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Sample records for sensate robot hand

  1. Referral of sensation to an advanced humanoid robotic hand prosthesis.

    Rosén, Birgitta; Ehrsson, H Henrik; Antfolk, Christian; Cipriani, Christian; Sebelius, Fredrik; Lundborg, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Hand prostheses that are currently available on the market are used by amputees to only a limited extent, partly because of lack of sensory feedback from the artificial hand. We report a pilot study that showed how amputees can experience a robot-like advanced hand prosthesis as part of their own body. We induced a perceptual illusion by which touch applied to the stump of the arm was experienced from the artificial hand. This illusion was elicited by applying synchronous tactile stimulation to the hidden amputation stump and the robotic hand prosthesis in full view. In five people who had had upper limb amputations this stimulation caused referral touch sensation from the stump to the artificial hand, and the prosthesis was experienced more like a real hand. We also showed that this illusion can work when the amputee controls the movements of the artificial hand by recordings of the arm muscle activity with electromyograms. These observations indicate that the previously described "rubber hand illusion" is also valid for an advanced hand prosthesis, even when it has a robotic-like appearance.

  2. Development of a robotic evaluation system for the ability of proprioceptive sensation in slow hand motion.

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Mizoe, Genki; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple diagnostic methodology for checking the ability of proprioceptive/kinesthetic sensation by using a robotic device. The perception ability of virtual frictional forces is examined in operations of the robotic device by the hand at a uniform slow velocity along the virtual straight/circular path. Experimental results by healthy subjects demonstrate that percentage of correct answers for the designed perceptual tests changes in the motion direction as well as the arm configuration and the HFM (human force manipulability) measure. It can be supposed that the proposed methodology can be applied into the early detection of neuromuscular/neurological disorders.

  3. Robotic Hand

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  4. Robotic hand and fingers

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  5. Robotic hand project

    Karaçizmeli, Cengiz; Çakır, Gökçe; Tükel, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the mechatronic based robotic hand is controlled by the position data taken from the glove which has flex sensors mounted to capture finger bending of the human hand. The angular movement of human hand’s fingers are perceived and processed by a microcontroller, and the robotic hand is controlled by actuating servo motors. It has seen that robotic hand can simulate the movement of the human hand that put on the glove, during tests have done. This robotic hand can be used not only...

  6. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    contains a force-and-torque sensor that provides feedback for force (compliance) control of the arm. The end effector could be a tool or a robot hand, depending on the application.

  7. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  8. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  9. The association of hand preference and sensation seeking behavior.

    Kuderer, Sonja; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    Although the human body shows a superficial symmetry, the disparate functions and skills of both body halves lead to an asymmetrical use. As a result, lateral preferences are detectable, which also include the favoured use of one hand ('handedness'). The collection of questionnaire data on sensation seeking and the conduction of behavioral handedness tasks by 55 research participants enabled the investigation of the interaction of handedness and sensation seeking. For this procedure the age-homogeneous study population is divided according to the Handedness-Index (HI) - a calculated value, indicating the practical hand preference. The results reveal a stronger lateralization in right-handed participants as well as a difference in the mean value of hand use in the three handedness groups. Sensation seeking behavior shows significant negative correlations with age as well as with the HI. Higher scores of left-handers in Experience Seeking (ES), Sensation Seeking (SS) as well as in Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS) indicate a larger risk investment in this handedness group. Hence, the results of this study suggest that handedness is a strong indicator of risk behavior.

  10. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  11. Hand-held medical robots.

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  12. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics.

  13. SPONGE ROBOTIC HAND DESIGN FOR PROSTHESES

    Mine Seçkin

    2016-01-01

    In this study robotic hands and fingers’ materials are investigated from past to present and a sponge robotic hand is designed for biomedical applications. Emergence and necessity of soft robotic technology are explained and description of soft robot is made. Because of the importance of hand in a person’s body, researchers have dealt with robotic hand prostheses for many centuries and developed many hand types. To mimic the best for the human limbs, softness of the hand is one of the importa...

  14. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  15. Controller design for Robotic hand through Electroencephalogram

    Pandelidis P.; Kiriazis N.; Orgianelis K.; Koulios N.

    2016-01-01

    - This paper deals with the designing, the construction and the control of a robotic hand via an electroencephalogram sensor. First a robotic device that is able to mimic a real human hand is constructed. A PID controller is designed in order to improve the performance of the robotic arm for grabbing objects. Furthermore, a novel design approach is presented for controlling the motion of the robotic arm using signals produced from an innovative electroencephalogram sensor that detects the con...

  16. Hand Rehabilitation Robotics on Poststroke Motor Recovery

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of hand function is one of the most challenging topics in stroke rehabilitation. Although the robot-assisted therapy has got some good results in the latest decades, the development of hand rehabilitation robotics is left behind. Existing reviews of hand rehabilitation robotics focus either on the mechanical design on designers' view or on the training paradigms on the clinicians' view, while these two parts are interconnected and both important for designers and clinicians. In this review, we explore the current literature surrounding hand rehabilitation robots, to help designers make better choices among varied components and thus promoting the application of hand rehabilitation robots. An overview of hand rehabilitation robotics is provided in this paper firstly, to give a general view of the relationship between subjects, rehabilitation theories, hand rehabilitation robots, and its evaluation. Secondly, the state of the art hand rehabilitation robotics is introduced in detail according to the classification of the hardware system and the training paradigm. As a result, the discussion gives available arguments behind the classification and comprehensive overview of hand rehabilitation robotics. PMID:29230081

  17. Design of Piano -playing Robotic Hand

    Lin Jen-Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the market slowdown of industrial robots, service & entertainment robots have been highly regarded by most robotics reseach and market research agencies. In this study we developed a music playing robot (which can also work as a service robot for public performance. The research is mainly focused on the mechanical and electrical control of piano-playing robot, the exploration of correlations among music theory, rhythm and piano keys, and eventually the research on playing skill of keyboard instrument. The piano-playing robot is capable of control linear motor, servo-motor and pneumatic devices in accordance with the notes and rhythm in order to drive the mechanical structure to proper positions for pressing the keys and generating music. The devices used for this robot are mainly crucial components produced by HIWIN Technology Corp. The design of robotic hand is based on the direction of anthropomorphic hand such that five fingers will be used for playing piano. The finger actuations include actions of finger rotation, finger pressing, and finger lifting; time required for these 3 stages must meet the requirement of rhythm. The purpose of entertainment robot can be achieved by playing electric piano with robotic hand, and we hope this research can contribute to the development of domestic entertainment music playing robots.

  18. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  19. Anthropomorphic Robot Hand And Teaching Glove

    Engler, Charles D., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Robotic forearm-and-hand assembly manipulates objects by performing wrist and hand motions with nearly human grasping ability and dexterity. Imitates hand motions of human operator who controls robot in real time by programming via exoskeletal "teaching glove". Telemanipulator systems based on this robotic-hand concept useful where humanlike dexterity required. Underwater, high-radiation, vacuum, hot, cold, toxic, or inhospitable environments potential application sites. Particularly suited to assisting astronauts on space station in safely executing unexpected tasks requiring greater dexterity than standard gripper.

  20. Fabrication, sensation and control of fluidic elastomer actuators and their application towards hand orthotics and prosthetics

    Zhao, Huichan

    Due to their continuous and natural motion, fluidic elastomer actuators (FEAs) have shown potential in a range of robotic applications including prosthetics and orthotics. Despite their advantages and rapid developments, robots using these actuators still have several challenging issues to be addressed. First, the reliable production of low cost and complex actuators that can apply high forces is necessary, yet none of existing fabrication methods are both easy to implement and of high force output. Next, compliant or stretchable sensors that can be embedded into their bodies for sophisticated functions are required, however, many of these sensors suffer from hysteresis, fabrication complexity, chemical safety and environmental instability, and material incompatibility with soft actuators. Finally, feedback control for FEAs is necessary to achieve better performance, but most soft robots are still "open-loop". In this dissertation, I intend to help solve the above issues and drive the applications of soft robotics towards hand orthotics and prosthetics. First, I adapt rotational casting as a new manufacturing method for soft actuators. I present a cuboid soft actuator that can generate a force of >25 N at its tip, a near ten-fold increase over similar actuators previously reported. Next, I propose a soft orthotic finger with position control enabled via embedded optical fiber. I monitor both the static and dynamic states via the optical sensor and achieve the prescribed curvatures accurately and with stability by a gain-scheduled proportional-integral-derivative controller. Then I develop the soft orthotic fingers into a low-cost, closed-loop controlled, soft orthotic glove that can be worn by a typical human hand and helpful for grasping light objects, while also providing finger position control. I achieve motion control with inexpensive, binary pneumatic switches controlled by a simple finite-state-machine. Finally, I report the first use of stretchable optical

  1. HUMAN HAND STUDY FOR ROBOTIC EXOSKELETON DELVELOPMENT

    BIROUAS Flaviu Ionut

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be presenting research with application in the rehabilitation of hand motor functions by the aid of robotics. The focus will be on the dimensional parameters of the biological human hand from which the robotic system will be developed. The term used for such measurements is known as anthropometrics. The anthropometric parameters studied and presented in this paper are mainly related to the angular limitations of the finger joints of the human hand.

  2. HUMAN HAND STUDY FOR ROBOTIC EXOSKELETON DELVELOPMENT

    BIROUAS Flaviu Ionut; NILGESZ Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This paper will be presenting research with application in the rehabilitation of hand motor functions by the aid of robotics. The focus will be on the dimensional parameters of the biological human hand from which the robotic system will be developed. The term used for such measurements is known as anthropometrics. The anthropometric parameters studied and presented in this paper are mainly related to the angular limitations of the finger joints of the human hand.

  3. Controller design for Robotic hand through Electroencephalogram

    Pandelidis P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available - This paper deals with the designing, the construction and the control of a robotic hand via an electroencephalogram sensor. First a robotic device that is able to mimic a real human hand is constructed. A PID controller is designed in order to improve the performance of the robotic arm for grabbing objects. Furthermore, a novel design approach is presented for controlling the motion of the robotic arm using signals produced from an innovative electroencephalogram sensor that detects the concentration of the brain

  4. Robot hands and extravehicular activity

    Marcus, Beth

    1987-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is crucial to the success of both current and future space operations. As space operations have evolved in complexity so has the demand placed on the EVA crewman. In addition, some NASA requirements for human capabilities at remote or hazardous sites were identified. One of the keys to performing useful EVA tasks is the ability to manipulate objects accurately, quickly and without early or excessive fatigue. The current suit employs a glove which enables the crewman to perform grasping tasks, use tools, turn switches, and perform other tasks for short periods of time. However, the glove's bulk and resistance to motion ultimately causes fatigue. Due to this limitation it may not be possible to meet the productivity requirements that will be placed on the EVA crewman of the future with the current or developmental Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. In addition, this hardware will not meet the requirements for remote or hazardous operations. In an effort to develop ways for improving crew productivity, a contract was awarded to develop a prototype anthromorphic robotic hand (ARH) for use with an extravehicular space suit. The first step in this program was to perform a a design study which investigated the basic technology required for the development of an ARH to enhance crew performance and productivity. The design study phase of the contract and some additional development work is summarized.

  5. Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation

    Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed that fingertip pads’ tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads’ tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P sensation (P sensation (P sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959

  6. Robotic Hand Controlling Based on Flexible Sensor

    Bilgin, Süleyman; Üser, Yavuz; Mercan, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    Today's technology has increased the interest in robotic systems andincrease the number of studies realized in this area.  There are many studies on robotic systems inseveral fields to facilitate human life in the literature. In this study, arobot hand is designed to repeat finger movements depending upon flexiblesensors mounted on any wearable glove. In the literature, various sensors thatdetect the finger movement are used. The sensor that detects the angle of thefingers has b...

  7. Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.

  8. Age-related changes in cutaneous sensation in the healthy human hand.

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; McNulty, Penelope A

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous sensation deteriorates with age. It is not known if this change is consistent over the entire hand or if sensation is affected by changes in skin mechanics. Cutaneous perceptual thresholds were tested at eight sites in the glabrous skin and two in the hairy skin of both hands in 70 subjects (20-88 years), five male and five female per decade, using calibrated von Frey filaments, two-point discrimination, and texture discrimination. Venous occlusion at the wrist (40 ± 10 mmHg) and moisturizer were used to alter skin mechanics. Cutaneous thresholds increased significantly with age (p sensation varied according to the site tested with smaller changes on the fingers compared to the palm. Two-point discrimination deteriorated with age (p = 0.046), but with no interaction between sex, handedness, or changes in skin mechanics. There were no significant differences for texture discrimination. Changes in skin mechanics improved cutaneous thresholds in the oldest males after moisturizing (p = 0.001) but not otherwise. These results emphasize the complex pattern of age-related deterioration in cutaneous sensation with differences between sexes, the hands, sites on the hand, and the mode of testing. As the index fingertip is not a sensitive indicator of sensory decline, the minimum assessment of age-related changes in cutaneous sensation should include both hands, and sites on the palm.

  9. The future of robotics in hand surgery.

    Liverneaux, P; Nectoux, E; Taleb, C

    2009-10-01

    Robotics has spread over many surgical fields over the last decade: orthopaedic, cardiovascular, urologic, gynaecologic surgery and various other types of surgery. There are five different types of robots: passive, semiactive and active robots, telemanipulators and simulators. Hand surgery is at a crossroad between orthopaedic surgery, plastic surgery and microsurgery; it has to deal with fixing all sorts of tissues from bone to soft tissues. To our knowledge, there is not any paper focusing on potential clinical applications in this realm, even though robotics could be helpful for hand surgery. One must point out the numerous works on bone tissue with regard to passive robots (such as fluoroscopic navigation as an ancillary for percutaneous screwing in the scaphoid bone). Telemanipulators, especially in microsurgery, can improve surgical motion by suppressing physiological tremor thanks to movement demultiplication (experimental vascular and nervous sutures previously published). To date, the robotic technology has not yet become simple-to-use, cheap and flawless but in the future, it will probably be of great technical help, and even allow remote-controlled surgery overseas.

  10. Robotic Hand with Flexible Fingers for Grasping Cylindrical Objects

    柴田, 瑞穂

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, a robotic hand for grasping a cylindrical object is proposed. This robotic hand has flexible fingers that can hold a cylindrical object during moving. We introduce a grasping strategy for a cylindrical object in terms of state transition graph. In this strategy the robotic hand picks up the cylindrical object utilizing a suction device before the hand grasp the object. We also design the flexible fingers; then, we investigate the validity of this robotic hand via several e...

  11. Intelligent, self-contained robotic hand

    Krutik, Vitaliy; Doo, Burt; Townsend, William T.; Hauptman, Traveler; Crowell, Adam; Zenowich, Brian; Lawson, John

    2007-01-30

    A robotic device has a base and at least one finger having at least two links that are connected in series on rotary joints with at least two degrees of freedom. A brushless motor and an associated controller are located at each joint to produce a rotational movement of a link. Wires for electrical power and communication serially connect the controllers in a distributed control network. A network operating controller coordinates the operation of the network, including power distribution. At least one, but more typically two to five, wires interconnect all the controllers through one or more joints. Motor sensors and external world sensors monitor operating parameters of the robotic hand. The electrical signal output of the sensors can be input anywhere on the distributed control network. V-grooves on the robotic hand locate objects precisely and assist in gripping. The hand is sealed, immersible and has electrical connections through the rotary joints for anodizing in a single dunk without masking. In various forms, this intelligent, self-contained, dexterous hand, or combinations of such hands, can perform a wide variety of object gripping and manipulating tasks, as well as locomotion and combinations of locomotion and gripping.

  12. Embodied neurofeedback with an anthropomorphic robotic hand.

    Braun, Niclas; Emkes, Reiner; Thorne, Jeremy D; Debener, Stefan

    2016-11-21

    Neurofeedback-guided motor imagery training (NF-MIT) has been suggested as a promising therapy for stroke-induced motor impairment. Whereas much NF-MIT research has aimed at signal processing optimization, the type of sensory feedback given to the participant has received less attention. Often the feedback signal is highly abstract and not inherently coupled to the mental act performed. In this study, we asked whether an embodied feedback signal is more efficient for neurofeedback operation than a non-embodiable feedback signal. Inspired by the rubber hand illusion, demonstrating that an artificial hand can be incorporated into one's own body scheme, we used an anthropomorphic robotic hand to visually guide the participants' motor imagery act and to deliver neurofeedback. Using two experimental manipulations, we investigated how a participant's neurofeedback performance and subjective experience were influenced by the embodiability of the robotic hand, and by the neurofeedback signal's validity. As pertains to embodiment, we found a promoting effect of robotic-hand embodiment in subjective, behavioral, electrophysiological and electrodermal measures. Regarding neurofeedback signal validity, we found some differences between real and sham neurofeedback in terms of subjective and electrodermal measures, but not in terms of behavioral and electrophysiological measures. This study motivates the further development of embodied feedback signals for NF-MIT.

  13. Embodied neurofeedback with an anthropomorphic robotic hand

    Braun, Niclas; Emkes, Reiner; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback-guided motor imagery training (NF-MIT) has been suggested as a promising therapy for stroke-induced motor impairment. Whereas much NF-MIT research has aimed at signal processing optimization, the type of sensory feedback given to the participant has received less attention. Often the feedback signal is highly abstract and not inherently coupled to the mental act performed. In this study, we asked whether an embodied feedback signal is more efficient for neurofeedback operation than a non-embodiable feedback signal. Inspired by the rubber hand illusion, demonstrating that an artificial hand can be incorporated into one’s own body scheme, we used an anthropomorphic robotic hand to visually guide the participants’ motor imagery act and to deliver neurofeedback. Using two experimental manipulations, we investigated how a participant’s neurofeedback performance and subjective experience were influenced by the embodiability of the robotic hand, and by the neurofeedback signal’s validity. As pertains to embodiment, we found a promoting effect of robotic-hand embodiment in subjective, behavioral, electrophysiological and electrodermal measures. Regarding neurofeedback signal validity, we found some differences between real and sham neurofeedback in terms of subjective and electrodermal measures, but not in terms of behavioral and electrophysiological measures. This study motivates the further development of embodied feedback signals for NF-MIT. PMID:27869190

  14. Biomimetic actuator and sensor for robot hand

    Kim, Baekchul; Chung, Jinah; Cho, Hanjoung; Shin, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyoungsuk; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon

    2012-01-01

    To manufacture a robot hand that essentially mimics the functions of a human hand, it is necessary to develop flexible actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose the design, manufacture, and performance verification of flexible actuators and sensors based on Electro Active Polymer (EAP). EAP is fabricated as a type of film, and it moves with changes in the voltage because of contraction and expansion in the polymer film. Furthermore, if a force is applied to an EAP film, its thickness and effective area change, and therefore, the capacitance also changes. By using this mechanism, we produce capacitive actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose an EAP based capacitive sensor and evaluate its use as a robot hand sensor

  15. Biomimetic actuator and sensor for robot hand

    Kim, Baekchul; Chung, Jinah; Cho, Hanjoung; Shin, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyoungsuk; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To manufacture a robot hand that essentially mimics the functions of a human hand, it is necessary to develop flexible actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose the design, manufacture, and performance verification of flexible actuators and sensors based on Electro Active Polymer (EAP). EAP is fabricated as a type of film, and it moves with changes in the voltage because of contraction and expansion in the polymer film. Furthermore, if a force is applied to an EAP film, its thickness and effective area change, and therefore, the capacitance also changes. By using this mechanism, we produce capacitive actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose an EAP based capacitive sensor and evaluate its use as a robot hand sensor.

  16. Intelligent computational control of multi-fingered dexterous robotic hand

    Chen, Disi; Li, Gongfa; Jiang, Guozhang; Fang, Yinfeng; Ju, Zhaojie; Liu, Honghai

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the intelligent computational control theory and introduce the hardware structure of HIT/DLR II dexterous robotic hand, which is the typical dexterous robotic hand. We show that how DSP or FPGA controller can be used in the dexterous robotic hand. A popular intelligent dexterous robotic hand control system, which named Electromyography (EMG) control is investigated. We introduced some mathematical algorithms in EMG controlling, such as Gauss mixture model (GMM), artificial neural n...

  17. Natural control capabilities of robotic hands by hand amputated subjects.

    Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Caputo, Barbara; Muller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    People with transradial hand amputations who own a myoelectric prosthesis currently have some control capabilities via sEMG. However, the control systems are still limited and not natural. The Ninapro project is aiming at helping the scientific community to overcome these limits through the creation of publicly available electromyography data sources to develop and test machine learning algorithms. In this paper we describe the movement classification results gained from three subjects with an homogeneous level of amputation, and we compare them with the results of 40 intact subjects. The number of considered subjects can seem small at first sight, but it is not considering the literature of the field (which has to face the difficulty of recruiting trans-radial hand amputated subjects). The classification is performed with four different classifiers and the obtained balanced classification rates are up to 58.6% on 50 movements, which is an excellent result compared to the current literature. Successively, for each subject we find a subset of up to 9 highly independent movements, (defined as movements that can be distinguished with more than 90% accuracy), which is a deeply innovative step in literature. The natural control of a robotic hand in so many movements could lead to an immediate progress in robotic hand prosthetics and it could deeply change the quality of life of amputated subjects.

  18. Relationship between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke.

    Hill, Valerie A; Fisher, Thomas; Schmid, Arlene A; Crabtree, Jeffrey; Page, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke. Using a cross-sectional study design, this study correlated factors related to hand sensation and activity performance in individuals with chronic stroke. The Touch Test Evaluators and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used. Correlations were used to determine the relationships between touch sensation of the affected hand and individuals' performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities. There was a good to excellent relationship between sensation and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities for individuals with intact touch sensation of the affected hand who scored higher on the COPM. There was little to no relationship between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance of valued activities for individuals with impaired sensation. This is the first study to relate touch sensation of the affected hand and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities in individuals with stroke. The findings suggest that rehabilitation therapists need to continue to address sensory function in evaluation and intervention as it relates to performance in valued activities. This study serves as a foundation for future research in sensation and performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke.

  19. Grasp force sensor for robotic hands

    Scheinman, Victor D. (Inventor); Bejczy, Antal K. (Inventor); Primus, Howard C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A grasp force sensor for robotic hands is disclosed. A flexible block is located in the base of each claw through which the grasp force is exerted. The block yields minute parallelogram deflection when the claws are subjected to grasping forces. A parallelogram deflection closely resembles pure translational deflection, whereby the claws remain in substantial alignment with each other during grasping. Strain gauge transducers supply signals which provide precise knowledge of and control over grasp forces.

  20. Reliability of the "Ten Test" for assessment of discriminative sensation in hand trauma.

    Berger, Michael J; Regan, William R; Seal, Alex; Bristol, Sean G

    2016-10-01

    "Ten Test" (TT) is a bedside measure of discriminative sensation, whereby the magnitude of abnormal sensation to moving light touch is normalized to an area of normal sensation on an 11-point Likert scale (0-10). The purposes of this study were to determine reliability parameters of the TT in a cohort of patients presenting to a hand trauma clinic with subjectively altered sensation post-injury and to compare the reliability of TT to that of the Weinstein Enhanced Sensory Test (WEST). Study participants (n = 29, mean age = 37 ± 12) comprised patients presenting to an outpatient hand trauma clinic with recent hand trauma and self reported abnormal sensation. Participants underwent TT and WEST by two separate raters on the same day. Interrater reliability, response stability and responsiveness of each test were determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC: 2, 1), standard error of measurement (SEM) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and minimal detectable difference score, with 95% CI (MDD95), respectively. The TT displayed excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-0.97) compared to good reliability for WEST (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.58-0.89). The range of true scores expected with 95% confidence based on the SEM (i.e. response stability), was ±1.1 for TT and ±1.1 for WEST. MDD95 scores reflecting test responsiveness were 1.5 and 1.6 for TT and WEST, respectively. The TT displayed excellent reliability parameters in this patient population. Reliability parameters were stronger for TT compared to WEST. These results provide support for the use of TT as a component of the sensory exam in hand trauma. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Robot hand tackles jobs in hazardous areas

    Simms, Mark; Crowder, Richard.

    1989-01-01

    A robot hand and arm designed to mimic the operation of its human counterpart, developed at the University of Southampton for use in a standard industrial glovebox, is described. It was specifically designed for use in a radioactive environment moving high dosage components around. As dosage limits go down, there is a legal requirement to remove people from that environment. The nine-axis arm is for use in a glove designed for a human hand. Drive for the motors used to power the hand is from three-phase MOSFET inventor cards, the switching pattern controlled by the Hall effect communication sensors integral to each motor. The computer software for the arm allows the hand to be positioned using a joystick on a control box, with three levels of command for grip, pinch and touch. (author)

  2. The prevalence and magnitude of impaired cutaneous sensation across the hand in the chronic period post-stroke.

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; Lin, Gaven G; McNulty, Penelope A

    2014-01-01

    Sensation is commonly impaired immediately post-stroke but little is known about the long-term changes in cutaneous sensation that have the capacity to adversely impact independence and motor-function. We investigated cutaneous sensory thresholds across the hand in the chronic post-stroke period. Cutaneous sensation was assessed in 42 community-dwelling stroke patients and compared to 36 healthy subjects. Sensation was tested with calibrated monofilaments at 6 sites on the hand that covered the median, ulnar and radial innervation territories and included both glabrous (hairless) and hairy skin. The motor-function of stroke patients was assessed with the Wolf Motor Function Test and the upper-limb motor Fugl-Meyer Assessment. Impaired cutaneous sensation was defined as monofilament thresholds >3 SD above the mean of healthy subjects and good sensation was ≤ 3 SD. Cutaneous sensation was impaired for 33% of patients and was 40-84% worse on the more-affected side compared to healthy subjects depending on the site (psensation fell within the healthy range, although ∼ 1/3 of patients were classified with impaired sensation. Classification by motor-function revealed low levels of impaired sensation. The magnitude of sensory loss was only apparent when the sensory-function of stroke patients was classified as good or impaired. Sensation was most impaired on the dorsum of the hand where age-related changes in monofilament thresholds are minimal in healthy subjects. Although patients with both high and low motor-function had poor cutaneous sensation, overall patients with low motor-function had poorer cutaneous sensation than those with higher motor-function, and relationships were found between motor impairments and sensation at the fingertip and palm. These results emphasize the importance of identifying the presence and magnitude of cutaneous sensory impairments in the chronic period after stroke.

  3. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  4. Integrated multi-sensory control of space robot hand

    Bejczy, A. K.; Kan, E. P.; Killion, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation of a robot hand requires the use of multiple sensors integrated into the mechanical hand under distributed microcomputer control. Where space applications such as construction, assembly, servicing and repair tasks are desired of smart robot arms and robot hands, several critical drives influence the design, engineering and integration of such an electromechanical hand. This paper describes a smart robot hand developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for experimental use and evaluation with the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  5. Modeling and control of an anthropomorphic robotic hand

    Bensalah, Choukri

    2016-01-01

    Mención Europea en el título de doctor This thesis presents methods and tools for enabling the successful use of robotic hands. For highly dexterous and/or anthropomorphic robotic hands, these methods have to share some common goals, such as overcoming the potential complexity of the mechanical design and the ability of performing accurate tasks with low and efficient computational cost. A prerequisite for dexterity is to increase the workspace of the robotic hand. For th...

  6. Implement of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators in a Robotic Hand

    Daniel Amariei

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper was conceived to present the ideology of utilizing advanced actuators to design and develop innovative, lightweight, powerful, compact, and as much as possible dexterous robotic hands. The key to satisfying these objectives is the use of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs to power the joints of the robotic hand. The mechanical design of a dexterous robotic hand, which utilizes non-classical types of actuation and information obtained from the study of biological systems, is presented in this paper. The type of robotic hand described in this paper will be utilized for applications requiring low weight, power, compactness, and dexterity.

  7. Design of Piano -playing Robotic Hand

    Lin Jen-Chang; Hsin-Cheng Li; Kuo-Cheng Huang; Shu-Wei Lin

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the market slowdown of industrial robots, service & entertainment robots have been highly regarded by most robotics reseach and market research agencies. In this study we developed a music playing robot (which can also work as a service robot) for public performance. The research is mainly focused on the mechanical and electrical control of piano-playing robot, the exploration of correlations among music theory, rhythm and piano keys, and eventually the research on playing skill of...

  8. Robots Spur Software That Lends a Hand

    2014-01-01

    While building a robot to assist astronauts in space, Johnson Space Center worked with partners to develop robot reasoning and interaction technology. The partners created Robonaut 1, which led to Robonaut 2, and the work also led to patents now held by Universal Robotics in Nashville, Tennessee. The NASA-derived technology is available for use in warehousing, mining, and more.

  9. Robotic approaches for rehabilitation of hand function after stroke.

    Lum, Peter S; Godfrey, Sasha B; Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Holley, Rahsaan J; Nichols, Diane

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this review was to discuss the impairments in hand function after stroke and present previous work on robot-assisted approaches to movement neurorehabilitation. Robotic devices offer a unique training environment that may enhance outcomes beyond what is possible with conventional means. Robots apply forces to the hand, allowing completion of movements while preventing inappropriate movement patterns. Evidence from the literature is emerging that certain characteristics of the human-robot interaction are preferable. In light of this evidence, the robotic hand devices that have undergone clinical testing are reviewed, highlighting the authors' work in this area. Finally, suggestions for future work are offered. The ability to deliver therapy doses far higher than what has been previously tested is a potentially key advantage of robotic devices that needs further exploration. In particular, more efforts are needed to develop highly motivating home-based devices, which can increase access to high doses of assisted movement therapy.

  10. Approaching human performance the functionality-driven Awiwi robot hand

    Grebenstein, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Humanoid robotics have made remarkable progress since the dawn of robotics. So why don't we have humanoid robot assistants in day-to-day life yet? This book analyzes the keys to building a successful humanoid robot for field robotics, where collisions become an unavoidable part of the game. The author argues that the design goal should be real anthropomorphism, as opposed to mere human-like appearance. He deduces three major characteristics to aim for when designing a humanoid robot, particularly robot hands: _ Robustness against impacts _ Fast dynamics _ Human-like grasping and manipulation performance   Instead of blindly copying human anatomy, this book opts for a holistic design me-tho-do-lo-gy. It analyzes human hands and existing robot hands to elucidate the important functionalities that are the building blocks toward these necessary characteristics.They are the keys to designing an anthropomorphic robot hand, as illustrated in the high performance anthropomorphic Awiwi Hand presented in this book.  ...

  11. Acupuncture in subjects with cold hands sensation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Seo, Jung-Chul; Lee, Hyun-jong; Kwak, Min-Ah; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shin, ImHee; Yun, Woo-Sung; Park, Kihyuk

    2014-09-04

    Cold hands sensation is a common disorder within the Korean population. Many Korean family physicians believe that it is a mild early manifestation of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), or may be related to RP. RP is characterized by reversible digital vasospasm provoked by cold temperatures and/or emotional stress, and doctors often prescribe medications that are used in treatment of RP for subjects with cold hands. However, this has not shown a clear benefit, and these medications can cause unwanted side effects. It is also reported that traditional Korean medicine, including acupuncture, is widely used to treat cold hands, although the current level of evidence for this approach is also poor and to date, there have been no published randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for cold hands. We have therefore designed a pilot RCT to obtain information for the design of a further full-scale trial. The proposed study is a five-week pilot RCT. A total of 14 subjects will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: an acupuncture plus medication group (experimental group) and a medication-only group (control group). All subjects will take nifedipine (5 mg once daily) and beraprost (20 mg three times daily) for three weeks. The experimental group will receive additional treatment with three acupuncture sessions per week for three weeks (nine sessions total). The primary outcome will be measured using a visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes will be measured by blood perfusion in laser Doppler perfusion imaging of the hands, frequency and duration of episodes of cold hands, and heart rate variability. Assessments will be made at baseline and at one, three, and five weeks thereafter. This study will provide an indication of the feasibility and a clinical foundation for a future large-scale trial. This study was registered at Korean Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) registry on 5 August 2013 with the

  12. New frontiers in the rubber hand experiment: when a robotic hand becomes one's own.

    Caspar, Emilie A; De Beir, Albert; Magalhaes De Saldanha Da Gama, Pedro A; Yernaux, Florence; Cleeremans, Axel; Vanderborght, Bram

    2015-09-01

    The rubber hand illusion is an experimental paradigm in which participants consider a fake hand to be part of their body. This paradigm has been used in many domains of psychology (i.e., research on pain, body ownership, agency) and is of clinical importance. The classic rubber hand paradigm nevertheless suffers from limitations, such as the absence of active motion or the reliance on approximate measurements, which makes strict experimental conditions difficult to obtain. Here, we report on the development of a novel technology-a robotic, user- and computer-controllable hand-that addresses many of the limitations associated with the classic rubber hand paradigm. Because participants can actively control the robotic hand, the device affords higher realism and authenticity. Our robotic hand has a comparatively low cost and opens up novel and innovative methods. In order to validate the robotic hand, we have carried out three experiments. The first two studies were based on previous research using the rubber hand, while the third was specific to the robotic hand. We measured both sense of agency and ownership. Overall, results show that participants experienced a "robotic hand illusion" in the baseline conditions. Furthermore, we also replicated previous results about agency and ownership.

  13. The magnitude and rate of reduction in strength, dexterity and sensation in the human hand vary with ageing.

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; McNulty, Penelope A

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous sensation and motor performance of the hand decline with age. It is not known if motor performance declines are influenced by reductions in cutaneous sensation, or if motor performance deteriorates at a consistent rate across motor tasks. Handgrip strength, finger-tapping frequency and grooved-pegboard performance were assessed for both hands of 70 subjects (20-88 years), 10 per decade. Motor declines were compared to reductions in perceptual cutaneous sensation tested at 10 hand sites using calibrated von Frey filaments. Motor performance decreased with age for all motor tasks (psensation also decreased with age, measured as increased von Frey thresholds of 0.04 g [0.02-0.07] to 0.16 g [0.04-0.4] (psensation varied with sex, side-tested and site. Reductions in grip-based tasks were associated with sensory declines in the palm, but elsewhere there was little correlation among motor tasks and cutaneous sensation in the hand. Grooved-pegboard performance was the best predictor of age-related declines in motor performance regardless of sex or side-tested. Our results suggest age-related declines in motor function cannot be inferred from, or provide information about, changes in cutaneous sensation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An intention driven hand functions task training robotic system.

    Tong, K Y; Ho, S K; Pang, P K; Hu, X L; Tam, W K; Fung, K L; Wei, X J; Chen, P N; Chen, M

    2010-01-01

    A novel design of a hand functions task training robotic system was developed for the stroke rehabilitation. It detects the intention of hand opening or hand closing from the stroke person using the electromyography (EMG) signals measured from the hemiplegic side. This training system consists of an embedded controller and a robotic hand module. Each hand robot has 5 individual finger assemblies capable to drive 2 degrees of freedom (DOFs) of each finger at the same time. Powered by the linear actuator, the finger assembly achieves 55 degree range of motion (ROM) at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint and 65 degree range of motion (ROM) at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. Each finger assembly can also be adjusted to fit for different finger length. With this task training system, stroke subject can open and close their impaired hand using their own intention to carry out some of the daily living tasks.

  15. An Intelligent Inference System for Robot Hand Optimal Grasp Preshaping

    Cabbar Veysel Baysal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Intelligent Inference System (IIS for the determination of an optimum preshape for multifingered robot hand grasping, given object under a manipulation task. The IIS is formed as hybrid agent architecture, by the synthesis of object properties, manipulation task characteristics, grasp space partitioning, lowlevel kinematical analysis, evaluation of contact wrench patterns via fuzzy approximate reasoning and ANN structure for incremental learning. The IIS is implemented in software with a robot hand simulation.

  16. EthoHand: A dexterous robotic hand with ball-joint thumb enables complex in-hand object manipulation

    Konnaris, C; Gavriel, C; Thomik, AAC; Aldo Faisal, A

    2016-01-01

    Our dexterous hand is a fundmanetal human feature that distinguishes us from other animals by enabling us to go beyond grasping to support sophisticated in-hand object manipulation. Our aim was the design of a dexterous anthropomorphic robotic hand that matches the human hand's 24 degrees of freedom, under-actuated by seven motors. With the ability to replicate human hand movements in a naturalistic manner including in-hand object manipulation. Therefore, we focused on the development of a no...

  17. In the Hands of Service Robots

    Peronard, Jean-Paul

    the benefits of applying robots in professional service e.g. healthcare are extensive, the research into consumer motivation is limited. There is a need for a greater understanding of the individual differences in beliefs and perception in relation to service technology in general and in particular for service...... robots. Therefore, this article proposes a general typology of consumer attitudes and expectations towards service robots. Four types of values are identified and labelled critical, practical, affectionate, and desirable. Based on these values four consumer types are then theoretically develop and may...

  18. Human-like Compliance for Dexterous Robot Hands

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Active Electromechanical Compliance (AEC) system that was developed for the Jau-JPL anthropomorphic robot. The AEC system imitates the functionality of the human muscle's secondary function, which is to control the joint's stiffness: AEC is implemented through servo controlling the joint drive train's stiffness. The control strategy, controlling compliant joints in teleoperation, is described. It enables automatic hybrid position and force control through utilizing sensory feedback from joint and compliance sensors. This compliant control strategy is adaptable for autonomous robot control as well. Active compliance enables dual arm manipulations, human-like soft grasping by the robot hand, and opens the way to many new robotics applications.

  19. Markerless Kinect-Based Hand Tracking for Robot Teleoperation

    Guanglong Du

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time remote robot teleoperation method using markerless Kinect-based hand tracking. Using this tracking algorithm, the positions of index finger and thumb in 3D can be estimated by processing depth images from Kinect. The hand pose is used as a model to specify the pose of a real-time remote robot's end-effector. This method provides a way to send a whole task to a remote robot instead of sending limited motion commands like gesture-based approaches and this method has been tested in pick-and-place tasks.

  20. Sensing human hand motions for controlling dexterous robots

    Marcus, Beth A.; Churchill, Philip J.; Little, Arthur D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dexterous Hand Master (DHM) system is designed to control dexterous robot hands such as the UTAH/MIT and Stanford/JPL hands. It is the first commercially available device which makes it possible to accurately and confortably track the complex motion of the human finger joints. The DHM is adaptable to a wide variety of human hand sizes and shapes, throughout their full range of motion.

  1. Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jörntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Albu-Schäffer, Alin; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The term 'synergy' - from the Greek synergia - means 'working together'. The concept of multiple elements working together towards a common goal has been extensively used in neuroscience to develop theoretical frameworks, experimental approaches, and analytical techniques to understand neural control of movement, and for applications for neuro-rehabilitation. In the past decade, roboticists have successfully applied the framework of synergies to create novel design and control concepts for artificial hands, i.e., robotic hands and prostheses. At the same time, robotic research on the sensorimotor integration underlying the control and sensing of artificial hands has inspired new research approaches in neuroscience, and has provided useful instruments for novel experiments. The ambitious goal of integrating expertise and research approaches in robotics and neuroscience to study the properties and applications of the concept of synergies is generating a number of multidisciplinary cooperative projects, among which the recently finished 4-year European project ;The Hand Embodied; (THE). This paper reviews the main insights provided by this framework. Specifically, we provide an overview of neuroscientific bases of hand synergies and introduce how robotics has leveraged the insights from neuroscience for innovative design in hardware and controllers for biomedical engineering applications, including myoelectric hand prostheses, devices for haptics research, and wearable sensing of human hand kinematics. The review also emphasizes how this multidisciplinary collaboration has generated new ways to conceptualize a synergy-based approach for robotics, and provides guidelines and principles for analyzing human behavior and synthesizing artificial robotic systems based on a theory of synergies.

  2. Micro flexible robot hand using electro-conjugate fluid

    Ueno, S.; Takemura, K.; Yokota, S.; Edamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    An electro-conjugate fluid (ECF) is a kind of functional fluid, which produces a flow (ECF flow) when subjected to high DC voltage. Since it only requires a tiny electrode pair in micrometer size in order to generate the ECF flow, the ECF is a promising micro fluid pressure source. This study proposes a novel micro robot hand using the ECF. The robot hand is mainly composed of five flexible fingers and an ECF flow generator. The flexible finger is made of silicone rubber having several chambers in series along its axis. When the chambers are depressurized, the chambers deflate resulting in making the actuator bend. On the other hand, the ECF flow generator has a needle-ring electrode pair inside. When putting the ECF flow generator into the ECF and applying voltage of 6.0 kV to the electrode pair, we can obtain the pressure of 33.1 kPa. Using the components mentioned above, we developed the ECF robot hand. The height, the width and the mass of the robot hand are 45 mm, 40 mm and 5.2 g, respectively. Since the actuator is flexible, the robot hand can grasp various objects with various shapes without complex controller.

  3. Durable Tactile Glove for Human or Robot Hand

    Butzer, Melissa; Diftler, Myron A.; Huber, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A glove containing force sensors has been built as a prototype of tactile sensor arrays to be worn on human hands and anthropomorphic robot hands. The force sensors of this glove are mounted inside, in protective pockets; as a result of this and other design features, the present glove is more durable than earlier models.

