WorldWideScience

Sample records for sensing satellite industry

  1. Development of satellite remote sensing techniques as an economic tool for forestry industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Steven A.; Jadkowski, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative commercial development project designed to focus on cost-effective and practical applications of satellite remote sensing in forest management is discussed. The project, initiated in September, 1988 is being executed in three phases: (1) development of a forest resource inventory and geographic information system (GIS) updating systems; (2) testing and evaluation of remote-sensing products against forest industry specifications; and (3) integration of remote-sensing services and products in an operational setting. An advisory group represented by eleven major forest-product companies will provide direct involvement of the target market. The advisory group will focus on the following questions: Does the technology work for them? How can it be packaged to provide the needed forest-management information? Can the products and information be provided in a cost-effective manner?

  2. Satellite Communications Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Ariane $loom SAJAC 1 Hughes Satellite Japan 06/94 $150m SAJAC 2 Hughes Satellite Japan -- (spare) $150m SatcomHl GE GE Americom /95 $50m SOLIDARIDAD ...1 Hughes SCT (Mexico) 11/93 Ariane $loom SOLIDARIDAD 2 Hughes SCT (Mexico) /94 $loom Superbird Al Loral Space Com Gp (Jap) 11/92 Ariane $175m

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  4. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  5. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

    2008-12-01

    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  6. Fiber optic sensing for telecommunication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Arnd; Glier, Markus; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Lars; Müller, Mathias; Rapp, Stephan; Kurvin, Charles; Ernst, Thomas; McKenzie, Iain; Karafolas, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    Modern telecommunication satellites can benefit from the features of fiber optic sensing wrt to mass savings, improved performance and lower costs. Within the course of a technology study, launched by the European Space Agency, a fiber optic sensing system has been designed and is to be tested on representative mockups of satellite sectors and environment.

  7. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  8. Satellite Remote Sensing in Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean surface winds are presented with focus on wind energy applications. The history on operational and research-based satellite ocean wind mapping is briefly described for passive microwave, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Currently 6 GW installed...

  9. Offshore winds mapped from satellite remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    the uncertainty on the model results on the offshore wind resource, it is necessary to compare model results with observations. Observations from ground-based wind lidar and satellite remote sensing are the two main technologies that can provide new types of offshore wind data at relatively low cost....... The advantages of microwave satellite remote sensing are 1) horizontal spatial coverage, 2) long data archives and 3) high spatial detail both in the coastal zone and of far-field wind farm wake. Passive microwave ocean wind speed data are available since 1987 with up to 6 observations per day with near...

  10. Remote sensing applications for the dam industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryse-Phillips, A.; Woolgar, R. [Hatch Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Puestow, T.; Warren, S. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). C-Core; Rogers, K. [Nalcor Energy, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Khan, A. [Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. Johns, NL (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    There has been an increase in the earth observation missions providing satellite imagery for operational monitoring applications. This technique has been found to be especially useful for the surveillance of large, remote areas, which is challenging to achieve in a cost-effective manner by conventional field-based or aerial means. This paper discussed the utility of satellite-based monitoring for different applications relevant to hydrology and water resources management. Emphasis was placed on the monitoring of river ice covers in near, real-time and water resources management. The paper first outlined river ice monitoring using remote sensing on the Lower Churchill River. The benefits of remote sensing over traditional survey methods for the dam industry was then outlined. Satellite image acquisition and interpretation for the Churchill River was then presented. Several images were offered. Watershed physiographic characterization using remote sensing was also described. It was concluded that satellite imagery proved to be a useful tool to develop physiographic characteristics when conducting rainfall-runoff modelling. 3 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  11. Developing status of satellite remote sensing and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang; Liu Dechang

    2005-01-01

    This paper has discussed the latest development of satellite remote sensing in sensor resolutions, satellite motion models, load forms, data processing and its application. The authors consider that sensor resolutions of satellite remote sensing have increased largely. Valid integration of multisensors is a new idea and technology of satellite remote sensing in the 21st century, and post-remote sensing application technology is the important part of deeply applying remote sensing information and has great practical significance. (authors)

  12. Satellite remote sensing in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite-based remote-sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level particulate matter can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for particulate matter model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies.

  13. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Longhenry, Ryan

    2018-06-13

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive is managed on behalf of the Secretary of the Interior by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Earth Resources Observation and Science Center. The Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 (51 U.S.C. §601) directed the U.S. Department of the Interior to establish a permanent global archive consisting of imagery over land areas obtained from satellites orbiting the Earth. The law also directed the U.S. Department of the Interior, delegated to the U.S. Geological Survey, to ensure proper storage and preservation of imagery, and timely access for all parties. Since 2008, these images have been available at no cost to the user.

  14. Satellite instrument provides nighttime sensing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    "This is not your father's low-light sensor," Steve Miller, senior research scientist and deputy director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, said at a 5 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting. He and others at the briefing were showing off the nighttime sensing capability of the day/night band of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) of instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Earth-observing research satellite, a joint NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite that was launched on 28 October 2011. Noting that low-light satellite technology has been available for about 40 years, Miller said that the VIIRS day/night band "is truly a paradigm shift in the technology and capability."

  15. Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Tronin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto geological interpretation methods into space. The modern embodiment of this method is alignment analysis. Time series of alignments on the Earth's surface are investigated before and after the earthquake. A further application of satellite data in seismology is related with geophysical methods. Electromagnetic methods have about the same long history of application for seismology. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained based on satellite ionozonds. The most successful current project "DEMETER" shows impressive results. Satellite thermal infra-red data were applied for earthquake research in the next step. Numerous results have confirmed previous observations of thermal anomalies on the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A modern trend is the application of the outgoing long-wave radiation for earthquake research. In ‘80s a new technology—satellite radar interferometry—opened a new page. Spectacular pictures of co-seismic deformations were presented. Current researches are moving in the direction of pre-earthquake deformation detection. GPS technology is also widely used in seismology both for ionosphere sounding and for ground movement detection. Satellite gravimetry has demonstrated its first very impressive results on the example of the catastrophic Indonesian earthquake in 2004. Relatively new applications of remote sensing for seismology as atmospheric sounding, gas observations, and cloud analysis are considered as possible candidates for applications.

  16. Mapping Water Use and Drought with Satellite Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Mapping water use and drought with satellite remote sensing. Martha C. Anderson, Bill Kustas, Feng Gao, Kate Semmens. USDA-Agricultural Research Service Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Beltsville, MD. Chris Hain NOAA-NESDIS

  17. Space industrialization - Education. [via communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joels, K. M.

    1978-01-01

    The components of an educational system based on, and perhaps enhanced by, space industrialization communications technology are considered. Satellite technology has introduced a synoptic distribution system for various transmittable educational media. The cost of communications satellite distribution for educational programming has been high. It has, therefore, been proposed to utilize Space Shuttle related technology and Large Space Structures (LSS) to construct a system with a quantum advancement in communication capability and a quantum reduction in user cost. LSS for communications purposes have three basic advantages for both developed and emerging nations, including the ability to distribute signals over wide geographic areas, the reduced cost of satellite communications systems versus installation of land based systems, and the ability of a communication satellite system to create instant educational networks.

  18. Decision tree approach for classification of remotely sensed satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sensed satellite data using open source support. Richa Sharma .... Decision tree classification techniques have been .... the USGS Earth Resource Observation Systems. (EROS) ... for shallow water, 11% were for sparse and dense built-up ...

  19. Decision tree approach for classification of remotely sensed satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DTC) algorithm for classification of remotely sensed satellite data (Landsat TM) using open source support. The decision tree is constructed by recursively partitioning the spectral distribution of the training dataset using WEKA, open source ...

  20. Use of Openly Available Satellite Images for Remote Sensing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.-K.

    2011-09-01

    With the advent of Google Earth, Google Maps, and Microsoft Bing Maps, high resolution satellite imagery are becoming more easily accessible than ever. It have been the case that the college students may already have wealth experiences with the high resolution satellite imagery by using these software and web services prior to any formal remote sensing education. It is obvious that the remote sensing education should be adjusted to the fact that the audience are already the customers of remote sensing products (through the use of the above mentioned services). This paper reports the use of openly available satellite imagery in an introductory-level remote sensing course in the Department of Geomatics of National Cheng Kung University as a term project. From the experience learned from the fall of 2009 and 2010, it shows that this term project has effectively aroused the students' enthusiastic toward Remote Sensing.

  1. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  2. Remote sensing by satellite - Technical and operational implications for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    International cooperation in the U.S. Space Program is discussed and related to the NASA program for remote sensing of the earth. Satellite remote sensing techniques are considered along with the selection of the best sensors and wavelength bands. The technology of remote sensing satellites is considered with emphasis on the Landsat system configuration. Future aspects of remote sensing satellites are considered.

  3. Fixed-focus camera objective for small remote sensing satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Jeremy M.; Braun, Ofer; Freiman, Dov

    1993-09-01

    An athermalized objective has been designed for a compact, lightweight push-broom camera which is under development at El-Op Ltd. for use in small remote-sensing satellites. The high performance objective has a fixed focus setting, but maintains focus passively over the full range of temperatures encountered in small satellites. The lens is an F/5.0, 320 mm focal length Tessar type, operating over the range 0.5 - 0.9 micrometers . It has a 16 degree(s) field of view and accommodates various state-of-the-art silicon detector arrays. The design and performance of the objective is described in this paper.

  4. Optical fibre sensing: a solution for industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Fabian, M.; Chen, Y.; Vidakovic, M.; Javdani, S.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Carlton, J.; Gerada, C.; Brun, L.

    2017-04-01

    Optical fibres have been explored widely for their sensing capability to meet increasing industrial needs, building on their success in telecommunications. This paper provides a review of research activities at City University of London in response to industrial challenges through the development of a range of fibre Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors for transportation structural monitoring. For marine propellers, arrays of FBGs mapped onto the surface of propeller blades allow for capturing vibrational modes, with reference to simulation data. The research funded by EU Cleansky programme enables the development of self-sensing electric motor drives to support `More Electric Aircraft' concept. The partnership with Faiveley Brecknell Willis in the UK enables the integration of FBG sensors into the railway current-collecting pantographs for real-time condition monitoring when they are operating under 25kV conditions.

  5. Satellite remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; Kolmonen, Pekka; Saponaro, Giulia; Virtanen, Timo; Rodriguez, Edith; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Atlaskina, Ksenia; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides the spatial distribution of aerosol and cloud properties over a wide area. In our studies large data sets are used for statistical studies on aerosol and cloud interaction in an area over Fennoscandia, the Baltic Sea and adjacent regions over the European mainland. This area spans several regimes with different influences on aerosol cloud interaction such as a the transition from relative clean air over Fennoscandia to more anthropogenically polluted air further south, and the influence maritime air over the Baltic and oceanic air advected from the North Atlantic. Anthropogenic pollution occurs in several parts of the study area, and in particular near densely populated areas and megacities, but also in industrialized areas and areas with dense traffic. The aerosol in such areas is quite different from that produced over the boreal forest and has different effects on air quality and climate. Studies have been made on the effects of aerosols on air quality and on the radiation balance in China. The aim of the study is to study the effect of these different regimes on aerosol-cloud interaction using a large aerosol and cloud data set retrieved with the (Advanced) Along Track Scanning Radiometer (A)ATSR Dual View algorithm (ADV) further developed at Finnish Meteorological Institute and aerosol and cloud data provided by MODIS. Retrieval algorithms for aerosol and clouds have been developed for the (A)ATSR, consisting of a series of instruments of which we use the second and third one: ATSR-2 which flew on the ERS-2 satellite (1995-2003) and AATSR which flew on the ENVISAT satellite (2002-2012) (both from the European Space Agency, ESA). The ADV algorithm provides aerosol data on a global scale with a default resolution of 10x10km2 (L2) and an aggregate product on 1x1 degree (L3). Optional, a 1x1 km2 retrieval products is available over smaller areas for specific studies. Since for the retrieval of AOD no prior knowledge is needed on

  6. THz wave sensing for petroleum industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Douseri, Fatemah M.; Chen, Yunqing; Zhang, X.-C.

    2006-04-01

    We present the results of terahertz (THz) sensing of gasoline products. The frequency-dependent absorption coefficients, refractive indices, and complex dielectric constants of gasoline and xylene isomers were extracted in the spectral range from 0.5 3.0 THz. The THz spectra of gasoline (#87, #89, #93) and related BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) compounds were studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the 1.5 20 THz (50 660 cm-1). The xylene isomers, which are used as antiknock agent in gasoline were determined quantitatively in gasoline in the THz range. Our investigations show the potential of THz technology for the petroleum industrial applications.

  7. Satellite Remote Sensing For Aluminum And Nickel Laterites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.; Penfield, Glen T.; Grubbs, Donald K.

    1984-08-01

    The new LANDSAT-4,-5/Thematic Mapper (TM) land observational satellite remote sensing systems are providing dramatically new and important short wave infrared (SWIR) data, which combined with Landsat's Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) visible (VIS), very near infrared (VNIR), and thermal infrared (TI) data greatly improves regional geological mapping on a global scale. The TM will significantly improve clay, iron oxide, aluminum, and nickel laterite mapping capabilities over large areas of the world. It will also improve the ability to discriminate vegetation stress and species distribution associated with lateritic environments. Nickel laterites on Gag Island, Indonesia are defined by MSS imagery. Satellite imagery of the Cape Bougainville and the Darling Range, Australia bauxite deposits show the potential use of MSS data for exploration and mining applications. Examples of satellite syn-thetic aperture radar (SAR) for Jamaica document the use of this method for bauxite exploration. Thematic Mapper data will be combined with the French SPOT satellite's high spatial resolution and stereoscopic digital data, and U.S., Japanese, European, and Canadian Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to assist with logistics, mine development, and environ-mental concerns associated with aluminum and nickel lateritic deposits worldwide.

  8. Environmental remote sensing for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques developed for exploration programs can often be used to address environmental issues facing the petroleum industry. While this industry becomes increasingly more environmentally conscious, budgets remain tight, requiring any technology used in environmental applications to be cost effective, widely available and reliable. In this paper a three-fold analysis of environmental issues facing the petroleum industry concludes: major areas of concern included environmental mapping natural habitats, surface cover, change through time, pollution monitoring (hazardous wastes, oil seeps and spills on and offshore), earth hazards assessment, baseline studies, facilities sitting and crisis response. options matrices were developed plotting current and near future RS technology vs environmental concerns, and each sensor/platform combination subjectively evaluated to determine which combination could best address the problem. While presently available RS technology (both airborne and spaceborne) has significant capability toward environmental mapping, hazards detection and other concerns, the anticipated launches of ERS-1, JERS-1, Landsat-6 and other systems will provide environmentally useful data available today only from relatively expensive and local airborne surveys. Low altitude airborne surveys and ground/sea truth will continue to be critical to any quantitative studies

  9. Orbital resonances of Taiwan's FORMOSAT-2 remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Fa; Hwang, Cheinway

    2018-06-01

    Unlike a typical remote sensing satellite that has a global coverage and non-integral orbital revolutions per day, Taiwan's FORMOSAT-2 (FS-2) satellite has a non-global coverage due to the mission requirements of one-day repeat cycle and daily visit around Taiwan. These orbital characteristics result in an integer number of revolutions a day and orbital resonances caused by certain components of the Earth's gravity field. Orbital flight data indicated amplified variations in the amplitudes of FS-2's Keplerian elements. We use twelve years of orbital observations and maneuver data to analyze the cause of the resonances and explain the differences between the simulated (at the pre-launch stage) and real orbits of FS-2. The differences are quantified using orbital perturbation theories that describe secular and long-period orbital evolutions caused by resonances. The resonance-induced orbital rising rate of FS-2 reaches +1.425 m/day, due to the combined (modeled) effect of resonances and atmospheric drags (the relative modeling errors remote sensing mission similar to FS-2, especially in the early mission design and planning phase.

  10. Research on Coal Exploration Technology Based on Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the main source of energy. In China and Vietnam, coal resources are very rich, but the exploration level is relatively low. This is mainly caused by the complicated geological structure, the low efficiency, the related damage, and other bad situations. To this end, we need to make use of some advanced technologies to guarantee the resource exploration is implemented smoothly and orderly. Numerous studies show that remote sensing technology is an effective way in coal exploration and measurement. In this paper, we try to measure the distribution and reserves of open-air coal area through satellite imagery. The satellite picture of open-air coal mining region in Quang Ninh Province of Vietnam was collected as the experimental data. Firstly, the ENVI software is used to eliminate satellite imagery spectral interference. Then, the image classification model is established by the improved ELM algorithm. Finally, the effectiveness of the improved ELM algorithm is verified by using MATLAB simulations. The results show that the accuracies of the testing set reach 96.5%. And it reaches 83% of the image discernment precision compared with the same image from Google.

  11. Analysis on the status of the application of satellite remote sensing technology to nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zhangsheng; Zhao Yingjun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the application status of satellite remote sensing technology to nuclear safeguards, advantage of satellite remote sensing technology is analyzed, main types of satellite image used in nuclear safeguards are elaborated and the main application of satellite images is regarded to detect, verify and monitor nuclear activities; verify additional protocol declaration and design information, support performing complementary access inspections; investigate alleged undeclared activities based on open source or the third party information. Application examples of satellite image in nuclear safeguards to analyze nuclear facilities by other countries, the ability of remote sensing technology in nuclear safeguards is discussed. (authors)

  12. Satellite Data for All? Review of Google Earth Engine for Archaeological Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Alcover Firpi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of Google Earth Engine for archaeological remote sensing using satellite data. GEE is a freely accessible software option for processing remotely sensed data, part of the larger Google suite of products.

  13. High Data Rate Satellite Communications for Environmental Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. M.; Munger, J.; Emch, P. G.; Sen, B.; Gu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite to ground communication bandwidth limitations place constraints on current earth remote sensing instruments which limit the spatial and spectral resolution of data transmitted to the ground for processing. Instruments such as VIIRS, CrIS and OMPS on the Soumi-NPP spacecraft must aggregate data both spatially and spectrally in order to fit inside current data rate constraints limiting the optimal use of the as-built sensors. Future planned missions such as HyspIRI, SLI, PACE, and NISAR will have to trade spatial and spectral resolution if increased communication band width is not made available. A number of high-impact, environmental remote sensing disciplines such as hurricane observation, mega-city air quality, wild fire detection and monitoring, and monitoring of coastal oceans would benefit dramatically from enabling the downlinking of sensor data at higher spatial and spectral resolutions. The enabling technologies of multi-Gbps Ka-Band communication, flexible high speed on-board processing, and multi-Terabit SSRs are currently available with high technological maturity enabling high data volume mission requirements to be met with minimal mission constraints while utilizing a limited set of ground sites from NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) or TDRSS. These enabling technologies will be described in detail with emphasis on benefits to future remote sensing missions currently under consideration by government agencies.

  14. Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

    Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

  15. Aircraft and satellite remote sensing of desert soils and landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. W.; Connors, K. F.; Miller, D. A.; Day, R. L.; Gardner, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Remote sensing data on desert soils and landscapes, obtained by the Landsat TM, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), Simulated SPOT, and Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) aboard an aircraft, are discussed together with the analytical techniques used in the studies. The TM data for southwestern Nevada were used to discriminate among the alluvial fan deposits with different degrees of desert pavement and varnish, and different vegetation cover. Thermal-IR data acquired from the HCMM satellite were used to map the spatial distribution of diurnal surface temperatures and to estimate mean annual soil temperatures in central Utah. Simulated SPOT data for northwestern New Mexico identified geomorphic features, such as differences in eolian sand cover and fluvial incision, while the TIMS data depicted surface geologic features of the Saline Valley in California.

  16. Satellite remote sensing of limnological indicators of global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, R.H.; Lillesand, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the general hypothesis that large-scale and long-term trends in lake ice formation and breakup, along with changes in the optical properties of lakes, can serve as robust integrated measures of regional and global climate change. Recent variation in the periodicity of lake ice formation and breakup is investigated using the AVHRR aboard the NOAA/TIROS series of polar orbiting satellites. The study area consists of 44 lakes and reservoirs with a surface area of greater than 1000 hectares in Wisconsin. The utility of AVHRR for lake ice detection with high temporal resolution is demonstrated, the relationship between ice phenology and periodicity with lake morphometry for the lakes in the study is elucidated, and remotely sensed measures of ice periodicity are correlated with local and regional temperature trends. 31 refs

  17. THERMAL AND VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGE FUSION USING WAVELET IN REMOTE SENSING AND SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ahrari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal remote sensing approach is based on merging different data in different portions of electromagnetic radiation that improves the accuracy in satellite image processing and interpretations. Remote Sensing Visible and thermal infrared bands independently contain valuable spatial and spectral information. Visible bands make enough information spatially and thermal makes more different radiometric and spectral information than visible. However low spatial resolution is the most important limitation in thermal infrared bands. Using satellite image fusion, it is possible to merge them as a single thermal image that contains high spectral and spatial information at the same time. The aim of this study is a performance assessment of thermal and visible image fusion quantitatively and qualitatively with wavelet transform and different filters. In this research, wavelet algorithm (Haar and different decomposition filters (mean.linear,ma,min and rand for thermal and panchromatic bands of Landast8 Satellite were applied as shortwave and longwave fusion method . Finally, quality assessment has been done with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative parameters such as Entropy, Standard Deviation, Cross Correlation, Q Factor and Mutual Information were used. For thermal and visible image fusion accuracy assessment, all parameters (quantitative and qualitative must be analysed with respect to each other. Among all relevant statistical factors, correlation has the most meaningful result and similarity to the qualitative assessment. Results showed that mean and linear filters make better fused images against the other filters in Haar algorithm. Linear and mean filters have same performance and there is not any difference between their qualitative and quantitative results.

  18. Analysis of smear in high-resolution remote sensing satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahballah, Walid A.; Bazan, Taher M.; El-Tohamy, Fawzy; Fathy, Mahmoud

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution remote sensing satellites (HRRSS) that use time delay and integration (TDI) CCDs have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. Clocking and velocity mismatch smear are two of the key factors in inducing image smear. Clocking smear is caused by the discrete manner in which the charge is clocked in the TDI-CCDs. The relative motion between the HRRSS and the observed object obliges that the image motion velocity must be strictly synchronized with the velocity of the charge packet transfer (line rate) throughout the integration time. During imaging an object off-nadir, the image motion velocity changes resulting in asynchronization between the image velocity and the CCD's line rate. A Model for estimating the image motion velocity in HRRSS is derived. The influence of this velocity mismatch combined with clocking smear on the modulation transfer function (MTF) is investigated by using Matlab simulation. The analysis is performed for cross-track and along-track imaging with different satellite attitude angles and TDI steps. The results reveal that the velocity mismatch ratio and the number of TDI steps have a serious impact on the smear MTF; a velocity mismatch ratio of 2% degrades the MTFsmear by 32% at Nyquist frequency when the TDI steps change from 32 to 96. In addition, the results show that to achieve the requirement of MTFsmear >= 0.95 , for TDI steps of 16 and 64, the allowable roll angles are 13.7° and 6.85° and the permissible pitch angles are no more than 9.6° and 4.8°, respectively.

  19. Optical telescope refocussing mechanism concept design on remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jen-Chueh; Ling, Jer

    2017-09-01

    The optical telescope system in remote sensing satellite must be precisely aligned to obtain high quality images during its mission life. In practical, because the telescope mirrors could be misaligned due to launch loads, thermal distortion on supporting structures or hygroscopic distortion effect in some composite materials, the optical telescope system is often equipped with refocussing mechanism to re-align the optical elements while optical element positions are out of range during image acquisition. This paper is to introduce satellite Refocussing mechanism function model design development process and the engineering models. The design concept of the refocussing mechanism can be applied on either cassegrain type telescope or korsch type telescope, and the refocussing mechanism is located at the rear of the secondary mirror in this paper. The purpose to put the refocussing mechanism on the secondary mirror is due to its higher sensitivity on MTF degradation than other optical elements. There are two types of refocussing mechanism model to be introduced: linear type model and rotation type model. For the linear refocussing mechanism function model, the model is composed of ceramic piezoelectric linear step motor, optical rule as well as controller. The secondary mirror is designed to be precisely moved in telescope despace direction through refocussing mechanism. For the rotation refocussing mechanism function model, the model is assembled with two ceramic piezoelectric rotational motors around two orthogonal directions in order to adjust the secondary mirror attitude in tilt angle and yaw angle. From the validation test results, the linear type refocussing mechanism function model can be operated to adjust the secondary mirror position with minimum 500 nm resolution with close loop control. For the rotation type model, the attitude angle of the secondary mirror can be adjusted with the minimum 6 sec of arc resolution and 5°/sec of angle velocity.

  20. The role of satellite remote sensing in REDD/MRV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Inge; Sandoval, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    REDD, which stands for 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries' - is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. The UN-REDD Programme, a collaborative partnership between FAO, UNDP and UNEP launched in September 2008, supports countries to develop capacity to REDD and to implement a future REDD mechanism in a post- 2012 climate regime. The programme works at both the national and global scale, through support mechanisms for country-driven REDD strategies and international consensus-building on REDD processes. The UN-REDD Programme gathers technical teams from around the world to develop common approaches, analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, remote sensing, and greenhouse gas inventories. Within the partnership, FAO supports countries on technical issues related to forestry and the development of cost effective and credible MRV processes for emission reductions. While at the international level, it fosters improved guidance on MRV approaches, including consensus on principles and guidelines for MRV and training programmes.It provides guidance on how best to design and implement REDD, to ensure that forests continue to provide multiple benefits for livelihoods and biodiversity to societies while storing carbon at the same time. Other areas of work include national forest assessments and monitoring of in-country policy and institutional change. The outcomes about the role of satellite remote sensing technologies as a tool for monitoring, assessment, reporting and verification of carbon credits and co-benefits under the REDD mechanism are here presented.

  1. Worldwide satellite communications for the energy utility industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Recent and future generations of low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are promising new possibilities for using space communications to achieve operational improvements and business expansion in energy supply and delivery industries. The ability to reach remote locations with relatively inexpensive devices and infrastructure is a unique property of satellites. Applications include remote monitoring and control of distributed resources and emergency and personal communication. Satellite systems are emerging as a significant opportunity for investment minded utilities. Over a dozen groups are planning to launch a total of 1200 LEOs in the period from 1996 to 2006, at a probable cost of over $20 Billion. This large number of systems can provide a worldwide mix of narrow band and wideband services including data, voice, video and Internet access. This paper examines the two primary factors which have limited applications in the energy industry: cost and propagation delay. The former has so far limited the technology to fixed communications with a few important sites such as remote substations. The latter has rendered the technology unsuitable for applications where critical protection mechanisms are involved. These constraints are effectively countered by the emerging LEO systems. Big LEOs will be used for voice service, little LEOs will be the systems of choice for most utility data applications. The author concludes that there are good technical and business reasons to reconsider future satellite communications as an option for meeting certain strategic business objectives in power system management and customer oriented information services

  2. Classification of Dust Days by Satellite Remotely Sensed Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek-Hammer, M.; Cohen, A.; Levy, Robert C.; Ziv, B.; Broday, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress in satellite remote sensing (SRS) of dust particles has been seen in the last decade. From an environmental health perspective, such an event detection, after linking it to ground particulate matter (PM) concentrations, can proxy acute exposure to respirable particles of certain properties (i.e. size, composition, and toxicity). Being affected considerably by atmospheric dust, previous studies in the Eastern Mediterranean, and in Israel in particular, have focused on mechanistic and synoptic prediction, classification, and characterization of dust events. In particular, a scheme for identifying dust days (DD) in Israel based on ground PM10 (particulate matter of size smaller than 10 nm) measurements has been suggested, which has been validated by compositional analysis. This scheme requires information regarding ground PM10 levels, which is naturally limited in places with sparse ground-monitoring coverage. In such cases, SRS may be an efficient and cost-effective alternative to ground measurements. This work demonstrates a new model for identifying DD and non-DD (NDD) over Israel based on an integration of aerosol products from different satellite platforms (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)). Analysis of ground-monitoring data from 2007 to 2008 in southern Israel revealed 67 DD, with more than 88 percent occurring during winter and spring. A Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model that was applied to a database containing ground monitoring (the dependent variable) and SRS aerosol product (the independent variables) records revealed an optimal set of binary variables for the identification of DD. These variables are combinations of the following primary variables: the calendar month, ground-level relative humidity (RH), the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS, and the aerosol absorbing index (AAI) from OMI. A logistic regression that uses these variables, coded as binary

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: Progress, Potential and Pitfalls (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: Progress, Potential and Pitfalls Abstract. Fine or respirable particles with particle aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) affect visibility, change cloud properties, reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation, affect human health and are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. These particles are injected into the atmosphere either as primary emissions or form into the atmosphere by gas to particle conversion. There are various sources of PM2.5 including emissions from automobiles, industrial exhaust, and agricultural fires. In 2006, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) made the standards stringent by changing the 24-hr averaged PM2.5 mass values from 65µgm-3 to 35µgm-3. This was primarily based on epidemiological studies that showed the long term health benefits of making the PM2.5 standards stringent. Typically PM2.5 mass concentration is measured from surface monitors and in the United States there are nearly 1000 such filter based daily and 600 contiguous stations managed by federal, state, local, and tribal agencies. Worldwide, there are few PM2.5 ground monitors since they are expensive to purchase, maintain and operate. Satellite remote sensing therefore provides a viable method for monitoring PM2.5 from space. Although, there are several hundred satellites currently in orbit and not all of them are suited for PM2.5 air quality assessments. Typically multi-spectral reflected solar radiation measurements from space-borne sensors are converted to aerosol optical depth (AOD) which is a measure of the column (surface to top of atmosphere) integrated extinction (absorption plus scattering). This column AOD (usually at 550 nm) is often converted to PM2.5 mass near the ground using various techniques. In this presentation we discuss the progress over the last decade on assessing PM2.5 from satellites; outline the potential and discuss the various pitfalls that one encounters. We

  4. Final Scientific Report - Wireless and Sensing Solutions Advancing Industrial Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budampati, Rama; McBrady, Adam; Nusseibeh, Fouad

    2009-09-28

    The project team's goal for the Wireless and Sensing Solution Advancing Industrial Efficiency award (DE-FC36-04GO14002) was to develop, demonstrate, and test a number of leading edge technologies that could enable the emergence of wireless sensor and sampling systems for the industrial market space. This effort combined initiatives in advanced sensor development, configurable sampling and deployment platforms, and robust wireless communications to address critical obstacles in enabling enhanced industrial efficiency.

  5. Mission studies on constellation of LEO satellites with remote-sensing and communication payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Ray; Hwang, Feng-Tai; Hsueh, Chuang-Wei

    2017-09-01

    Revisiting time and global coverage are two major requirements for most of the remote sensing satellites. Constellation of satellites can get the benefit of short revisit time and global coverage. Typically, remote sensing satellites prefer to choose Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO) because of fixed revisiting time and Sun beta angle. The system design and mission operation will be simple and straightforward. However, if we focus on providing remote sensing and store-and-forward communication services for low latitude countries, Sun Synchronous Orbit will not be the best choice because we need more satellites to cover the communication service gap in low latitude region. Sometimes the design drivers for remote sensing payloads are conflicted with the communication payloads. For example, lower orbit altitude is better for remote sensing payload performance, but the communication service zone will be smaller and we need more satellites to provide all time communication service. The current studies focus on how to provide remote sensing and communication services for low latitude countries. A cost effective approach for the mission, i.e. constellation of microsatellites, will be evaluated in this paper.

  6. Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on Simulations of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model simulations to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) near the annual hypoxic zone. Rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) were used for the salinity flux, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used for solar penetration. Improvements in the model results in comparison with in situ observations occurred when the two types of satellite data were included. Without inclusion of the satellite-derived surface salinity flux, realistic monthly variability in the model salinity fields was observed, but important inter-annual variability wasmissed. Without inclusion of the satellite-derived light attenuation, model bottom water temperatures were too high nearshore due to excessive penetration of solar irradiance. In general, these salinity and temperature errors led to model stratification that was too weak, and the model failed to capture observed spatial and temporal variability in water-column vertical stratification. Inclusion of the satellite data improved temperature and salinity predictions and the vertical stratification was strengthened, which improved prediction of bottom-water dissolved oxygen. The model-predicted area of bottom-water hypoxia on the

  7. Research on active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Siwen; Zhen, Ming; Yang, Song; Lin, Xuling; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2017-08-01

    According to the development and application needs of Remote Sensing Science and technology, Prof. Siwen Bi proposed quantum remote sensing. Firstly, the paper gives a brief introduction of the background of quantum remote sensing, the research status and related researches at home and abroad on the theory, information mechanism and imaging experiments of quantum remote sensing and the production of principle prototype.Then, the quantization of pure remote sensing radiation field, the state function and squeezing effect of quantum remote sensing radiation field are emphasized. It also describes the squeezing optical operator of quantum light field in active imaging information transmission experiment and imaging experiments, achieving 2-3 times higher resolution than that of coherent light detection imaging and completing the production of quantum remote sensing imaging prototype. The application of quantum remote sensing technology can significantly improve both the signal-to-noise ratio of information transmission imaging and the spatial resolution of quantum remote sensing .On the above basis, Prof.Bi proposed the technical solution of active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing, launched researches on its system composition and operation principle and on quantum noiseless amplifying devices, providing solutions and technical basis for implementing active imaging information technology of satellite borne Quantum Remote Sensing.

  8. Robust satellite techniques for remote sensing of seismically active areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramutoli, V; Di Bello, G [Potenza Univ., Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; Pergola, N; Piscitelli, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale, Potenza (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    Several satellite techniques have been recently proposed to remotely map seismically active zones and to monitor geophysical phenomena possibly associated with earthquakes. Even if questionable in terms of their effective applicability, all these techniques highlight as the major problem, still to be overcome, the high number of natural factors (independent of any seismic activity) whose variable contributions to the investigated signal can be so high as to completely mask (or simulate) the space-time anomaly possibly associated to the seismic event under study. A robust approach (RAT) has recently been proposed (and successfully applied in the field of the monitoring of the major environmental risks) which, better than other methods, seems suitable for recognising space-time anomalies in the satellite observation field also in the presence of highly variable contributions from atmospheric (transmittance), surface (emissivity and morphology) and observational (time/season, but also solar and satellite zenithal angles) conditions. This work presents the first preliminary results, based on several years of NOA A/AVHRR observations, regarding its extension to satellite monitoring of thermal anomalies possibly associated to seismically active areas of Southern Italy. The main merits of this approach are its robustness against the possibility of false events detection (specially important for this kind of applications) as well as its intrinsic exportability not only to different geographic areas but also to different satellite instrumental packages.

  9. Robust satellite techniques for remote sensing of seismically active areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Piscitelli

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Several satellite techniques have been recently proposed to remotely map seismically active zones and to monitor geophysical phenomena possibly associated with earthquakes. Even if questionable in terms of their effective applicability, all these techniques highlight as the major problem, still to be overcome, the high number of natural factors (independent of any seismic activity whose variable contributions to the investigated signal can be so high as to completely mask (or simulate the space-time anomaly possibly associated to the seismic event under study. A robust approach (RAT has recently been proposed (and successfully applied in the field of the monitoring of the major environmental risks which, better than other methods, seems suitable for recognising space-time anomalies in the satellite observational field also in the presence of highly variable contributions from atmospheric (transmittance, surface (emissivity and morphology and observational (time/season, but also solar and satellite zenithal angles conditions.This work presents the first preliminary results, based on several years of NOAA/AVHRR observations, regarding its extension to satellite monitoring of thermal anomalies possibly associated to seismically active areas of Southern Italy. The main merits of this approach are its robustness against the possibility of false events detection (specially important for this kind of applications as well as its intrinsic exportability not only to different geographic areas but also to different satellite instrumental packages.

  10. Space-Derived Imagery and a Commercial Remote Sensing Industry: Impossible Dream or Inevitable Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Felsher

    Landsat-1 was launched in 1972 as a research satellite. Many of us viewed this satellite as a precursor to remote sensing "commercialization." Indeed since that time, the birth, growth and maturation of a remote sensing "industry" has been an ongoing objective for much of the U.S. private sector engaged in space and ground-segment activities related to the acquisition, analysis, and dissemination of imagery. In September 1999 a U.S. commercial entity, Space Imaging, Inc. launched its 1-meter pan/4-meter multispectral IKONOS sensor. DigitalGlobe, Inc. (nee EarthWatch, Inc.) matched this feat in October 2001. Thus, a full 30 years later, we are finally on the brink of building a true remote sensing information industry based on the global availability of competitively-priced space- derived imagery of the Earth. The upcoming availability of similar imagery from non-U.S. sources as ImageSat and U.S. sources as ORBIMAGE will only strengthen that reality. However, a remote sensing industry can only grow by allowing these entities (in times of peace) unencumbered access to a world market. And that market continues to expand -- up 11% in 2001, with gross revenues of U.S. commercial remote sensing firms alone reaching 2.44 billion, according to a joint NASA/ASPRS industry survey. However, the 30-year gap between the research-labeled Landsat-1 and our current commercial successes was not technology-driven. That lacuna was purely political -- driven by valid concerns related to national security. Although the world's governments have cooperated thoroughly and completely in areas related to satellite telecommunications, cooperation in space-derived image information is still today done cautiously and on a case-by-case basis -- and then only for science- based undertakings. It is still a fact that, except for the United States, all other Earth-imaging satellites/sensors flying today are owned, operated, and their products disseminated, by national governments -- and not private

  11. Simulation of solar array slewing of Indian remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, P. K.; Goel, P. S.

    The effect of flexible arrays on sun tracking for the IRS satellite is studied. Equations of motion of satellites carrying a rotating flexible appendage are developed following the Newton-Euler approach and utilizing the constrained modes of the appendage. The drive torque, detent torque and friction torque in the SADA are included in the model. Extensive simulations of the slewing motion are carried out. The phenomena of back-stepping, step-missing, step-slipping and the influences of array flexibility in the acquisition mode are observed for certain combinations of parameters.

  12. CBERS-2B Brazilian remote sensing satellite to help to monitor the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Gilberto Luis Sanches [TBG Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the results of CBERS-2B' Brazilian Remote Sensing Satellite to help to monitor the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. The CBERS-2B is the third satellite launched in 2007 by the CBERS Program (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) and the innovation was the HRC camera that produces high resolution images. It will be possible to obtain one complete coverage of the country every 130 days. In this study, 2 images from different parts of the Bolivia- Brazil Gas Pipeline were selected. Image processing involved the geometric registration of CBERS-2B satellite images with airborne images, contrast stretch transform and pseudo color. The analysis of satellite and airborne images in a GIS software to detect third party encroachment was effective to detect native vegetation removal, street construction, growth of urban areas, farming and residential/industrial land development. Very young, the CBERS-2B is a good promise to help to inspect the areas along the pipelines. (author)

  13. Integrating TWES and Satellite-based remote sensing: Lessons learned from the Honshu 2011 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The Boxing Day Tsunami killed 240,000 people and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. Tsunami Early Warning Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). However, recent tsunami events, like the Chile 2010 and the Honshu 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key challenge for TEWS research still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early warning messages to areas at risk, but also to other stakeholders professionally involved in the unfolding event. Until now remote sensing products for Tsunami events, including crisis maps and change detection products, are exclusively linked to those phases of the disaster life cycle, which follow after the early warning stage: Response, recovery and mitigation. The International Charter for Space and Major Disasters has been initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in 1999. It coordinates a voluntary group of governmental space agencies and industry partners, to provide rapid crisis imaging and mapping to disaster and relief organisations to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life, property and the environment. The efficiency of this approach has been demonstrated in the field of Tsunami early warning by Charter activations following the Boxing Day Tsunami 2004, the Chile Tsunami 2010 and the Honshu Tsunami 2011. Traditional single-satellite operations allow at best bimonthly repeat rates over a given Area of Interest (AOI). This allows a lot of time for image acquisition campaign planning between imaging windows for the same AOI. The advent of constellations of identical remote sensing satellites in the early 21st century resulted both in daily AOI revisit capabilities and drastically reduced time frames for acquisition planning. However, the image acquisition planning for optical remote sensing satellite constellations is constrained by orbital and communication

  14. A satellite constellation optimization for a regional GNSS remote sensing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavili Kilaneh, Narin; Mashhadi Hossainali, Masoud

    2017-04-01

    Due to the recent advances in the Global Navigation Satellite System Remote sensing (GNSS¬R) applications, optimization of a satellite orbit to investigate the Earth's properties seems significant. The comparison of the GNSS direct and reflected signals received by a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite introduces a new technique to remotely sense the Earth. Several GNSS¬R missions including Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) have been proposed for different applications such as the ocean wind speed and height monitoring. The geometric optimization of the satellite orbit before starting the mission is a key step for every space mission. Since satellite constellation design varies depending on the application, we have focused on the required geometric criteria for oceanography applications in a specified region. Here, the total number of specular points, their spatial distribution and the accuracy of their position are assumed to be sufficient for oceanography applications. Gleason's method is used to determine the position of specular points. We considered the 2-D lattice and 3-D lattice theory of flower constellation to survey whether a circular orbit or an elliptical one is suitable to improve the solution. Genetic algorithm is implemented to solve the problem. To check the visibility condition between the LEO and GPS satellites, the satellite initial state is propagated by a variable step size numerical integration method. Constellation orbit parameters achieved by optimization provide a better resolution and precession for the specular points in the study area of this research.

  15. Image Positioning Accuracy Analysis for Super Low Altitude Remote Sensing Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Super low altitude remote sensing satellites maintain lower flight altitudes by means of ion propulsion in order to improve image resolution and positioning accuracy. The use of engineering data in design for achieving image positioning accuracy is discussed in this paper based on the principles of the photogrammetry theory. The exact line-of-sight rebuilding of each detection element and this direction precisely intersecting with the Earth's elliptical when the camera on the satellite is imaging are both ensured by the combined design of key parameters. These parameters include: orbit determination accuracy, attitude determination accuracy, camera exposure time, accurately synchronizing the reception of ephemeris with attitude data, geometric calibration and precise orbit verification. Precise simulation calculations show that image positioning accuracy of super low altitude remote sensing satellites is not obviously improved. The attitude determination error of a satellite still restricts its positioning accuracy.

  16. Towards automated statewide land cover mapping in Wisconsin using satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, B.L.; Lillesand, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to an initial research project being performed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Environmental Remote Sensing Center in conjunction with seven local, state, and federal agencies to implement automated statewide land cover mapping using satellite remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques. The basis, progress, and future research needs for this mapping program are presented. The research efforts are directed toward strategies that integrate satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques in the generation of land cover data for multiple users of land cover information. The project objectives are to investigate methodologies that integrate satellite data with other imagery and spatial data resident in emerging GISs in the state for particular program needs, and to develop techniques that can improve automated land cover mapping efficiency and accuracy. 10 refs

  17. Efficient Wideband Spectrum Sensing with Maximal Spectral Efficiency for LEO Mobile Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to static spectrum allocation policies. Cognitive radio approaches have already demonstrated their potential towards spectral efficiency for providing more spectrum access opportunities to secondary user (SU with sufficient protection to licensed primary user (PU. Hence, recent scientific literature has been focused on the tradeoff between spectrum reuse and PU protection within narrowband spectrum sensing (SS in terrestrial wireless sensing networks. However, those narrowband SS techniques investigated in the context of terrestrial CR may not be applicable for detecting wideband satellite signals. In this paper, we mainly investigate the problem of joint designing sensing time and hard fusion scheme to maximize SU spectral efficiency in the scenario of low earth orbit (LEO mobile satellite services based on wideband spectrum sensing. Compressed detection model is established to prove that there indeed exists one optimal sensing time achieving maximal spectral efficiency. Moreover, we propose novel wideband cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS framework where each SU reporting duration can be utilized for its following SU sensing. The sensing performance benefits from the novel CSS framework because the equivalent sensing time is extended by making full use of reporting slot. Furthermore, in respect of time-varying channel, the spatiotemporal CSS (ST-CSS is presented to attain space and time diversity gain simultaneously under hard decision fusion rule. Computer simulations show that the optimal sensing settings algorithm of joint optimization of sensing time, hard fusion rule and scheduling strategy achieves significant improvement in spectral efficiency. Additionally, the novel ST-CSS scheme performs much higher spectral efficiency than that of general CSS framework.

  18. Remote sensing of the ionosphere using satellite radio beacons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik I in 1957, satellite radio beacons have been used to measure the total electron content of the ionosphere. A review of the role of satellite beacons in studies of the vertical and spatial structure of the total electron content and on the occurrence of plasma irregularities, both of which affect transionospheric radio signals, is presented. Measurements of Faraday rotation and time of flight give information on the topside of the ionosphere and on the protonosphere. Morphological studies show that the slab thickness of the ionosphere depends on the solar index but is approximately independent of geographical location. Scintillation of amplitude, phase, polarization, and angle provide information on plasma irregularity occurrence in space and time. (author). 23 refs., 16 figs ., 4 tabs

  19. Diurnal changes in ocean color sensed in satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermuelen, Ryan; Soto, Inia; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Yang, Haoping

    2017-07-01

    Measurements of diurnal changes in ocean color in turbid coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (aerosol robotic network-WaveCIS CSI-06) site that can provide 8 to 10 observations per day. Satellite capability to detect diurnal changes in ocean color was characterized using hourly overlapping afternoon orbits of the visual infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership ocean color sensor and validated with in situ observations. The monthly cycle of diurnal changes was investigated for different water masses using VIIRS overlaps. Results showed the capability of satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in coastal regions that can be impacted by vertical movement of optical layers, in response to tides, resuspension, and river plume dispersion. The spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes showed the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooming and decaying processes. The diurnal change in ocean color was above 20%, which represents a 30% change in chlorophyll-a. Seasonal changes in diurnal ocean color for different water masses suggest differences in summer and winter responses to surface processes. The diurnal changes observed using satellite ocean color can be used to define the following: surface processes associated with biological activity, vertical changes in optical depth, and advection of water masses.

  20. On the use of Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS to detect NO2 in the Troposphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the spatio-temporal patterns and trends in NO2 air pollution over Denmark using the satellite remote sensing product OMNO2e retrieved from the OMI instrument on the NASA AURA satellite. These data are related to in situ measurements of NO2 made at four rural and four urban...... measured in Denmark. Trends in the data are assessed and declining trends are seen over several European cities, whereas no significant trends are found in the Danish area. The mean distribution of NO2 from the satellite data is also used to evaluate the NOx emission inventory....

  1. Fiber optical sensing on-board communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, A.; Lemke, N. M. K.; Roner, M.; Obermaier, J.; Putzer, P.; Kuhenuri Chami, N.

    2017-11-01

    Striving constantly to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall cost of the classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board telecommunication satellites, OHB System (formerly Kayser-Threde) has introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. As a future spacecraft platform element, HSB relies on electrical remote sensor units as well as fiber-optical sensors, both of which can serially be connected in a bus architecture. HSB is a modular measurement system with many applications, also thanks to the opportunities posed by the digital I²C bus. The emphasis, however, is on the introduction of fiber optics and especially fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors as disruptive innovation for the company's satellite platforms. The light weight FBG sensors are directly inscribed in mechanically robust and radiation tolerant fibers, reducing the need for optical fiber connectors and splices to a minimum. Wherever an FBG sensor shall be used, the fiber is glued together with a corresponding temperature transducer to the satellites structure or to a subsystem. The transducer is necessary to provide decoupling of mechanical stress, but simultaneously ensure a high thermal conductivity. HSB has been developed in the frame of an ESA-ARTES program with European and German co-funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on-board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat). In this paper the Engineering Model development of HSB is presented and a Fiber-optical Sensor Multiplexer for a more flexible sensor bus architecture is introduced. The HSB system aims at telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geostationary orbit. It claims a high compatibility in terms of performance and interfaces with existing platforms while it was designed with future applications with increased radiation exposure already in mind. In its basic configuration HSB consists of four modules which are the Power Supply Unit, the HSB

  2. UV ionospheric remote sensing with the Polar BEAR satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgreco, F.P.; Eastes, R.W.; Huffman, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Polar BEAR satellite carries the Auroral Ionospheric Remote Sensor (AIRS) instrument, which is designed to return four simultaneous images of atmospheric radiation at northern latitudes, has thus far yielded over 5000 images. Polar BEAR was in operation during March, 1987, when the preliminary K(p) reached a value of 9 over a six-hour period; at that time, AIRS was operating at the 1304 A atomic oxygen wavelength and recorded remarkable data, which are here presented. Due to the intense activity, the AIRS data were barely able to register the poleward edge of the aurora. 6 refs

  3. Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, M I; Cairns, B; Chowdhary, J; Geogdzhayev, I V; Liu, L; Travis, L D

    2005-01-01

    This review paper outlines the rationale for long-term monitoring of the global distribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and clouds with specificity, accuracy, and coverage necessary for a reliable quantification of the direct and indirect aerosol effects on climate. We discuss the hierarchy of passive instruments suitable for aerosol remote sensing and give examples of aerosol retrievals obtained with instruments representing the low and the high end of this hierarchy

  4. Possibility of continuous monitoring of environment around the nuclear plant using satellite remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takanori; Tanabu, Yoshimine; Fujita, Shigetaka; Zhao Wenhui

    2008-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power generation is increasing by rising of power demand and environmental concern. It is important more and more to confirm and show the safety operation of nuclear plants, which is useful to remove anxiety of residents. Satellite remote sensing is one of the way of it. Large observation width and long and continuous observation period are advantage of satellite remote sensing. In addition, it is very important to be able to monitor without visitation on the site. We have continued local area environmental analysis using various satellites. MODIS on Terra and Aqua which are NASA satellites received by Hachinohe Institute of Technology is mainly used. According to these results, we have shown that combined analysis of various information parameters such as land surface temperature, geographical changes, vegetation, etc. is very effective to monitor environmental changes. In these analyses, error detection is very important. Therefore, enough storage data with continuously monitoring in usual state is necessary. Moreover, it is thought that the confirmation of stable operation of plants by means of continuous monitoring can contribute to reduce residents' anxiety of nuclear power plant. Additionally, in the case that the change of influence on surroundings is detected, it is possible to grasp the situation and take measure in early stage by error detection. In this paper, as an possible example of continuous monitoring using satellite remote sensing, we introduce the result of analysis and investigation of which changes of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentration on the sea around power plant. (author)

  5. Supporting a Diverse Community of Undergraduate Researchers in Satellite and Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. remains in grave danger of losing its global competitive edge in STEM. To find solutions to this problem, the Obama Administration proposed two new national initiatives: the Educate to Innovate Initiative and the $100 million government/private industry initiative to train 100,000 STEM teachers and graduate 1 million additional STEM students over the next decade. To assist in ameliorating the national STEM plight, the New York City College of Technology has designed its NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program in satellite and ground-based remote sensing to target underrepresented minority students. Since the inception of the program in 2008, a total of 45 undergraduate students of which 38 (84%) are considered underrepresented minorities in STEM have finished or are continuing with their research or are pursuing their STEM endeavors. The program is comprised of the three primary components. The first component, Structured Learning Environments: Preparation and Mentorship, provides the REU Scholars with the skill sets necessary for proficiency in satellite and ground-based remote sensing research. The students are offered mini-courses in Geographic Information Systems, MATLAB, and Remote Sensing. They also participate in workshops on the Ethics of Research. Each REU student is a member of a team that consists of faculty mentors, post doctorate/graduate students, and high school students. The second component, Student Support and Safety Nets, provides undergraduates a learning environment that supports them in becoming successful researchers. Special networking and Brown Bag sessions, and an annual picnic with research scientists are organized so that REU Scholars are provided with opportunities to expand their professional community. Graduate school support is provided by offering free Graduate Record Examination preparation courses and workshops on the graduate school application process. Additionally, students are supported by college

  6. Seeing is believing I: The use of thermal sensing from satellite imagery to predict crop yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potgieter A B; Rodriguez D; Power B; Mclean J; Davis P

    2014-01-01

    Volatility in crop production has been part of the Australian environment since cropping began with the arrival of the first European settlers. Climate variability is the main factor affecting crop production at national, state and local scales. At field level spatial patterns on yield production are also determined by spatially changing soil properties in interaction with seasonal climate conditions and weather patterns at critical stages in the crop development. Here we used a combination of field level weather records, canopy characteristics, and satellite information to determine the spatial performance of a large field of wheat. The main objective of this research is to determine the ability of remote sensing technologies to capture yield losses due to water stress at the canopy level. The yield, canopy characteristics (i.e. canopy temperature and ground cover) and seasonal conditions of a field of wheat (∼1400ha) (-29.402° South and 149.508°, New South Wales, Australia) were continuously monitored during the winter of 2011. Weather and crop variables were continuously monitored by installing three automatic weather stations in a transect covering different positions and soils in the landscape. Weather variables included rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures and relative humidity, and crop characteristics included ground cover and canopy temperature. Satellite imagery Landsat TM 5 and 7 was collected at five different stages in the crop cycle. Weather variables and crop characteristics were used to calculate a crop stress index (CSI) at point and field scale (39 fields). Field data was used to validate a spatial satellite image derived index. Spatial yield data was downloaded from the harvester at the different locations in the field. We used the thermal band (land surface temperature, LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) bands from the MODIS (250 m for visible bands and 1km for thermal band) and a derived EVI from Landsat TM 7 (25 m for visible

  7. Remote sensing in agriculture. [using Earth Resources Technology Satellite photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Some examples are presented of the use of remote sensing in cultivated crops, forestry, and range management. Areas of concern include: the determination of crop areas and types, prediction of yield, and detection of disease; the determination of forest areas and types, timber volume estimation, detection of insect and disease attack, and forest fires; and the determination of range conditions and inventory, and livestock inventory. Articles in the literature are summarized and specific examples of work being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center are given. Primarily, aerial photographs and photo-like ERTS images are considered.

