Dead Sea Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercklin, N.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Haberland, C.; Ritter, O.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M.; Weckmann, U.

    2005-01-01

    Seismic tomography, imaging of seismic scatterers, and magnetotelluric soundings reveal a sharp lithologic contrast along a ???10 km long segment of the Arava Fault (AF), a prominent fault of the southern Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the Middle East. Low seismic velocities and resistivities occur on its western side and higher values east of it, and the boundary between the two units coincides partly with a seismic scattering image. At 1-4 km depth the boundary is offset to the east of the AF surface trace, suggesting that at least two fault strands exist, and that slip occurred on multiple strands throughout the margin's history. A westward fault jump, possibly associated with straightening of a fault bend, explains both our observations and the narrow fault zone observed by others. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. A Resolution Analysis of Two Geophysical Imaging Methods For Characterizing and Monitoring Hydrologic Conditions in the Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alumbaugh, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Geological Engineering Program; LaBreque, D. [Multi-Phase Technologies, LLC, Sparks, NV (United States); Brainard, J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-08-02

    The objective of this research project was to analyze the resolution of two geophysical imaging techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR) for monitoring subsurface flow and transport processes within the vadose zone. This was accomplished through a coupled approach involving very fine-scale unsaturated flow forward modeling, conversion of the resultant flow and solute fields to geophysical property models, forward geophysical modeling using the property model obtained from the last step to obtain synthetic geophysical data, and finally inversion of this synthetic data. These geophysical property models were then compared to those derived from the conversion of the hydrologic forward modeling to provide an understanding of the resolution and limitations of the geophysical techniques.

  13. NEARSHORE ZONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hb"'/ H“ —_'~. Fig. l: Schematic plan showing the incident wave and subsequent breaking in the nearshore zone. The still-water line indicates the mean water level and .... obtained by taking the square of the high frequency velocity components.

  14. Local zone wise elastic and plastic properties of electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy using digital image correlation technique: A comparative study between uniform stress and virtual fields method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranath, K. M.; Ramji, M.

    2015-05-01

    Joining of materials using welding results in the formation of material zones with varying microstructure across the weld. Extraction of the mechanical properties of those individual heterogeneous zones are important in designing components and structures comprised of welds. In this study, the zone wise local extraction of the elastic and plastic properties of an electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy has been carried out using both the uniform stress method (USM) and the virtual fields method (VFM) involving digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The surface strain field obtained using DIC technique from a transverse weld specimen tensile testing is used for extracting the zone wise strain evolution. Initially, using uniform stress assumption, zone wise full range stress-strain curves are extracted. In USM methodology, the elastic and plastic material models are fitted to the zone wise stress-strain curves and required parameters are extracted from it. But inherent disadvantage is lot of images need to be processed for the parameter extraction. Recently, VFM is gaining lot of popularity in characterization domain as it is robust, accurate and faster. VFM is based on the principle of virtual work where, the weak form of local equilibrium equations and kinematically admissible virtual displacement fields are utilized for parameter extraction. Hollomon's power law is used here as the hardening rule. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, strength coefficient and strain hardening exponent are the parameters extracted zone wise using both USM and VFM. A Vicker's microhardness measurement is also conducted across the weld zone towards mapping the strength behavior. Fusion zone has reported higher yield strength, strength coefficient and Poisson's ratio. Young's modulus value is found decreasing from base metal towards the fusion zone. The trend observed in parameter variation across the weld zone obtained by both USM and VFM compares very well. Due

  15. Urban remote sensing investigations.

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul DONNAY; Binard, Marc; Marchal, Denis; Istvan NADASDI

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the research activities achieved by the team TELSAT/06-TELSAT/11/06-TELSAT/T3/D03 of the University of Liege, in the framework of the National research programme on satellite remote sensing (National Scientific Policy Office). The team specialized in urban remote sensing and especially in applications relevant to urban, land and country planning and the monitoring of enevironment. Besides a theoretical approach of the methods of remote sensing, those trends imply a good ...

  16. Photoinduced triplet-state electron transfer of platinum porphyrin: a one-step direct method for sensing iodide with an unprecedented detection limit

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad

    2015-02-05

    Here, we report for the first time a one-step direct method for sensing halides in aqueous solution using phosphorescence quenching of platinum-cationic porphyrin. This method offers an easy, rapid, environmentally friendly, ultra-sensitive (with a previously unattained detection limit of 1 × 10−12 M) and economical method for the determination of iodide. To fully understand the reaction mechanism responsible for the phosphorescence quenching process, we have employed cutting-edge time-resolved laser spectroscopy with broadband capabilities.

  17. SU-8 cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing; Fabrication, characterisation and development of novel read-out methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, M.; Keller, Stephan Urs; Lillemose, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five years with cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interesting polymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processing and low Young's modulus. We show...

  18. Deterministic sensing matrices in compressive sensing: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu L N; Shin, Yoan

    2013-01-01

    Compressive sensing is a sampling method which provides a new approach to efficient signal compression and recovery by exploiting the fact that a sparse signal can be suitably reconstructed from very few measurements. One of the most concerns in compressive sensing is the construction of the sensing matrices. While random sensing matrices have been widely studied, only a few deterministic sensing matrices have been considered. These matrices are highly desirable on structure which allows fast implementation with reduced storage requirements. In this paper, a survey of deterministic sensing matrices for compressive sensing is presented. We introduce a basic problem in compressive sensing and some disadvantage of the random sensing matrices. Some recent results on construction of the deterministic sensing matrices are discussed.

  19. Dosimetric sensing and optical properties of ZnO–SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baitha, Pankaj Kr.; Pal, Partha P., E-mail: phys.ppal@gmail.com; Manam, J.