  4. Tactile Sensing for Dexterous Robotic Hands

    Martin, Toby B.

    2000-01-01

    Robotic systems will be used as precursors to human exploration to explore the solar system and expand our knowledge of planetary surfaces. Robotic systems will also be used to build habitats and infrastructure required for human presence in space and on other planetary surfaces . Such robots will require a high level of intelligence and automation. The ability to flexibly manipulate their physical environment is one characteristic that makes humans so effective at these building and exploring tasks . The development of a generic autonomous grasp ing capability will greatly enhance the efficiency and ability of robotics to build, maintain and explore. To tele-operate a robot over vast distances of space, with long communication delays, has proven to be troublesome. Having an autonomous grasping capability that can react in real-time to disturbances or adapt to generic objects, without operator intervention, will reduce the probability of mishandled tools and samples and reduce the number of re-grasp attempts due to dropping. One aspect that separates humans from machines is a rich sensor set. We have the ability to feel objects and respond to forces and textures. The development of touch or tactile sensors for use on a robot that emulates human skin and nerves is the basis for this discussion. We will discuss the use of new piezo-electric and resistive materials that have emerged on the market with the intention of developing a touch sensitive sensor. With viable tacti le sensors we will be one step closer to developing an autonomous grasping capability.

  5. Humans can integrate force feedback to toes in their sensorimotor control of a robotic hand.

    Panarese, Alessandro; Edin, Benoni B; Vecchi, Fabrizio; Carrozza, Maria C; Johansson, Roland S

    2009-12-01

    Tactile sensory feedback is essential for dexterous object manipulation. Users of hand myoelectric prostheses without tactile feedback must depend essentially on vision to control their device. Indeed, improved tactile feedback is one of their main priorities. Previous research has provided evidence that conveying tactile feedback can improve prostheses control, although additional effort is required to solve problems related to pattern recognition learning, unpleasant sensations, sensory adaptation, and low spatiotemporal resolution. Still, these studies have mainly focused on providing stimulation to hairy skin regions close to the amputation site, i.e., usually to the upper arm. Here, we explored the possibility to provide tactile feedback to the glabrous skin of toes, which have mechanical and neurophysiological properties similar to the fingertips. We explored this paradigm in a grasp-and-lift task, in which healthy participants controlled two opposing digits of a robotic hand by changing the spacing of their index finger and thumb. The normal forces applied by the robotic fingertips to a test object were fed back to the right big and second toe. We show that within a few lifting trials, all the participants incorporated the force feedback received by the foot in their sensorimotor control of the robotic hand.

  6. Hand Gesture Based Wireless Robotic Arm Control for Agricultural Applications

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Bandhyopadhyay, Shiva; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela; Juned Rahi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges in agriculture is harvesting. It is very hard and sometimes even unsafe for workers to go to each plant and pluck fruits. Robotic systems are increasingly combined with new technologies to automate or semi automate labour intensive work, such as e.g. grape harvesting. In this work we propose a semi-automatic method for aid in harvesting fruits and hence increase productivity per man hour. A robotic arm fixed to a rover roams in the in orchard and the user can control it remotely using the hand glove fixed with various sensors. These sensors can position the robotic arm remotely to harvest the fruits. In this paper we discuss the design of hand glove fixed with various sensors, design of 4 DoF robotic arm and the wireless control interface. In addition the setup of the system and the testing and evaluation under lab conditions are also presented in this paper.

  7. Robotic Exoskeleton Hand with Pneumatic Actuators

    Pinto, Hugo Miguel Mantas Costa

    2017-01-01

    With modern developments of smart portable devices and miniaturization of technologies, society has been provided with computerized assistance for almost every daily activity but the physical aspects have been frequently ne-glected. It is currently possible to make robots that process information thru neural networks, that identify and mimic facial expressions and that replace manual labour in assembly plants, getting ever closer to skills associated to human beings. In spite of these technol...

  8. Measuring empathy for human and robot hand pain using electroencephalography.

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Galli, Lisa; Ikeda, Ayaka; Itakura, Shoji; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2015-11-03

    This study provides the first physiological evidence of humans' ability to empathize with robot pain and highlights the difference in empathy for humans and robots. We performed electroencephalography in 15 healthy adults who observed either human- or robot-hand pictures in painful or non-painful situations such as a finger cut by a knife. We found that the descending phase of the P3 component was larger for the painful stimuli than the non-painful stimuli, regardless of whether the hand belonged to a human or robot. In contrast, the ascending phase of the P3 component at the frontal-central electrodes was increased by painful human stimuli but not painful robot stimuli, though the interaction of ANOVA was not significant, but marginal. These results suggest that we empathize with humanoid robots in late top-down processing similarly to human others. However, the beginning of the top-down process of empathy is weaker for robots than for humans.

  9. Novel Approach to Control of Robotic Hand Using Flex Sensors

    Sandesh R.S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about novel design approach to control of a robotic hand using flex sensors which indicates a biomechatronic multi fingered robotic hand. This robotic hand consists of base unit, upper arm, lower arm, palm and five fingers. The aim is to develop an anthropomorphic five fingered robotic hand. The proposed design illustrates the use of 5 micro DC motors with 9 Degrees of Freedom (DOF.Each finger is controlled independently. Further three extra motors were used for the control of wrist elbow and base movement. The study of the DC motor is being carried out using the transfer function model for constant excitation. The micro DC motor performance was analyzed using MATLAB simulation environment. The whole system is implemented using flex sensors. The flex sensors placed on the human hand gloves appear as if they look like real human hand.  89v51 microcontroller was used for all the controlling actions along with RF transmitter/receiver .The performance of the system has been conducted experimentally and studied.

  10. An EMG-Controlled Robotic Hand Exoskeleton for Bilateral Rehabilitation.

    Leonardis, Daniele; Barsotti, Michele; Loconsole, Claudio; Solazzi, Massimiliano; Troncossi, Marco; Mazzotti, Claudio; Castelli, Vincenzo Parenti; Procopio, Caterina; Lamola, Giuseppe; Chisari, Carmelo; Bergamasco, Massimo; Frisoli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel electromyography (EMG)-driven hand exoskeleton for bilateral rehabilitation of grasping in stroke. The developed hand exoskeleton was designed with two distinctive features: (a) kinematics with intrinsic adaptability to patient's hand size, and (b) free-palm and free-fingertip design, preserving the residual sensory perceptual capability of touch during assistance in grasping of real objects. In the envisaged bilateral training strategy, the patient's non paretic hand acted as guidance for the paretic hand in grasping tasks. Grasping force exerted by the non paretic hand was estimated in real-time from EMG signals, and then replicated as robotic assistance for the paretic hand by means of the hand-exoskeleton. Estimation of the grasping force through EMG allowed to perform rehabilitation exercises with any, non sensorized, graspable objects. This paper presents the system design, development, and experimental evaluation. Experiments were performed within a group of six healthy subjects and two chronic stroke patients, executing robotic-assisted grasping tasks. Results related to performance in estimation and modulation of the robotic assistance, and to the outcomes of the pilot rehabilitation sessions with stroke patients, positively support validity of the proposed approach for application in stroke rehabilitation.

  11. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically inspired robotic systems can find important applications in biomedical robotics, since studying and replicating human behaviour can provide new insights into motor recovery, functional substitution and human-robot interaction. The analysis of human hand motion is essential for collecting information about human hand movements useful for generalizing reaching and grasping actions on a robotic system. This paper focuses on the definition and extraction of quantitative indicators for describing optimal hand grasping postures and replicating them on an anthropomorphic robotic hand. A motion analysis has been carried out on six healthy human subjects performing a transverse volar grasp. The extracted indicators point to invariant grasping behaviours between the involved subjects, thus providing some constraints for identifying the optimal grasping configuration. Hence, an optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method has been developed for determining the optimal grasp configuration of a robotic hand, grounded on the aforementioned constraints. It is characterized by a reduced computational cost. The grasp stability has been tested by introducing a quality index that satisfies the form-closure property. The grasping strategy has been validated by means of simulation tests and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  12. Ground Robotic Hand Applications for the Space Program study (GRASP)

    Grissom, William A.; Rafla, Nader I. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document reports on a NASA-STDP effort to address research interests of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) through a study entitled, Ground Robotic-Hand Applications for the Space Program (GRASP). The primary objective of the GRASP study was to identify beneficial applications of specialized end-effectors and robotic hand devices for automating any ground operations which are performed at the Kennedy Space Center. Thus, operations for expendable vehicles, the Space Shuttle and its components, and all payloads were included in the study. Typical benefits of automating operations, or augmenting human operators performing physical tasks, include: reduced costs; enhanced safety and reliability; and reduced processing turnaround time.

  13. NONLINEAR FORCE PROFILE USED TO INCREASE THE PERFORMANCE OF A HAPTIC USER INTERFACE FOR TELEOPERATING A ROBOTIC HAND

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-07-01

    MODIFIED PAPER TITLE AND ABSTRACT DUE TO SLIGHTLY MODIFIED SCOPE: TITLE: Nonlinear Force Profile Used to Increase the Performance of a Haptic User Interface for Teleoperating a Robotic Hand Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space. The research associated with this paper hypothesizes that a user interface and complementary radiation compatible robotic hand that integrates the human hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, nonlinear strength profile, reduction of active degrees of freedom during the transition from manipulation to grasping, and just noticeable difference force sensation characteristics will enhance a user’s teleoperation performance. The main contribution of this research is in that a system that concisely integrates all these factors has yet to be developed and furthermore has yet to be applied to a hazardous environment as those referenced above. In fact, the most prominent slave manipulator teleoperation technology in use today is based on a design patented in 1945 (Patent 2632574) [1]. The robotic hand/user interface systems of similar function as the one being developed in this research limit their design input requirements in the best case to only complementing the hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, and linearly scaled force application relationship (e.g. robotic force is a constant, 4 times that of the user). In this paper a nonlinear relationship between the force experienced between the user interface and the robotic hand was devised based on property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand. The results show that such a relationship when subjected to a manipulation task and grasping task produces increased performance compared to the

  14. Neural-Network Control Of Prosthetic And Robotic Hands

    Buckley, Theresa M.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic neural networks proposed for use in controlling robotic and prosthetic hands and exoskeletal or glovelike electromechanical devices aiding intact but nonfunctional hands. Specific to patient, who activates grasping motion by voice command, by mechanical switch, or by myoelectric impulse. Patient retains higher-level control, while lower-level control provided by neural network analogous to that of miniature brain. During training, patient teaches miniature brain to perform specialized, anthropomorphic movements unique to himself or herself.

  15. Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jörntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Albu-Schäffer, Alin; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘synergy’ – from the Greek synergia – means ‘working together’. The concept of multiple elements working together towards a common goal has been extensively used in neuroscience to develop theoretical frameworks, experimental approaches, and analytical techniques to understand neural control of movement, and for applications for neuro-rehabilitation. In the past decade, roboticists have successfully applied the framework of synergies to create novel design and control concepts for artificial hands, i.e., robotic hands and prostheses. At the same time, robotic research on the sensorimotor integration underlying the control and sensing of artificial hands has inspired new research approaches in neuroscience, and has provided useful instruments for novel experiments. The ambitious goal of integrating expertise and research approaches in robotics and neuroscience to study the properties and applications of the concept of synergies is generating a number of multidisciplinary cooperative projects, among which the recently finished 4-year European project “The Hand Embodied” (THE). This paper reviews the main insights provided by this framework. Specifically, we provide an overview of neuroscientific bases of hand synergies and introduce how robotics has leveraged the insights from neuroscience for innovative design in hardware and controllers for biomedical engineering applications, including myoelectric hand prostheses, devices for haptics research, and wearable sensing of human hand kinematics. The review also emphasizes how this multidisciplinary collaboration has generated new ways to conceptualize a synergy-based approach for robotics, and provides guidelines and principles for analyzing human behavior and synthesizing artificial robotic systems based on a theory of synergies. PMID:26923030

  16. Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands.

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jörntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M L; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Albu-Schäffer, Alin; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The term 'synergy' - from the Greek synergia - means 'working together'. The concept of multiple elements working together towards a common goal has been extensively used in neuroscience to develop theoretical frameworks, experimental approaches, and analytical techniques to understand neural control of movement, and for applications for neuro-rehabilitation. In the past decade, roboticists have successfully applied the framework of synergies to create novel design and control concepts for artificial hands, i.e., robotic hands and prostheses. At the same time, robotic research on the sensorimotor integration underlying the control and sensing of artificial hands has inspired new research approaches in neuroscience, and has provided useful instruments for novel experiments. The ambitious goal of integrating expertise and research approaches in robotics and neuroscience to study the properties and applications of the concept of synergies is generating a number of multidisciplinary cooperative projects, among which the recently finished 4-year European project "The Hand Embodied" (THE). This paper reviews the main insights provided by this framework. Specifically, we provide an overview of neuroscientific bases of hand synergies and introduce how robotics has leveraged the insights from neuroscience for innovative design in hardware and controllers for biomedical engineering applications, including myoelectric hand prostheses, devices for haptics research, and wearable sensing of human hand kinematics. The review also emphasizes how this multidisciplinary collaboration has generated new ways to conceptualize a synergy-based approach for robotics, and provides guidelines and principles for analyzing human behavior and synthesizing artificial robotic systems based on a theory of synergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of Advanced Robotic Hand System for space application

    Machida, Kazuo; Akita, Kenzo; Mikami, Tatsuo; Komada, Satoru

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Robotic Hand System (ARH) is a precise telerobotics system with a semi dexterous hand for future space application. The ARH will be tested in space as one of the missions of the Engineering Tests Satellite 7 (ETS-7) which will be launched in 1997. The objectives of the ARH development are to evaluate the capability of a possible robot hand for precise and delicate tasks and to validate the related technologies implemented in the system. The ARH is designed to be controlled both from ground as a teleoperation and by locally autonomous control. This paper presents the overall system design and the functional capabilities of the ARH as well as its mission outline as the preliminary design has been completed.

  18. Hand Robotic Therapy in Children with Hemiparesis: A Pilot Study.

    Bishop, Lauri; Gordon, Andrew M; Kim, Heakyung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the impact of training with a hand robotic device on hand paresis and function in a population of children with hemiparesis. Twelve children with hemiparesis (mean age, 9 [SD, 3.64] years) completed participation in this prospective, experimental, pilot study. Participants underwent clinical assessments at baseline and again 6 weeks later with instructions to not initiate new therapies. After these assessments, participants received 6 weeks of training with a hand robotic device, consisting of 1-hour sessions, 3 times weekly. Assessments were repeated on completion of training. Results showed significant improvements after training on the Assisting Hand Assessment (mean difference, 2.0 Assisting Hand Assessment units; P = 0.011) and on the upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale (raw score mean difference, 4.334; P = 0.001). No significant improvements between pretest and posttest were noted on the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function, the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, or the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory after intervention. Total active mobility of digits and grip strength also failed to demonstrate significant changes after training. Participants tolerated training with the hand robotic device, and significant improvements in bimanual hand use, as well as impairment-based scales, were noted. Improvements were carried over into bimanual skills during play. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Understand key components of neuroplasticity; (2) Discuss the benefits of robotic therapy in the recovery of hand function in pediatric patients with hemiplegia; and (3) Appropriately incorporate robotic therapy into the treatment plan of pediatric patients with hemiplegia. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the

  19. 3D Visual Sensing of the Human Hand for the Remote Operation of a Robotic Hand

    Pablo Gil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New low cost sensors and open free libraries for 3D image processing are making important advances in robot vision applications possible, such as three-dimensional object recognition, semantic mapping, navigation and localization of robots, human detection and/or gesture recognition for human-machine interaction. In this paper, a novel method for recognizing and tracking the fingers of a human hand is presented. This method is based on point clouds from range images captured by a RGBD sensor. It works in real time and it does not require visual marks, camera calibration or previous knowledge of the environment. Moreover, it works successfully even when multiple objects appear in the scene or when the ambient light is changed. Furthermore, this method was designed to develop a human interface to control domestic or industrial devices, remotely. In this paper, the method was tested by operating a robotic hand. Firstly, the human hand was recognized and the fingers were detected. Secondly, the movement of the fingers was analysed and mapped to be imitated by a robotic hand.

  20. A hand-held robotic device for peripheral intravenous catheterization.

    Cheng, Zhuoqi; Davies, Brian L; Caldwell, Darwin G; Barresi, Giacinto; Xu, Qinqi; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2017-12-01

    Intravenous catheterization is frequently required for numerous medical treatments. However, this process is characterized by a high failure rate, especially when performed on difficult patients such as newborns and infants. Very young patients have small veins, and that increases the chances of accidentally puncturing the catheterization needle directly through them. In this article, we present the design, development and experimental evaluation of a novel hand-held robotic device for improving the process of peripheral intravenous catheterization by facilitating the needle insertion procedure. To our knowledge, this design is the first hand-held robotic device for assisting in the catheterization insertion task. Compared to the other available technologies, it has several unique advantages such as being compact, low-cost and able to reliably detect venipuncture. The system is equipped with an electrical impedance sensor at the tip of the catheterization needle, which provides real-time measurements used to supervise and control the catheter insertion process. This allows the robotic system to precisely position the needle within the lumen of the target vein, leading to enhanced catheterization success rate. Experiments conducted to evaluate the device demonstrated that it is also effective to deskill the task. Naïve subjects achieved an average catheterization success rate of 88% on a 1.5 mm phantom vessel with the robotic device versus 12% with the traditional unassisted system. The results of this work prove the feasibility of a hand-held assistive robotic device for intravenous catheterization and show that such device has the potential to greatly improve the success rate of these difficult operations.

  1. Electromyographic Grasp Recognition for a Five Fingered Robotic Hand

    Nayan M. Kakoty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents classification of grasp types based on surface electromyographic signals. Classification is through radial basis function kernel support vector machine using sum of wavelet decomposition coefficients of the EMG signals. In a study involving six subjects, we achieved an average recognition rate of 86%. The electromyographic grasp recognition together with a 8-bit microcontroller has been employed to control a fivefingered robotic hand to emulate six grasp types used during 70% daily living activities.

  2. Fully embedded myoelectric control for a wearable robotic hand orthosis.

    Ryser, Franziska; Butzer, Tobias; Held, Jeremia P; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger

    2017-07-01

    To prevent learned non-use of the affected hand in chronic stroke survivors, rehabilitative training should be continued after discharge from the hospital. Robotic hand orthoses are a promising approach for home rehabilitation. When combined with intuitive control based on electromyography, the therapy outcome can be improved. However, such systems often require extensive cabling, experience in electrode placement and connection to external computers. This paper presents the framework for a stand-alone, fully wearable and real-time myoelectric intention detection system based on the Myo armband. The hard and software for real-time gesture classification were developed and combined with a routine to train and customize the classifier, leading to a unique ease of use. The system including training of the classifier can be set up within less than one minute. Results demonstrated that: (1) the proposed algorithm can classify five gestures with an accuracy of 98%, (2) the final system can online classify three gestures with an accuracy of 94.3% and, in a preliminary test, (3) classify three gestures from data acquired from mildly to severely impaired stroke survivors with an accuracy of over 78.8%. These results highlight the potential of the presented system for electromyography-based intention detection for stroke survivors and, with the integration of the system into a robotic hand orthosis, the potential for a wearable platform for all day robot-assisted home rehabilitation.

  3. Feasibility study of a hand guided robotic drill for cochleostomy.

    Brett, Peter; Du, Xinli; Zoka-Assadi, Masoud; Coulson, Chris; Reid, Andrew; Proops, David

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a hand guided robotic drill has been inspired by an automated, arm supported robotic drill recently applied in clinical practice to produce cochleostomies without penetrating the endosteum ready for inserting cochlear electrodes. The smart tactile sensing scheme within the drill enables precise control of the state of interaction between tissues and tools in real-time. This paper reports development studies of the hand guided robotic drill where the same consistent outcomes, augmentation of surgeon control and skill, and similar reduction of induced disturbances on the hearing organ are achieved. The device operates with differing presentation of tissues resulting from variation in anatomy and demonstrates the ability to control or avoid penetration of tissue layers as required and to respond to intended rather than involuntary motion of the surgeon operator. The advantage of hand guided over an arm supported system is that it offers flexibility in adjusting the drilling trajectory. This can be important to initiate cutting on a hard convex tissue surface without slipping and then to proceed on the desired trajectory after cutting has commenced. The results for trials on phantoms show that drill unit compliance is an important factor in the design.

  4. Feasibility Study of a Hand Guided Robotic Drill for Cochleostomy

    Peter Brett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a hand guided robotic drill has been inspired by an automated, arm supported robotic drill recently applied in clinical practice to produce cochleostomies without penetrating the endosteum ready for inserting cochlear electrodes. The smart tactile sensing scheme within the drill enables precise control of the state of interaction between tissues and tools in real-time. This paper reports development studies of the hand guided robotic drill where the same consistent outcomes, augmentation of surgeon control and skill, and similar reduction of induced disturbances on the hearing organ are achieved. The device operates with differing presentation of tissues resulting from variation in anatomy and demonstrates the ability to control or avoid penetration of tissue layers as required and to respond to intended rather than involuntary motion of the surgeon operator. The advantage of hand guided over an arm supported system is that it offers flexibility in adjusting the drilling trajectory. This can be important to initiate cutting on a hard convex tissue surface without slipping and then to proceed on the desired trajectory after cutting has commenced. The results for trials on phantoms show that drill unit compliance is an important factor in the design.

  5. Hand robotics rehabilitation: feasibility and preliminary results of a robotic treatment in patients with hemiparesis.

    Sale, Patrizio; Lombardi, Valentina; Franceschini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Background. No strongly clinical evidence about the use of hand robot-assisted therapy in stroke patients was demonstrated. This preliminary observer study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of intensive robot-assisted therapy in hand function recovery, in the early phase after a stroke onset. Methods. Seven acute ischemic stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled. Treatment was performed using Amadeo robotic system (Tyromotion GmbH Graz, Austria). Each participant received, in addition to inpatients standard rehabilitative treatment, 20 sessions of robotic treatment for 4 consecutive weeks (5 days/week). Each session lasted for 40 minutes. The exercises were carried out as follows: passive modality (5 minutes), passive/plus modality (5 minutes), assisted therapy (10 minutes), and balloon (10 minutes). The following impairment and functional evaluations, Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM), Medical Research Council Scale for Muscle Strength (hand flexor and extensor muscles) (MRC), Motricity Index (MI), and modified Ashworth Scale for wrist and hand muscles (AS), were performed at the beginning (T0), after 10 sessions (T1), and at the end of the treatment (T2). The strength hand flexion and extension performed by Robot were assessed at T0 and T2. The Barthel Index and COMP (performance and satisfaction subscale) were assessed at T0 and T2. Results. Clinical improvements were found in all patients. No dropouts were recorded during the treatment and all subjects fulfilled the protocol. Evidence of a significant improvement was demonstrated by the Friedman test for the MRC (P hand motor recovery in acute stroke patients. The simplicity of the treatment, the lack of side effects, and the first positive results in acute stroke patients support the recommendations to extend the clinical trial of this treatment, in association with physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy.

  6. Hand Robotics Rehabilitation: Feasibility and Preliminary Results of a Robotic Treatment in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Patrizio Sale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No strongly clinical evidence about the use of hand robot-assisted therapy in stroke patients was demonstrated. This preliminary observer study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of intensive robot-assisted therapy in hand function recovery, in the early phase after a stroke onset. Methods. Seven acute ischemic stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled. Treatment was performed using Amadeo robotic system (Tyromotion GmbH Graz, Austria. Each participant received, in addition to inpatients standard rehabilitative treatment, 20 sessions of robotic treatment for 4 consecutive weeks (5 days/week. Each session lasted for 40 minutes. The exercises were carried out as follows: passive modality (5 minutes, passive/plus modality (5 minutes, assisted therapy (10 minutes, and balloon (10 minutes. The following impairment and functional evaluations, Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM, Medical Research Council Scale for Muscle Strength (hand flexor and extensor muscles (MRC, Motricity Index (MI, and modified Ashworth Scale for wrist and hand muscles (AS, were performed at the beginning (T0, after 10 sessions (T1, and at the end of the treatment (T2. The strength hand flexion and extension performed by Robot were assessed at T0 and T2. The Barthel Index and COMP (performance and satisfaction subscale were assessed at T0 and T2. Results. Clinical improvements were found in all patients. No dropouts were recorded during the treatment and all subjects fulfilled the protocol. Evidence of a significant improvement was demonstrated by the Friedman test for the MRC (P<0.0123. Evidence of an improvement was demonstrated for AS, FM, and MI. Conclusions. This original rehabilitation treatment could contribute to increase the hand motor recovery in acute stroke patients. The simplicity of the treatment, the lack of side effects, and the first positive results in acute stroke patients support the recommendations to extend the clinical trial of this

  7. Evolution of robotic nephrectomy for living donation: from hand-assisted to totally robotic technique.

    Giacomoni, Alessandro; Di Sandro, Stefano; Lauterio, Andrea; Concone, Giacomo; Mangoni, Iacopo; Mihaylov, Plamen; Tripepi, Matteo; De Carlis, Luciano

    2014-09-01

    The application of robotic-assisted surgery offers EndoWrist instruments and 3-D visualization of the operative field, which are improvements over traditional laparoscopy. The results of the few studies published so far have shown that living donor nephrectomy using the robot-assisted technique is safe, feasible, and offers advantages to patients. Since November 2009, 16 patients have undergone robotic-assisted living donor nephrectomy at our Institute. Patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical technique adopted for the procedure: Group A, hand-assisted robotic nephrectomy (eight patients); Group B, totally robotic nephrectomy (eight patients). Intra-operative bleeding was similar in the two groups (90 vs 100 mL for Group A and B, respectively). Median warm ischemia time was significantly shorter in Group A (2.3 vs 5.1 min for Group A and B, respectively, P-value = 0.05). Switching to the open procedure was never required. Median operative time was not significantly longer in Group A than Group B (275 min vs 250 min, respectively). Robotic assisted living kidney recovery is a safe and effective procedure. Considering the overall technical, clinical, and feasibility aspects of living kidney donation, we believe that the robotic assisted technique is the method of choice for surgeon's comfort and donors' safety. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Development of Pneumatic Robot Hand and Construction of Master-Slave System

    Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Nishino, Shinya; Komatsubara, Hiroyuki; Kudawara, Tatsuwo; Hirano, Masanori

    Recently, research and development has focused on robots that work in place of people. It is necessary for robots to perform the same flexible motions as people. Additionally, such robots need to incorporate high-level safety features in order not to injure people. For creation of such robots, we need to develop a robot hand that functions like a human hand. At the same time, this type of robot hand can be used as an artificial hand. Here, we present artificial muscle-type pneumatic actuators as the driving source of a robot hand that is both safe and flexible. Some development of robot hands using pneumatic actuators has already taken place. But, until now, when a pneumatic actuator is used, a big compressor is needed. So, the driving system also needs to be big; enlargement of the driving system is a major problem. Consequently, in this research, we develop a low-pressure, low-volume pneumatic actuator for driving a robot hand that works flexibly and safely on the assumption that it will be in contact with people. We develop a five-fingered robot hand with pneumatic actuators. And, we construct a master-slave system to enable the robot hand to perform the same operations as a human hand. We make a 1-link arm that has one degree of freedom using a pneumatic actuator, and construct a control system for the 1-link arm and verify its control performance.

  9. Robotic hand with locking mechanism using TCP muscles for applications in prosthetic hand and humanoids

    Saharan, Lokesh; Tadesse, Yonas

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a biomimetic, lightweight, 3D printed and customizable robotic hand with locking mechanism consisting of Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) muscles based on nylon precursor fibers as artificial muscles. Previously, we have presented a small-sized biomimetic hand using nylon based artificial muscles and fishing line muscles as actuators. The current study focuses on an adult-sized prosthetic hand with improved design and a position/force locking system. Energy efficiency is always a matter of concern to make compact, lightweight, durable and cost effective devices. In natural human hand, if we keep holding objects for long time, we get tired because of continuous use of energy for keeping the fingers in certain positions. Similarly, in prosthetic hands we also need to provide energy continuously to artificial muscles to hold the object for a certain period of time, which is certainly not energy efficient. In this work we, describe the design of the robotic hand and locking mechanism along with the experimental results on the performance of the locking mechanism.

  10. Effect of clinical parameters on the control of myoelectric robotic prosthetic hands.

    Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Castellini, Claudio; Caputo, Barbara; Hager, Anne-Gabrielle Mittaz; Elsig, Simone; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Bassetto, Franco; Müller, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Improving the functionality of prosthetic hands with noninvasive techniques is still a challenge. Surface electromyography (sEMG) currently gives limited control capabilities; however, the application of machine learning to the analysis of sEMG signals is promising and has recently been applied in practice, but many questions still remain. In this study, we recorded the sEMG activity of the forearm of 11 male subjects with transradial amputation who were mentally performing 40 hand and wrist movements. The classification performance and the number of independent movements (defined as the subset of movements that could be distinguished with >90% accuracy) were studied in relationship to clinical parameters related to the amputation. The analysis showed that classification accuracy and the number of independent movements increased significantly with phantom limb sensation intensity, remaining forearm percentage, and temporal distance to the amputation. The classification results suggest the possibility of naturally controlling up to 11 movements of a robotic prosthetic hand with almost no training. Knowledge of the relationship between classification accuracy and clinical parameters adds new information regarding the nature of phantom limb pain as well as other clinical parameters, and it can lay the foundations for future "functional amputation" procedures in surgery.

  11. Development and pilot testing of HEXORR: Hand EXOskeleton Rehabilitation Robot

    Godfrey Sasha B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following acute therapeutic interventions, the majority of stroke survivors are left with a poorly functioning hemiparetic hand. Rehabilitation robotics has shown promise in providing patients with intensive therapy leading to functional gains. Because of the hand's crucial role in performing activities of daily living, attention to hand therapy has recently increased. Methods This paper introduces a newly developed Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot (HEXORR. This device has been designed to provide full range of motion (ROM for all of the hand's digits. The thumb actuator allows for variable thumb plane of motion to incorporate different degrees of extension/flexion and abduction/adduction. Compensation algorithms have been developed to improve the exoskeleton's backdrivability by counteracting gravity, stiction and kinetic friction. We have also designed a force assistance mode that provides extension assistance based on each individual's needs. A pilot study was conducted on 9 unimpaired and 5 chronic stroke subjects to investigate the device's ability to allow physiologically accurate hand movements throughout the full ROM. The study also tested the efficacy of the force assistance mode with the goal of increasing stroke subjects' active ROM while still requiring active extension torque on the part of the subject. Results For 12 of the hand digits'15 joints in neurologically normal subjects, there were no significant ROM differences (P > 0.05 between active movements performed inside and outside of HEXORR. Interjoint coordination was examined in the 1st and 3rd digits, and no differences were found between inside and outside of the device (P > 0.05. Stroke subjects were capable of performing free hand movements inside of the exoskeleton and the force assistance mode was successful in increasing active ROM by 43 ± 5% (P Conclusions Our pilot study shows that this device is capable of moving the hand's digits through

  12. Development and pilot testing of HEXORR: Hand EXOskeleton Rehabilitation Robot

    2010-01-01

    Background Following acute therapeutic interventions, the majority of stroke survivors are left with a poorly functioning hemiparetic hand. Rehabilitation robotics has shown promise in providing patients with intensive therapy leading to functional gains. Because of the hand's crucial role in performing activities of daily living, attention to hand therapy has recently increased. Methods This paper introduces a newly developed Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot (HEXORR). This device has been designed to provide full range of motion (ROM) for all of the hand's digits. The thumb actuator allows for variable thumb plane of motion to incorporate different degrees of extension/flexion and abduction/adduction. Compensation algorithms have been developed to improve the exoskeleton's backdrivability by counteracting gravity, stiction and kinetic friction. We have also designed a force assistance mode that provides extension assistance based on each individual's needs. A pilot study was conducted on 9 unimpaired and 5 chronic stroke subjects to investigate the device's ability to allow physiologically accurate hand movements throughout the full ROM. The study also tested the efficacy of the force assistance mode with the goal of increasing stroke subjects' active ROM while still requiring active extension torque on the part of the subject. Results For 12 of the hand digits'15 joints in neurologically normal subjects, there were no significant ROM differences (P > 0.05) between active movements performed inside and outside of HEXORR. Interjoint coordination was examined in the 1st and 3rd digits, and no differences were found between inside and outside of the device (P > 0.05). Stroke subjects were capable of performing free hand movements inside of the exoskeleton and the force assistance mode was successful in increasing active ROM by 43 ± 5% (P < 0.001) and 24 ± 6% (P = 0.041) for the fingers and thumb, respectively. Conclusions Our pilot study shows that this device

  13. Robotic Eye-in-hand Calibration in an Uncalibrated Environment

    Sebastian Van Delden

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The optical flow of high interest points in images of an uncalibrated scene is used to recover the camera orientation of an eye-in-hand robotic manipulator. The system is completely automated, iteratively performing a sequence of rotations and translations until the camera frame is aligned with the manipulator's world frame. The manipulator must be able to translate and rotate its end-effector with respect to its world frame. The system is implemented and being tested on a Stäubli RX60 manipulator using an off-the-shelf Logitech USB camera.

  14. Development of anthropomorphic robotic hand driven by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for robotic applications

    Farag, Mohannad; Zainul Azlan, Norsinnira; Hayyan Alsibai, Mohammed

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a three-fingered anthropomorphic robotic hand. The fingers are driven by tendons and actuated by human muscle-like actuators known as Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM). The proposed design allows the actuators to be mounted outside the hand where each finger can be driven by one PAM actuator and six indirectly interlinked tendons. With this design, the three-fingered hand has a compact size and a lightweight with a mass of 150.25 grams imitating the human being hand in terms of size and weight. The hand also successfully grasped objects with different shapes and weights up to 500 g. Even though the number of PAM actuators equals the number of Degrees of Freedom (DOF), the design guarantees driving of three joints by only one actuator reducing the number of required actuators from 3 to 1. Therefore, this hand is suitable for researches of robotic applications in terms of design, cost and ability to be equipped with several types of sensors.

  15. User interface for a tele-operated robotic hand system

    Crawford, Anthony L

    2015-03-24

    Disclosed here is a user interface for a robotic hand. The user interface anchors a user's palm in a relatively stationary position and determines various angles of interest necessary for a user's finger to achieve a specific fingertip location. The user interface additionally conducts a calibration procedure to determine the user's applicable physiological dimensions. The user interface uses the applicable physiological dimensions and the specific fingertip location, and treats the user's finger as a two link three degree-of-freedom serial linkage in order to determine the angles of interest. The user interface communicates the angles of interest to a gripping-type end effector which closely mimics the range of motion and proportions of a human hand. The user interface requires minimal contact with the operator and provides distinct advantages in terms of available dexterity, work space flexibility, and adaptability to different users.

  16. User interface for a tele-operated robotic hand system

    Crawford, Anthony L

    2015-03-24

    Disclosed here is a user interface for a robotic hand. The user interface anchors a user's palm in a relatively stationary position and determines various angles of interest necessary for a user's finger to achieve a specific fingertip location. The user interface additionally conducts a calibration procedure to determine the user's applicable physiological dimensions. The user interface uses the applicable physiological dimensions and the specific fingertip location, and treats the user's finger as a two link three degree-of-freedom serial linkage in order to determine the angles of interest. The user interface communicates the angles of interest to a gripping-type end effector which closely mimics the range of motion and proportions of a human hand. The user interface requires minimal contact with the operator and provides distinct advantages in terms of available dexterity, work space flexibility, and adaptability to different users.

  17. Analysis of Inverse Kinamtics of an Anthropomorphic Robotic hand

    Pramod Kumar Parida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for solving the inverse kinematics of the fingers of an anthropomorphic hand is proposed. Solution of inverse kinematic equations is a complex problem, the complexity comes from the nonlinearity of joint space and Cartesian space mapping and having multiple solutions.This is a typical problem in robotics that needs to be solved to control the fingers of an anthropomorphic robotic hand to perform tasks it is designated to do. With more complex structures operating in a 3-dimensional space deducing a mathematical soluation for the inverse kinematics may prove challenging. In this paper, using the ability of ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System to learn from training data, it is possible to create ANFIS network, an implementation of a representative fuzzy inference system using ANFIS structure, with limited mathematical representation of the system. The main advantages of this method with respect to the other methods are implementation is easy, very fast and shorter computation time and better response with acceptable error.

  18. A virtual work space for both hands manipulation with coherency between kinesthetic and visual sensation

    Ishii, Masahiro; Sukanya, P.; Sato, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of a virtual work space for tasks performed by two handed manipulation. We intend to provide a virtual environment that encourages users to accomplish tasks as they usually act in a real environment. Our approach uses a three dimensional spatial interface device that allows the user to handle virtual objects by hand and be able to feel some physical properties such as contact, weight, etc. We investigated suitable conditions for constructing our virtual work space by simulating some basic assembly work, a face and fit task. We then selected the conditions under which the subjects felt most comfortable in performing this task and set up our virtual work space. Finally, we verified the possibility of performing more complex tasks in this virtual work space by providing simple virtual models and then let the subjects create new models by assembling these components. The subjects can naturally perform assembly operations and accomplish the task. Our evaluation shows that this virtual work space has the potential to be used for performing tasks that require two-handed manipulation or cooperation between both hands in a natural manner.

  19. The da vinci robot system eliminates multispecialty surgical trainees' hand dominance in open and robotic surgical settings.

    Badalato, Gina M; Shapiro, Edan; Rothberg, Michael B; Bergman, Ari; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Korets, Ruslan; Patel, Trushar; Badani, Ketan K

    2014-01-01

    Handedness, or the inherent dominance of one hand's dexterity over the other's, is a factor in open surgery but has an unknown importance in robot-assisted surgery. We sought to examine whether the robotic surgery platform could eliminate the effect of inherent hand preference. Residents from the Urology and Obstetrics/Gynecology departments were enrolled. Ambidextrous and left-handed subjects were excluded. After completing a questionnaire, subjects performed three tasks modified from the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery curriculum. Tasks were performed by hand and then with the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). Participants were randomized to begin with using either the left or the right hand, and then switch. Left:right ratios were calculated from scores based on time to task completion. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the significance of the impact of surgical technique on hand dominance. Ten subjects were enrolled. The mean difference in raw score performance between the right and left hands was 12.5 seconds for open tasks and 8 seconds for robotic tasks (Probot tasks, respectively (Probotic and open approaches for raw time scores (Phand, prior robotic experience, and comfort level. These findings remain to be validated in larger cohorts. The robotic technique reduces hand dominance in surgical trainees across all task domains. This finding contributes to the known advantages of robotic surgery.

  20. Concept for a large master/slave-controlled robotic hand

    Grissom, William A.; Abdallah, Mahmoud A.; White, Carl L.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy is presented for the design and construction of a large master/slave-controlled, five-finger robotic hand. Each of the five fingers will possess four independent axes each driven by a brushless DC servomotor and, thus, four degrees-of-freedom. It is proposed that commercially available components be utilized as much as possible to fabricate a working laboratory model of the device with an anticipated overall length of two-to-four feet (0.6 to 1.2 m). The fingers are to be designed so that proximity, tactile, or force/torque sensors can be imbedded in their structure. In order to provide for the simultaneous control of the twenty independent hand joints, a multilevel master/slave control strategy is proposed in which the operator wears a specially instrumented glove which produces control signals corresponding to the finger configurations and which is capable of conveying sensor feedback signals to the operator. Two dexterous hand master devices are currently commercially available for this application with both undergoing continuing development. A third approach to be investigated for the master control mode is the use of real-time image processing of a specially patterned master glove to provide the respective control signals for positioning the multiple finger joints.

  1. Solving the robot-world, hand-eye(s) calibration problem with iterative methods

    Robot-world, hand-eye calibration is the problem of determining the transformation between the robot end effector and a camera, as well as the transformation between the robot base and the world coordinate system. This relationship has been modeled as AX = ZB, where X and Z are unknown homogeneous ...

  2. Myoelectric intuitive control and transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the forearm for vibrotactile sensation feedback applied to a 3D printed prosthetic hand.

    Germany, Enrique I; Pino, Esteban J; Aqueveque, Pablo E

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the development of a myoelectric prosthetic hand based on a 3D printed model. A myoelectric control strategy based on artificial neural networks is implemented on a microcontroller for online position estimation. Position estimation performance achieves a correlation index of 0.78. Also a study involving transcutaneous electrical stimulation was performed to provide tactile feedback. A series of stimulations with controlled parameters were tested on five able-body subjects. A single channel stimulator was used, positioning the electrodes 8 cm on the wrist over the ulnar and median nerve. Controlling stimulation parameters such as intensity, frequency and pulse width, the subjects were capable of distinguishing different sensations over the palm of the hand. Three main sensations where achieved: tickling, pressure and pain. Tickling and pressure were discretized into low, moderate and high according to the magnitude of the feeling. The parameters at which each sensation was obtained are further discussed in this paper.