  8. Emergency Response Damage Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandillon, Stephen; Yésou, Hervé; Schneiderhan, Tobias; de Boissezon, Hélène; de Fraipont, Paul

    2013-04-01

    During disasters rescue and relief organisations need quick access to reliable and accurate information to be better equipped to do their job. It is increasingly felt that satellites offer a unique near real time (NRT) tool to aid disaster management. A short introduction to the International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters', in operation since 2000 promoting worldwide cooperation among member space agencies, will be given as it is the foundation on which satellite-based, emergency response, damage assessment has been built. Other complementary mechanisms will also be discussed. The user access, triggering mechanism, an essential component for this user-driven service, will be highlighted with its 24/7 single access point. Then, a clear distinction will be made between data provision and geo-information delivery mechanisms to underline the user need for geo-information that is easily integrated into their working environments. Briefly, the path to assured emergency response product quality will be presented beginning with user requirements, expressed early-on, for emergency response value-adding services. Initiatives were then established, supported by national and European institutions, to develop the sector, with SERTIT and DLR being key players, providing support to decision makers in headquarters and relief teams in the field. To consistently meet the high quality levels demanded by users, rapid mapping has been transformed via workflow and quality control standardisation to improve both speed and quality. As such, SERTIT located in Alsace, France, and DLR/ZKI from Bavaria, Germany, join their knowledge in this presentation to report about recent standards as both have ISO certified their rapid mapping services based on experienced, well-trained, 24/7 on-call teams and established systems providing the first crisis analysis product in 6 hours after satellite data reception. The three main product types provided are then outlined: up-to-date pre

  9. Multi sensor satellite imagers for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronje, T.; Burger, H.; Du Plessis, J.; Du Toit, J. F.; Marais, L.; Strumpfer, F.

    2005-10-01

    This paper will discuss and compare recent refractive and catodioptric imager designs developed and manufactured at SunSpace for Multi Sensor Satellite Imagers with Panchromatic, Multi-spectral, Area and Hyperspectral sensors on a single Focal Plane Array (FPA). These satellite optical systems were designed with applications to monitor food supplies, crop yield and disaster monitoring in mind. The aim of these imagers is to achieve medium to high resolution (2.5m to 15m) spatial sampling, wide swaths (up to 45km) and noise equivalent reflectance (NER) values of less than 0.5%. State-of-the-art FPA designs are discussed and address the choice of detectors to achieve these performances. Special attention is given to thermal robustness and compactness, the use of folding prisms to place multiple detectors in a large FPA and a specially developed process to customize the spectral selection with the need to minimize mass, power and cost. A refractive imager with up to 6 spectral bands (6.25m GSD) and a catodioptric imager with panchromatic (2.7m GSD), multi-spectral (6 bands, 4.6m GSD), hyperspectral (400nm to 2.35μm, 200 bands, 15m GSD) sensors on the same FPA will be discussed. Both of these imagers are also equipped with real time video view finding capabilities. The electronic units could be subdivided into the Front-End Electronics and Control Electronics with analogue and digital signal processing. A dedicated Analogue Front-End is used for Correlated Double Sampling (CDS), black level correction, variable gain and up to 12-bit digitizing and high speed LVDS data link to a mass memory unit.

  10. Famine Early Warning Systems and Their Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Essam, Timothy; Leonard, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Famine early warning organizations have experience that has much to contribute to efforts to incorporate climate and weather information into economic and political systems. Food security crises are now caused almost exclusively by problems of food access, not absolute food availability, but the role of monitoring agricultural production both locally and globally remains central. The price of food important to the understanding of food security in any region, but it needs to be understood in the context of local production. Thus remote sensing is still at the center of much food security analysis, along with an examination of markets, trade and economic policies during food security analyses. Technology including satellite remote sensing, earth science models, databases of food production and yield, and modem telecommunication systems contributed to improved food production information. Here we present an econometric approach focused on bringing together satellite remote sensing and market analysis into food security assessment in the context of early warning.

  11. An Object Model for Integrating Diverse Remote Sensing Satellite Sensors: A Case Study of Union Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuli Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth Observation sensor web environment, the rapid, accurate, and unified discovery of diverse remote sensing satellite sensors, and their association to yield an integrated solution for a comprehensive response to specific emergency tasks pose considerable challenges. In this study, we propose a remote sensing satellite sensor object model, based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Model Language. The proposed model comprises a set of sensor resource objects. Each object consists of identification, state of resource attribute, and resource method. We implement the proposed attribute state description by applying it to different remote sensors. A real application, involving the observation of floods at the Yangtze River in China, is undertaken. Results indicate that the sensor inquirer can accurately discover qualified satellite sensors in an accurate and unified manner. By implementing the proposed union operation among the retrieved sensors, the inquirer can further determine how the selected sensors can collaboratively complete a specific observation requirement. Therefore, the proposed model provides a reliable foundation for sharing and integrating multiple remote sensing satellite sensors and their observations.

  12. The role of satellite remote sensing in structured ecosystem risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas J; Keith, David A; Bland, Lucie M; Ferrari, Renata; Lyons, Mitchell B; Lucas, Richard; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Nicholson, Emily

    2018-04-01

    The current set of global conservation targets requires methods for monitoring the changing status of ecosystems. Protocols for ecosystem risk assessment are uniquely suited to this task, providing objective syntheses of a wide range of data to estimate the likelihood of ecosystem collapse. Satellite remote sensing can deliver ecologically relevant, long-term datasets suitable for analysing changes in ecosystem area, structure and function at temporal and spatial scales relevant to risk assessment protocols. However, there is considerable uncertainty about how to select and effectively utilise remotely sensed variables for risk assessment. Here, we review the use of satellite remote sensing for assessing spatial and functional changes of ecosystems, with the aim of providing guidance on the use of these data in ecosystem risk assessment. We suggest that decisions on the use of satellite remote sensing should be made a priori and deductively with the assistance of conceptual ecosystem models that identify the primary indicators representing the dynamics of a focal ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Remote Sensing by Satellite for Environmental Education: A Survey and a Proposal for Teaching at Upper Secondary and University Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosler, Ulrich

    Knowledge of the environment has grown to such an extent that information technology (IT) is essential to make sense of the available data. An example of this is remote sensing by satellite. In recent years this field has grown in importance and remote sensing is used for a range of uses including the automatic survey of wheat yields in North…

  14. High efficient optical remote sensing images acquisition for nano-satellite: reconstruction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Feng; Xin, Lei; Fu, Jie; Huang, Puming

    2017-10-01

    Large amount of data is one of the most obvious features in satellite based remote sensing systems, which is also a burden for data processing and transmission. The theory of compressive sensing(CS) has been proposed for almost a decade, and massive experiments show that CS has favorable performance in data compression and recovery, so we apply CS theory to remote sensing images acquisition. In CS, the construction of classical sensing matrix for all sparse signals has to satisfy the Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) strictly, which limits applying CS in practical in image compression. While for remote sensing images, we know some inherent characteristics such as non-negative, smoothness and etc.. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to present a novel measurement matrix that breaks RIP. The new sensing matrix consists of two parts: the standard Nyquist sampling matrix for thumbnails and the conventional CS sampling matrix. Since most of sun-synchronous based satellites fly around the earth 90 minutes and the revisit cycle is also short, lots of previously captured remote sensing images of the same place are available in advance. This drives us to reconstruct remote sensing images through a deep learning approach with those measurements from the new framework. Therefore, we propose a novel deep convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture which takes in undersampsing measurements as input and outputs an intermediate reconstruction image. It is well known that the training procedure to the network costs long time, luckily, the training step can be done only once, which makes the approach attractive for a host of sparse recovery problems.

  15. Optical Passive Sensor Calibration for Satellite Remote Sensing and the Legacy of NOAA and NIST Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datla, Raju; Weinreb, Michael; Rice, Joseph; Johnson, B Carol; Shirley, Eric; Cao, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the cooperative efforts of scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to improve the calibration of operational satellite sensors for remote sensing of the Earth's land, atmosphere and oceans. It gives a chronological perspective of the NOAA satellite program and the interactions between the two agencies' scientists to address pre-launch calibration and issues of sensor performance on orbit. The drive to improve accuracy of measurements has had a new impetus in recent years because of the need for improved weather prediction and climate monitoring. The highlights of this cooperation and strategies to achieve SI-traceability and improve accuracy for optical satellite sensor data are summarized.

  16. Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data in the Mapping of Global Landslide Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data has significant potential use in analysis of natural hazards such as landslides. Relying on the recent advances in satellite remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, this paper aims to map landslide susceptibility over most of the globe using a GIs-based weighted linear combination method. First , six relevant landslide-controlling factors are derived from geospatial remote sensing data and coded into a GIS system. Next, continuous susceptibility values from low to high are assigned to each of the six factors. Second, a continuous scale of a global landslide susceptibility index is derived using GIS weighted linear combination based on each factor's relative significance to the process of landslide occurrence (e.g., slope is the most important factor, soil types and soil texture are also primary-level parameters, while elevation, land cover types, and drainage density are secondary in importance). Finally, the continuous index map is further classified into six susceptibility categories. Results show the hot spots of landslide-prone regions include the Pacific Rim, the Himalayas and South Asia, Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, Alps, and parts of the Middle East and Africa. India, China, Nepal, Japan, the USA, and Peru are shown to have landslide-prone areas. This first-cut global landslide susceptibility map forms a starting point to provide a global view of landslide risks and may be used in conjunction with satellite-based precipitation information to potentially detect areas with significant landslide potential due to heavy rainfall. 1

  17. Monitoring Nuclear Facilities Using Satellite Imagery and Associated Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafitte, Marc; Robin, Jean‑Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the European Union Satellite Centre (SatCen) is “to support the decision making and actions of the European Union in the field of the CFSP and in particular the CSDP, including European Union crisis management missions and operations, by providing, at the request of the Council or the European Union High Representative, products and services resulting from the exploitation of relevant space assets and collateral data, including satellite and aerial imagery, and related services”. The SatCen Non‑Proliferation Team, part of the SatCen Operations Division, is responsible for the analysis of installations that are involved, or could be involved, in the preparation or acquisition of capabilities intended to divert the production of nuclear material for military purposes and, in particular, regarding the spread of Weapons of Mass destruction and their means of delivery. For the last four decades, satellite imagery and associated remote sensing and geospatial techniques have increasingly expanded their capabilities. The unprecedented Very High Resolution (VHR) data currently available, the improved spectral capabilities, the increasing number of sensors and ever increasing computing capacity, has opened up a wide range of new perspectives for remote sensing applications. Concurrently, the availability of open source information (OSINF), has increased exponentially through the medium of the internet. This range of new capabilities for sensors and associated remote sensing techniques have strengthened the SatCen analysis capabilities for the monitoring of suspected proliferation installations for the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities, processes and activities. The combination of these remote sensing techniques, imagery analysis, open source investigation and their integration into Geographic Information Systems (GIS), undoubtedly improve the efficiency and comprehensive analysis capability provided by the SatCen to the EU stake‑holders. The

  18. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  19. Optimizing cloud removal from satellite remotely sensed data for monitoring vegetation dynamics in humid tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, M; Pour, A B; Onn, C H

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing technology is an important tool to analyze vegetation dynamics, quantifying vegetation fraction of Earth's agricultural and natural vegetation. In optical remote sensing analysis removing atmospheric interferences, particularly distribution of cloud contaminations, are always a critical task in the tropical climate. This paper suggests a fast and alternative approach to remove cloud and shadow contaminations for Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM + ) multi temporal datasets. Band 3 and Band 4 from all the Landsat ETM + dataset are two main spectral bands that are very crucial in this study for cloud removal technique. The Normalise difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalised difference soil index (NDSI) are two main derivatives derived from the datasets. Change vector analysis is used in this study to seek the vegetation dynamics. The approach developed in this study for cloud optimizing can be broadly applicable for optical remote sensing satellite data, which are seriously obscured with heavy cloud contamination in the tropical climate

  20. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  1. Combining airborne and satellite remote sensing programs to repress illegal oil discharges in restricted sea areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.

    2005-01-01

    An airborne surveillance program has been conducted over the Belgian part of the North Sea since 1991. The role of the program is to detect infringements on the Marpol Convention via remote sensing, and to take legal action against polluters through the use of recorded observations. Although Belgium has a restricted sea area of about 3,500 km with no fixed offshore oil installations, a pollution risk is constantly present due to 2 dense traffic separation schemes close to the shoreline. The Belgian marine areas and adjacent waters are regularly scanned with a Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) on board a remote sensing aircraft. This paper describes an evaluation trial that the Belgian Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical Models (MUMM) joined in 2004, together with various agencies from the United Kingdom, Germany and the Netherlands. The trial consists of a cost-sharing satellite service for oil detection with ENVISAT ASAR data. The trial was co-funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and run by Kongsberg Satellite Services. MUMM's objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and operational character of satellite services for detecting oil spills at sea. The results of the 3 month trial have indicated that aerial remote sensing for the detection of illegal oil discharges at sea increases the chances of catching polluters more efficiently, with improved chances of evidence collecting. It was concluded that when various services are integrated and strict operational conditions are met, satellite services may prove to be valuable in restricted, very densely navigated national waters that are easily reached by airborne means. 12 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Advancing the capabilities of reservoir remote sensing by leveraging multi-source satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, G.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    With a total global capacity of more than 6000 km3, reservoirs play a key role in the hydrological cycle and in water resources management. However, essential reservoir data (e.g., elevation, storage, and evaporation loss) are usually not shared at a large scale. While satellite remote sensing offers a unique opportunity for monitoring large reservoirs from space, the commonly used radar altimeters can only detect storage variations of about 15% of global lakes at a repeat period of 10 days or longer. To advance the capabilities of reservoir sensing, we developed a series of algorithms geared towards generating long term reservoir records at improved spatial coverage, and at improved temporal resolution. To this goal, observations are leveraged from multiple satellite sensors, which include radar/laser altimeters, imagers, and passive microwave radiometers. In South Asia, we demonstrate that reservoir storage can be estimated under all-weather conditions at a 4 day time step, with the total capacity of monitored reservoirs increased to 45%. Within the Continuous United States, a first Landsat based evaporation loss dataset was developed (containing 204 reservoirs) from 1984 to 2011. The evaporation trends of these reservoirs are identified and the causes are analyzed. All of these algorithms and products were validated with gauge observations. Future satellite missions, which will make significant contributions to monitoring global reservoirs, are also discussed.

  3. The Use Of Satellite Remote Sensing And Helicopter Tem Data For The Identification And Characterization Of Contaminated Landfill Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viezzoli, Andrea; Edsen, Anders; Auken, Esben

    , satellite remote sensing has been successfully used to identify numerous candidate sites that are most likely to host waste materials. This result was the basis for further monitoring activities based on the use of an helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) system, to be carried out at end of April 2009...... and remote sensing methods represents a useful instrument for environmental management....

  4. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE GEOMETRIC CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The high resolution satellite with the longer focal length and the larger aperture has been widely used in georeferencing of the observed scene in recent years. The consistent end to end model of high resolution remote sensing satellite geometric chain is presented, which consists of the scene, the three line array camera, the platform including attitude and position information, the time system and the processing algorithm. The integrated design of the camera and the star tracker is considered and the simulation method of the geolocation accuracy is put forward by introduce the new index of the angle between the camera and the star tracker. The model is validated by the geolocation accuracy simulation according to the test method of the ZY-3 satellite imagery rigorously. The simulation results show that the geolocation accuracy is within 25m, which is highly consistent with the test results. The geolocation accuracy can be improved about 7 m by the integrated design. The model combined with the simulation method is applicable to the geolocation accuracy estimate before the satellite launching.

  5. Satellite remote sensing for estimating leaf area index, FPAR and primary production. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boresjoe Bronge, Laine [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Land vegetation is a critical component of several biogeochemical cycles that have become the focus of concerted international research effort. Most ecosystem productivity models, carbon budget models, and global models of climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry require vegetation parameters to calculate land surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in the carbon cycle, the energy balance and in environmental impact assessment studies. The possibility of quantitatively estimating vegetation parameters of importance in this context using satellite data has been explored by numerous papers dealing with the subject. This report gives a summary of the present status and applicability of satellite remote sensing for estimating vegetation productivity by using vegetation index for calculating leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Some possible approaches for use of satellite data for estimating LAI, FPAR and net primary production (NPP) on a local scale are suggested. Recommendations for continued work in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn investigation areas, where vegetation data and NDVI-images based on satellite data have been produced, are also given.

  6. Satellite remote sensing for estimating leaf area index, FPAR and primary production. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boresjoe Bronge, Laine

    2004-03-01

    Land vegetation is a critical component of several biogeochemical cycles that have become the focus of concerted international research effort. Most ecosystem productivity models, carbon budget models, and global models of climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry require vegetation parameters to calculate land surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in the carbon cycle, the energy balance and in environmental impact assessment studies. The possibility of quantitatively estimating vegetation parameters of importance in this context using satellite data has been explored by numerous papers dealing with the subject. This report gives a summary of the present status and applicability of satellite remote sensing for estimating vegetation productivity by using vegetation index for calculating leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Some possible approaches for use of satellite data for estimating LAI, FPAR and net primary production (NPP) on a local scale are suggested. Recommendations for continued work in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn investigation areas, where vegetation data and NDVI-images based on satellite data have been produced, are also given

  7. Leveraging Machine Learning to Estimate Soil Salinity through Satellite-Based Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, P.; Ravanbakhsh, S.; Póczos, B.; Mauter, M.

    2016-12-01

    Human-induced salinization of agricultural soils is a growing problem which now affects an estimated 76 million hectares and causes billions of dollars of lost agricultural revenues annually. While there are indications that soil salinization is increasing in extent, current assessments of global salinity levels are outdated and rely heavily on expert opinion due to the prohibitive cost of a worldwide sampling campaign. A more practical alternative to field sampling may be earth observation through remote sensing, which takes advantage of the distinct spectral signature of salts in order to estimate soil conductivity. Recent efforts to map salinity using remote sensing have been met with limited success due to tractability issues of managing the computational load associated with large amounts of satellite data. In this study, we use Google Earth Engine to create composite satellite soil datasets, which combine data from multiple sources and sensors. These composite datasets contain pixel-level surface reflectance values for dates in which the algorithm is most confident that the surface contains bare soil. We leverage the detailed soil maps created and updated by the United States Geological Survey as label data and apply machine learning regression techniques such as Gaussian processes to learn a smooth mapping from surface reflection to noisy estimates of salinity. We also explore a semi-supervised approach using deep generative convolutional networks to leverage the abundance of unlabeled satellite images in producing better estimates for salinity values where we have relatively fewer measurements across the globe. The general method results in two significant contributions: (1) an algorithm that can be used to predict levels of soil salinity in regions without detailed soil maps and (2) a general framework that serves as an example for how remote sensing can be paired with extensive label data to generate methods for prediction of physical phenomenon.

  8. Satellite Remote Sensing Detection of Coastal Pollution in Southern California: Stormwater Runoff and Wastewater Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, R. C.; Holt, B.; Gierach, M.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal pollution poses a major health and environmental hazard, not only for beach goers and coastal communities but for marine organisms as well. Stormwater runoff is the largest source of environmental pollution in coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB) and is of great concern in increasingly urbanized areas. Buoyant wastewater plumes also pose a marine environmental risk. In this study we provide a comprehensive overview of satellite remote sensing capabilities in detecting buoyant coastal pollutants in the form of stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent. The SCB is the final destination of four major urban rivers that act as channels for runoff and pollution during and after rainstorms. We analyzed and compared sea surface roughness data from various Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments to ocean color data from the Moderate Imaging System (MODIS) sensor on board the Aqua satellite and correlated the results with existing environmental data in order to create a climatology of naturally occurring stormwater plumes in coastal waters after rain events, from 1992 to 2014 from four major rivers in the area. Heat maps of the primary extent of stormwater plumes were constructed to specify areas that may be subject to the greatest risk of coastal contamination. In conjunction with our efforts to monitor coastal pollution and validate the abilities of satellite remote sensing, a recent Fall 2015 wastewater diversion from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) provided the opportunity to apply these remote sensing methodologies of plume detection to wastewater. During maintenance of their 5-mile long outfall pipe, wastewater is diverted to a shorter outfall pipe that terminates 1-mile offshore and in shallower waters. Sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (chl-a) fluorescence, remote sensing reflectance and particulate backscatter signatures were analyzed from MODIS. Terra-ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal infrared data were also

  9. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  10. Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Itabe, Toshikazu (Editor); Sugimoto, Nobuo (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Keynote paper: Overview of lidar technology for industrial and environmental monitoring in Japan. 2. lidar technology I: NASA's future active remote sensing mission for earth science. Geometrical detector consideration s in laser sensing application (invited paper). 3. Lidar technology II: High-power femtosecond light strings as novel atmospheric probes (invited paper). Design of a compact high-sensitivity aerosol profiling lidar. 4. Lasers for lidars: High-energy 2 microns laser for multiple lidar applications. New submount requirement of conductively cooled laser diodes for lidar applications. 5. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds I: Lidar monitoring of clouds and aerosols at the facility for atmospheric remote sensing (invited paper). Measurement of asian dust by using multiwavelength lidar. Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micropulse lidar systems. 6. Troposphere aerosols and clouds II: Scanning lidar measurements of marine aerosol fields at a coastal site in Hawaii. 7. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds III: Formation of ice cloud from asian dust particles in the upper troposphere. Atmospheric boundary layer observation by ground-based lidar at KMITL, Thailand (13 deg N, 100 deg. E). 8. Boundary layer, urban pollution: Studies of the spatial correlation between urban aerosols and local traffic congestion using a slant angle scanning on the research vessel Mirai. 9. Middle atmosphere: Lidar-observed arctic PSC's over Svalbard (invited paper). Sodium temperature lidar measurements of the mesopause region over Syowa Station. 10. Differential absorption lidar (dIAL) and DOAS: Airborne UV DIAL measurements of ozone and aerosols (invited paper). Measurement of water vapor, surface ozone, and ethylene using differential absorption lidar. 12. Space lidar I: Lightweight lidar telescopes for space applications (invited paper). Coherent lidar development for Doppler wind measurement from the International Space

  11. Applications of satellite 'hyper-sensing' in Chinese agriculture: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onojeghuo, Alex Okiemute; Blackburn, George Alan; Huang, Jingfeng; Kindred, Daniel; Huang, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    Ensuring adequate food supplies to a large and increasing population continues to be the key challenge for China. Given the increasing integration of China within global markets for agricultural products, this issue is of considerable significance for global food security. Over the last 50 years, China has increased the production of its staple crops mainly by increasing yield per unit land area. However, this has largely been achieved through inappropriate agricultural practices, which have caused environmental degradation, with deleterious consequences for future agricultural productivity. Hence, there is now a pressing need to intensify agriculture in China using practices that are environmentally and economically sustainable. Given the dynamic nature of crops over space and time, the use of remote sensing technology has proven to be a valuable asset providing end-users in many countries with information to guide sustainable agricultural practices. Recently, the field has experienced considerable technological advancements reflected in the availability of 'hyper-sensing' (high spectral, spatial and temporal) satellite imagery useful for monitoring, modelling and mapping of agricultural crops. However, there still remains a significant challenge in fully exploiting such technologies for addressing agricultural problems in China. This review paper evaluates the potential contributions of satellite 'hyper-sensing' to agriculture in China and identifies the opportunities and challenges for future work. We perform a critical evaluation of current capabilities in satellite 'hyper-sensing' in agriculture with an emphasis on Chinese sensors. Our analysis draws on a series of in-depth examples based on recent and on-going projects in China that are developing 'hyper-sensing' approaches for (i) measuring crop phenology parameters and predicting yields; (ii) specifying crop fertiliser requirements; (iii) optimising management responses to abiotic and biotic stress in crops

  12. Satellite Remote Sensing of Severe Haze Pollution over Eastern China on June, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, S. A.; Feng, N.; Guo, Y.; Hong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Severe yellow haze hit a vast portion of Eastern China during the second week on June, 2012, as large area in Hubei, Henan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Jiangxi, Shandong, Zhejiang provinces and Shanghai city were covered by lingering haze. This massive haze conditions caused considerable inconvenience to people's daily lives. Previous global air quality studies have also shown that Eastern China is one of regions with highest fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations around the world. In this study, we estimate spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations using satellite observations of this severe haze pollution on June, 2012. Satellite derived Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), sites measured hourly PM2.5 and meteorological fields from surface are statistically correlated based on a multiple regression model. We also explore the utility of higher spatial resolution aerosol retrieval from MODIS. Both satellite-derived and in-situ values have peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 400 μg m-3 on June 12th, 2012 in the City of Wuhan, which is nearly 10 times of the primary standard of PM2.5 concentration of China's "Ambient Air Quality Standards" (35 μg m-3). Cities in the Eastern China, e.g. Nanjing, Hangzhou and Nanchang, have also witnessed similar peak values, along with heavy smog during the same period. Satellite observations in this case study demonstrate that the transport of smoke plumes can be one of the main drivers of regional haze pollution over Eastern China. Comparing to the U.S., current limited ground-based stations is one of the biggest problem to develop the PM2.5 monitoring program over China. Our results may suggest the potential of combining satellite remote sensing with atmospheric model to map the PM2.5 spatial concentration over the nationwide level, which can further accelerate the construction of PM2.5 monitoring network over China.

  13. Geospatial Analysis and Remote Sensing from Airplanes and Satellites for Cultural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Haley, Bryan S.

    2005-01-01

    Cultural resource management consists of research to identify, evaluate, document and assess cultural resources, planning to assist in decision-making, and stewardship to implement the preservation, protection and interpretation of these decisions and plans. One technique that may be useful in cultural resource management archaeology is remote sensing. It is the acquisition of data and derivative information about objects or materials (targets) located on the Earth's surface or in its atmosphere by using sensor mounted on platforms located at a distance from the targets to make measurements on interactions between the targets and electromagnetic radiation. Included in this definition are systems that acquire imagery by photographic methods and digital multispectral sensors. Data collected by digital multispectral sensors on aircraft and satellite platforms play a prominent role in many earth science applications, including land cover mapping, geology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, water resource management, urban and regional planning, and environmental assessments. Inherent in the analysis of remotely sensed data is the use of computer-based image processing techniques. Geographical information systems (GIS), designed for collecting, managing, and analyzing spatial information, are also useful in the analysis of remotely sensed data. A GIS can be used to integrate diverse types of spatially referenced digital data, including remotely sensed and map data. In archaeology, these tools have been used in various ways to aid in cultural resource projects. For example, they have been used to predict the presence of archaeological resources using modern environmental indicators. Remote sensing techniques have also been used to directly detect the presence of unknown sites based on the impact of past occupation on the Earth's surface. Additionally, remote sensing has been used as a mapping tool aimed at delineating the boundaries of a site or mapping previously

  14. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.

    2014-06-01

    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  15. Minimizing Gaps of Daily Ndvi Map with Geostationary Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite based remote sensing has been used to monitor plant phenology. Numerous studies have generally utilized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to quantify phenological patterns and changes in regional to the global scales. Obtaining the NDVI values during summer in East Asian Monsoon regions is important because most plants grow vigorously in this season. However, satellite derived NDVI data are error prone to clouds during most of the period. Various methods have attempted to reduce the effect of cloud in temporal and spatial NDVI monitoring; the fundamental solution is to have a large data pool that includes multiple images in short period and supplements NDVI values in same period. Multiple images of geostationary satellite in a day can be a method to expand the pool. In this study, we suggest an approach that minimizes data gaps in NDVI of the day through geostationary satellite derived NDVI composition. We acquired data from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) which is a satellite that was launched to monitor ocean around the Korean peninsula, China, Japan and Russia. The satellite observes eight times per day (09:00 - 16:00, every hour) at 500 x 500 m resolution from 2011 to 2015. GOCI red- and near infrared radiance was converted into surface reflectance by using 6S Radiative Transfer Model (6S). We calculated NDVI tiles for each of observed eight tiles per day and made one day NDVI through maximum-value composite method. We evaluated the composite GOCI derived NDVI by comparing with daily MODIS-derived NDVI (composited from MOD09GA and MYD09GA), 16-day Landsat 8-derived NDVI, and in-situ light emitting diode (LED) NDVI measurements at a homogeneous deciduous forest and rice paddy sites. We found that GOCI-derived NDVI maps revealed little data gaps compared to MODIS and Landsat, and GOCI derived NDVI time series were smoother than MODIS derived NDVI time series in summer. GOCI-derived NDVI agreed well with in-situ observations of NDVI

  16. The determinations of remote sensing satellite data delivery service quality: A positivistic case study in Chinese context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiahua; Yan, Xiangbin; Tan, Qiaoqiao; Li, Yijun

    2014-03-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, remote-sensing satellite has been widely used in many aspects of national construction. Big data with different standards and massive users with different needs, make the satellite data delivery service to be a complex giant system. How to deliver remote-sensing satellite data efficiently and effectively is a big challenge. Based on customer service theory, this paper proposes a hierarchy conceptual model for examining the determinations of remote-sensing satellite data delivery service quality in the Chinese context. Three main dimensions: service expectation, service perception and service environment, and 8 sub-dimensions are included in the model. Large amount of first-hand data on the remote-sensing satellite data delivery service have been obtained through field research, semi-structured questionnaire and focused interview. A positivist case study is conducted to validate and develop the proposed model, as well as to investigate the service status and related influence mechanisms. Findings from the analysis demonstrate the explanatory validity of the model, and provide potentially helpful insights for future practice.

  17. The determinations of remote sensing satellite data delivery service quality: A positivistic case study in Chinese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jiahua; Yan, Xiangbin; Tan, Qiaoqiao; Li, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, remote-sensing satellite has been widely used in many aspects of national construction. Big data with different standards and massive users with different needs, make the satellite data delivery service to be a complex giant system. How to deliver remote-sensing satellite data efficiently and effectively is a big challenge. Based on customer service theory, this paper proposes a hierarchy conceptual model for examining the determinations of remote-sensing satellite data delivery service quality in the Chinese context. Three main dimensions: service expectation, service perception and service environment, and 8 sub-dimensions are included in the model. Large amount of first-hand data on the remote-sensing satellite data delivery service have been obtained through field research, semi-structured questionnaire and focused interview. A positivist case study is conducted to validate and develop the proposed model, as well as to investigate the service status and related influence mechanisms. Findings from the analysis demonstrate the explanatory validity of the model, and provide potentially helpful insights for future practice

  18. Reconciled freshwater flux into the Godthåbsfjord system from satellite and airborne remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Forsberg, René

    2015-01-01

    IS hamper in situ observations. Here, we evaluate available data from remote sensing and find a drainage basin in rapid change. An analysis of data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites shows a mean seasonal freshwater flux into Godthåbsfjord of 18.2 ± 1.2 Gt, in addition......, from various remote-sensing data sets, estimate the freshwater flux from the GrIS into a specific fjord system, the Godthåbsfjord, in southwest Greenland. The area of the GrIS draining into Godthåbsfjord covers approximately 36,700 km2. The large areal extent and the multiple outlets from the Gr...... to an imbalance in the mass balance of the drainage basin from 2003 to 2013 of 14.4 ± 0.2 Gt year−1. Altimetry data from air and spaceborne missions also suggest rapid changes in the outlet glacier dynamics. We find that only applying data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission...

  19. High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing of the 2013-2014 Eruption of Sinabung Volcano, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R. L.; Griswold, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing provided timely observations of the volcanic unrest and several months-long eruption at Sinabung Volcano, Indonesia. Visible to thermal optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems provided frequent observations of Sinabung. High resolution image data with spatial resolutions from 0.5 to 1.5m offered detailed measurements of early summit deformation and subsequent lava dome and lava flow extrusion. The high resolution data were captured by commercial satellites such as WorldView-1 and -2 visible to near-infrared (VNIR) sensors and by CosmoSkyMed, Radarsat-2, and TerraSar-X SAR systems. Less frequent 90 to 100m spatial resolution night time thermal infrared (TIR) observations were provided by ASTER and Landsat-8. The combination of data from multiple sensors allowed us to construct a more complete timeline of volcanic activity than was available via only ground-based observations. This satellite observation timeline documents estimates of lava volume and effusion rates and major explosive and lava collapse events. Frequent, repeat volume estimates suggest at least three high effusion rate pulses of up to 20 m3/s occurred during the first three months of lava effusion with an average effusion rate of 6m3/s from January 2014 to August 2014. Many of these rates and events show some correlation to variations in the Real-time Seismic-Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) documented by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geologic Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM).

  20. Comparing land surface phenology derived from satellite and GPS network microwave remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew O; Kimball, John S; Small, Eric E; Larson, Kristine M

    2014-08-01

    The land surface phenology (LSP) start of season (SOS) metric signals the seasonal onset of vegetation activity, including canopy growth and associated increases in land-atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2) exchanges influencing weather and climate variability. The vegetation optical depth (VOD) parameter determined from satellite passive microwave remote sensing provides for global LSP monitoring that is sensitive to changes in vegetation canopy water content and biomass, and insensitive to atmosphere and solar illumination constraints. Direct field measures of canopy water content and biomass changes desired for LSP validation are generally lacking due to the prohibitive costs of maintaining regional monitoring networks. Alternatively, a normalized microwave reflectance index (NMRI) derived from GPS base station measurements is sensitive to daily vegetation water content changes and may provide for effective microwave LSP validation. We compared multiyear (2007-2011) NMRI and satellite VOD records at over 300 GPS sites in North America, and their derived SOS metrics for a subset of 24 homogenous land cover sites to investigate VOD and NMRI correspondence, and potential NMRI utility for LSP validation. Significant correlations (P<0.05) were found at 276 of 305 sites (90.5 %), with generally favorable correspondence in the resulting SOS metrics (r (2)=0.73, P<0.001, RMSE=36.8 days). This study is the first attempt to compare satellite microwave LSP metrics to a GPS network derived reflectance index and highlights both the utility and limitations of the NMRI data for LSP validation, including spatial scale discrepancies between local NMRI measurements and relatively coarse satellite VOD retrievals.

  1. Spectral characteristics and feature selection of satellite remote sensing data for climate and anthropogenic changes assessment in Bucharest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Tautan, Marina; Miclos, Sorin; Cristescu, Luminita; Carstea, Elfrida; Baschir, Laurentiu

    2010-05-01

    was suggested. On the basis of analyzing the information quantity of bands, correlation between different bands, spectral absorption characteristics of objects and object separability in bands, a fundamental method of optimum band selection and feature extraction from remote sensing data was discussed. Spectral signatures of different terrain features have been used to extract structural patterns aiming to separate surface units and to classify the general categories. The synergetic analysis and interpretation of the different satellite images (LANDSAT: TM, ETM; MODIS, IKONOS) acquired over a period of more than 20 years reveals significant aspects regarding impacts of climate and anthropogenic changes on urban/periurban environment. It was delimited residential zones of industrial zones which are very often a source of pollution. An important role has urban green cover assessment. Have been emphasized the particularities of the functional zones from different points of view: architectural, streets and urban surface traffic, some components of urban infrastructure as well as habitat quality. The growth of Bucharest urban area in Romania has been a result of a rapid process of industrialization, and also of the increase of urban population. Information on the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of land cover and land use of urban areas is critical to address a wide range of practical problems relating to urban regeneration, urban sustainability and rational planning policy.

  2. Hydroclimatology of Lake Victoria region using hydrologic model and satellite remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of hydro-climatology at a range of temporal scales is important in understanding and ultimately mitigating the potential severe impacts of hydrological extreme events such as floods and droughts. Using daily in-situ data over the last two decades combined with the recently available multiple-years satellite remote sensing data, we analyzed and simulated, with a distributed hydrologic model, the hydro-climatology in Nzoia, one of the major contributing sub-basins of Lake Victoria in the East African highlands. The basin, with a semi arid climate, has no sustained base flow contribution to Lake Victoria. The short spell of high discharge showed that rain is the prime cause of floods in the basin. There is only a marginal increase in annual mean discharge over the last 21 years. The 2-, 5- and 10- year peak discharges, for the entire study period showed that more years since the mid 1990's have had high peak discharges despite having relatively less annual rain. The study also presents the hydrologic model calibration and validation results over the Nzoia basin. The spatiotemporal variability of the water cycle components were quantified using a hydrologic model, with in-situ and multi-satellite remote sensing datasets. The model is calibrated using daily observed discharge data for the period between 1985 and 1999, for which model performance is estimated with a Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSCE of 0.87 and 0.23% bias. The model validation showed an error metrics with NSCE of 0.65 and 1.04% bias. Moreover, the hydrologic capability of satellite precipitation (TRMM-3B42 V6 is evaluated. In terms of reconstruction of the water cycle components the spatial distribution and time series of modeling results for precipitation and runoff showed considerable agreement with the monthly model runoff estimates and gauge observations. Runoff values responded to precipitation events that occurred across the catchment during the wet season from March to

  3. Quantifying the Terrestrial Surface Energy Fluxes Using Remotely-Sensed Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, Amanda Lynn

    The dynamics of the energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere drive local and regional climate and are paramount to understand the past, present, and future changes in climate. Although global reanalysis datasets, land surface models (LSMs), and climate models estimate these fluxes by simulating the physical processes involved, they merely simulate our current understanding of these processes. Global estimates of the terrestrial, surface energy fluxes based on observations allow us to capture the dynamics of the full climate system. Remotely-sensed satellite data is the source of observations of the land surface which provide the widest spatial coverage. Although net radiation and latent heat flux global, terrestrial, surface estimates based on remotely-sensed satellite data have progressed, comparable sensible heat data products and ground heat flux products have not progressed at this scale. Our primary objective is quantifying and understanding the terrestrial energy fluxes at the Earth's surface using remotely-sensed satellite data with consistent development among all energy budget components [through the land surface temperature (LST) and input meteorology], including validation of these products against in-situ data, uncertainty assessments, and long-term trend analysis. The turbulent fluxes are constrained by the available energy using the Bowen ratio of the un-constrained products to ensure energy budget closure. All final products are within uncertainty ranges of literature values, globally. When validated against the in-situ estimates, the sensible heat flux estimates using the CFSR air temperature and constrained with the products using the MODIS albedo produce estimates closest to the FLUXNET in-situ observations. Poor performance over South America is consistent with the largest uncertainties in the energy budget. From 1984-2007, the longwave upward flux increase due to the LST increase drives the net radiation decrease, and the

  4. Development of a computationally efficient algorithm for attitude estimation of a remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labibian, Amir; Bahrami, Amir Hossein; Haghshenas, Javad

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for attitude estimation of remote a sensing satellite. In this study, gyro, magnetometer, sun sensor and star tracker are used in Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) structure for the purpose of Attitude Determination (AD). However, utilizing all of the measurement data simultaneously in EKF structure increases computational burden. Specifically, assuming n observation vectors, an inverse of a 3n×3n matrix is required for gain calculation. In order to solve this problem, an efficient version of EKF, namely Murrell's version, is employed. This method utilizes measurements separately at each sampling time for gain computation. Therefore, an inverse of a 3n×3n matrix is replaced by an inverse of a 3×3 matrix for each measurement vector. Moreover, gyro drifts during the time can reduce the pointing accuracy. Therefore, a calibration algorithm is utilized for estimation of the main gyro parameters.

  5. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew J; Colna, Kaitlyn E; El-Mezayen, Mahmoud M; Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Otis, Daniel B; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Muller-Karger, Frank E

    2017-08-01

    Management of coastal and marine natural resources presents a number of challenges as a growing global population and a changing climate require us to find better strategies to conserve the resources on which our health, economy, and overall well-being depend. To evaluate the status and trends in changing coastal resources over larger areas, managers in government agencies and private stakeholders around the world have increasingly turned to remote sensing technologies. A surge in collaborative and innovative efforts between resource managers, academic researchers, and industry partners is becoming increasingly vital to keep pace with evolving changes of our natural resources. Synoptic capabilities of remote sensing techniques allow assessments that are impossible to do with traditional methods. Sixty years of remote sensing research have paved the way for resource management applications, but uncertainties regarding the use of this technology have hampered its use in management fields. Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and decision-making goals.

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew J.; Colna, Kaitlyn E.; El-Mezayen, Mahmoud M.; Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E.; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Otis, Daniel B.; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2017-08-01

    Management of coastal and marine natural resources presents a number of challenges as a growing global population and a changing climate require us to find better strategies to conserve the resources on which our health, economy, and overall well-being depend. To evaluate the status and trends in changing coastal resources over larger areas, managers in government agencies and private stakeholders around the world have increasingly turned to remote sensing technologies. A surge in collaborative and innovative efforts between resource managers, academic researchers, and industry partners is becoming increasingly vital to keep pace with evolving changes of our natural resources. Synoptic capabilities of remote sensing techniques allow assessments that are impossible to do with traditional methods. Sixty years of remote sensing research have paved the way for resource management applications, but uncertainties regarding the use of this technology have hampered its use in management fields. Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and decision-making goals.

  7. Applied satellite remote sensing to runoff analysis: Through the effective depth of soil layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kondoh, T.; Kida, T.; Nishikawa, H.

    2002-01-01

    The thickness of the soil layers in which tree roots are able to develop freely influences forest composition and growth. Trees growing in shallow soil are usually less well supplied with water and mineral nutrients than those growing in deeper soil. A soil may be deep in an absolute sense but, because of a relatively impervious layer, such as hardpan or because of a high water-table, may be shallow in a physiological sense. Penetrability measurements have been found useful in evaluating the influence of different forest types on the physical properties of soils. Commonly the penetrability of soils can be measured by using the Hasegawa-formed soil penetrometer and can be judged as the soil softness content (SSC). Previous studies report soil with more than 1.9 cm/drop of SSC to be highly permeable and therefore roots are more likely to be extensively developed. Based upon this theory the depth of soil layer with more than 1.9 cm/drop of SSC can be defined as the Effective Depth of Soil Layer (EDSL). We examined the relationship between the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and the EDSL and established a 'Runoff Simulation Model (RSM)' based upon the theory of the Storage Function Model method. The conclusions are that (1) a strong positive correlation between the RVI (ground measured) and the EDSL was given, (2) applying results of conclusion (1) to satellite analysis a similar correlation between the RVI (satellite analysis of JERS 1/OPS data) and the EDSL was observed and (3) the simulated storm-runoff hydro graph coincides with the observed one well

  8. Regional geology mapping using satellite-based remote sensing approach in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Park, Yongcheol; Park, Tae-Yoon S.; Hong, Jong Kuk; Hashim, Mazlan; Woo, Jusun; Ayoobi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is especially useful for geological investigations in Antarctica because of its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions that constrain direct geological survey. The highest percentage of exposed rocks and soils in Antarctica occurs in Northern Victoria Land (NVL). Exposed Rocks in NVL were part of the paleo-Pacific margin of East Gondwana during the Paleozoic time. This investigation provides a satellite-based remote sensing approach for regional geological mapping in the NVL, Antarctica. Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets were used to extract lithological-structural and mineralogical information. Several spectral-band ratio indices were developed using Landsat-8 and ASTER bands and proposed for Antarctic environments to map spectral signatures of snow/ice, iron oxide/hydroxide minerals, Al-OH-bearing and Fe, Mg-OH and CO3 mineral zones, and quartz-rich felsic and mafic-to-ultramafic lithological units. The spectral-band ratio indices were tested and implemented to Level 1 terrain-corrected (L1T) products of Landsat-8 and ASTER datasets covering the NVL. The surface distribution of the mineral assemblages was mapped using the spectral-band ratio indices and verified by geological expeditions and laboratory analysis. Resultant image maps derived from spectral-band ratio indices that developed in this study are fairly accurate and correspond well with existing geological maps of the NVL. The spectral-band ratio indices developed in this study are especially useful for geological investigations in inaccessible locations and poorly exposed lithological units in Antarctica environments.

  9. Full-Physics Inverse Learning Machine for Satellite Remote Sensing Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    The satellite remote sensing retrievals are usually ill-posed inverse problems that are typically solved by finding a state vector that minimizes the residual between simulated data and real measurements. The classical inversion methods are very time-consuming as they require iterative calls to complex radiative-transfer forward models to simulate radiances and Jacobians, and subsequent inversion of relatively large matrices. In this work we present a novel and extremely fast algorithm for solving inverse problems called full-physics inverse learning machine (FP-ILM). The FP-ILM algorithm consists of a training phase in which machine learning techniques are used to derive an inversion operator based on synthetic data generated using a radiative transfer model (which expresses the "full-physics" component) and the smart sampling technique, and an operational phase in which the inversion operator is applied to real measurements. FP-ILM has been successfully applied to the retrieval of the SO2 plume height during volcanic eruptions and to the retrieval of ozone profile shapes from UV/VIS satellite sensors. Furthermore, FP-ILM will be used for the near-real-time processing of the upcoming generation of European Sentinel sensors with their unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution and associated large increases in the amount of data.

  10. Remote sensing for greenhouse detection from stereo pairs of WorldView-2 satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Aguilar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the first very high resolution (VHR satellites capable of capturing panchromatic imagery of the land surface with ground sample distance even lower than 1 m (e.g. IKONOS in 1999 or QuickBird in 2001 marked the beginning of a wholly new age in remote sensing. On January 4, 2010, images of WorldView-2 were placed on the market. Possibly it is the most sophisticated commercial VHR satellite currently orbiting the Earth and the exploitation of its data poses a challenge to researchers worldwide. Moreover, the practice of under plastic agriculture had a great development in the Mediterranean area during the past 60 years, especially in Almeria, acting as a key economic driver in the area. The goal of this work is the automatic greenhouse mapping by using Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA. The required input data will be a pan-sharpened orthoimage and a normalized digital surface model (nDSM for objects, both products generated from a WorldView-2 stereo pair. The attained results show that the very high resolution 8-band multispectral and the nDSM data improve the greenhouses automatic detection. In this way, overall accuracies higher than 90% can be achieved.

  11. Assessment of Lake Water Quality and Quantity Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, K. C.; Suresh, A.; Paredes Mesa, S.

    2017-12-01

    Lakes are one of the few sources of freshwater used throughout the world but due to human activities, its quality and availability has been decreasing. The drying of lakes is a concerning issue in different communities around the world. This problem can affect jobs and the lives of individuals who use lakes as a source of income, consumption and recreation. Another dilemma that has occurred in lakes is eutrophication which is the buildup of excess nutrients in the lakes caused by runoff. This natural process can lead to anoxic conditions that may have a detrimental impact on surrounding ecosystems. Therefore, causing a devastating impact to economies and human livelihood worldwide. To monitor these issues, satellite data can be used to assess the water quality of different lakes throughout the world. Landsat satellite data from the past 10 years was used to conduct this research. By using the IOP (Inherent Optical Properties) of chlorophyll and suspended solids in the visible spectrum, the presence of algal blooms and sediments was determined. ARCGIS was used to outline the areas of the lakes and obtain reflectance values for quantity and quality assessment. Because there is always a certain amount of contamination in the lake, this research is used to evaluate the condition of the lakes throughout the years. Using the data that we have collected, we are able to understand how the issues addressed can harm civilians seasonally. Key Words: Lakes, Water Quality, Algal Blooms, Eutrophication, Remote Sensing, Satellite DataData Source: Landsat 4, Landsat 5, Landsat 7, Landsat 8

  12. Review of surface particulate monitoring of dust events using geostationary satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, M.; Mueller, U.; Blake, D.

    2018-06-01

    The accurate measurements of natural and anthropogenic aerosol particulate matter (PM) is important in managing both environmental and health risks; however, limited monitoring in regional areas hinders accurate quantification. This article provides an overview of the ability of recently launched geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites, such as GOES-R (North America) and HIMAWARI (Asia and Oceania), to provide near real-time ground-level PM concentrations (GLCs). The review examines the literature relating to the spatial and temporal resolution required by air quality studies, the removal of cloud and surface effects, the aerosol inversion problem, and the computation of ground-level concentrations rather than columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD). Determining surface PM concentrations using remote sensing is complicated by differentiating intrinsic aerosol properties (size, shape, composition, and quantity) from extrinsic signal intensities, particularly as the number of unknown intrinsic parameters exceeds the number of known extrinsic measurements. The review confirms that development of GEO satellite products has led to improvements in the use of coupled products such as GEOS-CHEM, aerosol types have consolidated on model species rather than prior descriptive classifications, and forward radiative transfer models have led to a better understanding of predictive spectra interdependencies across different aerosol types, despite fewer wavelength bands. However, it is apparent that the aerosol inversion problem remains challenging because there are limited wavelength bands for characterising localised mineralogy. The review finds that the frequency of GEO satellite data exceeds the temporal resolution required for air quality studies, but the spatial resolution is too coarse for localised air quality studies. Continual monitoring necessitates using the less sensitive thermal infra-red bands, which also reduce surface absorption effects. However, given the

  13. Using Satellite Remote Sensing to assist the National Weather Service (NWS) in Storm Damage Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L. A.; Molthan, A.; McGrath, K.; Bell, J. R.; Cole, T.; Burks, J.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the NWS has developed a GIS-based application, called the Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT), to conduct storm surveys after severe weather events. At present, the toolkit is primarily used for tornado damage surveys and facilitates the identification of damage indicators in accordance with the Enhanced Fujita (EF) intensity scale by allowing surveyors to compare time- and geo-tagged photos against the EF scale guidelines. Mobile and web-based applications provide easy access to the DAT for NWS personnel while performing their duties in the field or office. Multispectral satellite remote sensing imagery has demonstrated benefits for the detection and mapping of damage tracks caused by tornadoes, especially for long-track events and/or areas not easily accessed by NWS personnel. For example, imagery from MODIS, Landsat 7, Landsat 8, ASTER, Sentinel 2, and commercial satellites, collected and distributed in collaboration with the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, have been useful for refining track location and extent through a "bird's eye" view of the damaged areas. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been working with the NWS and USGS to provide imagery and derived products from polar-orbiting satellite platforms to assist in the detection and refinement of tornado tracks as part of a NASA Applied Science: Disasters project. Working closely with select Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and Regional Operations Centers (ROCs) in both the NWS Central and Southern regions, high- and medium-resolution (0.5 - 30 m and 250 m - 1 km resolutions, respectively) imagery and derived products have been provided to the DAT interface for evaluation of operational utility by the NWS for their use in both the field and in the office during post event analysis. Highlighted in this presentation will be case studies where the remotely sensed imagery assisted in the adjustment of a tornado track. Examples will be shown highlighting

  14. Automatic Assessment of Acquisition and Transmission Losses in Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, D.; Purna Kumari, B.; Manju Sarma, M.; Aparna, N.; Gopal Krishna, B.

    2016-06-01

    The quality of Remote Sensing data is an important parameter that defines the extent of its usability in various applications. The data from Remote Sensing satellites is received as raw data frames at the ground station. This data may be corrupted with data losses due to interferences during data transmission, data acquisition and sensor anomalies. Thus it is important to assess the quality of the raw data before product generation for early anomaly detection, faster corrective actions and product rejection minimization. Manual screening of raw images is a time consuming process and not very accurate. In this paper, an automated process for identification and quantification of losses in raw data like pixel drop out, line loss and data loss due to sensor anomalies is discussed. Quality assessment of raw scenes based on these losses is also explained. This process is introduced in the data pre-processing stage and gives crucial data quality information to users at the time of browsing data for product ordering. It has also improved the product generation workflow by enabling faster and more accurate quality estimation.

  15. The influence of nuclear risk sense to atomic industry's public relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryukova, P.; Kazakevich, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this report is estimation of the influence of sensing of nuclear risk to atomic industry's public relation. In this report the reasons of the negative relation to nuclear energetic owing to inadequate sensing of the risk dealing with this fields have been represented. (authors)

  16. Use of land surface remotely sensed satellite and airborne data for environmental exposure assessment in cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, S.K.; Meliker, J.R.; Goovaerts, P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS) have increasingly been used for reconstructing individual-level exposures to environmental contaminants in epidemiological research. Remotely sensed data can be useful in creating space-time models of environmental measures. The primary advantage of using remotely sensed data is that it allows for study at the local scale (e.g., residential level) without requiring expensive, time-consuming monitoring campaigns. The purpose of our study was to identify how land surface remotely sensed data are currently being used to study the relationship between cancer and environmental contaminants, focusing primarily on agricultural chemical exposure assessment applications. We present the results of a comprehensive literature review of epidemiological research where remotely sensed imagery or land cover maps derived from remotely sensed imagery were applied. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the most commonly used imagery data (aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery) and land cover maps.

  17. Site-characterization information using LANDSAT satellite and other remote-sensing data: integration of remote-sensing data with geographic information systems. A case study in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.J.; Imhoff, M.L.; Robinson, J.; Gunther, F.; Boyd, R.; Anuta, M.