    2014-05-01

    In this study an effort has been made to investigate the dosimetric sensing and optical properties of ZnO–SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites at different pH values. The nanocomposites samples are irradiated by X-ray and then thermoluminescence (TL) analysis is carried out to investigate the response. The structural details of nanocomposites are characterized by Scanning Electron microscope, X-Ray Powder Diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Similarly, optical properties were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The XRD studies revealed good crystallnity of samples with presence of both phases, ZnO as well as SnO{sub 2} simultaneously. The SEM image revealed nanoflakes and nanoflower shape of ZnO–SnO{sub 2} nanocomposite for sample synthesized at pH 7. Also, nanocube and nanosphere can be seen at higher pH value of 9. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra of ZnO–SnO{sub 2} nanocomposite contain multi peaks at 398 nm, 410 nm, 451 nm, 469 nm, 484 nm, 493 nm and 545 nm at an excitation wavelength of 225 nm, which arises mainly due to oxygen and zinc related defects. The TL glow curve shows intense glow peaks at 346°, 261°, 209° and 153° for the samples synthesized at pH 3, pH 5, pH 7 and pH 9 respectively. The peaks are found to be increased with higher pH values. The peaks are found to be shifted towards lower temperature with higher pH values. The study shows that the ZnO–SnO{sub 2} nano-composite is more developed material than singly ZnO compound or SnO{sub 2} with enhanced opto-electronic and thermal properties and great applications in thermal dosimetry. - Highlights: • ZnO–CNT nanocomposites prepared by coprecipitation method at different pH values. • Sample at different pH show different nanostructures as revealed by SEM. • PL spectra indicate intense peaks related to O{sub 2} and Zn defects for all samples. • TL spectra show peak shift with increasing pH values of samples. • Zn

  20. Gradient adjustment method for better discriminating correlating and non-correlating regions of physiological signals: application to the partitioning of impaired and intact zones of cerebral autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S; Antunes, André; Montgomery, Dean; Borg, Ulf R

    2017-08-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated over a range of systemic blood pressures by the cerebral autoregulation (CA) control mechanism. This range lies within the lower and upper limits of autoregulation (LLA, ULA), beyond which blood pressure drives CBF, and CA function is considered impaired. A standard method to determine autoregulation limits noninvasively using NIRS technology is via the COx measure: a moving correlation index between mean arterial pressure and regional oxygen saturation. In the intact region, there should be no correlation between these variables whereas in the impaired region, the correlation index should approximate unity. In practice, however, the data may be noisy and/or the intact region may often exhibit a slightly positive relationship. This positive relationship may render traditional autoregulation limit calculations difficult to perform, resulting in the need for manual interpretation of the data using arbitrary thresholds. Further, the underlying mathematics of the technique are asymmetric in terms of the results produced for impaired and intact regions and are, in fact, not computable for the ideal case within the intact region. In this work, we propose a novel gradient adjustment method (GACOx) to enhance the differences in COx values observed in the intact and impaired regions. Results from a porcine model (N = 8) are used to demonstrate that GACOx is successful in determining LLA values where traditional methods fail. It is shown that the derived GACOx indices exhibit a mean difference between the intact/impaired regions of 1.54 ± 0.26 (mean ± SD), compared to 0.14 ± 0.10 for the traditional COx method. The GACOx effectively polarizes the COx data in order to better differentiate the intact and impaired zones and, in doing so, makes the determination of the LLA and ULA points a simpler and more consistent task. The method lends itself to the automation of the robust determination of autoregulation zone limits.

  1. Land use zones and land use patterns in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica : a pattern recognition approach to land use inventory at the sub-regional scale, using remote sensing and GIS, applying an object-oriented and data-driven strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to land use inventory at the sub-regional scale in the Guacimo-Rio Jiménez-Siquirres (GRS) area in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Therefore, the concept of "land use zones" is introduced. The land use zone (LUZ) plays a central role in the definition of

  2. The integrated analyses of digital field mapping techniques and traditional field methods: implications from the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, SW Turkey as a case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Zabcı, Cengiz; Şahin, Murat

    2015-04-01

    The precise geological mapping is one of the most important issues in geological studies. Documenting the spatial distribution of geological bodies and their contacts play a crucial role on interpreting the tectonic evolution of any region. Although the traditional field techniques are still accepted to be the most fundamental tools in construction of geological maps, we suggest that the integration of digital technologies to the classical methods significantly increases the resolution and the quality of such products. We simply follow the following steps in integration of the digital data with the traditional field observations. First, we create the digital elevation model (DEM) of the region of interest by interpolating the digital contours of 1:25000 scale topographic maps to 10 m of ground pixel resolution. The non-commercial Google Earth satellite imagery and geological maps of previous studies are draped over the interpolated DEMs in the second stage. The integration of all spatial data is done by using the market leading GIS software, ESRI ArcGIS. We make the preliminary interpretation of major structures as tectonic lineaments and stratigraphic contacts. These preliminary maps are controlled and precisely coordinated during the field studies by using mobile tablets and/or phablets with GPS receivers. The same devices are also used in measuring and recording the geologic structures of the study region. Finally, all digitally collected measurements and observations are added to the GIS database and we finalise our geological map with all available information. We applied this integrated method to map the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) in the southwest Turkey. The BFSZ is an active sinistral 60-to-90 km-wide shear zone, which prolongs about 300 km-long between Suhut-Cay in the northeast and Köyceğiz Lake-Kalkan in the southwest on land. The numerous studies suggest contradictory models not only about the evolution but also about the fault geometry of this

  3. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2014-06-01

    after the withdrawal of water, for the estimation of damage and flood recovery. Usage of satellite images in detectingearthquakes Remote sensing is widely used in the procedure of detecting and locating earthquakes. Earthquakes can be detected by the combination of geophysical methods with multispectral and radar images. By combining these nethods, we can monitor the conditions of seizmic areas. The obtained information can be computed and sent to information centres in stationary stations where the modelling of earthquake-affected terrains is carried out. Usage of satellite images in monitoring volcanos Remote sensing has been used ifor examining a large number of active vulcanos. Monitoring is performed several times, during and after eruptions. The modelling of volcanic areas enables the definition of lava-effusion zones,and  potentially dangerous zones, which is further used for  planning the protection of affected areas. Usage of satellite images in monitoring fire (blaze One of important methods of investigating, forecasting and monitoring forest fires is remote sensing. Satellite images are valuable in discovering fires and in mapping affected areas within the geographical-information system (GIS, as well as in the estimation of demage caused by fire. Satellite images can also be usedto estimate the temperature on the Earth surface. Conclusion Remote sensing becomes an increasingly important and unavoidable method of the acquisition of data on  geospacein general. The importance of thus obtained data  is invaluable in all phases of monitoring  catastrophic events, from detecting their onsets through monitoring their spreading and effects  to the phase of recovery. New generations of sensors enable systematic monitoring, recording and measuring different data important for detecting changes and processes in the sea, on the ground and in the atmosphere. The procedures of remote sensing enable surveying (recording and registration of different natural

  4. Spatialized Application of Remotely Sensed Data Assimilation Methods for Farmland Drought Monitoring Using Two Different Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, Paolo Cosmo; Casa, Raffaele; Pignatti, Stefano; Castaldi, Fabio; Yang, Hao; Guijun, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a tool to evaluate the effect of water stress on yield losses at the farmland and regional scale, by assimilating remotely sensed biophysical variables into crop growth models. Biophysical variables were retrieved from HJ1A, HJ1B and Landsat 8 images, using an algorithm based on the training of artificial neural networks on PROSAIL.For the assimilation, two crop models of differing degree of complexity were used: Aquacrop and SAFY. For Aquacrop, an optimization procedure to reduce the difference between the remotely sensed and simulated CC was developed. For the modified version of SAFY, the assimilation procedure was based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter.These procedures were tested in a spatialized application, by using data collected in the rural area of Yangling (Shaanxi Province) between 2013 and 2015Results were validated by utilizing yield data both from ground measurements and statistical survey.