  3. Kinematics/statics analysis of a novel serial-parallel robotic arm with hand

    Lu, Yi; Dai, Zhuohong; Ye, Nijia; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A robotic arm with fingered hand generally has multi-functions to complete various complicated operations. A novel serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is proposed and its kinematics and statics are studied systematically. A 3D prototype of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is constructed and analyzed by simulation. The serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is composed of an upper 3RPS parallel manipulator, a lower 3SPR parallel manipulator and a hand with three finger mechanisms. Its kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of are derived. Its statics formula for solving the active/constrained forces is derived. Its reachable workspace and orientation workspace are constructed and analyzed. Finally, an analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand and the analytic solutions are verified by a simulation mechanism.

  4. Kinematics/statics analysis of a novel serial-parallel robotic arm with hand

    Lu, Yi; Dai, Zhuohong; Ye, Nijia; Wang, Peng [Yanshan University, Hebei (China)

    2015-10-15

    A robotic arm with fingered hand generally has multi-functions to complete various complicated operations. A novel serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is proposed and its kinematics and statics are studied systematically. A 3D prototype of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is constructed and analyzed by simulation. The serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is composed of an upper 3RPS parallel manipulator, a lower 3SPR parallel manipulator and a hand with three finger mechanisms. Its kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of are derived. Its statics formula for solving the active/constrained forces is derived. Its reachable workspace and orientation workspace are constructed and analyzed. Finally, an analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand and the analytic solutions are verified by a simulation mechanism.

  5. Design and control of five fingered under-actuated robotic hand

    Sahoo, Biswojit; Parida, Pramod Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Now a day's research regarding humanoid robots and its application in different fields (industry, household, rehabilitation and exploratory) is going on entire the globe. Among which a challenging topic is to design a dexterous robotic hand which not only can perform as a hand of a robot but also can be used in re habilitation. The basic key concern is a dexterous robot hand which can be able to mimic the function of biological hand to perform different operations. This thesis work is regarding design and control of a under-actuated robotic hand consisting of four under actuated fingers (index finger, middle finger, little finger and ring finger ) , a thumb and a dexterous palm which can copy the motions and grasp type of human hand which having 21degrees of freedom instead of 25Degree Of Freedom.

  6. An Infant Development-inspired Approach to Robot Hand-eye Coordination

    Fei Chao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel developmental learning approach for hand-eye coordination in an autonomous robotic system. Robotic hand-eye coordination plays an important role in dealing with real-time environments. Under the approach, infant developmental patterns are introduced to build our robot's learning system. The method works by first constructing a brain-like computational structure to control the robot, and then by using infant behavioural patterns to build a hand-eye coordination learning algorithm. This work is supported by an experimental evaluation, which shows that the control system is implemented simply, and that the learning approach provides fast and incremental learning of behavioural competence.

  7. Universal Robot Hand Equipped with Tactile and Joint Torque Sensors: Development and Experiments on Stiffness Control and Object Recognition

    Hiroyuki NAKAMOTO

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Various humanoid robots have been developed and multifunction robot hands which are able to attach those robots like human hand is needed. But a useful robot hand has not been depeveloped, because there are a lot of problems such as control method of many degrees of freedom and processing method of enormous sensor outputs. Realizing such robot hand, we have developed five-finger robot hand. In this paper, the detailed structure of developed robot hand is described. The robot hand we developed has five fingers of multi-joint that is equipped with joint torque sensors and tactile sensors. We report experimental results of a stiffness control with the developed robot hand. Those results show that it is possible to change the stiffness of joints. Moreover we propose an object recognition method with the tactile sensor. The validity of that method is assured by experimental results.

  8. Parameterizations for reducing camera reprojection error for robot-world hand-eye calibration

    Accurate robot-world, hand-eye calibration is crucial to automation tasks. In this paper, we discuss the robot-world, hand-eye calibration problem which has been modeled as the linear relationship AX equals ZB, where X and Z are the unknown calibration matrices composed of rotation and translation ...

  9. Double nerve intraneural interface implant on a human amputee for robotic hand control.

    Rossini, Paolo M; Micera, Silvestro; Benvenuto, Antonella; Carpaneto, Jacopo; Cavallo, Giuseppe; Citi, Luca; Cipriani, Christian; Denaro, Luca; Denaro, Vincenzo; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ferreri, Florinda; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Rigosa, Jacopo; Rossini, Luca; Tombini, Mario; Dario, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The principle underlying this project is that, despite nervous reorganization following upper limb amputation, original pathways and CNS relays partially maintain their function and can be exploited for interfacing prostheses. Aim of this study is to evaluate a novel peripheral intraneural multielectrode for multi-movement prosthesis control and for sensory feed-back, while assessing cortical reorganization following the re-acquired stream of data. Four intrafascicular longitudinal flexible multielectrodes (tf-LIFE4) were implanted in the median and ulnar nerves of an amputee; they reliably recorded output signals for 4 weeks. Artificial intelligence classifiers were used off-line to analyse LIFE signals recorded during three distinct hand movements under voluntary order. Real-time control of motor output was achieved for the three actions. When applied off-line artificial intelligence reached >85% real-time correct classification of trials. Moreover, different types of current stimulation were determined to allow reproducible and localized hand/fingers sensations. Cortical organization was observed via TMS in parallel with partial resolution of symptoms due to the phantom-limb syndrome (PLS). tf-LIFE4s recorded output signals in human nerves for 4 weeks, though the efficacy of sensory stimulation decayed after 10 days. Recording from a number of fibres permitted a high percentage of distinct actions to be classified correctly. Reversal of plastic changes and alleviation of PLS represent corollary findings of potential therapeutic benefit. This study represents a breakthrough in robotic hand use in amputees. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of five-finger robotic hand using master-slave control for hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery.

    Yoshida, Koki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryu; Seki, Tatsuya; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Mukai, Masaya

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to develop a robotic hand as a substitute for a surgeon's hand in hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS). We determined the requirements for the proposed hand from a surgeon's motions in HALS. We identified four basic behaviors: "power grasp," "precision grasp," "open hand for exclusion," and "peace sign for extending peritoneum." The proposed hand had the minimum necessary DOFs for performing these behaviors, five fingers as in a human's hand, a palm that can be folded when a surgeon inserts the hand into the abdomen, and an arm for adjusting the hand's position. We evaluated the proposed hand based on a performance test and a physician's opinions, and we confirmed that it can grasp organs.

  11. A three-finger multisensory hand for dexterous space robotic tasks

    Murase, Yuichi; Komada, Satoru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Machida, Kazuo; Akita, Kenzo

    1994-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan will launch ETS-7 in 1997, as a test bed for next generation space technology of RV&D and space robot. MITI has been developing a three-finger multisensory hand for complex space robotic tasks. The hand can be operated under remote control or autonomously. This paper describes the design and development of the hand and the performance of a breadboard model.

  12. A pilot study of robotic-assisted exercise for hand weakness after stroke.

    Stein, Joel; Bishop, Joel; Gillen, Glen; Helbok, Raimund

    2011-01-01

    Upper limb paresis is a major source of disability in stroke survivors, and robotic aided exercise therapy is a promising approach to enhance motor abilities. Few devices have been available to provide robotic therapy to the fingers and hand. We report an open-label pilot study of 12 individuals with chronic moderate hemiparesis after stroke who underwent a six-week training program using a hand robotic device. Participants received a total of 18 hours of robotic therapy. Improvements were found in multiple measures of motor performance, including the Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer, the Motor Activity Log, the Manual Ability Measure-36, and the Jebsen Hand Function Test. All subjects tolerated the treatment well and no complications were observed. We conclude that robotic therapy for hand paresis after stroke is safe and feasible, and that further studies of efficacy are justified by these preliminary results. © 2011 IEEE

  13. Robots take a hand in inspection, maintenance and repair

    Cruickshank, A.

    1985-01-01

    In the search for better economic performance through higher availability, utilities are beginning to look with interest at the uses of robotics. However, while some routine surveillance jobs may be amenable to existing commercial robot technology, most maintenance and repair tasks are not. A lot of work still needs to be done to develop robotic devices that can be employed effectively in the sometimes congested and inaccessible environments inside containments. (author)

  14. Hand/Eye Coordination For Fine Robotic Motion

    Lokshin, Anatole M.

    1992-01-01

    Fine motions of robotic manipulator controlled with help of visual feedback by new method reducing position errors by order of magnitude. Robotic vision subsystem includes five cameras: three stationary ones providing wide-angle views of workspace and two mounted on wrist of auxiliary robot arm. Stereoscopic cameras on arm give close-up views of object and end effector. Cameras measure errors between commanded and actual positions and/or provide data for mapping between visual and manipulator-joint-angle coordinates.

  15. Robots take a hand in inspection, maintenance and repair

    Cruickshank, A

    1985-04-01

    In the search for better economic performance through higher availability, utilities are beginning to look with interest at the uses of robotics. However, while some routine surveillance jobs may be amenable to existing commercial robot technology, most maintenance and repair tasks are not. A lot of work still needs to be done to develop robotic devices that can be employed effectively in the sometimes congested and inaccessible environments inside containments.

  16. Hands Off: Mentoring a Student-Led Robotics Team

    Dolenc, Nathan R.; Mitchell, Claire E.; Tai, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Mentors play important roles in determining the working environment of out-of-school-time clubs. On robotics teams, they provide guidance in hopes that their protégés progress through an engineering process. This study examined how mentors on one robotics team who defined their mentoring style as "let the students do the work" navigated…

  17. Lending a helping hand: toward novel assistive robotic arms

    Groothuis, Stefan; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    Assistive robotics is an increasingly popular research field, which has led to a large number of commercial and noncommercial systems aimed at assisting physically impaired or elderly users in the activities of daily living. In this article, we propose five criteria based on robotic arm usage

  18. Hand Motion-Based Remote Control Interface with Vibrotactile Feedback for Home Robots

    Juan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a hand-held interface system for the locomotion control of home robots. A handheld controller is proposed to implement hand motion recognition and hand motion-based robot control. The handheld controller can provide a ‘connect-and-play’ service for the users to control the home robot with visual and vibrotactile feedback. Six natural hand gestures are defined for navigating the home robots. A three-axis accelerometer is used to detect the hand motions of the user. The recorded acceleration data are analysed and classified to corresponding control commands according to their characteristic curves. A vibration motor is used to provide vibrotactile feedback to the user when an improper operation is performed. The performances of the proposed hand motion-based interface and the traditional keyboard and mouse interface have been compared in robot navigation experiments. The experimental results of home robot navigation show that the success rate of the handheld controller is 13.33% higher than the PC based controller. The precision of the handheld controller is 15.4% more than that of the PC and the execution time is 24.7% less than the PC based controller. This means that the proposed hand motion-based interface is more efficient and flexible.

  19. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance.

  20. Fusion of hard and soft control strategies for the robotic hand

    Chen, Cheng-Hung

    2018-01-01

    Long considered the stuff of science fiction, a prosthetic hand capable of fully replicating all of that appendage's various functions is closer to becoming reality than ever before. This book provides a comprehensive report on exciting recent developments in hybrid control techniques—one of the most crucial hurdles to be overcome in creating smart prosthetic hands. Coauthored by two of the world's foremost pioneering experts in the field, Fusion of Hard and Soft Control Strategies for the Robotic Hand treats robotic hands for multiple applications. It begins with an overview of advances in main control techniques that have been made over the past decade before addressing the military context for affordable robotic hand technology with tactile and/or proprioceptive feedback for hand amputees. Kinematics, homogene us transformations, inverse and differential kinematics, trajectory planning, and dynamic models of two-link thumb and three-link index finger are discussed in detail. The remainder of the book is...

  1. Human-inspired feedback synergies for environmental interaction with a dexterous robotic hand.

    Kent, Benjamin A; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-11-07

    Effortless control of the human hand is mediated by the physical and neural couplings inherent in the structure of the hand. This concept was explored for environmental interaction tasks with the human hand, and a novel human-inspired feedback synergy (HFS) controller was developed for a robotic hand which synchronized position and force feedback signals to mimic observed human hand motions. This was achieved by first recording the finger joint motion profiles of human test subjects, where it was observed that the subjects would extend their fingers to maintain a natural hand posture when interacting with different surfaces. The resulting human joint angle data were used as inspiration to develop the HFS controller for the anthropomorphic robotic hand, which incorporated finger abduction and force feedback in the control laws for finger extension. Experimental results showed that by projecting a broader view of the tasks at hand to each specific joint, the HFS controller produced hand motion profiles that closely mimic the observed human responses and allowed the robotic manipulator to interact with the surfaces while maintaining a natural hand posture. Additionally, the HFS controller enabled the robotic hand to autonomously traverse vertical step discontinuities without prior knowledge of the environment, visual feedback, or traditional trajectory planning techniques.

  2. Human-inspired feedback synergies for environmental interaction with a dexterous robotic hand

    Kent, Benjamin A; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-01-01

    Effortless control of the human hand is mediated by the physical and neural couplings inherent in the structure of the hand. This concept was explored for environmental interaction tasks with the human hand, and a novel human-inspired feedback synergy (HFS) controller was developed for a robotic hand which synchronized position and force feedback signals to mimic observed human hand motions. This was achieved by first recording the finger joint motion profiles of human test subjects, where it was observed that the subjects would extend their fingers to maintain a natural hand posture when interacting with different surfaces. The resulting human joint angle data were used as inspiration to develop the HFS controller for the anthropomorphic robotic hand, which incorporated finger abduction and force feedback in the control laws for finger extension. Experimental results showed that by projecting a broader view of the tasks at hand to each specific joint, the HFS controller produced hand motion profiles that closely mimic the observed human responses and allowed the robotic manipulator to interact with the surfaces while maintaining a natural hand posture. Additionally, the HFS controller enabled the robotic hand to autonomously traverse vertical step discontinuities without prior knowledge of the environment, visual feedback, or traditional trajectory planning techniques. (paper)

  3. Understanding Human Hand Gestures for Learning Robot Pick-and-Place Tasks

    Hsien-I Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Programming robots by human demonstration is an intuitive approach, especially by gestures. Because robot pick-and-place tasks are widely used in industrial factories, this paper proposes a framework to learn robot pick-and-place tasks by understanding human hand gestures. The proposed framework is composed of the module of gesture recognition and the module of robot behaviour control. For the module of gesture recognition, transport empty (TE, transport loaded (TL, grasp (G, and release (RL from Gilbreth's therbligs are the hand gestures to be recognized. A convolution neural network (CNN is adopted to recognize these gestures from a camera image. To achieve the robust performance, the skin model by a Gaussian mixture model (GMM is used to filter out non-skin colours of an image, and the calibration of position and orientation is applied to obtain the neutral hand pose before the training and testing of the CNN. For the module of robot behaviour control, the corresponding robot motion primitives to TE, TL, G, and RL, respectively, are implemented in the robot. To manage the primitives in the robot system, a behaviour-based programming platform based on the Extensible Agent Behavior Specification Language (XABSL is adopted. Because the XABSL provides the flexibility and re-usability of the robot primitives, the hand motion sequence from the module of gesture recognition can be easily used in the XABSL programming platform to implement the robot pick-and-place tasks. The experimental evaluation of seven subjects performing seven hand gestures showed that the average recognition rate was 95.96%. Moreover, by the XABSL programming platform, the experiment showed the cube-stacking task was easily programmed by human demonstration.

  4. Robotic Assistance by Impedance Compensation for Hand Movements While Manual Welding.

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a robotic assistance scheme which allows for impedance compensation with stiffness, damping, and mass parameters for hand manipulation tasks and we apply it to manual welding. The impedance compensation does not assume a preprogrammed hand trajectory. Rather, the intention of the human for the hand movement is estimated in real time using a smooth Kalman filter. The movement is restricted by compensatory virtual impedance in the directions perpendicular to the estimated direction of movement. With airbrush painting experiments, we test three sets of values for the impedance parameters as inspired from impedance measurements with manual welding. We apply the best of the tested sets for assistance in manual welding and perform welding experiments with professional and novice welders. We contrast three conditions: 1) welding with the robot's assistance; 2) with the robot when the robot is passive; and 3) welding without the robot. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the assistance through quantitative measures of both task performance and perceived user's satisfaction. The performance of both the novice and professional welders improves significantly with robotic assistance compared to welding with a passive robot. The assessment of user satisfaction shows that all novice and most professional welders appreciate the robotic assistance as it suppresses the tremors in the directions perpendicular to the movement for welding.

  5. Design of a variable-stiffness robotic hand using pneumatic soft rubber actuators

    Nagase, Jun-ya; Saga, Norihiko; Wakimoto, Shuichi; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Suzumori, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Japanese society has been ageing, engendering a labor shortage of young workers. Robots are therefore expected to be useful in performing tasks such as day-to-day support for elderly people. In particular, robots that are intended for use in the field of medical care and welfare are expected to be safe when operating in a human environment because they often come into contact with people. Furthermore, robots must perform various tasks such as regrasping, grasping of soft objects, and tasks using frictional force. Given these demands and circumstances, a tendon-driven robot hand with a stiffness changing finger has been developed. The finger surface stiffness can be altered by adjusting the input pressure depending on the task. Additionally, the coefficient of static friction can be altered by changing the surface stiffness merely by adjusting the input air pressure. This report describes the basic structure, driving mechanism, and basic properties of the proposed robot hand

  6. [A case of combined sensation disturbance and clumsiness of the left hand caused by an infarction localized to brodmann areas 1 and 2].

    Kutoku, Yumiko; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Yaeko; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2007-04-01

    A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of numbness and clumsiness of the left hand. On physical examination 23 days after the onset of cerebral infarction, she showed no apparent muscle weakness. Although her elementary somatosensory function was mostly intact with a minimal joint position sensation disturbance, she showed disturbances in tactile recognition, two-point discrimination, and weight perception. She also had difficulty in discrete finger movement of her left hand, especially when her eyes were closed. Brain MRI disclosed a small infarction localized to Brodmann areas 1 and 2 in the right postcentral gyrus. In the left median nerve short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (s-SEPs), the N20 potential was normally evoked. This finding also indicated that the area 3b was preserved. The sensory symptoms observed in this patient were compatible with the hierarchical somatosensory processing model in the postcentral gyrus proposed by Iwamura et al, in which the elementary sensation recognized in area 3 is transferred to areas 1 and 2, and then processed to discriminative sensation. The disturbed discrete finger movement in this patient probably resulted from impaired tactile recognition which could be compensated for by visual information.

  7. A Magnetic Resonance Compatible Soft Wearable Robotic Glove for Hand Rehabilitation and Brain Imaging.

    Hong Kai Yap; Kamaldin, Nazir; Jeong Hoon Lim; Nasrallah, Fatima A; Goh, James Cho Hong; Chen-Hua Yeow

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and evaluation of a soft wearable robotic glove, which can be used with functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI) during the hand rehabilitation and task specific training. The soft wearable robotic glove, called MR-Glove, consists of two major components: a) a set of soft pneumatic actuators and b) a glove. The soft pneumatic actuators, which are made of silicone elastomers, generate bending motion and actuate finger joints upon pressurization. The device is MR-compatible as it contains no ferromagnetic materials and operates pneumatically. Our results show that the device did not cause artifacts to fMRI images during hand rehabilitation and task-specific exercises. This study demonstrated the possibility of using fMRI and MR-compatible soft wearable robotic device to study brain activities and motor performances during hand rehabilitation, and to unravel the functional effects of rehabilitation robotics on brain stimulation.

  8. Modeling and evaluation of hand-eye coordination of surgical robotic system on task performance.

    Gao, Yuanqian; Wang, Shuxin; Li, Jianmin; Li, Aimin; Liu, Hongbin; Xing, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery changes the direct hand and eye coordination in traditional surgery to indirect instrument and camera coordination, which affects the ergonomics, operation performance, and safety. A camera, two instruments, and a target, as the descriptors, are used to construct the workspace correspondence and geometrical relationships in a surgical operation. A parametric model with a set of parameters is proposed to describe the hand-eye coordination of the surgical robot. From the results, optimal values and acceptable ranges of these parameters are identified from two tasks. A 90° viewing angle had the longest completion time; 60° instrument elevation angle and 0° deflection angle had better performance; there is no significant difference among manipulation angles and observing distances on task performance. This hand-eye coordination model provides evidence for robotic design, surgeon training, and robotic initialization to achieve dexterous and safe manipulation in surgery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The robot hand illusion: inducing proprioceptive drift through visuo-motor congruency.

    Romano, Daniele; Caffa, Elisa; Hernandez-Arieta, Alejandro; Brugger, Peter; Maravita, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The representation of one's own body sets the border of the self, but also shapes the space where we interact with external objects. Under particular conditions, such as in the rubber hand illusion external objects can be incorporated in one's own body representation, following congruent visuo-tactile stroking of one's own and a fake hand. This procedure induces an illusory sense of ownership for the fake hand and a shift of proprioceptive localization of the own hand towards the fake hand. Here we investigated whether pure visuo-motor, instead of visuo-tactile, congruency between one's own hand and a detached myoelectric-controlled robotic hand can induce similar embodiment effects. We found a shift of proprioceptive hand localization toward the robot hand, only following synchronized real hand/robot hand movements. Notably, no modulation was found of the sense of ownership following either synchronous or asynchronous-movement training. Our findings suggest that visuo-motor synchrony can drive the localization of one's own body parts in space, even when somatosensory input is kept constant and the experience of body ownership is maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Making of a 3D-Printed, Cable-Driven, Single-Model, Lightweight Humanoid Robotic Hand

    Li Tian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dexterity robotic hands can (Cummings, 1996 greatly enhance the functionality of humanoid robots, but the making of such hands with not only human-like appearance but also the capability of performing the natural movement of social robots is a challenging problem. The first challenge is to create the hand’s articulated structure and the second challenge is to actuate it to move like a human hand. A robotic hand for humanoid robot should look and behave human like. At the same time, it also needs to be light and cheap for widely used purposes. We start with studying the biomechanical features of a human hand and propose a simplified mechanical model of robotic hands, which can achieve the important local motions of the hand. Then, we use 3D modeling techniques to create a single interlocked hand model that integrates pin and ball joints to our hand model. Compared to other robotic hands, our design saves the time required for assembling and adjusting, which makes our robotic hand ready-to-use right after the 3D printing is completed. Finally, the actuation of the hand is realized by cables and motors. Based on this approach, we have designed a cost-effective, 3D printable, compact, and lightweight robotic hand. Our robotic hand weighs 150 g, has 15 joints, which are similar to a real human hand, and 6 Degree of Freedom (DOFs. It is actuated by only six small size actuators. The wrist connecting part is also integrated into the hand model and could be customized for different robots such as Nadine robot (Magnenat Thalmann et al., 2017. The compact servo bed can be hidden inside the Nadine robot’s sleeve and the whole robotic hand platform will not cause extra load to her arm as the total weight (150 g robotic hand and 162 g artificial skin is almost the same as her previous unarticulated robotic hand which is 348 g. The paper also shows our test results with and without silicon artificial hand skin, and on Nadine robot.

  11. Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

  12. Bio-inspired grasp control in a robotic hand with massive sensorial input.

    Ascari, Luca; Bertocchi, Ulisse; Corradi, Paolo; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    The capability of grasping and lifting an object in a suitable, stable and controlled way is an outstanding feature for a robot, and thus far, one of the major problems to be solved in robotics. No robotic tools able to perform an advanced control of the grasp as, for instance, the human hand does, have been demonstrated to date. Due to its capital importance in science and in many applications, namely from biomedics to manufacturing, the issue has been matter of deep scientific investigations in both the field of neurophysiology and robotics. While the former is contributing with a profound understanding of the dynamics of real-time control of the slippage and grasp force in the human hand, the latter tries more and more to reproduce, or take inspiration by, the nature's approach, by means of hardware and software technology. On this regard, one of the major constraints robotics has to overcome is the real-time processing of a large amounts of data generated by the tactile sensors while grasping, which poses serious problems to the available computational power. In this paper a bio-inspired approach to tactile data processing has been followed in order to design and test a hardware-software robotic architecture that works on the parallel processing of a large amount of tactile sensing signals. The working principle of the architecture bases on the cellular nonlinear/neural network (CNN) paradigm, while using both hand shape and spatial-temporal features obtained from an array of microfabricated force sensors, in order to control the sensory-motor coordination of the robotic system. Prototypical grasping tasks were selected to measure the system performances applied to a computer-interfaced robotic hand. Successful grasps of several objects, completely unknown to the robot, e.g. soft and deformable objects like plastic bottles, soft balls, and Japanese tofu, have been demonstrated.

  13. Research on direct calibration method of eye-to-hand system of robot

    Hu, Xiaoping; Xie, Ke; Peng, Tao

    2013-10-01

    In the position-based visual servoing control for robot, the hand-eye calibration is very important because it can affect the control precision of the system. According to the robot with eye-to-hand stereovision system, this paper proposes a direct method of hand-eye calibration. The method utilizes the triangle measuring principle to solve the coordinates in the camera coordinate system of scene point. It calculates the estimated coordinates by the hand-eye calibration equation set which indicates the transformational relation from the robot to the camera coordinate system, and then uses the error of actual and estimated coordinates to establish the objective function. Finally the method substitutes the parameters into the function repeatedly until it converged to optimize the result. The related experiment compared the measured coordinates with the actual coordinates, shows the efficiency and the precision of it.

  14. Hand function recovery in chronic stroke with HEXORR robotic training: A case series.

    Godfrey, Sasha Blue; Schabowsky, Christopher N; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2010-01-01

    After a stroke, many survivors have impaired motor function. Robotic rehabilitation techniques have emerged to provide a repetitive, activity-based therapy at potentially lower cost than conventional methods. Many patients exhibit intrinsic resistance to hand extension in the form of spasticity and/or hypertonia. We have developed a therapy program using the Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot (HEXORR) that is capable of compensating for tone to assist patients in opening the paretic hand. The system can move the user's hand, assist movement, allow free movement, or restrict movement to allow static force production. These options combine with an interactive virtual reality game to enhance user motivation. Four chronic stroke subjects received 18 sessions of robot therapy as well as pre and post evaluation sessions. All subjects showed at least modest gains in active finger range of motion (ROM) measured in the robot, and all but one subject had gains in active thumb ROM. Most of these gains carried over to ROM gains outside of the robot. The clinical measures (Fugl-Meyer, Box-and-Blocks) showed clear improvements in two subjects and mixed results in two subjects. Overall, the robot therapy was well received by subjects and shows promising results. We conclude HEXORR therapy is best suited for patients with mild-moderate tone and at least minimal extension.

  15. Hand-held transendoscopic robotic manipulators: A transurethral laser prostate surgery case study.

    Hendrick, Richard J; Mitchell, Christopher R; Herrell, S Duke; Webster, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Natural orifice endoscopic surgery can enable incisionless approaches, but a major challenge is the lack of small and dexterous instrumentation. Surgical robots have the potential to meet this need yet often disrupt the clinical workflow. Hand-held robots that combine thin manipulators and endoscopes have the potential to address this by integrating seamlessly into the clinical workflow and enhancing dexterity. As a case study illustrating the potential of this approach, we describe a hand-held robotic system that passes two concentric tube manipulators through a 5 mm port in a rigid endoscope for transurethral laser prostate surgery. This system is intended to catalyze the use of a clinically superior, yet rarely attempted, procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia. This paper describes system design and experiments to evaluate the surgeon's functional workspace and accuracy using the robot. Phantom and cadaver experiments demonstrate successful completion of the target procedure via prostate lobe resection.

  16. Stimulus intensity for hand held and robotic transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Richter, Lars; Trillenberg, Peter; Schweikard, Achim; Schlaefer, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is based on a changing magnetic field inducing an electric field in the brain. Conventionally, the TMS coil is mounted to a static holder and the subject is asked to avoid head motion. Additionally, head resting frames have been used. In contrast, our robotized TMS system employs active motion compensation (MC) to maintain the correct coil position. We study the effect of patient motion on TMS. In particular, we compare different coil positioning techniques with respect to the induced electric field. We recorded head motion for six subjects in three scenarios: (a) avoiding head motion, (b) using a head rest, and (c) moving the head freely. Subsequently, the motion traces were replayed using a second robot to move a sensor to measure the electric field in the target region. These head movements were combined with 2 types of coil positioning: (1) using a coil holder and (2) using robotized TMS with MC. After 30 min the induced electric field was reduced by 32.0% and 19.7% for scenarios (1a) and (1b), respectively. For scenarios (2a)-(2c) it was reduced by only 4.9%, 1.4% and 2.0%, respectively, which is a significant improvement (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the orientation of the induced field changed by 5.5°, 7.6°, 0.4°, 0.2°, 0.2° for scenarios (1a)-(2c). While none of the scenarios required rigid head fixation, using a simple holder to position a coil during TMS can lead to substantial deviations in the induced electric field. In contrast, robotic motion compensation results in clinically acceptable positioning throughout treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hand Rehabilitation Learning System With an Exoskeleton Robotic Glove.

    Ma, Zhou; Ben-Tzvi, Pinhas; Danoff, Jerome

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a hand rehabilitation learning system, the SAFE Glove, a device that can be utilized to enhance the rehabilitation of subjects with disabilities. This system is able to learn fingertip motion and force for grasping different objects and then record and analyze the common movements of hand function including grip and release patterns. The glove is then able to reproduce these movement patterns in playback fashion to assist a weakened hand to accomplish these movements, or to modulate the assistive level based on the user's or therapist's intent for the purpose of hand rehabilitation therapy. Preliminary data have been collected from healthy hands. To demonstrate the glove's ability to manipulate the hand, the glove has been fitted on a wooden hand and the grasping of various objects was performed. To further prove that hands can be safely driven by this haptic mechanism, force sensor readings placed between each finger and the mechanism are plotted. These experimental results demonstrate the potential of the proposed system in rehabilitation therapy.

  18. What if the hand piece spring disassembles during robotic radical prostatectomy?

    Akbulut, Ziya; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Asil, Erem; Isgoren, Egemen; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2011-01-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) is successfully being performed for treating prostate cancer (PCa). However, instrumentation failure associated with robotic procedures represents a unique new problem. We report the successful completion of RALRP in spite of a disassembled hand piece spring during the procedure. A PubMed/Medline search was made concerning robotic malfunction and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to discuss our experience. We performed RALRP in a 60-year-old male patient with localized PCa. During the procedure, the spring of the hand piece disassembled, and we were not able to reassemble it. We completed the procedure successfully however without fixing the disassembled hand piece spring. We were able to grasp tissue and needles when we brought our fingers together. The only movement we needed to do was to move fingers apart to release tissue or needles caught by robotic instrument. Although malfunction risk related to the da Vinci Surgical System seems to be very low, it might still occur. Sometimes, simple maneuvers may compensate for the failed function as occurred in our case. However, patients should be informed before the operation about the possibility of converting their procedure to laparoscopic or open due to robotic malfunction.

  19. The cortical activation pattern by a rehabilitation robotic hand: a functional NIRS study.

    Chang, Pyung-Hun; Lee, Seung-Hee; Gu, Gwang Min; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok; Seo, Jeong Pyo; Jang, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Clarification of the relationship between external stimuli and brain response has been an important topic in neuroscience and brain rehabilitation. In the current study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation patterns generated during execution of a rehabilitation robotic hand. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. Passive movements of the right fingers were performed using a rehabilitation robotic hand at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO), deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) and total-hemoglobin (HbT) in five regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1), hand somatotopy of the contralateral SM1, supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex (PMC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). HbO and HbT values indicated significant activation in the left SM1, left SMA, left PMC, and left PFC during execution of the rehabilitation robotic hand (uncorrected, p < 0.01). By contrast, HbR value indicated significant activation only in the hand somatotopic area of the left SM1 (uncorrected, p < 0.01). Our results appear to indicate that execution of the rehabilitation robotic hand could induce cortical activation.

  20. Low-cost design and fabrication of an anthropomorphic robotic hand.

    Junaid, Ali Bin; Tahir, Sanan; Rasheed, Tahir; Ahmed, Sharjeel; Sohail, Mehreen; Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Ali, Muzaffar; Kim, Yoonsoo

    2014-10-01

    Human hand signifies a magnificent and challenging example for scientists and engineers trying to replicate its complex structure and functionality. This paper proposes a bio-mechatronic approach for the design of an anthropomorphic artificial hand capable of performing basic human hand motions with fundamental gripping functionality. The dexterity of the artificial hand is exhibited by imitating the natural motion of the human fingers. Imitation is produced according to the data acquired from the flex sensors attached to the human fingers. In order to have proper gripping, closed-loop control is implemented using the tactile sensors. Feedback for the closed-loop control is provided by force sensing resistors (FSRs), attached on the fingertips of the robotic hand. These sensors also enable handling of fragile objects. The mathematical model is derived using forward kinematics and also simulated on MATLAB to ascertain the position of robotic fingers in 3D space.

  1. Advanced Myoelectric Control for Robotic Hand-Assisted Training: Outcome from a Stroke Patient.

    Lu, Zhiyuan; Tong, Kai-Yu; Shin, Henry; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A hand exoskeleton driven by myoelectric pattern recognition was designed for stroke rehabilitation. It detects and recognizes the user's motion intent based on electromyography (EMG) signals, and then helps the user to accomplish hand motions in real time. The hand exoskeleton can perform six kinds of motions, including the whole hand closing/opening, tripod pinch/opening, and the "gun" sign/opening. A 52-year-old woman, 8 months after stroke, made 20× 2-h visits over 10 weeks to participate in robot-assisted hand training. Though she was unable to move her fingers on her right hand before the training, EMG activities could be detected on her right forearm. In each visit, she took 4× 10-min robot-assisted training sessions, in which she repeated the aforementioned six motion patterns assisted by our intent-driven hand exoskeleton. After the training, her grip force increased from 1.5 to 2.7 kg, her pinch force increased from 1.5 to 2.5 kg, her score of Box and Block test increased from 3 to 7, her score of Fugl-Meyer (Part C) increased from 0 to 7, and her hand function increased from Stage 1 to Stage 2 in Chedoke-McMaster assessment. The results demonstrate the feasibility of robot-assisted training driven by myoelectric pattern recognition after stroke.

  2. Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic hand and its flow field.

    Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

    2013-07-26

    This study aims to clarify the mechanism of generating unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand during swimming in order to directly measure the forces, pressure distribution, and flow field around the hand by using a robotic arm and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The robotic arm consisted of the trunk, shoulder, upper arm, forearm, and hand, and it was independently computer controllable in five degrees of freedom. The elbow-joint angle of the robotic arm was fixed at 90°, and the arm was moved in semicircles around the shoulder joint in a plane perpendicular to the water surface. Two-component PIV was used for flow visualization around the hand. The data of the forces and pressure acting on the hand were sampled at 200Hz and stored on a PC. When the maximum resultant force acting on the hand was observed, a pair of counter-rotating vortices appeared on the dorsal surface of the hand. A vortex attached to the hand increased the flow velocity, which led to decreased surface pressure, increasing the hydrodynamic forces. This phenomenon is known as the unsteady mechanism of force generation. We found that the drag force was 72% greater and the lift force was 4.8 times greater than the values estimated under steady flow conditions. Therefore, it is presumable that swimmers receive the benefits of this unsteady hydrodynamic force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Robot training for hand motor recovery in subacute stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Roldán, Giovana Femat; Sánchez-Villavicencio, Israel; Palafox, Lorena; Leder, Ronald; Sucar, Luis Enrique; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of superiority of robot training for the hand over classical therapies in stroke patients remains controversial. During the subacute stage, hand training is likely to be the most useful. To establish whether robot active assisted therapies provides any additional motor recovery for the hand when administered during the subacute stage (robot based therapies for hand recovery will show significant differences at subacute stages. A randomized clinical trial. A between subjects randomized controlled trial was carried out on subacute stroke patients (n = 17) comparing robot active assisted therapy (RT) with a classical occupational therapy (OT). Both groups received 40 sessions ensuring at least 300 repetitions per session. Treatment duration was (mean ± std) 2.18 ± 1.25 months for the control group and 2.44 ± 0.88 months for the study group. The primary outcome was motor dexterity changes assessed with the Fugl-Meyer (FMA) and the Motricity Index (MI). Both groups (OT: n = 8; RT: n = 9) exhibited significant improvements over time (Non-parametric Cliff's delta-within effect sizes: dwOT-FMA = 0.5, dwOT-MI = 0.5, dwRT-FMA = 1, dwRT-MI = 1). Regarding differences between the therapies; the Fugl-Meyer score indicated a significant advantage for the hand training with the robot (FMA hand: WRS: W = 8, p hand prehension for RT with respect to OT but failed to reach significance (MI prehension: W = 17.5, p = 0.080). No harm occurred. Robotic therapies may be useful during the subacute stages of stroke - both endpoints (FM hand and MI prehension) showed the expected trend with bigger effect size for the robotic intervention. Additional benefit of the robotic therapy over the control therapy was only significant when the difference was measured with FM, demanding further investigation with larger samples. Implications of this study are important for decision making during therapy administration and resource allocation. Copyright © 2016 Hanley

  4. The cortical activation pattern by a rehabilitation robotic hand : A functional NIRS study

    Pyung Hun eChang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clarification of the relationship between external stimuli and brain response has been an important topic in neuroscience and brain rehabilitation. In the current study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, we attempted to investigate cortical activation patterns generated during execution of a rehabilitation robotic hand. Methods: Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. Passive movements of the right fingers were performed using a rehabilitation robotic hand at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxy-hemoglobin(HbO, deoxy-hemoglobin(HbR and total-hemoglobin(HbT in five regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1, hand somatotopy of the contralateral SM1, supplementary motor area (SMA, premotor cortex (PMC, and prefrontal cortex (PFC. Results: HbO and HbT values indicated significant activation in the left SM1, left SMA, left PMC, and left PFC during execution of the rehabilitation robotic hand(uncorrected, pConclusions: Our results appear to indicate that execution of the rehabilitation robotic hand could induce cortical activation.

  5. Development of a humanoid robot hand with coupling four-bar linkage

    Xinhua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the operating performance of robots’ end-effector, a humanoid robot hand based on coupling four-bar linkage was designed. An improved transmission system was proposed for the base joint of the thumb. Thus, a far greater motion range and more reasonable layout of the palm were obtained. Moreover, the mathematical model for kinematics simulation was presented based on the Assur linkage group theory to verify and optimize the proposed structure. To research the motion relationships between the fingers and the object in the process of grasping object, the grasping analysis of multi-finger manipulation was presented based on contact kinematics. Finally, a prototype of the humanoid robot hand was produced by a three-dimensional printer, and a kinematics simulation example and the workspace solving of the humanoid robot hand were carried out. The results showed that the velocities of finger joints approximately met the proportion relationship 1:1:1, which accorded with the grasping law of the human hand. In addition, the large workspace, reasonable layout, and good manipulability of the humanoid robot hand were verified.

  6. Electromyography data for non-invasive naturally-controlled robotic hand prostheses.

    Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Castellini, Claudio; Caputo, Barbara; Hager, Anne-Gabrielle Mittaz; Elsig, Simone; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Bassetto, Franco; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in rehabilitation robotics suggest that it may be possible for hand-amputated subjects to recover at least a significant part of the lost hand functionality. The control of robotic prosthetic hands using non-invasive techniques is still a challenge in real life: myoelectric prostheses give limited control capabilities, the control is often unnatural and must be learned through long training times. Meanwhile, scientific literature results are promising but they are still far from fulfilling real-life needs. This work aims to close this gap by allowing worldwide research groups to develop and test movement recognition and force control algorithms on a benchmark scientific database. The database is targeted at studying the relationship between surface electromyography, hand kinematics and hand forces, with the final goal of developing non-invasive, naturally controlled, robotic hand prostheses. The validation section verifies that the data are similar to data acquired in real-life conditions, and that recognition of different hand tasks by applying state-of-the-art signal features and machine-learning algorithms is possible.

  7. Using Arm and Hand Gestures to Command Robots during Stealth Operations

    Stoica, Adrian; Assad, Chris; Wolf, Michael; You, Ki Sung; Pavone, Marco; Huntsberger, Terry; Iwashita, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    Command of support robots by the warfighter requires intuitive interfaces to quickly communicate high degree-of-freedom (DOF) information while leaving the hands unencumbered. Stealth operations rule out voice commands and vision-based gesture interpretation techniques, as they often entail silent operations at night or in other low visibility conditions. Targeted at using bio-signal inputs to set navigation and manipulation goals for the robot (say, simply by pointing), we developed a system based on an electromyography (EMG) "BioSleeve", a high density sensor array for robust, practical signal collection from forearm muscles. The EMG sensor array data is fused with inertial measurement unit (IMU) data. This paper describes the BioSleeve system and presents initial results of decoding robot commands from the EMG and IMU data using a BioSleeve prototype with up to sixteen bipolar surface EMG sensors. The BioSleeve is demonstrated on the recognition of static hand positions (e.g. palm facing front, fingers upwards) and on dynamic gestures (e.g. hand wave). In preliminary experiments, over 90% correct recognition was achieved on five static and nine dynamic gestures. We use the BioSleeve to control a team of five LANdroid robots in individual and group/squad behaviors. We define a gesture composition mechanism that allows the specification of complex robot behaviors with only a small vocabulary of gestures/commands, and we illustrate it with a set of complex orders.