    1983-06-01

    The utility and cost effectiveness of incorporating digitized aircraft and satellite remote sensing data into a geographic information system for facility siting and environmental impact assessments was evaluated. This research focused on the evaluation of several types of multisource remotely sensed data representing a variety of spectral band widths and spatial resolution. High resolution aircraft photography, Landsat MSS, and 7 band Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data were acquired, analyzed, and evaluated for their suitability as input to an operational geographic information system (GIS). 78 references, 59 figures, 74 tables

  18. Satellite and ground-based remote sensing of aerosols during intense haze event of October 2013 over lahore, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Salman; Zia, ul-Haq; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Due to increase in population and economic development, the mega-cities are facing increased haze events which are causing important effects on the regional environment and climate. In order to understand these effects, we require an in-depth knowledge of optical and physical properties of aerosols in intense haze conditions. In this paper an effort has been made to analyze the microphysical and optical properties of aerosols during intense haze event over mega-city of Lahore by using remote sensing data obtained from satellites (Terra/Aqua Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO)) and ground based instrument (AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET)) during 6-14 October 2013. The instantaneous highest value of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is observed to be 3.70 on 9 October 2013 followed by 3.12 on 8 October 2013. The primary cause of such high values is large scale crop residue burning and urban-industrial emissions in the study region. AERONET observations show daily mean AOD of 2.36 which is eight times higher than the observed values on normal day. The observed fine mode volume concentration is more than 1.5 times greater than the coarse mode volume concentration on the high aerosol burden day. We also find high values (~0.95) of Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) on 9 October 2013. Scatter-plot between AOD (500 nm) and Angstrom exponent (440-870 nm) reveals that biomass burning/urban-industrial aerosols are the dominant aerosol type on the heavy aerosol loading day over Lahore. MODIS fire activity image suggests that the areas in the southeast of Lahore across the border with India are dominated by biomass burning activities. A Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model backward trajectory showed that the winds at 1000 m above the ground are responsible for transport from southeast region of biomass burning to Lahore. CALIPSO derived sub-types of

  19. Satellite remote sensing reveals a positive impact of living oyster reefs on microalgal biofilm development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Echappé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing (RS is routinely used for the large-scale monitoring of microphytobenthos (MPB biomass in intertidal mudflats and has greatly improved our knowledge of MPB spatio-temporal variability and its potential drivers. Processes operating on smaller scales however, such as the impact of benthic macrofauna on MPB development, to date remain underinvestigated. In this study, we analysed the influence of wild Crassostrea gigas oyster reefs on MPB biofilm development using multispectral RS. A 30-year time series (1985–2015 combining high-resolution (30 m Landsat and SPOT data was built in order to explore the relationship between C. gigas reefs and MPB spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics, using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. Emphasis was placed on the analysis of a before–after control-impact (BACI experiment designed to assess the effect of oyster killing on the surrounding MPB biofilms. Our RS data reveal that the presence of oyster reefs positively affects MPB biofilm development. Analysis of the historical time series first showed the presence of persistent, highly concentrated MPB patches around oyster reefs. This observation was supported by the BACI experiment which showed that killing the oysters (while leaving the physical reef structure, i.e. oyster shells, intact negatively affected both MPB biofilm biomass and spatial stability around the reef. As such, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of nutrient input as an explanation for the MPB growth-promoting effect of oysters, whereby organic and inorganic matter released through oyster excretion and biodeposition stimulates MPB biomass accumulation. MPB also showed marked seasonal variations in biomass and patch shape, size and degree of aggregation around the oyster reefs. Seasonal variations in biomass, with higher NDVI during spring and autumn, were consistent with those observed on broader scales in other European mudflats. Our

  20. Satellite remote sensing reveals a positive impact of living oyster reefs on microalgal biofilm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echappé, Caroline; Gernez, Pierre; Méléder, Vona; Jesus, Bruno; Cognie, Bruno; Decottignies, Priscilla; Sabbe, Koen; Barillé, Laurent

    2018-02-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) is routinely used for the large-scale monitoring of microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass in intertidal mudflats and has greatly improved our knowledge of MPB spatio-temporal variability and its potential drivers. Processes operating on smaller scales however, such as the impact of benthic macrofauna on MPB development, to date remain underinvestigated. In this study, we analysed the influence of wild Crassostrea gigas oyster reefs on MPB biofilm development using multispectral RS. A 30-year time series (1985-2015) combining high-resolution (30 m) Landsat and SPOT data was built in order to explore the relationship between C. gigas reefs and MPB spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics, using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Emphasis was placed on the analysis of a before-after control-impact (BACI) experiment designed to assess the effect of oyster killing on the surrounding MPB biofilms. Our RS data reveal that the presence of oyster reefs positively affects MPB biofilm development. Analysis of the historical time series first showed the presence of persistent, highly concentrated MPB patches around oyster reefs. This observation was supported by the BACI experiment which showed that killing the oysters (while leaving the physical reef structure, i.e. oyster shells, intact) negatively affected both MPB biofilm biomass and spatial stability around the reef. As such, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of nutrient input as an explanation for the MPB growth-promoting effect of oysters, whereby organic and inorganic matter released through oyster excretion and biodeposition stimulates MPB biomass accumulation. MPB also showed marked seasonal variations in biomass and patch shape, size and degree of aggregation around the oyster reefs. Seasonal variations in biomass, with higher NDVI during spring and autumn, were consistent with those observed on broader scales in other European mudflats. Our study provides the

  1. "Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Derive Numeric Criteria in Coastal and Inland Waters of the United States"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, T. N.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient pollution is a major stressor of aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the United States, states and tribes can adopt numeric water quality values (i.e. criteria) into their water quality management standards to protect aquatic life from eutrophication impacts. However, budget and resource constraints have limited the ability of many states and tribes to collect the water quality monitoring data needed to derive numeric criteria. Over the last few decades, satellite technology has provided water quality measurements on a global scale over long time periods. Water quality managers are finding the data provided by satellite technology useful in managing eutrophication impacts in coastal waters, estuaries, lakes, and reservoirs. In recent years EPA has worked with states and tribes to derive remotely sensed numeric Chl-a criteria for coastal waters with limited field-based data. This approach is now being expanded and used to derive Chl-a criteria in freshwater systems across the United States. This presentation will cover EPA's approach to derive numeric Chl-a criteria using satellite remote sensing, recommendations to improve satellite sensors to expand applications, potential areas of interest, and the challenges of using remote sensing to establish water quality management goals, as well as provide a case in which this approach has been applied.

  2. Role of satellite remote sensing in the geographic information economics in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denégre, Jean

    In national and international economics, geographic information plays a role which is generally acknowledged to be important but which is however, difficult to assess quantitatively, its applications being rather miscellaneous and indirect. Computer graphics and telecommunications increae that importance still more and justify many investments and research into new cartographic forms. As part of its responsibility for participating in the promotion of those developments, by taking into account needs expressed by public or private users, the National Council for Geographic Information (C.N.I.G.) has undertaken a general evaluation of the economic and social utility of geographic information in France. The study involves an estimation of the cost of production and research activities, which are probably about 0.1% of the Cross National Product—similar to many other countries. It also devised a method of estimating "cost/advantage" ratios applicable to these "intangible" benefits. Within that framework, remote sensing emphasizes particular aspects related both to the increase of economic performances in cartographic production and to the advent of new products and new ways of utilization. A review of some significant sectors shows effective earnings of about 10-20%, or even 50% or 100% of the costs, and these are doubtless much greater for the efficacy in the exploitation of products. Finally, many applications, entirely new result from extensions in various fields which would have been impossible without remote sensing: here the "cost advantage" ratio cannot even be compared with previous processes. Studies were undertaken in parallel for defining different types of products derived from satellite imagery, as well as those domains where development effort is required in order to make new advances.

  3. A Novel Approach for Forecasting Crop Production and Yield Using Remotely Sensed Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Budde, M. E.; Senay, G. B.; Rowland, J.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting crop production in advance of crop harvest plays a significant role in drought impact management, improved food security, stabilizing food grain market prices, and poverty reduction. This becomes essential, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where agriculture is a critical source of livelihoods, but lacks good quality agricultural statistical data. With increasing availability of low cost satellite data, faster computing power, and development of modeling algorithms, remotely sensed images are becoming a common source for deriving information for agricultural, drought, and water management. Many researchers have shown that the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), based on red and near-infrared reflectance, can be effectively used for estimating crop production and yield. Similarly, crop production and yield have been closely related to evapotranspiration (ET) also as there are strong linkages between production/yield and transpiration based on plant physiology. Thus, we combined NDVI and ET information from remotely sensed images for estimating total production and crop yield prior to crop harvest for Niger and Burkina Faso in West Africa. We identified the optimum time (dekads 23-29) for cumulating NDVI and ET and developed a new algorithm for estimating crop production and yield. We used the crop data from 2003 to 2008 to calibrate our model and the data from 2009 to 2013 for validation. Our results showed that total crop production can be estimated within 5% of actual production (R2 = 0.98) about 30-45 days before end of the harvest season. This novel approach can be operationalized to provide a valuable tool to decision makers for better drought impact management in drought-prone regions of the world.

  4. Selecting Appropriate Spatial Scale for Mapping Plastic-Mulched Farmland with Satellite Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasituya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the area of plastic-mulched farmland (PMF has undergone rapid growth and raised remarkable environmental problems. Therefore, mapping the PMF plays a crucial role in agricultural production, environmental protection and resource management. However, appropriate data selection criteria are currently lacking. Thus, this study was carried out in two main plastic-mulching practice regions, Jizhou and Guyuan, to look for an appropriate spatial scale for mapping PMF with remote sensing. The average local variance (ALV function was used to obtain the appropriate spatial scale for mapping PMF based on the GaoFen-1 (GF-1 satellite imagery. Afterwards, in order to validate the effectiveness of the selected method and to interpret the relationship between the appropriate spatial scale derived from the ALV and the spatial scale with the highest classification accuracy, we classified the imagery with varying spatial resolution by the Support Vector Machine (SVM algorithm using the spectral features, textural features and the combined spectral and textural features respectively. The results indicated that the appropriate spatial scales from the ALV lie between 8 m and 20 m for mapping the PMF both in Jizhou and Guyuan. However, there is a proportional relation: the spatial scale with the highest classification accuracy is at the 1/2 location of the appropriate spatial scale generated from the ALV in Jizhou and at the 2/3 location of the appropriate spatial scale generated from the ALV in Guyuan. Therefore, the ALV method for quantitatively selecting the appropriate spatial scale for mapping PMF with remote sensing imagery has theoretical and practical significance.

  5. Chemical and Physical Sensing in the Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disko, Mark

    2008-03-01

    World-scale oil, gas and petrochemical production relies on a myriad of advanced technologies for discovering, producing, transporting, processing and distributing hydrocarbons. Sensing systems provide rapid and targeted information that can be used for expanding resources, improving product quality, and assuring environmentally sound operations. For example, equipment such as reactors and pipelines can be operated with high efficiency and safety with improved chemical and physical sensors for corrosion and hydrocarbon detection. At the interface between chemical engineering and multiphase flow physics, ``multi-scale'' phenomena such as catalysis and heat flow benefit from new approaches to sensing and data modeling. We are combining chemically selective micro-cantilevers, fiber optic sensing, and acoustic monitoring with statistical data fusion approaches to maximize control information. Miniaturized analyzers represent a special opportunity, including the nanotech-based quantum cascade laser systems for mid-infrared spectroscopy. Specific examples for use of these new micro-systems include rapid monocyclic aromatic molecule identification and measurement under ambient conditions at weight ppb levels. We see promise from emerging materials and devices based on nanotechnology, which can one day be available at modest cost for impact in existing operations. Controlled surface energies and emerging chemical probes hold the promise for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions for current fuels and future transportation and energy technologies.

  6. Developing A Model for Lake Ice Phenology Using Satellite Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, S. K.; Weathers, K. C.; Norouzi, H.; Prakash, S.; Ewing, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many northern temperate freshwater lakes are freezing over later and thawing earlier. This shift in timing, and the resulting shorter duration of seasonal ice cover, is expected to impact ecological processes, negatively affecting aquatic species and the quality of water we drink. Long-term, direct observations have been used to analyze changes in ice phenology, but those data are sparse relative to the number of lakes affected. Here we develop a model to utilize remote sensing data in approximating the dates of ice-on and ice-off for many years over a variety of lakes. Day and night surface temperatures from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra (MYD11A1 and MOD11A1 data products) for 2002-2017 were utilized in combination with observed ice-on and ice-off dates of Lake Auburn, Maine, to determine the ability of MODIS data to match ground-based observations. A moving average served to interpolate MODIS temperature data to fill data gaps from cloudy days. The nighttime data were used for ice-off, and the daytime measurements were used for ice-on predictions to avoid fluctuations between day and night ice/water status. The 0˚C intercepts of those data were used to mark approximate days of ice-on or ice-off. This revealed that approximations for ice-off dates were satisfactory (average ±8.2 days) for Lake Auburn as well as for Lake Sunapee, New Hampshire (average ±8.1 days), while approximations for Lake Auburn ice-on were less accurate and showed consistently earlier-than-observed ice-on dates (average -33.8 days). The comparison of observed and remotely sensed Lake Auburn ice cover duration showed relative agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.46. Other remote sensing observations, such as the new GOES-R satellite, and further exploration of the ice formation process can improve ice-on approximation methods. The model shows promise for estimating ice-on, ice-off, and ice cover duration for northern temperate lakes.

  7. Satellite Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Pollution: the Far-Reaching Impact of Burning in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Neil, Doreen O.; Creilson, John K.; Severance, Kurt; Thomason, Larry W.; Edwards, David R.

    2008-01-01

    When the first observations of a tropospheric trace gas were obtained in the 1980s, carbon monoxide enhancements from tropical biomass burning dominated the observed features. In 2005, an active remote-sensing system to provide detailed information on the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds was launched, and again, one of the most imposing features observed was the presence of emissions from tropical biomass burning. This paper presents a brief overview of space-borne observations of the distribution of trace gases and aerosols and how tropical biomass burning, primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, has provided an initially surprising picture of the distribution of these species and how they have evolved from prevailing transport patterns in that hemisphere. We also show how interpretation of these observations has improved significantly as a result of the improved capability of trajectory modeling in recent years and how information from this capability has provided additional insight into previous measurements form satellites. Key words: pollution; biomass burning; aerosols; tropical trace gas emissions; Southern Hemisphere; carbon monoxide.

  8. Urban thermal environment and its biophysical parameters derived from satellite remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu V.

    2013-10-01

    In frame of global warming, the field of urbanization and urban thermal environment are important issues among scientists all over the world. This paper investigated the influences of urbanization on urban thermal environment as well as the relationships of thermal characteristics to other biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania based on satellite remote sensing imagery Landsat TM/ETM+, time series MODIS Terra/Aqua data and IKONOS acquired during 1990 - 2012 period. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also retrieved from thermal infrared band of Landsat TM/ETM+, from MODIS Terra/Aqua datasets. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters have been analyzed. Results indicated that the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during two decades investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.

  9. Determination of Potential Fishing Grounds of Rastrelliger kanagurta Using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhartono Nurdin; Muzzneena Ahmad Mustapha; Tukimat Lihan; Mazlan Abdul Ghaffar; Muzzneena Ahmad Mustapha; Nurdin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) improves our understanding on the variability and productivity of the marine environment, which is important for exploring fishery resources. Monthly level 3 and daily level 1 images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Satellite (MODIS) derived SST and chl-a from July 2002 to June 2011 around the archipelagic waters of Spermonde Indonesia were used to investigate the relationship between SST and chl-a and to forecast the potential fishing ground of Rastrelliger kanagurta. The results indicated that there was positive correlation between SST and chl-a (R=0.3, p<0.05). Positive correlation was also found between SST and chl-a with the catch of R. kanagurta (R=0.7, p<0.05). The potential fishing grounds of R. kanagurta were found located along the coast (at accuracy of 76.9 %). This study indicated that, with the integration of remote sensing technology, statistical modeling and geographic information systems (GIS) technique were able to determine the relationship between SST and chl-a and also able to forecast aggregation of R. kanagurta. This may contribute in decision making and reducing search hunting time and cost in fishing activities. (author)

  10. Satellite Remote Sensing and Transportation Lifelines: Safety and Risk Analysis Along Rural Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R.

    the application of satellite Earth Observation (EO) methods to the analysis of transportation networks. Other geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), sharply enhance the utility of EO data in identifying potential road hazards and providing an objective basis for allocating resources to reduce their risks. In combination, these powerful information technologies provide substantial public benefits and increased business opportunities to remote sensing value-added firms. departments in rural jurisdictions improve the trafficability of the roads under their management during severe weather. We are developing and testing these methods in the U.S. Southwest, where thousands of kilometers of unimproved and graded dirt roads cross Native American reservations. This generally arid region is nevertheless subject to periodic summer rainstorms and winter snow and ice, creating hazardous conditions for the region's transportation lifelines. Arizona and Southeast Utah, as well as digital terrain models from the U.S. Geological Survey. We have analyzed several risk factors, such as slope, road curvature, and intersections, by means of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) on both unimproved and improved roads. In partnership with the Hopi Indian Nation in Arizona, we have acquired and analyzed GPS road centerline data and accident data that validate our methodology. hazards along paved and unpaved roads of the American Southwest. They are also transferable to the international settings, particularly in similarly arid climates.

  11. THE USE OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING DATA AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS ON CRITICAL LAND ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Suharyanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Critical land classification can be analyzed using combination between Top Soil Thickness - Land erosion method, and BRLT methods. Both methods are needed soil erosion data as one of input data. The soil erosion data can be analyzed using USLE and MUSLE methods. The combination of two critical land analyses methods with input soil erosion data from two analyses methods will be produced four combinations of critical land classification. In this research, four of the critical land classification and two soil erosion classification will be analyzed using GIS. The best method to classify critical land will be investigated in this research. The best classified critical land is the classified critical land data is nearest with the field condition. Percentage of vegetation cover (PVC is one of the most important input data in the critical land classification analysis using BRLKT method. This data have 50% weight. PVC condition is classified into five categories i.e. very good, good, fair, poor, and very poor. Each category have score 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 respectively. To analyze this PVC classification, NDVI generated from satellite remote sensing data is used in this research. From the four methods of land critical classification analyses used in this research, critical land classified using BRLKT method with input soil erosion analyzed using method is produced the critical land classification nearest with the critical land condition in the field.

  12. Environmental resposibility in the sport industry: Why it makes sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILOU IOAKIMIDIS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental responsibility (ER, as a major aspect of corporate social responsibility, is an important issue for organizations in the sport industry as it is for all other organizations. This paper presents three reasons why sport industry firms should embrace environmental responsibility as a management competency. The first is the ethical reason, which consists of two main considerations and applies not just to firms in the sport industry but to all organizations. The second reason pertains specifically to sport organizations and invokes their unique relationship to their customers. The third reason is that embracing ER can lead to economic benefits for the organization. Two main aspects of this advantage –cost savings due to more efficient resource usage and enhanced image– are discussed.

  13. Serving Satellite Remote Sensing Data to User Community through the OGC Interoperability Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    di, L.; Yang, W.; Bai, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Remote sensing is one of the major methods for collecting geospatial data. Hugh amount of remote sensing data has been collected by space agencies and private companies around the world. For example, NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is generating more than 3 Tb of remote sensing data per day. The data collected by EOS are processed, distributed, archived, and managed by the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Currently, EOSDIS is managing several petabytes of data. All of those data are not only valuable for global change research, but also useful for local and regional application and decision makings. How to make the data easily accessible to and usable by the user community is one of key issues for realizing the full potential of these valuable datasets. In the past several years, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has developed several interoperability protocols aiming at making geospatial data easily accessible to and usable by the user community through Internet. The protocols particularly relevant to the discovery, access, and integration of multi-source satellite remote sensing data are the Catalog Service for Web (CS/W) and Web Coverage Services (WCS) Specifications. The OGC CS/W specifies the interfaces, HTTP protocol bindings, and a framework for defining application profiles required to publish and access digital catalogues of metadata for geographic data, services, and related resource information. The OGC WCS specification defines the interfaces between web-based clients and servers for accessing on-line multi-dimensional, multi-temporal geospatial coverage in an interoperable way. Based on definitions by OGC and ISO 19123, coverage data include all remote sensing images as well as gridded model outputs. The Laboratory for Advanced Information Technology and Standards (LAITS), George Mason University, has been working on developing and implementing OGC specifications for better serving NASA Earth science data to the user community for many

  14. Remote sensing for the oil in ice Joint Industry Program 2007-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickins, D.; Andersen, J.H.S; Brandvik, P.J.; Singsaas, I.; Buvik, T.; Bradford, J.; Hall, R.; Babiker, M.; Kloster, K.; Sandven, S.

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of detecting, mapping and tracking oil spills on ice were discussed with particular reference to the importance of spill detection and mapping for Arctic oil spills, where the oil can be hidden from view under snow and ice during periods of almost total darkness. The remote sensing project (P5) with in the Oil-in-Ice Joint Industry Program aimed to establish whether off-the-shelf technologies and sensors could detect oil in the presence of ice in particular scenarios. The specific goals were to evaluate the limitations and capabilities of currently operational remote sensors for spill surveillance in ice regimes encountered during the 2008 and 2009 field experiments and to draw conclusions regarding which sensors are most likely to be effective in a variety of oil and ice situations. The project focused on proven, commercially available systems and technologies. These included airborne sensors such as Ultra-violet/Infrared ( UV/IR ), forward looking infrared (FLIR) and synthetic aperture radar/side-looking airborne radars (SAR/SLAR); all weather satellite systems involving SAR; dogs for surface oil detection; and ground penetrating radar (GPR) for low level airborne oil on ice detection. The key finding was that flexible combinations of sensors operating from a variety of platforms are needed to cover a range of oil in ice scenarios. The most effective solution to detect oil patches during periods of darkness or fog was to deploy closely spaced global positioning system (GPS) tracking buoys to follow the ice and the oil. 34 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  15. Remote sensing for the oil in ice Joint Industry Program 2007-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickins, D. [DF Dickins Associates LLC, La Jolla, CA (United States); Andersen, J.H.S [Norconsult, Horten (Norway); Brandvik, P.J.; Singsaas, I. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Buvik, T. [Trondheim Dog Training Centre, Trondheim (Norway); Bradford, J. [Boise State Univ., Boise, ID (United States); Hall, R. [Kongsberg Satellite Services, Tromso (Norway); Babiker, M.; Kloster, K.; Sandven, S. [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of detecting, mapping and tracking oil spills on ice were discussed with particular reference to the importance of spill detection and mapping for Arctic oil spills, where the oil can be hidden from view under snow and ice during periods of almost total darkness. The remote sensing project (P5) with in the Oil-in-Ice Joint Industry Program aimed to establish whether off-the-shelf technologies and sensors could detect oil in the presence of ice in particular scenarios. The specific goals were to evaluate the limitations and capabilities of currently operational remote sensors for spill surveillance in ice regimes encountered during the 2008 and 2009 field experiments and to draw conclusions regarding which sensors are most likely to be effective in a variety of oil and ice situations. The project focused on proven, commercially available systems and technologies. These included airborne sensors such as Ultra-violet/Infrared ( UV/IR ), forward looking infrared (FLIR) and synthetic aperture radar/side-looking airborne radars (SAR/SLAR); all weather satellite systems involving SAR; dogs for surface oil detection; and ground penetrating radar (GPR) for low level airborne oil on ice detection. The key finding was that flexible combinations of sensors operating from a variety of platforms are needed to cover a range of oil in ice scenarios. The most effective solution to detect oil patches during periods of darkness or fog was to deploy closely spaced global positioning system (GPS) tracking buoys to follow the ice and the oil. 34 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  16. Viewing marine bacteria, their activity and response to environmental drivers from orbit: satellite remote sensing of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D Jay; Ford, Tim E; Colwell, Rita R; Baker-Austin, Craig; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Subramaniam, Ajit; Capone, Douglas G

    2014-04-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of marine microorganisms has become a useful tool in predicting human health risks associated with these microscopic targets. Early applications were focused on harmful algal blooms, but more recently methods have been developed to interrogate the ocean for bacteria. As satellite-based sensors have become more sophisticated and our ability to interpret information derived from these sensors has advanced, we have progressed from merely making fascinating pictures from space to developing process models with predictive capability. Our understanding of the role of marine microorganisms in primary production and global elemental cycles has been vastly improved as has our ability to use the combination of remote sensing data and models to provide early warning systems for disease outbreaks. This manuscript will discuss current approaches to monitoring cyanobacteria and vibrios, their activity and response to environmental drivers, and will also suggest future directions.

  17. Industrial Internet of Things-Based Collaborative Sensing Intelligence: Framework and Research Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanfang; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Shu, Lei; Crespi, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient and cost-effective solution to solve a complex problem (e.g., dynamic detection of toxic gases) is an important research issue in the industrial applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). An industrial intelligent ecosystem enables the collection of massive data from the various devices (e.g., sensor-embedded wireless devices) dynamically collaborating with humans. Effectively collaborative analytics based on the collected massive data from humans and devices is quite essential to improve the efficiency of industrial production/service. In this study, we propose a collaborative sensing intelligence (CSI) framework, combining collaborative intelligence and industrial sensing intelligence. The proposed CSI facilitates the cooperativity of analytics with integrating massive spatio-temporal data from different sources and time points. To deploy the CSI for achieving intelligent and efficient industrial production/service, the key challenges and open issues are discussed, as well. PMID:26861345

  18. Industrial Internet of Things-Based Collaborative Sensing Intelligence: Framework and Research Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanfang; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Shu, Lei; Crespi, Noel

    2016-02-06

    The development of an efficient and cost-effective solution to solve a complex problem (e.g., dynamic detection of toxic gases) is an important research issue in the industrial applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). An industrial intelligent ecosystem enables the collection of massive data from the various devices (e.g., sensor-embedded wireless devices) dynamically collaborating with humans. Effectively collaborative analytics based on the collected massive data from humans and devices is quite essential to improve the efficiency of industrial production/service. In this study, we propose a collaborative sensing intelligence (CSI) framework, combining collaborative intelligence and industrial sensing intelligence. The proposed CSI facilitates the cooperativity of analytics with integrating massive spatio-temporal data from different sources and time points. To deploy the CSI for achieving intelligent and efficient industrial production/service, the key challenges and open issues are discussed, as well.

  19. Industrial Internet of Things-Based Collaborative Sensing Intelligence: Framework and Research Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfang Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of an efficient and cost-effective solution to solve a complex problem (e.g., dynamic detection of toxic gases is an important research issue in the industrial applications of the Internet of Things (IoT. An industrial intelligent ecosystem enables the collection of massive data from the various devices (e.g., sensor-embedded wireless devices dynamically collaborating with humans. Effectively collaborative analytics based on the collected massive data from humans and devices is quite essential to improve the efficiency of industrial production/service. In this study, we propose a collaborative sensing intelligence (CSI framework, combining collaborative intelligence and industrial sensing intelligence. The proposed CSI facilitates the cooperativity of analytics with integrating massive spatio-temporal data from different sources and time points. To deploy the CSI for achieving intelligent and efficient industrial production/service, the key challenges and open issues are discussed, as well.

  20. Validation of satellite data through the remote sensing techniques and the inclusion of them into agricultural education pilot programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadavid, Georgios; Kountios, Georgios; Bournaris, T.; Michailidis, Anastasios; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the remote sensing techniques have a significant role in all the fields of agricultural extensions as well as agricultural economics and education but they are used more specifically in hydrology. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of field spectroscopy for validation of the satellite data and how combination of remote sensing techniques and field spectroscopy can have more accurate results for irrigation purposes. For this reason vegetation indices are used which are mostly empirical equations describing vegetation parameters during the lifecycle of the crops. These numbers are generated by some combination of remote sensing bands and may have some relationship to the amount of vegetation in a given image pixel. Due to the fact that most of the commonly used vegetation indices are only concerned with red-near-infrared spectrum and can be divided to perpendicular and ratio based indices the specific goal of the research is to illustrate the effect of the atmosphere to those indices, in both categories. In this frame field spectroscopy is employed in order to derive the spectral signatures of different crops in red and infrared spectrum after a campaign of ground measurements. The main indices have been calculated using satellite images taken at interval dates during the whole lifecycle of the crops by using a GER 1500 spectro-radiomete. These indices was compared to those extracted from satellite images after applying an atmospheric correction algorithm -darkest pixel- to the satellite images at a pre-processing level so as the indices would be in comparable form to those of the ground measurements. Furthermore, there has been a research made concerning the perspectives of the inclusion of the above mentioned remote satellite techniques to agricultural education pilot programs.

  1. Calculating Viewing Angles Pixel by Pixel in Optical Remote Sensing Satellite Imagery Using the Rational Function Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Xu; Guo Zhang; Qingjun Zhang; Deren Li

    2018-01-01

    In studies involving the extraction of surface physical parameters using optical remote sensing satellite imagery, sun-sensor geometry must be known, especially for sensor viewing angles. However, while pixel-by-pixel acquisitions of sensor viewing angles are of critical importance to many studies, currently available algorithms for calculating sensor-viewing angles focus only on the center-point pixel or are complicated and are not well known. Thus, this study aims to provide a simple and ge...

  2. Satellite remote sensing at the Sea Empress spill - a help or potential hindrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.

    1996-01-01

    The application of satellite images in an oil spill response operation, was discussed. The oil movement and satellite imagery of the Sea Empress spill was described in detail. There were large discrepancies in the predictions by Radarsat satellite imagery and the actual oil movement, and in this instance, the satellite imagery proved to be more of a distraction than a useful tool. It was suggested that the greatest potential for satellite imagery is in detecting smaller releases of oil, such as from illegal tank washings, ballast waters from ships, or operational malfunctions at oil rigs. 4 refs., 10 figs

  3. Satellite remote sensing of a low-salinity water plume in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Ahn

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to map and monitor a low-salinity water (LSW plume in the East China Sea (ECS, we developed more robust and proper regional algorithms from large in-situ measurements of apparent and inherent optical properties (i.e. remote sensing reflectance, Rrs, and absorption coefficient of coloured dissolved organic matter, aCDOM determined in ECS and neighboring waters. Using the above data sets, we derived the following relationships between visible Rrs and absorption by CDOM, i.e. Rrs (412/Rrs (555 vs. aCDOM (400 (m−1 and aCDOM (412 (m−1 with a correlation coefficient R2 0.67 greater than those noted for Rrs (443/Rrs (555 and Rrs (490/Rrs (555 vs. aCDOM (400 (m−1 and aCDOM (412 (m−1. Determination of aCDOM (m−1 at 400 nm and 412 nm is particularly necessary to describe its absorption as a function of wavelength λ using a single exponential model in which the spectral slope S as a proxy for CDOM composition is estimated by the ratio of aCDOM at 412 nm and 400 nm and the reference is explained simply by aCDOM at 412 nm. In order to derive salinity from the absorption coefficient of CDOM, in-situ measurements of salinity made in a wide range of water types from dense oceanic to light estuarine/coastal systems were used along with in-situ measurements of aCDOM at 400 nm, 412 nm, 443 nm and 490 nm. The CDOM absorption at 400 nm was better inversely correlated (R2=0.86 with salinity than at 412 nm, 443 nm and 490 nm (R2=0.85–0.66, and this correlation corresponded best with an exponential (R2=0.98 rather than a linear function of salinity measured in a variety of water types from this and other regions. Validation against a discrete in-situ data set showed that empirical algorithms derived from the above relationships could be successfully applied to satellite data over the range of water types for which they have been developed. Thus, we applied these algorithms to a series of SeaWiFS images for the derivation of CDOM and salinity

  4. Integration of Remote Sensing Technology Using Sentinel-2A Satellite images For Fertilization and Water Pollution Analysis in Estuaries Inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto Sawitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters in estuaries inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the eastern city of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in Estuaries Inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Sentinel-2A Satellite images. In this research there are 3 algorithms that will be used in determining the content of chlorophyll a, and for determining TSS. Image accuracy test is done to find out how far the image can give information about Chlorophyll-a and TSS in the waters. The results of the image accuracy test will be compared with the value of chlorophyll-a and TSS that have been tested through laboratory analysis. The result of this research is the distribution map of chlorophyll-a and TSS content in the waters.

  5. Integration of Remote Sensing Technology Using Sentinel-2A Satellite images For Fertilization and Water Pollution Analysis in Estuaries Inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiyanto, Sawitri; Ramadhanis, Zainab; Baktiar, Aditya Hafidh

    2018-02-01

    One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters in estuaries inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the eastern city of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in Estuaries Inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Sentinel-2A Satellite images. In this research there are 3 algorithms that will be used in determining the content of chlorophyll a, and for determining TSS. Image accuracy test is done to find out how far the image can give information about Chlorophyll-a and TSS in the waters. The results of the image accuracy test will be compared with the value of chlorophyll-a and TSS that have been tested through laboratory analysis. The result of this research is the distribution map of chlorophyll-a and TSS content in the waters.

  6. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Modelling for Insights into N02 Air Pollution and NO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, L. N.; Martin, R. V.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bucsela, E. J.; Celarier, E. A.; vanDonkelaar, A.; Parrish, D.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) are key actors in air quality and climate change. Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric NO2 has developed rapidly with enhanced spatial and temporal resolution since initial observations in 1995. We have developed an improved algorithm and retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Column observations of tropospheric NO2 from the nadir-viewing satellite sensors contain large contributions from the boundary layer due to strong enhancement of NO2 in the boundary layer. We infer ground-level NO2 concentrations from the OMI satellite instrument which demonstrate significant agreement with in-situ surface measurements. We examine how NO2 columns measured by satellite, ground-level NO2 derived from satellite, and NO(x) emissions obtained from bottom-up inventories relate to world's urban population. We perform inverse modeling analysis of NO2 measurements from OMI to estimate "top-down" surface NO(x) emissions, which are used to evaluate and improve "bottom-up" emission inventories. We use NO2 column observations from OMI and the relationship between NO2 columns and NO(x) emissions from a GEOS-Chem model simulation to estimate the annual change in bottom-up NO(x) emissions. The emission updates offer an improved estimate of NO(x) that are critical to our understanding of air quality, acid deposition, and climate change.

  7. Thermographic Sensing For On-Line Industrial Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmsten, Dag

    1986-10-01

    It is today's emergence of thermoelectrically cooled, highly accurate infrared linescanners and imaging systems that has definitely made on-line Infraread Thermography (IRT) possible. Specifically designed for continuous use, these scanners are equipped with dedicated software capable of monitoring and controlling highly complex thermodynamic situations. This paper will outline some possible implications of using IRT on-line by describing some uses of this technology in the steel-making (hot rolling) and automotive industries (machine-vision). A warning is also expressed that IRT technology not originally designed for automated applications e.g. high resolution, imaging systems, should not be directly applied to an on-line measurement situation without having its measurement resolution, accuracy and especially its repeatability, reliably proven. Some suitable testing procedures are briefly outlined at the end of the paper.

  8. Real-Time and Seamless Monitoring of Ground-Level PM2.5 Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongwen; Zhang, Chengyue; Shen, Huanfeng; Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Liangpei

    2018-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been reported to be a promising approach for the monitoring of atmospheric PM2.5. However, the satellite-based monitoring of ground-level PM2.5 is still challenging. First, the previously used polar-orbiting satellite observations, which can be usually acquired only once per day, are hard to monitor PM2.5 in real time. Second, many data gaps exist in satellitederived PM2.5 due to the cloud contamination. In this paper, the hourly geostationary satellite (i.e., Harawari-8) observations were adopted for the real-time monitoring of PM2.5 in a deep learning architecture. On this basis, the satellite-derived PM2.5 in conjunction with ground PM2.5 measurements are incorporated into a spatio-temporal fusion model to fill the data gaps. Using Wuhan Urban Agglomeration as an example, we have successfully derived the real-time and seamless PM2.5 distributions. The results demonstrate that Harawari-8 satellite-based deep learning model achieves a satisfactory performance (out-of-sample cross-validation R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 17.49 μg/m3) for the estimation of PM2.5. The missing data in satellite-derive PM2.5 are accurately recovered, with R2 between recoveries and ground measurements of 0.75. Overall, this study has inherently provided an effective strategy for the realtime and seamless monitoring of ground-level PM2.5.

  9. Challenges of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Education and Technology Transfer in a Fast Developing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F.; Chen, L.-C.

    2014-04-01

    During the past decade, Taiwan has experienced an unusual and fast growing in the industry of mapping, remote sensing, spatial information and related markets. A successful space program and dozens of advanced airborne and ground-based remote sensing instruments as well as mobile mapping systems have been implemented and put into operation to support the vast demands of geospatial data acquisition. Moreover, in addition to the government agencies and research institutes, there are also tens of companies in the private sector providing geo-spatial data and services. However, the fast developing industry is also posing a great challenge to the education sector in Taiwan, especially the higher education for geo-spatial information. Facing this fast developing industry, the demands of skilled professionals and new technologies in order to address diversified needs are indubitably high. Consequently, while delighting in the expanding and prospering benefitted from the fast growing industry, how to fulfill these demands has become a challenge for the remote sensing and spatial information disciplines in the higher education institutes in Taiwan. This paper provides a brief insight into the status of the remote sensing and spatial information industry in Taiwan as well as the challenges of the education and technology transfer to support the increasing demands and to ensure the continuous development of the industry. In addition to the report of the current status of the remote sensing and spatial information related courses and programs in the colleges and universities, current and potential threatening issues and possible resolutions are also discussed in different points of view.

  10. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuja Syed, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    The 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies (ICSICCST-2013), took place in Karachi, Pakistan, from 24-26 June 2013. It was organized by Indus University, Karachi, in collaboration with HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi. More than 80 abstracts were submitted to the conference and were double blind-reviewed by an international scientific committee. The topics of the Conference were: Video, Image & Voice Sensing Sensing for Industry, Environment, and Health Automation and Controls Laser Sensors and Systems Displays for Innovative Applications Emerging Technologies Unmanned, Robotic, and Layered Systems Sensing for Defense, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement The title of the conference, 'Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies' is very apt in capturing the main issues facing the industry of Pakistan and the world. We believe the sensing industry, particularly in Pakistan, is currently at a critical juncture of its development. The future of the industry will depend on how the industry players choose to respond to the challenge of global competition and opportunities arising from strong growth in the Asian region for which we are pleased to note that the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues with an international perspective. This will certainly assist industry players to make informed decisions in shaping the future of the industry. The conference gathered qualified researchers from developed countries like USA, UK, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, China, South Korea and Malaysia etc whose expertise resulting from the research can be drawn upon to build an exploitable area of new technology that has potential Defense, Homeland Security, and Military applicability. More than 250 researchers/students attended the event and made the event great success as the turnout was 100%. An exceptional line-up of speakers spoke at the occasion. We want

  11. SACRA - global data sets of satellite-derived crop calendars for agricultural simulations: an estimation of a high-resolution crop calendar using satellite-sensed NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsuki, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2015-01-01

    To date, many studies have performed numerical estimations of food production and agricultural water demand to understand the present and future supply-demand relationship. A crop calendar (CC) is an essential input datum to estimate food production and agricultural water demand accurately with the numerical estimations. CC defines the date or month when farmers plant and harvest in cropland. This study aims to develop a new global data set of a satellite-derived crop calendar for agricultural simulations (SACRA) and reveal advantages and disadvantages of the satellite-derived CC compared to other global products. We estimate global CC at a spatial resolution of 5 min (≈10 km) using the satellite-sensed NDVI data, which corresponds well to vegetation growth and death on the land surface. We first demonstrate that SACRA shows similar spatial pattern in planting date compared to a census-based product. Moreover, SACRA reflects a variety of CC in the same administrative unit, since it uses high-resolution satellite data. However, a disadvantage is that the mixture of several crops in a grid is not considered in SACRA. We also address that the cultivation period of SACRA clearly corresponds to the time series of NDVI. Therefore, accuracy of SACRA depends on the accuracy of NDVI used for the CC estimation. Although SACRA shows different CC from a census-based product in some regions, multiple usages of the two products are useful to take into consideration the uncertainty of the CC. An advantage of SACRA compared to the census-based products is that SACRA provides not only planting/harvesting dates but also a peak date from the time series of NDVI data.

  12. Wireless Sensing Based on RFID and Capacitive Technologies for Safety in Marble Industry Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Iacopetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents wireless sensing systems to increase safety and robustness in industrial process control, particularly in industrial machines for marble slab working. The process is performed by abrasive or cutting heads activated independently by the machine controller when the slab, transported on a conveyer belt, is under them. Current slab detection systems are based on electromechanical or optical devices at the machine entrance stage, suffering from deterioration and from the harsh environment. Slab displacement or break inside the machine due to the working stress may result in safety issues and damages to the conveyer belt due to incorrect driving of the working tools. The experimented contactless sensing techniques are based on four RFID and two capacitive sensing technologies and on customized hardware/software. The proposed solutions aim at overcoming some limitations of current state-of-the-art detection systems, allowing for reliable slab detection, outside and/or inside the machine, while maintaining low complexity and at the same time robustness to industrial harsh conditions. The proposed sensing devices may implement a wireless or wired sensor network feeding detection data to the machine controller. Data integrity check and process control algorithms have to be implemented for the safety and reliability of the overall industrial process.

  13. Using Open Access Satellite Data Alongside Ground Based Remote Sensing: An Assessment, with Case Studies from Egypt’s Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Parcak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will assess the most recently available open access high-resolution optical satellite data (0.3 m–0.6 m and its detection of buried ancient features versus ground based remote sensing tools. It also discusses the importance of CORONA satellite data to evaluate landscape changes over the past 50 years surrounding sites. The study concentrates on Egypt’s Nile Delta, which is threatened by rising sea and water tables and urbanization. Many ancient coastal sites will be lost in the next few decades, thus this paper emphasizes the need to map them before they disappear. It shows that high resolution satellites can sometimes provide the same general picture on ancient sites in the Egyptian Nile Delta as ground based remote sensing, with relatively sandier sedimentary and degrading tell environments, during periods of rainfall, and higher groundwater conditions. Research results also suggest potential solutions for rapid mapping of threatened Delta sites, and urge a collaborative global effort to maps them before they disappear.

  14. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: state of the art and application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [University of California (United States); Clark, Roger; Swayze, Gregg [US Geology Survey (United States); Jones, Cathleen [California Institute of Technology (United States); Svejkovsky, Jan [Ocean Imaging Corporation (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This study stresses the value of using satellite technology in quantifying oil seepage impact, and how it can be applied to the case of Horizon oil spill. The purpose of the study is to clarify the remote sensing process as it applies to oil spills, and how testing resources should be properly allocated so as to come up with the optimal response strategy. Many parameters were involved in this research, of which the most important were the environmental factors, the active and passive remote sensing measures, satellite imagery and imaging spectroscopy, and oil thickness measurements using thermal infrared and laser-induced fluorescence. These parameters were later used to quantify the spills in the impacted regions. Results showed that remote sensing would always be accompanied by certain errors, however, in the case of the Horizon spill, the infrared approach proved to be a convenient and a reliable approach for impact analysis process. The study also put emphasis on the importance of oil spatial patterns in validating the reliability of a test procedure.

  15. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: state of the art and application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Clark, Roger; Swayze, Gregg; Jones, Cathleen; Svejkovsky, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study stresses the value of using satellite technology in quantifying oil seepage impact, and how it can be applied to the case of Horizon oil spill. The purpose of the study is to clarify the remote sensing process as it applies to oil spills, and how testing resources should be properly allocated so as to come up with the optimal response strategy. Many parameters were involved in this research, of which the most important were the environmental factors, the active and passive remote sensing measures, satellite imagery and imaging spectroscopy, and oil thickness measurements using thermal infrared and laser-induced fluorescence. These parameters were later used to quantify the spills in the impacted regions. Results showed that remote sensing would always be accompanied by certain errors, however, in the case of the Horizon spill, the infrared approach proved to be a convenient and a reliable approach for impact analysis process. The study also put emphasis on the importance of oil spatial patterns in validating the reliability of a test procedure.

  16. The Application of Chinese High-Spatial Remote Sensing Satellite Image in Land Law Enforcement Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Yang, R.

    2018-04-01

    Chinese high -resolution (HR) remote sensing satellites have made huge leap in the past decade. Commercial satellite datasets, such as GF-1, GF-2 and ZY-3 images, the panchromatic images (PAN) resolution of them are 2 m, 1 m and 2.1 m and the multispectral images (MS) resolution are 8 m, 4 m, 5.8 m respectively have been emerged in recent years. Chinese HR satellite imagery has been free downloaded for public welfare purposes using. Local government began to employ more professional technician to improve traditional land management technology. This paper focused on analysing the actual requirements of the applications in government land law enforcement in Guangxi Autonomous Region. 66 counties in Guangxi Autonomous Region were selected for illegal land utilization spot extraction with fusion Chinese HR images. The procedure contains: A. Defines illegal land utilization spot type. B. Data collection, GF-1, GF-2, and ZY-3 datasets were acquired in the first half year of 2016 and other auxiliary data were collected in 2015. C. Batch process, HR images were collected for batch preprocessing through ENVI/IDL tool. D. Illegal land utilization spot extraction by visual interpretation. E. Obtaining attribute data with ArcGIS Geoprocessor (GP) model. F. Thematic mapping and surveying. Through analysing 42 counties results, law enforcement officials found 1092 illegal land using spots and 16 suspicious illegal mining spots. The results show that Chinese HR satellite images have great potential for feature information extraction and the processing procedure appears robust.

  17. Scaling Analysis of Ocean Surface Turbulent Heterogeneities from Satellite Remote Sensing: Use of 2D Structure Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Renosh

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing observations allow the ocean surface to be sampled synoptically over large spatio-temporal scales. The images provided from visible and thermal infrared satellite observations are widely used in physical, biological, and ecological oceanography. The present work proposes a method to understand the multi-scaling properties of satellite products such as the Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, and the Sea Surface Temperature (SST, rarely studied. The specific objectives of this study are to show how the small scale heterogeneities of satellite images can be characterised using tools borrowed from the fields of turbulence. For that purpose, we show how the structure function, which is classically used in the frame of scaling time series analysis, can be used also in 2D. The main advantage of this method is that it can be applied to process images which have missing data. Based on both simulated and real images, we demonstrate that coarse-graining (CG of a gradient modulus transform of the original image does not provide correct scaling exponents. We show, using a fractional Brownian simulation in 2D, that the structure function (SF can be used with randomly sampled couple of points, and verify that 1 million of couple of points provides enough statistics.

  18. Several thoughts for using new satellite remote sensing and global modeling for aerosol and cloud climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Makiko; Takenaka, Hideaki; Goto, Daisuke; Oikawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Uchida, Junya; Dai, Tie; Shi, Chong

    2017-04-01

    The rapid growth of satellite remote sensing technologies in the last two decades widened the utility of satellite data for understanding climate impacts of aerosols and clouds. The climate modeling community also has received the benefit of the earth observation and nowadays closed-collaboration of the two communities make us possible to challenge various applications for societal problems, such as for global warming and global-scale air pollution and others. I like to give several thoughts of new algorithm developments, model use of satellite data for climate impact studies and societal applications related with aerosols and clouds. Important issues are 1) Better aerosol detection and solar energy application using expanded observation ability of the third generation geostationary satellites, i.e. Himawari-8, GOES-R and future MTG, 2) Various observation functions by directional, polarimetric, and high resolution near-UV band by MISR, POLDER&PARASOL, GOSAT/CAI and future GOSAT2/CAI2, 3) Various applications of general purpose-imagers, MODIS, VIIRS and future GCOM-C/SGLI, and 4) Climate studies of aerosol and cloud stratification and convection with active and passive sensors, especially climate impact of BC aerosols using CLOUDSAT&CALIPSO and future Earth Explorer/EarthCARE.

  19. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing Products to Enhance and Evaluate the AIRPACT Regional Air Quality Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron-Thorpe, F. L.; Mount, G. H.; Emmons, L. K.; Lamb, B. K.; Jaffe, D. A.; Wigder, N. L.; Chung, S. H.; Zhang, R.; Woelfle, M.; Vaughan, J. K.; Leung, F. T.

    2013-12-01

    The WSU AIRPACT air quality modeling system for the Pacific Northwest forecasts hourly levels of aerosols and atmospheric trace gases for use in determining potential health and ecosystem impacts by air quality managers. AIRPACT uses the WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling framework, derives dynamic boundary conditions from MOZART-4 forecast simulations with assimilated MOPITT CO, and uses the BlueSky framework to derive fire emissions. A suite of surface measurements and satellite-based remote sensing data products across the AIRPACT domain are used to evaluate and improve model performance. Specific investigations include anthropogenic emissions, wildfire simulations, and the effects of long-range transport on surface ozone. In this work we synthesize results for multiple comparisons of AIRPACT with satellite products such as IASI ammonia, AIRS carbon monoxide, MODIS AOD, OMI tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and MISR plume height. Features and benefits of the newest version of AIRPACT's web-interface are also presented.

  20. Satellite remote sensing of a low-salinity water plume in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Ahn

    2008-07-01

    .98 rather than a linear function of salinity measured in a variety of water types from this and other regions. Validation against a discrete in-situ data set showed that empirical algorithms derived from the above relationships could be successfully applied to satellite data over the range of water types for which they have been developed. Thus, we applied these algorithms to a series of SeaWiFS images for the derivation of CDOM and salinity in the context of operational mapping and monitoring of the springtime evolution of LSW plume in the ECS. The results were very encouraging and showed interesting features in surface CDOM and salinity fields in the vicinity of the Yangtze River estuary and its offshore domains, when a regional atmospheric correction (SSMM was employed instead of the standard (global SeaWiFS algorithm (SAC which revealed large errors around the edges of clouds/aerosols while masking out the nearshore areas. Nevertheless, there was good consistency between these two atmospheric correction algorithms over the relatively clear regions with a mean difference of 0.009 in aCDOM (400 (m−1 and 0.096 in salinity (psu. This study suggests the possible utilization of satellite remote sensing to assess CDOM and salinity and thus provides great potential in advancing our knowledge of the shelf-slope evolution and migration of the LSW plume properties in the ECS.

  1. Mapping of spatial and temporal variations of' water quality in an industrial area: a remote sensing and GIS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmi, T.V.; Reddy, M.A.; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper illustrate the impact of industrialization on water quality in and around Nakkavagu Watershed, due to unplanted industrial development. The study area falls between 78 deg. 05' - 78 deg. 25'E. longitude and 17 deg. 25'-17 deg. 45'N latitude, the catchment area extends 734 sq. km in Medak district, Andhra Predesh, India. The study area lies in the Godavari Basin. Remote sensing and GIS techniques are used to map the spatial and temporal distribution of water quality with respect to land use / land cover (Lu /Lc) changes for a period of three decades. Spatial database consisting of drainage network and geomorphology and land use / land cover change detection maps (1970-2004) have been generated for the entire watershed using remote sensing satellite data. Attribute database consisting of (water quality analysis is carried out and corresponding water quality index is calculated on a five point scale: 0- 25 Excellent, 26 -50 Good, 51 -75 Poor, 76 -100 Very poor, and> 100 Unfit for Drinking. Integrated study to establish the impact of Lu / Lc on water quality is carried out using GIS Analysis. Maps showing Lu / Lc changes and corresponding spatial distribution of water quality index were generated for the years 1979, 1989,2004. The results indicate that the water quality index in the entire Nakkavagu watershed during 1979 is excellent and good and by 2004, the entire watershed is rated in to poor, very poor and unfit for drinking. Best environmental management plans were suggested for restoration of the Nakkavagu watershed. (author)

  2. Capacitive Sensing for Contact-less Proximity Detection in Industrial Marble Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and experimental characterization of capacitive sensors, plus the relevant front-end acquisition circuitry, for process control in industrial marble machines. The new developed sensing system allows detecting, in real-time and without any contact, the presence of stone samples under the abrasive/cutting heads in an industrial machine. The obtained detection signal is needed as a feedback to improve the automatic control of the polishing/cutting process in marble industry. Different types of sensors are proposed whose performances are assessed through experimental test campaigns considering real industrial working conditions. Compared to state-of-art sensors the proposed solutions allow for a reliable detection while being of low complexity and robust to harsh environment conditions.

  3. Quantifying Freshwater Mass Balance in the Central Tibetan Plateau by Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing, Altimetry, and Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsin Tseng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP has been observed by satellite optical remote sensing, altimetry, and gravimetry for a variety of geophysical parameters, including water storage change. However, each of these sensors has its respective limitation in the parameters observed, accuracy and spatial-temporal resolution. Here, we utilized an integrated approach to combine remote sensing imagery, digital elevation model, and satellite radar and laser altimetry data, to quantify freshwater storage change in a twin lake system named Chibuzhang Co and Dorsoidong Co in the central TP, and compared that with independent observations including mass changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data. Our results show that this twin lake, located within the Tanggula glacier system, remained almost steady during 1973–2000. However, Dorsoidong Co has experienced a significant lake level rise since 2000, especially during 2000–2005, that resulted in the plausible connection between the two lakes. The contemporary increasing lake level signal at a rate of 0.89 ± 0.05 cm·yr−1, in a 2° by 2° grid equivalent water height since 2002, is higher than the GRACE observed trend at 0.41 ± 0.17 cm·yr−1 during the same time span. Finally, a down-turning trend or inter-annual variability shown in the GRACE signal is observed after 2012, while the lake level is still rising at a consistent rate.

  4. Using optical remote sensing model to estimate oil slick thickness based on satellite image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y C; Tian, Q J; Lyu, C G; Fu, W X; Han, W C

    2014-01-01

    An optical remote sensing model has been established based on two-beam interference theory to estimate marine oil slick thickness. Extinction coefficient and normalized reflectance of oil are two important parts in this model. Extinction coefficient is an important inherent optical property and will not vary with the background reflectance changed. Normalized reflectance can be used to eliminate the background differences between in situ measured spectra and remotely sensing image. Therefore, marine oil slick thickness and area can be estimated and mapped based on optical remotely sensing image and extinction coefficient

  5. Europe at the crossroads: The future of its satellite communications industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, Pierre; Battrick, B.

    1993-11-01

    Ways of adapting the European Space Agency's role to the new industrial environment of satellite communications, which is characterized by the disappearance of traditional monopolies and the introduction of competition, are presented. As far as ESA is concerned, it is found that a general consensus exists to recommend that the agency should take a much wider view of its role as a research and development (R&D) organization. It should no longer restrict its field of activity to space technology only, but should take a more global approach. More emphasis should be placed on the development of complete communications systems and of commercial applications. European industry indeed feels very strongly that it is not getting from ESA the support it needs to match the performance of its foreign competitors on the world markets. It can only succeed commercially in the fierce competition with the U.S. and Japan if a substantial R&D program is defined and funded at European level, as required by the magnitude of the financial effort necessary. It is concluded that anything the agency untertakes in the future to redress the situation would produce much greater dividends if it were part of a coherent plan where all the European partners play their role in a cooperative spirit. It is recommended that the European Commission should, as a matter of urgency, take steps to institute a concertation mechanism involving all major players with a view to defining and developing a coherent strategy for Europe.