  5. Experimental quantification of solute transport through the vadose zone under dynamic boundary conditions with dye tracers and optical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    transport through the material interface which differs between the stationary (unilateral) and dynamic cases (bilateral). This qualitative observation is confirmed by breakthrough curves for dynamic experiments which generally show the trend of faster initial breakthrough and increased tailing when compared to stationary infiltration results. Literature Cremer, C.J.M., I. Neuweiler, M. Bechtold, J. Vanderborght (2016): Solute Transport in Heterogeneous Soil with Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions, Vadose Zone Journal 15 (6) DOI: 10.2136/vzj2015.11.0144

  6. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  7. Synthesis of SnO2/ZnO composite nanofibers by electrospinning method and study of its ethanol sensing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorami, Hamed Akbari; Keyanpour-Rad, Mansoor; Vaezi, Mohammad Reza

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of SnO2/ZnO composite nanofibers via electrospinning method. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/zinc acetate/stannous chloride nanofibers were electrospun using a solution containing PVA, zinc acetate and stannous chloride in distilled-water followed by calcination at 650 °C for 2 h, obtaining the related composite nanofibers. The nanofibers were characterized by simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Ethanol sensing of the nanofibers showed a good and desirable sensing behavior such as high sensitivity, quick response and recovery times.

  8. Methods to homogenize electrochemical concentration cell (ECC ozonesonde measurements across changes in sensing solution concentration or ozonesonde manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deshler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone plays a significant role in the chemical and radiative state of the atmosphere. For this reason there are many instruments used to measure ozone from the ground, from space, and from balloons. Balloon-borne electrochemical cell ozonesondes provide some of the best measurements of the ozone profile up to the mid-stratosphere, providing high vertical resolution, high precision, and a wide geographic distribution. From the mid-1990s to the late 2000s the consistency of long-term records from balloon-borne ozonesondes has been compromised by differences in manufacturers, Science Pump (SP and ENSCI (EN, and differences in recommended sensor solution concentrations, 1.0 % potassium iodide (KI and the one-half dilution: 0.5 %. To investigate these differences, a number of organizations have independently undertaken comparisons of the various ozonesonde types and solution concentrations, resulting in 197 ozonesonde comparison profiles. The goal of this study is to derive transfer functions to allow measurements outside of standard recommendations, for sensor composition and ozonesonde type, to be converted to a standard measurement and thus homogenize the data to the expected accuracy of 5 % (10 % in the stratosphere (troposphere. Subsets of these data have been analyzed previously and intermediate transfer functions derived. Here all the comparison data are analyzed to compare (1 differences in sensor solution composition for a single ozonesonde type, (2 differences in ozonesonde type for a single sensor solution composition, and (3 the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO and manufacturers' recommendations of 1.0 % KI solution for Science Pump and 0.5 % KI for ENSCI. From the recommendations it is clear that ENSCI ozonesondes and 1.0 % KI solution result in higher amounts of ozone sensed. The results indicate that differences in solution composition and in ozonesonde type display little pressure dependence at pressures

  9. Methods to homogenize electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde measurements across changes in sensing solution concentration or ozonesonde manufacturer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, Terry; Stübi, Rene; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Mercer, Jennifer L.; Smit, Herman G. J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Kivi, Rigel; Nardi, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    Ozone plays a significant role in the chemical and radiative state of the atmosphere. For this reason there are many instruments used to measure ozone from the ground, from space, and from balloons. Balloon-borne electrochemical cell ozonesondes provide some of the best measurements of the ozone profile up to the mid-stratosphere, providing high vertical resolution, high precision, and a wide geographic distribution. From the mid-1990s to the late 2000s the consistency of long-term records from balloon-borne ozonesondes has been compromised by differences in manufacturers, Science Pump (SP) and ENSCI (EN), and differences in recommended sensor solution concentrations, 1.0 % potassium iodide (KI) and the one-half dilution: 0.5 %. To investigate these differences, a number of organizations have independently undertaken comparisons of the various ozonesonde types and solution concentrations, resulting in 197 ozonesonde comparison profiles. The goal of this study is to derive transfer functions to allow measurements outside of standard recommendations, for sensor composition and ozonesonde type, to be converted to a standard measurement and thus homogenize the data to the expected accuracy of 5 % (10 %) in the stratosphere (troposphere). Subsets of these data have been analyzed previously and intermediate transfer functions derived. Here all the comparison data are analyzed to compare (1) differences in sensor solution composition for a single ozonesonde type, (2) differences in ozonesonde type for a single sensor solution composition, and (3) the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) and manufacturers' recommendations of 1.0 % KI solution for Science Pump and 0.5 % KI for ENSCI. From the recommendations it is clear that ENSCI ozonesondes and 1.0 % KI solution result in higher amounts of ozone sensed. The results indicate that differences in solution composition and in ozonesonde type display little pressure dependence at pressures ≥ 30 hPa, and thus the transfer

  10. Liquid chromatographic method for determination of water in soils and the optimization of anion separations by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Nancy [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of water in soil or clay samples is presented. In a separate study, the optimization of electrophoretic separation of alkylated phenolate ions was optimized by varying the pH and acetonitrile concentration of the buffer solutions.

  11. Optical sensing method to analyze germination rate of Capsicum annum seeds treated with growth-promoting chemical compounds using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    Seed germination rate differs based on chemical treatments, and nondestructive measurements of germination rate have become an essential requirement in the field of agriculture. Seed scientists and other biologists are interested in optical sensing technologies-based biological discoveries due to nondestructive detection capability. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently emerged as a powerful method for biological and plant material discoveries. We report an extended application of OCT by monitoring the germination rate acceleration of chemically primed seeds. To validate the versatility of the method, Capsicum annum seeds were primed using three chemical compounds: sterile distilled water (SDW), butandiol, and 1-hexadecene. Monitoring was performed using a 1310-nm swept source OCT system. The results confirmed more rapid morphological variations in the seeds treated with 1-hexadecene medium than the seeds treated with SDW and butandiol within 8 consecutive days. In addition, fresh weight measurements (gold standard) of seeds were monitored for 15 days, and the obtained results were correlated with the OCT results. Thus, such a method can be used in various agricultural fields, and OCT shows potential as a rigorous sensing method for selecting the optimal plant growth-promoting chemical compounds rapidly, when compared with the gold standard methods.