  8. Hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch--anal anastomosis.

    Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Mariniello, Maria Donatella; Furbetta, Niccolò; Pisano, Roberta; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Caprili, Giovanni; Marciano, Emanuele; Di Candio, Giulio; Boggi, Ugo; Mosca, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have reported minimally invasive total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). We herein report a novel hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic technique for patients with FAP and UC. Between February 2010 and March 2014, six patients underwent hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic total proctocolectomy with IPAA. The abdominal colectomy was performed laparoscopically with hand assistance through a transverse suprapubic incision, also used to fashion the ileal pouch. The proctectomy was carried out with the da Vinci Surgical System. The IPAA was hand-sewn through a trans-anal approach. The procedure was complemented by a temporary diverting loop ileostomy. The mean hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) time was 154.6 (±12.8) min whereas the mean robotic time was 93.6 (±8.1) min. In all cases, a nerve-sparing proctectomy was performed, and no conversion to traditional laparotomy was required. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 13.2 (±7.4) days. No anastomotic leakage was observed. To date, no autonomic neurological disorders have been observed with a mean of 5.8 (±1.3) bowel movements per day. The hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic approach to total proctocolectomy with IPAA has not been previously described. Our report shows the feasibility of this hybrid approach, which surpasses most of the limitations of pure laparoscopic and robotic techniques. Further experience is necessary to refine the technique and fully assess its potential advantages.

  9. Design and Development of a Hand Exoskeleton Robot for Active and Passive Rehabilitation

    Oscar Sandoval-Gonzalez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work, which describes the mechatronic design and development of a novel rehabilitation robotic exoskeleton hand, aims to present a solution for neuromusculoskeletal rehabilitation. It presents a full range of motion for all hand phalanges and was specifically designed to carry out position and force-position control for passive and active rehabilitation routines. System integration and preliminary clinical tests are also presented.

  10. An EMG-driven exoskeleton hand robotic training device on chronic stroke subjects: task training system for stroke rehabilitation.

    Ho, N S K; Tong, K Y; Hu, X L; Fung, K L; Wei, X J; Rong, W; Susanto, E A

    2011-01-01

    An exoskeleton hand robotic training device is specially designed for persons after stroke to provide training on their impaired hand by using an exoskeleton robotic hand which is actively driven by their own muscle signals. It detects the stroke person's intention using his/her surface electromyography (EMG) signals from the hemiplegic side and assists in hand opening or hand closing functional tasks. The robotic system is made up of an embedded controller and a robotic hand module which can be adjusted to fit for different finger length. Eight chronic stroke subjects had been recruited to evaluate the effects of this device. The preliminary results showed significant improvement in hand functions (ARAT) and upper limb functions (FMA) after 20 sessions of robot-assisted hand functions task training. With the use of this light and portable robotic device, stroke patients can now practice more easily for the opening and closing of their hands at their own will, and handle functional daily living tasks at ease. A video is included together with this paper to give a demonstration of the hand robotic system on chronic stroke subjects and it will be presented in the conference. © 2011 IEEE

  11. A new approach of active compliance control via fuzzy logic control for multifingered robot hand

    Jamil, M. F. A.; Jalani, J.; Ahmad, A.

    2016-07-01

    Safety is a vital issue in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). In order to guarantee safety in HRI, a model reference impedance control can be a very useful approach introducing a compliant control. In particular, this paper establishes a fuzzy logic compliance control (i.e. active compliance control) to reduce impact and forces during physical interaction between humans/objects and robots. Exploiting a virtual mass-spring-damper system allows us to determine a desired compliant level by understanding the behavior of the model reference impedance control. The performance of fuzzy logic compliant control is tested in simulation for a robotic hand known as the RED Hand. The results show that the fuzzy logic is a feasible control approach, particularly to control position and to provide compliant control. In addition, the fuzzy logic control allows us to simplify the controller design process (i.e. avoid complex computation) when dealing with nonlinearities and uncertainties.

  12. Control of a Supernumerary Robotic Hand by Foot: An Experimental Study in Virtual Reality.

    Abdi, Elahe; Burdet, Etienne; Bouri, Mohamed; Bleuler, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    In the operational theater, the surgical team could highly benefit from a robotic supplementary hand under the surgeon's full control. The surgeon may so become more autonomous; this may reduce communication errors with the assistants and take over difficult tasks such as holding tools without tremor. In this paper, we therefore examine the possibility to control a third robotic hand with one foot's movements. Three experiments in virtual reality were designed to assess the feasibility of this control strategy, the learning curve of the subjects in different tasks and the coordination of foot movements with the two natural hands. Results show that the limbs are moved simultaneously, in parallel rather than serially. Participants' performance improved within a few minutes of practice without any specific difficulty to complete the tasks. Subjective assessment by the subjects indicated that controlling a third hand by foot has been easy and required only negligible physical and mental efforts. The sense of ownership was reported to improve through the experiments. The mental burden was not directly related to the level of motion required by a task, but depended on the type of activity and practice. The most difficult task was moving two hands and foot in opposite directions. These results suggest that a combination of practice and appropriate tasks can enhance the learning process for controlling a robotic hand by foot.

  13. Control of a Supernumerary Robotic Hand by Foot: An Experimental Study in Virtual Reality.

    Elahe Abdi

    Full Text Available In the operational theater, the surgical team could highly benefit from a robotic supplementary hand under the surgeon's full control. The surgeon may so become more autonomous; this may reduce communication errors with the assistants and take over difficult tasks such as holding tools without tremor. In this paper, we therefore examine the possibility to control a third robotic hand with one foot's movements. Three experiments in virtual reality were designed to assess the feasibility of this control strategy, the learning curve of the subjects in different tasks and the coordination of foot movements with the two natural hands. Results show that the limbs are moved simultaneously, in parallel rather than serially. Participants' performance improved within a few minutes of practice without any specific difficulty to complete the tasks. Subjective assessment by the subjects indicated that controlling a third hand by foot has been easy and required only negligible physical and mental efforts. The sense of ownership was reported to improve through the experiments. The mental burden was not directly related to the level of motion required by a task, but depended on the type of activity and practice. The most difficult task was moving two hands and foot in opposite directions. These results suggest that a combination of practice and appropriate tasks can enhance the learning process for controlling a robotic hand by foot.

  14. Clinical effects of using HEXORR (Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot) for movement therapy in stroke rehabilitation.

    Godfrey, Sasha Blue; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2013-11-01

    The goals of this pilot study were to quantify the clinical benefits of using the Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot for hand rehabilitation after stroke and to determine the population best served by this intervention. Nine subjects with chronic stroke (one excluded from analysis) completed 18 sessions of training with the Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot and a preevaluation, a postevaluation, and a 90-day clinical evaluation. Overall, the subjects improved in both range of motion and clinical measures. Compared with the preevaluation, the subjects showed significant improvements in range of motion, grip strength, and the hand component of the Fugl-Meyer (mean changes, 6.60 degrees, 8.84 percentage points, and 1.86 points, respectively). A subgroup of six subjects exhibited lower tone and received a higher dosage of training. These subjects had significant gains in grip strength, the hand component of the Fugl-Meyer, and the Action Research Arm Test (mean changes, 8.42 percentage points, 2.17 points, and 2.33 points, respectively). Future work is needed to better manage higher levels of hypertonia and provide more support to subjects with higher impairment levels; however, the current results support further study into the Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot treatment.

  15. Fine finger motor skill training with exoskeleton robotic hand in chronic stroke: stroke rehabilitation.

    Ockenfeld, Corinna; Tong, Raymond K Y; Susanto, Evan A; Ho, Sze-Kit; Hu, Xiao-ling

    2013-06-01

    Background and Purpose. Stroke survivors often show a limited recovery in the hand function to perform delicate motions, such as full hand grasping, finger pinching and individual finger movement. The purpose of this study is to describe the implementation of an exoskeleton robotic hand together with fine finger motor skill training on 2 chronic stroke patients. Case Descriptions. Two post-stroke patients participated in a 20-session training program by integrating 10 minutes physical therapy, 20 minutes robotic hand training and 15 minutes functional training tasks with delicate objects(card, pen and coin). These two patients (A and B) had cerebrovascular accident at 6 months and 11 months respectively when enrolled in this study. Outcomes. The results showed that both patients had improvements in Fugl-Meyer assessment (FM), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Patients had better isolation of the individual finger flexion and extension based on the reduced muscle co-contraction from the electromyographic(EMG) signals and finger extension force after 20 sessions of training. Discussion. This preliminary study showed that by focusing on the fine finger motor skills together with the exoskeleton robotic hand, it could improve the motor recovery of the upper extremity in the fingers and hand function, which were showed in the ARAT. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness.

  16. Calculator-Controlled Robots: Hands-On Mathematics and Science Discovery

    Tuchscherer, Tyson

    2010-01-01

    The Calculator Controlled Robots activities are designed to engage students in hands-on inquiry-based missions. These activities address National science and technology standards, as well as specifically focusing on mathematics content and process standards. There are ten missions and three exploration extensions that provide activities for up to…

  17. Robotic devices and brain-machine interfaces for hand rehabilitation post-stroke.

    McConnell, Alistair C; Moioli, Renan C; Brasil, Fabricio L; Vallejo, Marta; Corne, David W; Vargas, Patricia A; Stokes, Adam A

    2017-06-28

    To review the state of the art of robotic-aided hand physiotherapy for post-stroke rehabilitation, including the use of brain-machine interfaces. Each patient has a unique clinical history and, in response to personalized treatment needs, research into individualized and at-home treatment options has expanded rapidly in recent years. This has resulted in the development of many devices and design strategies for use in stroke rehabilitation. The development progression of robotic-aided hand physiotherapy devices and brain-machine interface systems is outlined, focussing on those with mechanisms and control strategies designed to improve recovery outcomes of the hand post-stroke. A total of 110 commercial and non-commercial hand and wrist devices, spanning the 2 major core designs: end-effector and exoskeleton are reviewed. The growing body of evidence on the efficacy and relevance of incorporating brain-machine interfaces in stroke rehabilitation is summarized. The challenges involved in integrating robotic rehabilitation into the healthcare system are discussed. This review provides novel insights into the use of robotics in physiotherapy practice, and may help system designers to develop new devices.

  18. Finger-Shaped GelForce: Sensor for Measuring Surface Traction Fields for Robotic Hand.

    Sato, K; Kamiyama, K; Kawakami, N; Tachi, S

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that the use of haptic sensors to measure the magnitude, direction, and distribution of a force will enable a robotic hand to perform dexterous operations. Therefore, we develop a new type of finger-shaped haptic sensor using GelForce technology. GelForce is a vision-based sensor that can be used to measure the distribution of force vectors, or surface traction fields. The simple structure of the GelForce enables us to develop a compact finger-shaped GelForce for the robotic hand. GelForce that is developed on the basis of an elastic theory can be used to calculate surface traction fields using a conversion equation. However, this conversion equation cannot be analytically solved when the elastic body of the sensor has a complicated shape such as the shape of a finger. Therefore, we propose an observational method and construct a prototype of the finger-shaped GelForce. By using this prototype, we evaluate the basic performance of the finger-shaped GelForce. Then, we conduct a field test by performing grasping operations using a robotic hand. The results of this test show that using the observational method, the finger-shaped GelForce can be successfully used in a robotic hand.

  19. Kinect technology for hand tracking control of surgical robots: technical and surgical skill comparison to current robotic masters.

    Kim, Yonjae; Leonard, Simon; Shademan, Azad; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2014-06-01

    Current surgical robots are controlled by a mechanical master located away from the patient, tracking surgeon's hands by wire and pulleys or mechanical linkage. Contactless hand tracking for surgical robot control is an attractive alternative, because it can be executed with minimal footprint at the patient's bedside without impairing sterility, while eliminating current disassociation between surgeon and patient. We compared technical and technologic feasibility of contactless hand tracking to the current clinical standard master controllers. A hand-tracking system (Kinect™-based 3Gear), a wire-based mechanical master (Mantis Duo), and a clinical mechanical linkage master (da Vinci) were evaluated for technical parameters with strong clinical relevance: system latency, static noise, robot slave tremor, and controller range. Five experienced surgeons performed a skill comparison study, evaluating the three different master controllers for efficiency and accuracy in peg transfer and pointing tasks. da Vinci had the lowest latency of 89 ms, followed by Mantis with 374 ms and 3Gear with 576 ms. Mantis and da Vinci produced zero static error. 3Gear produced average static error of 0.49 mm. The tremor of the robot used by the 3Gear and Mantis system had a radius of 1.7 mm compared with 0.5 mm for da Vinci. The three master controllers all had similar range. The surgeons took 1.98 times longer to complete the peg transfer task with the 3Gear system compared with Mantis, and 2.72 times longer with Mantis compared with da Vinci (p value 2.1e-9). For the pointer task, surgeons were most accurate with da Vinci with average error of 0.72 mm compared with Mantis's 1.61 mm and 3Gear's 2.41 mm (p value 0.00078). Contactless hand-tracking technology as a surgical master can execute simple surgical tasks. Whereas traditional master controllers outperformed, given that contactless hand-tracking is a first-generation technology, clinical potential is promising and could

  20. Compensating Hand Function in Chronic Stroke Patients Through the Robotic Sixth Finger.

    Salvietti, Gionata; Hussain, Irfan; Cioncoloni, David; Taddei, Sabrina; Rossi, Simone; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2017-02-01

    A novel solution to compensate hand grasping abilities is proposed for chronic stroke patients. The goal is to provide the patients with a wearable robotic extra-finger that can be worn on the paretic forearm by means of an elastic band. The proposed prototype, the Robotic Sixth Finger, is a modular articulated device that can adapt its structure to the grasped object shape. The extra-finger and the paretic hand act like the two parts of a gripper cooperatively holding an object. We evaluated the feasibility of the approach with four chronic stroke patients performing a qualitative test, the Frenchay Arm Test. In this proof of concept study, the use of the Robotic Sixth Finger has increased the total score of the patients by two points in a five points scale. The subjects were able to perform the two grasping tasks included in the test that were not possible without the robotic extra-finger. Adding a robotic opposing finger is a very promising approach that can significantly improve the functional compensation of the chronic stroke patient during everyday life activities.

  1. Permeation of limonene through disposable nitrile gloves using a dextrous robot hand.

    Banaee, Sean; S Que Hee, Shane

    2017-03-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of the low-volatile solvent limonene through different disposable, unlined, unsupported, nitrile exam whole gloves (blue, purple, sterling, and lavender, from Kimberly-Clark). This study utilized a moving and static dextrous robot hand as part of a novel dynamic permeation system that allowed sampling at specific times. Quantitation of limonene in samples was based on capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the internal standard method (4-bromophenol). The average post-permeation thicknesses (before reconditioning) for all gloves for both the moving and static hand were more than 10% of the pre-permeation ones (P≤0.05), although this was not so on reconditioning. The standardized breakthrough times and steady-state permeation periods were similar for the blue, purple, and sterling gloves. Both methods had similar sensitivity. The lavender glove showed a higher permeation rate (0.490±0.031 μg/cm 2 /min) for the moving robotic hand compared to the non-moving hand (P≤0.05), this being ascribed to a thickness threshold. Permeation parameters for the static and dynamic robot hand models indicate that both methods have similar sensitivity in detecting the analyte during permeation and the blue, purple, and sterling gloves behave similarly during the permeation process whether moving or non-moving.

  2. Permeation of limonene through disposable nitrile gloves using a dextrous robot hand

    Banaee, Sean; S Que Hee, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of the low-volatile solvent limonene through different disposable, unlined, unsupported, nitrile exam whole gloves (blue, purple, sterling, and lavender, from Kimberly-Clark). Methods: This study utilized a moving and static dextrous robot hand as part of a novel dynamic permeation system that allowed sampling at specific times. Quantitation of limonene in samples was based on capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the internal standard method (4-bromophenol). Results: The average post-permeation thicknesses (before reconditioning) for all gloves for both the moving and static hand were more than 10% of the pre-permeation ones (P≤0.05), although this was not so on reconditioning. The standardized breakthrough times and steady-state permeation periods were similar for the blue, purple, and sterling gloves. Both methods had similar sensitivity. The lavender glove showed a higher permeation rate (0.490±0.031 μg/cm2/min) for the moving robotic hand compared to the non-moving hand (P≤0.05), this being ascribed to a thickness threshold. Conclusions: Permeation parameters for the static and dynamic robot hand models indicate that both methods have similar sensitivity in detecting the analyte during permeation and the blue, purple, and sterling gloves behave similarly during the permeation process whether moving or non-moving. PMID:28111415

  3. A bio-inspired design of a hand robotic exoskeleton for rehabilitation

    Ong, Aira Patrice R.; Bugtai, Nilo T.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the methodology for the design of a five-degree of freedom wearable robotic exoskeleton for hand rehabilitation. The design is inspired by the biological structure and mechanism of the human hand. One of the distinct features of the device is the cable-driven actuation, which provides the flexion and extension motion. A prototype of the orthotic device has been developed to prove the model of the system and has been tested in a 3D printed mechanical hand. The result showed that the proposed device was consistent with the requirements of bionics and was able to demonstrate the flexion and extension of the system.

  4. Physiological and subjective evaluation of a human-robot object hand-over task.

    Dehais, Frédéric; Sisbot, Emrah Akin; Alami, Rachid; Causse, Mickaël

    2011-11-01

    In the context of task sharing between a robot companion and its human partners, the notions of safe and compliant hardware are not enough. It is necessary to guarantee ergonomic robot motions. Therefore, we have developed Human Aware Manipulation Planner (Sisbot et al., 2010), a motion planner specifically designed for human-robot object transfer by explicitly taking into account the legibility, the safety and the physical comfort of robot motions. The main objective of this research was to define precise subjective metrics to assess our planner when a human interacts with a robot in an object hand-over task. A second objective was to obtain quantitative data to evaluate the effect of this interaction. Given the short duration, the "relative ease" of the object hand-over task and its qualitative component, classical behavioral measures based on accuracy or reaction time were unsuitable to compare our gestures. In this perspective, we selected three measurements based on the galvanic skin conductance response, the deltoid muscle activity and the ocular activity. To test our assumptions and validate our planner, an experimental set-up involving Jido, a mobile manipulator robot, and a seated human was proposed. For the purpose of the experiment, we have defined three motions that combine different levels of legibility, safety and physical comfort values. After each robot gesture the participants were asked to rate them on a three dimensional subjective scale. It has appeared that the subjective data were in favor of our reference motion. Eventually the three motions elicited different physiological and ocular responses that could be used to partially discriminate them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and the Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinematic rate control of simulated robot hand at or near wrist singularity

    Barker, K.; Houck, J. A.; Carzoo, S. W.

    1985-01-01

    A robot hand should obey movement commands from an operator on a computer program as closely as possible. However, when two of the three rotational axes of the robot wrist are colinear, the wrist loses a degree of freedom, and the usual resolved rate equations (used to move the hand in response to an operator's inputs) are indeterminant. Furthermore, rate limiting occurs in close vicinity to this singularity. An analysis shows that rate limiting occurs not only in the vicinity of this singularity but also substantially away from it, even when the operator commands rotational rates of the robot hand that are only a small percentage of the operational joint rate limits. Therefore, joint angle rates are scaled when they exceed operational limits in a real time simulation of a robot arm. Simulation results show that a small dead band avoids the wrist singularity in the resolved rate equations but can introduce a high frequency oscillation close to the singularity. However, when a coordinated wrist movement is used in conjunction with the resolved rate equations, the high frequency oscillation disappears.

  6. Soft object deformation monitoring and learning for model-based robotic hand manipulation.

    Cretu, Ana-Maria; Payeur, Pierre; Petriu, Emil M

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a framework that automatically extracts and monitors the shape deformations of soft objects from a video sequence and maps them with force measurements with the goal of providing the necessary information to the controller of a robotic hand to ensure safe model-based deformable object manipulation. Measurements corresponding to the interaction force at the level of the fingertips and to the position of the fingertips of a three-finger robotic hand are associated with the contours of a deformed object tracked in a series of images using neural-network approaches. The resulting model captures the behavior of the object and is able to predict its behavior for previously unseen interactions without any assumption on the object's material. The availability of such models can contribute to the improvement of a robotic hand controller, therefore allowing more accurate and stable grasp while providing more elaborate manipulation capabilities for deformable objects. Experiments performed for different objects, made of various materials, reveal that the method accurately captures and predicts the object's shape deformation while the object is submitted to external forces applied by the robot fingers. The proposed method is also fast and insensitive to severe contour deformations, as well as to smooth changes in lighting, contrast, and background.

  7. Concept development of a tendon arm manipulator and anthropomorphic robotic hand

    Tolman, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    AMETEK/ORED inhouse research and development efforts leading toward a next-generation robotic manipulator arm and end-effector technology is summarized. Manipulator arm development has been directed toward a multiple-degree-of-freedom, flexible, tendon-driven concept referred to here as a Tendon Arm Manipulator (TAM). End-effector development has been directed toward a three-fingered, dextrous, tendon-driven, anthropomorphic configuration which is referred to as an Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand (ARH). Key technology issues are identified for both concepts.

  8. Soft robotic devices for hand rehabilitation and assistance: a narrative review.

    Chu, Chia-Ye; Patterson, Rita M

    2018-02-17

    The debilitating effects on hand function from a number of a neurologic disorders has given rise to the development of rehabilitative robotic devices aimed at restoring hand function in these patients. To combat the shortcomings of previous traditional robotics, soft robotics are rapidly emerging as an alternative due to their inherent safety, less complex designs, and increased potential for portability and efficacy. While several groups have begun designing devices, there are few devices that have progressed enough to provide clinical evidence of their design's therapeutic abilities. Therefore, a global review of devices that have been previously attempted could facilitate the development of new and improved devices in the next step towards obtaining clinical proof of the rehabilitative effects of soft robotics in hand dysfunction. A literature search was performed in SportDiscus, Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science for articles related to the design of soft robotic devices for hand rehabilitation. A framework of the key design elements of the devices was developed to ease the comparison of the various approaches to building them. This framework includes an analysis of the trends in portability, safety features, user intent detection methods, actuation systems, total DOF, number of independent actuators, device weight, evaluation metrics, and modes of rehabilitation. In this study, a total of 62 articles representing 44 unique devices were identified and summarized according to the framework we developed to compare different design aspects. By far, the most common type of device was that which used a pneumatic actuator to guide finger flexion/extension. However, the remainder of our framework elements yielded more heterogeneous results. Consequently, those results are summarized and the advantages and disadvantages of many design choices as well as their rationales were highlighted. The past 3 years has seen a rapid increase in the development of soft robotic

  9. Analysis of relative displacement between the HX wearable robotic exoskeleton and the user's hand.

    Cempini, Marco; Marzegan, Alberto; Rabuffetti, Marco; Cortese, Mario; Vitiello, Nicola; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2014-10-18

    Advances in technology are allowing for the production of several viable wearable robotic devices to assist with activities of daily living and with rehabilitation. One of the most pressing limitations to user satisfaction is the lack of consistency in motion between the user and the robotic device. The displacement between the robot and the body segment may not correspond because of differences in skin and tissue compliance, mechanical backlash, and/or incorrect fit. This report presents the results of an analysis of relative displacement between the user's hand and a wearable exoskeleton, the HX. HX has been designed to maximize comfort, wearability and user safety, exploiting chains with multiple degrees-of-freedom with a modular architecture. These appealing features may introduce several uncertainties in the kinematic performances, especially when considering the anthropometry, morphology and degree of mobility of the human hand. The small relative displacements between the hand and the exoskeleton were measured with a video-based motion capture system, while the user executed several different grips in different exoskeleton modes. The analysis furnished quantitative results about the device performance, differentiated among device modules and test conditions. In general, the global relative displacement for the distal part of the device was in the range 0.5-1.5 mm, while within 3 mm (worse but still acceptable) for displacements nearest to the hand dorsum. Conclusions over the HX design principles have been drawn, as well as guidelines for future developments.

  10. Real-Time Control of an Exoskeleton Hand Robot with Myoelectric Pattern Recognition.

    Lu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Xu; Tong, Kay-Yu; Zhou, Ping

    2017-08-01

    Robot-assisted training provides an effective approach to neurological injury rehabilitation. To meet the challenge of hand rehabilitation after neurological injuries, this study presents an advanced myoelectric pattern recognition scheme for real-time intention-driven control of a hand exoskeleton. The developed scheme detects and recognizes user's intention of six different hand motions using four channels of surface electromyography (EMG) signals acquired from the forearm and hand muscles, and then drives the exoskeleton to assist the user accomplish the intended motion. The system was tested with eight neurologically intact subjects and two individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The overall control accuracy was [Formula: see text] for the neurologically intact subjects and [Formula: see text] for the SCI subjects. The total lag of the system was approximately 250[Formula: see text]ms including data acquisition, transmission and processing. One SCI subject also participated in training sessions in his second and third visits. Both the control accuracy and efficiency tended to improve. These results show great potential for applying the advanced myoelectric pattern recognition control of the wearable robotic hand system toward improving hand function after neurological injuries.

  11. Bone loss in limbs with decreased or absent sensation: Ten year follow-up of the hands in leprosy

    MacMoran, J.W.; Brand, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-seven patients with insensitive hands have been studied by correlating radiologic findings with occupational and medical history in order to better define causal factors in bone resorption. This study indicates that nonspecific infection and trauma are the reasons for bone resorption in 98% of cases. The role of intermittent pressure seems to be in soft tissue breakdown, which then allows bone to become infected. Bone resorption can be arrested at any stage of the disease by appropriate therapy of splinting and control of infection. (orig.)

  12. A General Contact Force Analysis of an Under-Actuated Finger in Robot Hand Grasping

    Xuan Vinh Ha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a mathematical analysis of contact forces for the under-actuated finger in a general under-actuated robotic hand during grasping. The concept of under-actuation in robotic grasping with fewer actuators than degrees of freedom (DOF, through the use of springs and mechanical limits, allows the hand to adjust itself to an irregularly shaped object without complex control strategies and sensors. Here the main concern is the contact forces, which are important elements in grasping tasks, based on the proposed mathematical analysis of their distributions of the n-DOF under-actuated finger. The simulation results, along with the 3-DOF finger from the ADAMS model, show the effectiveness of the mathematical analysis method, while comparing them with the measured results. The system can find magnitudes of the contact forces at the contact positions between the phalanges and the object.

  13. Pressure Sensor: State of the Art, Design, and Application for Robotic Hand

    Ahmed M. Almassri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey the state of the art in a variety of force sensors for designing and application of robotic hand. Most of the force sensors are examined based on tactile sensing. For a decade, many papers have widely discussed various sensor technologies and transducer methods which are based on microelectromechanical system (MEMS and silicon used for improving the accuracy and performance measurement of tactile sensing capabilities especially for robotic hand applications. We found that transducers and materials such as piezoresistive and polymer, respectively, are used in order to improve the sensing sensitivity for grasping mechanisms in future. This predicted growth in such applications will explode into high risk tasks which requires very precise purposes. It shows considerable potential and significant levels of research attention.

  14. Space robotics--DLR's telerobotic concepts, lightweight arms and articulated hands.

    Hirzinger, G; Brunner, B; Landzettel, K; Sporer, N; Butterfass, J; Schedl, M

    2003-01-01

    The paper briefly outlines DLR's experience with real space robot missions (ROTEX and ETS VII). It then discusses forthcoming projects, e.g., free-flying systems in low or geostationary orbit and robot systems around the space station ISS, where the telerobotic system MARCO might represent a common baseline. Finally it describes our efforts in developing a new generation of "mechatronic" ultra-light weight arms with multifingered hands. The third arm generation is operable now (approaching present-day technical limits). In a similar way DLR's four-fingered hand II was a big step towards higher reliability and yet better performance. Artificial robonauts for space are a central goal now for the Europeans as well as for NASA, and the first verification tests of DLR's joint components are supposed to fly already end of 93 on the space station.

  15. 'Robot' Hand Illusion under Delayed Visual Feedback: Relationship between the Senses of Ownership and Agency.

    Mohamad Arif Fahmi Ismail

    Full Text Available The rubber hand illusion (RHI is an illusion of the self-ownership of a rubber hand that is touched synchronously with one's own hand. While the RHI relates to visual and tactile integration, we can also consider a similar illusion with visual and motor integration on a fake hand. We call this a "robot hand illusion" (RoHI, which relates to both the senses of ownership and agency. Here we investigate the effect of delayed visual feedback on the RoHI. Participants viewed a virtual computer graphic hand controlled by their hand movement recorded using a data glove device. We inserted delays of various lengths between the participant's hand and the virtual hand movements (90-590 ms, and the RoHI effects for each delay condition were systematically tested using a questionnaire. The results showed that the participants felt significantly greater RoHI effects with temporal discrepancies of less than 190 ms compared with longer temporal discrepancies, both in the senses of ownership and agency. Additionally, participants felt significant, but weaker, RoHI effects with temporal discrepancies of 290-490 ms in the sense of agency, but not in the sense of ownership. The participants did not feel a RoHI with temporal discrepancies of 590 ms in either the senses of agency or ownership. Our results suggest that a time window of less than 200 ms is critical for multi-sensory integration processes constituting self-body image.

  16. 'Robot' Hand Illusion under Delayed Visual Feedback: Relationship between the Senses of Ownership and Agency.

    Ismail, Mohamad Arif Fahmi; Shimada, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion (RHI) is an illusion of the self-ownership of a rubber hand that is touched synchronously with one's own hand. While the RHI relates to visual and tactile integration, we can also consider a similar illusion with visual and motor integration on a fake hand. We call this a "robot hand illusion" (RoHI), which relates to both the senses of ownership and agency. Here we investigate the effect of delayed visual feedback on the RoHI. Participants viewed a virtual computer graphic hand controlled by their hand movement recorded using a data glove device. We inserted delays of various lengths between the participant's hand and the virtual hand movements (90-590 ms), and the RoHI effects for each delay condition were systematically tested using a questionnaire. The results showed that the participants felt significantly greater RoHI effects with temporal discrepancies of less than 190 ms compared with longer temporal discrepancies, both in the senses of ownership and agency. Additionally, participants felt significant, but weaker, RoHI effects with temporal discrepancies of 290-490 ms in the sense of agency, but not in the sense of ownership. The participants did not feel a RoHI with temporal discrepancies of 590 ms in either the senses of agency or ownership. Our results suggest that a time window of less than 200 ms is critical for multi-sensory integration processes constituting self-body image.

  17. Robotic devices and brain-machine interfaces for hand rehabilitation post-stroke

    McConnell, Alistair C; Moioli, Renan C; Brasil, Fabricio L; Vallejo, Marta; Corne, David W; Vargas, Patricia A; Stokes, Adam A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the state of the art of robotic-aided hand physiotherapy for post-stroke rehabilitation, including the use of brain-machine interfaces. Each patient has a unique clinical history and, in response to personalized treatment needs, research into individualized and at-home treatment options has expanded rapidly in recent years. This has resulted in the development of many devices and design strategies for use in stroke rehabilitation.METHODS: The development progression of ro...

  18. Impacts of Sensation, Perception, and Motor Abilities of the Ipsilesional Upper Limb on Hand Functions in Unilateral Stroke: Quantifications From Biomechanical and Functional Perspectives.

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Ke, Chia-Wen; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Yang, Hsiu-Ching; Tsai, Ching-Liang; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2018-02-01

    The presence of subtle losses in hand dexterity after stroke affects the regaining of independence with regard to activities of daily living. Therefore, awareness of ipsilesional upper extremity (UE) function may be of importance when developing a comprehensive rehabilitation program. However, current hand function tests seem to be unable to identify asymptomatic UE impairments. To assess the motor coordination as well as the sensory perception of an ipsilesional UE using biomechanical analysis of performance-oriented tasks and conducting a Manual Tactile Test (MTT). Case-controlled study. A university hospital. A total of 21 patients with unilateral stroke, along with 21 matched healthy control subjects, were recruited. Each participant was requested to perform a pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test, object-transport task, and reach-to-grasp task via motion capture, as well as the MTT. The kinetic data of the PHUA test, kinematics analysis of functional movements, and time requirement of MTT were analyzed. Patients with ipsilesional UE had an inferior ability to scale and produce pinch force precisely when conducting the PHUA test compared to the healthy controls (P perception (P sensation-perception-motor system in the ipsilesional UE. Integration of sensorimotor training programs for ipsilesional UE in future neuro-rehabilitation strategies may provide more beneficial effects to regain patients' motor recovery and to promote daily living activity independence than focusing on paretic arm motor training alone. III. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design for a three-fingered hand. [robotic and prosthetic applications

    Crossley, F. R. E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of a prototype mechanical hand or 'end effector' for use on a remotely controlled robot, but with possible application as a prosthetic device. An analysis of hand motions is reported, from which it is concluded that the two most important manipulations (apart from grasps) are to be able to pick up a tool and draw it into a nested grip against the palm, and to be able to hold a pistol-grip tool such as an electric drill and pull the trigger. One of our models was tested and found capable of both these operations.

  20. Control of a Robotic Hand Using a Tongue Control System-A Prosthesis Application.

    Johansen, Daniel; Cipriani, Christian; Popovic, Dejan B; Struijk, Lotte N S A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using an inductive tongue control system (ITCS) for controlling robotic/prosthetic hands and arms. This study presents a novel dual modal control scheme for multigrasp robotic hands combining standard electromyogram (EMG) with the ITCS. The performance of the ITCS control scheme was evaluated in a comparative study. Ten healthy subjects used both the ITCS control scheme and a conventional EMG control scheme to complete grasping exercises with the IH1 Azzurra robotic hand implementing five grasps. Time to activate a desired function or grasp was used as the performance metric. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the performance of the two control schemes. On average, the ITCS control scheme was 1.15 s faster than the EMG control scheme, corresponding to a 35.4% reduction in the activation time. The largest difference was for grasp 5 with a mean AT reduction of 45.3% (2.38 s). The findings indicate that using the ITCS control scheme could allow for faster activation of specific grasps or functions compared with a conventional EMG control scheme. For transhumeral and especially bilateral amputees, the ITCS control scheme could have a significant impact on the prosthesis control. In addition, the ITCS would provide bilateral amputees with the additional advantage of environmental and computer control for which the ITCS was originally developed.

  1. Design Of A Low Cost Anthropomorphic Robot Hand For Industrial Applications

    Allen, P.; Raleigh, B.

    2009-11-01

    Autonomous grasping systems using anthropomorphic robotic end effectors have many applications, and the potential of such devices has inspired researchers to develop many types of grasping systems over the past 30 years. Their research has yielded significant advances in end effector dexterity and functionality. However, due to the cost and complexity associated with such devices, their role has been largely confined to that of being research tools in laboratories. Industry, by contrast, has largely opted for simple, single task, devices. This paper presents a novel low cost anthropomorphic robotic end effector, and in particular the design characteristics that make it more applicable to industrial application. The design brief was (i) to be broadly similar to the human hand in terms of size and performance (ii) be low cost (less than €5000 for the system) and (iii) to provide sufficient performance to allow use in industrial applications. Consisting of three fingers and an opposing thumb, the robotic hand developed has a total of 12 automated degrees of freedom. Another 4 degrees of freedom can be set manually. The specific design of the fingers and thumb, together with the drive arrangement utilizing synchronous belts, yields a simplified kinematics solution for the control of movement. The modular nature of the design is extended also to the palm, which can be easily modified to produce different overall work envelopes for the hand. The drive system and grasping strategies are also detailed.

  2. Hand Gesture Modeling and Recognition for Human and Robot Interactive Assembly Using Hidden Markov Models

    Fei Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gesture recognition is essential for human and robot collaboration. Within an industrial hybrid assembly cell, the performance of such a system significantly affects the safety of human workers. This work presents an approach to recognizing hand gestures accurately during an assembly task while in collaboration with a robot co-worker. We have designed and developed a sensor system for measuring natural human-robot interactions. The position and rotation information of a human worker's hands and fingertips are tracked in 3D space while completing a task. A modified chain-code method is proposed to describe the motion trajectory of the measured hands and fingertips. The Hidden Markov Model (HMM method is adopted to recognize patterns via data streams and identify workers' gesture patterns and assembly intentions. The effectiveness of the proposed system is verified by experimental results. The outcome demonstrates that the proposed system is able to automatically segment the data streams and recognize the gesture patterns thus represented with a reasonable accuracy ratio.

  3. Integration of robotics and neuroscience beyond the hand: What kind of synergies?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Santello et al. [1] review an impressive amount of work on the control of biological and artificial hands that demonstrates how the concept of synergies can lead to a successful integration of robotics and neuroscience. Is it possible to generalize the same approach to the control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies beyond the hand? The human hand synergies that appear most relevant for robotic hands are those defined at the kinematic level, i.e. postural synergies [2]. Postural synergies capture the geometric relations among the many joints of the hand and allow for a low dimensional characterization and synthesis of the static hand postures involved in grasping and manipulating a large set of objects. However, many other complex motor skills such as walking, reaching, throwing, and catching require controlling multi-articular time-varying trajectories rather than static postures. Dynamic control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies, especially when geometric and inertial parameters are uncertain and the joints are compliant, poses great challenges. What kind of synergies might simplify the dynamic control of motor skills involving upper and lower limbs as well as the whole body?

  4. A multichannel-near-infrared-spectroscopy-triggered robotic hand rehabilitation system for stroke patients.

    Lee, Jongseung; Mukae, Nobutaka; Arata, Jumpei; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Iramina, Keiji; Iihara, Koji; Hashizume, Makoto

    2017-07-01

    There is a demand for a new neurorehabilitation modality with a brain-computer interface for stroke patients with insufficient or no remaining hand motor function. We previously developed a robotic hand rehabilitation system triggered by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to address this demand. In a preliminary prototype system, a robotic hand orthosis, providing one degree-of-freedom motion for a hand's closing and opening, is triggered by a wireless command from a NIRS system, capturing a subject's motor cortex activation. To examine the feasibility of the prototype, we conducted a preliminary test involving six neurologically intact participants. The test comprised a series of evaluations for two aspects of neurorehabilitation training in a real-time manner: classification accuracy and execution time. The effects of classification-related factors, namely the algorithm, signal type, and number of NIRS channels, were investigated. In the comparison of algorithms, linear discrimination analysis performed better than the support vector machine in terms of both accuracy and training time. The oxyhemoglobin versus deoxyhemoglobin comparison revealed that the two concentrations almost equally contribute to the hand motion estimation. The relationship between the number of NIRS channels and accuracy indicated that a certain number of channels are needed and suggested a need for a method of selecting informative channels. The computation time of 5.84 ms was acceptable for our purpose. Overall, the preliminary prototype showed sufficient feasibility for further development and clinical testing with stroke patients.

  5. Design of an eye-in-hand sensing and servo control framework for harvesting robotics in dense vegetation

    Barth, Ruud; Hemming, Jochen; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    A modular software framework design that allows flexible implementation of eye-in-hand sensing and motion control for agricultural robotics in dense vegetation is reported. Harvesting robots in cultivars with dense vegetation require multiple viewpoints and on-line trajectory adjustments in order

  6. Visual Tracking of Deformation and Classification of Non-Rigid Objects with Robot Hand Probing

    Fei Hui

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Performing tasks with a robot hand often requires a complete knowledge of the manipulated object, including its properties (shape, rigidity, surface texture and its location in the environment, in order to ensure safe and efficient manipulation. While well-established procedures exist for the manipulation of rigid objects, as well as several approaches for the manipulation of linear or planar deformable objects such as ropes or fabric, research addressing the characterization of deformable objects occupying a volume remains relatively limited. The paper proposes an approach for tracking the deformation of non-rigid objects under robot hand manipulation using RGB-D data. The purpose is to automatically classify deformable objects as rigid, elastic, plastic, or elasto-plastic, based on the material they are made of, and to support recognition of the category of such objects through a robotic probing process in order to enhance manipulation capabilities. The proposed approach combines advantageously classical color and depth image processing techniques and proposes a novel combination of the fast level set method with a log-polar mapping of the visual data to robustly detect and track the contour of a deformable object in a RGB-D data stream. Dynamic time warping is employed to characterize the object properties independently from the varying length of the tracked contour as the object deforms. The proposed solution achieves a classification rate over all categories of material of up to 98.3%. When integrated in the control loop of a robot hand, it can contribute to ensure stable grasp, and safe manipulation capability that will preserve the physical integrity of the object.

  7. A soft robotic exomusculature glove with integrated sEMG sensing for hand rehabilitation.

    Delph, Michael A; Fischer, Sarah A; Gauthier, Phillip W; Luna, Carlos H Martinez; Clancy, Edward A; Fischer, Gregory S

    2013-06-01

    Stroke affects 750,000 people annually, and 80% of stroke survivors are left with weakened limbs and hands. Repetitive hand movement is often used as a rehabilitation technique in order to regain hand movement and strength. In order to facilitate this rehabilitation, a robotic glove was designed to aid in the movement and coordination of gripping exercises. This glove utilizes a cable system to open and close a patients hand. The cables are actuated by servomotors, mounted in a backpack weighing 13.2 lbs including battery power sources. The glove can be controlled in terms of finger position and grip force through switch interface, software program, or surface myoelectric (sEMG) signal. The primary control modes of the system provide: active assistance, active resistance and a preprogrammed mode. This project developed a working prototype of the rehabilitative robotic glove which actuates the fingers over a full range of motion across one degree-of-freedom, and is capable of generating a maximum 15N grip force.