  6. Satellite Based Education and Training in Remote Sensing and Geo-Information AN E-Learning Approach to Meet the Growing Demands in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical / scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) using NASA's Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6) with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted / received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS), mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities /Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and Geoinformation, capacity

  7. Fusing Mobile In Situ Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing of Chemical Release Emissions to Improve Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Leifer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and spacebased remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and space-based remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Understanding urban atmospheric transport in the Los Angeles Basin, where topographic influences on transport patterns are significant, was improved by leveraging the Aliso Canyon leak as an atmospheric tracer. Plume characterization data was collected by the AutoMObile trace Gas (AMOG Surveyor, a commuter car modified for science. Mobile surface in situ CH4 and winds were measured by AMOG Surveyor under Santa Ana conditions to estimate an emission rate of 365±30% Gg yr-1. Vertical profiles were collected by AMOG Surveyor by leveraging local topography for vertical profiling to identify the planetary boundary layer at ~700 m. Topography significantly constrained plume dispersion by up to a factor of two. The observed plume trajectory was used to validate satellite aerosol optical depth-inferred atmospheric transport, which suggested the plume first was driven offshore, but then veered back towards land. Numerical long-range transport model predictions confirm this interpretation. This study demonstrated a novel application of satellite aerosol remote

  8. Regional water resources management in the Andean region with numerical models and satellite remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Mulders, C.W.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development and adaptation of distributed numerical simulation models of hydrological processes in complex watersheds typical of the Andean region. These distributed models take advantage of the synoptic capabilities of sensors on-board satellites and GIS procedures have

  9. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  10. State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Lehr, William J.; Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Bradley, Eliza; Clark, Roger N.; Dennison, Philip E.; Hu, Yongxiang; Matheson, Scott; Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin; Reif, Molly; Roberts, Dar A.; Svejkovsky, Jan; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The vast and persistent Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill challenged response capabilities, which required accurate, quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Although experienced observers are a spill response's mainstay, few trained observers and confounding factors including weather, oil emulsification, and scene illumination geometry present challenges. DWH spill and impact monitoring was aided by extensive airborne and spaceborne passive and active remote sensing.Oil slick thickness and oil-to-water emulsion ratios are key spill response parameters for containment/cleanup and were derived quantitatively for thick (> 0.1 mm) slicks from AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data using a spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of near infrared spectral absorption features. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite, visible-spectrum broadband data of surface-slick modulation of sunglint reflection allowed extrapolation to the total slick. A multispectral expert system used a neural network approach to provide Rapid Response thickness class maps.Airborne and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides synoptic data under all-sky conditions; however, SAR generally cannot discriminate thick (> 100 μm) oil slicks from thin sheens (to 0.1 μm). The UAVSAR's (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR) significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial resolution allowed successful pattern discrimination related to a combination of oil slick thickness, fractional surface coverage, and emulsification.In situ burning and smoke plumes were studied with AVIRIS and corroborated spaceborne CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) observations of combustion aerosols. CALIPSO and bathymetry lidar data documented shallow subsurface oil, although ancillary data were required for confirmation.Airborne hyperspectral, thermal infrared data have nighttime and

  11. Satellite remote sensing of dust aerosol indirect effects on ice cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Steve Szu-Cheng; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Wang, Xingjuan; Hansell, Richard; Lefevre, Randy; Cocks, Stephen

    2009-01-20

    We undertook a new approach to investigate the aerosol indirect effect of the first kind on ice cloud formation by using available data products from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and obtained physical understanding about the interaction between aerosols and ice clouds. Our analysis focused on the examination of the variability in the correlation between ice cloud parameters (optical depth, effective particle size, cloud water path, and cloud particle number concentration) and aerosol optical depth and number concentration that were inferred from available satellite cloud and aerosol data products. Correlation results for a number of selected scenes containing dust and ice clouds are presented, and dust aerosol indirect effects on ice clouds are directly demonstrated from satellite observations.

  12. High-resolution sensing for precision agriculture: from Earth-observing satellites to unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Matthew F.; Houborg, Rasmus; Lucieer, Arko

    2016-10-01

    With global population projected to approach 9 billion by 2050, it has been estimated that a 40% increase in cereal production will be required to satisfy the worlds growing nutritional demands. Any such increases in agricultural productivity are likely to occur within a system that has limited room for growth and in a world with a climate that is different from that of today. Fundamental to achieving food and water security, is the capacity to monitor the health and condition of agricultural systems. While space-agency based satellites have provided the backbone for earth observation over the last few decades, many developments in the field of high-resolution earth observation have been advanced by the commercial sector. These advances relate not just to technological developments in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), but also the advent of nano-satellite constellations that offer a radical shift in the way earth observations are now being retrieved. Such technologies present opportunities for improving our description of the water, energy and carbon cycles. Efforts towards developing new observational techniques and interpretative frameworks are required to provide the tools and information needed to improve the management and security of agricultural and related sectors. These developments are one of the surest ways to better manage, protect and preserve national food and water resources. Here we review the capabilities of recently deployed satellite systems and UAVs and examine their potential for application in precision agriculture.

  13. High-resolution sensing for precision agriculture: from Earth-observing satellites to unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2016-10-25

    With global population projected to approach 9 billion by 2050, it has been estimated that a 40% increase in cereal production will be required to satisfy the worlds growing nutritional demands. Any such increases in agricultural productivity are likely to occur within a system that has limited room for growth and in a world with a climate that is different from that of today. Fundamental to achieving food and water security, is the capacity to monitor the health and condition of agricultural systems. While space-Agency based satellites have provided the backbone for earth observation over the last few decades, many developments in the field of high-resolution earth observation have been advanced by the commercial sector. These advances relate not just to technological developments in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), but also the advent of nano-satellite constellations that offer a radical shift in the way earth observations are now being retrieved. Such technologies present opportunities for improving our description of the water, energy and carbon cycles. Efforts towards developing new observational techniques and interpretative frameworks are required to provide the tools and information needed to improve the management and security of agricultural and related sectors. These developments are one of the surest ways to better manage, protect and preserve national food and water resources. Here we review the capabilities of recently deployed satellite systems and UAVs and examine their potential for application in precision agriculture.

  14. Use of multispectral satellite remote sensing to assess mixing of suspended sediment downstream of large river confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Greenberg, Jonathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Although past work has noted that contrasts in turbidity often are detectable on remotely sensed images of rivers downstream from confluences, no systematic methodology has been developed for assessing mixing over distance of confluent flows with differing surficial suspended sediment concentrations (SSSC). In contrast to field measurements of mixing below confluences, satellite remote-sensing can provide detailed information on spatial distributions of SSSC over long distances. This paper presents a methodology that uses remote-sensing data to estimate spatial patterns of SSSC downstream of confluences along large rivers and to determine changes in the amount of mixing over distance from confluences. The method develops a calibrated Random Forest (RF) model by relating training SSSC data from river gaging stations to derived spectral indices for the pixels corresponding to gaging-station locations. The calibrated model is then used to predict SSSC values for every river pixel in a remotely sensed image, which provides the basis for mapping of spatial variability in SSSCs along the river. The pixel data are used to estimate average surficial values of SSSC at cross sections spaced uniformly along the river. Based on the cross-section data, a mixing metric is computed for each cross section. The spatial pattern of change in this metric over distance can be used to define rates and length scales of surficial mixing of suspended sediment downstream of a confluence. This type of information is useful for exploring the potential influence of various controlling factors on mixing downstream of confluences, for evaluating how mixing in a river system varies over time and space, and for determining how these variations influence water quality and ecological conditions along the river.

  15. Remote sensing for non-renewable resources - Satellite and airborne multiband scanners for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1986-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to mineral exploration involves the use of both spatial (morphological) as well as spectral information. This paper is directed toward a discussion of the uses of spectral image information and emphasizes the newest airborne and spaceborne sensor developments involving imaging spectrometers.

  16. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B.; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis.

  17. High-resolution satellite remote sensing of provincial PM2.5 trends in China from 2001 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. Q.; Liu, G.; Lau, A. K. H.; Li, Y.; Li, C. C.; Fung, J. C. H.; Lao, X. Q.

    2018-05-01

    Given the vast territory of China, the long-term PM2.5 trends may substantially differ among the provinces. In this study, we aim to assess the provincial PM2.5 trends in China during the past few Five-Year Plan (FYP) periods. The lack of long-term PM2.5 measurements, however, makes such assessment difficult. Satellite remote sensing of PM2.5 concentration is an important step toward filling this data gap. In this study, a PM2.5 data set was built over China at a resolution of 1 km from 2001 to 2015 using satellite remote sensing. Analyses show that the national average of PM2.5 concentration increased by 0.04 μg·m-3·yr-1 during the 10th FYP period (2001-2005) and started to decline by -0.65 μg·m-3·yr-1 and -2.33 μg·m-3·yr-1 during the 11th (2006-2010) and the 12th (2011-2015) FYP period, respectively. In addition, substantial differences in the PM2.5 trends were observed among the provinces. Provinces in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had the largest reduction of PM2.5 concentrations during the 10th and 12th FYP period. The greatest reduction rate of PM2.5 concentration during the 10th and 12th FYP period was observed in Beijing (-3.68 μg·m-3·yr-1) and Tianjin (-6.62 μg·m-3·yr-1), respectively. In contrast, PM2.5 concentrations remained steady for provinces in eastern and southeastern China (e.g., Shanghai) during the 12th FYP period. In overall, great efforts are still required to effectively reduce the PM2.5 concentrations in future.

  18. Satellite remote sensing and cloud modeling of St. Anthony, Minnesota storm clouds and dew point depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.

    1988-01-01

    Rawinsonde data and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to investigate the life cycles of St. Anthony, Minnesota's severe convective storms. It is found that the fully developed storm clouds, with overshooting cloud tops penetrating above the tropopause, collapsed about three minutes before the touchdown of the tornadoes. Results indicate that the probability of producing an outbreak of tornadoes causing greater damage increases when there are higher values of potential energy storage per unit area for overshooting cloud tops penetrating the tropopause. It is also found that there is less chance for clouds with a lower moisture content to be outgrown as a storm cloud than clouds with a higher moisture content.

  19. Biogeography of the Oceans: a Review of Development of Knowledge of Currents, Fronts and Regional Boundaries from Sailing Ships in the Sixteenth Century to Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.

    2014-06-01

    The development of knowledge of global biogeography of the oceans from sixteenthcentury European voyages of exploration to present-day use of satellite remote sensing is reviewed in three parts; the pre-satellite era (1513-1977), the satellite era leading to a first global synthesis (1978-1998), and more recent studies since 1998. The Gulf Stream was first identified as a strong open-ocean feature in 1513 and by the eighteenth century, regular transatlantic voyages by sailing ships had established the general patterns of winds and circulation, enabling optimisation of passage times. Differences in water temperature, water colour and species of animals were recognised as important cues for navigation. Systematic collection of information from ships' logs enabled Maury (The Physical Geography of the Sea Harper and Bros. New York 1855) to produce a chart of prevailing winds across the entire world's oceans, and by the early twentieth century the global surface ocean circulation that defines the major biogeographic regions was well-known. This information was further supplemented by data from large-scale plankton surveys. The launch of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, specifically designed to study living marine resources on board the Nimbus 7 polar orbiting satellite in 1978, marked the advent of the satellite era. Over subsequent decades, correlation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll data with in situ measurements enabled Longhurst (Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press, New York 1998) to divide the global ocean into 51 ecological provinces with Polar, Westerly Wind, Trade Wind and Coastal Biomes clearly recognisable from earlier subdivisions of the oceans. Satellite imagery with semi-synoptic images of large areas of the oceans greatly aided definition of boundaries between provinces. However, ocean boundaries are dynamic, varying from season to season and year to year. More recent work has focused on the study of variability of

  20. Satellite Remote Sensing and the Hydroclimate: Two Specific Examples of Improved Knowledge and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, M.; Santanello, J. A., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    When Explorer 1 launched nearly 60 years ago, it helped usher in a golden age of scientific understanding of arguably the most important planet in our solar system. From its inception NASA and its partners were charged with leveraging the vantagepoint of space to advance knowledge outside and within Earth's atmosphere. Earth is a particularly complex natural system that is increasingly modified by human activities. The hydrological or water cycle is a critical circuit in the Earth system. Its complexity requires novel observations and simulation capability to fully understand it and predict changes. This talk will introduce some of the unique satellite-based observations used for hydroclimate studies. Two specific examples will be presented. The first example explores a relatively new thread of research examining the impact of soil moisture on landfalling and other types of tropical systems. Recent literature suggests that tropical cyclones or large rain-producing systems like the one that caused catastrophic flooding in Louisiana (2016) derive moisture from a "brown ocean" of wet soils or wetlands. The second example summarizes a decade of research on how urbanization has altered the precipitation and land surface hydrology components of the water cycle. With both cases, a multitude of satellite or model-based datesets will be summarized (e.g., TRMM, GPM, SMAP, NLDAS).

  1. Satellite remote sensing of river inundation area, stage, and discharge: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C.

    1997-08-01

    The growing availability of multi-temporal satellite data has increased opportunities for monitoring large rivers from space. A variety of passive and active sensors operating in the visible and microwave range are currently operating, or planned, which can estimate inundation area and delineate flood boundaries. Radar altimeters show great promise for directly measuring stage variation in large rivers. It also appears to be possible to obtain estimates of river discharge from space, using ground measurements and satellite data to construct empirical curves that relate water surface area to discharge. Extrapolation of these curves to ungauged sites may be possible for the special case of braided rivers.Where clouds, trees and floating vegetation do not obscure the water surface, high-resolution visible/infrared sensors provide good delineation of inundated areas. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors can penetrate clouds and can also detect standing water through emergent aquatic plants and forest canopies. However, multiple frequencies and polarizations are required for optimal discrimination of various inundated vegetation cover types. Existing single-polarization, fixed-frequency SARs are not sufficient for mapping inundation area in all riverine environments. In the absence of a space-borne multi-parameter SAR, a synergistic approach using single-frequency, fixed-polarization SAR and visible/infrared data will provide the best results over densely vegetated river floodplains.

  2. Nuclear Power Plant environment`s surveillance by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    The main environmental issues affecting the broad acceptability of nuclear power plant are the emission of radioactive materials, the generation of radioactive waste, and the potential for nuclear accidents. All nuclear fission reactors, regardless of design, location, operator or regulator, have the potential to undergo catastrophic accidents involving loss of control of the reactor core, failure of safety systems and subsequent widespread fallout of hazardous fission products. Risk is the mathematical product of probability and consequences, so lowprobability and high-consequence accidents, by definition, have a high risk. NPP environment surveillance is a very important task in frame of risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing data had been applied for dosimeter levels first time for Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986. Just for a normal functioning of a nuclear power plant, multitemporal and multispectral satellite data in complementarily with field data are very useful tools for NPP environment surveillance and risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing is used as an important technology to help environmental research to support research analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental features nearby nuclear facilities. Digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and QuickBird data in synergy with in-situ data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air. As a test case the methodology was applied for for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda, Romania. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube River. Water temperatures captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. If during the winter thermal plume is localized to an area of a few km of NPP, the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas being about 1.5 oC, during summer and fall , is

  3. A comparision between satellite based and drone based remote sensing technology to achieve sustainable development: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babankumar Bansod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture is a way to manage the crop yield resources like water, fertilizers, soil, seeds in order to increase production, quality, gain and reduce squander products so that the existing system become eco-friendly. The main target of precision agriculture is to match resources and execution according to the crop and climate to ameliorate the effects of Praxis. Global Positioning System, Geographic Information System, Remote sensing technologies and various sensors are used in Precision farming for identifying the variability in field and using different methods to deal with them. Satellite based remote sensing is used to study the variability in crop and ground but suffer from various disadvantageous such as prohibited use, high price, less revisiting them, poor resolution due to great height, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is other alternative option for application in precision farming. UAV overcomes the drawback of the ground based system, i.e. inaccessibility to muddy and very dense regions. Hovering at a peak of 500 meter - 1000 meter is good enough to offer various advantageous in image acquisition such as high spatial and temporal resolution, full flexibility, low cost. Recent studies of application of UAV in precision farming indicate advanced designing of UAV, enhancement in georeferencing and the mosaicking of image, analysis and extraction of information required for supplying a true end product to farmers. This paper also discusses the various platforms of UAV used in farming applications, its technical constraints, seclusion rites, reliability and safety.

  4. The Impacts of Satellite Remotely Sensed Winds and Total Precipitable Vapour in WRF Tropical Cyclone Track Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diandong Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the impact assimilating the scatterometer near-surface wind observations and total precipitable water from the SSMI, into WRF on genesis and track forecasting of four tropical cyclones (TCs. These TCs are selected to be representative of different intensity categories and basins. Impact is via a series of data denial experiments that systematically exclude the remote sensed information. Compared with the control case, in which only the final analysis atmospheric variables are used to initialize and provide the lateral boundary conditions, the data assimilation runs performed consistently better, but with very different skill levels for the different TCs. Eliassen-Palm flux analyses are employed. It is confirmed that if a polar orbital satellite footprint passes over the TC’s critical genesis region, the forecast will profit most from assimilating the remotely sensed information. If the critical genesis region lies within an interorbital gap then, regardless of how strong the TC later becomes (e.g., Katrina 2005, the improvement from assimilating near-surface winds and total precipitable water in the model prediction is severely limited. This underpins the need for a synergy of data from different scatterometers/radiometers. Other approaches are suggested to improve the accuracy in the prediction of TC genesis and tracks.

  5. Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budakoǧlu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avcı, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Yılmaz), Serpil

    2014-05-01

    Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity α (Λi-1 / Λj-1) * (Λk-1 / Λm-1) (i

  6. A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

  7. Using Satellite Remote Sensing Data in a Spatially Explicit Price Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Prince, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Famine early warning organizations use data from multiple disciplines to assess food insecurity of communities and regions in less-developed parts of the World. In this paper we integrate several indicators that are available to enhance the information for preparation for and responses to food security emergencies. The assessment uses a price model based on the relationship between the suitability of the growing season and market prices for coarse grain. The model is then used to create spatially continuous maps of millet prices. The model is applied to the dry central and northern areas of West Africa, using satellite-derived vegetation indices for the entire region. By coupling the model with vegetation data estimated for one to four months into the future, maps are created of a leading indicator of potential price movements. It is anticipated that these maps can be used to enable early warning of famine and for planning appropriate responses.

  8. Chemistry and Microphysics of Lower Stratospheric Aerosols Determined by Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasetsky, A. Y.; Khalizov, A.; Sloan, J.

    2003-12-01

    Observations of broadband Infrared satellites such as ILAS-II (Ministry of the Environment, Japan, launched 14 December 2002) and SciSat-1 (Canadian Space Agency, launched 12 August 2003) can provide details of the chemical composition and particle size of atmospheric aerosols by direct inversion without recourse to models. During the past decade, we have developed mathematical methods to achieve this inversion by working with FTIR observations of model atmospheric aerosols in cryogenic flowtubes. More recently, we have converted these to operational algorithms for use in the above missions. In this presentation, we will briefly outline these procedures and illustrate their capabilities using laboratory data. These laboratory results show that the chemical compositions, phases and sizes of ensembles of particles can be obtained simultaneously using these procedures. We will also report chemical and microphysical properties of lower stratospheric clouds and aerosols derived by applying these procedures to observations from space.

  9. Satellite remote sensing for modeling and monitoring of water quality in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffield, S. R.; Crosson, W. L.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Barik, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Consistent and accurate monitoring of the Great Lakes is critical for protecting the freshwater ecosystems, quantifying the impacts of climate change, understanding harmful algal blooms, and safeguarding public health for the millions who rely on the Lakes for drinking water. While ground-based monitoring is often hampered by limited sampling resolution, satellite data provide surface reflectance measurements at much more complete spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we implemented NASA data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to build robust water quality models. We developed and validated models for chlorophyll-a, nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity based on combinations of the six MODIS Ocean Color bands (412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667nm) for 2003-2016. Second, we applied these models to quantify trends in water quality through time and in relation to changing land cover, runoff, and climate for six selected coastal areas in Lakes Michigan and Erie. We found strongest models for chlorophyll-a in Lake Huron (R2 = 0.75), nitrogen in Lake Ontario (R2=0.66), phosphorus in Lake Erie (R2=0.60), and turbidity in Lake Erie (R2=0.86). These offer improvements over previous efforts to model chlorophyll-a while adding nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity. Mapped water quality parameters showed high spatial variability, with nitrogen concentrated largely in Superior and coastal Michigan and high turbidity, phosphorus, and chlorophyll near urban and agricultural areas of Erie. Temporal analysis also showed concurrence of high runoff or precipitation and nitrogen in Lake Michigan offshore of wetlands, suggesting that water quality in these areas is sensitive to changes in climate.

  10. Advances in regional crop yield estimation over the United States using satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. M.; Dorn, M. F.; Crawford, C.

    2015-12-01

    Since the dawn of earth observation imagery, particularly from systems like Landsat and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, there has been an overarching desire to regionally estimate crop production remotely. Research efforts integrating space-based imagery into yield models to achieve this need have indeed paralleled these systems through the years, yet development of a truly useful crop production monitoring system has been arguably mediocre in coming. As a result, relatively few organizations have yet to operationalize the concept, and this is most acute in regions of the globe where there are not even alternative sources of crop production data being collected. However, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has continued to push for this type of data source as a means to complement its long-standing, traditional crop production survey efforts which are financially costly to the government and create undue respondent burden on farmers. Corn and soybeans, the two largest field crops in the United States, have been the focus of satellite-based production monitoring by NASS for the past decade. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has been seen as the most pragmatic input source for modeling yields primarily based on its daily revisit capabilities and reasonable ground sample resolution. The research methods presented here will be broad but provides a summary of what is useful and adoptable with satellite imagery in terms of crop yield estimation. Corn and soybeans will be of particular focus but other major staple crops like wheat and rice will also be presented. NASS will demonstrate that while MODIS provides a slew of vegetation related products, the traditional normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is still ideal. Results using land surface temperature products, also generated from MODIS, will also be shown. Beyond the MODIS data itself, NASS research has also focused efforts on understanding a

  11. Satellite Remote Sensing of Ocean Winds, Surface Waves and Surface Currents during the Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Perrie, W. A.; Liu, G.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes over the ocean have been observed by spaceborne aperture radar (SAR) since the first SAR images were available in 1978. SAR has high spatial resolution (about 1 km), relatively large coverage and capability for observations during almost all-weather, day-and-night conditions. In this study, seven C-band RADARSAT-2 dual-polarized (VV and VH) ScanSAR wide images from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Hurricane Watch Program in 2017 are collected over five hurricanes: Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate, and Ophelia. We retrieve the ocean winds by applying our C-band Cross-Polarization Coupled-Parameters Ocean (C-3PO) wind retrieval model [Zhang et al., 2017, IEEE TGRS] to the SAR images. Ocean waves are estimated by applying a relationship based on the fetch- and duration-limited nature of wave growth inside hurricanes [Hwang et al., 2016; 2017, J. Phys. Ocean.]. We estimate the ocean surface currents using the Doppler Shift extracted from VV-polarized SAR images [Kang et al., 2016, IEEE TGRS]. C-3PO model is based on theoretical analysis of ocean surface waves and SAR microwave backscatter. Based on the retrieved ocean winds, we estimate the hurricane center locations, maxima wind speeds, and radii of the five hurricanes by adopting the SHEW model (Symmetric Hurricane Estimates for Wind) by Zhang et al. [2017, IEEE TGRS]. Thus, we investigate possible relations between hurricane structures and intensities, and especially some possible effects of the asymmetrical characteristics on changes in the hurricane intensities, such as the eyewall replacement cycle. The three SAR images of Ophelia include the north coast of Ireland and east coast of Scotland allowing study of ocean surface currents respond to the hurricane. A system of methods capable of observing marine winds, surface waves, and surface currents from satellites is of value, even if these data are only available in near real-time or from SAR-related satellite images. Insight into high resolution ocean winds

  12. Using remote sensing satellite data and artificial neural network for prediction of potato yield in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Potato is one of the staple foods and cash crops in Bangladesh. It is widely cultivated in all of the districts and ranks second after rice in production. Bangladesh is the fourth largest potato producer in Asia and is among the world's top 15 potato producing countries. The weather condition for potato cultivation is favorable during the sowing, growing and harvesting period. It is a winter crop and is cultivated during the period of November to March. Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural based country with respect to agriculture's contribution to GDP, employment and consumption. Potato is a prominent crop in consideration of production, its internal demand and economic value. Bangladesh has a big economic activities related to potato cultivation and marketing, especially the economic relations among farmers, traders, stockers and cold storage owners. Potato yield prediction before harvest is an important issue for the Government and the stakeholders in managing and controlling the potato market. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based satellite data product vegetation health indices VCI (vegetation condition index) and TCI (temperature condition index) are used as predictors for early prediction. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to develop a prediction model. The simulated result from this model is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%.

  13. Aerosol Optical Depth investigated with satellite remote sensing observations in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Die, Hu; Lei, Zhang; Hongbin, Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 550nm from the MODIS sensor on board the Terra/Aqua satellites were compared with sun photometer (CE-318) measurements from 11 AERONET stations in China. The average correlation coefficient (R) value from the AOD product, using the Aqua-MODIS Deep Blue algorithm, in the Hexi Corridor was 0.67. The MODIS Dark Target algorithm AOD product is superior to Deep Blue algorithm AOD products in SACOL of the Semi-arid regions of the Loess Plateau. These two kinds of algorithm are not applicable to sites in Lanzhou city. The average R value of Dark Target algorithm AOD MODIS products is 0.91 for Terra and 0.88 for Aqua in the eastern part of China. According to the analysis of spatial and temporal characteristics of the two MODIS AOD products in China, high value areas are mainly distributed in the southern part of Xinjiang (0.5∼0.8), Sichuan Basin (0.8∼0.9), North China (0.6∼0.8) and the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River (0.8∼1.0). The Deep Blue algorithm for Aqua-MODIS is a good supplement for the retrieval of AOD above bright surfaces of deserts in Northwest China

  14. An efficient strategy for the inversion of bidirectional reflectance models with satellite remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privette, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The angular distribution of radiation scattered by the earth surface contains information on the structural and optical properties of the surface. Potentially, this information may be retrieved through the inversion of surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models. This report details the limitations and efficient application of BRDF model inversions using data from ground- and satellite-based sensors. A turbid medium BRDF model, based on the discrete ordinates solution to the transport equation, was used to quantify the sensitivity of top-of-canopy reflectance to vegetation and soil parameters. Results were used to define parameter sets for inversions. Using synthetic reflectance values, the invertibility of the model was investigated for different optimization algorithms, surface and sampling conditions. Inversions were also conducted with field data from a ground-based radiometer. First, a soil BRDF model was inverted for different soil and sampling conditions. A condition-invariant solution was determined and used as the lower boundary condition in canopy model inversions. Finally, a scheme was developed to improve the speed and accuracy of inversions.

  15. Estimating spatiotemporal distribution of PM1 concentrations in China with satellite remote sensing, meteorology, and land use information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gongbo; Knibbs, Luke D; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Shanshan; Cao, Wei; Guo, Jianping; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Boguang; Wang, Hao; Williams, Gail; Hamm, N A S; Guo, Yuming

    2018-02-01

    PM 1 might be more hazardous than PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 μm and ≤2.5 μm, respectively). However, studies on PM 1 concentrations and its health effects are limited due to a lack of PM 1 monitoring data. To estimate spatial and temporal variations of PM 1 concentrations in China during 2005-2014 using satellite remote sensing, meteorology, and land use information. Two types of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB), were combined. Generalised additive model (GAM) was developed to link ground-monitored PM 1 data with AOD data and other spatial and temporal predictors (e.g., urban cover, forest cover and calendar month). A 10-fold cross-validation was performed to assess the predictive ability. The results of 10-fold cross-validation showed R 2 and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) for monthly prediction were 71% and 13.0 μg/m 3 , respectively. For seasonal prediction, the R 2 and RMSE were 77% and 11.4 μg/m 3 , respectively. The predicted annual mean concentration of PM 1 across China was 26.9 μg/m 3 . The PM 1 level was highest in winter while lowest in summer. Generally, the PM 1 levels in entire China did not substantially change during the past decade. Regarding local heavy polluted regions, PM 1 levels increased substantially in the South-Western Hebei and Beijing-Tianjin region. GAM with satellite-retrieved AOD, meteorology, and land use information has high predictive ability to estimate ground-level PM 1 . Ambient PM 1 reached high levels in China during the past decade. The estimated results can be applied to evaluate the health effects of PM 1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Remotely sensed thermal pollution and its relationship with energy consumption and industry in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Huina; Zhao, Juanjuan; Qiu, Quanyi; Tapper, Nigel; Hua, Lizhong

    2013-01-01

    Taking the city of Xiamen, China, as an example, we used thermal infrared remote sensing to detect thermal pollution, and examined its relationship to energy consumption and the industrial economy. Monthly changes in 2002 and dynamics throughout the period of rapid urbanization (1987–2007) are analysed. It is found that seasonal variation led to distinct shapes and sizes of thermal pollution areas, and winter thermal pollution was highly indicative of industrial and energy transformation sources. Industrial enterprises were the dominant sources of winter thermal pollution in Xiamen. The number and ratio of industrial thermal pollution sources increased stably in the earlier years, and dramatically in the later period (2002–2007), attributable to the effects of China entering the World Trade Organization. Linear regression shows that the number of thermal pollution sources was strongly correlated with several factors of the industrial economy and energy consumption, including industrial outputs, industrial enterprise numbers, LPG and electricity. Related mitigation measures are also discussed. This research builds a link between remote sensing-detected thermal pollution information and statistical energy consumption data, as well as industrial economy statistics. It thereby enhances understanding of the relationship between urbanization, industrialization, energy consumption and related environmental effects. - Highlights: ► A method was provided for detecting thermal pollution through remote sensing. ► Seasonal dynamics and dynamics with the process of urbanization were examined. ► Winter thermal pollution is quite indicative of industrial energy consumption. ► Thermal pollution has high correlations with industrial economy and energy factors. ► It builds a link between remotely sensed thermal pollution and energy-economic data

  17. SATELLITE BASED EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN REMOTE SENSING AND GEO-INFORMATION: AN E-LEARNING APPROACH TO MEET THE GROWING DEMANDS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical / scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE using NASA’s Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6 with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted / received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS and Geographical Information System (GIS, mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities /Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and

  18. Remote sensing of forest degradation in Southeast Asia—Aiming for a regional view through 5–30 m satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Miettinen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper we present geographical, ecological and historical aspects of Southeast Asia from the perspective of forest degradation monitoring and critically discuss available approaches for large area forest degradation monitoring with satellite remote sensing data at high to medium spatial resolution (5–30 m. Several authors have achieved promising results in geographically limited areas within Southeast Asia using automated detection algorithms. However, the application of automated methods to large area assessments remains a major challenge. To-date, nearly all large area assessments of forest degradation in the region have included a strong visual interpretation component. We conclude that due to the variety of forest types and forest disturbance levels, as well as the variable image acquisition conditions in Southeast Asia, it is unlikely that forest degradation monitoring can be conducted throughout the region using a single automated approach with currently available remote sensing data. The provision of regionally consistent information on forest degradation from satellite remote sensing data remains therefore challenging. However, the expected increase in observation frequency in the near future (due to Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 satellites may lead to the desired improvement in data availability and enable consistent and robust regional forest degradation monitoring in Southeast Asia. Keywords: Tropical forest disturbance, Selective logging, Shifting cultivation, Satellite data, Indochina peninsula, Maritime continent

  19. Quantifying South East Asia's forest degradation using latest generation optical and radar satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Tulbure, M. G.; Wijaya, A.; Weisse, M.; Stolle, F.

    2017-12-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation form the 2nd largest source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While deforestation is being globally mapped with satellite image time series, degradation remains insufficiently quantified. Previous studies quantified degradation for small scale, local sites. A method suitable for accurate mapping across large areas has not yet been developed due to the variability of the low magnitude and short-lived degradation signal and the absence of data with suitable resolution properties. Here we use a combination of newly available streams of free optical and radar image time series acquired by NASA and ESA, and HPC-based data science algorithms to innovatively quantify degradation consistently across Southeast Asia (SEA). We used Sentinel1 c-band radar data and NASA's new Harmonized Landsat8 (L8) Sentinel2 (S2) product (HLS) for cloud free optical images. Our results show that dense time series of cloud penetrating Sentinel 1 c-band radar can provide degradation alarm flags, while the HLS product of cloud-free optical images can unambiguously confirm degradation alarms. The detectability of degradation differed across SEA. In the seasonal forest of continental SEA the reliability of our radar-based alarm flags increased as the variability in landscape moisture decreases in the dry season. We reliably confirmed alarms with optical image time series during the late dry season, where degradation in open canopy forests becomes detectable once the undergrowth vegetation has died down. Conversely, in insular SEA landscape moisture is low, the radar time series generated degradation alarms flags with moderate to high reliability throughout the year, further confirmed with the HLS product. Based on the HLS product we can now confirm degradation within time series provides better results than either one on its own. Our results provide significant information with application for carbon trading policy and land management.

  20. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelhoven, Thomas; Schlerf, Martin; Segl, Karl; Mallick, Kaniska; Bossung, Christian; Retzlaff, Rebecca; Rock, Gilles; Fischer, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Storch, Tobias; Eisele, Andreas; Weise, Dennis; Hupfer, Werner; Knigge, Thiemo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1-5 days at off-nadir). At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month). To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1) a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2-12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K-0.1 K) and a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 60 m, and (2) a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0-10.25 µm and 10.25-12.5 µm) and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1-3 days) to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  1. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Udelhoven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping. The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1–5 days at off-nadir. At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month. To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1 a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2–12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K–0.1 K and a ground sampling distance (GSD of 60 m, and (2 a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0–10.25 µm and 10.25–12.5 µm and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1–3 days to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR, the shortwave infrared (SWIR and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  2. Crop classification based on multi-temporal satellite remote sensing data for agro-advisory services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karale, Yogita; Mohite, Jayant; Jagyasi, Bhushan

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we envision the use of satellite images coupled with GIS to obtain location specific crop type information in order to disseminate crop specific advises to the farmers. In our ongoing mKRISHI R project, the accurate information about the field level crop type and acreage will help in the agro-advisory services and supply chain planning and management. The key contribution of this paper is the field level crop classification using multi temporal images of Landsat-8 acquired during November 2013 to April 2014. The study area chosen is Vani, Maharashtra, India, from where the field level ground truth information for various crops such as grape, wheat, onion, soybean, tomato, along with fodder and fallow fields has been collected using the mobile application. The ground truth information includes crop type, crop stage and GPS location for 104 farms in the study area with approximate area of 42 hectares. The seven multi-temporal images of the Landsat-8 were used to compute the vegetation indices namely: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Difference Vegetation Index (DVI) for the study area. The vegetation indices values of the pixels within a field were then averaged to obtain the field level vegetation indices. For each crop, binary classification has been carried out using the feed forward neural network operating on the field level vegetation indices. The classification accuracy for the individual crop was in the range of 74.5% to 97.5% and the overall classification accuracy was found to be 88.49%.

  3. Characterizing Global Flood Wave Travel Times to Optimize the Utility of Near Real-Time Satellite Remote Sensing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. H.; David, C. H.; Andreadis, K. M.; Emery, C. M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observing satellites provide valuable near real-time (NRT) information about flood occurrence and magnitude worldwide. This NRT information can be used in early flood warning systems and other flood management applications to save lives and mitigate flood damage. However, these NRT products are only useful to early flood warning systems if they are quickly made available, with sufficient time for flood mitigation actions to be implemented. More specifically, NRT data latency, or the time period between the satellite observation and when the user has access to the information, must be less than the time it takes a flood to travel from the flood observation location to a given downstream point of interest. Yet the paradigm that "lower latency is always better" may not necessarily hold true in river systems due to tradeoffs between data latency and data quality. Further, the existence of statistical breaks in the global distribution of flood wave travel time (i.e. a jagged statistical distribution) would represent preferable latencies for river-observation NRT remote sensing products. Here we present a global analysis of flood wave velocity (i.e. flow celerity) and travel time. We apply a simple kinematic wave model to a global hydrography dataset and calculate flow wave celerity and travel time during bankfull flow conditions. Bankfull flow corresponds to the condition of maximum celerity and thus we present the "worst-case scenario" minimum flow wave travel time. We conduct a similar analysis with respect to the time it takes flood waves to reach the next downstream city, as well as the next downstream reservoir. Finally, we conduct these same analyses, but with regards to the technical capabilities of the planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, which is anticipated to provide waterbody elevation and extent measurements at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. We validate these results with discharge records from paired

  4. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimijiama, S; Nagai, M

    2014-01-01

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development

  5. Insights on the Feasibility, Modeling and Field Testing of Cirrus Cloud Thinning from Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Garnier, A.; Mejia, J.; Avery, M. A.; Erfani, E.

    2016-12-01

    To date, it is not clear whether the climate intervention method known as cirrus cloud thinning (CCT) can be viable since it requires cirrus clouds to form through homogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth hom) and some recent GCM studies predict cirrus are formed primarily through heterogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth het). A new CALIPSO infrared retrieval method has been developed for single-layer cirrus cloud that measures the temperature dependence of their layer-averaged number concentration N, effective diameter De and ice water content for optical depths (OD) between 0.3 and 3.0. Based on N, the prevailing ice nucleation mechanism (hom or het) can be estimated as a function of temperature, season, latitude and surface type. These satellite results indicate that seeding cirrus clouds at high latitudes during winter may produce significant global surface cooling. This is because hom often appears to dominate over land during winter north of 30°N latitude while the same appears true for most of the Southern Hemisphere (south of 30°S) during all seasons. Moreover, the sampled cirrus cloud frequency of occurrence in the Arctic is at least twice as large during winter relative to other seasons, while frequency of occurrence in the Antarctic peaks in the spring and is second-highest during winter. During Arctic winter, a combination of frequent hom cirrus, maximum cirrus coverage and an extreme or absent sun angle produces the maximum seasonal cirrus net radiative forcing (warming). Thus a reduction in OD and coverage (via CCT) for these cirrus clouds could yield a significant net cooling effect. From these CALIPSO retrievals, De-T relationships are generated as a function of season, latitude and surface type (land vs. ocean). These will be used in CAM5 to estimate De and the ice fall speed, from which the cirrus radiative forcing will be estimated during winter north of 30°latitude, where hom cirrus are common. Another CAM5 simulation will replace the hom

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow/Ice Albedo over the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Gautam, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks play an important role in the hydrological cycle over Asia. The seasonal snow melt from the Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks is one of the key elements to the livelihood of the downstream densely populated regions of South Asia. During the pre-monsoon season (April-May-June), South Asia not only experiences the reversal of the regional meridional tropospheric temperature gradient (i.e., the onset of the summer monsoon), but also is being bombarded by dry westerly airmass that transports mineral dust from various Southwest Asian desert and arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains in northern India. Mixed with heavy anthropogenic pollution, mineral dust constitutes the bulk of regional aerosol loading and forms an extensive and vertically extended brown haze lapping against the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Episodic dust plumes are advected over the Himalayas, and are discernible in satellite imagery, resulting in dust-capped snow surface. Motivated by the potential implications of accelerated snowmelt, we examine the changes in radiative energetics induced by aerosol transport over the Himalayan snow cover by utilizing space borne observations. Our objective lies in the investigation of potential impacts of aerosol solar absorption on the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral reflectivity and the broadband albedo, and hence the accelerated snowmelt, particularly in the western Himalayas. Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer radiances, is used to generate statistics for determining perturbation caused due to dust layer over snow surface in over ten years of continuous observations. Case studies indicate significant reduction of LER ranging from 5 to 8% in the 412-860nm spectra. Broadband flux observations, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, are also used to investigate changes in shortwave TOA flux over

  7. Analyses of thermal plume of Cernavoda nuclear power plant by satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Nicolae, D. N.; Talianu, C. L.; Ciobanu, M.; Ciuciu, J. G.

    2005-10-01

    The synergistic use of multi-temporal and multi-spectral remote sensing data offers the possibility of monitoring of environment quality in the vicinity of nuclear power plants (NPP). Advanced digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and ASTER data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air for NPP Cernavoda , Romania . Cernavoda Unit 1 power plant, using CANDU technology, having 706.5 MW power, is successfully in operation since 1996. Cernavoda Unit 2 which is currently under construction will be operational in 2007. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactor cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube river. Water temperature distributions captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. Additional information regarding flooding events and earthquake risks is considered . During the winter, the thermal plume is localized to an area within a few km of the power plant, and the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas is about 1.5 oC. During the summer and fall, there is a larger thermal plume extending 5-6 km far along Danube Black Sea Canal, and the temperature change is about 1.0 oC. Variation of surface water temperature in the thermal plume is analyzed. The strong seasonal difference in the thermal plume is related to vertical mixing of the water column in winter and to stratification in summer. Hydrodynamic simulation leads to better understanding of the mechanisms by which waste heat from NPP Cernavoda is dissipated in the environment.

  8. Aerosol optical properties over the Svalbard region of Arctic: ground-based measurements and satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Mukunda M.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2016-05-01

    In view of the increasing anthropogenic presence and influence of aerosols in the northern polar regions, long-term continuous measurements of aerosol optical parameters have been investigated over the Svalbard region of Norwegian Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, 79°N, 12°E, 8 m ASL). This study has shown a consistent enhancement in the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients during spring. The relative dominance of absorbing aerosols is more near the surface (lower single scattering albedo), compared to that at the higher altitude. This is indicative of the presence of local anthropogenic activities. In addition, long-range transported biomass burning aerosols (inferred from the spectral variation of absorption coefficient) also contribute significantly to the higher aerosol absorption in the Arctic spring. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates from ground based Microtop sun-photometer measurements reveals that the columnar abundance of aerosols reaches the peak during spring season. Comparison of AODs between ground based and satellite remote sensing indicates that deep blue algorithm of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals over Arctic snow surfaces overestimate the columnar AOD.

  9. Combining satellite remote sensing and surveys to understand persistent yield variation--- a case study in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Lobell, D. B.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large gap between maize yields on average farmers' fields and the highest yields achieved by either experiment or farmers is typical throughout the developing world, including in the North China Plain (NCP). This maize yield gap as identified by previous studies indicates large opportunities for raising yield by improving agronomy. Quzhou county is typical of the winter-wheat summer-maize system in NCP where the average plot size is as small as 0.25 hectares. To analyze this cropping system amidst the challenge of substantial heterogeneity, we identified fields that were either persistently higher or lower yielding according to the remote sensing yield estimates, and then conducted detailed field surveys. We found irrigation facility to be a major constraint to yield both in terms of irrigation water quality and farmers' access to wells. In total, improving the access to unsalty water would be associated with a 0.32t/ha (4.2%) increase in multi-year average yield. In addition, farmers' method of choosing cultivar, which likely relates to their overall knowledge level, significantly explained yield variation. In particular, those choosing cultivars according to technician advice, personal experiences and high yielding neighbors' advice had on average higher yield than farmers that either followed seed sellers' advice or collectively purchased seeds. Overall, the study presents a generalizable methodology of assessing yield gap as well as its persistent factors using a combination of satellite and survey data.

  10. Towards a Quantitative Use of Satellite Remote Sensing in Crop Growth Models for Large Scale Agricultural Production Estimate (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defourny, P.

    2013-12-01

    The development of better agricultural monitoring capabilities is clearly considered as a critical step for strengthening food production information and market transparency thanks to timely information about crop status, crop area and yield forecasts. The documentation of global production will contribute to tackle price volatility by allowing local, national and international operators to make decisions and anticipate market trends with reduced uncertainty. Several operational agricultural monitoring systems are currently operating at national and international scales. Most are based on the methods derived from the pioneering experiences completed some decades ago, and use remote sensing to qualitatively compare one year to the others to estimate the risks of deviation from a normal year. The GEO Agricultural Monitoring Community of Practice described the current monitoring capabilities at the national and global levels. An overall diagram summarized the diverse relationships between satellite EO and agriculture information. There is now a large gap between the current operational large scale systems and the scientific state of the art in crop remote sensing, probably because the latter mainly focused on local studies. The poor availability of suitable in-situ and satellite data over extended areas hampers large scale demonstrations preventing the much needed up scaling research effort. For the cropland extent, this paper reports a recent research achievement using the full ENVISAT MERIS 300 m archive in the context of the ESA Climate Change Initiative. A flexible combination of classification methods depending to the region of the world allows mapping the land cover as well as the global croplands at 300 m for the period 2008 2012. This wall to wall product is then compared with regards to the FP 7-Geoland 2 results obtained using as Landsat-based sampling strategy over the IGADD countries. On the other hand, the vegetation indices and the biophysical variables

  11. Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on Simulations of Coastal Circulation and Hypoxia on the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model simulations to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) near the ...

  12. Towards realization of quantitative atmospheric and industrial gas sensing using THz wave electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekawade, Aniket; Rice, Timothy E.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Mansha, Muhammad Waleed; Wu, Kefei; Hella, Mona M.; Wilke, Ingrid

    2018-06-01

    The potential of THz wave electronics for miniaturized non-intrusive sensors for atmospheric, environmental, and industrial gases is explored. A THz wave spectrometer is developed using a radio-frequency multiplier source and a Schottky-diode detector. Spectral absorption measurements were made in a gas cell within a frequency range of 220-330 GHz at room temperature and subatmospheric pressures. Measurements are reported for pure acetonitrile (CH3CN), methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH) vapors at 5 and 10 Torr and for methanol dilute in the air (0.75-3.0 mol%) at a pressure of 500 Torr. An absorbance noise floor of 10-3 was achieved for a single 10 s scan of the 220-330 GHz frequency domain. Measured absorption spectra for methanol/air agree well at collisional-broadened conditions with spectral simulations carried out using literature spectroscopic parameters. In contrast to the previous submillimeter wave research that has focused on spectral absorbance at extremely low pressures (mTorr), where transitions are in the Doppler limit, and the present study illustrates the applicability of THz electronics for gas sensing at pressures approaching those found in atmospheric and industrial environments.

  13. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Turbidity and Ocean Current Velocity of the Ariake Sea Area, Kyushu, Japan Through Regression Analysis with Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Sarusawa; Kohei Arai

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis based method for turbidity and ocean current velocity estimation with remote sensing satellite data is proposed. Through regressive analysis with MODIS data and measured data of turbidity and ocean current velocity, regressive equation which allows estimation of turbidity and ocean current velocity is obtained. With the regressive equation as well as long term MODIS data, turbidity and ocean current velocity trends in Ariake Sea area are clarified. It is also confirmed tha...

  14. Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why Has It Been Do Difficult to Quantify Aerosol-Cloud Interactions for Climate Assessment, and How Can We Make Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-01-01

    The organizers of the National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia Series on Improving Our Fundamental Understanding of the Role of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the Climate System would like to post Ralph Kahn's presentation entitled Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why has it been so difficult to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions for climate assessment, and how can we make progress? to their public website.

  15. Assessment of the Impact of Reservoirs in the Upper Mekong River Using Satellite Radar Altimetry and Remote Sensing Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ting Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water level (WL and water volume (WV of surface-water bodies are among the most crucial variables used in water-resources assessment and management. They fluctuate as a result of climatic forcing, and they are considered as indicators of climatic impacts on water resources. Quantifying riverine WL and WV, however, usually requires the availability of timely and continuous in situ data, which could be a challenge for rivers in remote regions, including the Mekong River basin. As one of the most developed rivers in the world, with more than 20 dams built or under construction, Mekong River is in need of a monitoring system that could facilitate basin-scale management of water resources facing future climate change. This study used spaceborne sensors to investigate two dams in the upper Mekong River, Xiaowan and Jinghong Dams within China, to examine river flow dynamics after these dams became operational. We integrated multi-mission satellite radar altimetry (RA, Envisat and Jason-2 and Landsat-5/-7/-8 Thematic Mapper (TM/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+/Operational  Land Imager (OLI optical remote sensing (RS imageries to construct composite WL time series with enhanced spatial resolutions and substantially extended WL data records. An empirical relationship between WL variation and water extent was first established for each dam, and then the combined long-term WL time series from Landsat images are reconstructed for the dams. The R2 between altimetry WL and Landsat water area measurements is >0.95. Next, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data were used to diagnose and determine water variation caused by the precipitation anomaly within the basin. Finally, the impact of hydrologic dynamics caused by the impoundment of the dams is assessed. The discrepancy between satellite-derived WL and available in situ gauge data, in term of root-mean-square error (RMSE is at 2–5 m level. The estimated WV variations derived from combined RA

  16. Spectral interdependence of remote-sensing reflectance and its implications on the design of ocean color satellite sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping; Shang, Shaoling; Hu, Chuanmin; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-20

    Using 901 remote-sensing reflectance spectra (R(rs)(λ), sr⁻¹, λ from 400 to 700 nm with a 5 nm resolution), we evaluated the correlations of R(rs)(λ) between neighboring spectral bands in order to characterize (1) the spectral interdependence of R(rs)(λ) at different bands and (2) to what extent hyperspectral R(rs)(λ) can be reconstructed from multiband measurements. The 901 R(rs) spectra were measured over a wide variety of aquatic environments in which water color varied from oceanic blue to coastal green or brown, with chlorophyll-a concentrations ranging from ~0.02 to >100  mg  m⁻³, bottom depths from ~1  m to >1000  m, and bottom substrates including sand, coral reef, and seagrass. The correlation coefficient of R(rs)(λ) between neighboring bands at center wavelengths λ(k) and λ(l), r(Δλ)(λ(k), λ(l)), was evaluated systematically, with the spectral gap (Δλ=λ(l)-λ(k)) changing between 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 nm, respectively. It was found that r(Δλ) decreased with increasing Δλ, but remained >0.97 for Δλ≤20  nm for all spectral bands. Further, using 15 spectral bands between 400 and 710 nm, we reconstructed, via multivariant linear regression, hyperspectral R(rs)(λ) (from 400 to 700 nm with a 5 nm resolution). The percentage difference between measured and reconstructed R(rs) for each band in the 400-700 nm range was generally less than 1%, with a correlation coefficient close to 1.0. The mean absolute error between measured and reconstructed R(rs) was about 0.00002  sr⁻¹ for each band, which is significantly smaller than the R(rs) uncertainties from all past and current ocean color satellite radiometric products. These results echo findings of earlier studies that R(rs) measurements at ~15 spectral bands in the visible domain can provide nearly identical spectral information as with hyperspectral (contiguous bands at 5 nm spectral resolution) measurements. Such results provide insights for data

  17. Ground and satellite-based remote sensing of mineral dust using AERI spectra and MODIS thermal infrared window brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard Allen, Jr.

    The radiative effects of dust aerosol on our climate system have yet to be fully understood and remain a topic of contemporary research. To investigate these effects, detection/retrieval methods for dust events over major dust outbreak and transport areas have been developed using satellite and ground-based approaches. To this end, both the shortwave and longwave surface radiative forcing of dust aerosol were investigated. The ground-based remote sensing approach uses the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer brightness temperature spectra to detect mineral dust events and to retrieve their properties. Taking advantage of the high spectral resolution of the AERI instrument, absorptive differences in prescribed thermal IR window sub-band channels were exploited to differentiate dust from cirrus clouds. AERI data collected during the UAE2 at Al-Ain UAE was employed for dust retrieval. Assuming a specified dust composition model a priori and using the light scattering programs of T-matrix and the finite difference time domain methods for oblate spheroids and hexagonal plates, respectively, dust optical depths have been retrieved and compared to those inferred from a collocated and coincident AERONET sun-photometer dataset. The retrieved optical depths were then used to determine the dust longwave surface forcing during the UAE2. Likewise, dust shortwave surface forcing is investigated employing a differential technique from previous field studies. The satellite-based approach uses MODIS thermal infrared brightness temperature window data for the simultaneous detection/separation of mineral dust and cirrus clouds. Based on the spectral variability of dust emissivity at the 3.75, 8.6, 11 and 12 mum wavelengths, the D*-parameter, BTD-slope and BTD3-11 tests are combined to identify dust and cirrus. MODIS data for the three dust-laden scenes have been analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this detection/separation method. Detected daytime dust and cloud

  18. An Observation Task Chain Representation Model for Disaster Process-Oriented Remote Sensing Satellite Sensor Planning: A Flood Water Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and comprehensive representation of an observation task is a prerequisite in disaster monitoring to achieve reliable sensor observation planning. However, the extant disaster event or task information models do not fully satisfy the observation requirements for the accurate and efficient planning of remote-sensing satellite sensors. By considering the modeling requirements for a disaster observation task, we propose an observation task chain (OTChain representation model that includes four basic OTChain segments and eight-tuple observation task metadata description structures. A prototype system, namely OTChainManager, is implemented to provide functions for modeling, managing, querying, and visualizing observation tasks. In the case of flood water monitoring, we use a flood remote-sensing satellite sensor observation task for the experiment. The results show that the proposed OTChain representation model can be used in modeling process-owned flood disaster observation tasks. By querying and visualizing the flood observation task instances in the Jinsha River Basin, the proposed model can effectively express observation task processes, represent personalized observation constraints, and plan global remote-sensing satellite sensor observations. Compared with typical observation task information models or engines, the proposed OTChain representation model satisfies the information demands of the OTChain and its processes as well as impels the development of a long time-series sensor observation scheme.