  12. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p.

  13. The Near Zone to Far Zone Transformation (N2F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackfield, Donald T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Poole, Brian R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-11

    N2F is a C/C++ code used to calculate the far zone electromagnetic (EM) field, given E and H near zone field data. The method used by N2F can be found in Ref. 1 and 2. N2F determines the far field EΦ and Eθ in spherical coordinates for near zone data calculated in either Cartesian or Cylindrical geometry.

  14. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  15. Survey and Zoning of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Using Geostatistical Methods in GIS (Case Study: Miankangi Region in Sistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, M.; A. Gholamalizadeh Ahangar; Abolfazl Bameri; F. Sarani; A. Hejazizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In order to provide a database, it is essential having access to accurate information on soil spatial variation for soil sustainable management such as proper application of fertilizers. Spatial variations in soil properties are common but it is important for understanding these changes, particularly in agricultural lands for careful planning and land management. Materials and Methods: To this end, in winter 1391, 189 undisturbed soil samples (0-30 cm depth) in a regular latt...

  16. Method of Stamping Surface-Enhance Raman Spectroscopy for Label-Free, Multiplexed, Molecular Sensing and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Chuan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present disclosure relates the use of a stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates to produce a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique. A NPGD SERS substrate is stamped onto a surface containing one or more target molecules, followed by SERS measurement of the target molecules located between the surface and SERS substrate. The target molecules may be deposited on the surface, which may be a carrier substrate such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

  17. Formation of the N-MWCNT/TiOx nanocomposite structure using magnetron method for gas sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E.; Knyazev, E. V.; Davletkildeev, N. A.; Nesov, S. N.; Ponomareva, I. V.; Sokolov, D. V.; Korusenko, P. M.

    2017-08-01

    The nanocomposite structures N-MWCNT/TiOx based on nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (N-MWCNT) have been synthesized using magnetron sputtering. The morphology, structure, composition and also the electro-physical properties of the nanocomposite structures have been investigated. The changes of the Fermi level position and the electrical conductivity of N-MWCNT and N-MWCNT/TiOx structures at the adsorption of the oxidizing and reducing gas molecules have been studied. The obtained nanocomposite structures demonstrate the wide perspectives as the sensing media for gas micro- and nanosensors.

  18. A comprehensive model combining Laplace-transform finite-difference and boundary-element method for the flow behavior of a two-zone system with discrete fracture network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pin; Cheng, Linsong; Huang, Shijun; Xu, Zhongyi; Xue, Yongchao; Cao, Renyi; Ding, Guanyang

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive model for the flow behavior of a two-zone system with discrete fracture network. The discrete fracture network within the inner zone is represented explicitly by fracture segments. The Laplace-transform finite-difference method is used to numerically model discrete fracture network flow, with sufficient flexibility to consider arbitrary fracture geometries and conductivity distributions. Boundary-element method and line-source functions in the Laplace domain are employed to derive a semi-analytical flow solution for the two-zone system. By imposing the continuity of flux and pressure on discrete fracture surfaces, the semi-analytical two-zone system flow model and the numerical fracture flow model are coupled dynamically. The main advantage of the approach occurring in the Laplace domain is that simulation can be done with nodes only for discrete fractures and elements for boundaries and at predetermined, discrete times. Thus, stability and convergence problems caused by time discretization are avoided and the burden of gridding and computation is decreased without loss of important fracture characteristics. The model is validated by comparison with the results from an analytical solution and a fully numerical solution. Flow regime analysis shows that a two-zone system with discrete fracture network may develop six flow regimes: fracture linear flow, bilinear flow, inner zone linear flow, inner zone pseudosteady-state flow, outer zone pseudoradial flow and outer zone boundary-dominated flow. Especially, local solutions for the inner-zone linear flow have the same form with that of a finite conductivity planar fracture and can be correlated with the total length of discrete fractures and an intercept term. In the inner zone pseudosteady-state flow period, the discrete fractures, along with the boundary of the inner zone, will act as virtual closed boundaries, due to the pressure interference caused by fracture network and the

  19. ACCIDENT PREDICTION METHODOLOGY USING CONFLICT ZONE METHOD FOR “TRANSIT TRANSPORT-PEDESTRIAN” CONFLICT SITUATION AND MODELS OF TRAFFIC FLOWS AT CONTROLLED INTERSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are considered as the most significant cost of road traffic. Therefore any measures for road traffic management should be evaluated according to a minimization  criterion of accident losses. In order to develop a method for evaluation of the accident losses it is necessary to prepare a methodology for cost estimate of road accidents of various severity with due account of their consequences and prediction (economic assessment and severity level of their consequences (quantitative risk assessment. The research has been carried with the purpose to devise appropriate models for accident prediction at a decision-making stage while organizing road traffic in respect of  the “transport-pedestrian” conflict. An interaction of pedestrian and transit road traffic flows  is characterized by rather high risk level. In order to reduce number of road accidents  and  severity of their consequences in the observed conflict, it is necessary to evaluate  proposed solutions, in other words to predict accidents at the stage of object designing and  development of measures.The paper presents its observations on specificity of road traffic and pedestrian flow interactions and analysis of spatial conflict point formation and conflict zone creation in the studied conflict between transport facilities and pedestrians at controlled pedestrian crossings which are located in the area of intersections. Methodology has been developed for accident prediction in accordance with the conflict zone method for various traffic modes at intersections. Dependences of the represented road traffic accidents (according to consequence severity on potential danger of conflicts have been determined for various traffic modes and various conditions of conflict interaction.