  8. Control Capabilities of Myoelectric Robotic Prostheses by Hand Amputees: A Scientific Research and Market Overview.

    Atzori, Manfredo; Müller, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Hand amputation can dramatically affect the capabilities of a person. Cortical reorganization occurs in the brain, but the motor and somatosensorial cortex can interact with the remnant muscles of the missing hand even many years after the amputation, leading to the possibility to restore the capabilities of hand amputees through myoelectric prostheses. Myoelectric hand prostheses with many degrees of freedom are commercially available and recent advances in rehabilitation robotics suggest that their natural control can be performed in real life. The first commercial products exploiting pattern recognition to recognize the movements have recently been released, however the most common control systems are still usually unnatural and must be learned through long training. Dexterous and naturally controlled robotic prostheses can become reality in the everyday life of amputees but the path still requires many steps. This mini-review aims to improve the situation by giving an overview of the advancements in the commercial and scientific domains in order to outline the current and future chances in this field and to foster the integration between market and scientific research.

  9. Control Capabilities of Myoelectric Robotic Prostheses by Hand Amputees: A Scientific Research and Market Overview

    Manfredo eAtzori

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hand amputation can dramatically affect the capabilities of a person. Cortical reorganization occurs in the brain, but the motor and somatosensorial cortex can interact with the remnant muscles of the missing hand even many years after the amputation, leading to the possibility to restore the capabilities of hand amputees through myoelectric prostheses. Myoelectric hand prostheses with many degrees of freedom are commercially available and recent advances in rehabilitation robotics suggest that their natural control can be performed in real life. The first commercial products exploiting pattern recognition to recognize the movements have recently been released, however the most common control systems are still usually unnatural and must be learned through long training. Dexterous and naturally controlled robotic prostheses can become reality in the everyday life of amputees but the path still requires many steps. This mini-review aims to improve the situation by giving an overview of the advancements in the commercial and scientific domains in order to outline the current and future chances in this field and to foster the integration between market and scientific research.

  10. Design and implementation of a dexterous anthropomorphic robotic typing (DART) hand

    Thayer, Nicholas; Priya, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on design and implementation of a biomimetic dexterous humanoid hand. Several design rules are proposed to retain human form and functionality in a robotic hand while overcoming the difficultly of actuation within a confined geometry. Size and weight have been optimized in order to achieve human-like performance with the prime objective of typing on a computer keyboard. Each finger has four joints and three degrees of freedom (DOF) while the thumb has an additional degree of freedom necessary for manipulating small objects. The hand consists of 16 servo motors dedicated to finger motion and three motors for wrist motion. A closed-loop kinematic control scheme utilizing the Denavit–Hartenberg convention for spatial joint positioning was implemented. Servo motors housed in the forearm act as an origin for wires to travel to their insertion points in the hand. The dexterity of the DART hand was measured by quantifying functionality and typing speed on a standard keyboard. The typing speed of a single DART hand was found to be 20 words min −1 . In comparison, the average human has a typing speed of 33 words min −1 with two hands

  11. Methodology for designing and manufacturing complex biologically inspired soft robotic fluidic actuators: prosthetic hand case study.

    Thompson-Bean, E; Das, R; McDaid, A

    2016-10-31

    We present a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of complex biologically inspired soft robotic fluidic actuators. The methodology is applied to the design and manufacture of a prosthetic for the hand. Real human hands are scanned to produce a 3D model of a finger, and pneumatic networks are implemented within it to produce a biomimetic bending motion. The finger is then partitioned into material sections, and a genetic algorithm based optimization, using finite element analysis, is employed to discover the optimal material for each section. This is based on two biomimetic performance criteria. Two sets of optimizations using two material sets are performed. Promising optimized material arrangements are fabricated using two techniques to validate the optimization routine, and the fabricated and simulated results are compared. We find that the optimization is successful in producing biomimetic soft robotic fingers and that fabrication of the fingers is possible. Limitations and paths for development are discussed. This methodology can be applied for other fluidic soft robotic devices.

  12. Robotic finger perturbation training improves finger postural steadiness and hand dexterity.

    Yoshitake, Yasuhide; Ikeda, Atsutoshi; Shinohara, Minoru

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the effect of robotic finger perturbation training on steadiness in finger posture and hand dexterity in healthy young adults. A mobile robotic finger training system was designed to have the functions of high-speed mechanical response, two degrees of freedom, and adjustable loading amplitude and direction. Healthy young adults were assigned to one of the three groups: random perturbation training (RPT), constant force training (CFT), and control. Subjects in RPT and CFT performed steady posture training with their index finger using the robot in different modes: random force in RPT and constant force in CFT. After the 2-week intervention period, fluctuations of the index finger posture decreased only in RPT during steady position-matching tasks with an inertial load. Purdue pegboard test score improved also in RPT only. The relative change in finger postural fluctuations was negatively correlated with the relative change in the number of completed pegs in the pegboard test in RPT. The results indicate that finger posture training with random mechanical perturbations of varying amplitudes and directions of force is effective in improving finger postural steadiness and hand dexterity in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Robotic microlaryngeal phonosurgery: Testing of a "steady-hand" microsurgery platform.

    Akst, Lee M; Olds, Kevin C; Balicki, Marcin; Chalasani, Preetham; Taylor, Russell H

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate gains in microlaryngeal precision achieved by using a novel robotic "steady hand" microsurgery platform in performing simulated phonosurgical tasks. Crossover comparative study of surgical performance and descriptive analysis of surgeon feedback. A novel robotic ear, nose, and throat microsurgery system (REMS) was tested in simulated phonosurgery. Participants navigated a 0.4-mm-wide microlaryngeal needle through spirals of varying widths, both with and without robotic assistance. Fail time (time the needle contacted spiral edges) was measured, and statistical comparison was performed. Participants were surveyed to provide subjective feedback on the REMS. Nine participants performed the task at three spiral widths, yielding 27 paired testing conditions. In 24 of 27 conditions, robot-assisted performance was better than unassisted; five trials were errorless, all achieved with the robot. Paired analysis of all conditions revealed fail time of 0.769 ± 0.568 seconds manually, improving to 0.284 ± 0.584 seconds with the robot (P = .003). Analysis of individual spiral sizes showed statistically better performance with the REMS at spiral widths of 2 mm (0.156 ± 0.226 seconds vs. 0.549 ± 0.545 seconds, P = .019) and 1.5 mm (0.075 ± 0.099 seconds vs. 0.890 ± 0.518 seconds, P = .002). At 1.2 mm, all nine participants together showed similar performance with and without robotic assistance (0.621 ± 0.923 seconds vs. 0.868 ± 0.634 seconds, P = .52), though subgroup analysis of five surgeons most familiar with microlaryngoscopy showed statistically better performance with the robot (0.204 ± 0.164 seconds vs. 0.664 ± 0.354 seconds, P = .036). The REMS is a novel platform with potential applications in microlaryngeal phonosurgery. Further feasibility studies and preclinical testing should be pursued as a bridge to eventual clinical use. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:126-132, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. A multi-DOF robotic exoskeleton interface for hand motion assistance.

    Iqbal, Jamshed; Tsagarakis, Nikos G; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the design and development of a robotic exoskeleton based rehabilitation system. A portable direct-driven optimized hand exoskeleton system has been proposed. The optimization procedure primarily based on matching the exoskeleton and finger workspaces guided the system design. The selection of actuators for the proposed system has emerged as a result of experiments with users of different hand sizes. Using commercial sensors, various hand parameters, e.g. maximum and average force levels have been measured. The results of these experiments have been mapped directly to the mechanical design of the system. An under-actuated optimum mechanism has been analysed followed by the design and realization of the first prototype. The system provides both position and force feedback sensory information which can improve the outcomes of a professional rehabilitation exercise.

  15. A Methodology for the Design of Robotic Hands with Multiple Fingers

    Jorge Eduardo Parada Puig

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology that has been applied for a design process of anthropomorphic hands with multiple fingers. Biomechanical characteristics of human hand have been analysed so that ergonomic and anthropometric aspects have been used as fundamental references for obtaining grasping mechanisms. A kinematic analysis has been proposed to define the requirements for designing grasping functions. Selection of materials and actuators has been discussed too. This topic has been based on previous experiences with prototypes that have been developed at the Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics (LARM of the University of Cassino. An example of the application of the proposed method has been presented for the design of a first prototype of LARM Hand.

  16. Access to hands-on mathematics measurement activities using robots controlled via speech generating devices: three case studies.

    Adams, Kim; Cook, Al

    2014-07-01

    To examine how using a robot controlled via a speech generating device (SGD) influences the ways students with physical and communication limitations can demonstrate their knowledge in math measurement activities. Three children with severe physical disabilities and complex communication needs used the robot and SGD system to perform four math measurement lessons in comparing, sorting and ordering objects. The performance of the participants was measured and the process of using the system was described in terms of manipulation and communication events. Stakeholder opinions were solicited regarding robot use. Robot use revealed some gaps in the procedural knowledge of the participants. Access to both the robot and SGD was shown to provide several benefits. Stakeholders thought the intervention was important and feasible for a classroom environment. The participants were able to participate actively in the hands-on and communicative measurement activities and thus meet the demands of current math instruction methods. Current mathematics pedagogy encourages doing hands-on activities while communicating about concepts. Adapted Lego robots enabled children with severe physical disabilities to perform hands-on length measurement activities. Controlling the robots from speech generating devices (SGD) enabled the children, who also had complex communication needs, to reflect and report on results during the activities. By using the robots combined with SGDs, children both exhibited their knowledge of and experienced the concepts of mathematical measurements.

  17. Method of Grasping Control by Computing Internal and External Impedances for Two Robot Fingers, and Its Application to Admittance Control of a Robot Hand-Arm System

    Jian Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impedance control is an important technology used in the grasping control of a robot hand. Numerous studies related to grasping algorithms have been reported in recent years, with the contact force between robot fingers and the object to be grasped being primarily discussed in most cases. Generally, a coupling effect occurs between the internal loop of the grasping operation and the external loop of the interaction with the environment when a multi-fingered robot hand is used to complete a contact task. Therefore, a robot hand cannot hold an object using a large external force to complete a wide range of tasks by applying the conventional method. In this paper, the coupling of the internal/external forces occurring in grasping operations using multiple fingers is analysed. Then, improved impedance control based on the previous method is proposed as an effective tool to solve the problem of grasping failure caused by single-finger contact. Furthermore, a method for applying the improved grasping algorithm to the admittance control of a robot hand-arm system is also proposed. The proposed method divides the impedance effect into the grasping control of the hand and the cooperative control of the arm, so that expanding the task space and increasing the flexibility of impedance adjustment can be achieved. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Laparoscopic hand-assisted versus robotic-assisted laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: experience of 103 consecutive cases.

    Kannan, Umashankkar; Ecker, Brett L; Choudhury, Rashikh; Dempsey, Daniel T; Williams, Noel N; Dumon, Kristoffel R

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has become a stand-alone procedure in the treatment of morbid obesity. There are very few reports on the use of robotic approach in sleeve gastrectomy. The purpose of this retrospective study is to report our early experience of robotic-assisted laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (RALSG) using a proctored training model with comparison to an institutional cohort of patients who underwent laparoscopic hand-assisted sleeve gastrectomy (LASG). University hospital. The study included 108 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy either via the laparoscopic-assisted or robot-assisted approach during the study period. Of these 108 patients, 62 underwent LASG and 46 underwent RALSG. The console surgeon in the RALSG is a clinical year 4 (CY4) surgery resident. All CY4 surgery residents received targeted simulation training before their rotation. The console surgeon is proctored by the primary surgeon with assistance as needed by the second surgeon. The patients in the robotic and laparoscopic cohorts did not have a statistical difference in their demographic characteristics, preoperative co-morbidities, or complications. The mean operating time did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts (121 min versus 110 min, P = .07). Patient follow-up in the LSG and RALSG were 91% and 90% at 3 months, 62% and 64% at 6 months, and 60% and 55% at 1 year, respectively. The mean percentage estimated weight loss (EWL%) at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year was greater in the robotic group but not statistically significant (27 versus 22 at 3 mo [P = .05] and 39 versus 34 at 6 mo [P = .025], 57 versus 48 at 1 yr [P = .09]). There was no mortality in either group. Early results of our experience with RALSG indicate low perioperative complication rates and comparable weight loss with LASG. The concept of a stepwise education model needs further validation with larger studies. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc

  19. Effects of prosthesis use on the capability to control myoelectric robotic prosthetic hands.

    Atzori, Manfredo; Hager, Anne-Gabrielle Mittaz; Elsig, Simone; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Bassetto, Franco; Muller, Henning

    2015-08-01

    The natural control of robotic prosthetic hands with non-invasive techniques is still a challenge: myoelectric prostheses currently give some control capabilities; the application of pattern recognition techniques is promising and recently started to be applied in practice but still many questions are open in the field. In particular, the effects of clinical factors on movement classification accuracy and the capability to control myoelectric prosthetic hands are analyzed in very few studies. The effect of regularly using prostheses on movement classification accuracy has been previously studied, showing differences between users of myoelectric and cosmetic prostheses. In this paper we compare users of myoelectric and body-powered prostheses and intact subjects. 36 machine-learning methods are applied on 6 amputees and 40 intact subjects performing 40 movements. Then, statistical analyses are performed in order to highlight significant differences between the groups of subjects. The statistical analyses do not show significant differences between the two groups of amputees, while significant differences are obtained between amputees and intact subjects. These results constitute new information in the field and suggest new interpretations to previous hypotheses, thus adding precious information towards natural control of robotic prosthetic hands.

  20. Design of a Reconfigurable Robotic System for Flexoextension Fitted to Hand Fingers Size

    J. Felipe Aguilar-Pereyra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing demand for assistance in rehabilitation therapies for hand movements, a robotic system is proposed to mobilize the hand fingers in flexion and extension exercises. The robotic system is composed by four, type slider-crank, mechanisms that have the ability to fit the user fingers length from the index to the little finger, through the adjustment of only one link for each mechanism. The trajectory developed by each mechanism corresponds to the natural flexoextension path of each finger. The amplitude of the rotations for metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP and proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP varies from 0 to 90° and the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP varies from 0 to 60°; the joint rotations are coordinated naturally. The four R-RRT mechanisms orientation allows a 15° abduction movement for index, ring, and little fingers. The kinematic analysis of this mechanism was developed in order to assure that the displacement speed and smooth acceleration into the desired range of motion and the simulation results are presented. The reconfiguration of mechanisms covers about 95% of hand sizes of a group of Mexican adult population. Maximum trajectory tracking error is less than 3% in full range of movement and it can be compensated by the additional rotation of finger joints without injury to the user.

  1. Design of a Reconfigurable Robotic System for Flexoextension Fitted to Hand Fingers Size.

    Aguilar-Pereyra, J Felipe; Castillo-Castaneda, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing demand for assistance in rehabilitation therapies for hand movements, a robotic system is proposed to mobilize the hand fingers in flexion and extension exercises. The robotic system is composed by four, type slider-crank, mechanisms that have the ability to fit the user fingers length from the index to the little finger, through the adjustment of only one link for each mechanism. The trajectory developed by each mechanism corresponds to the natural flexoextension path of each finger. The amplitude of the rotations for metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) varies from 0 to 90° and the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) varies from 0 to 60°; the joint rotations are coordinated naturally. The four R-RRT mechanisms orientation allows a 15° abduction movement for index, ring, and little fingers. The kinematic analysis of this mechanism was developed in order to assure that the displacement speed and smooth acceleration into the desired range of motion and the simulation results are presented. The reconfiguration of mechanisms covers about 95% of hand sizes of a group of Mexican adult population. Maximum trajectory tracking error is less than 3% in full range of movement and it can be compensated by the additional rotation of finger joints without injury to the user.

  2. Effects of electromyography-driven robot-aided hand training with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on hand control performance after chronic stroke.

    Rong, Wei; Tong, Kai Yu; Hu, Xiao Ling; Ho, Sze Kit

    2015-03-01

    An electromyography-driven robot system integrated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was developed to investigate its effectiveness on post-stroke rehabilitation. The performance of this system in assisting finger flexion/extension with different assistance combinations was evaluated in five stroke subjects. Then, a pilot study with 20-sessions training was conducted to evaluate the training's effectiveness. The results showed that combined assistance from the NMES-robot could improve finger movement accuracy, encourage muscle activation of the finger muscles and suppress excessive muscular activities in the elbow joint. When assistances from both NMES and the robot were 50% of their maximum assistances, finger-tracking performance had the best results, with the lowest root mean square error, greater range of motion, higher voluntary muscle activations of the finger joints and lower muscle co-contraction in the finger and elbow joints. Upper limb function improved after the 20-session training, indicated by the increased clinical scores of Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Action Research Arm Test and Wolf Motor Function Test. Muscle co-contraction was reduced in the finger and elbow joints reflected by the Modified Ashworth Scale. The findings demonstrated that an electromyography-driven NMES-robot used for chronic stroke improved hand function and tracking performance. Further research is warranted to validate the method on a larger scale. Implications for Rehabilitation The hand robotics and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) techniques are still separate systems in current post-stroke hand rehabilitation. This is the first study to investigate the combined effects of the NMES and robot on hand rehabilitation. The finger tracking performance was improved with the combined assistance from the EMG-driven NMES-robot hand system. The assistance from the robot could improve the finger movement accuracy and the assistance from the NMES could reduce the

  3. Development of sensor system built into a robot hand toward environmental monitoring

    Kaneko, Kenji; Ueshiba, Toshio; Yoshimi, Takashi; Kawai, Yoshihiro; Morisawa, Mitsuharu; Kanehiro, Fumio; Yokoi, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    The development of sensor system that is built into a hand of a humanoid robot toward environmental monitoring is presented in this paper. The developed system consists of a color C-MOS camera, a laser projector with a lens distributing a laser light, and a LED projector. The sensor system can activate/disable these components according to the purpose. This paper introduces the design process, pre-experimental results for evaluating components, and the specifications of the developed sensor system together with experimental results. (author)

  4. Intelligent control of robotic arm/hand systems for the NASA EVA retriever using neural networks

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Adaptive/general learning algorithms using varying neural network models are considered for the intelligent control of robotic arm plus dextrous hand/manipulator systems. Results are summarized and discussed for the use of the Barto/Sutton/Anderson neuronlike, unsupervised learning controller as applied to the stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a cart system. Recommendations are made for the application of the controller and a kinematic analysis for trajectory planning to simple object retrieval (chase/approach and capture/grasp) scenarios in two dimensions.

  5. Vision-Based Pose Estimation for Robot-Mediated Hand Telerehabilitation

    Giuseppe Airò Farulla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based Pose Estimation (VPE represents a non-invasive solution to allow a smooth and natural interaction between a human user and a robotic system, without requiring complex calibration procedures. Moreover, VPE interfaces are gaining momentum as they are highly intuitive, such that they can be used from untrained personnel (e.g., a generic caregiver even in delicate tasks as rehabilitation exercises. In this paper, we present a novel master–slave setup for hand telerehabilitation with an intuitive and simple interface for remote control of a wearable hand exoskeleton, named HX. While performing rehabilitative exercises, the master unit evaluates the 3D position of a human operator’s hand joints in real-time using only a RGB-D camera, and commands remotely the slave exoskeleton. Within the slave unit, the exoskeleton replicates hand movements and an external grip sensor records interaction forces, that are fed back to the operator-therapist, allowing a direct real-time assessment of the rehabilitative task. Experimental data collected with an operator and six volunteers are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed system and its performances. The results demonstrate that, leveraging on our system, the operator was able to directly control volunteers’ hands movements.

  6. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  7. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  8. Design of a robotic device for assessment and rehabilitation of hand sensory function.

    Lambercy, Olivier; Robles, Alejandro Juárez; Kim, Yeongmi; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the Robotic Sensory Trainer, a robotic interface for assessment and therapy of hand sensory function. The device can provide three types of well controlled stimuli: (i) angular displacement at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint using a remote-center-of-motion double-parallelogram structure, (ii) vibration stimuli at the fingertip, proximal phalange and palm, and (iii) pressure at the fingertip, while recording position, interaction force and feedback from the user over a touch screen. These stimuli offer a novel platform to investigate sensory perception in healthy subjects and patients with sensory impairments, with the potential to assess deficits and actively train detection of specific sensory cues in a standardized manner. A preliminary study with eight healthy subjects demonstrates the feasibility of using the Robotic Sensory Trainer to assess the sensory perception threshold in MCP angular position. An average just noticeable difference (JND) in the MCP joint angle of 2.46° (14.47%) was found, which is in agreement with previous perception studies. © 2011 IEEE

  9. From self-observation to imitation: visuomotor association on a robotic hand.

    Chaminade, Thierry; Oztop, Erhan; Cheng, Gordon; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-04-15

    Being at the crux of human cognition and behaviour, imitation has become the target of investigations ranging from experimental psychology and neurophysiology to computational sciences and robotics. It is often assumed that the imitation is innate, but it has more recently been argued, both theoretically and experimentally, that basic forms of imitation could emerge as a result of self-observation. Here, we tested this proposal on a realistic experimental platform, comprising an associative network linking a 16 degrees of freedom robotic hand and a simple visual system. We report that this minimal visuomotor association is sufficient to bootstrap basic imitation. Our results indicate that crucial features of human imitation, such as generalization to new actions, may emerge from a connectionist associative network. Therefore, we suggest that a behaviour as complex as imitation could be, at the neuronal level, founded on basic mechanisms of associative learning, a notion supported by a recent proposal on the developmental origin of mirror neurons. Our approach can be applied to the development of realistic cognitive architectures for humanoid robots as well as to shed new light on the cognitive processes at play in early human cognitive development.

  10. Single-Grasp Object Classification and Feature Extraction with Simple Robot Hands and Tactile Sensors.

    Spiers, Adam J; Liarokapis, Minas V; Calli, Berk; Dollar, Aaron M

    2016-01-01

    Classical robotic approaches to tactile object identification often involve rigid mechanical grippers, dense sensor arrays, and exploratory procedures (EPs). Though EPs are a natural method for humans to acquire object information, evidence also exists for meaningful tactile property inference from brief, non-exploratory motions (a 'haptic glance'). In this work, we implement tactile object identification and feature extraction techniques on data acquired during a single, unplanned grasp with a simple, underactuated robot hand equipped with inexpensive barometric pressure sensors. Our methodology utilizes two cooperating schemes based on an advanced machine learning technique (random forests) and parametric methods that estimate object properties. The available data is limited to actuator positions (one per two link finger) and force sensors values (eight per finger). The schemes are able to work both independently and collaboratively, depending on the task scenario. When collaborating, the results of each method contribute to the other, improving the overall result in a synergistic fashion. Unlike prior work, the proposed approach does not require object exploration, re-grasping, grasp-release, or force modulation and works for arbitrary object start positions and orientations. Due to these factors, the technique may be integrated into practical robotic grasping scenarios without adding time or manipulation overheads.

  11. Kinematic design of a finger abduction mechanism for an anthropomorphic robotic hand

    L.-A. A. Demers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic design of an abduction mechanism for the fingers of an underactuated anthropomorphic robotic hand. This mechanism will enhance the range of feasible grasps of the underactuated hand without significantly increasing its complexity. The analysis of the link between the index finger and the third finger is first assessed, where the parameters are studied in order to follow the amplitude constraint and to minimize the coordination error. Then, the study of the mechanism joining the third finger and the little finger is summarized. Finally, a prototype of the finger's abduction system is presented.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  12. Combined analysis of cortical (EEG) and nerve stump signals improves robotic hand control.

    Tombini, Mario; Rigosa, Jacopo; Zappasodi, Filippo; Porcaro, Camillo; Citi, Luca; Carpaneto, Jacopo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Micera, Silvestro

    2012-01-01

    Interfacing an amputee's upper-extremity stump nerves to control a robotic hand requires training of the individual and algorithms to process interactions between cortical and peripheral signals. To evaluate for the first time whether EEG-driven analysis of peripheral neural signals as an amputee practices could improve the classification of motor commands. Four thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (tf-LIFEs-4) were implanted in the median and ulnar nerves of the stump in the distal upper arm for 4 weeks. Artificial intelligence classifiers were implemented to analyze LIFE signals recorded while the participant tried to perform 3 different hand and finger movements as pictures representing these tasks were randomly presented on a screen. In the final week, the participant was trained to perform the same movements with a robotic hand prosthesis through modulation of tf-LIFE-4 signals. To improve the classification performance, an event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) procedure was applied to EEG data to identify the exact timing of each motor command. Real-time control of neural (motor) output was achieved by the participant. By focusing electroneurographic (ENG) signal analysis in an EEG-driven time window, movement classification performance improved. After training, the participant regained normal modulation of background rhythms for movement preparation (α/β band desynchronization) in the sensorimotor area contralateral to the missing limb. Moreover, coherence analysis found a restored α band synchronization of Rolandic area with frontal and parietal ipsilateral regions, similar to that observed in the opposite hemisphere for movement of the intact hand. Of note, phantom limb pain (PLP) resolved for several months. Combining information from both cortical (EEG) and stump nerve (ENG) signals improved the classification performance compared with tf-LIFE signals processing alone; training led to cortical reorganization and

  13. Functional results of robotic total intersphincteric resection with hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis.

    Luca, F; Valvo, M; Guerra-Cogorno, M; Simo, D; Blesa-Sierra, E; Biffi, R; Garberoglio, C

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades there has been an increasing trend toward sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of low rectal cancer. Robotic surgery is considered to be particularly beneficial when operating in the deep pelvis, where laparoscopy presents technical limitations. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the functional outcomes in patients affected by rectal cancer after robotic total intersphincteric resection (ISR) with hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis. From March 2008 to October 2012, 23 consecutive patients affected by distal rectal adenocarcinoma underwent robotic ISR. Operative, clinical, pathological and functional data regarding continence or presence of a low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) were prospectively collected in a database. Twenty-three consecutive patients were included in the study: 8 men and 15 women. The mean age was 60.2 years (range 28-73). Eighteen (78.3%) had neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. Conversion rate was nil. The mean operative time was 296.01 min and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.43 ± 1.73 days. According to Kirwan's incontinence score, good fecal continence was shown in 85.7% of patients (Grade 1 and 2) and none required a colostomy (Grade 4). Concerning LARS score, the results were as follows: 57.1% patients had no LARS; 19% minor LARS and 23.8% major LARS. Robotic total ISR for low rectal cancer is an acceptable alternative to traditional procedures. Extensive discussion with the patient about the risk of poor functional outcomes or LARS syndrome is mandatory when considering an ISR for treatment of low rectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Ninapro database: A resource for sEMG naturally controlled robotic hand prosthetics.

    Atzori, Manfredo; Muller, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The dexterous natural control of robotic prosthetic hands with non-invasive techniques is still a challenge: surface electromyography gives some control capabilities but these are limited, often not natural and require long training times; the application of pattern recognition techniques recently started to be applied in practice. While results in the scientific literature are promising they have to be improved to reach the real needs. The Ninapro database aims to improve the field of naturally controlled robotic hand prosthetics by permitting to worldwide research groups to develop and test movement recognition and force control algorithms on a benchmark database. Currently, the Ninapro database includes data from 67 intact subjects and 11 amputated subject performing approximately 50 different movements. The data are aimed at permitting the study of the relationships between surface electromyography, kinematics and dynamics. The Ninapro acquisition protocol was created in order to be easy to be reproduced. Currently, the number of datasets included in the database is increasing thanks to the collaboration of several research groups.

  15. Haptic-based neurorehabilitation in poststroke patients: a feasibility prospective multicentre trial for robotics hand rehabilitation.

    Turolla, Andrea; Daud Albasini, Omar A; Oboe, Roberto; Agostini, Michela; Tonin, Paolo; Paolucci, Stefano; Sandrini, Giorgio; Venneri, Annalena; Piron, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Background. Haptic robots allow the exploitation of known motor learning mechanisms, representing a valuable option for motor treatment after stroke. The aim of this feasibility multicentre study was to test the clinical efficacy of a haptic prototype, for the recovery of hand function after stroke. Methods. A prospective pilot clinical trial was planned on 15 consecutive patients enrolled in 3 rehabilitation centre in Italy. All the framework features of the haptic robot (e.g., control loop, external communication, and graphic rendering for virtual reality) were implemented into a real-time MATLAB/Simulink environment, controlling a five-bar linkage able to provide forces up to 20 [N] at the end effector, used for finger and hand rehabilitation therapies. Clinical (i.e., Fugl-Meyer upper extremity scale; nine hold pegboard test) and kinematics (i.e., time; velocity; jerk metric; normalized jerk of standard movements) outcomes were assessed before and after treatment to detect changes in patients' motor performance. Reorganization of cortical activation was detected in one patient by fMRI. Results and Conclusions. All patients showed significant improvements in both clinical and kinematic outcomes. Additionally, fMRI results suggest that the proposed approach may promote a better cortical activation in the brain.

  16. Haptic-Based Neurorehabilitation in Poststroke Patients: A Feasibility Prospective Multicentre Trial for Robotics Hand Rehabilitation

    Andrea Turolla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Haptic robots allow the exploitation of known motorlearning mechanisms, representing a valuable option for motor treatment after stroke. The aim of this feasibility multicentre study was to test the clinical efficacy of a haptic prototype, for the recovery of hand function after stroke. Methods. A prospective pilot clinical trial was planned on 15 consecutive patients enrolled in 3 rehabilitation centre in Italy. All the framework features of the haptic robot (e.g., control loop, external communication, and graphic rendering for virtual reality were implemented into a real-time MATLAB/Simulink environment, controlling a five-bar linkage able to provide forces up to 20 [N] at the end effector, used for finger and hand rehabilitation therapies. Clinical (i.e., Fugl-Meyer upper extremity scale; nine hold pegboard test and kinematics (i.e., time; velocity; jerk metric; normalized jerk of standard movements outcomes were assessed before and after treatment to detect changes in patients' motor performance. Reorganization of cortical activation was detected in one patient by fMRI. Results and Conclusions. All patients showed significant improvements in both clinical and kinematic outcomes. Additionally, fMRI results suggest that the proposed approach may promote a better cortical activation in the brain.

  17. Individual finger synchronized robot-assisted hand rehabilitation in subacute to chronic stroke: a prospective randomized clinical trial of efficacy.

    Hwang, Chang Ho; Seong, Jin Wan; Son, Dae-Sik

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate individual finger synchronized robot-assisted hand rehabilitation in stroke patients. Prospective parallel group randomized controlled clinical trial. The study recruited patients who were ≥18 years old, more than three months post stroke, showed limited index finger movement and had weakened and impaired hand function. Patients with severe sensory loss, spasticity, apraxia, aphasia, disabling hand disease, impaired consciousness or depression were excluded. Patients received either four weeks (20 sessions) of active robot-assisted intervention (the FTI (full-term intervention) group, 9 patients) or two weeks (10 sessions) of early passive therapy followed by two weeks (10 sessions) of active robot-assisted intervention (the HTI (half-term intervention) group, 8 patients). Patients underwent arm function assessments prior to therapy (baseline), and at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after starting therapy. Compared to baseline, both the FTI and HTI groups showed improved results for the Jebsen Taylor test, the wrist and hand subportion of the Fugl-Meyer arm motor scale, active movement of the 2nd metacarpophalangeal joint, grasping, and pinching power (P vs. 46.4 ± 37.4) and wrist and hand subportion of the Fugl-Meyer arm motor scale (4.3 ± 1.9 vs. 3.4 ± 2.5) after eight weeks. A four-week rehabilitation using a novel robot that provides individual finger synchronization resulted in a dose-dependent improvement in hand function in subacute to chronic stroke patients.

  18. Robotic Hand-Assisted Training for Spinal Cord Injury Driven by Myoelectric Pattern Recognition: A Case Report.

    Lu, Zhiyuan; Tong, Kai-Yu; Shin, Henry; Stampas, Argyrios; Zhou, Ping

    2017-10-01

    A 51-year-old man with an incomplete C6 spinal cord injury sustained 26 yrs ago attended twenty 2-hr visits over 10 wks for robot-assisted hand training driven by myoelectric pattern recognition. In each visit, his right hand was assisted to perform motions by an exoskeleton robot, while the robot was triggered by his own motion intentions. The hand robot was designed for this study, which can perform six kinds of motions, including hand closing/opening; thumb, index finger, and middle finger closing/opening; and middle, ring, and little fingers closing/opening. After the training, his grip force increased from 13.5 to 19.6 kg, his pinch force remained the same (5.0 kg), his score of Box and Block test increased from 32 to 39, and his score from the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension test Part 4.B increased from 22 to 24. He accomplished the tasks in the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension test Part 4.B 28.8% faster on average. The results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of robot-assisted training driven by myoelectric pattern recognition after spinal cord injury.

  19. An Inexpensive Method for Kinematic Calibration of a Parallel Robot by Using One Hand-Held Camera as Main Sensor

    Ricardo Carelli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for the calibration of a parallel robot, which allows a more accurate configuration instead of a configuration based on nominal parameters. It is used, as the main sensor with one camera installed in the robot hand that determines the relative position of the robot with respect to a spherical object fixed in the working area of the robot. The positions of the end effector are related to the incremental positions of resolvers of the robot motors. A kinematic model of the robot is used to find a new group of parameters, which minimizes errors in the kinematic equations. Additionally, properties of the spherical object and intrinsic camera parameters are utilized to model the projection of the object in the image and thereby improve spatial measurements. Finally, several working tests, static and tracking tests are executed in order to verify how the robotic system behaviour improves by using calibrated parameters against nominal parameters. In order to emphasize that, this proposed new method uses neither external nor expensive sensor. That is why new robots are useful in teaching and research activities.

  20. Robotic training and kinematic analysis of arm and hand after incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study.

    Kadivar, Z; Sullivan, J L; Eng, D P; Pehlivan, A U; O'Malley, M K; Yozbatiran, N; Francisco, G E

    2011-01-01

    Regaining upper extremity function is the primary concern of persons with tetraplegia caused by spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic rehabilitation has been inadequately tested and underutilized in rehabilitation of the upper extremity in the SCI population. Given the acceptance of robotic training in stroke rehabilitation and SCI gait training, coupled with recent evidence that the spinal cord, like the brain, demonstrates plasticity that can be catalyzed by repetitive movement training such as that available with robotic devices, it is probable that robotic upper-extremity training of persons with SCI could be clinically beneficial. The primary goal of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of using a novel robotic device for the upper extremity (RiceWrist) and to evaluate robotic rehabilitation using the RiceWrist in a tetraplegic person with incomplete SCI. A 24-year-old male with incomplete SCI participated in 10 sessions of robot-assisted therapy involving intensive upper limb training. The subject successfully completed all training sessions and showed improvements in movement smoothness, as well as in the hand function. Results from this study provide valuable information for further developments of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation in persons with SCI. © 2011 IEEE

  1. Hand-Eye LRF-Based Iterative Plane Detection Method for Autonomous Robotic Welding

    Sungmin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hand-eye LRF-based (laser range finder welding plane-detection method for autonomous robotic welding in the field of shipbuilding. The hand-eye LRF system consists of a 6 DOF manipulator and an LRF attached to the wrist of the manipulator. The welding plane is detected by the LRF with only the wrist's rotation to minimize a mechanical error caused by the manipulator's motion. A position on the plane is determined as an average position of the detected points on the plane, and a normal vector to the plane is determined by applying PCA (principal component analysis to the detected points. In this case, the accuracy of the detected plane is analysed by simulations with respect to the wrist's angle interval and the plane angle. As a result of the analysis, an iterative plane-detection method with the manipulator's alignment motion is proposed to improve the performance of plane detection. For verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed plane-detection method, experiments are carried out with a prototype of the hand-eye LRF-based system, which consists of a 1 DOF wrist's joint, an LRF system and a rotatable plane. In addition, the experimental results of the PCA-based plane detection method are compared with those of the two representative plane-detection methods, based on RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus and the 3D Hough transform in both accuracy and computation time's points of view.

  2. Learning robotic eye-arm-hand coordination from human demonstration: a coupled dynamical systems approach.

    Lukic, Luka; Santos-Victor, José; Billard, Aude

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the role of obstacle avoidance in visually guided reaching and grasping movements. We report on a human study in which subjects performed prehensile motion with obstacle avoidance where the position of the obstacle was systematically varied across trials. These experiments suggest that reaching with obstacle avoidance is organized in a sequential manner, where the obstacle acts as an intermediary target. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the notion of workspace travelled by the hand is embedded explicitly in a forward planning scheme, which is actively involved in detecting obstacles on the way when performing reaching. We find that the gaze proactively coordinates the pattern of eye-arm motion during obstacle avoidance. This study provides also a quantitative assessment of the coupling between the eye-arm-hand motion. We show that the coupling follows regular phase dependencies and is unaltered during obstacle avoidance. These observations provide a basis for the design of a computational model. Our controller extends the coupled dynamical systems framework and provides fast and synchronous control of the eyes, the arm and the hand within a single and compact framework, mimicking similar control system found in humans. We validate our model for visuomotor control of a humanoid robot.

  3. Space suit glove design with advanced metacarpal phalangeal joints and robotic hand evaluation.

    Southern, Theodore; Roberts, Dustyn P; Moiseev, Nikolay; Ross, Amy; Kim, Joo H

    2013-06-01

    One area of space suits that is ripe for innovation is the glove. Existing models allow for some fine motor control, but the power grip--the act of grasping a bar--is cumbersome due to high torque requirements at the knuckle or metacarpal phalangeal joint (MCP). This area in particular is also a major source of complaints of pain and injury as reported by astronauts. This paper explores a novel fabrication and patterning technique that allows for more freedom of movement and less pain at this crucial joint in the manned space suit glove. The improvements are evaluated through unmanned testing, manned testing while depressurized in a vacuum glove box, and pressurized testing with a robotic hand. MCP joint flex score improved from 6 to 6.75 (out of 10) in the final glove relative to the baseline glove, and torque required for flexion decreased an average of 17% across all fingers. Qualitative assessments during unpressurized and depressurized manned testing also indicated the final glove was more comfortable than the baseline glove. The quantitative results from both human subject questionnaires and robotic torque evaluation suggest that the final iteration of the glove design enables flexion at the MCP joint with less torque and more comfort than the baseline glove.

  4. Slip detection with accelerometer and tactile sensors in a robotic hand model

    Al-Shanoon, Abdulrahman Abdulkareem S.; Anom Ahmad, Siti; Hassan, Mohd. Khair b.

    2015-11-01

    Grasp planning is an interesting issue in studies that dedicated efforts to investigate tactile sensors. This study investigated the physical force interaction between a tactile pressure sensor and a particular object. It also characterized object slipping during gripping operations and presented secure regripping of an object. Acceleration force was analyzed using an accelerometer sensor to establish a completely autonomous robotic hand model. An automatic feedback control system was applied to regrip the particular object when it commences to slip. Empirical findings were presented in consideration of the detection and subsequent control of the slippage situation. These findings revealed the correlation between the distance of the object slipping and the required force to regrip the object safely. This approach is similar to Hooke's law formula.

  5. Development of an evaluation function for eye-hand coordination robotic therapy.

    Pernalete, N; Tang, F; Chang, S M; Cheng, F Y; Vetter, P; Stegemann, M; Grantner, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of a work presented at ICORR 07, in which we discussed the possibility of improving eye-hand coordination in children diagnosed with this problem, using a robotic mapping from a haptic user interface to a virtual environment. Our goal is to develop, implement and refine a system that will assess and improve the eye-hand coordination and grip strength in children diagnosed with poor graphomotor skills. A detailed analysis of patters (e.g., labyrinths, letters and angles) was conducted in order to select three very distinguishable levels of difficulty that could be included in the system, and which would yield the greatest benefit in terms of assessment of coordination and strength issues as well as in training. Support algorithms (position, force, velocity, inertia and viscosity) were also developed and incorporated into the tasks in order to introduce general computer assistance to the mapping of the user's movements to the computer screen without overriding the user's commands to the robotic device. In order to evaluate performance (given by %accuracy and time) of the executed tasks, a sophisticated evaluation function was designed based on image analysis and edge detection algorithms. This paper presents the development of the haptic tasks, the various assistance algorithms, the description of the evaluation function and the results of a study implemented at the Motor Development Clinic at Cal Poly Pomona. The results (Accuracy and Time) of this function are currently being used as inputs to an Intelligent Decision Support System (described in), which in turn, suggests the next task to be executed by the subject based on his/her performance. © 2011 IEEE

  6. Preliminary Findings of Feasibility of a Wearable Soft-robotic Glove Supporting Impaired Hand Function in Daily Life

    Radder, Bob; Radder, B.; Prange, Grada Berendina; Prange-Lasonder, G.B.; Kottink, A.I.R.; Gaasbeek, L.; Holmberg, J.; Meyer, T.; Buurke, Jaap; Rietman, Johan Swanik

    2016-01-01

    Elderly people frequently encounter difficulties in independently performing activities of daily living (ADL) due to a reduced hand function. Robotic assistive devices have the potential to provide the assistance that is necessary to perform ADL independently without the need of personal assistance.