  19. Satellite and Aerial Remote Sensing in Support of Disaster Response Operations Conducted by the Texas Division of Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, G. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Howard, T.; Porter, B.; Smith, S.; Teng, L.; Tapley, C.

    2014-12-01

    The effective use of remote sensing products as guidance to emergency managers and first responders during field operations requires close coordination and communication with state-level decision makers, incident commanders and the leaders of individual strike teams. Information must be tailored to meet the needs of different emergency support functions and must contain current (ideally near real-time) data delivered in standard formats in time to influence decisions made under rapidly changing conditions. Since 2003, a representative of the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) has served as a member of the Governor's Emergency Management Council and has directed the flow of information from remote sensing observations and high performance computing modeling and simulations to the Texas Division of Emergency Management in the State Operations Center. The CSR team has supported response and recovery missions resulting from hurricanes, tornadoes, flash floods, wildfires, oil spills and other natural and man-made disasters in Texas and surrounding states. Through web mapping services, state emergency managers and field teams have received threat model forecasts, real-time vehicle tracking displays and imagery to support search-and-clear operations before hurricane landfall, search-and-rescue missions following floods, tactical wildfire suppression, pollution monitoring and hazardous materials detection. Data servers provide near real-time satellite imagery collected by CSR's direct broadcast receiving system and post data products delivered during activations of the United Nations International Charter on Space and Major Disasters. In the aftermath of large-scale events, CSR is charged with tasking state aviation resources, including the Air National Guard and Texas Civil Air Patrol, to acquire geolocated aerial photography of the affected region for wide area damage assessment. A data archive for each disaster is available online for years following

  20. Application of Satellite Remote Sensing to Identify Climatic and Anthropogenic Changes Related to Water and Health Conditions in Emerging Megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Serman, E. A.; Jutla, A.

    2014-12-01

    focuses on stretching this understanding to water and health implications in this growing megacity and adjoining slum areas, and how satellite remote sensing data products and derived knowledge can inform urban planning, water management, and public health sectors to adapt to these climatic and anthropogenic changes for the benefit of societies.

  1. Concurrent Engineering in Aerospace Industry: How To Achieve Radiofrequency Geometric Specifications in Satellite Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vargas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems that a satellite manufacturing involves is to obtain the geometrical forms and the accurate positions for the different radiofrequency components (reflectors, subreflectors and feeders. CFRP (Carbon Fibber Reinforced Plastics sandwich structures never are obtained as designed due to the deformations associated to the manufacturing process. So, reflectors, subreflectors and structural components (towers, panels... have to be measured in order to include their deviations in the design of the regulation parts. High performance equipment (Co-ordinate Measurement Machines, CAD/CAM Systems and 5 Axis Machine Tool is used, but it is also necessary to make an integrated and multidisciplinary team. This paper describes how this process was implemented in CASA Space Division during HISPASAT 1C satellite manufacturing program.

  2. Satellite Based Live and Interactive Distance Learning Program in the Field of Geoinformatics - a Perspective of Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.; Roy, P. S.

    2011-09-01

    Geoinformatics is a highly specialized discipline that deals with Remote Sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and field surveys for assessing, quantification, development and management of resources, planning and infrastructure development, utility services etc. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), a premier institute and one of its kinds has played a key role for capacity Building in this specialized area since its inception in 1966. Realizing the large demand, IIRS has started outreach program in basics of Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS for universities and institutions. EDUSAT (Educational Satellite) is the communication satellite built and launched by ISRO in 2004 exclusively for serving the educational sector to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for the country. IIRS has used EDUSAT (shifted to INSAT 4 CR recently due to termination of services from EDUSAT) for its distance learning program to impart basic training in Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS, catering to the universities spread across India. The EDUSAT based training is following similar to e-learning method but has advantage of live interaction sessions between teacher and the students when the lecture is delivered using EDUSAT satellite communication. Because of its good quality reception the interactions are not constrained due to bandwidth problems of Internet. National Natural Resource Management System, Department of Space, Government of India, under Standing Committee in Training and Technology funded this unique program to conduct the basic training in Geoinformatics. IIRS conducts 6 weeks basic training course on "Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS" regularly since the year 2007. The course duration is spread over the period of 3 months beginning with the start of the academic year (1st semester) i.e., July to December every year, for university students. IIRS has utilized EDUSAT satellite for conducting 4 six weeks

  3. [Association between sense of coherence and occupational stress of workers in modern service industry in Shanghai, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X Y; Dai, J M; Wu, N; Shu, C; Gao, J L; Fu, H

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate understand the current status of the sense of coherence and occupational stress in modern service workers, and to analyze the association between occupational stress and the sense of coherence. Methods: From March to April, 2016, 834 modern service workers from 3 companies in Shanghai, China (in air transportation industry, marketing industry, and travel industry) were surveyed by non-ran-dom sampling. The self-completion questionnaires were filled out anonymously given the informed consent of the workers. The occupational stress questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress, and the Chinese version of the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) was used to assess the mental health. Results: The mean score for the sense of coherence of the respondents was 61.54±10.46, and 50.1% of them were self-rated as having occupational stress. There were significant differences in SOC score between groups with different ages, marital status, positions, lengths of service, family per capita monthly income, and weekly work hours ( P occupational stress score differed significantly across groups with different marital status, lengths of service, and weekly work hours ( P occupational stress differed significantly between groups with different SOC levels ( Poccupational stress. High SOC is a protective factor for occupational stress ( OR =0.39, 95% CI 0.26~ 0.59). Conclusion: Modern service workers in Shanghai have high SOC and moderate occupational stress. Therefore, improving SOC may reduce occupational stress.

  4. Modelling runoff and glacier melt in the Hunza basin in northern Pakistan using satellite remote sensing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, M.

    2011-01-01

    The glaciers in western Karakoram are important for freshwater supply in the rivers of Pakistan. Global warming influences the future water supply from glaciers. In order to study the hydrological conditions and possible impacts of climate change, runoff simulations are performed for the Hunza basin. The hydrological modelling system SRM (Snowmelt Runoff Model) is customized and applied to the Hunza basin. Various data obtained from satellite remote sensing imagery and meteorological stations in the study area are processed, prepared and used as input to SRM. For runoff simulations the basin is divided into five sub-basins. The (sub-) basins are defined by the hydrological response units (HRU) based on the elevation zones and land-cover types. The spatially distributed data are aggregated HRU-wise as input for the model simulations. The energy available for snow and glacier melt is parameterized in SRM by degree day factors which are defined separately for seasonal snow, ice and debris covered glaciers. The model is calibrated for the Hunza basin using the meteorological and remote sensing data from years 2002 and 2003. The daily runoff is simulated and compared with the measured discharge data obtained from the power company. The Nash-Sutcliffe correlation coefficient of simulated versus measured runoff data is 0.87 for year 2002 and 0.96 for year 2003 which indicates a good agreement. An estimation of mass balance of Baltoro glacier is made using the meteorological data from Shigar station applying the hydrological method to estimate accumulation and melt. Based on these data is found that Baltoro glacier has slightly negative mass balance. The ablation rates of debris covered parts of Baltoro glacier at 4150 m elevation are estimated to be between 3 and 4 cm per day. However, the uncertainty in mass balance modelling is high due to poor knowledge of accumulation inferred by spatial extrapolation from station data.Keeping the glacier area unchanged, for the 2002

  5. Satellite microwave remote sensing of North Eurasian inundation dynamics: development of coarse-resolution products and comparison with high-resolution synthetic aperture radar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, R; Rawlins, M A; McDonald, K C; Podest, E; Zimmermann, R; Kueppers, M

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are not only primary producers of atmospheric greenhouse gases but also possess unique features that are favourable for application of satellite microwave remote sensing to monitoring their status and trend. In this study we apply combined passive and active microwave remote sensing data sets from the NASA sensors AMSR-E and QuikSCAT to map surface water dynamics over Northern Eurasia. We demonstrate our method on the evolution of large wetland complexes for two consecutive years from January 2006 to December 2007. We apply river discharge measurements from the Ob River along with land surface runoff simulations derived from the Pan-Arctic Water Balance Model during and after snowmelt in 2006 and 2007 to interpret the abundance of widespread flooding along the River Ob in early summer of 2007 observed in the remote sensing products. The coarse-resolution, 25 km, surface water product is compared to a high-resolution, 30 m, inundation map derived from ALOS PALSAR (Advanced Land Observation Satellite phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar) imagery acquired for 11 July 2006, and extending along a transect in the central Western Siberian Plain. We found that the surface water fraction derived from the combined AMSR-E/QuikSCAT data sets closely tracks the inundation mapped using higher-resolution ALOS PALSAR data.

  6. Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on Simulations of Coastal Circulation and Hypoxia on the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong S. Ko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model simulations to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS near the annual hypoxic zone. Rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM were used for the salinity flux, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS were used for solar penetration. Improvements in the model results in comparison with in situ observations occurred when the two types of satellite data were included. Without inclusion of the satellite-derived surface salinity flux, realistic monthly variability in the model salinity fields was observed, but important inter-annual variability was missed. Without inclusion of the satellite-derived light attenuation, model bottom water temperatures were too high nearshore due to excessive penetration of solar irradiance. In general, these salinity and temperature errors led to model stratification that was too weak, and the model failed to capture observed spatial and temporal variability in water-column vertical stratification. Inclusion of the satellite data improved temperature and salinity predictions and the vertical stratification was strengthened, which improved prediction of bottom-water dissolved oxygen. The model-predicted area of bottom-water hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf, an important management metric, was substantially improved in comparison to observed hypoxic area by including the satellite data.

  7. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  8. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    development and operationalization of new spill response remote sensing tools must precede the next major oil spill. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved...Environment 124 (2012) 185–209 sensing oil spill impacts, and 5) a final discussion. Each section presents background, available remote sensing tools , and...cialized DaVinci command-line software (Clark et al., 2003) then mapped oil slick volume (Clark et al., 2010) in each AVIRIS pixel by identifying the

  9. Dynamics of Industrial Forests in Southeast United States Assessed using Satellite and Field Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Tao, X.; Zhao, F. A.; Schleeweis, K.; Ling, P. Y.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-12-01

    The southeast United States (SE-US) is dominated by tree plantations and other forms of industrial forests that provide vital socio-ecological services to the human society. Most of these forests are managed to maximize economic outcome, and hence are often subject to intensive management practices and have different harvest-regrowth cycles as compared with natural forest ecosystems. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped forest disturbances for the conterminous United States using dense time series Landsat observations. The derived map products revealed that more than 50% of the forests in SE-US were harvested or disturbed by other forms of human or natural disturbance events at least once between 1986 and 2010. These products are being analyzed together with ancillary GIS data sets and field inventory data to identify industrial forests and to quantify their logging intensity, timber output, recovery rate, and the harvest-regrowth cycle. The derived results will be summarized in this presentation, along with discussions of the underlying environmental and management factors that may drive the spatio-temporal dynamics of the industrial forests in SE-US.

  10. Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on Simulations of Coastal Circulation and Hypoxia on the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Dong S. Ko; Richard W. Gould; Bradley Penta; John C. Lehrter

    2016-01-01

    We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model simulations to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) near the annual hypoxic zone. Rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) were used for the salinity flux, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  11. Japan’s efforts to promote global health using satellite remote sensing data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency for prediction of infectious diseases and air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamotsu Igarashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the status of new applications research of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA for global health promotion using information derived from Earth observation data by satellites in cooperation with inter-disciplinary collaborators. Current research effort at JAXA to promote global public health is focused primarily on the use of remote sensing to address two themes: (i prediction models for malaria and cholera in Kenya, Africa; and (ii air quality assessment of small, particulate matter (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and ozone (O3. Respiratory and cardivascular diseases constitute cross-boundary public health risk issues on a global scale. The authors report here on results of current of a collaborative research to call attention to the need to take preventive measures against threats to public health using newly arising remote sensing information from space.

  12. A numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, and its demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a geostationary satellite constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Ding, Shouguo; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Mishchenko, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, together with a demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a geostationary satellite constellation. The testbed combines inverse (optimal-estimation) software with a forward model containing linearized code for computing particle scattering (for both spherical and non-spherical particles), a kernel-based (land and ocean) surface bi-directional reflectance facility, and a linearized radiative transfer model for polarized radiance. Calculation of gas absorption spectra uses the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption) database of spectroscopic line parameters and other trace species cross-sections. The outputs of the testbed include not only the Stokes 4-vector elements and their sensitivities (Jacobians) with respect to the aerosol single scattering and physical parameters (such as size and shape parameters, refractive index, and plume height), but also DFS (Degree of Freedom for Signal) values for retrieval of these parameters. This testbed can be used as a tool to provide an objective assessment of aerosol information content that can be retrieved for any constellation of (planned or real) satellite sensors and for any combination of algorithm design factors (in terms of wavelengths, viewing angles, radiance and/or polarization to be measured or used). We summarize the components of the testbed, including the derivation and validation of analytical formulae for Jacobian calculations. Benchmark calculations from the forward model are documented. In the context of NASA's Decadal Survey Mission GEO-CAPE (GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), we demonstrate the use of the testbed to conduct a feasibility study of using polarization measurements in and around the O 2 A band for the retrieval of aerosol height information from space, as well as an to assess potential improvement in the retrieval of aerosol fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) through the

  13. Remote sensing systems – Platforms and sensors: Aerial, satellites, UAVs, optical, radar, and LiDAR: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sudhanshu S.; Rao, Mahesh N.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Fitzerald, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing defined remote sensing as the measurement or acquisition of information of some property of an object or phenomenon, by a recording device that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object or phenomenon under study (Colwell et al., 1983). Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) in its geographic information system (GIS) dictionary defines remote sensing as “collecting and interpreting information about the environment and the surface of the earth from a distance, primarily by sensing radiation that is naturally emitted or reflected by the earth’s surface or from the atmosphere, or by sending signals transmitted from a device and reflected back to it (ESRI, 2014).” The usual source of passive remote sensing data is the measurement of reflected or transmitted electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from the sun across the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS); this can also include acoustic or sound energy, gravity, or the magnetic field from or of the objects under consideration. In this context, the simple act of reading this text is considered remote sensing. In this case, the eye acts as a sensor and senses the light reflected from the object to obtain information about the object. It is the same technology used by a handheld camera to take a photograph of a person or a distant scenic view. Active remote sensing, however, involves sending a pulse of energy and then measuring the returned energy through a sensor (e.g., Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR]). Thermal sensors measure emitted energy by different objects. Thus, in general, passive remote sensing involves the measurement of solar energy reflected from the Earth’s surface, while active remote sensing involves synthetic (man-made) energy pulsed at the environment and the return signals are measured and recorded.

  14. Comparing Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale across three UK post-industrial cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; McCullough, Sarah; Buchanan, Duncan; Jones, Russell

    2014-11-25

    High levels of 'excess' mortality (ie, that seemingly not explained by deprivation) have been shown for Scotland compared to England and Wales and, especially, for its largest city, Glasgow, compared to the similarly deprived English cities of Liverpool and Manchester. It has been suggested that this excess may be related to differences in 'Sense of Coherence' (SoC) between the populations. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether levels of SoC differed between these cities and whether, therefore, this could be a plausible explanation for the 'excess'. Three post-industrial UK cities: Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. A representative sample of more than 3700 adults (over 1200 in each city). SoC was measured using Antonovsky's 13-item scale (SOC-13). Multivariate linear regression was used to compare SoC between the cities while controlling for characteristics (age, gender, SES etc) of the samples. Additional modelling explored whether differences in SoC moderated city differences in levels of self-assessed health (SAH). SoC was higher, not lower, among the Glasgow sample. Fully adjusted mean SoC scores for residents of Liverpool and Manchester were, respectively, 5.1 (-5.1 (95% CI -6.0 to -4.1)) and 8.1 (-8.1 (-9.1 to -7.2)) lower than those in Glasgow. The additional modelling confirmed the relationship between SoC and SAH: a 1 unit increase in SoC predicted approximately 3% lower likelihood of reporting bad/very bad health (OR=0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.98)): given the slightly worse SAH in Glasgow, this resulted in slightly lower odds of reporting bad/very bad health for the Liverpool and Manchester samples compared to Glasgow. The reasons for the high levels of 'excess' mortality seen in Scotland and particularly Glasgow remain unclear. However, on the basis of these analyses, it appears unlikely that a low SoC provides any explanation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  15. Ganga floods of 2010 in Uttar Pradesh, north India: a perspective analysis using satellite remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Bhatt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the unprecedented flood situation captured through multi-temporal satellite images, witnessed along the Ganga River in Uttar Pradesh during September 2010. At three gauge stations (Kannauj, Ankinghat and Kanpur, river water level exceeded the previous high-flood level attained by river more than a decade ago. The present communication with the aid of pre- and post-flood satellite images, coupled with hydrological (river water level and meteorological (rainfall data, explains about the unprecedented flood situation. In the latter part of the study, a novel and cost-effective method for building a library of flood inundation extents based on historical satellite data analysis and tagging the inundation layer with observed water level is demonstrated. During flood season, based on the forecasted water level, the library can be accessed to fetch the spatial inundation layer corresponding to the forecasted stage and anticipate in advance, likely spatial inundation pattern and submergence of villages and hence in alerting the habitation at risk. This method can be helpful in anticipating the areas to be affected in situations where satellite images cannot be effectively utilized due to cloud cover and also for providing information about the areas being partially covered in satellite data.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING OF CLOUDS AND RADIATION USING ARM DATA, FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

    2013-06-28

    During the period, March 1997 – February 2006, the Principal Investigator and his research team co-authored 47 peer-reviewed papers and presented, at least, 138 papers at conferences, meetings, and workshops that were supported either in whole or in part by this agreement. We developed a state-of-the-art satellite cloud processing system that generates cloud properties over the Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) surface sites and surrounding domains in near-real time and outputs the results on the world wide web in image and digital formats. When the products are quality controlled, they are sent to the ARM archive for further dissemination. These products and raw satellite images can be accessed at http://cloudsgate2.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/site/showdoc?docid=4&cmd=field-experiment-homepage&exp=ARM and are used by many in the ARM science community. The algorithms used in this system to generate cloud properties were validated and improved by the research conducted under this agreement. The team supported, at least, 11 ARM-related or supported field experiments by providing near-real time satellite imagery, cloud products, model results, and interactive analyses for mission planning, execution, and post-experiment scientific analyses. Comparisons of cloud properties derived from satellite, aircraft, and surface measurements were used to evaluate uncertainties in the cloud properties. Multiple-angle satellite retrievals were used to determine the influence of cloud structural and microphysical properties on the exiting radiation field.

  17. Intercomparison of phenological transition dates derived from the PhenoCam Dataset V1.0 and MODIS satellite remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D; Hufkens, Koen; Milliman, Tom; Frolking, Steve

    2018-04-09

    Phenology is a valuable diagnostic of ecosystem health, and has applications to environmental monitoring and management. Here, we conduct an intercomparison analysis using phenological transition dates derived from near-surface PhenoCam imagery and MODIS satellite remote sensing. We used approximately 600 site-years of data, from 128 camera sites covering a wide range of vegetation types and climate zones. During both "greenness rising" and "greenness falling" transition phases, we found generally good agreement between PhenoCam and MODIS transition dates for agricultural, deciduous forest, and grassland sites, provided that the vegetation in the camera field of view was representative of the broader landscape. The correlation between PhenoCam and MODIS transition dates was poor for evergreen forest sites. We discuss potential reasons (including sub-pixel spatial heterogeneity, flexibility of the transition date extraction method, vegetation index sensitivity in evergreen systems, and PhenoCam geolocation uncertainty) for varying agreement between time series of vegetation indices derived from PhenoCam and MODIS imagery. This analysis increases our confidence in the ability of satellite remote sensing to accurately characterize seasonal dynamics in a range of ecosystems, and provides a basis for interpreting those dynamics in the context of tangible phenological changes occurring on the ground.

  18. The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity - Use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William; Evans, Robert; Brown, Jim; Feldman, Gene; Mcclain, Charles; Esaias, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Global pigment and primary productivity algorithms based on a new data compilation of over 12,000 stations occupied mostly in the Northern Hemisphere, from the late 1950s to 1988, were tested. The results showed high variability of the fraction of total pigment contributed by chlorophyll, which is required for subsequent predictions of primary productivity. Two models, which predict pigment concentration normalized to an attenuation length of euphotic depth, were checked against 2,800 vertical profiles of pigments. Phaeopigments consistently showed maxima at about one optical depth below the chlorophyll maxima. CZCS data coincident with the sea truth data were also checked. A regression of satellite-derived pigment vs ship-derived pigment had a coefficient of determination. The satellite underestimated the true pigment concentration in mesotrophic and oligotrophic waters and overestimated the pigment concentration in eutrophic waters. The error in the satellite estimate showed no trends with time between 1978 and 1986.

  19. Use of a GCM to Explore Sampling Issues in Connection with Satellite Remote Sensing of the Earth Radiation Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Laura D.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Randall, David A.; Branson, Mark D.; Gibson, Gary G.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Collocated in time and space, top-of-the-atmosphere measurements of the Earth radiation budget (ERB) and cloudiness from passive scanning radiometers, and lidar- and radar-in-space measurements of multilayered cloud systems, are the required combination to improve our understanding of the role of clouds and radiation in climate. Experiments to fly multiple satellites "in formation" to measure simultaneously the radiative and optical properties of overlapping cloud systems are being designed. Because satellites carrying ERB experiments and satellites carrying lidars- or radars-in space have different orbital characteristics, the number of simultaneous measurements of radiation and clouds is reduced relative to the number of measurements made by each satellite independently. Monthly averaged coincident observations of radiation and cloudiness are biased when compared against more frequently sampled observations due, in particular, to the undersampling of their diurnal cycle, Using the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU GCM), the goal of this study is to measure the impact of using simultaneous observations from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platform and companion satellites flying lidars or radars on monthly averaged diagnostics of longwave radiation, cloudiness, and its cloud optical properties. To do so, the hourly varying geographical distributions of coincident locations between the afternoon EOS (EOS-PM) orbit and the orbit of the ICESAT satellite set to fly at the altitude of 600 km, and between the EOS PM orbit and the orbits of the PICASSO satellite proposed to fly at the altitudes of 485 km (PICA485) or 705 km (PICA705), are simulated in the CSU GCM for a 60-month time period starting at the idealistic July 1, 2001, launch date. Monthly averaged diagnostics of the top-of-the-atmosphere, atmospheric, and surface longwave radiation budgets and clouds accumulated over grid boxes corresponding to satellite overpasses are compared against

  20. Image Mosaicking Approach for a Double-Camera System in the GaoFen2 Optical Remote Sensing Satellite Based on the Big Virtual Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufeng; Jin, Shuying; Wang, Mi; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Zhipeng

    2017-06-20

    The linear array push broom imaging mode is widely used for high resolution optical satellites (HROS). Using double-cameras attached by a high-rigidity support along with push broom imaging is one method to enlarge the field of view while ensuring high resolution. High accuracy image mosaicking is the key factor of the geometrical quality of complete stitched satellite imagery. This paper proposes a high accuracy image mosaicking approach based on the big virtual camera (BVC) in the double-camera system on the GaoFen2 optical remote sensing satellite (GF2). A big virtual camera can be built according to the rigorous imaging model of a single camera; then, each single image strip obtained by each TDI-CCD detector can be re-projected to the virtual detector of the big virtual camera coordinate system using forward-projection and backward-projection to obtain the corresponding single virtual image. After an on-orbit calibration and relative orientation, the complete final virtual image can be obtained by stitching the single virtual images together based on their coordinate information on the big virtual detector image plane. The paper subtly uses the concept of the big virtual camera to obtain a stitched image and the corresponding high accuracy rational function model (RFM) for concurrent post processing. Experiments verified that the proposed method can achieve seamless mosaicking while maintaining the geometric accuracy.

  1. A Neutral-Network-Fusion Architecture for Automatic Extraction of Oceanographic Features from Satellite Remote Sensing Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Askari, Farid

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an approach for automatic feature detection from fusion of remote sensing imagery using a combination of neural network architecture and the Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory of evidence...

  2. GOLD MINERAL PROSPECTING USING PHASED ARRAY TYPE L-BAND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (PALSAR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING DATA, CENTRAL GOLD BELT, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest and intense weathering makes it impossible to map geological structures over long distances. Advances in remote sensing technology allow the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data in geological structural analysis for tropical environments. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implication for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The major geological structure directions of the BRSZ are N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE, which derived from directional filtering analysis to PALSAR data. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Lineament analysis on PALSAR satellite remote sensing data is a useful tool for detecting the boundary between the Gondwana-derived terranes and major geological features associated with suture zone especially for large inaccessible regions in tropical environments.

  3. Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing attention paid to aerosols in climate studies, numerous global satellite aerosol products have been generated. Aerosol parameters and underlining physical processes are now incorporated in many general circulation models (GCMs in order to account for their direct and indirect effects on the earth's climate, through their interactions with the energy and water cycles. There exists, however, an outstanding problem that these satellite products have substantial discrepancies, that must be lowered substantially for narrowing the range of the estimates of aerosol's climate effects. In this paper, numerous key uncertain factors in the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD are articulated for some widely used and relatively long satellite aerosol products including the AVHRR, TOMS, MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS. We systematically review the algorithms developed for these sensors in terms of four key elements that influence the quality of passive satellite aerosol retrieval: calibration, cloud screening, classification of aerosol types, and surface effects. To gain further insights into these uncertain factors, the NOAA AVHRR data are employed to conduct various tests, which help estimate the ranges of uncertainties incurred by each of the factors. At the end, recommendations are made to cope with these issues and to produce a consistent and unified aerosol database of high quality for both environment monitoring and climate studies.

  4. Combining forest inventory, satellite remote sensing, and geospatial data for mapping forest attributes of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Greg Liknes; Charles H. Perry

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and display of forest composition, structure, and pattern provides information for a variety of assessments and management decision support. The objective of this study was to produce geospatial datasets and maps of conterminous United States forest land ownership, forest site productivity, timberland, and reserved forest land. Satellite image-based maps of...

  5. [Application of small remote sensing satellite constellations for environmental hazards in wetland landscape mapping: taking Liaohe Delta, Liaoning Province of Northeast China as a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Zheng; Chang, Yu; Hu, Yuan-Man; Liu, Miao; Li, Yue-Hui

    2011-06-01

    To timely and accurately acquire the spatial distribution pattern of wetlands is of significance for the dynamic monitoring, conservation, and sustainable utilization of wetlands. The small remote sensing satellite constellations A/B stars (HJ-1A/1B stars) for environmental hazards were launched by China for monitoring terrestrial resources, which could provide a new data source of remote sensing image acquisition for retrieving wetland types. Taking Liaohe Delta as a case, this paper compared the accuracy of wetland classification map and the area of each wetland type retrieved from CCD data (HJ CCD data) and TM5 data, and validated and explored the applicability and the applied potential of HJ CCD data in wetland resources dynamic monitoring. The results showed that HJ CCD data could completely replace Landsat TM5 data in feature extraction and remote sensing classification. In real-time monitoring, due to its 2 days of data acquisition cycle, HJ CCD data had the priority to Landsat TM5 data (16 days of data acquisition cycle).

  6. Sense of coherence and burnout in the energy and chemicals industry: The moderating role of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanet van der Westhuizen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are accommodating four different social generations in the working environment. This poses a challenge for Human Resources departments to manage these diverse age cohorts in the workforce, as they are likely to have different needs, values and variables affecting their wellness. Research purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess whether various age groups differ with regard to their sense of coherence and burnout, and whether age significantly moderates the relationship between sense of coherence and burnout. Motivation for the study: Although the literature review suggests that age groups may differ with regard to their sense of coherence and burnout, the findings seem to be somewhat inconclusive in this regard. There also seems to be a paucity of research examining the interaction effect between sense of coherence, burnout and age. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey approach was used. A nonprobability convenience sample of adults (N = 246 – employed in South Africa by an international integrated energy and chemicals company – participated in the study. Correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to achieve the objectives of the study. Main findings: The results showed that employees between the ages of 51 and 60 years of age experienced higher levels of comprehensibility and lower levels of reduced professional efficacy than their younger counterparts. The relationship between sense of coherence and exhaustion was also stronger for employees between 51 and 60 years old than for younger age categories. Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study can be useful when planning human resource interventions to enhance the well-being of employees from different age groups. Contribution: The results of the study add new insights to the well-being literature by showing that employees’ age is

  7. Practical Applicability and Preliminary Results of the Baltic Environmental Satellite Remote Sensing System (Satbałtyk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowska Mirosława

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The SatBałtyk (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment project is being realized in Poland by the SatBałtyk Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot - coordinator of the project, the University of Gdańsk (Institute of Oceanography, the Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk (Institute of Physics and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences. The project is aiming to prepare a technical infrastructure and set in motion operational procedures for the satellite monitoring of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The main sources of input data for this system will be the results of systematic observations by metrological and environmental satellites such as TIROS N/NOAA, MSG (currently Meteosat 10, EOS/AQUA and Sentinel -1, 2, 3 (in the future. The system will deliver on a routine basis the variety of structural and functional properties of this sea, based on data provided by relevant satellites and supported by hydro-biological models. Among them: the solar radiation influx to the sea’s waters in various spectral intervals, energy balances of the short- and long-wave radiation at the Baltic Sea surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere over the Baltic, sea surface temperature distribution, dynamic states of the water surface, concentrations of chlorophyll a and other phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic waters, spatial distributions of algal blooms, the occurrence of coastal upwelling events, and the characteristics of primary production of organic matter and photosynthetically released oxygen in the water and many others. The structure of the system and preliminary results will be presented.

  8. Learning Control: Sense-Making, CNC Machines, and Changes in Vocational Training for Industrial Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Boel

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores how novices in school-based vocational training make sense of computerized numerical control (CNC) machines. Based on two ethnographic studies in Swedish schools, one from the early 1980s and one from 2006, it analyses change and continuity in the cognitive, social, and emotional processes of learning how to become a machine…

  9. Satellite remote sensing of Asian aerosols: a case study of clean, polluted, and Asian dust storm days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In East Asia, satellite observation is important because aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources have been recognized as a major source of regional and global air pollution. However, retrieving aerosols properties from satellite observations over land can be difficult because of the surface reflection, complex aerosol composition, and aerosol absorption. In this study, a new aerosol retrieval method called as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite aerosol retrieval (MSTAR was developed and applied to three different aerosol event cases over East Asia. MSTAR uses a separation technique that can distinguish aerosol reflectance from top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance. The aerosol optical thickness (AOT was determined by comparing this aerosol reflectance with pre-calculated values. Three case studies show how the methodology identifies discrepancies between measured and calculated values to retrieve more accurate AOT. The comparison between MODIS and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET showed improvement using the suggested methodology with the cluster-based look-up-tables (LUTs (linear slope = 0.94, R = 0.92 than using operational MODIS collection 5 aerosol products (linear slope = 0.78, R = 0.87. In conclusion, the suggested methodology is shown to work well with aerosol models acquired by statistical clustering of the observation data in East Asia.

  10. Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow Depth on Antarctic Sea Ice: An Inter-Comparison of Two Empirical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a key role for sea ice physical processes and complicates retrieval of sea ice thickness using altimetry. Current methods of snow depth retrieval are based on satellite microwave radiometry, which perform best for dry, homogeneous snow packs on level sea ice. We introduce an alternative approach based on in-situ measurements of total (sea ice plus snow freeboard and snow depth, which we use to compute snow depth on sea ice from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat total freeboard observations. We compare ICESat snow depth for early winter and spring of the years 2004 through 2006 with the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E snow depth product. We find ICESat snow depths agree more closely with ship-based visual and air-borne snow radar observations than AMSR-E snow depths. We obtain average modal and mean ICESat snow depths, which exceed AMSR-E snow depths by 5–10 cm in winter and 10–15 cm in spring. We observe an increase in ICESat snow depth from winter to spring for most Antarctic regions in accordance with ground-based observations, in contrast to AMSR-E snow depths, which we find to stay constant or to decrease. We suggest satellite laser altimetry as an alternative method to derive snow depth on Antarctic sea ice, which is independent of snow physical properties.

  11. Monitoring Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Western Pacific Using Satellite Remote Sensing Integrated with Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, C. M.; Phinn, S. R.; Lyons, M. B.; Kovacs, E.; Saunders, M. I.; Leon, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) are typically found in highly dynamic environments where the magnitude and types of physical and biological processes controlling their distribution, diversity and function changes dramatically. Recent advances in the types of satellite image data and the length of their archives that are available globally, coupled with new techniques for extracting environmental information from these data sets has enabled significant advances to be made in our ability to map and monitor coral and SAV environments. Object Based Image Analysis techniques are one of the most significant advances in information extraction techniques for processing images to deliver environmental information at multiple spatial scales. This poster demonstrates OBIA applied to high spatial resolution satellite image data to map and monitor coral and SAV communities across a variety of environments in the Western Pacific that vary in their extent, biological composition, forcing physical factors and location. High spatial resolution satellite imagery (Quickbird, Ikonos and Worldview2) were acquired coincident with field surveys on each reef to collect georeferenced benthic photo transects, over various areas in the Western Pacific. Base line maps were created, from Roviana Lagoon Solomon island (600 km2), Bikini Atoll Marshall Island (800 Km2), Lizard Island, Australia (30 km2) and time series maps for geomorphic and benthic communities were collected for Heron Reef, Australia (24 km2) and Eastern Banks area of Moreton Bay, Australia (200 km2). The satellite image data were corrected for radiometric and atmospheric distortions to at-surface reflectance. Georeferenced benthic photos were acquired by divers or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, analysed for benthic cover composition, and used for calibration and validation purposes. Hierarchical mapping from: reef/non-reef (1000's - 10000's m); reef type (100's - 1000's m); 'geomorphic zone' (10's - 100's m); to

  12. Making sense of modernity's maladies: health and disease in the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The industrialization and urbanization of Britain during the 19th century gave the medical profession something to think about. In particular, were the radical changes taking place in society responsible for the sudden rise in endemic and epidemic disease? This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) examines the reactions of two key figures in the history of British public health, James Philips Kay and Thomas Southwood Smith, to this question. Their outlooks typify the tendency of Victorian medical practitioners to construct economies of health that saw disease as a consequence of the violation of natural laws and cycles rather than as a product of industrial modernity.

  13. Interated Intelligent Industrial Process Sensing and Control: Applied to and Demonstrated on Cupola Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; roger Haggard; Wagdy Mahmoud; Kevin Moore; Denis Clark; Eric Larsen; Paul King

    2003-02-12

    The final goal of this project was the development of a system that is capable of controlling an industrial process effectively through the integration of information obtained through intelligent sensor fusion and intelligent control technologies. The industry of interest in this project was the metal casting industry as represented by cupola iron-melting furnaces. However, the developed technology is of generic type and hence applicable to several other industries. The system was divided into the following four major interacting components: 1. An object oriented generic architecture to integrate the developed software and hardware components @. Generic algorithms for intelligent signal analysis and sensor and model fusion 3. Development of supervisory structure for integration of intelligent sensor fusion data into the controller 4. Hardware implementation of intelligent signal analysis and fusion algorithms

  14. Monitoring some environmental impacts of oil industry on coastal zone using different remotely sensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Hegazy

    2010-06-01

    Various environmental parameters which might be affected by pollution resulting from activities related to the oil industry were identified and hot spots that might be subjected to environmental deterioration were pointed out for immediate measures for environmental protection.

  15. Remote sensing and avian influenza: A review of image processing methods for extracting key variables affecting avian influenza virus survival in water from Earth Observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Annelise; Goutard, Flavie; Chamaillé, Lise; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Lo Seen, Danny

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of water in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses and the existence of often interacting variables that determine the survival rate of these viruses in water; the two main variables are temperature and salinity. Remote sensing has been used to map and monitor water bodies for several decades. In this paper, we review satellite image analysis methods used for water detection and characterization, focusing on the main variables that influence AI virus survival in water. Optical and radar imagery are useful for detecting water bodies at different spatial and temporal scales. Methods to monitor the temperature of large water surfaces are also available. Current methods for estimating other relevant water variables such as salinity, pH, turbidity and water depth are not presently considered to be effective.

  16. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  17. Combined use of weather forecasting and satellite remote sensing information for fire risk, fire and fire impact monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knorr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of fire-affected forest areas needs to be combined with their future protection from renewed catastrophic fires, such as those that occurred in Greece during the 2007 summer season. The present work demonstrates that the use of various sources of satellite data in conjunction with weather forecast information is capable of providing valuable information for the characterization of fire danger with the purpose of protecting the Greek national forest areas. This study shows that favourable meteorological conditions have contributed to the fire outbreak during the days of the unusually damaging fires in Peloponnese as well as Euboia (modern Greek: Evia at the end of August 2007. During those days, Greece was located between an extended high pressure system in Central Europe and a low pressure system in the Middle East. Their combination resulted in strong north-northeasterly winds in the Aegean Sea. As a consequence, strong winds were also observed in the regions of Evia and Peloponnese, especially in mountainous areas. The analysis of satellite images showing smoke emitted from the fires corroborates the results from the weather forecasts. A further analysis using the Fraction of Absorbed Photosyntetically Active Radiation (FAPAR as an indicator of active vegetation shows the extent of the destruction caused by the fire. The position of the burned areas coincides with that of the active fires detected in the earlier satellite image. Using the annual maximum FAPAR as an indicator of regional vegetation density, it was found that only regions with relatively high FAPAR were burned.

  18. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Fleming, Lora E.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner

    2010-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlorophyll concentration) and a Bio-optical Technique (using particulate backscatter along with chlorophyll concentration). The long-term evaluation of the new multi-algorithm method was performed using a multi-year MODIS dataset (2002 to 2006; during the boreal Summer-Fall periods – July to December) along the Central West Florida Shelf between 25.75°N and 28.25°N. Algorithm validation was done with in situ measurements of the abundances of K. brevis; cell counts ≥1.5×104 cells l−1 defined a detectable HAB. Encouraging statistical results were derived when either or both algorithms correctly flagged known samples. The majority of the valid match-ups were correctly identified (~80% of both HABs and non-blooming conditions) and few false negatives or false positives were produced (~20% of each). Additionally, most of the HAB-positive identifications in the satellite data were indeed HAB samples (positive predictive value: ~70%) and those classified as HAB-negative were almost all non-bloom cases (negative predictive value: ~86%). These results demonstrate an excellent detection capability, on average ~10% more accurate than the individual algorithms used separately. Thus, the new Hybrid Scheme could become a powerful tool for environmental monitoring of K. brevis blooms, with valuable consequences including leading to the more rapid and efficient use of ships to make in situ measurements of HABs. PMID:21037979

  19. Assessing Climate-Induced Change in River Flow Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Process Modeling in High Mountain Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Snow- and glacier-fed river systems originating from High Mountain Asia (HMA) support diverse ecosystems and provide the basis for food and energy production for more than a billion people living downstream. Climate-driven changes in the melting of snow and glaciers and in precipitation patterns are expected to significantly alter the flow of the rivers in the HMA region at various temporal scales, which in turn could heavily affect the socioeconomics of the region. Hence, climate change effects on seasonal and long-term hydrological conditions may have far reaching economic impact annually and over the century. We are developing a decision support tool utilizing integrated microwave remote sensing datasets, process modeling and economic models to inform water resource management decisions and ecosystem sustainability as related to the High Mountain Asia (HMA) region's response to climate change. The availability of consistent time-series microwave remote sensing datasets from Earth-orbiting scatterometers, radiometers and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery provides the basis for the observational framework of this monitoring system. We discuss the assembly, processing and application of scatterometer and SAR data sets from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and Sentinal-1 SARs, and the enlistment of these data to monitor seasonal melt and thaw status of glacier-dominated and surrounding regions. We present current status and future plans for this effort. Our team's study emphasizes processes and economic modeling within the Trishuli basin; our remote sensing analysis supports analyses across the HiMAT domain.

  20. RETRIEVAL OF AEROSOL MICROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES BASED ON THE OPTIMAL ESTIMATION METHOD: INFORMATION CONTENT ANALYSIS FOR SATELLITE POLARIMETRIC REMOTE SENSING MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Z. Hou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the information content for the retrieval of key aerosol microphysical and surface properties for multispectral single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements cantered at 410, 443, 555, 670, 865, 1610 and 2250 nm over bright land. To conduct the information content analysis, the synthetic data are simulated by the Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNLVTM with the intensity and polarization together over bare soil surface for various scenarios. Following the optimal estimation theory, a principal component analysis method is employed to reconstruct the multispectral surface reflectance from 410 nm to 2250 nm, and then integrated with a linear one-parametric BPDF model to represent the contribution of polarized surface reflectance, thus further to decouple the surface-atmosphere contribution from the TOA measurements. Focusing on two different aerosol models with the aerosol optical depth equal to 0.8 at 550 nm, the total DFS and DFS component of each retrieval aerosol and surface parameter are analysed. The DFS results show that the key aerosol microphysical properties, such as the fine- and coarse-mode columnar volume concentration, the effective radius and the real part of complex refractive index at 550 nm, could be well retrieved with the surface parameters simultaneously over bare soil surface type. The findings of this study can provide the guidance to the inversion algorithm development over bright surface land by taking full use of the single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements.

  1. Retrieval of Aerosol Microphysical Properties Based on the Optimal Estimation Method: Information Content Analysis for Satellite Polarimetric Remote Sensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W. Z.; Li, Z. Q.; Zheng, F. X.; Qie, L. L.

    2018-04-01

    This paper evaluates the information content for the retrieval of key aerosol microphysical and surface properties for multispectral single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements cantered at 410, 443, 555, 670, 865, 1610 and 2250 nm over bright land. To conduct the information content analysis, the synthetic data are simulated by the Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNLVTM) with the intensity and polarization together over bare soil surface for various scenarios. Following the optimal estimation theory, a principal component analysis method is employed to reconstruct the multispectral surface reflectance from 410 nm to 2250 nm, and then integrated with a linear one-parametric BPDF model to represent the contribution of polarized surface reflectance, thus further to decouple the surface-atmosphere contribution from the TOA measurements. Focusing on two different aerosol models with the aerosol optical depth equal to 0.8 at 550 nm, the total DFS and DFS component of each retrieval aerosol and surface parameter are analysed. The DFS results show that the key aerosol microphysical properties, such as the fine- and coarse-mode columnar volume concentration, the effective radius and the real part of complex refractive index at 550 nm, could be well retrieved with the surface parameters simultaneously over bare soil surface type. The findings of this study can provide the guidance to the inversion algorithm development over bright surface land by taking full use of the single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements.

  2. Quantifying Forest and Coastal Disturbance from Industrial Mining Using Satellite Time Series Analysis Under Very Cloudy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, M.; Van Den Hoek, J.; Ahmed, N.

    2015-12-01

    The open-pit Grasberg mine, located in the highlands of Western Papua, Indonesia, and operated by PT Freeport Indonesia (PT-FI), is among the world's largest in terms of copper and gold production. Over the last 27 years, PT-FI has used the Ajkwa River to transport an estimated 1.3 billion tons of tailings from the mine into the so-called Ajkwa Deposition Area (ADA). The ADA is the product of aggradation and lateral expansion of the Ajkwa River into the surrounding lowland rainforest and mangroves, which include species important to the livelihoods of indigenous Papuans. Mine tailings that do not settle in the ADA disperse into the Arafura Sea where they increase levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and associated concentrations of dissolved copper. Despite the mine's large-scale operations, ecological impact of mine tailings deposition on the forest and estuarial ecosystems have received minimal formal study. While ground-based inquiries are nearly impossible due to access restrictions, assessment via satellite remote sensing is promising but hindered by extreme cloud cover. In this study, we characterize ridgeline-to-coast environmental impacts along the Ajkwa River, from the Grasberg mine to the Arafura Sea between 1987 and 2014. We use "all available" Landsat TM and ETM+ images collected over this time period to both track pixel-level vegetation disturbance and monitor changes in coastal SPM levels. Existing temporal segmentation algorithms are unable to assess both acute and protracted trajectories of vegetation change due to pervasive cloud cover. In response, we employ robust, piecewise linear regression on noisy vegetation index (NDVI) data in a manner that is relatively insensitive to atmospheric contamination. Using this disturbance detection technique we constructed land cover histories for every pixel, based on 199 image dates, to differentiate processes of vegetation decline, disturbance, and regrowth. Using annual reports from PT-FI, we show

  3. Determining spatio-temporal distribution of bee forage species of Al-Baha region based on ground inventorying supported with GIS applications and Remote Sensed Satellite Image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuru Adgaba

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In arid zones, the shortage of bee forage is critical and usually compels beekeepers to move their colonies in search of better forages. Identifying and mapping the spatiotemporal distribution of the bee forages over given area is important for better management of bee colonies. In this study honey bee plants in the target areas were inventoried following, ground inventory work supported with GIS applications. The study was conducted on 85 large plots of 50 × 50 m each. At each plot, data on species name, height, base diameter, crown height, crown diameter has been taken for each plant with their respective geographical positions. The data were stored, and processed using Trimble GPS supported with ArcGIS10 software program. The data were used to estimate the relative frequency, density, abundance and species diversity, species important value index and apicultural value of the species. In addition, Remotely Sensed Satellite Image of the area was obtained and processed using Hopfield Artificial Neural Network techniques. During the study, 182 species from 49 plant families were identified as bee forages of the target area. From the total number of species; shrubs, herbs and trees were accounting for 61%, 27.67%, and 11.53% respectively. Of which Ziziphus spina-christi, Acacia tortilis, Acacia origina, Acacia asak, Lavandula dentata, and Hypoestes forskaolii were the major nectar source plants of the area in their degree of importance. The average vegetation cover values of the study areas were low (<30% with low Shannon’s species diversity indices (H′ of 0.5–1.52 for different sites. Based on the eco-climatological factors and the variations in their flowering period, these major bee forage species were found to form eight distinct spatiotemporal categories which allow beekeepers to migrate their colonies to exploit the resources at different seasons and place. The Remote Sensed Satellite Image analysis confirmed the spatial

  4. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast, persistent, and unconstrained oil release from the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) challenged the spill response, which required accurate quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Experienced observers are the mainstay of oil spill response. Key limitations are weather, scene illumination geometry, and few trained observers, leading to potential observer bias. Aiding the response was extensive passive and active satellite and airborne remote sensing, including intelligent system augmentation, reviewed herein. Oil slick appearance strongly depends on many factors like emulsion composition and scene geometry, yielding false positives and great thickness uncertainty. Oil thicknesses and the oil to water ratios for thick slicks were derived quantitatively with a new spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of spectral features related to C-H vibration bands. The approach used near infrared, imaging spectroscopy data from the AVIRIS (Airborne Visual/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on the NASA ER-2 stratospheric airplane. Extrapolation to the total slick used MODIS satellite visual-spectrum broadband data, which observes sunglint reflection from surface slicks; i.e., indicates the presence of oil and/or surfactant slicks. Oil slick emissivity is less than seawater's allowing MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) nighttime identification; however, water temperature variations can cause false positives. Some strong emissivity features near 6.7 and 9.7 ??m could be analyzed as for the AVIRIS short wave infrared features, but require high spectral resolution data. TIR spectral trends can allow fresh/weathered oil discrimination. Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) provided synoptic data under all-sky conditions by observing oil dampening of capillary waves; however, SSAR typically cannot discriminate thick from thin oil slicks. Airborne UAVSAR's significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and fine spatial resolution allowed

  5. Monitoring and evaluating recovery from natural disasters using remote sensing - towards creating guidelines on the use of satellite images in the context of disaster recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, K.; Brown, D.; Spence, R.; Chenvidyakarn, T.; Adams, B.; Bevington, J.; Platt, S.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Juntarashote, K.; Khan, A.

    2009-04-01

    The use of high-resolution optical satellite images is being investigated for evaluating and monitoring recovery after natural disasters. Funded by EPSRC, UK, the aim of the RECOVERY project is to develop indicators of recovery that can exploit the wealth of data now available, including those from satellite imagery, internet-based statistics and advanced field survey techniques. The final output will be a set of guidelines that suggests how remote sensing can be used to help monitor and evaluate the recovery process after natural disasters. The final guideline that will be produced at the end of the two year project, which started in February 2008, will be freely available to aid agencies and anyone that is interested. Currently there is no agreed standard approach for evaluating the effectiveness of recovery aid, although international frameworks such as PDNA (Post-Disaster Needs Assessment, United Nations Development Program, European Commission and World Bank) is currently being developed, and TRIAMS (Tsunami Recovery and Impact Assessment and Monitoring System, by UNDP and WHO) is being implemented to monitor the recovery from the Indian Ocean Tsunami. The RECOVERY project consists of three phases. Phase 1 was completed by September 2008 and focused on user needs survey, developing the recovery indicators and satellite image data identification/acquisition. The user needs survey was conducted to identify whether there were any indicators that the aid community would like to see prioritised. The survey result suggested that most indicators are equally important. Based on this result and also referring to the TRIAMS framework, a comprehensive list of indicators were developed which belong to six large categories, i.e. housing, infrastructure, services, livelihood, environment, social/security, risk reduction. For the RECOVERY project, two case study sites have been identified, i.e. the village of Baan Nam Khem on the west coast of Thailand, which was heavily

  6. Super-sensing technology: industrial applications and future challenges of electrical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kent Hsin-Yu; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Primrose, Ken

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography is a relatively new imaging technique that can image the distribution of the passive electrical properties of an object. Since electrical tomography technology was proposed in the 1980s, the technique has evolved rapidly because of its low cost, easy scale-up and non-invasive features. The technique itself can be sensitive to all passive electrical properties, such as conductivity, permittivity and permeability. Hence, it has a huge potential to be applied in many applications. Owing to its ill-posed nature and low image resolution, electrical tomography attracts more attention in industrial fields than biomedical fields. In the past decades, there have been many research developments and industrial implementations of electrical tomography; nevertheless, the awareness of this technology in industrial sectors is still one of the biggest limitations for technology implementation. In this paper, the authors have summarized several representative applications that use electrical tomography. Some of the current tomography research activities will also be discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. In situ Volcanic Plume Monitoring with small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Cal/Val of Satellite Remote Sensing Data: CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of sensor packages, enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes. Using Costa Rican volcanoes as a Natural Laboratory, the University of Costa Rica as host institution, in collaboration with four NASA centers, have started an initiative to develop low-cost, field-deployable airborne platforms to perform volcanic gas & ash plume research, and in-situ volcanic monitoring in general, in conjunction with orbital assets and state-of-the-art models of plume transport and composition. Several gas sensors have been deployed into the active plume of Turrialba Volcano including a miniature mass spectrometer, and an electrochemical SO2 sensor system with temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and GPS sensors. Several different airborne platforms such as manned research aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, tethered balloons, as well as man-portable in-situ ground truth systems are being used for this research. Remote sensing data is also collected from the ASTER and OMI spaceborne instruments and compared with in situ data. The CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission deployment and follow up measurements successfully demonstrated a path to study and visualize gaseous volcanic emissions using mass spectrometer and gas sensor based instrumentation in harsh environment conditions to correlate in situ ground/airborne data with remote sensing satellite data for calibration and validation purposes. The deployment of such technology improves on our current capabilities to detect, analyze, monitor, model, and predict hazards presented to aircraft by volcanogenic ash clouds from active and impending volcanic eruptions.

  8. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    noise signal level exceeds 10 times the normal background. EXPERIMENTS FOR SATELLITE ASTRONOMY 615 ANTENNA MONOPOLE -., PREAMPLFE = BANDPASS-FILTER...OUTPUT TO AND DETECTOR TELEMETRYCHANNELS (18) CALIBRATION NOISE MATRIX CLOCK NOISE SOURCE ’ON’ SOURCE COMMAND F ROM PROGRAMERP ANTENNA MONOPOLE FIGURE 13...Animal Tempera- ture Sensing for Studying the Effect of Prolonged Orbital Flight on the Circadian Rhythms of Pocket Mice . Unmanned Spacecraft Meeting

  9. Satellite-based remote sensing of running water habitats at large riverscape scales: Tools to analyze habitat heterogeneity for river ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugue, F.; Lapointe, M.; Eaton, B. C.; Lepoutre, A.