  20. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcination Method Synthesis of SnO2/g-C3N4 Composites for a High-Performance Ethanol Gas Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianliang; Qin, Cong; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Gong, Yuxiao; Zhang, Huoli; Sun, Guang; Bala, Hari; Zhang, Zhanying

    2017-01-01

    The SnO2/g-C3N4 composites were synthesized via a facile calcination method by using SnCl4·5H2O and urea as the precursor. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized composites were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), the field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), thermal gravity and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and N2-sorption. The analysis results indicated that the as-synthesized samples possess the two dimensional structure. Additionally, the SnO2 nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4nanosheets. The gas-sensing performance of the as-synthesized composites for different gases was tested. Moreover, the composite with 7 wt % g-C3N4 content (SnO2/g-C3N4-7) SnO2/g-C3N4-7 exhibits an admirable gas-sensing property to ethanol, which possesses a higher response and better selectivity than that of the pure SnO2-based sensor. The high surface area of the SnO2/g-C3N4 composite and the good electronic characteristics of the two dimensional graphitic carbon nitride are in favor of the elevated gas-sensing property. PMID:28468245

  2. Facile Synthesis of Polyaniline Nanotubes Using Self-Assembly Method Based on the Hydrogen Bonding: Mechanism and Application in Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Yin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on hydrogen bonding, the highly uniform polyaniline (PANI nanotubes were synthesized by self-assembly method using citric acid (CA as the dopant and the structure-directing agent by optimizing the molar ratio of CA to aniline monomer (Ani. Synthesis conditions like reaction temperature and mechanical stirring were considered to explore the effects of hydrogen bonding on the morphologies. The effects of CA on the final morphology of the products were also investigated. The as-synthesized CA doped polyaniline (PANI nanomaterials were further deposited on the plate electrodes for the test of gas sensing performance to ammonia (NH3. The sensitivity to various concentrations of NH3, the repeatability, and the stability of the sensors were also tested and analyzed. As a result, it was found that the PANI nanomaterial synthesized at the CA/Ani molar ratio of 0.5 has highly uniform tubular morphology and shows the best sensing performance to NH3. It makes the PANI nanotubes a promising material for high performance gas sensing to NH3.

  3. Fusion of Remote Sensing Methods, UAV Photogrammetry and LiDAR Scanning products for monitoring fluvial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendzioch, Theodora; Langhammer, Jakub; Hartvich, Filip

    2015-04-01

    Fusion of remote sensing data is a common and rapidly developing discipline, which combines data from multiple sources with different spatial and spectral resolution, from satellite sensors, aircraft and ground platforms. Fusion data contains more detailed information than each of the source and enhances the interpretation performance and accuracy of the source data and produces a high-quality visualisation of the final data. Especially, in fluvial geomorphology it is essential to get valuable images in sub-meter resolution to obtain high quality 2D and 3D information for a detailed identification, extraction and description of channel features of different river regimes and to perform a rapid mapping of changes in river topography. In order to design, test and evaluate a new approach for detection of river morphology, we combine different research techniques from remote sensing products to drone-based photogrammetry and LiDAR products (aerial LiDAR Scanner and TLS). Topographic information (e.g. changes in river channel morphology, surface roughness, evaluation of floodplain inundation, mapping gravel bars and slope characteristics) will be extracted either from one single layer or from combined layers in accordance to detect fluvial topographic changes before and after flood events. Besides statistical approaches for predictive geomorphological mapping and the determination of errors and uncertainties of the data, we will also provide 3D modelling of small fluvial features.

  4. Interinstrument comparison of remote-sensing devices and a new method for calculating on-road nitrogen oxides emissions and validation of vehicle-specific power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Christopher E; Tate, James E; Shepherd, Simon P; Carslaw, David C

    2018-02-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by vehicles in real driving environments are only partially understood. This has been brought to the attention of the world with recent revelations of the cheating of the type of approval tests exposed in the dieselgate scandal. Remote-sensing devices offer investigators an opportunity to directly measure in situ real driving emissions of tens of thousands of vehicles. Remote-sensing NO 2 measurements are not as widely available as would be desirable. The aim of this study is to improve the ability of investigators to estimate the NO 2 emissions and to improve the confidence of the total NOx results calculated from standard remote-sensing device (RSD) measurements. The accuracy of the RSD speed and acceleration module was also validated using state-of-the-art onboard global positioning system (GPS) tracking. Two RSDs used in roadside vehicle emissions surveys were tested side by side under off-carriageway conditions away from transient pollution sources to ascertain the consistency of their measurements. The speed correlation was consistent across the range of measurements at 95% confidence and the acceleration correlation was consistent at 95% confidence intervals for all but the most extreme acceleration cases. VSP was consistent at 95% confidence across all measurements except for those at VSP ≥ 15 kW t -1 , which show a small underestimate. The controlled distribution gas nitric oxide measurements follow a normal distribution with 2σ equal to 18.9% of the mean, compared to 15% observed during factory calibration indicative of additional error introduced into the system. Systematic errors of +84 ppm were observed but within the tolerance of the control gas. Interinstrument correlation was performed, with the relationship between the FEAT and the RSD4600 being linear with a gradient of 0.93 and an R 2 of 0.85, indicating good correlation. A new method to calculate NOx emissions using fractional NO 2 combined with NO

  5. Evaluation and Development of E-Learning Tools and Methods in Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for Non Experts from Academia and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülch, E.; Al-Ghorani, N.; Quedenfeldt, B.; Braun, J.

    2012-07-01

    There does already exist a wide variety of tutorials and on-line courses on Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing very often used in academia. Many of them are still rather static and tedious or target high-knowledge learners. E-learning is, however, increasingly applied by many organizations and companies for life-long learning (like e.g. the EduServ courses of EuroSDR), but also for training of resellers and in order to save the expenses and time of travelling. A new issue of this project when taking into account the ethnic mentality in some countries like Saudi Arabia where it is impossible to mix the females and males at any institution type or for instance to teach ladies by a male teacher face to face, many academic workshops have been done separately twice by foreign organizations to adapt this situation. This paper will focus on these issues and present experiences gathered from a Master Thesis on "E-learning in Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for Non Experts using Moodle" at HFT Stuttgart in co-operation with a software vendor and a reseller and experiences from a current European Tempus IV project GIDEC (Geographic information technology for sustainable development in Eastern neighouring countries). The aim of this research is to provide an overview on available methods and tools and classify and judge their feasibility for the above mentioned scenarios. A more detailed description is given on the development of e-learning applications for Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing using the open source package Moodle as platform. A first item covers the experiences from setting up and handling of Moodle for non-experts. The major emphasis is then on developing and analyzing some few case studies for lectures, exercises, and software training in the fields of Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Feedback from students and company staff will be evaluated and incorporated in an improved design and sample implementation. A further focus is on free