  7. A proposal of decontamination robot using 3D hand-eye-dual-cameras solid recognition and accuracy validation

    Minami, Mamoru; Nishimura, Kenta; Sunami, Yusuke; Yanou, Akira; Yu, Cui; Yamashita, Manabu; Ishiyama, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    New robotic system that uses three dimensional measurement with solid object recognition —3D-MOS (Three Dimensional Move on Sensing)— based on visual servoing technology was designed and the on-board hand-eye-dual-cameras robot system has been developed to reduce risks of radiation exposure during decontamination processes by filter press machine that solidifies and reduces the volume of irradiation contaminated soil. The feature of 3D-MoS includes; (1) the both hand-eye-dual-cameras take the images of target object near the intersection of both lenses' centerlines, (2) the observation at intersection enables both cameras can see target object almost at the center of both images, (3) then it brings benefits as reducing the effect of lens aberration and improving the detection accuracy of three dimensional position. In this study, accuracy validation test of interdigitation of the robot's hand into filter cloth rod of the filter press —the task is crucial for the robot to remove the contaminated cloth from the filter press machine automatically and for preventing workers from exposing to radiation—, was performed. Then the following results were derived; (1) the 3D-MoS controlled robot could recognize the rod at arbitrary position within designated space, and all of insertion test were carried out successfully and, (2) test results also demonstrated that the proposed control guarantees that interdigitation clearance between the rod and robot hand can be kept within 1.875[mm] with standard deviation being 0.6[mm] or less. (author)

  8. An artificial arm/hand system with a haptic sensory function using electric stimulation of peripheral sensory nerve fibers.

    Mabuchi, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    We are currently developing an artificial arm/hand system which is capable of sensing stimuli and then transferring these stimuli to users as somatic sensations. Presently, we are evoking the virtual somatic sensations by electrically stimulating a sensory nerve fiber which innervates a single mechanoreceptor unit at the target area; this is done using a tungsten microelectrode that was percutaneously inserted into the use's peripheral nerve (a microstimulation method). The artificial arm/hand system is composed of a robot hand equipped with a pressure sensor system on its fingers. The sensor system detects mechanical stimuli, which are transferred to the user by means of the microstimulation method so that the user experiences the stimuli as the corresponding somatic sensations. In trials, the system worked satisfactorily and there was a good correlation between the pressure applied to the pressure sensors on the robot fingers and the subjective intensities of the evoked pressure sensations.

  9. Line-feature-based calibration method of structured light plane parameters for robot hand-eye system

    Qi, Yuhan; Jing, Fengshui; Tan, Min

    2013-03-01

    For monocular-structured light vision measurement, it is essential to calibrate the structured light plane parameters in addition to the camera intrinsic parameters. A line-feature-based calibration method of structured light plane parameters for a robot hand-eye system is proposed. Structured light stripes are selected as calibrating primitive elements, and the robot moves from one calibrating position to another with constraint in order that two misaligned stripe lines are generated. The images of stripe lines could then be captured by the camera fixed at the robot's end link. During calibration, the equations of two stripe lines in the camera coordinate system are calculated, and then the structured light plane could be determined. As the robot's motion may affect the effectiveness of calibration, so the robot's motion constraints are analyzed. A calibration experiment and two vision measurement experiments are implemented, and the results reveal that the calibration accuracy can meet the precision requirement of robot thick plate welding. Finally, analysis and discussion are provided to illustrate that the method has a high efficiency fit for industrial in-situ calibration.

  10. Robotics

    Popov, E. P.; Iurevich, E. I.

    The history and the current status of robotics are reviewed, as are the design, operation, and principal applications of industrial robots. Attention is given to programmable robots, robots with adaptive control and elements of artificial intelligence, and remotely controlled robots. The applications of robots discussed include mechanical engineering, cargo handling during transportation and storage, mining, and metallurgy. The future prospects of robotics are briefly outlined.

  11. Humans can integrate feedback of discrete events in their sensorimotor control of a robotic hand.

    Cipriani, Christian; Segil, Jacob L; Clemente, Francesco; ff Weir, Richard F; Edin, Benoni

    2014-11-01

    Providing functionally effective sensory feedback to users of prosthetics is a largely unsolved challenge. Traditional solutions require high band-widths for providing feedback for the control of manipulation and yet have been largely unsuccessful. In this study, we have explored a strategy that relies on temporally discrete sensory feedback that is technically simple to provide. According to the Discrete Event-driven Sensory feedback Control (DESC) policy, motor tasks in humans are organized in phases delimited by means of sensory encoded discrete mechanical events. To explore the applicability of DESC for control, we designed a paradigm in which healthy humans operated an artificial robot hand to lift and replace an instrumented object, a task that can readily be learned and mastered under visual control. Assuming that the central nervous system of humans naturally organizes motor tasks based on a strategy akin to DESC, we delivered short-lasting vibrotactile feedback related to events that are known to forcefully affect progression of the grasp-lift-and-hold task. After training, we determined whether the artificial feedback had been integrated with the sensorimotor control by introducing short delays and we indeed observed that the participants significantly delayed subsequent phases of the task. This study thus gives support to the DESC policy hypothesis. Moreover, it demonstrates that humans can integrate temporally discrete sensory feedback while controlling an artificial hand and invites further studies in which inexpensive, noninvasive technology could be used in clever ways to provide physiologically appropriate sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics with much lower band-width requirements than with traditional solutions.

  12. Whole glove permeation of cyclohexanol through disposable nitrile gloves on a dextrous robot hand: Fist clenching vs. non-clenching.

    Mathews, Airek R; Que Hee, Shane S

    2017-04-01

    The differences in permeation parameters when a gloved dextrous robot hand clenched and did not were investigated with the dynamic permeation system described in the companion paper. Increased permeation through the gloves of the present study for cyclohexanol when the gloved hand clenched depended on glove thickness and porosity for cyclohexanol permeation. The Sterling glove, the thinnest and most porous, was the least protective. Hand clenching promoted more permeation for the Sterling glove in terms of breakthrough times, steady state permeation rate, and diffusion coefficient. The Safeskin glove showed increased permeation only for the steady state permeation rate but not breakthrough times or diffusion coefficient. The Blue and Purple gloves showed no differences when the hand was clenching or not. The correlational analysis supported differences between the clenching and non-clenching situations, and the risk assessment considered the worst and best scenarios relative to one and two hydrated hands that were and were not protected by specific gloves.

  13. Hand Passive Mobilization Performed with Robotic Assistance: Acute Effects on Upper Limb Perfusion and Spasticity in Stroke Survivors

    Massimiliano Gobbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This single arm pre-post study aimed at evaluating the acute effects induced by a single session of robot-assisted passive hand mobilization on local perfusion and upper limb (UL function in poststroke hemiparetic participants. Twenty-three patients with subacute or chronic stroke received 20 min passive mobilization of the paretic hand with robotic assistance. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to detect changes in forearm tissue perfusion. Muscle tone of the paretic UL was assessed by the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS. Symptoms concerning UL heaviness, joint stiffness, and pain were evaluated as secondary outcomes by self-reporting. Significant (p=0.014 improvements were found in forearm perfusion when all fingers were mobilized simultaneously. After the intervention, MAS scores decreased globally, being the changes statistically significant for the wrist (from 1.6±1.0 to 1.1±1.0; p=0.001 and fingers (from 1.2±1.1 to 0.7±0.9; p=0.004. Subjects reported decreased UL heaviness and stiffness after treatment, especially for the hand, as well as diminished pain when present. This study supports novel evidence that hand robotic assistance promotes local UL circulation changes, may help in the management of spasticity, and acutely alleviates reported symptoms of heaviness, stiffness, and pain in subjects with poststroke hemiparesis. This opens new scenarios for the implications in everyday clinical practice. Clinical Trial Registration Number is NCT03243123.

  14. Hand Passive Mobilization Performed with Robotic Assistance: Acute Effects on Upper Limb Perfusion and Spasticity in Stroke Survivors.

    Gobbo, Massimiliano; Gaffurini, Paolo; Vacchi, Laura; Lazzarini, Sara; Villafane, Jorge; Orizio, Claudio; Negrini, Stefano; Bissolotti, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    This single arm pre-post study aimed at evaluating the acute effects induced by a single session of robot-assisted passive hand mobilization on local perfusion and upper limb (UL) function in poststroke hemiparetic participants. Twenty-three patients with subacute or chronic stroke received 20 min passive mobilization of the paretic hand with robotic assistance. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to detect changes in forearm tissue perfusion. Muscle tone of the paretic UL was assessed by the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Symptoms concerning UL heaviness, joint stiffness, and pain were evaluated as secondary outcomes by self-reporting. Significant ( p = 0.014) improvements were found in forearm perfusion when all fingers were mobilized simultaneously. After the intervention, MAS scores decreased globally, being the changes statistically significant for the wrist (from 1.6 ± 1.0 to 1.1 ± 1.0; p = 0.001) and fingers (from 1.2 ± 1.1 to 0.7 ± 0.9; p = 0.004). Subjects reported decreased UL heaviness and stiffness after treatment, especially for the hand, as well as diminished pain when present. This study supports novel evidence that hand robotic assistance promotes local UL circulation changes, may help in the management of spasticity, and acutely alleviates reported symptoms of heaviness, stiffness, and pain in subjects with poststroke hemiparesis. This opens new scenarios for the implications in everyday clinical practice. Clinical Trial Registration Number is NCT03243123.

  15. Seamless Control of Multi-Fingered Robot Hands Based on Grasp Polyhedrons

    Nagase, Kenji; Shirai, Satoshi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi

    This paper is concerned with a new feedback control design methodology for multi-fingered robot hands applicable to multiple contact situations. As a first step, we especially consider the situations where all the fingers are in contact or not in contact with an object, considering the tasks of catching and releasing the object preceding to or followed by grasping/manipulating the object. Main features of the proposed method are: (1) the direction of the fingertip motion in the non-contact situation is selected to be directly linked to the direction of the object motion and the internal force in the contact situation; (2) by introducing a unified system description for multiple contact situations, a linearizing compensator applicable to multiple contact situations is designed. The controller can handle the tasks with the multiple contact situations by choosing appropriate desired trajectories for the linearizing compensator without switching control architecture. In addition, owing to the selection of the motion in the non-contact situation, all the fingers can approach to the object synchronously along the directions of the object motion and the internal force in the contact situation. A numerical example is shown to prove effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Three-dimensional modeling of physiological tremor for hand-held surgical robotic instruments.

    Tatinati, Sivanagaraja; Yan Naing Aye; Pual, Anand; Wei Tech Ang; Veluvolu, Kalyana C

    2016-08-01

    Hand-held robotic instruments are developed to compensate physiological tremor in real-time while augmenting the required precision and dexterity into normal microsurgical work-flow. The hardware (sensors and actuators) and software (causal linear filters) employed for tremor identification and filtering introduces time-varying unknown phase-delay that adversely affects the device performance. The current techniques that focus on three-dimensions (3D) tip position control involves modeling and canceling the tremor in 3-axes (x, y, and z axes) separately. Our analysis with the tremor data recorded from surgeons and novice subjects show that there exists significant correlation in tremor motion across the dimensions. Motivated by this, a new multi-dimensional modeling approach based on extreme learning machines (ELM) is proposed in this paper to correct the phase delay and to accurately model tremulous motion in three dimensions simultaneously. A study is conducted with tremor data recorded from the microsurgeons to analyze the suitability of proposed approach.

  17. Hand-held multi-DOF robotic forceps for neurosurgery designed for dexterous manipulation in deep and narrow space.

    Okubo, Takuro; Harada, Kanako; Fujii, Masahiro; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Tetsuya; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Nakatomi, Hirohumi; Sora, Sigeo; Morita, Akio; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise and dexterous manipulation of a surgical suture in narrow and deep spaces in the brain. This is necessary for surgical tasks such as the anastomosis of microscopic blood vessels and dura mater suturing. A hand-held multi-degree of freedom (DOF) robotic forceps was developed to aid the performance of such difficult tasks. The diameter of the developed robotic forceps is 3.5 mm, and its tip has three DOFs, namely, bending, rotation, and grip. Experimental results showed that the robotic forceps had an average needle insertion force of 1.7 N. Therefore, an increase in the needle insertion force is necessary for practical application of the developed device.

  18. Soft Robotic Haptic Interface with Variable Stiffness for Rehabilitation of Neurologically Impaired Hand Function

    Frederick Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The human hand comprises complex sensorimotor functions that can be impaired by neurological diseases and traumatic injuries. Effective rehabilitation can bring the impaired hand back to a functional state because of the plasticity of the central nervous system to relearn and remodel the lost synapses in the brain. Current rehabilitation therapies focus on strengthening motor skills, such as grasping, employ multiple objects of varying stiffness so that affected persons can experience a wide range of strength training. These devices have limited range of stiffness due to the rigid mechanisms employed in their variable stiffness actuators. This paper presents a novel soft robotic haptic device for neuromuscular rehabilitation of the hand, which is designed to offer adjustable stiffness and can be utilized in both clinical and home settings. The device eliminates the need for multiple objects by employing a pneumatic soft structure made with highly compliant materials that act as the actuator of the haptic interface. It is made with interchangeable sleeves that can be customized to include materials of varying stiffness to increase the upper limit of the stiffness range. The device is fabricated using existing 3D printing technologies, and polymer molding and casting techniques, thus keeping the cost low and throughput high. The haptic interface is linked to either an open-loop system that allows for an increased pressure during usage or closed-loop system that provides pressure regulation in accordance to the stiffness the user specifies. Preliminary evaluation is performed to characterize the effective controllable region of variance in stiffness. It was found that the region of controllable stiffness was between points 3 and 7, where the stiffness appeared to plateau with each increase in pressure. The two control systems are tested to derive relationships between internal pressure, grasping force exertion on the surface, and displacement using

  19. Hand-eye coordination of a robot for the automatic inspection of steam-generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    Choi, D.H.; Song, Y.C.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    The inspection of steam-generator tubes in nuclear power plants needs to collect test signals in a highly radiated region that is not accessible by humans. In general, a robot equipped with a camera and a test probe is used to handle such a dangerous environment. The robot moves the probe to right below a tube to be inspected and then the probe is inserted into the tube. The inspection signals are acquired while the probe is pulling back. Currently, an operator in a control room controls all the process remotely. To make a fully automatic inspection system, first of all, a control mechanism is needed to position the probe to the proper location. This is so called a hand-eye coordination problem. In this paper, a hand-eye coordination method for a robot has been presented. The proposed method consists of the two consecutive control modes: rough positioning and fine-tuning. The rough positioning controller tries to position its probe near a target place using kinematics information and the known environments, and then the fine-tuning controller tries to adjust the probe to the target using the image acquired by the camera attached to the robot. The usefulness of the proposed method has been tested and verified through experiments. (orig.)

  20. Robotic Mission to Mars: Hands-on, minds-on, web-based learning

    Mathers, Naomi; Goktogen, Ali; Rankin, John; Anderson, Marion

    2012-11-01

    Problem-based learning has been demonstrated as an effective methodology for developing analytical skills and critical thinking. The use of scenario-based learning incorporates problem-based learning whilst encouraging students to collaborate with their colleagues and dynamically adapt to their environment. This increased interaction stimulates a deeper understanding and the generation of new knowledge. The Victorian Space Science Education Centre (VSSEC) uses scenario-based learning in its Mission to Mars, Mission to the Orbiting Space Laboratory and Primary Expedition to the M.A.R.S. Base programs. These programs utilize methodologies such as hands-on applications, immersive-learning, integrated technologies, critical thinking and mentoring to engage students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and highlight potential career paths in science and engineering. The immersive nature of the programs demands specialist environments such as a simulated Mars environment, Mission Control and Space Laboratory, thus restricting these programs to a physical location and limiting student access to the programs. To move beyond these limitations, VSSEC worked with its university partners to develop a web-based mission that delivered the benefits of scenario-based learning within a school environment. The Robotic Mission to Mars allows students to remotely control a real rover, developed by the Australian Centre for Field Robotics (ACFR), on the VSSEC Mars surface. After completing a pre-mission training program and site selection activity, students take on the roles of scientists and engineers in Mission Control to complete a mission and collect data for further analysis. Mission Control is established using software developed by the ACRI Games Technology Lab at La Trobe University using the principles of serious gaming. The software allows students to control the rover, monitor its systems and collect scientific data for analysis. This program encourages

  1. Changes in skeletal muscle perfusion and spasticity in patients with poststroke hemiparesis treated by robotic assistance (Gloreha) of the hand.

    Bissolotti, Luciano; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Gaffurini, Paolo; Orizio, Claudio; Valdes, Kristin; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case series was to determine the effects of robot-assisted hand rehabilitation with a Gloreha device on skeletal muscle perfusion, spasticity, and motor function in subjects with poststroke hemiparesis. [Subjects and Methods] Seven patients, 2 women and 5 men (mean ± SD age: 60.5 ±6.3 years), with hemiparesis (>6 months poststroke), received passive mobilization of the hand with a Gloreha (Idrogenet, Italy), device (30 min per day; 3 sessions a week for 3 weeks). The outcome measures were the total hemoglobin profiles and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) in the muscle tissue evaluated through near-infrared spectroscopy. The Motricity Index and modified Ashworth Scale for upper limb muscles were used to assess mobility of the upper extremity. [Results] Robotic assistance reduced spasticity after the intervention by 68.6% in the upper limb. The Motricity Index was unchanged in these patients after treatment. Regarding changes in muscle perfusion, significant improvements were found in total hemoglobin. There were significant differences between the pre- and posttreatment modified Ashworth scale. [Conclusion] The present work provides novel evidence that robotic assistance of the hand induced changes in local muscle blood flow and oxygen supply, diminished spasticity, and decreased subject-reported symptoms of heaviness and stiffness in subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis.

  2. Working hard to make a simple definition of synergies. Comment on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Alessandro, Cristiano; Oliveira Barroso, Filipe; Tresch, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The paper ;Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands; [1] presents a comprehensive review of the work carried out as part of the EU funded project ;The Hand Embodied;. The work uses the concept of ;synergy; to study the neuromuscular control of the human hand and to design novel robotics systems. The project has been very productive and has made important contributions. We are therefore confident that it will lead to further advancements and experiments in the future.

  3. Neuro-prosthetic interplay. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by M. Santello et al.

    Schieber, Marc H.

    2016-07-01

    Control of the human hand has been both difficult to understand scientifically and difficult to emulate technologically. The article by Santello and colleagues in the current issue of Physics of Life Reviews[1] highlights the accelerating pace of interaction between the neuroscience of controlling body movement and the engineering of robotic hands that can be used either autonomously or as part of a motor neuroprosthesis, an artificial body part that moves under control from a human subject's own nervous system. Motor neuroprostheses typically involve a brain-computer interface (BCI) that takes signals from the subject's nervous system or muscles, interprets those signals through a decoding algorithm, and then applies the resulting output to control the artificial device.

  4. A Course Programme in Mobile Robotics with Integrated Hands-on Exercises and Competitions

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the design of and the considerations for a course programme in mobile robotics at the Technical University of Denmark. An integrated approach was taken designing mobile robot hardware, software and course curricula in an interconnected way. The courses in the programme all...

  5. Applying a soft-robotic glove as assistive device and training tool with games to support hand function after stroke : Preliminary results on feasibility and potential clinical impact

    Prange, G.B.; Radder, Bob; Kottink, Anke I.R.; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; Buurke, Jaap H.; Rietman, Johan S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological developments regarding wearable soft-robotic devices extend beyond the current application of rehabilitation robotics and enable unobtrusive support of the arms and hands during daily activities. In this light, the HandinMind (HiM) system was developed, comprising a

  6. Design and characterization of the OpenWrist: A robotic wrist exoskeleton for coordinated hand-wrist rehabilitation.

    Pezent, Evan; Rose, Chad G; Deshpande, Ashish D; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2017-07-01

    Robotic devices have been clinically verified for use in long duration and high intensity rehabilitation needed for motor recovery after neurological injury. Targeted and coordinated hand and wrist therapy, often overlooked in rehabilitation robotics, is required to regain the ability to perform activities of daily living. To this end, a new coupled hand-wrist exoskeleton has been designed. This paper details the design of the wrist module and several human-related considerations made to maximize its potential as a coordinated hand-wrist device. The serial wrist mechanism has been engineered to facilitate donning and doffing for impaired subjects and to insure compatibility with the hand module in virtual and assisted grasping tasks. Several other practical requirements have also been addressed, including device ergonomics, clinician-friendliness, and ambidextrous reconfigurability. The wrist module's capabilities as a rehabilitation device are quantified experimentally in terms of functional workspace and dynamic properties. Specifically, the device possesses favorable performance in terms of range of motion, torque output, friction, and closed-loop position bandwidth when compared with existing devices. The presented wrist module's performance and operational considerations support its use in a wide range of future clinical investigations.

  7. Curiosity’s robotic arm-mounted Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Characterization and calibration status

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ravine, Michael A.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; McNair, Sean; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Duston, Brian M.; Wilson, Reg G.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Kennedy, Megan R.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Supulver, Kimberley D.; Lipkaman, Leslie J.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Jones, Tessa L.; Nixon, Brian E.; Van Beek, Jason K.; Krysak, Daniel J.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    2015-01-01

    MAHLI (Mars Hand Lens Imager) is a 2-megapixel, Bayer pattern color CCD camera with a macro lens mounted on a rotatable turret at the end of the 2-meters-long robotic arm aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. The camera includes white and longwave ultraviolet LEDs to illuminate targets at night. Onboard data processing services include focus stack merging and data compression. Here we report on the results and status of MAHLI characterization and calibration, covering the pre-launch period from August 2008 through the early months of the extended surface mission through February 2015. Since landing in Gale crater in August 2012, MAHLI has been used for a wide range of science and engineering applications, including distinction among a variety of mafic, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks; investigation of grain-scale rock, regolith, and eolian sediment textures and structures; imaging of the landscape; inspection and monitoring of rover and science instrument hardware concerns; and supporting geologic sample selection, extraction, analysis, delivery, and documentation. The camera has a dust cover and focus mechanism actuated by a single stepper motor. The transparent cover was coated with a thin film of dust during landing, thus MAHLI is usually operated with the cover open. The camera focuses over a range from a working distance of 2.04 cm to infinity; the highest resolution images are at 13.9 µm per pixel; images acquired from 6.9 cm show features at the same scale as the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imagers at 31 µm/pixel; and 100 µm/pixel is achieved at a working distance of ~26.5 cm. The very highest resolution images returned from Mars permit distinction of high contrast silt grains in the 30–40 µm size range. MAHLI has performed well; the images need no calibration in order to achieve most of the investigation’s science and engineering goals. The positioning and repeatability of robotic arm placement of the MAHLI camera head have

  8. Learning in robotic manipulation: The role of dimensionality reduction in policy search methods. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Ficuciello, Fanny; Siciliano, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    A question that often arises, among researchers working on artificial hands and robotic manipulation, concerns the real meaning of synergies. Namely, are they a realistic representation of the central nervous system control of manipulation activities at different levels and of the sensory-motor manipulation apparatus of the human being, or do they constitute just a theoretical framework exploiting analytical methods to simplify the representation of grasping and manipulation activities? Apparently, this is not a simple question to answer and, in this regard, many minds from the field of neuroscience and robotics are addressing the issue [1]. The interest of robotics is definitely oriented towards the adoption of synergies to tackle the control problem of devices with high number of degrees of freedom (DoFs) which are required to achieve motor and learning skills comparable to those of humans. The synergy concept is useful for innovative underactuated design of anthropomorphic hands [2], while the resulting dimensionality reduction simplifies the control of biomedical devices such as myoelectric hand prostheses [3]. Synergies might also be useful in conjunction with the learning process [4]. This aspect is less explored since few works on synergy-based learning have been realized in robotics. In learning new tasks through trial-and-error, physical interaction is important. On the other hand, advanced mechanical designs such as tendon-driven actuation, underactuated compliant mechanisms and hyper-redundant/continuum robots might exhibit enhanced capabilities of adapting to changing environments and learning from exploration. In particular, high DoFs and compliance increase the complexity of modelling and control of these devices. An analytical approach to manipulation planning requires a precise model of the object, an accurate description of the task, and an evaluation of the object affordance, which all make the process rather time consuming. The integration of

  9. Optimal grasp planning for a dexterous robotic hand using the volume of a generalized force ellipsoid during accepted flattening

    Peng Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A grasp planning method based on the volume and flattening of a generalized force ellipsoid is proposed to improve the grasping ability of a dexterous robotic hand. First, according to the general solution of joint torques for a dexterous robotic hand, a grasping indicator for the dexterous hand—the maximum volume of a generalized external force ellipsoid and the minimum volume of a generalized contact internal force ellipsoid during accepted flattening—is proposed. Second, an optimal grasp planning method based on a task is established using the grasping indicator as an objective function. Finally, a simulation analysis and grasping experiment are performed. Results show that when the grasping experiment is conducted with the grasping configuration and positions of contact points optimized using the proposed grasping indicator, the root-mean-square values of the joint torques and contact internal forces of the dexterous hand are at a minimum. The effectiveness of the proposed grasping planning method is thus demonstrated.

  10. Comparison of three-dimensional, assist-as-needed robotic arm/hand movement training provided with Pneu-WREX to conventional tabletop therapy after chronic stroke.

    Reinkensmeyer, David J; Wolbrecht, Eric T; Chan, Vicky; Chou, Cathy; Cramer, Steven C; Bobrow, James E

    2012-11-01

    Robot-assisted movement training can help individuals with stroke reduce arm and hand impairment, but robot therapy is typically only about as effective as conventional therapy. Refining the way that robots assist during training may make them more effective than conventional therapy. Here, the authors measured the therapeutic effect of a robot that required individuals with a stroke to achieve virtual tasks in three dimensions against gravity. The robot continuously estimated how much assistance patients needed to perform the tasks and provided slightly less assistance than needed to reduce patient slacking. Individuals with a chronic stroke (n = 26; baseline upper limb Fugl-Meyer score, 23 ± 8) were randomized into two groups and underwent 24 one-hour training sessions over 2 mos. One group received the assist-as-needed robot training and the other received conventional tabletop therapy with the supervision of a physical therapist. Training helped both groups significantly reduce their motor impairment, as measured by the primary outcome measure, the Fugl-Meyer score, but the improvement was small (3.0 ± 4.9 points for robot therapy vs. 0.9 ± 1.7 for conventional therapy). There was a trend for greater reduction for the robot-trained group (P = 0.07). The robot group largely sustained this gain at the 3-mo follow-up. The robot-trained group also experienced significant improvements in Box and Blocks score and hand grip strength, whereas the control group did not, but these improvements were not sustained at follow-up. In addition, the robot-trained group showed a trend toward greater improvement in sensory function, as measured by the Nottingham Sensory Test (P = 0.06). These results suggest that in patients with chronic stroke and moderate-severe deficits, assisting in three-dimensional virtual tasks with an assist-as-needed controller may make robotic training more effective than conventional tabletop training.

  11. User requirements for assistance of the supporting hand in bimanual daily activities via a robotic glove for severely affected stroke patients

    Prange, Grada Berendina; Smulders, Laura Cornelia; Smulders, L.C.; van Wijngaarden, J.; Lijbers, G.J.; Nijenhuis, Sharon Maria; Veltink, Petrus H.; Buurke, Jaap; Stienen, Arno; Braun, D.; Yu, H.; Campolo, D.

    2015-01-01

    For independent functioning in activities of daily life (ADL), proper hand function is paramount. Many stroke patients have a reduced ability to grasp and handle objects, while they don't fully recover functional use of the arm and hand, even after extensive (robotic) training. These patients may

  12. Robotics

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS

  13. Variable Thumb Moment Arm Modeling and Thumb-Tip Force Production of a Human-Like Robotic Hand.

    Niehues, Taylor D; Deshpande, Ashish D

    2017-10-01

    The anatomically correct testbed (ACT) hand mechanically simulates the musculoskeletal structure of the fingers and thumb of the human hand. In this work, we analyze the muscle moment arms (MAs) and thumb-tip force vectors in the ACT thumb in order to compare the ACT thumb's mechanical structure to the human thumb. Motion data are used to determine joint angle-dependent MA models, and thumb-tip three-dimensional (3D) force vectors are experimentally analyzed when forces are applied to individual muscles. Results are presented for both a nominal ACT thumb model designed to match human MAs and an adjusted model that more closely replicates human-like thumb-tip forces. The results confirm that the ACT thumb is capable of faithfully representing human musculoskeletal structure and muscle functionality. Using the ACT hand as a physical simulation platform allows us to gain a better understanding of the underlying biomechanical and neuromuscular properties of the human hand to ultimately inform the design and control of robotic and prosthetic hands.

  14. Clinical effectiveness of combined virtual reality and robot assisted fine hand motion rehabilitation in subacute stroke patients.

    Huang, Xianwei; Naghdy, Fazel; Naghdy, Golshah; Du, Haiping

    2017-07-01

    Robot-assisted therapy is regarded as an effective and reliable method for the delivery of highly repetitive rehabilitation training in restoring motor skills after a stroke. This study focuses on the rehabilitation of fine hand motion skills due to their vital role in performing delicate activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The proposed rehabilitation system combines an adaptive assist-as-needed (AAN) control algorithm and a Virtual Reality (VR) based rehabilitation gaming system (RGS). The developed system is described and its effectiveness is validated through clinical trials on a group of eight subacute stroke patients for a period of six weeks. The impact of the training is verified through standard clinical evaluation methods and measuring key kinematic parameters. A comparison of the pre- and post-training results indicates that the method proposed in this study can improve fine hand motion rehabilitation training effectiveness.

  15. Hand-assisted robotic right donor nephrectomy in patient with total situs inversus: A case report.

    Gonzalez-Heredia, Raquel; Garcia-Roca, Raquel; Benedetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Total situs inversus" is an infrequent congenital condition. The robot has been already proved as a safe and attractive approach for living donor nephrectomies. We report here the first right donor nephrectomy in a patient with total situs inversus that is performed using the Da Vinci platform. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Hand-assisted robotic right donor nephrectomy in patient with total situs inversus: A case report

    Raquel Gonzalez-Heredia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Total situs inversus” is an infrequent congenital condition. The robot has been already proved as a safe and attractive approach for living donor nephrectomies. We report here the first right donor nephrectomy in a patient with total situs inversus that is performed using the Da Vinci platform.

  17. Hand-assisted robotic right donor nephrectomy in patient with total sinus inversus: A case report

    Gonzalez-Heredia, Raquel; Garcia-Roca, Raquel; Benedetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Total situs inversus” is an infrequent congenital condition. The robot has been already proved as a safe and attractive approach for living donor neprectomies. We report here the first right donor nephrectomy in a patient with total sinus inversus that is performed using the Da Vinci platform. PMID:27085108

  18. Design of mechanism of a robot's hand grabbing special curved surface object

    Li Fan; Wang Fagen

    2001-01-01

    A robot paw structure for capturing especial arc face object is introduced. The authors explain the paw institution of capturing, revising and holding of position posture, pressing and locking of position, preventing the object from falling down and numbering method of revising the object

  19. Robotics combined with electrical stimulation : hybrid support of arm and hand for functional training after stroke

    Westerveld, Ard

    2014-01-01

    Reach, grasp and release is part of many functional movements. Graying of society leads to more stroke victims and fewer health care professionals. Technology might be a solution to support certain rehabilitation therapies in future health care. Robotic systems have been developed for support of arm

  20. Robotics combined with electrical stimulation: hybrid support of arm and hand for functional training after stroke

    Westerveld, Ard

    2014-01-01

    Reach, grasp and release is part of many functional movements. Graying of society leads to more stroke victims and fewer health care professionals. Technology might be a solution to support certain rehabilitation therapies in future health care. Robotic systems have been developed for support of arm

  1. Home-based hand rehabilitation with a robotic glove in hemiplegic patients after stroke: a pilot feasibility study.

    Bernocchi, Palmira; Mulè, Chiara; Vanoglio, Fabio; Taveggia, Giovanni; Luisa, Alberto; Scalvini, Simonetta

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of home rehabilitation of the hand using a robotic glove, and, in addition, its effectiveness, in hemiplegic patients after stroke. In this non-randomized pilot study, 21 hemiplegic stroke patients (Ashworth spasticity index ≤ 3) were prescribed, after in-hospital rehabilitation, a 2-month home-program of intensive hand training using the Gloreha Lite glove that provides computer-controlled passive mobilization of the fingers. Feasibility was measured by: number of patients who completed the home-program, minutes of exercise and number of sessions/patient performed. Safety was assessed by: hand pain with a visual analog scale (VAS), Ashworth spasticity index for finger flexors, opponents of the thumb and wrist flexors, and hand edema (circumference of forearm, wrist and fingers), measured at start (T0) and end (T1) of rehabilitation. Hand motor function (Motricity Index, MI), fine manual dexterity (Nine Hole Peg Test, NHPT) and strength (Grip test) were also measured at T0 and T1. Patients performed, over a mean period 56 (49-63) days, a total of 1699 (1353-2045) min/patient of exercise with Gloreha Lite, 5.1 (4.3-5.8) days/week. Seventeen patients (81%) completed the full program. The mean VAS score of hand pain, Ashworth spasticity index and hand edema did not change significantly at T1 compared to T0. The MI, NHPT and Grip test improved significantly (p = 0.0020, 0.0156 and 0.0024, respectively) compared to baseline. Gloreha Lite is feasible and safe for use in home rehabilitation. The efficacy data show a therapeutic effect which need to be confirmed by a randomized controlled study.

  2. Assessment of Myoelectric Controller Performance and Kinematic Behavior of a Novel Soft Synergy-Inspired Robotic Hand for Prosthetic Applications.

    Fani, Simone; Bianchi, Matteo; Jain, Sonal; Pimenta Neto, José Simões; Boege, Scott; Grioli, Giorgio; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Myoelectric artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human-robot interactions. Therefore, to reduce early abandonment of terminal devices, we propose that controllers should be designed so as to ensure effective task accomplishment in a natural fashion. In this work, we have analyzed and compared the performance of three types of myoelectric controller algorithms based on surface electromyography to control an underactuated and multi-degrees of freedom prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro. The goal of the present study was to identify the myoelectric algorithm that best mimics the native hand movements. As a preliminary step, we first quantified the repeatability of the SoftHand Pro finger movements and identified the electromyographic recording sites for able-bodied individuals with the highest signal-to-noise ratio from two pairs of muscles, i.e., flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis, and flexor carpi radialis/extensor carpi ulnaris. Able-bodied volunteers were then asked to execute reach-to-grasp movements, while electromyography signals were recorded from flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis as this was identified as the muscle pair characterized by high signal-to-noise ratio and intuitive control. Subsequently, we tested three myoelectric controllers that mapped electromyography signals to position of the SoftHand Pro. We found that a differential electromyography-to-position mapping ensured the

  3. Robotics

    Lorino, P; Altwegg, J M

    1985-05-01

    This article, which is aimed at the general reader, examines latest developments in, and the role of, modern robotics. The 7 main sections are sub-divided into 27 papers presented by 30 authors. The sections are as follows: 1) The role of robotics, 2) Robotics in the business world and what it can offer, 3) Study and development, 4) Utilisation, 5) Wages, 6) Conditions for success, and 7) Technological dynamics.

  4. Motor Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface Coupled to a Robotic Hand Orthosis Aimed for Neurorehabilitation of Stroke Patients

    Jessica Cantillo-Negrete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI have shown potential for the rehabilitation of stroke patients; however, low performance has restricted their application in clinical environments. Therefore, this work presents the implementation of a BCI system, coupled to a robotic hand orthosis and driven by hand motor imagery of healthy subjects and the paralysed hand of stroke patients. A novel processing stage was designed using a bank of temporal filters, the common spatial pattern algorithm for feature extraction and particle swarm optimisation for feature selection. Offline tests were performed for testing the proposed processing stage, and results were compared with those computed with common spatial patterns. Afterwards, online tests with healthy subjects were performed in which the orthosis was activated by the system. Stroke patients’ average performance was 74.1 ± 11%. For 4 out of 6 patients, the proposed method showed a statistically significant higher performance than the common spatial pattern method. Healthy subjects’ average offline and online performances were of 76.2 ± 7.6% and 70 ± 6.7, respectively. For 3 out of 8 healthy subjects, the proposed method showed a statistically significant higher performance than the common spatial pattern method. System’s performance showed that it has a potential to be used for hand rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  5. A three-arm (laparoscopic, hand-assisted, and robotic) matched-case analysis of intraoperative and postoperative outcomes in minimally invasive colorectal surgery.

    Patel, Chirag B; Ragupathi, Madhu; Ramos-Valadez, Diego I; Haas, Eric M

    2011-02-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery is an emerging modality in the field of minimally invasive colorectal surgery. However, there is a dearth of data comparing outcomes with other minimally invasive techniques. We present a 3-arm (conventional, hand-assisted, and robotic) matched-case analysis of intraoperative and short-term outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive colorectal procedures. Between August 2008 and October 2009, 70 robotic cases of the rectum and rectosigmoid were performed. Thirty of these were organized into triplets with conventional and hand-assisted cases based on the following 6 matching criteria: 1) surgeon; 2) sex; 3) body mass index; 4) operative procedure; 5) pathology; and 6) history of neoadjuvant therapy in malignant cases. Demographics, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were assessed. Pathological outcomes were analyzed in malignant cases. Data were stratified by postoperative diagnosis and operative procedure. There was no significant difference in intraoperative complications, estimated blood loss (126.1 ± 98.5 mL overall), or postoperative morbidity and mortality among the groups. Robotic technique required longer operative time compared with conventional laparoscopic (P hand-assisted (P robotic approach results in short-term outcomes comparable to conventional and hand-assisted laparoscopic approaches for benign and malignant diseases of the rectum and rectosigmoid. With 3-dimensional visualization, additional freedom of motion, and improved ergonomics, this enabling technology may play an important role when performing colorectal procedures involving the pelvic anatomy.

  6. Design and Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Soft Robotic Glove for Hand Function Assistance in Stroke Survivors

    Hong Kai Yap

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Various robotic exoskeletons have been proposed for hand function assistance during activities of daily living (ADL of stroke survivors. However, traditional exoskeletons involve the use of complex rigid systems that impede the natural movement of joints, and thus reduce the wearability and cause discomfort to the user. The objective of this paper is to design and evaluate a soft robotic glove that is able to provide hand function assistance using fabric-reinforced soft pneumatic actuators. These actuators are made of silicone rubber which has an elastic modulus similar to human tissues. Thus, they are intrinsically soft and compliant. Upon air pressurization, they are able to support finger range of motion (ROM and generate the desired actuation of the finger joints. In this work, the soft actuators were characterized in terms of their blocked tip force, normal and frictional grip force outputs. Combining the soft actuators and flexible textile materials, a soft robotic glove was developed for grasping assistance during ADL for stroke survivors. The glove was evaluated on five healthy participants for its assisted ROM and grip strength. Pilot test was performed in two stroke survivors to evaluate the efficacy of the glove in assisting functional grasping activities. Our results demonstrated that the actuators designed in this study could generate desired force output at a low air pressure. The glove had a high kinematic transparency and did not affect the active ROM of the finger joints when it was being worn by the participants. With the assistance of the glove, the participants were able to perform grasping actions with sufficient assisted ROM and grip strength, without any voluntary effort. Additionally, pilot test on stroke survivors demonstrated that the patient's grasping performance improved with the presence and assistance of the glove. Patient feedback questionnaires also showed high level of patient satisfaction and comfort. In

  7. Design and Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Soft Robotic Glove for Hand Function Assistance in Stroke Survivors.

    Yap, Hong Kai; Lim, Jeong Hoon; Nasrallah, Fatima; Yeow, Chen-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Various robotic exoskeletons have been proposed for hand function assistance during activities of daily living (ADL) of stroke survivors. However, traditional exoskeletons involve the use of complex rigid systems that impede the natural movement of joints, and thus reduce the wearability and cause discomfort to the user. The objective of this paper is to design and evaluate a soft robotic glove that is able to provide hand function assistance using fabric-reinforced soft pneumatic actuators. These actuators are made of silicone rubber which has an elastic modulus similar to human tissues. Thus, they are intrinsically soft and compliant. Upon air pressurization, they are able to support finger range of motion (ROM) and generate the desired actuation of the finger joints. In this work, the soft actuators were characterized in terms of their blocked tip force, normal and frictional grip force outputs. Combining the soft actuators and flexible textile materials, a soft robotic glove was developed for grasping assistance during ADL for stroke survivors. The glove was evaluated on five healthy participants for its assisted ROM and grip strength. Pilot test was performed in two stroke survivors to evaluate the efficacy of the glove in assisting functional grasping activities. Our results demonstrated that the actuators designed in this study could generate desired force output at a low air pressure. The glove had a high kinematic transparency and did not affect the active ROM of the finger joints when it was being worn by the participants. With the assistance of the glove, the participants were able to perform grasping actions with sufficient assisted ROM and grip strength, without any voluntary effort. Additionally, pilot test on stroke survivors demonstrated that the patient's grasping performance improved with the presence and assistance of the glove. Patient feedback questionnaires also showed high level of patient satisfaction and comfort. In conclusion, this paper

  8. Space Suit Glove Pressure Garment Metacarpal Joint and Robotic Hand Analysis, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacesuit glove pressure garments have been a design challenge for NASA since the inception of spacesuits. The human hand demands a complex range of motions, a close...