    2016-01-01

    We illustrate an approach to quantify patterns in hydraulic habitat composition and local heterogeneity applicable at low cost over very large river extents, with selectable reach window scales. Ongoing developments in remote sensing and geographical information science massively improve efficiencies in analyzing earth surface features. With the development of new satellite sensors and drone platforms and with the lowered cost of high resolution multispectral imagery, fluvial geomorphology is experiencing a revolution in mapping streams at high resolution. Exploiting the power of aerial or satellite imagery is particularly useful in a riverscape research framework (Fausch et al., 2002), where high resolution sampling of fluvial features and very large coverage extents are needed. This study presents a satellite remote sensing method that requires very limited field calibration data to estimate over various scales ranging from 1 m to many tens or river kilometers (i) spatial composition metrics for key hydraulic mesohabitat types and (ii) reach-scale wetted habitat heterogeneity indices such as the hydromorphological index of diversity (HMID). When the purpose is hydraulic habitat characterization applied over long river networks, the proposed method (although less accurate) is much less computationally expensive and less data demanding than two dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Here, we illustrate the tools based on a Worldview 2 satellite image of the Kiamika River, near Mont Laurier, Quebec, Canada, specifically over a 17-km river reach below the Kiamika dam. In the first step, a high resolution water depth (D) map is produced from a spectral band ratio (calculated from the multispectral image), calibrated with limited field measurements. Next, based only on known river discharge and estimated cross section depths at time of image capture, empirical-based pseudo-2D hydraulic rules are used to rapidly generate a two-dimensional map of flow velocity

  10. A Numerical Testbed for Remote Sensing of Aerosols, and its Demonstration for Evaluating Retrieval Synergy from a Geostationary Satellite Constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Ding, Shouguo; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, together with a demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a geostationary satellite constellation. The testbed combines inverse (optimal-estimation) software with a forward model containing linearized code for computing particle scattering (for both spherical and non-spherical particles), a kernel-based (land and ocean) surface bi-directional reflectance facility, and a linearized radiative transfer model for polarized radiance. Calculation of gas absorption spectra uses the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption) database of spectroscopic line parameters and other trace species cross-sections. The outputs of the testbed include not only the Stokes 4-vector elements and their sensitivities (Jacobians) with respect to the aerosol single scattering and physical parameters (such as size and shape parameters, refractive index, and plume height), but also DFS (Degree of Freedom for Signal) values for retrieval of these parameters. This testbed can be used as a tool to provide an objective assessment of aerosol information content that can be retrieved for any constellation of (planned or real) satellite sensors and for any combination of algorithm design factors (in terms of wavelengths, viewing angles, radiance and/or polarization to be measured or used). We summarize the components of the testbed, including the derivation and validation of analytical formulae for Jacobian calculations. Benchmark calculations from the forward model are documented. In the context of NASA's Decadal Survey Mission GEOCAPE (GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), we demonstrate the use of the testbed to conduct a feasibility study of using polarization measurements in and around the O2 A band for the retrieval of aerosol height information from space, as well as an to assess potential improvement in the retrieval of aerosol fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) through the

  11. High sensitivity pH sensing on the BEOL of industrial FDSOI transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahhal, Lama; Ayele, Getenet Tesega; Monfray, Stéphane; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Fornacciari, Benjamin; Pardoux, Eric; Chevalier, Celine; Ecoffey, Serge; Drouin, Dominique; Morin, Pierre; Garnier, Philippe; Boeuf, Frederic; Souifi, Abdelkader

    2017-08-01

    In this work we demonstrate the use of Fully Depleted Silicon On Insulator (FDSOI) transistors as pH sensors with a 23 nm silicon nitride sensing layer built in the Back-End-Of-Line (BEOL). The back end process to deposit the sensing layer and fabricate the electrical structures needed for testing is detailed. A series of tests employing different pH buffer solutions has been performed on transistors of different geometries, controlled via the back gate. The main findings show a shift of the drain current (ID) as a function of the back gate voltage (VB) when different pH buffer solutions are probed in the range of pH 6 to pH 8. This shift is observed at VB voltages swept from 0 V to 3 V, demonstrating the sensor operation at low voltage. A high sensitivity of up to 250 mV/pH unit (more than 4-fold larger than Nernstian response) is observed on FDSOI MOS transistors of 0.06 μm gate length and 0.08 μm gate width. She is currently working as a Postdoctoral researcher at Institut des nanotechnologies de Lyon in collaboration with STMicroelectronics and Université de Sherbrook (Canada) working on ;Integration of ultra-low-power gas and pH sensors with advanced technologies;. Her research interest includes selection, machining, optimisation and electrical characterisation of the sensitive layer for a low power consumption gas sensor based on advanced MOS transistors.

  12. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  13. In situ measurements and satellite remote sensing of case 2 waters: first results from the Curonian Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giardino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present calibration/validation activities associated with satellite MERIS image processing and aimed at estimatingchl a and CDOM in the Curonian Lagoon. Field data were used to validate the performances of two atmospheric correction algorithms,to build a band-ratio algorithm for chl a and to validate MERIS-derived maps. The neural network-based Case 2 Regional processor wasfound suitable for mapping CDOM; for chl a the band-ratio algorithm applied to image data corrected with the 6S code was found moreappropriate. Maps were in agreement with in situ measurements.This study confirmed the importance of atmospheric correction to estimate water quality and demonstrated the usefulness ofMERIS in investigating eutrophic aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Remote sensing of height of a fog layer and temperature of fog droplets using infrared thermometer and meteorological satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Abe, H.

    1998-01-01

    To study meteorological characteristics of cool foggy easterly (Yamase), by which rice production in the Tohoku region was frequently damaged, we measured temperature of the fog layer resulted from Yamase, using infrared thermal indicator and meteorological satellite (HIMAWARI). These temperature data were compared with wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures obtained by a ventilated psychrometer. Generally, the temperature of fog droplets estimated from infrared thermal indicator was higher than the wet-bulb temperature by about 0∼1°C. This result indicates clearly that fog droplets were cooled by evaporation on the droplet surface. Under the conditions that the fog layer is homogeneous in liquid water content and fog droplet size distribution, the height of the fog layer can be estimated by the observation of visibility and relative solar radiation flux. (author)

  15. Prediction of Potential Fishing Zones for Skipjack Tuna During the Northwest Monsoon Using Remotely Sensed Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Zainuddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of economically important fish in the Bay of Bone is Skipjack tuna which their distribution and migration are influenced by surrounding environment.  This study aims to investigate the relationship between skipjack tuna and their environments, and to predict potential fishing zones (PFZs for the fish in the Bone Bay-Flores Sea using satellite-based oceanography and catch data. Generalized additive models (GAMs were used to assess the relationship. A generalized linear model(GLM constructed from GAMs was used for prediction. Monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll-a during the northwest monsoon (December-January together with catch data were used for the year 2012-2013. We used the GAMs to assess the effect of the environment variables on skipjack tuna CPUE (catch per unit effort. The best GLM was selected to predict skipjack tuna abundance.  Results indicated that the highest CPUEs (fish/trip occurred in areas where SST and chlorophyll-a ranged from 29.5°-31.5°C and 0.15 - 0.25 mg m-3, respectively. The PFZs for skipjack were closely related to the spatial distribution of the optimum oceanographic conditions and these mainly developed in three locations, northern area of Bone Bay in December, in the middle area of the bay (4°-5.5°S and 120.5°-121.5°E during January and moved to the Flores Sea in February. The movement of skipjack concentration was consistent with the fishery data.  This suggests that the dynamics of the optimum oceanographic signatures provided a good indicator for predicting feeding grounds as hotspot areas for skipjack tuna in Bone Bay-Flores Sea during northwest monsoon.   Keywords:  skipjack tuna, potential fishing zones, satellite based-oceanographic data, Northwest monsoon

  16. Integrating Dendrochronology, Climate and Satellite Remote Sensing to Better Understand Savanna Landscape Dynamics in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Southworth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the integration and potential uses of linkages between climate dynamics, savanna vegetation and landscape level processes within a highly vulnerable region, both in terms of climate variability and social systems. We explore the combined applications of two time-series methodologies: (1 climate signals detected in tree ring growth, from published literature, chronologies from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank, and minimal preliminary field data; and (2 new primary production (NPP data of vegetation cover over time derived from remotely sensed analyses. Both time-series are related to the regional patterns of precipitation, the principle driver of plant growth in the area. The approach is temporally and spatially multiscalar and examines the relationships between vegetation cover, type and amount, and precipitation shifts. We review literature linking dendrochronology, climate, and remotely sensed imagery, and, in addition, provide unique preliminary analyses from a dry study site located on the outer limit of the Okavango Delta. The work demonstrates integration across the different data sources, to provide a more holistic view of landscape level processes occurring in the last 30-50 years. These results corroborate the water-limited nature of the region and the dominance of precipitation in controlling vegetation growth. We present this integrative analysis of vegetation and climate change, as a prospective approach to facilitate the development of long-term climate/vegetation change records across multiple scales.

  17. Utilization of satellite remote sensing data on land surface characteristics in water and heat balance component modeling for vegetation covered territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Uspensky, Alexander; Startseva, Zoya; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    The model of vertical water and heat transfer in the "soil-vegetation-atmosphere" system (SVAT) for vegetation covered territory has been developed, allowing assimilating satellite remote sensing data on land surface condition as well as accounting for heterogeneities of vegetation and meteorological characteristics. The model provides the calculation of water and heat balance components (such as evapotranspiration Ev, soil water content W, sensible and latent heat fluxes and others ) as well as vertical soil moisture and temperature distributions, temperatures of soil surface and foliage, land surface brightness temperature for any time interval within vegetation season. To describe the landscape diversity soil constants and leaf area index LAI, vegetation cover fraction B, and other vegetation characteristics are used. All these values are considered to be the model parameters. Territory of Kursk region with square about 15 thousands km2 situated in the Black Earth zone of Central Russia was chosen for investigation. Satellite-derived estimates of land surface characteristics have been constructed under cloud-free condition basing AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and EOS Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-8, -9 data. The developed technologies of AVHRR data thematic processing have been refined providing the retrieval of surface skin brightness temperature Tsg, air foliage temperature Ta, efficient surface temperature Ts.eff and emissivity E, as well as derivation of vegetation index NDVI, B, and LAI. The linear regression estimators for Tsg, Ta and LAI have been built using representative training samples for 2003-2009 vegetation seasons. The updated software package has been applied for AVHRR data thematic processing to generate named remote sensing products for various dates of the above vegetation seasons. The error statistics of Ta, Ts.eff and Тsg derivation has been investigated for various samples using comparison with in-situ measurements that has given RMS errors in the

  18. FULL-PHYSICS INVERSE LEARNING MACHINE FOR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING OF OZONE PROFILE SHAPES AND TROPOSPHERIC COLUMNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing vertical distributions of ozone from nadir-viewing satellite measurements is known to be challenging, particularly the ozone information in the troposphere. A novel retrieval algorithm called Full-Physics Inverse Learning Machine (FP-ILM, has been developed at DLR in order to estimate ozone profile shapes based on machine learning techniques. In contrast to traditional inversion methods, the FP-ILM algorithm formulates the profile shape retrieval as a classification problem. Its implementation comprises a training phase to derive an inverse function from synthetic measurements, and an operational phase in which the inverse function is applied to real measurements. This paper extends the ability of the FP-ILM retrieval to derive tropospheric ozone columns from GOME- 2 measurements. Results of total and tropical tropospheric ozone columns are compared with the ones using the official GOME Data Processing (GDP product and the convective-cloud-differential (CCD method, respectively. Furthermore, the FP-ILM framework will be used for the near-real-time processing of the new European Sentinel sensors with their unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution and corresponding large increases in the amount of data.

  19. Full-Physics Inverse Learning Machine for Satellite Remote Sensing of Ozone Profile Shapes and Tropospheric Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Heue, K.-P.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Romahn, F.; Doicu, A.; Loyola, D.

    2018-04-01

    Characterizing vertical distributions of ozone from nadir-viewing satellite measurements is known to be challenging, particularly the ozone information in the troposphere. A novel retrieval algorithm called Full-Physics Inverse Learning Machine (FP-ILM), has been developed at DLR in order to estimate ozone profile shapes based on machine learning techniques. In contrast to traditional inversion methods, the FP-ILM algorithm formulates the profile shape retrieval as a classification problem. Its implementation comprises a training phase to derive an inverse function from synthetic measurements, and an operational phase in which the inverse function is applied to real measurements. This paper extends the ability of the FP-ILM retrieval to derive tropospheric ozone columns from GOME- 2 measurements. Results of total and tropical tropospheric ozone columns are compared with the ones using the official GOME Data Processing (GDP) product and the convective-cloud-differential (CCD) method, respectively. Furthermore, the FP-ILM framework will be used for the near-real-time processing of the new European Sentinel sensors with their unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution and corresponding large increases in the amount of data.

  20. Determining spatio-temporal distribution of bee forage species of Al-Baha region based on ground inventorying supported with GIS applications and Remote Sensed Satellite Image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgaba, Nuru; Alghamdi, Ahmed; Sammoud, Rachid; Shenkute, Awraris; Tadesse, Yilma; Ansari, Mahammad J; Sharma, Deepak; Hepburn, Colleen

    2017-07-01

    In arid zones, the shortage of bee forage is critical and usually compels beekeepers to move their colonies in search of better forages. Identifying and mapping the spatiotemporal distribution of the bee forages over given area is important for better management of bee colonies. In this study honey bee plants in the target areas were inventoried following, ground inventory work supported with GIS applications. The study was conducted on 85 large plots of 50 × 50 m each. At each plot, data on species name, height, base diameter, crown height, crown diameter has been taken for each plant with their respective geographical positions. The data were stored, and processed using Trimble GPS supported with ArcGIS10 software program. The data were used to estimate the relative frequency, density, abundance and species diversity, species important value index and apicultural value of the species. In addition, Remotely Sensed Satellite Image of the area was obtained and processed using Hopfield Artificial Neural Network techniques. During the study, 182 species from 49 plant families were identified as bee forages of the target area. From the total number of species; shrubs, herbs and trees were accounting for 61%, 27.67%, and 11.53% respectively. Of which Ziziphus spina-christi , Acacia tortilis , Acacia origina , Acacia asak , Lavandula dentata , and Hypoestes forskaolii were the major nectar source plants of the area in their degree of importance. The average vegetation cover values of the study areas were low (GIS and satellite image processing techniques could be an important tool for characterizing and mapping the available bee forage resources leading to their efficient and sustainable utilization.

  1. Industrial Qualification Process for Optical Fibers Distributed Strain and Temperature Sensing in Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Delepine-Lesoille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and strain monitoring will be implemented in the envisioned French geological repository for high- and intermediate-level long-lived nuclear wastes. Raman and Brillouin scatterings in optical fibers are efficient industrial methods to provide distributed temperature and strain measurements. Gamma radiation and hydrogen release from nuclear wastes can however affect the measurements. An industrial qualification process is successfully proposed and implemented. Induced measurement uncertainties and their physical origins are quantified. The optical fiber composition influence is assessed. Based on radiation-hard fibers and carbon-primary coatings, we showed that the proposed system can provide accurate temperature and strain measurements up to 0.5 MGy and 100% hydrogen concentration in the atmosphere, over 200 m distance range. The selected system was successfully implemented in the Andra underground laboratory, in one-to-one scale mockup of future cells, into concrete liners. We demonstrated the efficiency of simultaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering measurements to provide both strain and temperature distributed measurements. We showed that 1.3 μm working wavelength is in favor of hazardous environment monitoring.

  2. Characterization of VOCs Emissions from Industrial Facilities and Natural Gas Production Sites: A Mobile Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Gu, J.; Trask, B.; Lyon, D. R.; Albertson, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    With the recent expansion of U.S. oil and gas (O&G) production, many studies have focused on the quantification of fugitive methane emissions. However, only a few studies have explored the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from O&G production sites that affect human health in adjacent communities, both directly through exposure to toxic chemical compounds and indirectly via formation of ground-level ozone. In this study, we seek to quantify emissions of VOCs from O&G production sites and petrochemical facilities using a mobile sensing approach, with both high-end analyzers and relatively low-cost sensors. A probabilistic source characterization approach is used to estimate emission rates of VOCs, directly taking into account quantitative measure of sensor accuracy. This work will provide data with proper spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, so as to improve the understanding of VOCs emission from O&G production sites, VOCs-exposure of local communities, and explore the feasibility of low-cost sensors for VOCs monitoring. The project will provide an important foundational step to enable large scale studies.

  3. Investigating aerosol properties in Peninsular Malaysia via the synergy of satellite remote sensing and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, Kasturi Devi; Lim, Hui Qi; Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.; Cracknell, Arthur P.

    2014-03-01

    Spatio-temporal variation and trends in atmospheric aerosols as well as their impact on solar radiation and clouds are crucial for regional and global climate change assessment. These topics are not so well-documented over Malaysia, the fact that it receives considerable amounts of pollutants from both local and trans-boundary sources. The present study aims to analyse the spatio-temporal evolution and decadal trend of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors, to identify different types and origin of aerosols and explore the link between aerosols and solar radiation. AOD and fine-mode fraction (FMF) products from MODIS, AOD and Ångström Exponent (AE) values from AERONET stations along with ground-based PM10 measurements and solar radiation recordings at selected sites in Peninsular Malaysia are used for this scope. The MODIS AODs exhibit a wide spatio-temporal variation over Peninsular Malaysia, while Aqua AOD is consistently lower than that from Terra. The AOD shows a neutral-to-declining trend during the 2000s (Terra satellite), while that from Aqua exhibits an increasing trend (~ 0.01 per year). AERONET AODs exhibit either insignificant diurnal variation or higher values during the afternoon, while their short-term availability does not allow for a trend analysis. Moreover, the PM10 concentrations exhibit a general increasing trend over the examined locations. The sources and destination of aerosols are identified via the HYSPLIT trajectory model, revealing that aerosols during the dry season (June to September) are mainly originated from the west and southwest (Sumatra, Indonesia), while in the wet season (November to March) they are mostly associated with the northeast monsoon winds from the southern China Sea. Different aerosol types are identified via the relationship of AOD with FMF, revealing that the urban and biomass-burning aerosols are the most abundant over the region contributing to a significant reduction (~- 0.21 MJ m- 2) of

  4. Research for annual travel-route changes of reindeer living around the Arctic Circle using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, G.; Sakka, T.; Tashiro, T.; Kawamata, H.; Tatsuzawa, S.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    For a long time, nomads living in the Arctic Circle around Siberia have been making a living by hunting reindeer traditionally. Wild reindeer have a recurrent migration every year, however, the travel-route of reindeer has been changing recently, so the nomads cannot expect the route in their traditional experience. To support them, one of authors (Tatsuzawa) investigated the route by installing GPS transmitter to some reindeer. The reason of the changing route, however, remain unclear. Previous works indicated that the reason of changing the route must be a global warming, forest fires, thunders, and floods, but they only discuss only on the basis of measurements in specific area. The purpose of this study is to research why the arctic reindeer alter the travel route annually through 1) the annual change of vegetation (NDVI: normalized difference vegetation index) in reindeer ground, and through 2) the annual change of soil water content (mNDWI: modified normalized difference water index) which can be reflected precipitation near Lena river. First, we analyzed NDVI using MODIS images that can be observed over a wide area, filmed in July and August; the reindeer started to travel. We have compared the seasonal changes of the NDVI images with the trace obtained by GPS data from 2010 to 2012. Although NDVI images in July showed similar numerical values in every year, the satellite images taken at August 29 is annually different; NDVI values become lower (0.5 or less) when the reindeer travel to the north area in winter. This suggests that reindeer move to secure enough food in the end of summer. In contrast, mNDWI becomes high when the reindeer travel to the north area. The annual changes of the route may be related to the amount of rainfall.

  5. Analysis of potential debris flow source areas on Mount Shasta, California, by using airborne and satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J.K.; Hubbard, B.E.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing data from NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer, Hyperion, show hydrothermally altered rocks mainly composed of natroalunite, kaolinite, cristobalite, and gypsum on both the Mount Shasta and Shastina cones. Field observations indicate that much of the visible altered rock consists of talus material derived from fractured rock zones within and adjacent to dacitic domes and nearby lava flows. Digital elevation data were utilized to distinguish steeply sloping altered bedrock from more gently sloping talus materials. Volume modeling based on the imagery and digital elevation data indicate that Mount Shasta drainage systems contain moderate volumes of altered rock, a result that is consistent with Mount Shasta's Holocene record of mostly small to moderate debris flows. Similar modeling for selected areas at Mount Rainier and Mount Adams, Washington, indicates larger altered rock volumes consistent with the occurrence of much larger Holocene debris flows at those volcanoes. The availability of digital elevation and spectral data from spaceborne sensors, such as Hyperion and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER), greatly expands opportunities for studying potential debris flow source characteristics at stratovolcanoes around the world. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Land Use Change and Urbanization in the Kucukcekmece Water Basin (Istanbul, Turkey) with Temporal Satellite Data using Remote Sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, H Gonca; Alganci, Ugur; Usta, Gokce

    2008-11-13

    Accurate and timely information about land use and land cover (LULC) and its changes in urban areas are crucial for urban land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring and urban planning. Also, monitoring and representation of urban sprawl and its effects on the LULC patterns and hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed is an essential part of water resource planning and management. This paper presents an image analysis study using multi temporal digital satellite imagery of LULC and changes in the Kucukcekmece Watershed (Metropolitan Istanbul, Turkey) from 1992 to 2006. The Kucukcekmece Basin includes portions of the Kucukcekmece District within the municipality of Istanbul so it faces a dramatic urbanization. An urban monitoring analysis approach was first used to implement a land cover classification. A change detection method controlled with ground truth information was then used to determine changes in land cover. During the study period, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on land-use patterns were cumulatively influenced by urban sprawl in the watershed. The proposed approach, which uses a combination of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, is an effective tool that enhances land-use monitoring, planning, and management of urbanized watersheds.

  7. Remote-Sensing Estimation of Phytoplankton Size Classes From GOCI Satellite Measurements in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Deyong; Huan, Yu; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Hu, Chuanmin; Wang, Shengqiang; He, Yijun

    2017-10-01

    Phytoplankton size class (PSC), a measure of different phytoplankton functional and structural groups, is a key parameter to the understanding of many marine ecological and biogeochemical processes. In turbid waters where optical properties may be influenced by terrigenous discharge and nonphytoplankton water constituents, remote estimation of PSC is still a challenging task. Here based on measurements of phytoplankton diagnostic pigments, total chlorophyll a, and spectral reflectance in turbid waters of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea during summer 2015, a customized model is developed and validated to estimate PSC in the two semienclosed seas. Five diagnostic pigments determined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements are first used to produce weighting factors to model phytoplankton biomass (using total chlorophyll a as a surrogate) with relatively high accuracies. Then, a common method used to calculate contributions of microphytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and picophytoplankton to the phytoplankton assemblage (i.e., Fm, Fn, and Fp) is customized using local HPLC and other data. Exponential functions are tuned to model the size-specific chlorophyll a concentrations (Cm, Cn, and Cp for microphytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and picophytoplankton, respectively) with remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and total chlorophyll a as the model inputs. Such a PSC model shows two improvements over previous models: (1) a practical strategy (i.e., model Cp and Cn first, and then derive Cm as C-Cp-Cn) with an optimized spectral band (680 nm) for Rrs as the model input; (2) local parameterization, including a local chlorophyll a algorithm. The performance of the PSC model is validated using in situ data that were not used in the model development. Application of the PSC model to GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) data leads to spatial and temporal distribution patterns of phytoplankton size classes (PSCs) that are consistent with results reported from

  8. Towards high temporal and moderate spatial resolutions in the remote sensing retrieval of evapotranspiration by combining geostationary and polar orbit satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, José Miguel; Ghilain, Nicolas; Arboleda, Alirio; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the water flux going from the surface into the atmosphere as result of soil and surface water evaporation and plant transpiration. It constitutes a key component of the water cycle and its quantification is of crucial importance for a number of applications like water management, climatic modelling, agriculture monitoring and planning, etc. Estimating ET is not an easy task; specially if large areas are envisaged and various spatio-temporal patterns of ET are present as result of heterogeneity in land cover, land use and climatic conditions. In this respect, spaceborne remote sensing (RS) provides the only alternative to continuously measure surface parameters related to ET over large areas. The Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) of Belgium, in the framework of EUMETSAT's "Land Surface Analysis-Satellite Application Facility" (LSA-SAF), has developed a model for the estimation of ET. The model is forced by RS data, numerical weather predictions and land cover information. The RS forcing is derived from measurements by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. This ET model is operational and delivers ET estimations over the whole field of view of the MSG satellite (Europe, Africa and Eastern South America) (http://landsaf.meteo.pt) every 30 minutes. The spatial resolution of MSG is 3 x 3 km at subsatellite point and about 4 x 5 km in continental Europe. The spatial resolution of this product may constrain its full exploitation as the interest of potential users (farmers and natural resources scientists) may lie on smaller spatial units. This study aimed at testing methodological alternatives to combine RS imagery (geostationary and polar orbit satellites) for the estimation of ET such that the spatial resolution of the final product is improved. In particular, the study consisted in the implementation of two approaches for combining the current ET estimations with

  9. Making sense of the "clean label" trends: A review of consumer food choice behavior and discussion of industry implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asioli, Daniele; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Caputo, Vincenzina; Vecchio, Riccardo; Annunziata, Azzurra; Næs, Tormod; Varela, Paula

    2017-09-01

    Consumers in industrialized countries are nowadays much more interested in information about the production methods and components of the food products that they eat, than they had been 50years ago. Some production methods are perceived as less "natural" (i.e. conventional agriculture) while some food components are seen as "unhealthy" and "unfamiliar" (i.e. artificial additives). This phenomenon, often referred to as the "clean label" trend, has driven the food industry to communicate whether a certain ingredient or additive is not present or if the food has been produced using a more "natural" production method (i.e. organic agriculture). However, so far there is no common and objective definition of clean label. This review paper aims to fill the gap via three main objectives, which are to a) develop and suggest a definition that integrates various understandings of clean label into one single definition, b) identify the factors that drive consumers' choices through a review of recent studies on consumer perception of various food categories understood as clean label with the focus on organic, natural and 'free from' artificial additives/ingredients food products and c) discuss implications of the consumer demand for clean label food products for food manufacturers as well as policy makers. We suggest to define clean label, both in a broad sense, where consumers evaluate the cleanliness of product by assumption and through inference looking at the front-of-pack label and in a strict sense, where consumers evaluate the cleanliness of product by inspection and through inference looking at the back-of-pack label. Results show that while 'health' is a major consumer motive, a broad diversity of drivers influence the clean label trend with particular relevance of intrinsic or extrinsic product characteristics and socio-cultural factors. However, 'free from' artificial additives/ingredients food products tend to differ from organic and natural products. Food

  10. Numerical modeling and remote sensing of global water management systems: Applications for land surface modeling, satellite missions, and sustainable water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solander, Kurt C.

    The ability to accurately quantify water storages and fluxes in water management systems through observations or models is of increasing importance due to the expected impacts from climate change and population growth worldwide. Here, I describe three innovative techniques developed to better understand this problem. First, a model was created to represent reservoir storage and outflow with the objective of integration into a Land Surface Model (LSM) to simulate the impacts of reservoir management on the climate system. Given this goal, storage capacity represented the lone model input required that is not already available to an LSM user. Model parameterization was linked to air temperature to allow future simulations to adapt to a changing climate, making it the first such model to mimic the potential response of a reservoir operator to climate change. Second, spatial and temporal error properties of future NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite reservoir operations were quantified. This work invoked the use of the SWOTsim instrument simulator, which was run over a number of synthetic and actual reservoirs so the resulting error properties could be extrapolated to the global scale. The results provide eventual users of SWOT data with a blueprint of expected reservoir error properties so such characteristics can be determined a priori for a reservoir given knowledge about its topology and anticipated repeat orbit pass over its location. Finally, data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission was used in conjunction with in-situ water use records to evaluate sustainable water use at the two-digit HUC basin scale over the contiguous United States. Results indicate that the least sustainable water management region is centered in the southwest, where consumptive water use exceeded water availability by over 100% on average for some of these basins. This work represents the first attempt at evaluating sustainable

  11. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  12. Utilisation of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) data for assessment of soil erosion process of a watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod Krishna, Akhouri

    A watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region was investigated utilizing space data from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite towards spatial and temporal soil erosion process study. Geomorphologically, this plateau region is an undulating pediplain. The watershed namely Potpoto river watershed covering an area of 8160 hectares is situated in the vicinity of Ranchi, capital city of newly created Jharkahnd state. As per the national watershed atlas, Potpoto river is a tributary of Subarnarekha river system within the Upper Subarnarekha river basin under watershed no. 4H3C8. This rural to semi-urban watershed is important towards various services to Ranchi city as well as experiencing direct or indirect pressures of development. Drivers of land use changes at ground level are responsible for change in soil erosion rates in any watershed in coupled human-environment systems. This may adversely affect the soil cover of such watersheds depicted through changed rates of erosion. In a rural to semi-urban watershed like this, there are general tendencies of land use and thereby land cover changes from forests to agricultural lands, within agricultural land in terms of cropping pattern changes to cash-crops, orchards, commercial plantations and conversions to other land use categories as well towards infrastructure expansions. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was used as a basis to observe the intensity of erosion using remote sensing, rainfall data, soil data and land use/land cover map. IRS1C LISSIII and IRSP6 LISSIII data were used to identify land use status for the years 1996 and 2004 respectively. LISSIII sensor provides data in the visible to near infrared (Bands 2, 3, 4) as well as short wave infrared (Band 5) range of electromagnetic spectrum. In this study, bands 2 (0.52-0.59 microns), 3 (0.62-0.68 microns) and 4 (0.77-0.86 microns) were used with spatial resolution of 23.5 meters at nadir. Digital image processing was carried out using ERDAS Imagine software

  13. Satellite tagging, remote sensing, and autonomous vehicles reveal interactions between physiology and environment in a North Pacific top marine predator species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, N.; Sterling, J.; Springer, A.; Iverson, S.; Johnson, D.; Lea, M. A.; Bond, N. A.; Ream, R.; Lee, C.; Eriksen, C.

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. This work describes recent publications and ongoing studies of northern fur seal (NFS) foraging ecology during their 8-month migration. Satellite-tracked movement and dive behavior in the North Pacific ocean was compared to remotely sensed data, atmospheric reanalysis, autonomous in situ ocean sampling, and animal borne temperature and salinity data. Integration of these data demonstrates how reproductive fitness, physiology, and environment shape NFS migratory patterns. Seal mass correlates with dive ability and thus larger males exploit prey aggregating at the base of the winter mixed-layer depth in the Bering Sea and interior northern North Pacific Ocean. Smaller adult females migrate to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems - where surface wind speeds decline, mixed-layer depths shoal, and coastal production is fueled by upwelling, coastal capes, and eddies - and less commonly to the Transitional Zone Chlorophyll Front, where fronts and eddies may concentrate prey. Surface wind speed and direction influence movement behavior of all age and size classes, though to a greater degree in the smaller pups and adult females than adult males. For naïve and physiologically less-capable pups, the timing and strength of autumn winds during migratory dispersal may play a role in shaping migratory routes and the environmental conditions faced by pups along these routes. In combination with other factors such as pup condition, this may play a role in interannual variations in overwinter survivorship.

  14. Impact of ISWEC sea wave energy converter on posidonia oceanica meadows assessed by satellite remote sensing in the coastal areas of Pantelleria island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borfecchia, Flavio; Micheli, Carla; Belmonte, Alessandro; De Cecco, Luigi; Sannino, Gianmaria; Bracco, Giovanni; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Vittoria Struglia, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy extraction plays a key role both in energy security of small islands and in mitigation of climate change, but at the same time poses the important question of monitoring the effects of the interaction of such devices with the marine environment. In this work we present a new methodology, integrating satellite remote sensing techniques with in situ observations and biophysical parameters analysis, for the monitoring and mapping of Posidonia Oceanica (PO) meadows in shallow coastal waters. This methodology has been applied to the coastal area offshore Pantelleria Island (Southern Mediterranean) where the first Italian Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter (ISWEC) prototype has been recently installed. The prototype, developed by the Polytechnic of Turin consists of a platform 8 meters wide, 15 meters long and 4.5 meters high, moored at about 800 meters from the shore and at 31 m depth. It is characterized by high conversion efficiency, resulting from its adaptability to different wave conditions, and a limited environmental impact due to its mooring innovative method with absence of fixed anchors to the seabed. The island of Pantelleria, is characterized by high transparency of coastal waters and PO meadows ecosystems with still significant levels of biodiversity and specific adaptation to accentuated hydrodynamics of these shores. Although ISWEC is a low-impact mooring inertial system able to ensure a reliable connection to the electric grid with minimal impact on seagrass growing in the seabed, the prototype installation and operation involves an interaction with local PO and seagrass meadows and possible water transparency decreasing. In this view monitoring of local PO ecosystem is mandatory in order to allow the detection of potential stress and damages due to ISWEC related activities and/or other factors. However, monitoring and collection of accurate and repetitive information over large areas of the necessary parameters by means of

  15. THE IDEA IS TO USEMODIS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CURRENT LIMITED LANDSAT CAPABILITY, COMMERCIAL SATELLITES, ANDUNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV), IN A MULTI-STAGE APPROACH TO MEET EPA INFORMATION NEEDS.REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW: EPA CAPABILITIES, PRIORITY AGENCY APPLICATIONS, SENSOR/AIRCRAFT CAPABILITIES, COST CONSIDERATIONS, SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTIONS, AND TEMPORAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA remote sensing capabilities include applied research for priority applications and technology support for operational assistance to clients across the Agency. The idea is to use MODIS in conjunction with the current limited Landsat capability, commercial satellites, and Unma...

  16. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  17. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  18. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  19. Remote sensing for water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardino, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to the study of lakes is begun in years 80 with the lunch of the satellites of second generation. Many experiences have indicated the contribution of remote sensing for the limnology [it

  20. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  1. Glacier retreat of the Tian Shan and its impact on the urban growth and environment evaluated from satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B. H.; Guo, Q.; Yan, F.; Zhang, J.; Shi, P. L.; Ayinuer, M.; Xue, G. L.

    2017-07-01

    The retreat of mountain glaciers, notably in high Asia, provides evidence for the rise of global temperature. The mass balance is vital for the health of a glacier. If the amount of frozen precipitation in the accumulation zone exceeds the quantity of glacial ice loss due to melting or lies in the ablation zone, the glacier will advance. Conversely, if the accumulation is less than the ablation, the glacier will retreat. Glaciers in retreat will have negative mass balances, and if they do not reach an equilibrium between accumulation and ablation, will eventually disappear. Long-term changes of the mountain glaciers in the Tian Shan, Central Asia, are not well constrained. Analyses of satellite remote sensing data combined with the ground observations reveal a 37.5% decline of glaciered area from 1989 to 2014 in No.1 Glacier, the headwaters of the Urumqi River basin, Chinese Tian Shan, which could be linked to increased summer melting. The results show that the area of glaciers was reduced from 31.55 km2 in 18 August 1989 to 28.66 km2 in 24 August 1994 and 19.74 km2 in 31 August 2014. The glacier area was reduced by 0.47 km2/per year in recent 25 years since 1989, and the annual reduction was 1.5%. Meanwhile, the urban area of Urumqi, the biggest city of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, increased from 156 km2 in 1989 to 555 km2 in 2014. Correspondingly, the population of permanent residents increased from 1.06 million in 1989 to 3.53 million in 2014. We suggest that the decline of glacier area is driven primarily by summer melting and, possibly, linked to the combined effects of the global rise in temperatures and black carbon/CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants, cement plants and petroleum chemical plants from the nearby Urumqi and surrounding regions. The continuing retreat of glaciers will have a number of different quantitative impacts. Populations in the arid Central Asia regions are heavily dependent on snow and glacier melt for their irrigation and

  2. HiTempo: a platform for time-series analysis of remote-sensing satellite data in a high-performance computing environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Bergh, F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Course resolution earth observation satellites offer large data sets with daily observations at global scales. These data sets represent a rich resource that, because of the high acquisition rate, allows the application of time-series analysis...

  3. Remote sensing for industrial applications in the energy business: digital territorial data integration for planning of overhead power transmission lines (OHTLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazzino, Alfonso; Volponi, Silvia; Borgogno Mondino, Enrico

    2001-12-01

    An investigation has been carried out, concerning remote sensing techniques, in order to assess their potential application to the energy system business: the most interesting results concern a new approach, based on digital data from remote sensing, to infrastructures with a large territorial distribution: in particular OverHead Transmission Lines, for the high voltage transmission and distribution of electricity on large distances. Remote sensing could in principle be applied to all the phases of the system lifetime, from planning to design, to construction, management, monitoring and maintenance. In this article, a remote sensing based approach is presented, targeted to the line planning: optimization of OHTLs path and layout, according to different parameters (technical, environmental and industrial). Planning new OHTLs is of particular interest in emerging markets, where typically the cartography is missing or available only on low accuracy scale (1:50.000 and lower), often not updated. Multi- spectral images can be used to generate thematic maps of the region of interest for the planning (soil coverage). Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), allow the planners to easily access the morphologic information of the surface. Other auxiliary information from local laws, environmental instances, international (IEC) standards can be integrated in order to perform an accurate optimized path choice and preliminary spotting of the OHTLs. This operation is carried out by an ABB proprietary optimization algorithm: the output is a preliminary path that bests fits the optimization parameters of the line in a life cycle approach.

  4. Potential for boom-mounted remote sensing applications in seedling quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Keefe; Jan U. H. Eitel; Daniel S. Long; Anthony S. Davis; Paul Gessler; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Remotely sensed aerial and satellite sensor imagery is widely used for classification of vegetation structure and health on industrial and public lands. More intensively than at any other time in the life of a planted tree, its health and status will be maintained and monitored while under culture in a bareroot or container nursery. As a case in point, inventories to...

  5. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J

    2013-01-01

    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  6. Newspaper Uses of Satellite Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, David

    Replacing slower mail service, satellite transmission now gives the newspaper industry a practical and almost spontaneous method for sending all kinds of information to any newspaper across the country. Unlike other communication industries, newspapers did not begin to make widespread use of satellite technology until 1979, when government…

  7. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  8. Remote Sensing using Signals of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Yertay, Alibek; Garrison, James L

    2013-01-01

    Today, there are more than eight thousand satellites in space. Therefore, Radio Frequency (RF) signals broadcast from satellites can be accessed from almost every point on the earth. There will be number of satellites available at most points on earth with different frequency bands. These satellite signals can be used for remote sensing, therefore software that visualizes footprints of satellites and shows characteristics of every satellite available at any point would be useful in determinin...

  9. Data management and dissemination challenges for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straeter, Terry A.

    1996-12-01

    Looking toward 2000, the ways by which commercial satellite imagery and imagery products are managed by the various remote sensing companies will be dictated by financial considerations, not technical feasibility. In the convergence of technologies that will shape the commercial companies in 2000, the most influential will likely be electronic commerce via the Internet. This paper discusses the character of these combined forces and speculates on how the industry might respond.

  10. Possible uses of satellite remote sensing in agrometeorology; Possibilités d'utilisation de la télédétection satellitaire en agrométéorologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot, G.; Seguin, B.

    1988-07-01

    Remote sensing offers new possibilities in agrometeorology. Meteorological satellites (which have good revisit capability but low spatial resolution) and earth observation satellites (which have good spatial resolution but poor revisit capability) give complementary information on crop growth conditions and on the biological status of plants. Thermal infrared data can be used to map local climates, to estimate water balance at the scale of a small region and to determine the extent and the seriousness of damage caused by major climatic accidents (frost, drought). Visible near, near and middle infrared data are well adapted to crop identification and monitoring, biomass estimation and yield forecasting. The combination of information given by these 2 types of satellites should in future provide better knowledge and better control of agricultural production. However the application of such techniques may be limited by the cloud cover [French] La télédétection offre des possibilités nouvelles dans le domaine de l’agrométéorologie. Les satellites météorologiques (qui ont une bonne répétitivité dans le temps mais une faible résolution spatiale) et les satellites d’observation de la terre (qui ont une bonne résolution spatiale mais une faible répétitivité dans le temps) permettent d’obtenir des informations complémentaires sur les conditions dans lesquelles se développent les cultures et sur leur état. Les données de l’infrarouge thermique peuvent être utilisées pour cartographier les climats locaux, estimer les bilans hydriques à l’échelle de la petite région et déterminer l’extension spatiale et l’ampleur des accidents climatiques majeurs (gel, sécheresse). Les données du visible, du proche et du moyen infrarouge permettent d’identifier les cultures, de déterminer leur stade phénologique, de suivre leur évolution, d’estimer leur biomasse et de prévoir leur production. La combinaison des informations fournies par ces 2

  11. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  12. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  13. Remotely sensed soil temperatures beneath snow-free skin-surface using thermal observations from tandem polar-orbiting satellites: An analytical three-time-scale model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Wenfeng; Zhou, Ji; Ju, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface soil temperature is a key variable of land surface processes and not only responds to but also modulates the interactions of energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. Thermal remote sensing has traditionally been regarded as incapable of detecting the soil temperature beneath the skin-surf...

  14. Remote sensing models and methods for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schowengerdt, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing is a technology that engages electromagnetic sensors to measure and monitor changes in the earth's surface and atmosphere. Normally this is accomplished through the use of a satellite or aircraft. This book, in its 3rd edition, seamlessly connects the art and science of earth remote sensing with the latest interpretative tools and techniques of computer-aided image processing. Newly expanded and updated, this edition delivers more of the applied scientific theory and practical results that helped the previous editions earn wide acclaim and become classroom and industry standa

  15. Intelligent Sensing for Robotic Re-Manufacturing in Aerospace - An Industry 4.0 Design Based Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    French, R.; Benakis, M.; Marin-Reyes, H.

    2018-01-01

    Emerging through an industry-academia\\ud collaboration between the University of Sheffield and VBC\\ud Instrument Engineering Ltd, a proposed robotic solution for remanufacturing\\ud of jet engine compressor blades is under ongoing\\ud development, producing the first tangible results for evaluation.\\ud Having successfully overcome concept adaptation, funding\\ud mechanisms, design processes, with research and development\\ud trials, the stage of concept optimization and end-user application\\ud ha...

  16. Indonesian drought monitoring from space. A report of SAFE activity: Assessment of drought impact on rice production in Indonesia by satellite remote sensing and dissemination with web-GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shofiyati, Rizatus; Supriatna, Wahyu; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sofan, Parwati; Darmawan, Soni; Awaluddin

    2014-01-01

    Long droughts experienced in Indonesia in the past are identified as one of the main factors in the failure of rice production. In this regard, special attention to monitor the condition is encouraged to reduce the damage. Currently, various satellite data and approaches can withdraw valuable information for monitoring and anticipating drought hazards. Two types of drought, Meteorology and Agriculture, have been assessed. During the last 10 years, daily and monthly rainfall data derived from TRMM and GSMaP. MTSAT and AMSR-E data have been analyzed to identify meteorological drought. Agricultural drought has been studied by observing the character of some indices (EVI, VCI, VHI, LST, and NDVI) of sixteen-day and monthly MODIS data at a period of 5 years (2009 – 2013). Network for data transfer has been built between LAPAN (data provider), ICALRD (implementer), IAARD Cloud Computing, and University of Tokyo (technical supporter). A Web-GIS based Drought Monitoring Information System has been developed to disseminate the information to end users. This paper describes the implementation of remote sensing drought monitoring model and development of Web-GIS and satellite based information system

  17. Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state dynamics for complex Topography and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James

    2003-01-01

    We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.

  18. Overview of the Performance of the Compact Total Electron Content Sensor (CTECS) on the Space Environmental NanoSatellite Experiment (SENSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R. L.; Hansel, S.; Stoffel, D.; Ping, D.; Bardeen, J.; Chin, A.; Bielat, S.; Mulligan, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Air Force's Space & Missile Systems Center (SMC) SENSE mission consists of two identical cubesat buses with space weather payloads. One of the goals of the SENSE mission is to demonstrate the operational potential and usefulness of space weather measurements from a cubesat platform. The payloads on the two cubesats include the Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (SRI), Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (NRL), and Compact Total Electron Content GPS radio occultation sensor (CTECS). After initial contact with both space vehicles (SV), we were able to confirm successful operation of both CTECS. Because of power issues on SV2, only SV1 has provided consistent data. In this presentation, we present an overview of the CTECS sensor. Then we present initial CTECS data, discuss the data quality, and lessons learned.

  19. Characterizing and locating air pollution sources in a complex industrial district using optical remote sensing technology and multivariate statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pao-Erh Paul; Yang, Jen-Chih Rena; Den, Walter; Wu, Chang-Fu

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are most frequent environmental nuisance complaints in urban areas, especially where industrial districts are nearby. Unfortunately, identifying the responsible emission sources of VOCs is essentially a difficult task. In this study, we proposed a dynamic approach to gradually confine the location of potential VOC emission sources in an industrial complex, by combining multi-path open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) measurement and the statistical method of principal component analysis (PCA). Close-cell FTIR was further used to verify the VOC emission source by measuring emitted VOCs from selected exhaust stacks at factories in the confined areas. Multiple open-path monitoring lines were deployed during a 3-month monitoring campaign in a complex industrial district. The emission patterns were identified and locations of emissions were confined by the wind data collected simultaneously. N,N-Dimethyl formamide (DMF), 2-butanone, toluene, and ethyl acetate with mean concentrations of 80.0 ± 1.8, 34.5 ± 0.8, 103.7 ± 2.8, and 26.6 ± 0.7 ppbv, respectively, were identified as the major VOC mixture at all times of the day around the receptor site. As the toxic air pollutant, the concentrations of DMF in air samples were found exceeding the ambient standard despite the path-average effect of OP-FTIR upon concentration levels. The PCA data identified three major emission sources, including PU coating, chemical packaging, and lithographic printing industries. Applying instrumental measurement and statistical modeling, this study has established a systematic approach for locating emission sources. Statistical modeling (PCA) plays an important role in reducing dimensionality of a large measured dataset and identifying underlying emission sources. Instrumental measurement, however, helps verify the outcomes of the statistical modeling. The field study has demonstrated the feasibility of

  20. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  1. An Observation Capability Semantic-Associated Approach to the Selection of Remote Sensing Satellite Sensors: A Case Study of Flood Observations in the Jinsha River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuli; Li, Jie; Lin, Xin; Chen, Nengcheng; Yang, Chao

    2018-05-21

    Observation schedules depend upon the accurate understanding of a single sensor’s observation capability and the interrelated observation capability information on multiple sensors. The general ontologies for sensors and observations are abundant. However, few observation capability ontologies for satellite sensors are available, and no study has described the dynamic associations among the observation capabilities of multiple sensors used for integrated observational planning. This limitation results in a failure to realize effective sensor selection. This paper develops a sensor observation capability association (SOCA) ontology model that is resolved around the task-sensor-observation capability (TSOC) ontology pattern. The pattern is developed considering the stimulus-sensor-observation (SSO) ontology design pattern, which focuses on facilitating sensor selection for one observation task. The core aim of the SOCA ontology model is to achieve an observation capability semantic association. A prototype system called SemOCAssociation was developed, and an experiment was conducted for flood observations in the Jinsha River basin in China. The results of this experiment verified that the SOCA ontology based association method can help sensor planners intuitively and accurately make evidence-based sensor selection decisions for a given flood observation task, which facilitates efficient and effective observational planning for flood satellite sensors.

  2. An Observation Capability Semantic-Associated Approach to the Selection of Remote Sensing Satellite Sensors: A Case Study of Flood Observations in the Jinsha River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuli Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Observation schedules depend upon the accurate understanding of a single sensor’s observation capability and the interrelated observation capability information on multiple sensors. The general ontologies for sensors and observations are abundant. However, few observation capability ontologies for satellite sensors are available, and no study has described the dynamic associations among the observation capabilities of multiple sensors used for integrated observational planning. This limitation results in a failure to realize effective sensor selection. This paper develops a sensor observation capability association (SOCA ontology model that is resolved around the task-sensor-observation capability (TSOC ontology pattern. The pattern is developed considering the stimulus-sensor-observation (SSO ontology design pattern, which focuses on facilitating sensor selection for one observation task. The core aim of the SOCA ontology model is to achieve an observation capability semantic association. A prototype system called SemOCAssociation was developed, and an experiment was conducted for flood observations in the Jinsha River basin in China. The results of this experiment verified that the SOCA ontology based association method can help sensor planners intuitively and accurately make evidence-based sensor selection decisions for a given flood observation task, which facilitates efficient and effective observational planning for flood satellite sensors.

  3. Using satellite remote sensing to model and map the distribution of Bicknell's thrush (Catharus bicknelli) in the White Mountains of New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Stephen Roy

    Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper satellite imagery was used to model Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli) distribution in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The proof-of-concept was established for using satellite imagery in species-habitat modeling, where for the first time imagery spectral features were used to estimate a species-habitat model variable. The model predicted rising probabilities of thrush presence with decreasing dominant vegetation height, increasing elevation, and decreasing distance to nearest Fir Sapling cover type. To solve the model at all locations required regressor estimates at every pixel, which were not available for the dominant vegetation height and elevation variables. Topographically normalized imagery features Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Band 1 (blue) were used to estimate dominant vegetation height using multiple linear regression; and a Digital Elevation Model was used to estimate elevation. Distance to nearest Fir Sapling cover type was obtained for each pixel from a land cover map specifically constructed for this project. The Bicknell's Thrush habitat model was derived using logistic regression, which produced the probability of detecting a singing male based on the pattern of model covariates. Model validation using Bicknell's Thrush data not used in model calibration, revealed that the model accurately estimated thrush presence at probabilities ranging from 0 to account for more total individuals and reproductive output than higher density less abundant land area. Efforts to conserve areas of highest individual density under the assumption that density reflects habitat quality could target the smallest fraction of the total population.

  4. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  5. A fiber optic sensor with a metal organic framework as a sensing material for trace levels of water in industrial gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Miki, Yusuke; Matsuzaki, Toru; Nakamura, Nao; Sato, Yu-ki; Hirose, Yasuo; Toda, Kei

    2015-07-30

    Industrial gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and helium are easily contaminated with water during production, transfer and use, because there is a high volume fraction of water in the atmosphere (approximately 1.2% estimated with the average annual atmospheric temperature and relative humidity). Even trace water (industrial gases can cause quality problems in the process such as production of semiconductors. Therefore, it is important to monitor and to control trace water levels in industrial gases at each supplying step, and especially during their use. In the present study, a fiber optic gas sensor was investigated for monitoring trace water levels in industrial gases. The sensor consists of a film containing a metal organic framework (MOF). MOFs are made of metals coordinated to organic ligands, and have mesoscale pores that adsorb gas molecules. When the MOF, copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Cu-BTC), was used as a sensing material, we investigated the color of Cu-BTC with water adsorption changed both in depth and tone. Cu-BTC crystals appeared deep blue in dry gases, and then changed to light blue in wet gases. An optical gas sensor with the Cu-BTC film was developed using a light emitting diode as the light source and a photodiode as the light intensity detector. The sensor showed a reversible response to trace water, did not require heating to remove the adsorbed water molecules. The sample gas flow rate did not affect the sensitivity. The obtained limit of detection was 40 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The response time for sample gas containing 2.5 ppmvH2O was 23 s. The standard deviation obtained for daily analysis of 1.0 ppmvH2O standard gas over 20 days was 9%. Furthermore, the type of industrial gas did not affect the sensitivity. These properties mean the sensor will be applicable to trace water detection in various industrial gases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sea-ice deformation in a coupled ocean–sea-ice model and in satellite remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Spreen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A realistic representation of sea-ice deformation in models is important for accurate simulation of the sea-ice mass balance. Simulated sea-ice deformation from numerical simulations with 4.5, 9, and 18 km horizontal grid spacing and a viscous–plastic (VP sea-ice rheology are compared with synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite observations (RGPS, RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System for the time period 1996–2008. All three simulations can reproduce the large-scale ice deformation patterns, but small-scale sea-ice deformations and linear kinematic features (LKFs are not adequately reproduced. The mean sea-ice total deformation rate is about 40 % lower in all model solutions than in the satellite observations, especially in the seasonal sea-ice zone. A decrease in model grid spacing, however, produces a higher density and more localized ice deformation features. The 4.5 km simulation produces some linear kinematic features, but not with the right frequency. The dependence on length scale and probability density functions (PDFs of absolute divergence and shear for all three model solutions show a power-law scaling behavior similar to RGPS observations, contrary to what was found in some previous studies. Overall, the 4.5 km simulation produces the most realistic divergence, vorticity, and shear when compared with RGPS data. This study provides an evaluation of high and coarse-resolution viscous–plastic sea-ice simulations based on spatial distribution, time series, and power-law scaling metrics.

  7. Applying remote sensing expertise to crop improvement: progress and challenges to scale up high throughput field phenotyping from research to industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouache, David; Beauchêne, Katia; Mini, Agathe; Fournier, Antoine; de Solan, Benoit; Baret, Fred; Comar, Alexis

    2016-05-01

    Digital and image analysis technologies in greenhouses have become commonplace in plant science research and started to move into the plant breeding industry. However, the core of plant breeding work takes place in fields. We will present successive technological developments that have allowed the migration and application of remote sensing approaches at large into the field of crop genetics and physiology research, with a number of projects that have taken place in France. These projects have allowed us to develop combined sensor plus vector systems, from tractor mounted and UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) mounted spectroradiometry to autonomous vehicle mounted spectroradiometry, RGB (red-green-blue) imagery and Lidar. We have tested these systems for deciphering the genetics of complex plant improvement targets such as the robustness to nitrogen and water deficiency of wheat and maize. Our results from wheat experiments indicate that these systems can be used both to screen genetic diversity for nitrogen stress tolerance and to decipher the genetics behind this diversity. We will present our view on the next critical steps in terms of technology and data analysis that will be required to reach cost effective implementation in industrial plant breeding programs. If this can be achieved, these technologies will largely contribute to resolving the equation of increasing food supply in the resource limited world that lies ahead.

  8. Preliminary work of mangrove ecosystem carbon stock mapping in small island using remote sensing: above and below ground carbon stock mapping on medium resolution satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Pramaditya; Danoedoro, Projo; Hartono, Hartono; Nehren, Udo; Ribbe, Lars

    2011-11-01

    Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem located in coastal area that provides various important ecological and economical services. One of the services provided by mangrove forest is the ability to act as carbon sink by sequestering CO2 from atmosphere through photosynthesis and carbon burial on the sediment. The carbon buried on mangrove sediment may persist for millennia before return to the atmosphere, and thus act as an effective long-term carbon sink. Therefore, it is important to understand the distribution of carbon stored within mangrove forest in a spatial and temporal context. In this paper, an effort to map carbon stocks in mangrove forest is presented using remote sensing technology to overcome the handicap encountered by field survey. In mangrove carbon stock mapping, the use of medium spatial resolution Landsat 7 ETM+ is emphasized. Landsat 7 ETM+ images are relatively cheap, widely available and have large area coverage, and thus provide a cost and time effective way of mapping mangrove carbon stocks. Using field data, two image processing techniques namely Vegetation Index and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) were evaluated to find the best method to explain the variation in mangrove carbon stocks using remote sensing data. In addition, we also tried to estimate mangrove carbon sequestration rate via multitemporal analysis. Finally, the technique which produces significantly better result was used to produce a map of mangrove forest carbon stocks, which is spatially extensive and temporally repetitive.