  6. EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF E-LEARNING TOOLS AND METHODS IN DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING FOR NON EXPERTS FROM ACADEMIA AND INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gülch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There does already exist a wide variety of tutorials and on-line courses on Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing very often used in academia. Many of them are still rather static and tedious or target high-knowledge learners. E-learning is, however, increasingly applied by many organizations and companies for life-long learning (like e.g. the EduServ courses of EuroSDR, but also for training of resellers and in order to save the expenses and time of travelling. A new issue of this project when taking into account the ethnic mentality in some countries like Saudi Arabia where it is impossible to mix the females and males at any institution type or for instance to teach ladies by a male teacher face to face, many academic workshops have been done separately twice by foreign organizations to adapt this situation. This paper will focus on these issues and present experiences gathered from a Master Thesis on "E-learning in Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for Non Experts using Moodle" at HFT Stuttgart in co-operation with a software vendor and a reseller and experiences from a current European Tempus IV project GIDEC (Geographic information technology for sustainable development in Eastern neighouring countries. The aim of this research is to provide an overview on available methods and tools and classify and judge their feasibility for the above mentioned scenarios. A more detailed description is given on the development of e-learning applications for Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing using the open source package Moodle as platform. A first item covers the experiences from setting up and handling of Moodle for non-experts. The major emphasis is then on developing and analyzing some few case studies for lectures, exercises, and software training in the fields of Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Feedback from students and company staff will be evaluated and incorporated in an improved design and sample implementation. A

  7. Analysis of distribution rule of surface stress on cross wedge rolling contact zone by finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xuedao; Li, Lianpeng; Hu, Zhenghuan

    2005-12-01

    Contact surface of cross-wedge rolling is a complicated space surface and distribution rule of contact surface stress is very complicated. So far, its analyzed result was still based on slippery line method. Designing mould and actual production mainly depend on experiential factor. Application and development of cross-wedge rolling was baffled seriously. Based on the forming characteristics of cross-wedge rolling with flat wedge-shape, the ANSYS/DYNA software was developed secondly on the basis of itself, and the corresponding command program was compiled. Rolling process of cross-wedge rolling with flat wedge-shape was simulated successfully. Through simulation, space surface shape of contact surface was achieved, and distribution rule of contact surface stress was analyzed detailed and obtained. The results provide important theoretical foundation for avoiding appearing bug on surface of rolled part, instructing to design cross-wedge mould and confirming force and energy parameter.

  8. Preliminary study on magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation for flexible surgical robots in transoral surgery: methods and phantom experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Zhang, Changchun; Liu, Li; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-10-05

    Flexible surgical robot can work in confined and complex environments, which makes it a good option for minimally invasive surgery. In order to utilize flexible manipulators in complicated and constrained surgical environments, it is of great significance to monitor the position and shape of the curvilinear manipulator in real time during the procedures. In this paper, we propose a magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation system for flexible surgical robots in the transoral surgery. The system can provide the real-time tip position and shape information of the robot during the operation. We use wire-driven flexible robot to serve as the manipulator. It has three degrees of freedom. A permanent magnet is mounted at the distal end of the robot. Its magnetic field can be sensed with a magnetic sensor array. Therefore, position and orientation of the tip can be estimated utilizing a tracking method. A shape sensing algorithm is then carried out to estimate the real-time shape based on the tip pose. With the tip pose and shape display in the 3D reconstructed CT model, navigation can be achieved. Using the proposed system, we carried out planar navigation experiments on a skull phantom to touch three different target positions under the navigation of the skull display interface. During the experiments, the real-time shape has been well monitored and distance errors between the robot tip and the targets in the skull have been recorded. The mean navigation error is [Formula: see text] mm, while the maximum error is 3.2 mm. The proposed method provides the advantages that no sensors are needed to mount on the robot and no line-of-sight problem. Experimental results verified the feasibility of the proposed method.

  9. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  10. A multidisciplinary approach for the study of the effects of active tectonics along the North Anatolian fault zone: possibilities for the application of the electrical self potential method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Balderer

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this joint interdisciplinary project “Marmara” of ETH Zurich and the Istanbul Technical University (ITO are to study the effects of active tectonics as evidenced by geology, geodesy and seismology on hydrogeology and geothermics in selected areas along the North Anatolian fault zone. Within the framework of this project thermal water systems in seven different areas have been investigated or are under investigation up to now (SchindIer et al., 1993. For three study areas along the North Anatolian fault zone (from east to west of Kuzuluk/Adapazari, Bursa and of Canakkale the investigations with respect to the geological and hydrogeological features are complete. The now possible hydrogeological characterisation shows encouraging possibilities for the application of new methods like the electrical self potential method for the following reasons: 1 a fully interdisciplinary approach, including seismic survey with especially conceived network, geodetic survey to investigate tectonic movements by the GPS method, geothermic survey combined with geological mapping and hydrogeological investigations of normal mineral and thermal waters; 2 groundwaters of very different chemical and isotopical composition e.g.: Ca-HCO3-type thermal waters of up to 82 °C temperature and total mineralisation of 500 mg/I to 1500 mg/I in the Bursa area, Na-HCO3-type cold mineral waters of up to 2500 mg/I to thermal waters of same mineralisation of up to 80 °C temperature, containing large amounts of CO2 of up to 1 l per 1 kg of water (at surface conditions in the Kuzuluk area and Na-Cl-type waters presenting real thermal brines of up to 65 000 mg/I of total mineralisation and temperatures of up to 100 °C in the Canakkale area; 3 distinct types of hydrodynamic flow regime in areas of different geological and tectonic structure. Based on the results of the investigations within these areas the possibilities of further studies including self potential methods

  11. Phase-shift detection in a Fourier-transform method for temperature sensing using a tapered fiber microknot resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Lu, Ping; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-04-01

    Phase-shift detection in a fast-Fourier-transform (FFT)-based spectrum analysis technique for temperature sensing using a tapered fiber microknot resonator is proposed and demonstrated. Multiple transmission peaks in the FFT spectrum of the device were identified as optical modes having completed different amounts of round trips within the ring structure. Temperature variation induced phase shifts for each set of peaks were characterized, and experimental results show that different peaks have distinct temperature sensitivities reaching values up to -0.542  rad/°C, which is about 10 times greater than that of a regular adiabatic taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer when using similar phase-tracking schemes.

  12. A compressive sensing-based computational method for the inversion of wide-band ground penetrating radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, A.; Gottardi, G.; Moriyama, T.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents an innovative computational approach for the inversion of wideband ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. The retrieval of the dielectric characteristics of sparse scatterers buried in a lossy soil is performed by combining a multi-task Bayesian compressive sensing (MT-BCS) solver and a frequency hopping (FH) strategy. The developed methodology is able to benefit from the regularization capabilities of the MT-BCS as well as to exploit the multi-chromatic informative content of GPR measurements. A set of numerical results is reported in order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed GPR inverse scattering technique, as well as to compare it to a simpler single-task implementation.