  9. Feasibility and efficacy of a robotic device for hand rehabilitation in hemiplegic stroke patients: a randomized pilot controlled study.

    Vanoglio, Fabio; Bernocchi, Palmira; Mulè, Chiara; Garofali, Francesca; Mora, Chiara; Taveggia, Giovanni; Scalvini, Simonetta; Luisa, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of robot-assisted hand rehabilitation in improving arm function abilities in sub-acute hemiplegic patients. Randomized controlled pilot study. Inpatient rehabilitation centers. Thirty hemiplegic stroke patients (Ashworth spasticity index hand training with Gloreha, a hand rehabilitation glove that provides computer-controlled, repetitive, passive mobilization of the fingers, with multisensory feedback. Patients in the CG received the same amount of time in terms of conventional hand rehabilitation. Hand motor function (Motricity Index, MI), fine manual dexterity (Nine Hole Peg Test, NHPT) and strength (Grip and Pinch test) were measured at baseline and after rehabilitation, and the differences, (Δ) mean(standard deviation), compared between groups. Results Twenty-seven patients concluded the program: 14 in the TG and 13 in the CG. None of the patients refused the device and only one adverse event of rheumatoid arthritis reactivation was reported. Baseline data did not differ significantly between the two groups. In TG, ΔMI 23(16.4), ΔNHPT 0.16(0.16), ΔGRIP 0.27(0.23) and ΔPINCH 0.07(0.07) were significantly greater than in CG, ΔMI 5.2(9.2), ΔNHPT 0.02(0.07), ΔGRIP 0.03(0.06) and ΔPINCH 0.02(0.03)] ( p=0.002, p=0.009, p=0.003 and p=0.038, respectively). Gloreha Professional is feasible and effective in recovering fine manual dexterity and strength and reducing arm disability in sub-acute hemiplegic patients.

  10. Automated cross-modal mapping in robotic eye/hand systems using plastic radial basis function networks

    Meng, Qinggang; Lee, M. H.

    2007-03-01

    Advanced autonomous artificial systems will need incremental learning and adaptive abilities similar to those seen in humans. Knowledge from biology, psychology and neuroscience is now inspiring new approaches for systems that have sensory-motor capabilities and operate in complex environments. Eye/hand coordination is an important cross-modal cognitive function, and is also typical of many of the other coordinations that must be involved in the control and operation of embodied intelligent systems. This paper examines a biologically inspired approach for incrementally constructing compact mapping networks for eye/hand coordination. We present a simplified node-decoupled extended Kalman filter for radial basis function networks, and compare this with other learning algorithms. An experimental system consisting of a robot arm and a pan-and-tilt head with a colour camera is used to produce results and test the algorithms in this paper. We also present three approaches for adapting to structural changes during eye/hand coordination tasks, and the robustness of the algorithms under noise are investigated. The learning and adaptation approaches in this paper have similarities with current ideas about neural growth in the brains of humans and animals during tool-use, and infants during early cognitive development.

  11. Tracking mechanical and morphological dynamics of regenerating Hydra tissue fragments using a two fingered micro-robotic hand

    Veschgini, M.; Gebert, F.; Khangai, N.; Ito, H.; Suzuki, R.; Holstein, T. W.; Mae, Y.; Arai, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2016-03-01

    Regeneration of a tissue fragment of freshwater polyp Hydra is accompanied by significant morphological fluctuations, suggesting the generation of active forces. In this study, we utilized a two fingered micro-robotic hand to gain insights into the mechanics of regenerating tissues. Taking advantage of a high force sensitivity (˜1 nN) of our micro-hand, we non-invasively acquired the bulk elastic modulus of tissues by keeping the strain levels low (ɛ < 0.15). Moreover, by keeping the strain at a constant level, we monitored the stress relaxation of the Hydra tissue and determined both viscous modulus and elastic modulus simultaneously, following a simple Maxwell model. We further investigated the correlation between the frequency of force fluctuation and that of morphological fluctuation by monitoring one "tweezed" tissue and the other "intact" tissue at the same time. The obtained results clearly indicated that the magnitude and periodicity of the changes in force and shape are directly correlated, confirming that our two fingered micro-hand can precisely quantify the mechanics of soft, dynamic tissue during the regeneration and development in a non-invasive manner.

  12. Applying a soft-robotic glove as assistive device and training tool with games to support hand function after stroke: Preliminary results on feasibility and potential clinical impact.

    Prange-Lasonder, Gerdienke B; Radder, Bob; Kottink, Anke I R; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S

    2017-07-01

    Recent technological developments regarding wearable soft-robotic devices extend beyond the current application of rehabilitation robotics and enable unobtrusive support of the arms and hands during daily activities. In this light, the HandinMind (HiM) system was developed, comprising a soft-robotic, grip supporting glove with an added computer gaming environment. The present study aims to gain first insight into the feasibility of clinical application of the HiM system and its potential impact. In order to do so, both the direct influence of the HiM system on hand function as assistive device and its therapeutic potential, of either assistive or therapeutic use, were explored. A pilot randomized clinical trial was combined with a cross-sectional measurement (comparing performance with and without glove) at baseline in 5 chronic stroke patients, to investigate both the direct assistive and potential therapeutic effects of the HiM system. Extended use of the soft-robotic glove as assistive device at home or with dedicated gaming exercises in a clinical setting was applicable and feasible. A positive assistive effect of the soft-robotic glove was proposed for pinch strength and functional task performance 'lifting full cans' in most of the five participants. A potential therapeutic impact was suggested with predominantly improved hand strength in both participants with assistive use, and faster functional task performance in both participants with therapeutic application.

  13. A Low-Cost Open Source 3D-Printable Dexterous Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand with a Parallel Spherical Joint Wrist for Sign Languages Reproduction

    Andrea Bulgarelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel open-source 3D-printable dexterous anthropomorphic robotic hand specifically designed to reproduce Sign Languages’ hand poses for deaf and deaf-blind users. We improved the InMoov hand, enhancing dexterity by adding abduction/adduction degrees of freedom of three fingers (thumb, index and middle fingers and a three-degrees-of-freedom parallel spherical joint wrist. A systematic kinematic analysis is provided. The proposed robotic hand is validated in the framework of the PARLOMA project. PARLOMA aims at developing a telecommunication system for deaf-blind people, enabling remote transmission of signs from tactile Sign Languages. Both hardware and software are provided online to promote further improvements from the community.

  14. Assessment of Myoelectric Controller Performance and Kinematic Behavior of a Novel Soft Synergy-inspired Robotic Hand for Prosthetic Applications

    Simone Fani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Myoelectric-artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human-likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human-robot interactions. Therefore, to reduce early abandonment of terminal devices, we propose that controllers should be designed such as to ensure effective task accomplishment in a natural fashion. In this work, we have analyzed and compared the performance of three types of myoelectric controller algorithms based on surface electromyography to control an under-actuated and multi-degrees of freedom prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro. The goal of the present study was to identify the myoelectric algorithm that best mimics the native hand movements. As a preliminary step, we first quantified the repeatability of the SoftHand Pro finger movements and identified the electromyographic recording sites for able-bodied individuals with the highest signal-to-noise ratio from two pairs of muscles, i.e. flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis, and flexor carpi radialis/extensor carpi ulnaris. Able-bodied volunteers were then asked to execute reach-to-grasp movements, while electromyography signals were recorded from flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis as this was identified as the muscle pair characterized by high signal-to-noise ratio and intuitive control. Subsequently, we tested three myoelectric controllers that mapped electromyography signals to position of the SoftHand Pro. We found that a differential electromyography

  15. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks: a resource for the control of robotic prosthetic hands via electromyography

    Manfredo Atzori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Natural control methods based on surface electromyography and pattern recognition are promising for hand prosthetics. However, the control robustness offered by scientific research is still not sufficient for many real life applications and commercial prostheses are in the best case capable to offer natural control for only a few movements. Objective: In recent years deep learning revolutionized several fields of machine learning, including computer vision and speech recognition. Our objective is to test its capabilities for the natural control of robotic hands via surface electromyography by providing a baseline on a large number of intact and amputated subjects. Methods: We tested convolutional networks for the classification of an average of 50 hand movements in 67 intact subjects and 11 hand amputated subjects. The simple architecture of the neural network allowed to make several tests in order to evaluate the effect of pre-processing, layer architecture, data augmentation and optimization. The classification results are compared with a set of classical classification methods applied on the same datasets.Results: The classification accuracy obtained with convolutional neural networks using the proposed architecture is higher than the average results obtained with the classical classification methods but lower than the results obtained with the best reference methods in our tests. Significance: The results show that convolutional neural networks with a very simple architecture can produce accuracy comparable to the average classical classification methods. They show that several factors (including pre-processing, the architecture of the net and the optimization parameters can be fundamental for the analysis of surface electromyography data. Finally, the results suggest that deeper and more complex networks may increase dexterous control robustness, thus contributing to bridge the gap between the market and scientific research

  16. Hand-Eye Calibration and Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm using Neural Network

    Wu, Haiyan; Tizzano, Walter; Andersen, Thomas Timm

    2013-01-01

    Traditional technologies for solving hand-eye calibration and inverse kinematics are cumbersome and time consuming due to the high nonlinearity in the models. An alternative to the traditional approaches is the articial neural network inspired by the remarkable abilities of the animals in dierent...

  17. Repeatability of grasp recognition for robotic hand prosthesis control based on sEMG data.

    Palermo, Francesca; Cognolato, Matteo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Muller, Henning; Caputo, Barbara; Atzori, Manfredo

    2017-07-01

    Control methods based on sEMG obtained promising results for hand prosthetics. Control system robustness is still often inadequate and does not allow the amputees to perform a large number of movements useful for everyday life. Only few studies analyzed the repeatability of sEMG classification of hand grasps. The main goals of this paper are to explore repeatability in sEMG data and to release a repeatability database with the recorded experiments. The data are recorded from 10 intact subjects repeating 7 grasps 12 times, twice a day for 5 days. The data are publicly available on the Ninapro web page. The analysis for the repeatability is based on the comparison of movement classification accuracy in several data acquisitions and for different subjects. The analysis is performed using mean absolute value and waveform length features and a Random Forest classifier. The accuracy obtained by training and testing on acquisitions at different times is on average 27.03% lower than training and testing on the same acquisition. The results obtained by training and testing on different acquisitions suggest that previous acquisitions can be used to train the classification algorithms. The inter-subject variability is remarkable, suggesting that specific characteristics of the subjects can affect repeatibility and sEMG classification accuracy. In conclusion, the results of this paper can contribute to develop more robust control systems for hand prostheses, while the presented data allows researchers to test repeatability in further analyses.

  18. Development of a parametric kinematic model of the human hand and a novel robotic exoskeleton.

    Burton, T M W; Vaidyanathan, R; Burgess, S C; Turton, A J; Melhuish, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the integration of a kinematic model of the human hand during cylindrical grasping, with specific focus on the accurate mapping of thumb movement during grasping motions, and a novel, multi-degree-of-freedom assistive exoskeleton mechanism based on this model. The model includes thumb maximum hyper-extension for grasping large objects (~> 50 mm). The exoskeleton includes a novel four-bar mechanism designed to reproduce natural thumb opposition and a novel synchro-motion pulley mechanism for coordinated finger motion. A computer aided design environment is used to allow the exoskeleton to be rapidly customized to the hand dimensions of a specific patient. Trials comparing the kinematic model to observed data of hand movement show the model to be capable of mapping thumb and finger joint flexion angles during grasping motions. Simulations show the exoskeleton to be capable of reproducing the complex motion of the thumb to oppose the fingers during cylindrical and pinch grip motions. © 2011 IEEE

  19. Design and implementation of visual inspection system handed in tokamak flexible in-vessel robot

    Wang, Hesheng; Xu, Lifei; Chen, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    In-vessel viewing system (IVVS) is a fundamental tool among the remote handling systems for ITER, which is used to providing information on the status of the in-vessel components. The basic functional requirement of in-vessel visual inspection system is to perform a fast intervention with adequate optical resolution. In this paper, we present the software and hardware solution, which is designed and implemented for tokamak in-vessel viewing system that installed on end-effector of flexible in-vessel robot working under vacuum and high temperature. The characteristic of our in-vessel viewing system consists of two parts: binocular heterogeneous vision inspection tool and first wall scene emersion based augment virtuality. The former protected with water-cooled shield is designed to satisfy the basic functional requirement of visual inspection system, which has the capacity of large field of view and high-resolution for detection precision. The latter, achieved by overlaying first wall tiles images onto virtual first wall scene model in 3D virtual reality simulation system, is designed for convenient, intuitive and realistic-looking visual inspection instead of viewing the status of first wall only by real-time monitoring or off-line images sequences. We present the modular division of system, each of them in smaller detail, and go through some of the design choices according to requirements of in-vessel visual inspection task.

  20. Grasping Force Control for a Robotic Hand by Slip Detection Using Developed Micro Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    Nobutomo Morita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of grasping force control by feeding back signals of the developed micro-laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-LDV and by discriminating whether a grasped object is slipping or not. LDV is well known as a high response surface velocity sensor which can measure various surfaces—such as metal, paper, film, and so on—thus suggesting the potential application of LDV as a slip sensor for grasping various objects. However, the use of LDV as a slip sensor has not yet been reported because the size of LDVs is too large to be installed on a robotic fingertip. We have solved the size problem and enabled the performance of a feasibility test with a few-millimeter-scale LDV referred to as micro-LDV (μ-LDV by modifying the design which was adopted from MEMS (microelectromechanical systems fabrication process. In this paper, by applying our developed μ-LDV as a slip sensor, we have successfully demonstrated grasping force control with three target objects—aluminum block, wood block, and white acrylic block—considering that various objects made of these materials can be found in homes and factories, without grasping force feedback. We provide proofs that LDV is a new promising candidate slip sensor for grasping force control to execute target grasping.

  1. Grasping Force Control for a Robotic Hand by Slip Detection Using Developed Micro Laser Doppler Velocimeter.

    Morita, Nobutomo; Nogami, Hirofumi; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2018-01-23

    The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of grasping force control by feeding back signals of the developed micro-laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-LDV) and by discriminating whether a grasped object is slipping or not. LDV is well known as a high response surface velocity sensor which can measure various surfaces-such as metal, paper, film, and so on-thus suggesting the potential application of LDV as a slip sensor for grasping various objects. However, the use of LDV as a slip sensor has not yet been reported because the size of LDVs is too large to be installed on a robotic fingertip. We have solved the size problem and enabled the performance of a feasibility test with a few-millimeter-scale LDV referred to as micro-LDV (μ-LDV) by modifying the design which was adopted from MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) fabrication process. In this paper, by applying our developed μ-LDV as a slip sensor, we have successfully demonstrated grasping force control with three target objects-aluminum block, wood block, and white acrylic block-considering that various objects made of these materials can be found in homes and factories, without grasping force feedback. We provide proofs that LDV is a new promising candidate slip sensor for grasping force control to execute target grasping.

  2. Design and implementation of visual inspection system handed in tokamak flexible in-vessel robot

    Wang, Hesheng; Xu, Lifei [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China)

    2016-05-15

    In-vessel viewing system (IVVS) is a fundamental tool among the remote handling systems for ITER, which is used to providing information on the status of the in-vessel components. The basic functional requirement of in-vessel visual inspection system is to perform a fast intervention with adequate optical resolution. In this paper, we present the software and hardware solution, which is designed and implemented for tokamak in-vessel viewing system that installed on end-effector of flexible in-vessel robot working under vacuum and high temperature. The characteristic of our in-vessel viewing system consists of two parts: binocular heterogeneous vision inspection tool and first wall scene emersion based augment virtuality. The former protected with water-cooled shield is designed to satisfy the basic functional requirement of visual inspection system, which has the capacity of large field of view and high-resolution for detection precision. The latter, achieved by overlaying first wall tiles images onto virtual first wall scene model in 3D virtual reality simulation system, is designed for convenient, intuitive and realistic-looking visual inspection instead of viewing the status of first wall only by real-time monitoring or off-line images sequences. We present the modular division of system, each of them in smaller detail, and go through some of the design choices according to requirements of in-vessel visual inspection task.

  3. Sensation of Movement

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  4. Design and validation of low-cost assistive glove for hand assessment and therapy during activity of daily living-focused robotic stroke therapy.

    Nathan, Dominic E; Johnson, Michelle J; McGuire, John R

    2009-01-01

    Hand and arm impairment is common after stroke. Robotic stroke therapy will be more effective if hand and upper-arm training is integrated to help users practice reaching and grasping tasks. This article presents the design, development, and validation of a low-cost, functional electrical stimulation grasp-assistive glove for use with task-oriented robotic stroke therapy. Our glove measures grasp aperture while a user completes simple-to-complex real-life activities, and when combined with an integrated functional electrical stimulator, it assists in hand opening and closing. A key function is a new grasp-aperture prediction model, which uses the position of the end-effectors of two planar robots to define the distance between the thumb and index finger. We validated the accuracy and repeatability of the glove and its capability to assist in grasping. Results from five nondisabled subjects indicated that the glove is accurate and repeatable for both static hand-open and -closed tasks when compared with goniometric measures and for dynamic reach-to-grasp tasks when compared with motion analysis measures. Results from five subjects with stroke showed that with the glove, they could open their hands but without it could not. We present a glove that is a low-cost solution for in vivo grasp measurement and assistance.

  5. Crossmodal representation of a functional robotic hand arises after extensive training in healthy participants.

    Marini, Francesco; Tagliabue, Chiara F; Sposito, Ambra V; Hernandez-Arieta, Alejandro; Brugger, Peter; Estévez, Natalia; Maravita, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The way in which humans represent their own bodies is critical in guiding their interactions with the environment. To achieve successful body-space interactions, the body representation is strictly connected with that of the space immediately surrounding it through efficient visuo-tactile crossmodal integration. Such a body-space integrated representation is not fixed, but can be dynamically modulated by the use of external tools. Our study aims to explore the effect of using a complex tool, namely a functional prosthesis, on crossmodal visuo-tactile spatial interactions in healthy participants. By using the crossmodal visuo-tactile congruency paradigm, we found that prolonged training with a mechanical hand capable of distal hand movements and providing sensory feedback induces a pattern of interference, which is not observed after a brief training, between visual stimuli close to the prosthesis and touches on the body. These results suggest that after extensive, but not short, training the functional prosthesis acquires a visuo-tactile crossmodal representation akin to real limbs. This finding adds to previous evidence for the embodiment of functional prostheses in amputees, and shows that their use may also improve the crossmodal combination of somatosensory feedback delivered by the prosthesis with visual stimuli in the space around it, thus effectively augmenting the patients' visuomotor abilities. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Soft and Wearable Robotic Glove for Hand Rehabilitation.

    Biggar, Stuart; Yao, Wei

    2016-10-01

    In the modern world, due to an increased aging population, hand disability is becoming increasingly common. The prevalence of conditions such as stroke is placing an ever-growing burden on the limited fiscal resources of health care providers and the capacity of their physical therapy staff. As a solution, this paper presents a novel design for a wearable and adaptive glove for patients so that they can practice rehabilitative activities at home, reducing the workload for therapists and increasing the patient's independence. As an initial evaluation of the design's feasibility the prototype was subjected to motion analysis to compare its performance with the hand in an assessment of grasping patterns of a selection of blocks and spheres. The outcomes of this paper suggest that the theory of design has validity and may lead to a system that could be successful in the treatment of stroke patients to guide them through finger flexion and extension, which could enable them to gain more control and confidence in interacting with the world around them.

  7. Hand-Assisted Robotic Surgery for Staging of Ovarian Cancer and Uterine Cancers With High Risk of Peritoneal Spread: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Fornalik, Hubert; Brooks, Hannah; Moore, Elizabeth S; Flanders, Nicole L; Callahan, Michael J; Sutton, Gregory P

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to determine surgical outcomes related to hand-assisted robotic surgery (HARS) for staging of ovarian cancer and uterine cancers with high risk of peritoneal spread and compare them to laparotomy and standard robotic-assisted surgery. A retrospective cohort study of women undergoing staging for uterine and ovarian cancer between January 2011 and July 2013 at a major metropolitan teaching hospital was reviewed. Patients undergoing HARS were matched with patients undergoing staging laparotomy [exploratory laparotomy (XLAP)] for the same indications and with patients undergoing traditional robotic surgery (RS) for staging of endometrioid endometrial cancer. In HARS, a longer incision is used to allow palpation of the peritoneal surfaces, to exteriorize the small bowel, to examine the mesentery, and to perform omentectomy. One hundred five patients were analyzed (15 HARS, 45 RS, 45 XLAP). Compared with XLAP, HARS was associated with decreased blood loss (200 vs 400 mL, P = 0.011) and shorter hospital stay (1 vs 4 days, P < 0.001). Patients who had undergone HARS had fewer major complications, but those results did not reach statistical significance (0% vs 27%, P = 0.063). Hand-assisted robotic surgery was associated with higher blood loss and length of stay as compared to robotic staging of endometrioid endometrial cancer (RS). Minor wound complications were also more common (27% vs 2%, P = 0.012). Hand-assisted robotic surgery allows for thorough visual and tactile assessment of peritoneal surfaces. It represents a safe alternative to laparotomy for staging of ovarian and uterine cancers with high risk of peritoneal spread. Long-term follow-up study is needed to determine oncologic adequacy of HARS.

  8. Social Sensations of Symptoms

    Meinert, Lotte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of sensations and the recognition of symptoms of a sickness, as well as the movement to seek treatment, have long been recognized in medical anthropology as inherently social processes. Based on cases of HIV and trauma (PTSD) in Uganda, we show that even the first signs....../symptoms; differential recognition of symptoms; and the embodied sociality of treatment....... and sensations of sickness can be radically social. The sensing body can be a ‘social body’ – a family, a couple, a network – a unit that transcends the individual body. In this article we focus on four aspects of the sociality of sensations and symptoms: mode of transmission; the shared experience of sensations...

  9. Robotics

    netic induction to detect an object. The development of ... end effector, inclination of object, magnetic and electric fields, etc. The sensors described ... In the case of a robot, the various actuators and motors have to be modelled. The major ...

  10. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space.

  11. Towards a synergy framework across neuroscience and robotics: Lessons learned and open questions. Reply to comments on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands"

    Santello, Marco; Bianchi, Matteo; Gabiccini, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Ernst, Marc; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Jorntell, Henrik; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Schaeffer, Alin Abu; Castellini, Claudio; Bicchi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We would like to thank all commentators for their insightful commentaries. Thanks to their diverse and complementary expertise in neuroscience and robotics, the commentators have provided us with the opportunity to further discuss state-of-the-art and gaps in the integration of neuroscience and robotics reviewed in our article. We organized our reply in two sections that capture the main points of all commentaries [1-9]: (1) Advantages and limitations of the synergy approach in neuroscience and robotics, and (2) Learning and role of sensory feedback in biological and robotics synergies.

  12. Are we ready to move beyond the reductionist approach of classical synergy control?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Zago, Myrka

    2016-07-01

    Starting from the classical concepts introduced by Sherrington [1] and considerably elaborated by Bernstein [2], much has been learned about motor synergies in the last several years. The contributions of the group funded by the European project ;The Hand Embodied; are remarkable in the field of biological and robotic control of the hand based on synergies, and they are reflected in this enjoyable review [3]. There, Santello et al. adopt Bernstein's definition of motor synergies as multiple elements working together towards a common goal, with the result that multiple degrees of freedom are controlled within a lower-dimensional space than the available number of dimensions.

  13. Radical nephrectomy performed by open, laparoscopy with or without hand-assistance or robotic methods by the same surgeon produces comparable perioperative results

    Tanya Nazemi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Radical nephrectomy can be performed using open or laparoscopic (with or without hand assistance methods, and most recently using the da Vinci Surgical Robotic System. We evaluated the perioperative outcomes using a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing radical nephrectomy by one of the above 4 methods performed by the same surgeon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant clinical information on 57 consecutive patients undergoing radical nephrectomy from September 2000 until July 2004 by a single surgeon was entered in a Microsoft Access DatabaseTM and queried. Following appropriate statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Of 57 patients, the open, robotic, laparoscopy with or without hand assistance radical nephrectomy were performed in 18, 6, 21, and 12 patients, respectively. The age, sex, body mass index (BMI, incidence of malignancy, specimen and tumor size, tumor stage, Fuhrman grade, hospital stay, change in postoperative creatinine, drop in hemoglobin, and perioperative complications were not significantly different between the methods. While the estimated median blood loss, postoperative narcotic use for pain control, and hospital stay were significantly higher in the open surgery method (p < 0.05, the median operative time was significantly shorter compared to the robotic method (p = 0.02. Operating room costs were significantly higher in the robotic and laparoscopic groups; however, there was no significant difference in total hospital costs between the 4 groups. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that radical nephrectomy can be safely performed either by open, robotic, or laparoscopic with or without hand assistance methods without significant difference in perioperative complication rates. A larger cohort and longer follow up are needed to validate our findings and establish oncological outcomes.

  14. Oral sensations and secretions.

    Running, Cordelia A

    2018-04-10

    Sensations experienced in the mouth influence food choices, both immediately and in the long term. Such sensations are themselves influenced by experience with flavors, the chemical environment of the mouth, genetics of receptors for flavors, and individual behavior in the chewing of food. Gustation, the sense of taste, yields information about nutrients, influences palatability, and feeds into the human body's preparation to receive those nutrients. Olfaction, the sense of smell, contributes enormously to defining and identifying food flavors (and is experienced even after placing food inside the mouth). Another vital component of food flavor is texture, which contributes to palatability, especially if a food's texture violates a person's expectations. Next, chemesthesis is the sense of chemically induced irritancy and temperature, for example spiciness and stinging. All of these sensations are potentially modified by saliva, the chemical and physical media of the mouth. As a person experiences the culmination of these oral sensations, modified through an individual's own unique saliva, the flavors in turn influence both what and how a person eats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills Performance: 2D Versus 3D Vision and Classic Instrument Versus New Hand-Held Robotic Device for Laparoscopy.

    Leite, Mariana; Carvalho, Ana F; Costa, Patrício; Pereira, Ricardo; Moreira, Antonio; Rodrigues, Nuno; Laureano, Sara; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Vilaça, João L; Leão, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has undeniable advantages, such as reduced postoperative pain, smaller incisions, and faster recovery. However, to improve surgeons' performance, ergonomic adaptations of the laparoscopic instruments and introduction of robotic technology are needed. The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of a new hand-held robotic device for laparoscopy (HHRDL) and 3D vision on laparoscopic skills performance of 2 different groups, naïve and expert. Each participant performed 3 laparoscopic tasks-Peg transfer, Wire chaser, Knot-in 4 different ways. With random sequencing we assigned the execution order of the tasks based on the first type of visualization and laparoscopic instrument. Time to complete each laparoscopic task was recorded and analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. Eleven experts and 15 naïve participants were included. Three-dimensional video helps the naïve group to get better performance in Peg transfer, Wire chaser 2 hands, and Knot; the new device improved the execution of all laparoscopic tasks (P < .05). For expert group, the 3D video system benefited them in Peg transfer and Wire chaser 1 hand, and the robotic device in Peg transfer, Wire chaser 1 hand, and Wire chaser 2 hands (P < .05). The HHRDL helps the execution of difficult laparoscopic tasks, such as Knot, in the naïve group. Three-dimensional vision makes the laparoscopic performance of the participants without laparoscopic experience easier, unlike those with experience in laparoscopic procedures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Quality-of-life change associated with robotic-assisted therapy to improve hand motor function in patients with subacute stroke: a randomized clinical trial.

    Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca; Butler, Andrew J; Wolf, Steven L; Alberts, Jay L

    2010-04-01

    At 6 months poststroke, most patients cannot incorporate their affected hand into daily activities, which in turn is likely to reduce their perceived quality of life. This preliminary study explored change in patient-reported, health-related quality of life associated with robotic-assisted therapy combined with reduced therapist-supervised training. A single-blind, multi-site, randomized clinical trial was conducted. Seventeen individuals who were 3 to 9 months poststroke participated. Sixty hours of therapist-supervised repetitive task practice (RTP) was compared with 30 hours of RTP combined with 30 hours of robotic-assisted therapy. Participants completed the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 2 months postintervention. Change in SIS score domains was assessed in a mixed model analysis. The combined therapy group had a greater increase in rating of mood from preintervention to postintervention, and the RTP-only group had a greater increase in rating of social participation from preintervention to follow-up. Both groups had statistically significant improvement in activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living scores from preintervention to postintervention. Both groups reported significant improvement in hand function postintervention and at follow-up, and the magnitude of these changes suggested clinical significance. The combined therapy group had significant improvements in stroke recovery rating postintervention and at follow-up, which appeared clinically significant; this also was true for stroke recovery rating from preintervention to follow-up in the RTP-only group. LIMITATIONS OUTCOMES: of 30 hours of RTP in the absence of robotic-assisted therapy remain unknown. Robotic-assisted therapy may be an effective alternative or adjunct to the delivery of intensive task practice interventions to enhance hand function recovery in patients with stroke.

  17. Human versus Robot: A Propensity-Matched Analysis of the Accuracy of Free Hand versus Robotic Guidance for Placement of S2 Alar-Iliac (S2AI) Screws.

    Shillingford, Jamal N; Laratta, Joseph L; Park, Paul J; Lombardi, Joseph M; Tuchman, Alexander; Saifi, Comron S; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2018-04-18

    Retrospective matched cohort analysis. To compare the accuracy of S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw placement by robotic guidance versus free hand technique. Spinopelvic fixation utilizing S2AI screws provides optimal fixation across the lumbosacral junction allowing for solid fusion, especially in long segment fusion constructs. Traditionally, S2AI screw placement has required fluoroscopic guidance for accurate screw placement. Herein, we present the first series comparing a free hand and robotic-guided technique for S2AI screw placement. Sixty-eight consecutive patients who underwent S2AI screw placement by either a free hand or robotic technique between 2015 and 2016 were reviewed. Propensity score-matching was utilized to control for preoperative characteristic imbalances. Screw position and accuracy were evaluated using three-dimensional manipulation of CT reconstructions from intraoperative O-arm imaging. A total of 51 patients (105 screws) were matched, 28 (59 screws) in the free hand group (FHG) and 23 (46 screws) in the robot group (RG). The mean age in the FHG and RG were 57.9[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]± 14.6 years and 61.6[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]± 12.0 years (P = 0.342), respectively. The average caudal angle in the sagittal plane was significantly larger in the RG (31.0[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]± 10.0° vs. 25.7[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]± 8.8°, P =[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]0.005). There was no difference between the FHG and RG in the horizontal angle, measured in the axial plane using the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) as a reference (41.1[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]± 8.1° vs. 42.8[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]± 6.6°, P =[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]0.225), or the S2AI to S1 screw angle (9.4[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]± 7.0° vs. 11.3[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]± 9.9°, P =[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]0.256), respectively. There was no difference in the overall accuracy between FHG and RG (94.9% vs. 97.8%, P =[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]0.630). Additionally, there

  18. Neural manual vs. robotic assisted mobilization to improve motion and reduce pain hypersensitivity in hand osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Valdes, Kristin; Imperio, Grace; Borboni, Alberto; Cantero-Téllez, Raquel; Galeri, Silvia; Negrini, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of neural manual vs. robotic assisted on pain in sensitivity as well as analyse the quantitative and qualitative movement of hand in subjects with hand osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-two patients, aged 50 to 90 years old of both genders, with a diagnosis of hand Osteoarthritis (OA), will be recruited. Two groups of 36 participants will receive an experimental intervention (neurodynamic mobilization intervention plus exercise) or a control intervention (robotic assisted passive mobilization plus exercise) for 12 sessions over 4 weeks. Assessment points will be at baseline, end of therapy, and 1 and 3 months after end of therapy. The outcomes of this intervention will be pain and determine the central pain processing mechanisms. [Result] Not applicable. [Conclusion] If there is a reduction in pain hypersensitivity in hand OA patients it can suggest that supraspinal pain-inhibitory areas, including the periaqueductal gray matter, can be stimulated by joint mobilization.

  19. The Effects of Upper-Limb Training Assisted with an Electromyography-Driven Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Robotic Hand on Chronic Stroke

    Chingyi Nam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundImpaired hand dexterity is a major disability of the upper limb after stroke. An electromyography (EMG-driven neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES robotic hand was designed previously, whereas its rehabilitation effects were not investigated.ObjectivesThis study aims to investigate the rehabilitation effectiveness of the EMG-driven NMES-robotic hand-assisted upper-limb training on persons with chronic stroke.MethodA clinical trial with single-group design was conducted on chronic stroke participants (n = 15 who received 20 sessions of EMG-driven NMES-robotic hand-assisted upper-limb training. The training effects were evaluated by pretraining, posttraining, and 3-month follow-up assessments with the clinical scores of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, the Wolf Motor Function Test, the Motor Functional Independence Measure, and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS. Improvements in the muscle coordination across the sessions were investigated by EMG parameters, including EMG activation level and Co-contraction Indexes (CIs of the target muscles in the upper limb.ResultsSignificant improvements in the FMA shoulder/elbow and wrist/hand scores (P < 0.05, the ARAT (P < 0.05, and in the MAS (P < 0.05 were observed after the training and sustained 3 months later. The EMG parameters indicated a significant decrease of the muscle activation level in flexor digitorum (FD and biceps brachii (P < 0.05, as well as a significant reduction of CIs in the muscle pairs of FD and triceps brachii and biceps brachii and triceps brachii (P < 0.05.ConclusionThe upper-limb training integrated with the assistance from the EMG-driven NMES-robotic hand is effective for the improvements of the voluntary motor functions and the muscle coordination in the proximal and distal joints. Furthermore, the motor improvement after the training could be maintained till 3 months later.Trial registration

  20. The Effects of Upper-Limb Training Assisted with an Electromyography-Driven Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Robotic Hand on Chronic Stroke.

    Nam, Chingyi; Rong, Wei; Li, Waiming; Xie, Yunong; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    Impaired hand dexterity is a major disability of the upper limb after stroke. An electromyography (EMG)-driven neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) robotic hand was designed previously, whereas its rehabilitation effects were not investigated. This study aims to investigate the rehabilitation effectiveness of the EMG-driven NMES-robotic hand-assisted upper-limb training on persons with chronic stroke. A clinical trial with single-group design was conducted on chronic stroke participants ( n  = 15) who received 20 sessions of EMG-driven NMES-robotic hand-assisted upper-limb training. The training effects were evaluated by pretraining, posttraining, and 3-month follow-up assessments with the clinical scores of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), the Wolf Motor Function Test, the Motor Functional Independence Measure, and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Improvements in the muscle coordination across the sessions were investigated by EMG parameters, including EMG activation level and Co-contraction Indexes (CIs) of the target muscles in the upper limb. Significant improvements in the FMA shoulder/elbow and wrist/hand scores ( P  < 0.05), the ARAT ( P  < 0.05), and in the MAS ( P  < 0.05) were observed after the training and sustained 3 months later. The EMG parameters indicated a significant decrease of the muscle activation level in flexor digitorum (FD) and biceps brachii ( P  < 0.05), as well as a significant reduction of CIs in the muscle pairs of FD and triceps brachii and biceps brachii and triceps brachii ( P  < 0.05). The upper-limb training integrated with the assistance from the EMG-driven NMES-robotic hand is effective for the improvements of the voluntary motor functions and the muscle coordination in the proximal and distal joints. Furthermore, the motor improvement after the training could be maintained till 3 months later. ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT02117089; date of registration: April

  1. A novel remote center of motion mechanism for the force-reflective master robot of haptic tele-surgery systems.

    Hadavand, Mostafa; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Behzadipour, Saeed; Farahmand, Farzam

    2014-06-01

    An effective master robot for haptic tele-surgery applications needs to provide a solution for the inversed movements of the surgical tool, in addition to sufficient workspace and manipulability, with minimal moving inertia. A novel 4 + 1-DOF mechanism was proposed, based on a triple parallelogram linkage, which provided a Remote Center of Motion (RCM) at the back of the user's hand. The kinematics of the robot was analyzed and a prototype was fabricated and evaluated by experimental tests. With a RCM at the back of the user's hand the actuators far from the end effector, the robot could produce the sensation of hand-inside surgery with minimal moving inertia. The target workspace was achieved with an acceptable manipulability. The trajectory tracking experiments revealed small errors, due to backlash at the joints. The proposed mechanism meets the basic requirements of an effective master robot for haptic tele-surgery applications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  3. Advanced mechanics in robotic systems

    Nava Rodríguez, Nestor Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Illustrates original and ambitious mechanical designs and techniques for the development of new robot prototypes Includes numerous figures, tables and flow charts Discusses relevant applications in robotics fields such as humanoid robots, robotic hands, mobile robots, parallel manipulators and human-centred robots

  4. Endowrist versus wrist: a case-controlled study comparing robotic versus hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer.

    Koh, Frederick H X; Tan, Ker-Kan; Lieske, Bettina; Tsang, Marianne L; Tsang, Charles B; Koh, Dean C

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) remains a technically challenging procedure. This study aims to compare the surgical outcomes of the robotic-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) versus hand-assisted laparoscopic (HAL) techniques in performing TME for patients with rectal cancers. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent RAL TME for rectal cancers was performed. These cases were matched for age, sex, and stage of malignancy with patients who underwent HAL TME. Data collected included age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, comorbid conditions, types of surgical resections and operative times, perioperative complications, length of hospital stays, and histopathologic outcomes were analyzed. From August 2008 to August 2011, 19 patients, with a median age of 62 (range, 47 to 92) years underwent RAL TME. Eight (42.1%) patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The median docking and operative times were 10 (range, 3 to 34) and 390 (range, 289 to 771) minutes, respectively. There was 1 (5.3%) conversion to open surgery. The grade of mesorectal excision was histopathologically reported as complete in all 19 cases. Positive circumferential margin was reported in 1 (5.3%) patient.Comparing the 2 groups, more patients in the RAL group received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (8 vs. 3; P=0.048). The operative times were longer in the RAL group (390 vs. 225 min; P<0.001). A higher proportion of patients in the HAL group required conversion to open surgery (5 vs. 1; P=0.180) and developed perioperative morbidities (3 vs. 7; P=0.269). The median length of hospitalization was comparable between both groups (RAL: 7 vs. HAL: 6 d; P=0.476).The procedural cost was significantly higher in the RAL group (US$12,460 vs. US$8560; P<0.001), whereas the nonprocedural cost remained comparable between the 2 groups (RAL: US$4470 vs. HAL: US$4500; P=0.729). RAL TME is associated with lower conversion and morbidity rates compared with HAL TME. The longer

  5. Sensation seeking and error processing.

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  7. A robot hand testbed designed for enhancing embodiment and functional neurorehabilitation of body schema in subjects with upper limb impairment or loss

    Randall B. Hellman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation phantom limb pain and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF, rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech rubber hand illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the BairClaw presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger-object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced

  8. A robot hand testbed designed for enhancing embodiment and functional neurorehabilitation of body schema in subjects with upper limb impairment or loss.

    Hellman, Randall B; Chang, Eric; Tanner, Justin; Helms Tillery, Stephen I; Santos, Veronica J

    2015-01-01

    Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation "phantom limb pain" and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF), rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech "rubber hand" illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the "BairClaw" presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger-object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced cognitive burden.

  9. Exploratory study on the effects of a robotic hand rehabilitation device on changes in grip strength and brain activity after stroke.

    Pinter, Daniela; Pegritz, Sandra; Pargfrieder, Christa; Reiter, Gudrun; Wurm, Walter; Gattringer, Thomas; Linderl-Madrutter, Regina; Neuper, Claudia; Fazekas, Franz; Grieshofer, Peter; Enzinger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The brain mechanisms underlying successful recovery of hand fuenction after stroke are still not fully understood, although functional MRI (fMRI) studies underline the importance of neuronal plasticity. We explored potential changes in brain activity in 7 patients with subacute to chronic stroke (69 ± 8 years) with moderate- to high-grade distal paresis of the upper limb (Motricity Index: 59.4) after standardized robotic finger-hand rehabilitation training, in addition to conventional rehabilitation therapy for 3 weeks. Behavioral and fMRI assessments were carried out before and after training to characterize changes in brain activity and behavior. The Motricity Index (pre: 59.4, post: 67.2, P hand increased significantly after rehabilitation. On fMRI, active movement of the affected (left) hand resulted in contralesional (ie, ipsilateral) activation of the primary sensorimotor cortex prior to rehabilitation. After rehabilitation, activation appeared "normalized," including the ipsilesional primary sensorimotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA). No changes and no abnormalities of activation maps were seen during movement of the unaffected hand. Subsequent region-of-interest analyses showed no significant ipsilesional activation increases after rehabilitation. Despite behavioral improvements, we failed to identify consistent patterns of functional reorganization in our sample. This warrants caution in the use of fMRI as a tool to explore neural plasticity in heterogeneous samples lacking sufficient statistical power.