  9. Patchiness in semi-arid dwarf shrublands: evidence from satellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Plants; Remote sensing; Rhigozum obovatum Burch; Satellite-derived vegetation indices; Woody species; patchiness; semi-arid; dwarf shrubland; shrublands; co2; assimilation; karoo; south africa; ndvi; satellite imagery; geochemical mound; rhigozum obovatum; eriocephalus ericoides; pentzia incana; vegetation; botany

  10. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  11. Birth of Industry 5.0: Making Sense of Big Data with Artificial Intelligence, "The Internet of Things" and Next-Generation Technology Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Hekim, Nezih

    2018-01-01

    Driverless cars with artificial intelligence (AI) and automated supermarkets run by collaborative robots (cobots) working without human supervision have sparked off new debates: what will be the impacts of extreme automation, turbocharged by the Internet of Things (IoT), AI, and the Industry 4.0, on Big Data and omics implementation science? The IoT builds on (1) broadband wireless internet connectivity, (2) miniaturized sensors embedded in animate and inanimate objects ranging from the house cat to the milk carton in your smart fridge, and (3) AI and cobots making sense of Big Data collected by sensors. Industry 4.0 is a high-tech strategy for manufacturing automation that employs the IoT, thus creating the Smart Factory. Extreme automation until "everything is connected to everything else" poses, however, vulnerabilities that have been little considered to date. First, highly integrated systems are vulnerable to systemic risks such as total network collapse in the event of failure of one of its parts, for example, by hacking or Internet viruses that can fully invade integrated systems. Second, extreme connectivity creates new social and political power structures. If left unchecked, they might lead to authoritarian governance by one person in total control of network power, directly or through her/his connected surrogates. We propose Industry 5.0 that can democratize knowledge coproduction from Big Data, building on the new concept of symmetrical innovation. Industry 5.0 utilizes IoT, but differs from predecessor automation systems by having three-dimensional (3D) symmetry in innovation ecosystem design: (1) a built-in safe exit strategy in case of demise of hyperconnected entrenched digital knowledge networks. Importantly, such safe exists are orthogonal-in that they allow "digital detox" by employing pathways unrelated/unaffected by automated networks, for example, electronic patient records versus material/article trails on vital medical information; (2) equal

  12. The 2015 Indonesian biomass-burning season with extensive peat fires: Remote sensing measurements of biomass burning aerosol optical properties from AERONET and MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Giles, D. M.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Sorokin, M. G.; Reid, J. S.; Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Levy, R. C.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Rahman, M. A.; Liew, S. C.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Li, T.; Kalbermatter, D.; Keong, K. L.; Elifant, M.; Aditya, F.; Mohamad, M.; Mahmud, M.; Chong, T. K.; Lim, H. S.; Choon, Y. E.; Deranadyan, G.; Kusumaningtyas, S. D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The strong El Nino event in 2015 resulted in below normal rainfall throughout Indonesia, which in turn allowed for exceptionally large numbers of biomass burning fires (including much peat burning) from Aug though Oct 2015. Over the island of Borneo, three AERONET sites measured monthly mean fine mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm from the spectral deconvolution algorithm in Sep and Oct ranging from 1.6 to 3.7, with daily average AOD as high as 6.1. In fact, the AOD was sometimes too high to obtain significant signal at mid-visible, therefore a newly developed algorithm in the AERONET Version 3 database was invoked to retain the measurements in as many of the longer wavelengths as possible. The AOD at longer wavelengths were then utilized to provide estimates of AOD at 550 nm with maximum values of 9 to 11. Additionally, satellite retrievals of AOD at 550 nm from MODIS data and the Dark Target, Deep Blue, and MAIAC algorithms were analyzed and compared to AERONET measured AOD. The AOD was sometimes too high for the satellite algorithms to make retrievals in the densest smoke regions. Since the AOD was often extremely high there was often insufficient AERONET direct sun signal at 440 nm for the larger solar zenith angles (> 50 degrees) required for almucantar retrievals. However, new hybrid sky radiance scans can attain sufficient scattering angle range even at small solar zenith angles when 440 nm direct beam irradiance can be accurately measured, thereby allowing for more retrievals and at higher AOD levels. The retrieved volume median radius of the fine mode increased from 0.18 to 0.25 micron as AOD increased from 1 to 3 (at 440 nm). These are very large size particles for biomass burning aerosol and are similar in size to smoke particles measured in Alaska during the very dry years of 2004 and 2005 (Eck et al. 2009) when peat soil burning also contributed to the fuel burned. The average single scattering albedo over the wavelength range of 440 to 1020 nm

  13. Monitoring and Modelling the Evolution of the Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai (Kingdom of Tonga) Volcanic Island by means of Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Garvin, J. B.; Asrar, G.; Ferrini, V. L.; Giguere, C.

    2016-12-01

    The surtseyan eruption that formed the Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai (HTHH) volcanic island in the Kingdom of Tonga between late Dec 2014 and the end of Jan 2015 produced a 133m tall tephra cone with flanking pyroclastic flows with a land area similar to that of Surtsey (Iceland). With the advent of sub-meter resolution satellite imaging systems employing both optical and microwave (radar) wavelengths, we have quantitatively documented the post-eruptive evolution of the new island on a monthly basis since Feb 2015 via DigitalGlobe WorldView and Canadian Space Agency Radarsat-2 satellites, resulting in an unprecedented time-series of measurements of the island's surface area, volume, and landscapes. Our results have documented the rapid subaerial evolution of the new island, with a current mean loss of island volume of 12.2% per year. On the basis of the time series of visible images from WorldView and the C-band Spotlight SAR images from Radarsat-2, we developed a first-order evolutionary model for the apparently-tephra dominated island, and compared this to the 53 year evolution of Surtsey. Because the HTHH island is adjacent to two pre-existing islands that form part of the rim of a submarine caldera, the loss of land from the southern coast over its first 5 months resulted in the development of an accretionay spit that connected it to the Hunga Tonga island to the NE, limiting the overall pace of subaerial coastline loss. With marine abrasion accentuated on the southern side of the island, and breaching of the interior crater (lake) of the primary tephra cone, the projected lifetime of the island is likely to be far less than Surtsey, which is protected by palagonitized tephra. From our volume and coast-line measurements, the projected lifetime of the island is likely to fall between 7.5 yrs (shortest) and 70 years, dependent on whether any of the interior deposits forming the primary edifice have been palagoinitized to resist marine abrasion and mass wasting. This

  14. IMPACT OF COHERENT BACKSCATTERING ON THE SPECTRA OF ICY SATELLITES OF SATURN AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF ITS EFFECTS FOR REMOTE SENSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokolova, L.; Buratti, B.; Tishkovets, V.

    2010-01-01

    We have found systematic variations in the spectra of Saturn's icy satellites Rhea and Iapetus obtained by the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The main attribute of these variations is a significantly different depth of the absorption bands at different phase angles. We show that these variations likely result from the coherent backscattering effect (CBE). This effect has been mainly known as the probable reason for a steep opposition spike in brightness observed for some asteroids, moons, and Kuiper Belt Objects at phase angles smaller than 3 deg. The opposition spike has different steepness at different albedos due to the strong dependence of the CBE on the absorption of the material. As a result of this dependence, the impact of the CBE should be different within and outside of the absorption spectral bands. This produces a systematic change in the depth of the absorption bands at different phase angles, as we see in the VIMS spectra of Rhea and Iapetus. Neglecting this effect may result in misinterpretation of the spectra and misleading conclusions about compositional and particle size differences of icy bodies studied at different phase angles. Our computer modeling of the CBE reproduces the observed spectral variations and also shows that they are strongly affected by the size and packing of particles. Thus, the variations in the absorption bands produced by the CBE not only allow us to improve interpretation of the spectra, but also provide a promising approach to study size and packing of the regolith and dust particles.

  15. Assessing long-term variations in sagebrush habitat: characterization of spatial extents and distribution patterns using multi-temporal satellite remote-sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, George; Homer, Collin G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2012-01-01

    An approach that can generate sagebrush habitat change estimates for monitoring large-area sagebrush ecosystems has been developed and tested in southwestern Wyoming, USA. This prototype method uses a satellite-based image change detection algorithm and regression models to estimate sub-pixel percentage cover for five sagebrush habitat components: bare ground, herbaceous, litter, sagebrush and shrub. Landsat images from three different months in 1988, 1996 and 2006 were selected to identify potential landscape change during these time periods using change vector (CV) analysis incorporated with an image normalization algorithm. Regression tree (RT) models were used to estimate percentage cover for five components on all change areas identified in 1988 and 1996, using unchanged 2006 baseline data as training for both estimates. Over the entire study area (24 950 km2), a net increase of 98.83 km2, or 0.7%, for bare ground was measured between 1988 and 2006. Over the same period, the other four components had net losses of 20.17 km2, or 0.6%, for herbaceous vegetation; 30.16 km2, or 0.7%, for litter; 32.81 km2, or 1.5%, for sagebrush; and 33.34 km2, or 1.2%, for shrubs. The overall accuracy for shrub vegetation change between 1988 and 2006 was 89.56%. Change patterns within sagebrush habitat components differ spatially and quantitatively from each other, potentially indicating unique responses by these components to disturbances imposed upon them.

  16. Comment on 'The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity - Use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms' by William Balch et al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    Various conclusions by Balch et al. (1992) about the current state of modeling primary production in the sea (lack of improvement in primary production models, since 1957, utility of analytical models, and merits or weaknesses of complex models) are commented on. It is argued that since they are based on a false premise, these conclusions are not robust, and that the approach used by Balch et al. (the model of Platt and Sathyendranath, 1988) was inadequate for the question they set out to address. The present criticism is based mainly on the issue of whether implementation was correct with respect to parameter selection. It is concluded that the findings of Balch et al. with respect to the model of Platt and Sathyendranath is unreliable. Balch replies that satellite-derived estimates of primary production should be compared directly to that measured in situ in as many regions as possible. This will provide a first-order estimate of the magnitude of the error involved in estimating primary production from space.

  17. A change detection strategy for monitoring vegetative and land-use cover types using remotely-sensed, satellite-based data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallum, C.

    1993-01-01

    Changes to the environment are of critical concern in the world today; consequently, monitoring such changes and assessing their impacts are tasks demanding considerably higher priority. The ecological impacts of the natural global cycles of gases and particulates in the earth's atmosphere are highly influenced by the extent of changes to vegetative canopy characteristics which dictates the need for capability to detect and assess the magnitude of such changes. The primary emphasis of this paper is on the determination of the size and configuration of the sampling unit that maximizes the probability of its intersection with a 'change' area. Assessment of the significance of the 'change' in a given locality is also addressed and relies on a statistical approach that compares the number of elemental units exceeding a reflectance threshold when compared to a previous point in time. Consideration is also given to a technical framework that supports quantifying the magnitude of the 'change' over large areas (i.e., the estimated area changing from forest to agricultural land-use). The latter entails a multistage approach which utilizes satellite-based and other related data sources

  18. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Neal Naixue; Jeong, Gisung; Lee, Young-Keun; Choi, Jae-Young; Mahesar, Abdul Wheed; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-03-03

    In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3) performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB) is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design.

  19. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Neal Naixue; Jeong, Gisung; Lee, Young-Keun; Choi, Jae-Young; Mahesar, Abdul Wheed; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3) performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB) is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design. PMID:26950129

  20. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3 performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design.

  1. Synergistic use of Lagrangian dispersion and radiative transfer modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing measurements for the investigation of volcanic plumes: the Mount Etna eruption of 25–27 October 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we combine SO2 and ash plume dispersion modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing observations to study the regional influence of a relatively weak volcanic eruption from Mount Etna on the optical and micro-physical properties of Mediterranean aerosols. We analyse the Mount Etna eruption episode of 25–27 October 2013. The evolution of the plume along the trajectory is investigated by means of the FLEXible PARTicle Lagrangian dispersion (FLEXPART model. The satellite data set includes true colour images, retrieved values of volcanic SO2 and ash, estimates of SO2 and ash emission rates derived from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer observations and estimates of cloud top pressure from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager. Surface remote sensing measurements of aerosol and SO2 made at the ENEA Station for Climate Observations (35.52° N, 12.63° E; 50 m a.s.l. on the island of Lampedusa are used in the analysis. The combination of these different data sets suggests that SO2 and ash, despite the initial injection at about 7.0 km altitude, reached altitudes around 10–12 km and influenced the column average aerosol particle size distribution at a distance of more than 350 km downwind. This study indicates that even a relatively weak volcanic eruption may produce an observable effect on the aerosol properties at the regional scale. The impact of secondary sulfate particles on the aerosol size distribution at Lampedusa is discussed and estimates of the clear-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing are derived. Daily shortwave radiative forcing efficiencies, i.e. radiative forcing per unit AOD (aerosol optical depth, are calculated with the LibRadtran model. They are estimated between −39 and −48 W m−2 AOD−1 at the top of the atmosphere and between −66 and −49 W m−2 AOD−1 at the surface, with the variability in the estimates mainly depending on the

  2. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  3. Global changes in dryland vegetation dynamics (1988–2008 assessed by satellite remote sensing: comparing a new passive microwave vegetation density record with reflective greenness data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Andela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drylands, covering nearly 30% of the global land surface, are characterized by high climate variability and sensitivity to land management. Here, two satellite-observed vegetation products were used to study the long-term (1988–2008 vegetation changes of global drylands: the widely used reflective-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the recently developed passive-microwave-based Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD. The NDVI is sensitive to the chlorophyll concentrations in the canopy and the canopy cover fraction, while the VOD is sensitive to vegetation water content of both leafy and woody components. Therefore it can be expected that using both products helps to better characterize vegetation dynamics, particularly over regions with mixed herbaceous and woody vegetation. Linear regression analysis was performed between antecedent precipitation and observed NDVI and VOD independently to distinguish the contribution of climatic and non-climatic drivers in vegetation variations. Where possible, the contributions of fire, grazing, agriculture and CO2 level to vegetation trends were assessed. The results suggest that NDVI is more sensitive to fluctuations in herbaceous vegetation, which primarily uses shallow soil water, whereas VOD is more sensitive to woody vegetation, which additionally can exploit deeper water stores. Globally, evidence is found for woody encroachment over drylands. In the arid drylands, woody encroachment appears to be at the expense of herbaceous vegetation and a global driver is interpreted. Trends in semi-arid drylands vary widely between regions, suggesting that local rather than global drivers caused most of the vegetation response. In savannas, besides precipitation, fire regime plays an important role in shaping trends. Our results demonstrate that NDVI and VOD provide complementary information and allow new insights into dryland vegetation dynamics.

  4. Topographic Controls on Southern California Ecosystem Function and Post-fire Recovery: a Satellite and Near-surface Remote Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, George

    Southern Californian wildfires can influence climate in a variety of ways, including changes in surface albedo, emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the production of tropospheric ozone. Ecosystem post-fire recovery plays a key role in determining the strength, duration, and relative importance of these climate forcing agents. Southern California's ecosystems vary markedly with topography, creating sharp transitions with elevation, aspect, and slope. Little is known about the ways topography influences ecosystem properties and function, particularly in the context of post-fire recovery. We combined images from the USGS satellite Landsat 5 with flux tower measurements to analyze pre- and post-fire albedo and carbon exchanged by Southern California's ecosystems in the Santa Ana Mountains. We reduced the sources of external variability in Landsat images using several correction methods for topographic and bidirectional effects. We used time series of corrected images to infer the Net Ecosystem Exchange and surface albedo, and calculated the radiative forcing due to CO2 emissions and albedo changes. We analyzed the patterns of recovery and radiative forcing on north- and south-facing slopes, stratified by vegetation classes including grassland, coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and evergreen oak forest. We found that topography strongly influenced post-fire recovery and radiative forcing. Field observations are often limited by the difficulty of collecting ground validation data. Current instrumentation networks do not provide adequate spatial resolution for landscape-level analysis. The deployment of consumer-market technology could reduce the cost of near-surface measurements, allowing the installation of finer-scale instrument networks. We tested the performance of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for measuring vegetation structure. We used Kinect to acquire 3D vegetation point clouds in the field, and used these data to compute plant height, crown diameter, and

  5. PAN SHARPENING QUALITY INVESTIGATION OF TURKISH IN-OPERATION REMOTE SENSING SATELLITES: APPLICATIONS WITH RASAT AND GÖKTÜRK-2 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ozendi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pan-sharpening performance of RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 images. For this purpose, pan-sharpened images are generated using most popular pan-sharpening methods IHS, Brovey and PCA at first. This procedure is followed by quantitative evaluation of pan-sharpened images using Correlation Coefficient (CC, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Relative Average Spectral Error (RASE, Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM and Erreur Relative Globale Adimensionnelle de Synthése (ERGAS metrics. For generation of pan-sharpened images and computation of metrics SharpQ tool is used which is developed with MATLAB computing language. According to metrics, PCA derived pan-sharpened image is the most similar one to multispectral image for RASAT, and Brovey derived pan-sharpened image is the most similar one to multispectral image for GÖKTÜRK-2. Finally, pan-sharpened images are evaluated qualitatively in terms of object availability and completeness for various land covers (such as urban, forest and flat areas by a group of operators who are experienced in remote sensing imagery.

  6. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  7. Modeling Surface Energy Fluxes over a Dehesa (Oak Savanna Ecosystem Using a Thermal Based Two Source Energy Balance Model (TSEB II—Integration of Remote Sensing Medium and Low Spatial Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dehesas are highly valuable agro-forestry ecosystems, widely distributed over Mediterranean-type climate areas, which play a key role in rural development, basing their productivity on a sustainable use of multiple resources (crops, livestock, wildlife, etc.. The information derived from remote sensing based models addressing ecosystem water consumption, at different scales, can be used by institutions and private landowners to support management decisions. In this study, the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB model is analyzed over two Spanish dehesa areas integrating multiple satellites (MODIS and Landsat for estimating water use (ET, vegetation ground cover, leaf area and phenology. Instantaneous latent heat (LE values are derived on a regional scale and compared with eddy covariance tower (ECT measurements, yielding accurate results (RMSDMODIS Las Majadas 44 Wm−2, Santa Clotilde RMSDMODIS 47 Wm−2 and RMSDLandsat 64 Wm−2. Daily ET(mm is estimated using daily return interval of MODIS for both study sites and compared with the flux measurements of the ECTs, with RMSD of 1 mm day−1 over Las Majadas and 0.99 mm day−1 over Santa Clotilde. Distributed ET over Andalusian dehesa (15% of the region is successfully mapped using MODIS images, as an approach to monitor the ecosystem status and the vegetation water stress on a regular basis.

  8. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  9. The GNSS polarimetric radio-occultation technique to sense precipitation events: a new concept to be tested aboard PAZ Low Earth Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Sergio; Oliveras, Santi; Cardellach, Estel; Rius, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation (ROHP) experiment, to be conducted aboard the Spanish PAZ satellite, consists of a radio occultation (RO) mission provided with dual-polarization capabilities. The research with polarimetric RO data has the goal of assessing the capabilities and limitations of this technique to infer profiles of heavy precipitation. The technique aims to provide vertical profiles of precipitation simultaneously to the vertical profiles of thermodynamic parameters (standard RO products) perfectly collocated both in space and time. If successful, the polarimetric RO will represent the first technique able to provide these complementary information on precipitation. This is a relevant input for studies on heavy and violent rainfall events, which being poorly represented by the current-generation of Numerical Weather Prediction and General Circulation Models appear to be difficult to forecast on all time-scales. The Low Earth Orbiter hosting this experiment, to be launched in 2013, will orbit at 500 km altitude in a near-Polar orbit. The Radio Occulation payload includes a RO GNSS receiver and a dual polarization (H/V) limb oriented antenna to capture the signals of setting GNSS transmitters. NOAA and UCAR participate in the ground-segment of the radiometric experiment to enable near-real time dissemination of the level-1 standard RO products. The space-based GNSS RO technique scans the atmosphere vertically at fine resolution (close to 300 meter in the troposphere) by precisely measure the delay between a GNSS transmitter and a GNSS receiver aboard a Low Earth Orbiter, when the former is setting below or rising above the Earth limb. The standard, thermodynamical, products are extracted from the excess delay induced by the atmosphere at different layers. This presentation will not focus on this well-established application, but a novel concept using polarimetry to also retrieve rain information. The precipitation-measurement principle is

  10. Climatology of the oceanography in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters: Observations from satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X.; Wong, G. T.; Tai, J.; Ho, T.

    2013-12-01

    By using the observations from multiple satellite sensors, the climatology of the oceanography, including the surface wind vector, sea surface temperature (SST), surface chlorophyll a concentration (Chl_a), and vertically integrated net primary production (PPeu), in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters is evaluated. Regional and sub-regional mechanisms in driving the coastal processes, which influence the spatial and temporal distributional patterns in water component, are assessed. Seasonal vertical convective mixing by wind and surface heating/cooling is the primary force in driving the annual changes in SST and Chl_a in the open South China Sea (SCS), in which highly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and moderately positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind speed are found. Together, the seasonal variations in SST and wind speed account for about 80% of the seasonal variation in Chl_a. In the NoSoCS as a whole, however, the contribution is reduced to about 40%, primarily due to the effect of the Pearl River plume. A tongue of water extending eastward from the mouth of the River into the middle shelf with positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and around zero or slightly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind is the most striking feature in the NoSoCS. The westward and eastward propagations of the Pearl River plume are both very small during the northeast monsoonal season, driven primarily by the Coriolis effect. The abrupt increase in the areal coverage of the River plume, which is much more pronounced in the eastward propagation, between June and August can be attributed to the prevailing southwest monsoon as well as the annual peak of the river flow. Coastal upwelling is another sub-regional phenomenon in the NoSoCS. The upwelling at the shelf edge off the Taiwan Bank may be characterized by its elevated Chl_a. Its areal coverage and average Chl_a do not vary

  11. Remote-sensing image encryption in hybrid domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, Guiliang; Ma, Shilong

    2012-04-01

    Remote-sensing technology plays an important role in military and industrial fields. Remote-sensing image is the main means of acquiring information from satellites, which always contain some confidential information. To securely transmit and store remote-sensing images, we propose a new image encryption algorithm in hybrid domains. This algorithm makes full use of the advantages of image encryption in both spatial domain and transform domain. First, the low-pass subband coefficients of image DWT (discrete wavelet transform) decomposition are sorted by a PWLCM system in transform domain. Second, the image after IDWT (inverse discrete wavelet transform) reconstruction is diffused with 2D (two-dimensional) Logistic map and XOR operation in spatial domain. The experiment results and algorithm analyses show that the new algorithm possesses a large key space and can resist brute-force, statistical and differential attacks. Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm has the desirable encryption efficiency to satisfy requirements in practice.

  12. Remote sensing in meteorology, oceanography and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cracknell, A P [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of remote sensing are discussed. Topics include: the EARTHNET data acquisition, processing, and distribution facility the design and implementation of a digital interactive image processing system geometrical aspects of remote sensing and space cartography remote sensing of a complex surface legal aspects of remote sensing remote sensing of pollution, dust storms, ice masses, and ocean waves and currents use of satellite images for weather forecasting. Notes on field trips and work-sheets for laboratory exercises are included.

  13. ESA's satellite communications programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  14. An Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment for the Application of Remote Sensing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".

  15. Data distribution in the OLFAR satellite swarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Willink-Castro, T.J.; Engelen, S.; Rajan, R.T.; Rajan, Raj; Smith, D.M.P.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Orbiting Low Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project aims to develop a radio telescope for very low frequencies (below 30 MHz) by using a swarm of 50 or more nano-satellites. Spread in a 100-km diameter cloud, the satellites will form a very large aperture capable of sensing the

  16. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  17. Satellite Remote Sensing of Cropland Characteristics in 30m Resolution: The First North American Continental-Scale Classification on High Performance Computing Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Richard

    Cropland characteristics and accurate maps of their spatial distribution are required to develop strategies for global food security by continental-scale assessments and agricultural land use policies. North America is the major producer and exporter of coarse grains, wheat, and other crops. While cropland characteristics such as crop types are available at country-scales in North America, however, at continental-scale cropland products are lacking at fine sufficient resolution such as 30m. Additionally, applications of automated, open, and rapid methods to map cropland characteristics over large areas without the need of ground samples are needed on efficient high performance computing platforms for timely and long-term cropland monitoring. In this study, I developed novel, automated, and open methods to map cropland extent, crop intensity, and crop types in the North American continent using large remote sensing datasets on high-performance computing platforms. First, a novel method was developed in this study to fuse pixel-based classification of continental-scale Landsat data using Random Forest algorithm available on Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform with an object-based classification approach, recursive hierarchical segmentation (RHSeg) to map cropland extent at continental scale. Using the fusion method, a continental-scale cropland extent map for North America at 30m spatial resolution for the nominal year 2010 was produced. In this map, the total cropland area for North America was estimated at 275.2 million hectares (Mha). This map was assessed for accuracy using randomly distributed samples derived from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data layer (CDL), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) annual crop inventory (ACI), Servicio de Informacion Agroalimentaria y Pesquera (SIAP), Mexico's agricultural boundaries, and photo-interpretation of high-resolution imagery. The overall accuracies of the map are 93.4% with a

  18. Satellite myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David

    2008-01-01

    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  19. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  20. Mobile Atmospheric Sensing using Vision Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuchun; Cui, Weihong; Rui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Air quality monitoring, especially the atmospheric phenomenon of thick haze, has been an acute problem in most countries and a hot topic in the atmospheric sensing. Recently thick haze occurs more frequently in most cities of China due to the rapid growth of traffic, farming, wildfires, and industrial development. It forms a low-hanging shroud that impairs visibility and becomes a respiratory health threat. Traditionally the dust, smoke, and other particles in relatively dry sky are reported at fixed meteorological stations. The coverage of these sampling stations is limited and cannot accommodate with the emergent incidence of thick haze from industrial pollution. In addition, the visual effect of thick haze is not yet investigated in the current practice. Thick haze appears colorful veil (e.g., yellowish, brownish-grey, etc) in video log images and results in a loss of contrast in the subject due to the light scattering through haze particles. This paper proposes an intuitive and mobile atmospheric sensing using vision approach. Based on the video log images collected by a mobile sensing vehicle, a Haze Veil Index (HVI) is proposed to identify the type and severity level of thick haze from the color and texture perspective. HVI characterizes the overall veil effect of haze spatially. HVI first identifies the haze color from the color deviation histogram of the white-balanced hazy image. The white-balancing is conducted with the most haze-opaque pixels in the dark channel and seed growing strategy. Then pixel-wise haze severity level of atmospheric veil is inferred by approximating the upper veil limit with the dark color of each pixel in a hazy image. The proposed method is tested on a diverse set of actual hazy video log images under varying atmospheric conditions and backgrounds in Wuhan City, China. Experimental results show the proposed HVI is effective for visually atmospheric sensing. The proposed method is promising for haze monitoring and prediction in

  1. Boomerang Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.

    2017-10-01

    We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.

  2. Multi- and hyperspectral geologic remote sensing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Freek D.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; Hecker, Chris A.; Bakker, Wim H.; Noomen, Marleen F.; van der Meijde, Mark; Carranza, E. John M.; Smeth, J. Boudewijn de; Woldai, Tsehaie

    2012-02-01

    Geologists have used remote sensing data since the advent of the technology for regional mapping, structural interpretation and to aid in prospecting for ores and hydrocarbons. This paper provides a review of multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data, products and applications in geology. During the early days of Landsat Multispectral scanner and Thematic Mapper, geologists developed band ratio techniques and selective principal component analysis to produce iron oxide and hydroxyl images that could be related to hydrothermal alteration. The advent of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) with six channels in the shortwave infrared and five channels in the thermal region allowed to produce qualitative surface mineral maps of clay minerals (kaolinite, illite), sulfate minerals (alunite), carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite), iron oxides (hematite, goethite), and silica (quartz) which allowed to map alteration facies (propylitic, argillic etc.). The step toward quantitative and validated (subpixel) surface mineralogic mapping was made with the advent of high spectral resolution hyperspectral remote sensing. This led to a wealth of techniques to match image pixel spectra to library and field spectra and to unravel mixed pixel spectra to pure endmember spectra to derive subpixel surface compositional information. These products have found their way to the mining industry and are to a lesser extent taken up by the oil and gas sector. The main threat for geologic remote sensing lies in the lack of (satellite) data continuity. There is however a unique opportunity to develop standardized protocols leading to validated and reproducible products from satellite remote sensing for the geology community. By focusing on geologic mapping products such as mineral and lithologic maps, geochemistry, P-T paths, fluid pathways etc. the geologic remote sensing community can bridge the gap with the geosciences community. Increasingly

  3. Intelligent environmental sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    Developing environmental sensing and monitoring technologies become essential especially for industries that may cause severe contamination. Intelligent environmental sensing uses novel sensor techniques, intelligent signal and data processing algorithms, and wireless sensor networks to enhance environmental sensing and monitoring. It finds applications in many environmental problems such as oil and gas, water quality, and agriculture. This book addresses issues related to three main approaches to intelligent environmental sensing and discusses their latest technological developments. Key contents of the book include:   Agricultural monitoring Classification, detection, and estimation Data fusion Geological monitoring Motor monitoring Multi-sensor systems Oil reservoirs monitoring Sensor motes Water quality monitoring Wireless sensor network protocol  

  4. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  5. The impact of public R&D on Marketing and Supply Chains on Small Farms' Marketing-Sensing Capability: Evidence from the Australian Seafood Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; English, F.; Schwartz, D.

    2014-01-01

    Agri-food organizations that are capable of “sensing the market” – that is, capable of searching, processing and using market information, are usually also market oriented, innovative, entrepreneurial and successful. But how can a small farm with limited resources develop market sensing

  6. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  7. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    appropriately. The Horizon Sensor program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

  8. Small-satellite technology and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horais, Brian J.

    Remote sensing applications and systems, small satellites for sensing missions, and supporting technologies are the broad topics discussed. Particular papers are presented on small satellites for water cycle experiments, low-cost spacecraft buses for remote sensing applications, Webersat (a low-cost imaging satellite), DARPA initiatives in small-satellite technologies, a solid-state magnetic azimuth sensor for small satellites, and thermal analysis of a small expendable tether satellite package. (For individual items see A93-24152 to A93-24175)

  9. FireBird - a small satellite fire monitoring mission: Status and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Eckehard; Rücker, Gernot; Terzibaschian, Thomas; Klein, Doris; Tiemann, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The scientific mission FireBird is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and consists of two small satellites. The first satellite - TET-1 - was successfully launched from Baikonur, Russia in July 2012. Its first year in orbit was dedicated to a number of experiments within the framework of the DLR On Orbit Verification (OOV) program which is dedicated to technology testing in space. After successful completion of its OOV phase, TET-1 was handed over to the DLR FireBird mission and is now a dedicated Earth Observation mission. Its primary goal is sensing of hot phenomena such as wildfires, volcanoes, gas flares and industrial hotspots. The second satellite, BiROS is scheduled for launch in the second or third quarter of 2015. The satellite builds on the heritage of the DLR BIRD (BIspectral Infrared Detection) mission and delivers quantitative information (such as Fire Radiative Power, FRP) at a spatial resolution of 350 m, superior to any current fire enabled satellite system such as NPP VIIRS, MODIS or Meteosat SEVIRI. The satellite is undergoing a four month validation phase during which satellite operations are adapted to the new mission goals of FireBIRD and processing capacities are established to guarantee swift processing and delivery of high quality data. The validation phase started with an informal Operational Readiness Review and will be completed with a formal review, covering all aspects of the space and ground segments. The satellite is equipped with a camera with a 42 m ground pixel size in the red, green and near infrared spectral range, and a 370 m ground pixel size camera in the mid and thermal infrared with a swath of 185 km. The satellite can be pointed towards a target in order to enhance observation frequency. First results of the FireBird mission include a ground validation experiment and acquisitions over fires across the world. Once the validation phase is finished the data will be made available to a wide scientific community.

  10. Remote sensing for oil spill detection and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of remote sensing for marine oil spill detection and response. The surveillance and monitoring of discharges, and the main elements of effective surveillance are discussed. Tactical emergency response and the requirements for selecting a suitable remote sensing approach, airborne remote sensing systems, and the integration of satellite and airborne imaging are examined. Specifications of satellite surveillance systems potentially usable for oil spill detection, and specifications of airborne remote sensing systems suitable for oil spill detection, monitoring and supplemental actions are tabulated, and a schema of integrated satellite-airborne remote sensing (ISARS) is presented. (UK)

  11. The Federal Oil Spill Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing (FOSTERRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.; Leifer, I.; Lindsay, F. E.; Murray, J. J.; Ramirez, E. M.; Salemi, A.; Streett, D.

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, for which remote sensing plays a critical role in detection and monitoring of oil spills. The FOSTERRS interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. FOSTERRS enables cooperation between agencies with core environmental remote sensing assets and capabilities and academic and industry experts to act as an oil spill remote sensing information clearinghouse. The US government and its collaborators have a broad variety of aircraft and satellite sensors, imagery interrogation techniques and other technology that can provide indispensable remote sensing information to agencies, emergency responders and the public during an oil spill. Specifically, FOSTERRS will work to ensure that (1) suitable aircraft and satellite imagery and radar observations are quickly made available in a manner that can be integrated into oil spill detection and mitigation efforts, (2) existing imagery interrogation techniques are in the hands of those who will provide the 24 x 7 operational support and (3) efforts are made to develop new technology where the existing techniques do not provide oil spills responders with important information they need. The FOSTERRS mission goal places it in an ideal place for identification of critical technological needs, and identifying bottlenecks in technology acceptance. The core FOSTERRS team incorporates representation for operations and science for agencies with relevant instrumental and platform assets (NASA, NOAA, USGS, NRL). FOSTERRS membership will open to a wide range of end-user agencies and planned observer status from industry and academic experts, and eventually international partners. Through these collaborations, FOSTERRS facilitates interagency

  12. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi- form broadcasts. This has led to a ... diversity offormats, languages, genre, and a universal reach that cannot be met by .... programs can be delivered to whom it is intended. In the case of.

  13. Kite Aerial Photography as a Tool for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.

    2010-01-01

    As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…

  14. Remote earth sensing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, Yu V

    1981-01-01

    Description of data devices for deriving multi-spectral measuring television measurement data of middle and high resolution through use of second generation Meteor-type satellites. Options for developing a permanent and active remote sensing system in USSR are discussed. It is noted that the present experiment is an important step in that direction. Design and structural data for this particular device and its application in the experiment are covered.

  15. A Conceptual Design for a Small Deployer Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbo, S.

    2002-01-01

    In the last few years, the space scientific and industrial communities have demonstrated a renewed interest for small missions based on new categories of space platforms: micro &nano satellites. The cost reduction w.r.t. larger satellite missions, the shorter time from concept to launch, the risk distribution and the possibility to use this kind of bus both for stand-alone projects and as complementary to larger programs, are key factors that make this new kind of technology suitable for a wide range of space related activities. In particular it is now possible to conceive new mission philosophy implying the realisation of micro satellite constellations, with S/C flying in close formation to form a network of distributed sensors either for near-real time telecommunication or Earth remote sensing and disaster monitoring systems or physics and astronomical researches for Earth-Sun dynamics and high energy radiation studies. At the same time micro satellite are becoming important test- beds for new technologies that will eventually be used on larger missions, with relevant spin-offs potentialities towards other industrial fields. The foreseen social and economical direct benefits, the reduced mission costs and the possibility even for a small skilled team to manage all the project, represent very attractive arguments for universities and research institutes to invest funds and human resources to get first order technical and theoretical skills in the field of micro satellite design, with important influences on the training programs of motivated students that are directly involved in all the project's phases. In consideration of these space market important new trends and of the academic benefits that could be guaranteed by undertaking a micro satellite mission project, basing on its long space activities heritage, University of Rome "La Sapienza" - Aerospace and Astronautics Department, with the support of the Italian Space Agency, Alenia Spazio and of important

  16. Virtual Satellite Construction and Application for Image Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W G; Su, F Z; Zhou, C H

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, most remote sensing image classification uses single satellite remote sensing data, so the number of bands and band spectral width is consistent. In addition, observed phenomenon such as land cover have the same spectral signature, which causes the classification accuracy to decrease as different data have unique characteristic. Therefore, this paper analyzes different optical remote sensing satellites, comparing the spectral differences and proposes the ideas and methods to build a virtual satellite. This article illustrates the research on the TM, HJ-1 and MODIS data. We obtained the virtual band X 0 through these satellites' bands combined it with the 4 bands of a TM image to build a virtual satellite with five bands. Based on this, we used these data for image classification. The experimental results showed that the virtual satellite classification results of building land and water information were superior to the HJ-1 and TM data respectively

  17. New Directions in Land Remote Sensing Policy and International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    Recent changes to land remote sensing satellite data policies in Brazil and the United States have led to the phenomenal growth in the delivery of land imagery to users worldwide. These new policies, which provide free and unrestricted access to land remote sensing data over a standard electronic interface, are expected to provide significant benefits to scientific and operational users, and open up new areas of Earth system science research and environmental monitoring. Freely-available data sets from the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites (CBERS), the U.S. Landsat satellites, and other satellite missions provide essential information for land surface monitoring, ecosystems management, disaster mitigation, and climate change research. These missions are making important contributions to the goals and objectives of regional and global terrestrial research and monitoring programs. These programs are in turn providing significant support to the goals and objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC), the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), and the UN Reduction in Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) program. These data policies are well-aligned with the "Data Democracy" initiative undertaken by the international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), through its current Chair, Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, or INPE), and its former chairs, South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Thailand's Geo Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA). Comparable policies for land imaging data are under consideration within Europe and Canada. Collectively, these initiatives have the potential to accelerate and improve international mission collaboration, and greatly enhance the access, use, and application of land surface imagery for environmental monitoring and societal adaption to changing

  18. International Conference on Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeological Research and World Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    . Archaeology through Space: Experience in Indian Subcontinent. The creation of a GIS Archaeological Site Location Catalogue in Yucatan: A Tool to preserve its Cultural Heritage. Mapping the Ancient Anasazi Roads of Southeast Utah. Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Identification of Conservation and Heritage sites in Urban Planning. Mapping Angkor: For a new appraisal of the Angkor region. Angkor and radar imaging: seeing a vast pre-industrial low-density, dispersed urban complex. Technical and methodological aspects of archaeological CRM integrating high resolution satellite imagery. The contribution of satellite imagery to archaeological survey: an example from western Syria. The use of satellite images, digital elevation models and ground truth for the monitoring of land degradation in the "Cinque Terre" National park. Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Protection and Conservation of World Heritage Site on the coast - Case Study of Tamil Nadu Coast, India. Multispectral high resolution satellite imagery in combination with "traditional" remote sensing and ground survey methods to the study of archaeological landscapes. The case study of Tuscany. Use of Remotely-Sensed Imagery in Cultural Landscape. Characterisation at Fort Hood, Texas. Heritage Learning and Data Collection: Biodiversity & Heritage Conservation through Collaborative Monitoring & Research. A collaborative project by UNESCO's WHC (World Heritage Center) & The GLOBE Program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment). Practical Remote Sensing Activities in an Interdisciplinary Master-Level Space Course.

  19. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact. Usage of satellite remote research in

  20. The Direct Satellite Connection: Definitions and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Rolf T.

    1980-01-01

    Defines direct satellite broadcasting as the transmission of broadcast signals via high-powered satellites that permit direct reception of television or radio programs by means of small antennas. Outlines American, European, and Japanese plans for direct-to-home television reception and implications for the broadcasting industry. (JMF)

  1. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  2. Solar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poher, C.

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  3. The Mobile Satellite Services Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samuel

    Mobile satellite (MSAT) technology is the basis for a new component of the telecommunications industry capable of providing services to small inexpensive subscriber terminals located almost any place in the world. The market for MSAT space segment capacity (bandwidth and power) is a natural monopoly that can be logically and technically…

  4. Landsat—Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-11-25

    Since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth’s land surface, providing data that serve as valuable resources for land use/land change research. The data are useful to a number of applications including forestry, agriculture, geology, regional planning, and education. Landsat is a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA develops remote sensing instruments and the spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and data distribution. The result of this program is an unprecedented continuing record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  5. Co-ordination of satellite and data programs: The committee on earth observation satellites' approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, B. J. J.; Kingwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Every year, an average of eight new civilian remote sensing satellite missions are launched. Cumulatively, over 250 such missions, each with a cost equivalent in current value to between US 100 million to US 1000 million, have been sponsored by space agencies in perhaps two dozen countries. These missions produce data and information products which are vital for informed decision making all over the world, on matters relating to natural resource exploitation, health and safety, sustainable national development, infrastructure planning, and a host of other applications. By contributing to better scientific understanding of global changes in the atmosphere, land surface, oceans and ice caps, these silently orbiting sentinels in the sky make it possible for governments and industries to make wiser environmental policy decisions and support the economic development needs of humanity. The international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is the premier world body for co-ordinating and planning civilian satellite missions for Earth observation. Through its technical working groups and special task teams, it endeavours to: • maximise the international benefits from Earth observation satellites; and • harmonise practice in calibration, validation, data management and information systems for Earth observation. CEOS encompasses not only space agencies (data providers), but also the great international scientific and operational programs which rely on Earth science data from space. The user organisations affiliated with CEOS, together with the mission operators, attempt to reconcile user needs with the complex set of considerations — including national interests, cost, schedule — which affect the undertaking of space missions. Without such an internationally co-ordinated consensual approach, there is a much greater risk of waste through duplication, and of missed opportunity, or through the absence of measurements of some vital physical or biological

  6. International Satellite Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Dunk, Frans

    2017-07-01

    there are the major categories of space applications—as these have started to impact everyday life on earth: the involvement of satellites in communications infrastructures and services, the most commercialized area of space applications yet; the special issue of space serving to mitigate disasters and their consequences on earth; the use of satellites for remote sensing purposes ranging from weather and climate monitoring to spying; and the use of satellites for positioning, navigation, and timing.

  7. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    In recent years, there has been much discussion about U.S. commercial remoteUnder the Act, the Secretary of Commerce sensing policies and how effectively theylicenses the operations of private U.S. address U.S. national security, foreignremote sensing satellite systems, in policy, commercial, and public interests.consultation with the Secretaries of Defense, This paper will provide an overview of U.S.State, and Interior. PDD-23 provided further commercial remote sensing laws,details concerning the operation of advanced regulations, and policies, and describe recentsystems, as well as criteria for the export of NOAA initiatives. It will also addressturnkey systems and/or components. In July related foreign practices, and the overall2000, pursuant to the authority delegated to legal context for trade and investment in thisit by the Secretary of Commerce, NOAA critical industry.iss ued new regulations for the industry. Licensing and Regulationsatellite systems. NOAA's program is The 1992 Land Remote Sensing Policy Act ("the Act"), and the 1994 policy on Foreign Access to Remote Sensing Space Capabilities (known as Presidential Decision Directive-23, or PDD-23) put into place an ambitious legal and policy framework for the U.S. Government's licensing of privately-owned, high-resolution satellite systems. Previously, capabilities afforded national security and observes the international obligations of the United States; maintain positive control of spacecraft operations; maintain a tasking record in conjunction with other record-keeping requirements; provide U.S. Government access to and use of data when required for national security or foreign policy purposes; provide for U.S. Government review of all significant foreign agreements; obtain U.S. Government approval for any encryption devices used; make available unenhanced data to a "sensed state" as soon as such data are available and on reasonable cost terms and conditions; make available unenhanced data as requested

  8. Development and Validation of Improved Techniques for Cloud Property Retrieval from Environmental Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gustafson, Gary

    2000-01-01

    ...) develop extensible cloud property retrieval algorithms suitable for expanding existing cloud analysis capabilities to utilize data from new and future environmental satellite sensing systems; (2...

  9. Benchmarking and industry performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I interrelate productivity analysis and the theory of industrial organization. A proposition proves that an industrial organization is efficient if and only if it is supportable in the entry-proofness sense. Industrial performance is decomposed in efficiency and technical change terms

  10. Remote Sensing of shallow sea floor for digital earth environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, N N; Hashim, M; Ahmad, S

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the sea floor biodiversity requires spatial information that can be acquired from remote sensing satellite data. Species volume, spatial patterns and species coverage are some of the information that can be derived. Current approaches for mapping sea bottom type have evolved from field observation, visual interpretation from aerial photography, mapping from remote sensing satellite data along with field survey and hydrograhic chart. Remote sensing offers most versatile technique to map sea bottom type up to a certain scale. This paper reviews the technical characteristics of signal and light interference within marine features, space and remote sensing satellite. In addition, related image processing techniques that are applicable to remote sensing satellite data for sea bottom type digital mapping is also presented. The sea bottom type can be differentiated by classification method using appropriate spectral bands of satellite data. In order to verify the existence of particular sea bottom type, field observations need to be carried out with proper technique and equipment

  11. Physics teaching by infrared remote sensing of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, Tobias; Maman, Shimrit; Girwidz, Raimund

    2018-05-01

    Context- and project-based teaching has proven to foster different affective and cognitive aspects of learning. As a versatile and multidisciplinary scientific research area with diverse applications for everyday life, satellite remote sensing is an interesting context for physics education. In this paper we give a brief overview of satellite remote sensing of vegetation and how to obtain your own, individual infrared remote sensing data with affordable converted digital cameras. This novel technique provides the opportunity to conduct individual remote sensing measurement projects with students in their respective environment. The data can be compared to real satellite data and is of sufficient accuracy for educational purposes.

  12. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  13. EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF E-LEARNING TOOLS AND METHODS IN DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING FOR NON EXPERTS FROM ACADEMIA AND INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gülch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There does already exist a wide variety of tutorials and on-line courses on Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing very often used in academia. Many of them are still rather static and tedious or target high-knowledge learners. E-learning is, however, increasingly applied by many organizations and companies for life-long learning (like e.g. the EduServ courses of EuroSDR, but also for training of resellers and in order to save the expenses and time of travelling. A new issue of this project when taking into account the ethnic mentality in some countries like Saudi Arabia where it is impossible to mix the females and males at any institution type or for instance to teach ladies by a male teacher face to face, many academic workshops have been done separately twice by foreign organizations to adapt this situation. This paper will focus on these issues and present experiences gathered from a Master Thesis on "E-learning in Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for Non Experts using Moodle" at HFT Stuttgart in co-operation with a software vendor and a reseller and experiences from a current European Tempus IV project GIDEC (Geographic information technology for sustainable development in Eastern neighouring countries. The aim of this research is to provide an overview on available methods and tools and classify and judge their feasibility for the above mentioned scenarios. A more detailed description is given on the development of e-learning applications for Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing using the open source package Moodle as platform. A first item covers the experiences from setting up and handling of Moodle for non-experts. The major emphasis is then on developing and analyzing some few case studies for lectures, exercises, and software training in the fields of Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Feedback from students and company staff will be evaluated and incorporated in an improved design and sample implementation. A

  14. Evaluation and Development of E-Learning Tools and Methods in Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for Non Experts from Academia and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülch, E.; Al-Ghorani, N.; Quedenfeldt, B.; Braun, J.

    2012-07-01

    There does already exist a wide variety of tutorials and on-line courses on Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing very often used in academia. Many of them are still rather static and tedious or target high-knowledge learners. E-learning is, however, increasingly applied by many organizations and companies for life-long learning (like e.g. the EduServ courses of EuroSDR), but also for training of resellers and in order to save the expenses and time of travelling. A new issue of this project when taking into account the ethnic mentality in some countries like Saudi Arabia where it is impossible to mix the females and males at any institution type or for instance to teach ladies by a male teacher face to face, many academic workshops have been done separately twice by foreign organizations to adapt this situation. This paper will focus on these issues and present experiences gathered from a Master Thesis on "E-learning in Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for Non Experts using Moodle" at HFT Stuttgart in co-operation with a software vendor and a reseller and experiences from a current European Tempus IV project GIDEC (Geographic information technology for sustainable development in Eastern neighouring countries). The aim of this research is to provide an overview on available methods and tools and classify and judge their feasibility for the above mentioned scenarios. A more detailed description is given on the development of e-learning applications for Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing using the open source package Moodle as platform. A first item covers the experiences from setting up and handling of Moodle for non-experts. The major emphasis is then on developing and analyzing some few case studies for lectures, exercises, and software training in the fields of Digital Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Feedback from students and company staff will be evaluated and incorporated in an improved design and sample implementation. A further focus is on free

  15. An introduction to optimal satellite range scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez Álvarez, Antonio José

    2015-01-01

    The satellite range scheduling (SRS) problem, an important operations research problem in the aerospace industry consisting of allocating tasks among satellites and Earth-bound objects, is examined in this book. SRS principles and solutions are applicable to many areas, including: Satellite communications, where tasks are communication intervals between sets of satellites and ground stations Earth observation, where tasks are observations of spots on the Earth by satellites Sensor scheduling, where tasks are observations of satellites by sensors on the Earth. This self-contained monograph begins with a structured compendium of the problem and moves on to explain the optimal approach to the solution, which includes aspects from graph theory, set theory, game theory and belief networks. This book is accessible to students, professionals and researchers in a variety of fields, including: operations research, optimization, scheduling theory, dynamic programming and game theory. Taking account of the distributed, ...

  16. A Sense of Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Black

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available People increasingly want to know where their food and wine comes from and who produces it. This is part of developing a taste of place, or what the French call terroir. The academic and industry debates surrounding the concept of terroir are explored, and the efforts of Massachusetts wine producers to define their sense of place are discussed.

  17. Preface to: Pan Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Brown, R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Joseph, G.

    Conference (PORSEC), earlier known as the Paci c Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC), was formed in 1992 to provide a venue for international cooperation in the increasingly important area of remote sensing of the ocean. Many countries that border... and ocean dynamics, and modeling with satellite sensor (mainly microwave) data. Some of the presentations are of regional interest, while others will nd an audience beyond the satellite remote sensing community. These rst results through their simple...

  18. Activities of Canadian Satellite Communications, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Canadian Satellite Communications (Cancom) has as its core business the provision of television and radio signals to cable systems in Canada, with the objective of making affordable broadcast signals available to remote and/or small communities. Cancom also provides direct-to-home services to backyard receiving dishes, as well as satellite digital data business communications services, satellite business television, and satellite network services. Its business communication services range from satellite links for big-city businesses with small branch operations located far from major centers, to a mobile messaging and tracking system for the trucking industry. Revenues in 1992 totalled $48,212,000 and net income was just over $7 million. Cancom bought 10 percent interest in Leosat Corp. of Washington, DC, who are seeking approval to operate a position locator network from low-orbit satellites. Cancom has also become a partner in SovCan Star Satellite Communications Inc., which will build an international satellite system in partnership with Russia. The first satellite in this east-west business network will be placed in a Russian orbital slot over the Atlantic by 1996, and a second satellite will follow for the Pacific region. This annual report of Cancom's activities for 1992 includes financial statements and a six year financial review.

  19. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  20. Shorter Harvest Cycles Counteract Increasing Annual Productivity in Industrial Plantation Forests: Trends from Three Decades of Remote Sensing in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation forestry can produce woody biomass many times faster than native vegetation, particularly in the tropical regions where plantations have expanded rapidly in the past three decades. However, activists and practitioners have raised concerns over the sustainability of intensive plantations, suggesting that changes to soil properties may inhibit vegetation growth after multiple harvest cycles. We use a 32-year time series of remotely sensed vegetation indices derived from Landsat data, coupled with recent geospatial and wood volume data from plantation companies, to identify trends in management and vegetation productivity in thousands of individual eucalyptus plantation stands. We find that peak vegetation index values at canopy closure, which are correlated with annual wood volume increment, increase over successive harvest cycles, while the length of each cycle decreases. These opposing trends suggest that the number of harvests required to produce a given wood volume peaks around the second harvest cycle and then declines, likely due to refinement of management practices. Across the region, vegetation index data do not support the hypothesized decrease in productivity over multiple harvest cycles. Additional field data and ongoing soil analyses will complement the remote sensing approach to quantifying plantations' long-term effects on the land they occupy.

  1. New and Emerging Satellite Imaging Capabilities in Support of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.; Paquette, J.P.; Spyropoulos, N.; Rainville, L.; Schichor, P.; Hong, M.