  13. Descriptive Qualitative Method of Evaluation from the Viewpoint of Math Teachers and Its Comparison with the Quantitative Evaluation (Giving scores Method (A Case Study on the Primary Schools for Girls in Zone 1 of Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Ostad-Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, one of the most important developments which have been taking place in the primary school education system is the development of the qualitative-descriptive method of evaluating the students' achievements. The main goals of the qualitative-descriptive evaluation are improving the quality of learning and promoting the level of mental health in teaching-learning environments. Therefore, based on the the raised hypothesis, the purpose of this study is to investigate the teachers' perspecives regarding the descriptive and quantitative methods of evaluation.Using survey sampling method and multi-stage cluster sampling method, 30 teachers, teaching through the qualitative (descriptive method in zone 1 of Tehran were selected. A questionnaire, developed by the researcher of this study, was used to compare the qualitative (descriptive method of evaluation with quantitative evaluation method in order to explore the viewpoints of teachers.Using 1-sample sign test, the results revealed the positive view of teachers towards descriptive evaluation. From the perspective of teachers, quantitavie evaluation has had negative impacts on the mental health of families and students for years. Hence descriptive method of evaluation must match the content of textbooks and whatever the teacher has taught.

  14. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  15. AgriSense-STARS: Advancing Methods of Agricultural Monitoring for Food Security in Smallholder Regions - the Case for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempewolf, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nakalembe, C. L.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ntikha, O.; Hansen, M.; Justice, C. J.; Adusei, B.; Kongo, V.

    2015-12-01

    In-season monitoring of crop conditions provides critical information for agricultural policy and decision making and most importantly for food security planning and management. Nationwide agricultural monitoring in countries dominated by smallholder farming systems, generally relies on extensive networks of field data collectors. In Tanzania, extension agents make up this network and report on conditions across the country, approaching a "near-census". Data is collected on paper which is resource and time intensive, as well as prone to errors. Data quality is ambiguous and there is a general lack of clear and functional feedback loops between farmers, extension agents, analysts and decision makers. Moreover, the data are not spatially explicit, limiting the usefulness for analysis and quality of policy outcomes. Despite significant advances in remote sensing and information communication technologies (ICT) for monitoring agriculture, the full potential of these new tools is yet to be realized in Tanzania. Their use is constrained by the lack of resources, skills and infrastructure to access and process these data. The use of ICT technologies for data collection, processing and analysis is equally limited. The AgriSense-STARS project is developing and testing a system for national-scale in-season monitoring of smallholder agriculture using a combination of three main tools, 1) GLAM-East Africa, an automated MODIS satellite image processing system, 2) field data collection using GeoODK and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and 3) the Tanzania Crop Monitor, a collaborative online portal for data management and reporting. These tools are developed and applied in Tanzania through the National Food Security Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC) within a statistically representative sampling framework (area frame) that ensures data quality, representability and resource efficiency.

  16. Exploration and validation of alternate sensing methods for wearable continuous pulse transit time measurement using optical and bioimpedance modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Bassem; Nathan, Viswam; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2017-07-01

    In this work we explore the viability of a multimodal sensing device that can be integrated in a wearable form factor for daily, non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring. A common approach in previous research has been to rely on measuring the pulse transit time (PTT), which has been shown to be correlated with the BP. In this work, we look into the feasibility of measuring PTT using sensors separated by a small distance on one arm so that any eventual realization of the system is convenient to wear and use over long periods of time. Moreover, we investigate the combined use of two different modalities for cardiovascular measurement: the optical photoplethysmogram (PPG) as well as the bio-potential based impedance (Bio-Z) measurement. These two modalities have been previously only studied on their own or in conjunction with the electrocardiogram (ECG) for the purpose of estimating PTT. We measure the PTT from the wrist to the finger using Bio-Z and PPG sensors, and compare it to the conventional PTT measured from the ECG to PPG at the finger, in order to prove that it can be an effective replacement for existing PTT measurement strategies. Moreover, successful measurement of PTT with two different modalities of sensors at close proximity will allow designs with multiple heterogeneous sensors on a more versatile wearable sensing platform that is optimized for power and is more robust to environmental or skin contact changes. This will enable the next generation of smart watches that capture PTT and BP. Experiments were conducted in vivo with simultaneous ECG, Bio-Z and PPG sensors, and results indicate that the PTT calculated from the Bio-Z and PPG sensors placed at a close distance correlates well with the more established PTT measurement using the ECG in conjunction with PPG, with correlation coefficient as high as 0.92.

  17. Factors affecting women’s intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n = 416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n = 216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n = 276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR = 2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR = 2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on

  18. Factors affecting women's intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskele, Mengistu; Mekonnen, Wubegzier

    2014-09-12

    The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women's awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n = 416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n = 216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n = 276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR = 2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR = 2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on LAPMs and secondary and plus level of

  19. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  20. A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-Qin; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid method and a system to determine protein content using asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry based on reaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBBG) and protein was established. Main merit of our approach is that it can avoid interferences of other nitric-compounds in samples, such as melamine and urea. Optimized conditions are as follows: Concentrations of CBBG, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and HCl are 150 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 0.1 mol/l and 1.0% (v/v), respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent are 150 μl and 30 μl, respectively; length of a reaction coil is 200 cm; total flow rate is 2.65 ml/min. The linear range of the method is 0.5-15 mg/l (BSA), its detection limit is 0.05 mg/l, relative standard deviation is less than 1.87% (n=11), and analytical speed is 60 samples per hour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating methods used for fission track dating of tephras: examples from the Afar Depression, Ethiopia, and the Denali fault zone, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, A. E.; Warfel, T. S.; Phillips, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although fission track geochronology has been successfully used to date volcanic glasses and tephras in several studies, a variety of approaches have been used (see Westgate et al., 2013), and no consensus for a standardized methodology has emerged. As a result, this technique is rarely employed, despite having the potential to date tephras and glasses that cannot be dated by other methods, such as K-Ar dating. We have been evaluating the various approaches used to address the technical issues in fission track dating of tephras, by applying them to standards of known ages, including Moldavite tektite, and Huckleberry and Bishop Tuffs. Some of these issues include track etching and counting protocol, and corrections for the effects of track fading at low temperatures. Track etching is generally done in 24% HF for 75 or more seconds, but the time necessary for optimal etching appears to vary according to sample composition and grain size. To correct for track fading, we are using the diameter correction technique of Sandhu and Westgate (1995). We have obtained tephra samples from two regions, the Afar Depression in Ethiopia, an area with significant early hominid fossils, and the Denali fault zone in Alaska, an area with a complicated tectonic evolution. For both of these regions, we have samples that have been dated by other methods for calibration purposes, and we will explore the application of a Zeta correction to the technique. This underutilized technique can provide powerful constraints on studies of timing in diverse geologic environments.

  2. Stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis method for the assessment of recombinant human interleukin-11 and its correlation with reversed-phase liquid chromatography and biossay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ricardo Bizogne; Stamm, Fernanda Pavani; Schumacher, Jéssica Barbieri; Cardoso, Clovis Dervil Appratto; de Freitas, Guilherme Weber; Perobelli, Rafaela Ferreira; Dalmora, Sérgio Luiz

    2014-06-01

    A stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was validated for the analysis of recombinant human interleukin-11(rhIL-11) using rupatadine fumarate, as internal standard (IS). A fused-silica capillary, (50 µm i.d.; effective length, 40 cm) was used at 25°C; the applied voltage was 20 kV. The background electrolyte solution consisted of 50 mmol L(-1) sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution at pH 3.0. Injections were performed using a pressure mode at 50 mbar for 45 s, with detection by photodiode array detector set at 196 nm. Specificity and stability-indicating capability were established in degradation studies, which also showed that there was no interference of the excipients. The method was linear over the concentration range of 1.0-300 µg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9992) and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.2 µg mL(-1) and 1.0 µg mL(-1), respectively. The accuracy was 100.4% with bias lower than 1.1%. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of the degraded products showed significant differences (p0.05). In addition the CZE and RP-LC methods were applied for the analysis of rhIL-11 in human plasma. Therefore, the proposed alternative method can be applied to monitor stability, to assure the batch-to-batch consistency and quality of the bulk and finished biotechnology-derived medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intercomparison of four remote-sensing-based energy balance methods to retrieve surface evapotranspiration and water stress of irrigated fields in semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, J.; Boulet, G.; Jarlan, L.; Fieuzal, R.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Ezzahar, J.; Er-Raki, S.; Bigeard, G.; Merlin, O.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C.; Chehbouni, G.

    2014-03-01

    Instantaneous evapotranspiration rates and surface water stress levels can be deduced from remotely sensed surface temperature data through the surface energy budget. Two families of methods can be defined: the contextual methods, where stress levels are scaled on a given image between hot/dry and cool/wet pixels for a particular vegetation cover, and single-pixel methods, which evaluate latent heat as the residual of the surface energy balance for one pixel independently from the others. Four models, two contextual (S-SEBI and a modified triangle method, named VIT) and two single-pixel (TSEB, SEBS) are applied over one growing season (December-May) for a 4 km × 4 km irrigated agricultural area in the semi-arid northern Mexico. Their performance, both at local and spatial standpoints, are compared relatively to energy balance data acquired at seven locations within the area, as well as an uncalibrated soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model forced with local in situ data including observed irrigation and rainfall amounts. Stress levels are not always well retrieved by most models, but S-SEBI as well as TSEB, although slightly biased, show good performance. The drop in model performance is observed for all models when vegetation is senescent, mostly due to a poor partitioning both between turbulent fluxes and between the soil/plant components of the latent heat flux and the available energy. As expected, contextual methods perform well when contrasted soil moisture and vegetation conditions are encountered in the same image (therefore, especially in spring and early summer) while they tend to exaggerate the spread in water status in more homogeneous conditions (especially in winter). Surface energy balance models run with available remotely sensed products prove to be nearly as accurate as the uncalibrated SVAT model forced with in situ data.

  4. METHOD OF ASSESSING A PERSON’S FUNCTIONAL STATE BASED ON THE PHENOMENON OF STABILITY THE CONDUCTIVITY AVERAGE IN MICRO-ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Strakhova

    2015-05-01

    Given the non-chaotic mutual relative distribution of electrocutaneous characteristics of micro-zones mean values, we can assume that the micro-zones actually exist; each of them has some informative parameters (like the teeth of the ECG and are functional reflections of skin -and- visceral connections. Probably it is a representation of one more regulatory system of an organism.

  5. Studies on remote sensing method of particle size and water density distribution in mists and clouds using laser radar techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H.; Kobayasi, T.; Inaba, H.

    1979-01-01

    A method of remote measurement of the particle size and density distribution of water droplets was developed. In this method, the size of droplets is measured from the Mie scattering parameter which is defined as the total-to-backscattering ratio of the laser beam. The water density distribution is obtained by a combination of the Mie scattering parameter and the extinction coefficient of the laser beam. This method was examined experimentally for the mist generated by an ultrasonic mist generator and applied to clouds containing rain and snow. Compared with the conventional sampling method, the present method has advantages of remote measurement capability and improvement in accuracy.

  6. How Robust Are Burn Severity Indices When Applied in a New Region? Evaluation of Alternate Field-Based and Remote-Sensing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alina Cansler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Remotely sensed indices of burn severity are now commonly used by researchers and land managers to assess fire effects, but their relationship to field-based assessments of burn severity has been evaluated only in a few ecosystems. This analysis illustrates two cases in which methodological refinements to field-based and remotely sensed indices of burn severity developed in one location did not show the same improvement when used in a new location. We evaluated three methods of assessing burn severity in the field: the Composite Burn Index (CBI—a standardized method of assessing burn severity that combines ecologically significant variables related to burn severity into one numeric site index—and two modifications of the CBI that weight the plot CBI score by the percentage cover of each stratum. Unexpectedly, models using the CBI had higher R2 and better classification accuracy than models using the weighted versions of the CBI. We suggest that the weighted versions of the CBI have lower accuracies because weighting by percentage cover decreases the influence of the dominant tree stratum, which should have the strongest relationship to optically sensed reflectance, and increases the influence of the substrates strata, which should have the weakest relationship with optically sensed reflectance in forested ecosystems. Using a large data set of CBI plots (n = 251 from four fires and CBI scores derived from additional field-based assessments of burn severity (n = 388, we predicted two metrics of image-based burn severity, the Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR. Predictive models for RdNBR showed slightly better classification accuracy than for dNBR (overall accuracy = 62%, Kappa = 0.40, and overall accuracy = 59%, Kappa= 0.36, respectively, whereas dNBR had slightly better explanatory power, but strong differences were not apparent. RdNBR may provide little or no improvement over d

  7. An Integrated Field and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Method for the Estimation of Pigments Content of Stipa Purpurea in Shenzha, Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stipa purpurea is the representative type of alpine grassland in Tibet and the surviving and development material for herdsmen. This paper takes Shenzha County as the research area. Based on the analysis of typical hyperspectral variables sensitive to chlorophyll content of Stipa purpurea, 10 spectral variables with significant correlation with chlorophyll were extracted. The estimation model of chlorophyll was established. The photosynthetic pigment contents in the Shenzha area were calculated by using HJ-1A remote