    2015-01-01

    This abstract is focused on new and emerging commercial satellite imagery (CSI) capabilities. For more than a decade, experienced imagery analysts have been exploiting and analyzing CSI in support of the Department of Safeguards. As the remote sensing industry continues to evolve, additional CSI imagery types are becoming available that could enhance our ability to evaluate and verify States' declarations and to investigate the possible presence of undeclared activities. A newly available and promising CSI capability that may have a Safeguards application is Full Motion Video (FMV) imagery collection from satellites. For quite some time, FMV imagery has been collected from airborne platforms, but now FMV sensors are being deployed into space. Like its airborne counterpart, satellite FMV imagery could provide analysts with a great deal of information, including insight into the operational status of facilities and patterns of activity. From a Safeguards perspective, FMV imagery could help the Agency in the evaluation and verification of States' declared facilities and activities. There are advantages of FMV imaging capabilities that cannot be duplicated with other CSI capabilities, including the ability to loiter over areas of interest and the potential to revisit sites multiple times per day. Additional sensor capabilities applicable to the Safeguards mission include, but are not limited to, the following sensors: · Thermal Infrared imaging sensors will be launched in late 2014 to monitor operational status, e.g., heat from a transformer. · High resolution ShortWave Infrared sensors able to characterize materials that could support verification of Additional Protocol declarations under Article 2.a(v). · Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with individual sensors or specific sensor combinations. The Safeguards Symposium provides a forum to showcase and demonstrate safeguards applications for these emerging satellite imaging capabilities. (author)

  2. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  3. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  4. First European Workshop on 'Remote sensing in mineral exploration'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wambeke, L.; Sanderson, D.J.; Dolan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The First European Workshop on 'Remote sensing in mineral exploration' organized by the Commission of the European Communities in February 1985 took stock of the results obtained within the European Community on the application of remote sensing techniques in exploration. The papers presented in this publication are essentially based on data obtained with the first generation of satellites and some airborne experiments. Important progress in data processing and interpretation has been made in the EEC since 1979 and is continuing to be made. The main aim is to provide the EC mining industry with a new tool for exploration. Significant results have already been obtained with the EEC playing an important role in the promotion of this relatively new technique. The main R and D trend is towards an integration of multidata sets (remote sensing, geochemical, geophysical and other data) to improve the methodology for delineating new targets in exploration. Another general trend is the participation of mining companies in remote sensing experiments. Further improvement for exploration is expected in the near future with the thematic mapper and the spot imageries as well as new airborne sensors

  5. Satellite-based laser windsounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.F.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Quick, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project''s primary objective is to determine the technical feasibility of using satellite-based laser wind sensing systems for detailed study of winds, aerosols, and particulates around and downstream of suspected proliferation facilities. Extensive interactions with the relevant operational organization resulted in enthusiastic support and useful guidance with respect to measurement requirements and priorities. Four candidate wind sensing techniques were evaluated, and the incoherent Doppler technique was selected. A small satellite concept design study was completed to identify the technical issues inherent in a proof-of-concept small satellite mission. Use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of a Fabry-Perot would significantly simplify the optical train and could reduce weight, and possibly power, requirements with no loss of performance. A breadboard Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based system has been built to verify these predictions. Detailed plans were made for resolving other issues through construction and testing of a ground-based lidar system in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin, and through numerical lidar wind data assimilation studies

  6. Teamed up for reform. As Obama looks to teamed up solve healthcare's problems, Daschle, Lambrew healthcare team makes sense, industry executives say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DoBias, Matthew; Galloro, Vince

    2008-12-15

    The president-elect sent strong signals that he's serious about reform, with some key appointments last week. The move drew applause from industry executives, including one who said the system is now set on a crash course. "There's no guarantee that someone is going to be able to put Humpty Dumpty back together, but we're never going to know until someone starts sorting through the pieces," says William Atkinson, left, of WakeMed.

  7. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2001-01-01

    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...

  8. The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt.

  9. Integrating satellite retrieved leaf chlorophyll into land surface models for constraining simulations of water and carbon fluxes

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gitelson, Anatoly A.

    2013-01-01

    variability exists. Satellite remote sensing can support modeling efforts by offering distributed information on important land surface characteristics, which would be very difficult to obtain otherwise. This study investigates the utility of satellite based

  10. Classification of very high resolution satellite remote sensing data in a pilot phase of the forest cover classification of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Forêts d'Afrique Central Evaluées par Télédetection (FACET) product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singa Monga Lowengo, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Observatoire Satellital des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (OSFAC) based in Kinshasa, serves as the focal point of the GOFC-GOLD network for Central Africa. OSFAC's long term objective is building regional capacity to use remotely sensed data to map forest cover and forest cover change across Central Africa. OSFAC archives and disseminates satellite data, offers training in geospatial data applications in coordination with the University of Kinshasa, and provides technical support to CARPE partners. Forêts d'Afrique Centrale Évaluées par Télédétection (FACET) is an OSFAC initiative that implements the UMD/SDSU methodology at the national level and quantitatively evaluates the spatiotemporal dynamics of forest cover in Central Africa. The multi-temporal series of FACET data is a useful contribution to many projects, such as biodiversity monitoring, climate modeling, conservation, natural resource management, land use planning, agriculture and REDD+. I am working as Remote Sensing and GIS Officer in various projects of OSFAC. My activities include forest cover and lands dynamics monitoring in Congo Basin. I am familiar with the use of digital mapping software, GIS and RS (Arc GIS, ENVI and PCI Geomatica etc.), classification and spatial Analysis of satellite images, 3D modeling, etc. I started as an intern at OSFAC, Assistant Trainer (Professional Training) and Consultant than permanent employee since October 2009. To assist in the OSFAC activities regarding the monitoring of forest cover and the CARPE program in the context of natural resources management, I participated in the development of the FACET Atlas (Republic of Congo). I received data from Matt Hansen (map.img), WRI and Brazzaville (shapefiles). With all these data I draw maps of the ROC Atlas and statistics of forest cover and forest loss. We organize field work on land to collect data to validate the FACET product. Therefore, to assess forest cover in the region of Kwamouth and Kahuzi-Maiko Biega

  11. Remote sensing for agriculture, ecosystems, and hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engman, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE's remote sensing symposium which was held September 22--24, 1998, in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: calibration techniques for soil moisture measurements; remote sensing of grasslands and biomass estimation of meadows; evaluation of agricultural disasters; monitoring of industrial and natural radioactive elements; and remote sensing of vegetation and of forest fires

  12. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  13. Make Sense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Törmälä, Minna

    Purpose: An important part of how we sense a brand is how we make sense of a brand. Sense-making is naturally strongly connected to how we cognize about the brand. But sense-making is concerned with multiple forms of knowledge that arise from our interpretation of the brand-related stimuli......: Declarative, episodic, procedural and sensory. Knowledge is given meaning through mental association (Keller, 1993) and / or symbolic interaction (Blumer, 1969). These meanings are centrally related to individuals’ sense of identity or “identity needs” (Wallpach & Woodside, 2009). The way individuals make...... sense of brands is related to who people think they are in their context and this shapes what they enact and how they interpret the brand (Currie & Brown, 2003; Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005; Weick, 1993). Our subject of interest in this paper is how stakeholders interpret and ascribe meaning...

  14. Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Data and Implications for Miniaturized Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde-Patel, Asmita (Inventor); Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing is a technique for simultaneous acquisition and compression of data that is sparse or can be made sparse in some domain. It is currently under intense development and has been profitably employed for industrial and medical applications. We here describe the use of this technique for the processing of astronomical data. We outline the procedure as applied to exoplanet gravitational microlensing and analyze measurement results and uncertainty values. We describe implications for on-spacecraft data processing for space observatories. Our findings suggest that application of these techniques may yield significant, enabling benefits especially for power and volume-limited space applications such as miniaturized or micro-constellation satellites.

  15. Trends in the Global Small Satellite Ecosystem: Implications for Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, J.; Lal, B.

    2017-12-01

    Activity in the small satellite industry has increased in the recent years. New actors and nations have joined the evolving market globally in both the private and public sector. Progress in the smallsat sector has been driven, in part, by growing capabilities and falling costs of smallsats. Advancements include the miniaturization of technology for the small satellite platform, increased data processing capabilities, the ubiquitous presence of GPS enabling location and attitude determination, improvements in ground system costs and signal processing capabilities, and the deployment of inexpensive COTS parts. The emerging trends in the state of the art for smallsat technology, paired with planned smallsat constellation missions by both private and public actors, open the opportunity for new earth and remote sensing scientific endeavors. This presentation will characterize the drivers influencing the development of smallsat technology and the industry more generally. An overview will be provided for trends in the state of the art of smallsat technology, and secondary trends that influence the smallsat sector including infrastructure, demand, the satellite launch market, and the policy environment. These trends are mapped onto current and projected Earth observation needs, as identified by academic and governmental communities, to identify those that could be fulfilled by smallsats in the near and long term. A set of notional science missions that could be enabled, based on the various drivers identified, will be presented for both the near (3 years) and farther term (10 years).

  16. High power communication satellites power systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Peterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a DOE-funded study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. This study brings together a preeminent US Industry/Russian team to cooperate on the role of high power communication satellites in the rapidly expanding communications revolution. These high power satellites play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities will be significant

  17. Asteroid Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, W. J.

    2001-11-01

    Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other

  18. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  19. Multi-scale Visualization of Remote Sensing and Topographic Data of the Amazon Rain Forest for Environmental Monitoring of the Petroleum Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, L.; Miranda, F. P.; Beisl, C. H.; Souza-Fonseca, J.

    2002-12-01

    PETROBRAS (the Brazilian national oil company) built a pipeline to transport crude oil from the Urucu River region to a terminal in the vicinities of Coari, a city located in the right margin of the Solimoes River. The oil is then shipped by tankers to another terminal in Manaus, capital city of the Amazonas state. At the city of Coari, changes in water level between dry and wet seasons reach up to 14 meters. This strong seasonal character of the Amazonian climate gives rise to four distinct scenarios in the annual hydrological cycle: low water, high water, receding water, and rising water. These scenarios constitute the main reference for the definition of oil spill response planning in the region, since flooded forests and flooded vegetation are the most sensitive fluvial environments to oil spills. This study focuses on improving information about oil spill environmental sensitivity in Western Amazon by using 3D visualization techniques to help the analysis and interpretation of remote sensing and digital topographic data, as follows: (a) 1995 low flood and 1996 high flood JERS-1 SAR mosaics, band LHH, 100m pixel; (b) 2000 low flood and 2001 high flood RADARSAT-1 W1 images, band CHH, 30m pixel; (c) 2002 high flood airborne SAR images from the SIVAM project (System for Surveillance of the Amazon), band LHH, 3m pixel and band XHH, 6m pixel; (d) GTOPO30 digital elevation model, 30' resolution; (e) Digital elevation model derived from topographic information acquired during seismic surveys, 25m resolution; (f) panoramic views obtained from low altitude helicopter flights. The methodology applied includes image processing, cartographic conversion and generation of value-added product using 3D visualization. A semivariogram textural classification was applied to the SAR images in order to identify areas of flooded forest and flooded vegetation. The digital elevation models were color shaded to highlight subtle topographic features. Both datasets were then converted to

  20. Satellite image collection optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William

    2002-09-01

    Imaging satellite systems represent a high capital cost. Optimizing the collection of images is critical for both satisfying customer orders and building a sustainable satellite operations business. We describe the functions of an operational, multivariable, time dynamic optimization system that maximizes the daily collection of satellite images. A graphical user interface allows the operator to quickly see the results of what if adjustments to an image collection plan. Used for both long range planning and daily collection scheduling of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite, the satellite control and tasking (SCT) software allows collection commands to be altered up to 10 min before upload to the satellite.

  1. Data-intensive multispectral remote sensing of the nighttime Earth for environmental monitoring and emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhizhin, M; Poyda, A; Velikhov, V; Novikov, A; Polyakov, A

    2016-01-01

    All Most of the remote sensing applications rely on the daytime visible and infrared images of the Earth surface. Increase in the number of satellites, their spatial resolution as well as the number of the simultaneously observed spectral bands ensure a steady growth of the data volumes and computational complexity in the remote sensing sciences. Recent advance in the night time remote sensing is related to the enhanced sensitivity of the on-board instruments and to the unique opportunity to observe “pure” emitters in visible infrared spectra without contamination from solar heat and reflected light. A candidate set of the night-time emitters observable from the low-orbiting and geostationary satellites include steady state and temporal changes in the city and traffic electric lights, fishing boats, high-temperature industrial objects such as steel mills, oil cracking refineries and power plants, forest and agricultural fires, gas flares, volcanic eruptions and similar catastrophic events. Current satellite instruments can detect at night 10 times more of such objects compared to daytime. We will present a new data-intensive workflow of the night time remote sensing algorithms for map-reduce processing of visible and infrared images from the multispectral radiometers flown by the modern NOAA/NASA Suomi NPP and the USGS Landsat 8 satellites. Similar radiometers are installed on the new generation of the US geostationary GOES-R satellite to be launched in 2016. The new set of algorithms allows us to detect with confidence and track the abrupt changes and long-term trends in the energy of city lights, number of fishing boats, as well as the size, geometry, temperature of gas flares and to estimate monthly and early flared gas volumes by site or by country. For real-time analysis of the night time multispectral satellite images with global coverage we need gigabit network, petabyte data storage and parallel compute cluster with more than 20 nodes. To meet the

  2. The benefits of remote sensing for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.

    2004-01-01

    A strong remote sensing regime is a necessary component of any contemporary national or international energy policy. Energy is essential to the functioning of modem industrial society, and as such it is the responsibility of governments to produce sound national energy policies in order to ensure stable economic growth, ecologically responsible use of energy resources and the health and safety of citizens. Comprehensive, accurate and timely remote sensing data can aid decision making on energy matters in several areas. This paper looks at the benefits that can be realized in resource exploration, weather forecasting and environmental monitoring. Improvements in the technology of remote sensing platforms would be of great value to buyers of energy, sellers of energy and the environment. Furthermore, the utility of such information could be enhanced by efforts of government agencies to communicate it more effectively to the end-user. National energy policies should thus include investments not only in satellite system hardware to collect data, but also in the services required to interpret and distribute the data. (author)

  3. Remote sensing of sea state through a Polaroid

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Saran, A.K.

    resolution of sea states. The proposed instrument can be mounted on an observation tower, aircraft or a satellite. The range of wind speeds that can be sensed by the proposed instrument is 0-60 knots....

  4. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  5. The Chinese FY-1 Meteorological Satellite Application in Observation on Oceanic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin, S.

    meteorological satellite is stated in this paper. exploration of the ocean resources has been a very important question of global strategy in the world. The exploration of the ocean resources includes following items: Making full use of oceanic resources and space, protecting oceanic environment. to observe the ocean is by using of satellite. In 1978, US successfully launched the first ocean observation satellite in the world --- Sea Satellite. It develops ancient oceanography in to advanced space-oceanography. FY-1 B and FY- IC respectively. High quality data were acquired at home and abroad. FY-1 is Chinese meteorological satellite, but with 0.43 ~ 0.48 μm ,0.48 ~ 0.53 μm and 0.53 ~ 0.58 μm three ocean color channels, actually it is a multipurpose remote sensing satellite of meteorology and oceanography. FY-1 satellite's capability of observation on ocean partly, thus the application field is expanded and the value is increased. With the addition of oceanic channels on FY-1, the design of the satellite is changed from the original with meteorological observation as its main purpose into remote sensing satellite possessing capability of observing meteorology and ocean as well. Thus, the social and economic benefit of FY-1 is increased. the social and economic benefit of the development of the satellite is the key technique in the system design of the satellite. technically feasible but also save the funds in researching and manufacturing of the satellite, quicken the tempo of researching and manufacturing satellite. the scanning radiometer for FY-1 is conducted an aviation experiment over Chinese ocean. This experiment was of vital importance to the addition of oceanic observation channel on FY-1. FY-1 oceanic channels design to be correct. detecting ocean color. This is the unique character of Chinese FY-1 meteorological satellite. meteorological remote sensing channel on FY-1 to form detecting capability of three visible channels: red, yellow and blue

  6. Remote sensing investigations at a hazardous-waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohr, C.; Su, W.-J.; DuMontelle, P.B.; Griffin, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1976 state licensed landfilling of industrial chemicals was begun above an abandoned, underground coal mine in Illinois. Five years later organic chemical pollutants were discovered in a monitoring well, suggesting migration 100 to 1000 times faster than predicted by laboratory tests. Remote sensing contributed to the determination of the causes of faster-than-predicted pollutant migration at the hazardous-waste landfill. Aerial and satellite imagery were employed to supplement field studies of local surface and groundwater hydrology, and to chronicle site history. Drainage impediments and depressions in the trench covers collected runoff, allowing rapid recharge of surface waters to some burial trenches. These features can be more effectively identified by photointerpretation than by conventional field reconnaissance. A ground-based, post-sunset survey of the trench covers that showed that a distinction between depressions which hold moisture at the surface from freely-draining depressions which permit rapid recharge to the burial trenches could be made using thermal infrared imagery.In 1976 state licensed landfilling of industrial chemicals was begun above an abandoned, underground coal mine in Illinois. Five years later organic chemical pollutants were discovered in a monitoring well, suggesting migration 100 to 1000 times faster than predicted by laboratory tests. Remote sensing contributed to the determination of the causes of faster-than-predicted pollutant migration at the hazardous-waste landfill. Aerial and satellite imagery were employed to supplement field studies of local surface and groundwater hydrology, and to chronicle site history. Drainage impediments and depressions in the trench covers collected runoff, allowing rapid recharge of surface waters to some burial trenches.

  7. Remote Sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    up to - 0.9 p,m) and dynamic range, non-amenability to digital processing ... ing systems used in space to get the imagery of the Earth telemetered .... by the satellites and are recorded on to magnetic media using ... Let us illustrate this process.

  8. Sensing our Environment: Remote sensing in a physics classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Schüttler, Tobias; Cohen-Zada, Aviv L.; Blumberg, Dan G.; Girwidz, Raimund; Maman, Shimrit

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing is defined as data acquisition of an object, deprived physical contact. Fundamentally, most remote sensing applications are referred to as the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects mainly on Earth or other planets. In the last years there have been efforts to bring the important subject of remote sensing into schools, however, most of these attempts focused on geography disciplines - restricting to the applications of remote sensing and to a less extent the technique itself and the physics behind it. Optical remote sensing is based on physical principles and technical devices, which are very meaningful from a theoretical point of view as well as for "hands-on" teaching. Some main subjects are radiation, atom and molecular physics, spectroscopy, as well as optics and the semiconductor technology used in modern digital cameras. Thus two objectives were outlined for this project: 1) to investigate the possibilities of using remote sensing techniques in physics teaching, and 2) to identify its impact on pupil's interest in the field of natural sciences. This joint project of the DLR_School_Lab, Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at BGU, was conducted in 2016. Thirty teenagers (ages 16-18) participated in the project and were exposed to the cutting edge methods of earth observation. The pupils on both sides participated in the project voluntarily, knowing that at least some of the project's work had to be done in their leisure time. The pupil's project started with a day at EPIF and DLR respectively, where the project task was explained to the participants and an introduction to remote sensing of vegetation was given. This was realized in lectures and in experimental workshops. During the following two months both groups took several measurements with modern optical remote sensing systems in their home region with a special focus on flora

  9. ESA remote-sensing programme - Present activities and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevin, J [ESA, Directorate of Planning and Future Programmes, Paris, France; Pryke, I [ESA, Directorate of Applications Programmes, Toulouse, France

    1979-02-01

    The present activities and future missions of the ESA program of spaceborne remote sensing of earth resources and environment are discussed. Program objectives have been determined to be the satisfaction of European regional needs by agricultural, land use, water resources, coastal and polar surveys, and meeting the requirements of developing nations in the areas of agricultural production, mineral exploration and disaster warning and assessment. The Earthnet system of data processing centers presently is used for the distribution of remote sensing data acquired by NASA satellites. Remote sensing experiments to be flown aboard Spacelab are the Metric Camera, to test high resolution mapping capabilities of a large format camera, and the Microwave Remote-Sensing Experiment, which operates as a two-frequency scatterometer, a synthetic aperture radar and a passive microwave radiometer. Studies carried out on the definition of future remote sensing satellite systems are described, including studies of system concepts for land applications and coastal monitoring satellites.

  10. Supervised Gaussian mixture model based remote sensing image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the supervised classification technique, both simulated and empirical satellite remote sensing data are used to train and test the Gaussian mixture model algorithm. For the purpose of validating the experiment, the resulting classified satellite image is compared with the ground truth data. For the simulated modelling, ...

  11. A Framework for Assessing Soil Moisture Deficit and Crop Water Stress at Multiple Space and Time Scales Under Climate Change Scenarios Using Model Platform, Satellite Remote Sensing, and Decision Support System

    KAUST Repository

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    2016-11-03

    Better understanding of water cycle at different space–time scales would be a key for sustainable water resources, agricultural production, and ecosystems health in the twenty-first century. Efficient agricultural water management is necessary for sustainability of the growing global population. This warrants better predictive tools for aridity (based on precipitation, temperature, land use, and land cover), root zone (~top 1 m) soil moisture deficit, and crop water stress at farm, county, state, region, and national level, where decisions are made to allocate and manage the water resources. It will provide useful strategies for not only efficient water use but also for reducing potential risk of crop failure due to agricultural drought. Leveraging heavily on ongoing multiscale hydrologic modeling, data assimilation, soil moisture dynamics, and inverse model development research activities, and ongoing Land Data Assimilation (LDAS) and National Climate Assessment (NCA) indexing efforts we are developing a drought assessment framework. The drought assessment platform includes: (1) developing disaggregation methods for extracting various field-scale (1-km or less) climate indicators from the (SMOS, VIIRS, SMAP, AMSR-2) satellite / LDAS-based soil moisture in conjunction with a multimodel simulation–optimization approach using ensemble of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer, SVAT (Noah, CLM, VIC, Mosaic in LIS) models; (2) predicting farm/field-scale long-term root zone soil moisture status under various land management and climate scenarios for the past decades in hindcast mode and for the next decades in forecast mode across the USA using effective land surface parameters and meteorological input from Global Circulation Model (GCM) outputs; (3) assessing the potential risk of agricultural drought at different space–time scales across the USA based on predicted root zone soil moisture; and (4) evaluating various water management and cropping practices (e

  12. A Shift in Perception: The Evolution of Satellites in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howkins, John

    1985-01-01

    Discusses evolution of communication satellite use and its effect on the commercial television industry in Western Europe to illustrate the pitfalls of misunderstanding telecommunications and aerospace technology. Three stages of progression in European broadcasters' misinformed thinking about television and satellites and their current attitudes…

  13. A Space-Age University without Campus or Faculty Offers Its TV Courses Nationwide via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1987-01-01

    The National Technological University, a consortium of engineering schools, offers programs based on satellite transmissions of live and videotaped graduate courses to industrial sites around the country. (MSE)

  14. Northern Everglades, Florida, satellite image map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Claude; Jones, John W.

    2002-01-01

    These satellite image maps are one product of the USGS Land Characteristics from Remote Sensing project, funded through the USGS Place-Based Studies Program with support from the Everglades National Park. The objective of this project is to develop and apply innovative remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to map the distribution of vegetation, vegetation characteristics, and related hydrologic variables through space and over time. The mapping and description of vegetation characteristics and their variations are necessary to accurately simulate surface hydrology and other surface processes in South Florida and to monitor land surface changes. As part of this research, data from many airborne and satellite imaging systems have been georeferenced and processed to facilitate data fusion and analysis. These image maps were created using image fusion techniques developed as part of this project.

  15. South Florida Everglades: satellite image map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John W.; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Desmond, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    These satellite image maps are one product of the USGS Land Characteristics from Remote Sensing project, funded through the USGS Place-Based Studies Program (http://access.usgs.gov/) with support from the Everglades National Park (http://www.nps.gov/ever/). The objective of this project is to develop and apply innovative remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to map the distribution of vegetation, vegetation characteristics, and related hydrologic variables through space and over time. The mapping and description of vegetation characteristics and their variations are necessary to accurately simulate surface hydrology and other surface processes in South Florida and to monitor land surface changes. As part of this research, data from many airborne and satellite imaging systems have been georeferenced and processed to facilitate data fusion and analysis. These image maps were created using image fusion techniques developed as part of this project.

  16. ESA technology flies on Italian mini-satellite launched from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Owned by the Italian space agency (ASI) and developed by Carlo Gavazzi with contributions from many other Italian companies, MITA has two tasks to perform: in a circular orbit at 450 km altitude, the mini satellite will carry a cosmic particle detector, while its platform will be tested for the first time as a vehicle for future scientific missions. MITA also carries the MTS-AOMS payload (MicroTechSensor for Attitude and Orbit Measurement System), developed by Astrium in the framework of ESA's Technology Flight Opportunity trial programme. With the Technology Flight Opportunity scheme, funded by its General Studies Programme, ESA intends to provide access to space for European industry's technology products needing in-orbit demonstration to enhance their competitiveness on the space market. This new form of support to the European space industry ties in with ESA's strategy for fostering the competitiveness of European-made technology for eventual commercialisation. In-orbit demonstration is essential if new technologies are to compete on level terms on non-European markets. It thus consolidates strategic investments made by the space industry. The MTS-AOMS is a highly integrated sensor for autonomous attitude and orbit control systems. It combines three functions in one unit: Earth sensing, star sensing and magnetic field sensing. The equipment incorporates an active pixel array sensor and a 2-D fluxgate magnetometer. The aims of the flight are to verify in situ the payload's inherent functions and performance, which cannot be done on the ground, and to assess the behaviour of this type of technology when exposed to the space environment. The Technology Flight Opportunity rule is that ESA funds the launch and integration costs, industry the development and operating costs. According to present planning, two further in-orbit demonstrations funded by this scheme will be carried out between now and January 2001.

  17. Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behrens, Carl E

    2006-01-01

    Launching satellites into orbit, once the exclusive domain of the U.S. and Soviet governments, today is an industry in which companies in the United States, Europe, China, Russia, Ukraine, Japan, and India compete...

  18. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  19. Cultures in orbit: Satellite technologies, global media and local practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lisa Ann

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, satellite technologies have had a profound impact upon cultures around the world. "Cultures in Orbit" examines these seemingly disembodied, distant relay machines in relation to situated social and cultural processes on earth. Drawing upon a range of materials including NASA and UNESCO documents, international satellite television broadcasts, satellite 'development' projects, documentary and science fiction films, remote sensing images, broadcast news footage, World Wide Web sites, and popular press articles I delineate and analyze a series of satellite mediascapes. "Cultures in Orbit" analyzes uses of satellites for live television relay, surveillance, archaeology and astronomy. The project examines such satellite media as the first live global satellite television program Our World, Elvis' Aloha from Hawaii concert, Aboriginal Australian satellite programs, and Star TV's Asian music videos. In addition, the project explores reconnaissance images of mass graves in Bosnia, archaeological satellite maps of Cleopatra's underwater palace in Egypt, and Hubble Space Telescope images. These case studies are linked by a theoretical discussion of the satellite's involvement in shifting definitions of time, space, vision, knowledge and history. The satellite fosters an aesthetic of global realism predicated on instantaneous transnational connections. It reorders linear chronologies by revealing traces of the ancient past on the earth's surface and by searching in deep space for the "edge of time." On earth, the satellite is used to modernize and develop "primitive" societies. Satellites have produced new electronic spaces of international exchange, but they also generate strategic maps that advance Western political and cultural hegemony. By technologizing human vision, the satellite also extends the epistemologies of the visible, the historical and the real. It allows us to see artifacts and activities on earth from new vantage points

  20. Remote sensing: best practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gareth [Sgurr Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents remote sensing best practice in the wind industry. Remote sensing is a technique whereby measurements are obtained from the interaction of laser or acoustic pulses with the atmosphere. There is a vast diversity of tools and techniques available and they offer wide scope for reducing project uncertainty and risk but best practice must take into account versatility and flexibility. It should focus on the outcome in terms of results and data. However, traceability of accuracy requires comparison with conventional instruments. The framework for the Boulder protocol is given. Overviews of the guidelines for IEA SODAR and IEA LIDAR are also mentioned. The important elements of IEC 61400-12-1, an international standard for wind turbines, are given. Bankability is defined based on the Boulder protocol and a pie chart is presented that illustrates the uncertainty area covered by remote sensing. In conclusion it can be said that remote sensing is changing perceptions about how wind energy assessments can be made.

  1. Pervasive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2000-11-01

    The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.

  2. Satellite ATM Networks: Architectures and Guidelines Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.; Yegendu, Ferit

    1999-01-01

    An important element of satellite-supported asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networking will involve support for the routing and rerouting of active connections. Work published under the auspices of the Telecommunications Industry Association (http://www.tiaonline.org), describes basic architectures and routing protocol issues for satellite ATM (SATATM) networks. The architectures and issues identified will serve as a basis for further development of technical specifications for these SATATM networks. Three ATM network architectures for bent pipe satellites and three ATM network architectures for satellites with onboard ATM switches were developed. The architectures differ from one another in terms of required level of mobility, supported data rates, supported terrestrial interfaces, and onboard processing and switching requirements. The documentation addresses low-, middle-, and geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite configurations. The satellite environment may require real-time routing to support the mobility of end devices and nodes of the ATM network itself. This requires the network to be able to reroute active circuits in real time. In addition to supporting mobility, rerouting can also be used to (1) optimize network routing, (2) respond to changing quality-of-service requirements, and (3) provide a fault tolerance mechanism. Traffic management and control functions are necessary in ATM to ensure that the quality-of-service requirements associated with each connection are not violated and also to provide flow and congestion control functions. Functions related to traffic management were identified and described. Most of these traffic management functions will be supported by on-ground ATM switches, but in a hybrid terrestrial-satellite ATM network, some of the traffic management functions may have to be supported by the onboard satellite ATM switch. Future work is planned to examine the tradeoffs of placing traffic management functions onboard a satellite as

  3. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  4. Remote sensing observation used in offshore wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Christiansen, Merete Bruun

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing observations used in offshore wind energy are described in three parts: ground-based techniques and applications, airborne techniques and applications, and satellite-based techniques and applications. Ground-based remote sensing of winds is relevant, in particular, for new large wind...

  5. West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer networks, Satellite & communications Engineering Research • Industrial Computer applications ... Information Assurance & Network Security: The African Dilemma ... E-Waste Management Environmental Protection • Management ...

  6. Communication satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  7. Satellite services system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  8. China national space remote sensing infrastructure and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Space Infrastructure is a space system that provides communication, navigation and remote sensing service for broad users. China National Space Remote Sensing Infrastructure includes remote sensing satellites, ground system and related systems. According to the principle of multiple-function on one satellite, multiple satellites in one constellation and collaboration between constellations, series of land observation, ocean observation and atmosphere observation satellites have been suggested to have high, middle and low resolution and fly on different orbits and with different means of payloads to achieve a high ability for global synthetically observation. With such an infrastructure, we can carry out the research on climate change, geophysics global surveying and mapping, water resources management, safety and emergency management, and so on. I This paper gives a detailed introduction about the planning of this infrastructure and its application in different area, especially the international cooperation potential in the so called One Belt and One Road space information corridor.

  9. Applications of FBG sensors on telecom satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, S.; Araújo, F. M.; Ferreira, L. A.; Pedersen, F.; Esteban, M. A.; McKenzie, I.; Karafolas, N.

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring needs of spacecraft are rapidly increasing due to new and more challenging missions, along with demands to reduce launching costs by minimizing the manufacture, assembly, integration and test time and employing new low weight materials balanced by the need for maximizing system lifetime while maintaining good reliability. Conventional electronic sensors are characterized by their low multiplexing capability and their EMI/RF susceptibility and it is in this scenario that Fiber Optic Sensors (FOS) in general, and more specifically Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) technology offers important benefits, improving in various ways the already deployed sensing subsystems (e.g. reducing the weight associated with sensor cabling, increasing the number of sensing points) and enabling new monitoring applications that were not possible by using conventional sensing technologies. This work presents the activities performed and the lessons learnt in the frame of ESA's ARTES-5 project "Fiber Optic Sensing Subsystem for Spacecraft Health Monitoring in Telecommunication Satellites". This project finished in July 2009, with the implementation and testing of two different demonstrators employing FBG sensor technology: FBG sensors for temperature monitoring in high voltage environments, and in particular in several parts of electric propulsion subsystems [1], and FBG sensors for thermal monitoring of array-antennas during RF testing [2]. In addition, the contacts performed with different actors within the space community allowed the identification of a special area of interest for the substitution of regular thermocouple instrumentation by FBG technology for thermal vacuum ground testing of satellites.

  10. Democracy and Sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Democracy and sense questions practically all that happens in society today. Its aim is to raise a debate on the most urgent problems of economy, democracy, sustainable conduct and the framework for industry and business. A number of untraditional solutions are suggested, but without support...... to either rightwing or leftwing politics. In fact, one of the key points is that political parties have reduced democracy to one day of voting followed by four years of oligarchy. To regain a functioning democracy we must strengthen direct democracy and make the distance between population and government...

  11. Remote sensing science - new concepts and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.; Cooke, B.J.; Henderson, B.G.; Love, S.P.; Zardecki, A.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The science and technology of satellite remote sensing is an emerging interdisciplinary field that is growing rapidly with many global and regional applications requiring quantitative sensing of earth`s surface features as well as its atmosphere from space. It is possible today to resolve structures on the earth`s surface as small as one meter from space. If this high spatial resolution is coupled with high spectral resolution, instant object identification can also be achieved. To interpret these spectral signatures correctly, it is necessary to perform a computational correction on the satellite imagery that removes the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This project studied such new concepts and applied innovative new approaches in remote sensing science.

  12. Satellite imagery in safeguards: progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, I.; Listner, C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of satellite imagery has become very important for the verification of the safeguards implementation under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The main applications of satellite imagery are to verify the correctness and completeness of the member states' declarations, and to provide preparatory information for inspections, complimentary access and other technical visits. If the area of interest is not accessible, remote sensing sensors provide one of the few opportunities of gathering data for nuclear monitoring, as for example in Iraq between 1998 and 2002 or currently in North Korea. Satellite data of all available sensor types contains a considerable amount of safeguard-relevant information. Very high-resolution optical satellite imagery provides the most detailed spatial information on nuclear sites and activities up to 0.41 m resolution, together with up to 8 spectral bands from the visible light and near infrared. Thermal infrared (TIR) images can indicate the operational status of nuclear facilities and help to identify undeclared activities. Hyper-spectral imagery allows a quantitative estimation of geophysical, geochemical and biochemical characteristics of the earth's surface and is therefore useful for assessing, for example, surface cover changes due to drilling, mining and milling activities. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image data up to 1 m spatial resolution provides an all-weather, day and night monitoring capability. However, the absence (or existence) of nuclear activities can never be confirmed completely based on satellite imagery. (A.C.)

  13. SEASAT demonstration experiments with the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.; Balon, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Despite its failure, SEASAT-1 acquired a reasonable volume of data that can be used by industrial participants on a non-real-time basis to prove the concept of microwave sensing of the world's oceans from a satellite platform. The amended version of 8 experimental plans are presented, along with a description of the satellite, its instruments, and the data available. Case studies are summarized for the following experiments: (1) Beaufort Sea oil, gas, and Arctic operations; (2) Labrador Sea oil, gas, and sea ice; (3) Gulf of Mexico pipelines; (4) U.S. East Coast offshore oil and gas; (5) worldwide offshore drilling and production operations; (6) Equatorial East Pacific Ocean mining; (7) Bering Sea ice project; and (8) North Sea oil and gas.

  14. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  15. Slovenian experience in applicability of remote sensing data in hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, A; Vidmar, A; Petan, S; Brilly, M [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Hajdrihova 28, Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: mbrillygg@uni-lj.si

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing data are great value for many ways of use as for snow hydrology. Snow cover mapping on basis of satellite images is widely spread because it is easier than in-situ measuring and interpolating. To verify the use of satellite imagery (MODIS product) we used all available data of snow cover and satellite images and compared detected snow cover on images and in-situ measured snow cover. The information about clouds and snow cover measured on the Ljubljana climatological station were acquired and analysed. The use of satellite images showed out to be useless because of climate characteristics of Slovenia and low elevation of much area.

  16. Slovenian experience in applicability of remote sensing data in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, A; Vidmar, A; Petan, S; Brilly, M

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays remote sensing data are great value for many ways of use as for snow hydrology. Snow cover mapping on basis of satellite images is widely spread because it is easier than in-situ measuring and interpolating. To verify the use of satellite imagery (MODIS product) we used all available data of snow cover and satellite images and compared detected snow cover on images and in-situ measured snow cover. The information about clouds and snow cover measured on the Ljubljana climatological station were acquired and analysed. The use of satellite images showed out to be useless because of climate characteristics of Slovenia and low elevation of much area.

  17. Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources

  18. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p. A Ngie, F Ahmed, K Abutaleb ...

  19. Applying satellite technology to energy and mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William D.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1978-01-01

    IGCP Project 143 ("Remote Sensing and Mineral Exploration"), is a worldwide research project designed to make satellite data an operational geological tool along with the geologic pick, hand lens, topographic map, aerial photo and geophysical instruments and data that comprise the exploration package. While remote sensing data will not replace field exploration and mapping, careful study of such data prior to field work should make the effort more efficient.

  20. ESPACE - a geodetic Master's program for the education of Satellite Application Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, K.; Kirschner, S.; Seitz, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades there has been a rapid development of new geodetic and other Earth observation satellites. Applications of these satellites such as car navigation systems, weather predictions, and, digital maps (such as Google Earth or Google Maps) play a more and more important role in our daily life. For geosciences, satellite applications such as remote sensing and precise positioning/navigation have turned out to be extremely useful and are meanwhile indispensable. Today, researchers within geodesy, climatology, oceanography, meteorology as well as within Earth system science are all dependent on up-to-date satellite data. Design, development and handling of these missions require experts with knowledge not only in space engineering, but also in the specific applications. That gives rise to a new kind of engineers - satellite application engineers. The study program for these engineers combines parts of different classical disciplines such as geodesy, aerospace engineering or electronic engineering. The satellite application engineering program Earth Oriented Space Science and Technology (ESPACE) was founded in 2005 at the Technische Universität München, mainly from institutions involved in geodesy and aerospace engineering. It is an international, interdisciplinary Master's program, and is open to students with a BSc in both Science (e.g. Geodesy, Mathematics, Informatics, Geophysics) and Engineering (e.g. Aerospace, Electronical and Mechanical Engineering). The program is completely conducted in English. ESPACE benefits from and utilizes its location in Munich with its unique concentration of expertise related to space science and technology. Teaching staff from 3 universities (Technische Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilian University, University of the Federal Armed Forces), research institutions (such as the German Aerospace Center, DLR and the German Geodetic Research Institute, DGFI) and space industry (such as EADS or Kayser-Threde) are

  1. Highlights of satellite-based forest change recognition and tracking using the ForWarn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven P. Norman; William W. Hargrove; Joseph P. Spruce; William M. Christie; Sean W. Schroeder

    2013-01-01

    For a higher resolution version of this file, please use the following link: www.geobabble.orgSatellite-based remote sensing can assist forest managers with their need to recognize disturbances and track recovery. Despite the long...

  2. Monitoring Forage Production of California Rangeland Using Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Jin, Y.; Dahlgren, R. A.; O'Geen, A. T.; Roche, L. M.; Smith, A. M.; Flavell, D.

    2016-12-01

    Pastures and rangeland cover more than 10 million hectares in California's coastal and inland foothill regions, providing feeds to livestock and important ecosystem services. Forage production in California has a large year-to-year variation due to large inter-annual and seasonal variabilities in precipitation and temperature. It also varies spatially due to the variability in climate and soils. Our goal is to develop a robust and cost-effective tool to map the near-real-time and historical forage productivity in California using remote sensing observations from Landsat and MODIS satellites. We used a Monteith's eco-physiological plant growth theory: the aboveground net primary production (ANPP) is determined by (i) the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and the (ii) light use efficiency (LUE): ANPP = APAR * LUEmax * f(T) * f(SM), where LUEmax is the maximum LUE, and f(T) and f(SM) are the temperature and soil moisture constrains on LUE. APAR was estimated with Landsat and MODIS vegetation index (VI), and LUE was calibrated with a statewide point dataset of peak forage production measurements at 75 annual rangeland sites. A non-linear optimization was performed to derive maximum LUE and the parameters for temperature and soil moisture regulation on LUE by minimizing the differences between the estimated and measured ANPP. Our results showed the satellite-derived annual forage production estimates correlated well withcontemporaneous in-situ forage measurements and captured both the spatial and temporal productivity patterns of forage productivity well. This remote sensing algorithm can be further improved as new field measurements become available. This tool will have a great importance in maintaining a sustainable range industry by providing key knowledge for ranchers and the stakeholders to make managerial decisions.

  3. Partnership via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Marie Clare

    1980-01-01

    Segments of the 1980 National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) conference were to be telecast nationally by satellite. The author briefly explains the satellite transmission process and advises Catholic educators on how to pick up the broadcast through their local cable television system. (SJL)

  4. Overview of intercalibration of satellite instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Hewison, T.J.; Fox, N.; Wu, X.; Xiong, X.; Blackwell, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-calibration of satellite instruments is critical for detection and quantification of changes in the Earth’s environment, weather forecasting, understanding climate processes, and monitoring climate and land cover change. These applications use data from many satellites; for the data to be inter-operable, the instruments must be cross-calibrated. To meet the stringent needs of such applications requires that instruments provide reliable, accurate, and consistent measurements over time. Robust techniques are required to ensure that observations from different instruments can be normalized to a common scale that the community agrees on. The long-term reliability of this process needs to be sustained in accordance with established reference standards and best practices. Furthermore, establishing physical meaning to the information through robust Système International d'unités (SI) traceable Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) is essential to fully understand the parameters under observation. The processes of calibration, correction, stability monitoring, and quality assurance need to be underpinned and evidenced by comparison with “peer instruments” and, ideally, highly calibrated in-orbit reference instruments. Inter-calibration between instruments is a central pillar of the Cal/Val strategies of many national and international satellite remote sensing organizations. Inter-calibration techniques as outlined in this paper not only provide a practical means of identifying and correcting relative biases in radiometric calibration between instruments but also enable potential data gaps between measurement records in a critical time series to be bridged. Use of a robust set of internationally agreed upon and coordinated inter-calibration techniques will lead to significant improvement in the consistency between satellite instruments and facilitate accurate monitoring of the Earth’s climate at uncertainty levels needed to detect and attribute the mechanisms

  5. Essential climatic variables estimation with satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotii, A.; Kussul, N.; Shelestov, A.; Lavreniuk, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    According to Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 - 2030 Leaf Area Index (LAI) is considered as one of essential climatic variables. This variable represents the amount of leaf material in ecosystems and controls the links between biosphere and atmosphere through various processes and enables monitoring and quantitative assessment of vegetation state. LAI has added value for such important global resources monitoring tasks as drought mapping and crop yield forecasting with use of data from different sources [1-2]. Remote sensing data from space can be used to estimate such biophysical parameter at regional and national scale. High temporal satellite imagery is usually required to capture main parameters of crop growth [3]. Sentinel-2 mission launched in 2015 be ESA is a source of high spatial and temporal resolution satellite imagery for mapping biophysical parameters. Products created with use of automated Sen2-Agri system deployed during Sen2-Agri country level demonstration project for Ukraine will be compared with our independent results of biophysical parameters mapping. References Shelestov, A., Kolotii, A., Camacho, F., Skakun, S., Kussul, O., Lavreniuk, M., & Kostetsky, O. (2015, July). Mapping of biophysical parameters based on high resolution EO imagery for JECAM test site in Ukraine. In 2015 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 1733-1736 Kolotii, A., Kussul, N., Shelestov, A., Skakun, S., Yailymov, B., Basarab, R., ... & Ostapenko, V. (2015). Comparison of biophysical and satellite predictors for wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 40(7), 39-44. Kussul, N., Lemoine, G., Gallego, F. J., Skakun, S. V., Lavreniuk, M., & Shelestov, A. Y. Parcel-Based Crop Classification in Ukraine Using Landsat-8 Data and Sentinel-1A Data. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing , 9 (6), 2500-2508.

  6. The satellite situation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities

  7. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  8. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  9. Validation of Satellite Derived Cloud Properties Over the Southeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J.; Minnis, P.; Zuidema, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Fairall, C.

    2005-12-01

    Satellite measurements of cloud properties and the radiation budget are essential for understanding meso- and large-scale processes that determine the variability in climate over the southeastern Pacific. Of particular interest in this region is the prevalent stratocumulus cloud deck. The stratocumulus albedos are directly related to cloud microphysical properties that need to be accurately characterized in Global Climate Models (GCMs) to properly estimate the Earth's radiation budget. Meteorological observations in this region are sparse causing large uncertainties in initialized model fields. Remote sensing from satellites can provide a wealth of information about the clouds in this region, but it is vital to validate the remotely sensed parameters and to understand their relationship to other parameters that are not directly observed by the satellites. The variety of measurements from the R/V Roger Revelle during the 2003 STRATUS cruise and from the R/V Ron Brown during EPIC 2001 and the 2004 STRATUS cruises are suitable for validating and improving the interpretation of the satellite derived cloud properties. In this study, satellite-derived cloud properties including coverage, height, optical depth, and liquid water path are compared with in situ measurements taken during the EPIC and STRATUS cruises. The remotely sensed values are derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellites, and from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The products from this study will include regional monthly cloud climatologies derived from the GOES data for the 2003 and 2004 cruises as well as micro and macro physical cloud property retrievals centered over the ship tracks from MODIS and VIRS.

  10. Emerging Use of Dual Channel Infrared for Remote Sensing of Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N. S.; Serreze, M. C.; Gallaher, D. W.; Koenig, L.; Schaefer, K. M.; Campbell, G. G.; Thompson, J. A.; Grant, G.; Fetterer, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Using GOES-16 data as a proxy for overhead persistent infrared, we examine the feasibility of using a dual channel shortwave / midwave infrared (SWIR/MWIR) approach to detect and chart sea ice in Hudson Bay through a series of images with a temporal scale of less than fifteen minutes. While not traditionally exploited for sea ice remote sensing, the availability of near continuous shortwave and midwave infrared data streams over the Arctic from overhead persistent infrared (OPIR) satellites could provide an invaluable source of information regarding the changing Arctic climate. Traditionally used for the purpose of missile warning and strategic defense, characteristics of OPIR make it an attractive source for Arctic remote sensing as the temporal resolution can provide insight into ice edge melt and motion processes. Fundamentally, the time series based algorithm will discern water/ice/clouds using a SWIR/MWIR normalized difference index. Cloud filtering is accomplished through removing pixels categorized as clouds while retaining a cache of previous ice/water pixels to replace any cloud obscured (and therefore omitted) pixels. Demonstration of the sensitivity of GOES-16 SWIR/MWIR to detect and discern water/ice/clouds provides a justification for exploring the utility of military OPIR sensors for civil and commercial applications. Potential users include the scientific community as well as emergency responders, the fishing industry, oil and gas industries, and transportation industries that are seeking to exploit changing conditions in the Arctic but require more accurate and timely ice charting products.

  11. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  12. Satellite radar altimetry for monitoring small rivers and lakes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulistioadi, Y.B.; Tseng, K.H.; Shum, C.K.; Hidayat, Hidayat; Sumaryono, M.; Suhardiman, A.; Setiawan, F.; Sunarso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable of hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. Although satellite radar altimetry has been used in monitoring water level or discharge, its use is often limited to monitoring large rivers (>1 km) with longer interval periods

  13. Industrial numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, S.; Elliott, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The applications of mathematics to industrial problems involves the formulation of problems which are amenable to mathematical investigation, mathematical modelling, the solution of the mathematical problem and the inter-pretation of the results. There are 12 chapters describing industrial problems where mathematics and numerical analysis can be applied. These range from the numerical assessment of the flatness of engineering surfaces and plates, the design of chain links, control problems in tidal power generation and low thrust satellite trajectory optimization to mathematical models in welding. One chapter, on the ageing of stainless steels, is indexed separately. (UK)

  14. Recent Korean R&D in Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Jae Moung; Lee, Byung-Seub; Lee, Han; Ryoo, Jang-Soo

    The R&D in satellite communications in Korea has been driven mainly by KCC (Korea Communications Commission) but in a small scale compared to Korea space development program organized by MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology). Public and civilian satcom sector R&D has been led mainly by ETRI with small/medium companies contrary to rare investment in private sector while military sector R&D has been orchestrated by ADD with defense industry. By the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite) experimental Ka-band payload, Korea pursues a space qualification of own technology for national infrastructure evolution as well as industrialization of space R&D results. Once COMS launched and space qualified in 2009, subsequent application experiments and new technology R&D like UHDTV will entail service and industry promotion. The payload technology is expected for the next Korean commercial satellites or for new OBP satellites. The COMS ground control system and GNSS ground station technologies are under development for COMS operation and enhanced GNSS services along with advent of Galileo respectively. Satellite broadband mobile VSAT based on DVB-S2/RCS (+M) and low profile tracking antennas have been developed for trains, ships, and planes. While APSI is developing GMR-1 based Thuraya handset functions, ETRI is designing IMT-Advanced satellite radio interface for satellite and terrestrial dual-mode handheld communication system like Japanese STICS, with universities' satellite OFDM researches. A 21GHz Ka-band higher-availability scalable HD broadcasting technology and SkyLife's hybrid satellite IPTV technology are being developed. In near term Korea will extend R&D programs to upgrade the space communication infrastructure for universal access to digital opportunity and safer daily life from disaster, and to promote space green IT industrialization, national security, and space resources sovereign. Japanese stakeholders are invited to establish

  15. Satellite technology and the control of parasitic diseases in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential application of these techniques in the surveillance, control and prevention of parasitic diseases in Africa is explored in this write-up. Keywords: surveillance, parasitic diseases, satellite techniques, remote sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning Sytem (GPS), human and robotic, ...

  16. Coral Bleaching Products - Office of Satellite and Product Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    satellite remotely sensed global sea surface temperature (SST) measurements and derived indices of coral HotSpots, Degree Heating Weeks, Time Series, SST Contour Charts, Ocean Surface Winds, and On-site Buoys as the product, are derived from Coral Bleaching HotSpots and Degree Heating Weeks (DHW) values measured

  17. Satellite Technology Contribution to Water and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of supplies of food, the relationship to food security, the ability of all people to attain sufficient food for an active and healthy life, and the ability to use satellite technology and remote sensing to assist with planning and act as an early warning system.

  18. Probability of satellite collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarter, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.

  19. Remote sensing and local knowledge of hydrocarbon exploitation : the case of Bovanenkovo, Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpala, T. [Eastern Finland Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Geographical and Historical Studies; Forbes, B.C. [Lapland Univ., Rovaniemi (Finland). Arctic Centre; Stammler, F. [Lapland Univ., Rovaniemi (Finland). Arctic Centre; Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    This study evaluated the capacity of satellite imagery to detect the impacts of anthropogenic activities on land cover in the Bovanenkovo gas field located on the Yamal peninsula in northwest Siberia. The region is home to nomadic Nenets reindeer herders, whose annual migrations between the tree line and the northern tundra can expose them to the impacts of oil and gas activities, which include roads, railways, and pipelines, as well as changes in vegetation and hydrology. The Nenets have noted changes in the quantity and quality of terrestrial and freshwater habitats that have been used seasonally for centuries. Industrial impacts were examined at detailed and coarse scales using Landsat, ASTER and Spot satellite technologies. A very high resolution Quickbird-2 satellite was able to locate many impacts, but was not able to detect items like garbage that reduced the quality of reindeer pastures. Remote sensing technology and detailed ground-truthing are required to accurately characterize the impacts of industrial activities in the region. 59 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Space technology and access to space have been elusive to most developing countries over the last half of the 21st century, which is attributed to very low par capital income and the lack of awareness of policy/decision makers about the role of space technology in national development. Space technology was seen as very expensive and prestigious, meant only for the major industrialized countries, while the developing countries should focus on building their national economy and providing food, shelter and other social amenities for their ever-growing populations. In the last decade, the trend has changed with many developing countries embracing spaced technology as one of the major ways of achieving sustainable development. The present trend towards the use of small satellites in meeting national needs has aided this transition because, apart from the small size, they are cheaper to build and to launch, with shorter development time, lower complexity, improved effectiveness and reduced operating costs. This in turn has made them more affordable and has opened up new avenues for the acquisition of satellite technology. The collaborative work between National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria (NASRDA) and Surrey Satellite and Technology Limited (SSTL) is a programme aimed at building two small satellites as a way of kick- starting the national space programme. The first project, NigeriaSAT-1, is an enhanced microsatellite carrying Earth observation payloads able to provide 32 metre GSD 3 band multispectral images with a 600km swath width. NigeriaSAT-1 is one of six microsatellites forming the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) alongside microsatellites contributed by Algeria, China, Turkey, Thailand and UK. Through participation in this international constellation, Nigeria will be able to receive images with a daily revisit worldwide. The EO images generated by NigeriaSAT-1 and the partner microsatellites will be used for providing rapid coverage

  1. Plasmonic sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic sensors typically rely on detection of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium. Here, an alternative approach is reported based on electrical surface screening and controlled dissolution of ultrasmall silver nanoparticles (NPs; R ... in the plasmon band. This is demonstrated by using the strong nucleophiles, cyanide and cysteamine, as ligands. The “dissolution paths” in terms of peak wavelength and amplitude shifts differ significantly between different types of analytes, which are suggested as a means to obtain selectivity of the detection...... that cannot be obtained by traditional refractive index sensing, without the use of bioprobes. A simple modified Drude model is used to account for shifts in the plasmon band position due to electrical charging. Here, a screening parameter is introduced in the expression for the free electron density...

  2. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Cattet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC. Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI, inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS.

  3. Remote sensing of ecology, biodiversity and conservation: a review from the perspective of remote sensing specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS).

  4. Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

  5. Environmental monitoring by means of remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilen-Willige, B.

    1993-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite aerial photographs represent indispensible tools for environmental observation today. They contribute to a systematic inventory of important environmental parameters such as climate, vegetation or surface water. Their great importance lies in the continuous monitoring of large regions so that changes in environmental conditions are quickly detected. This book provides an overview of the capabilities of remote sensing in environmental monitoring and in the recognition of environmental problems as well as of the usefulness of remote sensing data for environmental planning. Also addressed is the role of remote sensing in the monitoring of natural hazards such as earthquakes and volcano eruptions as well as problems of remote sensing technology transfer to developing countries. (orig.) [de

  6. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  7. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...

  8. Climate Literacy: STEM and Cli