  10. Development of an MR-compatible hand exoskeleton that is capable of providing interactive robotic rehabilitation during fMRI imaging.

    Kim, Sangjoon J; Kim, Yeongjin; Lee, Hyosang; Ghasemlou, Pouya; Kim, Jung

    2018-02-01

    Following advances in robotic rehabilitation, there have been many efforts to investigate the recovery process and effectiveness of robotic rehabilitation procedures through monitoring the activation status of the brain. This work presents the development of a two degree-of-freedom (DoF) magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible hand device that can perform robotic rehabilitation procedures inside an fMRI scanner. The device is capable of providing real-time monitoring of the joint angle, angular velocity, and joint force produced by the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of four fingers. For force measurement, a custom reflective optical force sensor was developed and characterized in terms of accuracy error, hysteresis, and repeatability in the MR environment. The proposed device consists of two non-magnetic ultrasonic motors to provide assistive and resistive forces to the MCP and PIP joints. With actuation and sensing capabilities, both non-voluntary-passive movements and active-voluntary movements can be implemented. The MR compatibility of the device was verified via the analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of MR images of phantoms. SNR drops of 0.25, 2.94, and 11.82% were observed when the device was present but not activated, when only the custom force sensor was activated, and when both the custom force sensor and actuators were activated, respectively.

  11. Touch versus In-Air Hand Gestures: Evaluating the Acceptance by Seniors of Human-Robot Interaction

    Znagui Hassani, Anouar; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; Eertink, Henk

    2011-01-01

    Do elderly people have a preference between performing inair gestures or pressing screen buttons to interact with an assistive robot? This study attempts to provide answers to this question by measuring the level of acceptance, performance as well as knowledge of both interaction modalities during a

  12. Hands-On Experiences of Undergraduate Students in Automatics and Robotics Using a Virtual and Remote Laboratory

    Jara, Carlos A.; Candelas, Francisco A.; Puente, Santiago T.; Torres, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Automatics and Robotics subjects are always greatly improved when classroom teaching is supported by adequate laboratory courses and experiments following the "learning by doing" paradigm, which provides students a deep understanding of theoretical lessons. However, expensive equipment and limited time prevent teachers having sufficient…

  13. Diffusion tensor and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging using an MR-compatible hand-induced robotic device suggests training-induced neuroplasticity in patients with chronic stroke.

    Lazaridou, Asimina; Astrakas, Loukas; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Khanicheh, Azadeh; Singhal, Aneesh B; Moskowitz, Michael A; Rosen, Bruce; Tzika, Aria A

    2013-11-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality and a frequent cause of long-term adult impairment. Improved strategies to enhance motor function in individuals with chronic disability from stroke are thus required. Post‑stroke therapy may improve rehabilitation and reduce long-term disability; however, objective methods for evaluating the specific impact of rehabilitation are rare. Brain imaging studies on patients with chronic stroke have shown evidence for reorganization of areas showing functional plasticity after a stroke. In this study, we hypothesized that brain mapping using a novel magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible hand device in conjunction with state‑of‑the‑art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can serve as a novel biomarker for brain plasticity induced by rehabilitative motor training in patients with chronic stroke. This hypothesis is based on the premises that robotic devices, by stimulating brain plasticity, can assist in restoring movement compromised by stroke-induced pathological changes in the brain and that these changes can then be monitored by advanced MRI. We serially examined 15 healthy controls and 4 patients with chronic stroke. We employed a combination of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and volumetric MRI using a 3-tesla (3T) MRI system using a 12-channel Siemens Tim coil and a novel MR-compatible hand‑induced robotic device. DTI data revealed that the number of fibers and the average tract length significantly increased after 8 weeks of hand training by 110% and 64%, respectively (probotics in the molecular medicine era.

  14. The Combined Effects of Adaptive Control and Virtual Reality on Robot-Assisted Fine Hand Motion Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Case Study.

    Huang, Xianwei; Naghdy, Fazel; Naghdy, Golshah; Du, Haiping; Todd, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Robot-assisted therapy is regarded as an effective and reliable method for the delivery of highly repetitive training that is needed to trigger neuroplasticity following a stroke. However, the lack of fully adaptive assist-as-needed control of the robotic devices and an inadequate immersive virtual environment that can promote active participation during training are obstacles hindering the achievement of better training results with fewer training sessions required. This study thus focuses on these research gaps by combining these 2 key components into a rehabilitation system, with special attention on the rehabilitation of fine hand motion skills. The effectiveness of the proposed system is tested by conducting clinical trials on a chronic stroke patient and verified through clinical evaluation methods by measuring the key kinematic features such as active range of motion (ROM), finger strength, and velocity. By comparing the pretraining and post-training results, the study demonstrates that the proposed method can further enhance the effectiveness of fine hand motion rehabilitation training by improving finger ROM, strength, and coordination. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of virtual reality exercise of hand motion assist robot for rehabilitation therapy by patient self-motion control.

    Ueki, Satoshi; Nishimoto, Yutaka; Abe, Motoyuki; Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Ito, Satoshi; Ishigure, Yasuhiko; Mizumoto, Jun; Ojika, Takeo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality-enhanced hand rehabilitation support system with a symmetric master-slave motion assistant for independent rehabilitation therapies. Our aim is to provide fine motion exercise for a hand and fingers, which allows the impaired hand of a patient to be driven by his or her healthy hand on the opposite side. Since most disabilities caused by cerebral vascular accidents or bone fractures are hemiplegic, we adopted a symmetric master-slave motion assistant system in which the impaired hand is driven by the healthy hand on the opposite side. A VR environment displaying an effective exercise was created in consideration of system's characteristic. To verify the effectiveness of this system, a clinical test was executed by applying to six patients.

  16. Differences in risk experience between sensation avoiders and sensation seekers

    Heino, A.; van der Molen, H.H.; Wilde, G.J S

    The prime purpose of our study was to find out whether the need for stimulation has a systematic influence on perceived risk. While driving on a motorway, 21 male sensation avoiders and 21 male sensation seekers had to follow another car, once at a free following distance chosen by the subject

  17. Regional differences in temperature sensation and thermal comfort in humans.

    Nakamura, Mayumi; Yoda, Tamae; Crawshaw, Larry I; Yasuhara, Saki; Saito, Yasuyo; Kasuga, Momoko; Nagashima, Kei; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    Sensations evoked by thermal stimulation (temperature-related sensations) can be divided into two categories, "temperature sensation" and "thermal comfort." Although several studies have investigated regional differences in temperature sensation, less is known about the sensitivity differences in thermal comfort for the various body regions. In the present study, we examined regional differences in temperature-related sensations with special attention to thermal comfort. Healthy male subjects sitting in an environment of mild heat or cold were locally cooled or warmed with water-perfused stimulators. Areas stimulated were the face, chest, abdomen, and thigh. Temperature sensation and thermal comfort of the stimulated areas were reported by the subjects, as was whole body thermal comfort. During mild heat exposure, facial cooling was most comfortable and facial warming was most uncomfortable. On the other hand, during mild cold exposure, neither warming nor cooling of the face had a major effect. The chest and abdomen had characteristics opposite to those of the face. Local warming of the chest and abdomen did produce a strong comfort sensation during whole body cold exposure. The thermal comfort seen in this study suggests that if given the chance, humans would preferentially cool the head in the heat, and they would maintain the warmth of the trunk areas in the cold. The qualitative differences seen in thermal comfort for the various areas cannot be explained solely by the density or properties of the peripheral thermal receptors and thus must reflect processing mechanisms in the central nervous system.

  18. Robotic set-up to quantify hand-eye behavior in motor execution and learning of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Casellato, Claudia; Gandolla, Marta; Crippa, Alessandro; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistence of social and communication impairment, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, motor disorders have also been described, but not objectively assessed. Most studies showed inefficient eye-hand coordination and motor learning in children with ASD; in other experiments, mechanisms of acquisition of internal models in self-generated movements appeared to be normal in autism. In this framework, we have developed a robotic protocol, recording gaze and hand data during upper limb tasks, in which a haptic pen-like handle is moved along specific trajectories displayed on the screen. The protocol includes trials of reaching under a perturbing force field and catching moving targets, with or without visual availability of the whole path. We acquired 16 typically-developing scholar-age children and one child with ASD as a case study. Speed-accuracy tradeoff, motor performance, and gaze-hand spatial coordination have been evaluated. Compared to typically developing peers, in the force field sequence, the child with ASD showed an intact but delayed learning, and more variable gazehand patterns. In the catching trials, he showed less efficient movements, but an intact capability of exploiting the available a-priori plan. The proposed protocol represents a powerful tool, easily tunable, for quantitative (longitudinal) assessment, and for subject-tailored training in ASD.

  19. Beyond synergies. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Schwartz, Andrew B.

    2016-07-01

    The target paper by Santello et al. [1] uses the observation that hand shape during grasping can be described by a small set of basic postures, or ;synergies,; to describe the possible neural basis of motor control during this complex behavior. In the literature, the term ;synergy; has been used with a number of different meanings and is still loosely defined, making it difficult to derive concrete analogs of corresponding neural structure. Here, I will define ;synergy; broadly, as a set of parameters bound together by a pattern of correlation. With this definition, it can be argued that behavioral synergies are just one facet of the correlational structuring used by the brain to generate behavior. As pointed out in the target article, the structure found in synergies is driven by the physical constraints of our bodies and our surroundings, combined with the behavioral control imparted by our nervous system. This control itself is based on correlational structure which is likely to be a fundamental property of brain function.

  20. A new robotic-assisted flexible endoscope with single-hand control: endoscopic submucosal dissection in the ex vivo porcine stomach.

    Iwasa, Tsutomu; Nakadate, Ryu; Onogi, Shinya; Okamoto, Yasuharu; Arata, Jumpei; Oguri, Susumu; Ogino, Haruei; Ihara, Eikichi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hashizume, Makoto

    2018-04-17

    Difficulties in endoscopic operations and therapeutic procedures seem to occur due to the complexity of operating the endoscope dial as well as difficulty in performing synchronized movements with both hands. We developed a prototype robotic-assisted flexible endoscope that can be controlled with a single hand in order to simplify the operation of the endoscope. The aim of this study was to confirm the operability of the robotic-assisted flexible endoscope (RAFE) by performing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Study 1: ESD was performed manually or with RAFE by an expert endoscopist in ex vivo porcine stomachs; six operations manually and six were performed with RAFE. The procedure time per unit circumferential length/area was calculated, and the results were statistically analyzed. Study 2: We evaluated how smoothly a non-endoscopist can move a RAFE compared to a manual endoscope by assessing the designated movement of the endoscope. Study 1: En bloc resection was achieved by ESD using the RAFE. The procedure time was gradually shortened with increasing experience, and the procedure time of ESD performed with the RAFE was not significantly different from that of ESD performed with a manual endoscope. Study 2: The time for the designated movement of the endoscope was significantly shorter with a RAFE than that with a manual endoscope as for a non-endoscopist. The RAFE that we developed enabled an expert endoscopist to perform the ESD procedure without any problems and allowed a non-endoscopist to control the endoscope more easily and quickly than a manual endoscope. The RAFE is expected to undergo further development.

  1. Breast sensation after breast reconstruction: a systematic review.

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Stapleton, Sahael M; Basdag, Basak; Seal, Stella M; Rosson, Gedge D

    2010-07-01

    Studies show some return of breast sensation after breast reconstruction; however, recovery is variable and unpredictable. Efforts are being made to restore innervation by reattaching nerves (neurotization). We sought to systematically review the literature addressing breast sensation after reconstruction. The following databases were searched: EMBASE, Cochrane, and PubMed. Additionally, the PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY journal was hand searched from 1960 to 2009. Inclusion criteria included breast reconstruction for cancer, return of sensation with objective results, and patients aged 18 to 90 years. Studies with purely cosmetic procedures, case reports, studies with less than 10 patients, and studies involving male patients were excluded. The initial search yielded 109 studies, which was refined to 20 studies with a total pool of 638 patients. Innervated flaps have a greater magnitude of recovery, which occurs at an earlier stage compared with the noninnervated flaps. Overall, sensation to deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps may recover better sensation than transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, followed by latissimus dorsi flaps, and finally implants. Women's needs and expectations for sensation have led plastic surgeons to investigate ways to facilitate its return. Studies, however, depict conflicting data. Larger series are needed to define the role of neurotization as a modality for improving sensory restoration. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. Quantifying and simulating human sensation

    Quantifying and simulating human sensation – relating science and technology of indoor climate research Abstract In his doctoral thesis from 1970 civil engineer Povl Ole Fanger proposed that the understanding of indoor climate should focus on the comfort of the individual rather than averaged...... this understanding of human sensation was adjusted to technology. I will look into the construction of the equipment, what it measures and the relationship between theory, equipment and tradition....

  3. Does an intraneural interface short-term implant for robotic hand control modulate sensorimotor cortical integration? An EEG-TMS co-registration study on a human amputee.

    Ferreri, F; Ponzo, D; Vollero, L; Guerra, A; Di Pino, G; Petrichella, S; Benvenuto, A; Tombini, M; Rossini, L; Denaro, L; Micera, S; Iannello, G; Guglielmelli, E; Denaro, V; Rossini, P M

    2014-01-01

    Following limb amputation, central and peripheral nervous system relays partially maintain their functions and can be exploited for interfacing prostheses. The aim of this study is to investigate, for the first time by means of an EEG-TMS co-registration study, whether and how direct bidirectional connection between brain and hand prosthesis impacts on sensorimotor cortical topography. Within an experimental protocol for robotic hand control, a 26 years-old, left-hand amputated male was selected to have implanted four intrafascicular electrodes (tf-LIFEs-4) in the median and ulnar nerves of the stump for 4 weeks. Before tf-LIFE-4s implant (T0) and after the training period, once electrodes have been removed (T1), experimental subject's cortico-cortical excitability, connectivity and plasticity were tested via a neuronavigated EEG-TMS experiment. The statistical analysis clearly demonstrated a significant modulation (with t-test p < 0.0001) of EEG activity between 30 and 100 ms post-stimulus for the stimulation of the right hemisphere. When studying individual latencies in that time range, a global amplitude modulation was found in most of the TMS-evoked potentials; particularly, the GEE analysis showed significant differences between T0 and T1 condition at 30 ms (p < 0.0404), 46 ms (p < 0.0001) and 60 ms (p < 0.007) latencies. Finally, also a clear local decrement in N46 amplitude over C4 was evident. No differences between conditions were observed for the stimulation of the left hemisphere. The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that bidirectional neural interface could redirect cortical areas -deprived of their original input/output functions- toward restorative neuroplasticity. This reorganization strongly involves bi-hemispheric networks and intracortical and transcortical modulation of GABAergic inhibition.

  4. From sensation to cognition.

    Mesulam, M M

    1998-06-01

    Sensory information undergoes extensive associative elaboration and attentional modulation as it becomes incorporated into the texture of cognition. This process occurs along a core synaptic hierarchy which includes the primary sensory, upstream unimodal, downstream unimodal, heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic zones of the cerebral cortex. Connections from one zone to another are reciprocal and allow higher synaptic levels to exert a feedback (top-down) influence upon earlier levels of processing. Each cortical area provides a nexus for the convergence of afferents and divergence of efferents. The resultant synaptic organization supports parallel as well as serial processing, and allows each sensory event to initiate multiple cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Upstream sectors of unimodal association areas encode basic features of sensation such as colour, motion, form and pitch. More complex contents of sensory experience such as objects, faces, word-forms, spatial locations and sound sequences become encoded within downstream sectors of unimodal areas by groups of coarsely tuned neurons. The highest synaptic levels of sensory-fugal processing are occupied by heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic cortices, collectively known as transmodal areas. The unique role of these areas is to bind multiple unimodal and other transmodal areas into distributed but integrated multimodal representations. Transmodal areas in the midtemporal cortex, Wernicke's area, the hippocampal-entorhinal complex and the posterior parietal cortex provide critical gateways for transforming perception into recognition, word-forms into meaning, scenes and events into experiences, and spatial locations into targets for exploration. All cognitive processes arise from analogous associative transformations of similar sets of sensory inputs. The differences in the resultant cognitive operation are determined by the anatomical and physiological properties of the transmodal node that acts as the critical

  5. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  6. Self-Produced Tickle Sensation by Manipulating Visual Feedback

    Hiroyuki Iizuka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to clarify how the distinction of self- (sense of agency, SOA and other-produced behavior can be synthesized and recognized in multisensory integration as our cognitive processes. To address this issue, we used tickling paradigm that it is hard for us to tickle ourselves. Previous studies show that tickle sensation by their own motion increases if more delay is given between self-motion of tickling and tactile stimulation (Blakemore et al. 1998, 1999. We introduced visual feedbacks to the tickling experiments. In our hypothesis, integration of vision, proprioception, and motor commands forms the SOA and disintegration causes the breakdown the SOA, which causes the feeling of others, producing tickling sensation even by tickling oneself. We used video-see-through HMD to suddenly delay the real-time images of their hand tickling motions. The tickle sensation was measured by subjective response in the following conditions; 1 tickling oneself without any visual modulation, 2 tickled by others, 3 tickling oneself with visual feedback manipulation. The statistical analysis of ranked evaluation of tickle sensations showed that the delay of visual feedback causes the increase of tickle sensation. The SOA was discussed with Blakemore's and our results.

  7. Prosthetic hand sensor placement: Analysis of touch perception during the grasp

    Mirković Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans rely on their hands to perform everyday tasks. The hand is used as a tool, but also as the interface to “sense” the world. Current prosthetic hands are based on sophisticated multi-fingered structures, and include many sensors which counterpart natural proprioceptors and exteroceptors. The sensory information is used for control, but not sent to the user of the hand (amputee. Grasping without sensing is not good enough. This research is part of the development of the sensing interface for amputees, specifically addressing the analysis of human perception while grasping. The goal is to determine the small number of preferred positions of sensors on the prosthetic hand. This task has previously been approached by trying to replicate a natural sensory system characteristic for healthy humans, resulting in a multitude of redundant sensors and basic inability to make the patient aware of the sensor readings on the subconscious level. We based our artificial perception system on the reported sensations of humans when grasping various objects without seeing the objects (obstructed visual feedback. Subjects, with no known sensory deficits, were asked to report on the touch sensation while grasping. The analysis included objects of various sizes, weights, textures and temperatures. Based on this data we formed a map of the preferred positions for the sensors that is appropriate for five finger human-like robotic hand. The final map was intentionally minimized in size (number of sensors.

  8. Sensation fiction, gender and identity

    MacDonald, T.; Mangham, A.

    2013-01-01

    The heroine of Wilkie Collins’s The Law and the Lady (1875), Valeria Macallan, is in many ways a typical sensation heroine. She is resilient, independent and determined to get what she wants. What she wants, however, is not to marry rich, hide her bigamous past or inherit a fortune that is

  9. Brain-Computer Interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke

    Kai Keng eAng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG-based Motor Imagery (MI Brain-Computer Interface (BCI coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA score 10-50, recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 minutes per session. The BCI-HK group received 1 hour of BCI coupled with HK intervention, and the HK group received 1 hour of HK intervention per session. Both BCI-HK and HK groups received 120 trials of robot-assisted hand grasping and knob manipulation followed by 30 minutes of therapist-assisted arm mobilization. The SAT group received 1.5 hours of therapist-assisted arm mobilization and forearm pronation-supination movements incorporating wrist control and grasp-release functions. In all, 14 males, 7 females, mean age 54.2 years, mean stroke duration 385.1 days, with baseline FMMA score 27.0 were recruited. The primary outcome measure was upper-extremity FMMA scores measured mid-intervention at week 3, end-intervention at week 6, and follow-up at weeks 12 and 24. Seven, 8 and 7 subjects underwent BCI-HK, HK and SAT interventions respectively. FMMA score improved in all groups, but no intergroup differences were found at any time points. Significantly larger motor gains were observed in the BCI-HK group compared to the SAT group at weeks 3, 12 and 24, but motor gains in the HK group did not differ from the SAT group at any time point. In conclusion, BCI-HK is effective, safe, and may have the potential for enhancing motor recovery in chronic stroke when combined with therapist-assisted arm mobilization.

  10. Brain-computer interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke.

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu; Zhou, Longjiang; Tang, Ka Yin; Ephraim Joseph, Gopal J; Kuah, Christopher Wee Keong; Chua, Karen Sui Geok

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG)-based Motor Imagery (MI) Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK) robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA) score 10-50), recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT) groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 min per session. The BCI-HK group received 1 h of BCI coupled with HK intervention, and the HK group received 1 h of HK intervention per session. Both BCI-HK and HK groups received 120 trials of robot-assisted hand grasping and knob manipulation followed by 30 min of therapist-assisted arm mobilization. The SAT group received 1.5 h of therapist-assisted arm mobilization and forearm pronation-supination movements incorporating wrist control and grasp-release functions. In all, 14 males, 7 females, mean age 54.2 years, mean stroke duration 385.1 days, with baseline FMMA score 27.0 were recruited. The primary outcome measure was upper extremity FMMA scores measured mid-intervention at week 3, end-intervention at week 6, and follow-up at weeks 12 and 24. Seven, 8 and 7 subjects underwent BCI-HK, HK and SAT interventions respectively. FMMA score improved in all groups, but no intergroup differences were found at any time points. Significantly larger motor gains were observed in the BCI-HK group compared to the SAT group at weeks 3, 12, and 24, but motor gains in the HK group did not differ from the SAT group at any time point. In conclusion, BCI-HK is effective, safe, and may have the potential for enhancing motor recovery in chronic stroke when combined with therapist-assisted arm mobilization.

  11. Robot modelling; Control and applications with software

    Ranky, P G; Ho, C Y

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a ''picture'' of robotics covering both the theoretical aspect of modeling as well as the practical and design aspects of: robot programming; robot tooling and automated hand changing; implementation planning; testing; and software design for robot systems. The authors present an introduction to robotics with a systems approach. They describe not only the tasks relating to a single robot (or arm) but also systems of robots working together on a product or several products.

  12. Electro-cutaneous stimulation on the palm elicits referred sensations on intact but not on amputated digits

    D'Alonzo, M.; Engels, L. F.; Controzzi, M.; Cipriani, C.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Grasping and manipulation control critically depends on tactile feedback. Without this feedback, the ability for fine control of a prosthesis is limited in upper limb amputees. Early studies have shown that non-invasive electro-cutaneous stimulation (ES) can induce referred sensations that are spread to a wider and/or more distant area, with respect to the electrodes. Building on this, we sought to exploit this effect to provide somatotopically matched sensory feedback to people with partial hand (digital) amputations. Approach. For the first time, this work investigated the possibility of inducing referred sensations in the digits by activating the palmar nerves. Specifically, we electrically stimulated 18 sites on the palm of non-amputees to evaluate the effects of sites and stimulation parameters on modality, magnitude, and location of the evoked sensations. We performed similar tests with partial hand amputees by testing those sites that had most consistently elicited referred sensations in non-amputees. Main results. We demonstrated referred sensations in non-amputees from all stimulation sites in one form or another. Specifically, the stimulation of 16 of the 18 sites gave rise to reliable referred sensations. Amputees experienced referred sensations to unimpaired digits, just like non-amputees, but we were unable to evoke referred sensations in their missing digits: none of them reported sensations that extended beyond the tip of the stump. Significance. The possibility of eliciting referred sensations on the digits may be exploited in haptic systems for providing touch sensations without obstructing the fingertips or their movements. The study also suggests that the phenomenon of referred sensations through ES may not be exploited for partial hand prostheses, and it invites researchers to explore alternative approaches. Finally, the results seem to confirm previous studies suggesting that the stumps in partial hand amputees partially acquire the

  13. Bodily illusions disrupt tactile sensations.

    D'Amour, Sarah; Pritchett, Lisa M; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-02-01

    To accurately interpret tactile information, the brain needs to have an accurate representation of the body to which to refer the sensations. Despite this, body representation has only recently been incorporated into the study of tactile perception. Here, we investigate whether distortions of body representation affect tactile sensations. We perceptually altered the length of the arm and the width of the waist using a tendon vibration illusion and measured spatial acuity and sensitivity. Surprisingly, we found reduction in both tactile acuity and sensitivity thresholds when the arm or waist was perceptually altered, which indicates a general disruption of low-level tactile processing. We postulate that the disruptive changes correspond to the preliminary stage as the body representation starts to change and may give new insights into sensory processing in people with long-term or sudden abnormal body representation such as are found in eating disorders or following amputation.

  14. Virtual hand: a 3D tactile interface to virtual environments

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Borrel, Paul

    2008-02-01

    We introduce a novel system that allows users to experience the sensation of touch in a computer graphics environment. In this system, the user places his/her hand on an array of pins, which is moved about space on a 6 degree-of-freedom robot arm. The surface of the pins defines a surface in the virtual world. This "virtual hand" can move about the virtual world. When the virtual hand encounters an object in the virtual world, the heights of the pins are adjusted so that they represent the object's shape, surface, and texture. A control system integrates pin and robot arm motions to transmit information about objects in the computer graphics world to the user. It also allows the user to edit, change and move the virtual objects, shapes and textures. This system provides a general framework for touching, manipulating, and modifying objects in a 3-D computer graphics environment, which may be useful in a wide range of applications, including computer games, computer aided design systems, and immersive virtual worlds.

  15. Kinematic control of robot with degenerate wrist

    Barker, L. K.; Moore, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Kinematic resolved rate equations allow an operator with visual feedback to dynamically control a robot hand. When the robot wrist is degenerate, the computed joint angle rates exceed operational limits, and unwanted hand movements can result. The generalized matrix inverse solution can also produce unwanted responses. A method is introduced to control the robot hand in the region of the degenerate robot wrist. The method uses a coordinated movement of the first and third joints of the robot wrist to locate the second wrist joint axis for movement of the robot hand in the commanded direction. The method does not entail infinite joint angle rates.

  16. Multi-Purpose Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand Design for Extra-Vehicular Activity Manipulation Tasks using Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IFOS proposes to design and build fiber-optically sensorized robotic fingers that can sense force and, objects using only tactile feedback, similar to the skin on a...

  17. Robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Richter, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Presents new, cutting-edge algorithms for robot/camera calibration, sensor fusion and sensor calibration Explores the main challenges for accurate coil positioning, such as head motion, and outlines how active robotic motion compensation can outperform hand-held solutions Analyzes how a robotized system in medicine can alleviate concerns with a patient's safety, and presents a novel fault-tolerant algorithm (FTA) sensor for system safety

  18. Exploratorium: Robots.

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  19. A transcription factor for cold sensation!

    Kim, Susan J; Qu, Zhican; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Zhuo, Min

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The ability to feel hot and cold is critical for animals and human beings to survive in the natural environment. Unlike other sensations, the physiology of cold sensation is mostly unknown. In the present study, we use genetically modified mice that do not express nerve growth factor-inducible B (NGFIB) to investigate the possible role of NGFIB in cold sensation. We found that genetic deletion of NGFIB selectively affected behavioral responses to cold stimuli while behavioral respons...

  20. Acupuncture sensation during ultrasound guided acupuncture needling

    Park, Jongbae J.; Akazawa, Margeaux; Ahn, Jaeki; Beckman-Harned, Selena; Lin, Feng-Chang; Lee, Kwangjae; Fine, Jason; Davis, Robert T; Langevin, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Background Although acupuncture sensation (also known as de qi) is a cornerstone of traditional acupuncture therapy, most research has accepted the traditional method of defining acupuncture sensation only through subjective patient reports rather than on any quantifiable physiological basis. Purpose To preliminarily investigate the frequency of key sensations experienced while needling to specific, quantifiable tissue levels (TLs) guided by ultrasound (US) imaging. Methods Five participants received needling at two acupuncture points and two control points at four TLs. US scans were used to determine when each TL was reached. Each volunteer completed 32 sets of modified Southampton Needle Sensation Questionnaires. Part one of the study tested sensations experienced at each TL and part two compared the effect of oscillation alone versus oscillation + rotation. Results In all volunteers, the frequency of pricking, sharp sensations was significantly greater in shallower TLs than deeper (p=0.007); the frequency of sensations described as deep, dull and heavy, as spreading, and as electric shocks was significantly greater in deeper TLs than shallower (p=0.002). Sensations experienced did not significantly differ between real and control points within each of three TLs (p>0.05) except TL 4 (p=0.006). The introduction of needle rotation significantly increased deep, dull, heavy sensations, but not pricking and sharp sensations; within each level, the spectrum of sensation experienced during both oscillation + rotation and oscillation alone did not significantly differ between acupuncture and control points. Conclusion The preliminary study indicates a strong connection between acupuncture sensation and both tissue depth and needle rotation. Furthermore, the new methodology has been proven feasible. A further study with an objective measurement is warranted. PMID:21642648

  1. Whole glove permeation of cyclohexanol through disposable nitrile gloves on a dextrous robot hand and comparison with the modified closed-loop ASTM F739 method 1. No fist clenching.

    Mathews, Airek R; Que Hee, Shane S

    2017-04-01

    The aim was to develop a whole glove permeation method for cyclohexanol to generate permeation parameter data for a non-moving dextrous robot hand (normalized breakthrough time t b , standardized breakthrough time t s , steady state permeation rate P s , and diffusion coefficient D). Four types of disposable powderless, unsupported, and unlined nitrile gloves from the same producer were investigated: Safeskin Blue and Kimtech Science Blue, Purple, and Sterling. The whole glove method developed involved a peristaltic pump for water circulation through chemically resistant Viton tubing to continually wash the inner surface of the test glove via holes in the tubing, a dextrous robot hand operated by a microprocessor, a chemically protective nitrile glove to protect the robot hand, an incubator to maintain 35°C temperature, and a hot plate to maintain 35°C at the sampling point of the circulating water. Aliquots of 1.0 mL were sampled at regular time intervals for the first 60 min followed by removal of 0.5 mL aliquots every hour to 8 hr. Quantification was by the internal standard method after gas chromatography-selective ion electron impact mass spectrometry using a non-polar capillary column. The individual glove values of t b and t s differed for the ASTM closed loop method except for Safeskin Blue, but did not for the whole glove method. Most of the kinetic parameters agreed within an order of magnitude for the two techniques. The order of most protective to least protective glove was Blue and Safeskin, then Purple followed by Sterling for the whole gloves. The analogous order for the modified F739 ASTM closed loop method was: Safeskin, Blue, Purple, and Sterling, almost the same as for the whole glove. The Sterling glove was "not recommended" from the modified ASTM data, and was "poor" from the whole glove data.

  2. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  3. POÉSIE, PAYSAGE ET SENSATION / Poetry, landscape and sensation

    Michel Collot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article effectue une refléxion téorique par rapport au paysage, question qui revêt un enjeuconsidérable dans le champ des sciences humaines et des pratiques sociales contemporaines, maisaussi, pour l’art et pour la poésie modernes. Il s’agit d’une notion qui se situe historiquement etstructurellement entre une pensée symbolique du Lieu qui a dominé l’Antiquité classique et leMoyen Âge, et une connaissance scientifique de l’espace qui se développe aux Temps modernes.À partir du Romantisme, notamment la poésie lyrique a fait du paysage un lieu d’expression de lasensibilité. En contrepartie, l’art et la littérature au XXème siècle ont eu tendance à se détournerde la représentation du monde extérieur pour explorer les ressources propres à leurs moyensd’expression. Ainsi, le paysage semble avoir perdu son endroit à la scène esthétique, c’est qui n’estpas vrai du tout, une fois que le thème continue à inspirer beaucoup d’artistes et d’écrivains.Controversée par nature, l’idée de paysage s’ouvre à plusiers interrogations, telques les conceptsde sensation et de de perception, cueillis chez Paul Valéry, lesquels sont amenés à ce text, commeune proposition de jouissance de la poésie entendue à la manière d’un endroit de réactivation dessensations et des affects. Mots-clés: Paysage, Sensation, Perception, Poésie, L’art.

  4. Testing haptic sensations for spinal anesthesia.

    2011-01-01

    Having identified key determinants of teaching and learning spinal anesthesia, it was necessary to characterize and render the haptic sensations (feeling of touch) associated with needle insertion in the lower back. The approach used is to match recreated sensations (eg, "pop" through skin or dura mater) with experts\\' perceptions of the equivalent clinical events.

  5. Challenging the assumptions for thermal sensation scales

    Schweiker, Marcel; Fuchs, Xaver; Becker, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Scales are widely used to assess the personal experience of thermal conditions in built environments. Most commonly, thermal sensation is assessed, mainly to determine whether a particular thermal condition is comfortable for individuals. A seven-point thermal sensation scale has been used...... extensively, which is suitable for describing a one-dimensional relationship between physical parameters of indoor environments and subjective thermal sensation. However, human thermal comfort is not merely a physiological but also a psychological phenomenon. Thus, it should be investigated how scales for its...... assessment could benefit from a multidimensional conceptualization. The common assumptions related to the usage of thermal sensation scales are challenged, empirically supported by two analyses. These analyses show that the relationship between temperature and subjective thermal sensation is non...

  6. Multi-Robot Assembly Strategies and Metrics

    MARVEL, JEREMY A.; BOSTELMAN, ROGER; FALCO, JOE

    2018-01-01

    We present a survey of multi-robot assembly applications and methods and describe trends and general insights into the multi-robot assembly problem for industrial applications. We focus on fixtureless assembly strategies featuring two or more robotic systems. Such robotic systems include industrial robot arms, dexterous robotic hands, and autonomous mobile platforms, such as automated guided vehicles. In this survey, we identify the types of assemblies that are enabled by utilizing multiple robots, the algorithms that synchronize the motions of the robots to complete the assembly operations, and the metrics used to assess the quality and performance of the assemblies. PMID:29497234

  7. Multi-Robot Assembly Strategies and Metrics.

    Marvel, Jeremy A; Bostelman, Roger; Falco, Joe

    2018-02-01

    We present a survey of multi-robot assembly applications and methods and describe trends and general insights into the multi-robot assembly problem for industrial applications. We focus on fixtureless assembly strategies featuring two or more robotic systems. Such robotic systems include industrial robot arms, dexterous robotic hands, and autonomous mobile platforms, such as automated guided vehicles. In this survey, we identify the types of assemblies that are enabled by utilizing multiple robots, the algorithms that synchronize the motions of the robots to complete the assembly operations, and the metrics used to assess the quality and performance of the assemblies.

  8. Combining motor imagery with selective sensation toward a hybrid-modality BCI.

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid modality brain-computer interface (BCI) is proposed in this paper, which combines motor imagery with selective sensation to enhance the discrimination between left and right mental tasks, e.g., the classification between left/ right stimulation sensation and right/ left motor imagery. In this paradigm, wearable vibrotactile rings are used to stimulate both the skin on both wrists. Subjects are required to perform the mental tasks according to the randomly presented cues (i.e., left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, left stimulation sensation or right stimulation sensation). Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant group effect (F (2,20) = 7.17, p = 0.0045), and the Benferroni-corrected multiple comparison test (with α = 0.05) showed that the hybrid modality group is 11.13% higher on average than the motor imagery group, and 10.45% higher than the selective sensation group. The hybrid modality experiment exhibits potentially wider spread usage within ten subjects crossed 70% accuracy, followed by four subjects in motor imagery and five subjects in selective sensation. Six subjects showed statistically significant improvement ( Benferroni-corrected) in hybrid modality in comparison with both motor imagery and selective sensation. Furthermore, among subjects having difficulties in both motor imagery and selective sensation, the hybrid modality improves their performance to 90% accuracy. The proposed hybrid modality BCI has demonstrated clear benefits for those poorly performing BCI users. Not only does the requirement of motor and sensory anticipation in this hybrid modality provide basic function of BCI for communication and control, it also has the potential for enhancing the rehabilitation during motor recovery.

  9. FY 1999 achievement report on the R and D of a human cooperation/coexistence robot system. New development for the commercialization for the electric power generation technology; 1999 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinhatsuden gijutsu jitsuyoka kaihatsu

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper described the FY 1999 results of the development of a human cooperation/coexistence robot system and the development for commercialization for power plants. The support robot platform for maintenance, etc. was fabricated, connected with the remote operation system and verified of the integrated function. The operator controls the robot from the remote operation cockpit by HMD (head mounted display) which can present image following the head movement of the operator, extended virtual reality technology, and stereo-sound system. Hand/arm movement and instruction for movement were given to the robot, and at the same time, the robot was made a device which can present inner force sense and bodily sensation to the operator. The remote hand operating software was developed. A method was developed by which the information on visual sense, touch sense and somatic sense is presented in realtime to the operator so that he can obtain a feeling of attendance. A model for sensor simulator verification was also developed so that the developer of software can also make a verification experiment in the actual environment. Interface was developed so that library of basic movements can be used in the network environment. An investigational research on the promotion of robot was made. (NEDO)

  10. Remote vibrotactile noise improves light touch sensation in stroke survivors' fingertips via stochastic resonance.

    Enders, Leah R; Hur, Pilwon; Johnson, Michelle J; Seo, Na Jin

    2013-10-11

    Stroke rehabilitation does not often integrate both sensory and motor recovery. While subthreshold noise was shown to enhance sensory signal detection at the site of noise application, having a noise-generating device at the fingertip to enhance fingertip sensation and potentially enhance dexterity for stroke survivors is impractical, since the device would interfere with object manipulation. This study determined if remote application of subthreshold vibrotactile noise (away from the fingertips) improves fingertip tactile sensation with potential to enhance dexterity for stroke survivors. Index finger and thumb pad sensation was measured for ten stroke survivors with fingertip sensory deficit using the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament and Two-Point Discrimination Tests. Sensation scores were measured with noise applied at one of three intensities (40%, 60%, 80% of the sensory threshold) to one of four locations of the paretic upper extremity (dorsal hand proximal to the index finger knuckle, dorsal hand proximal to the thumb knuckle, dorsal wrist, volar wrist) in a random order, as well as without noise at beginning (Pre) and end (Post) of the testing session. Vibrotactile noise of all intensities and locations instantaneously and significantly improved Monofilament scores of the index fingertip and thumb tip (p sensation, independent of noise location and intensity. Vibrotactile noise at the wrist and dorsal hand may have enhanced the fingertips' light touch sensation via stochastic resonance and interneuronal connections. While long-term benefits of noise in stroke patients warrants further investigation, this result demonstrates potential that a wearable device applying vibrotactile noise at the wrist could enhance sensation and grip ability without interfering with object manipulation in everyday tasks.

  11. Effect of robotic-assisted three-dimensional repetitive motion to improve hand motor function and control in children with handwriting deficits: a nonrandomized phase 2 device trial.

    Palsbo, Susan E; Hood-Szivek, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    We explored the efficacy of robotic technology in improving handwriting in children with impaired motor skills. Eighteen participants had impairments arising from cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other disorders. The intervention was robotic-guided three-dimensional repetitive motion in 15-20 daily sessions of 25-30 min each over 4-8 wk. Fine motor control improved for the children with learning disabilities and those ages 9 or older but not for those with CP or under age 9. All children with ASD or ADHD referred for slow writing speed were able to increase speed while maintaining legibility. Three-dimensional, robot-assisted, repetitive motion training improved handwriting fluidity in children with mild to moderate fine motor deficits associated with ASD or ADHD within 10 hr of training. This dosage may not be sufficient for children with CP. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  12. Pantomimic gestures for human-robot interaction

    Burke, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS 1 Pantomimic Gestures for Human-Robot Interaction Michael Burke, Student Member, IEEE, and Joan Lasenby Abstract This work introduces a pantomimic gesture interface, which classifies human hand gestures using...

  13. Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...

  14. New trends in medical and service robots human centered analysis, control and design

    Chevallereau, Christine; Pisla, Doina; Bleuler, Hannes; Rodić, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Medical and service robotics integrates several disciplines and technologies such as mechanisms, mechatronics, biomechanics, humanoid robotics, exoskeletons, and anthropomorphic hands. This book presents the most recent advances in medical and service robotics, with a stress on human aspects. It collects the selected peer-reviewed papers of the Fourth International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Nantes, France in 2015, covering topics on: exoskeletons, anthropomorphic hands, therapeutic robots and rehabilitation, cognitive robots, humanoid and service robots, assistive robots and elderly assistance, surgical robots, human-robot interfaces, BMI and BCI, haptic devices and design for medical and assistive robotics. This book offers a valuable addition to existing literature.

  15. Underactuated hands : Fundamentals, performance analysis and design

    Kragten, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging need to apply adaptive robotic hands to substitute humans in dangerous, laborious, or monotonous work. The state-of-the-art robotic hands cannot fulfill this need, because they are expensive, hard to control and they consist of many vulnerable motors and sensors. It is aimed to

  16. Robotic architectures

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  17. [Robot assisted Frykman-Goldberg procedure. Case report].

    Zubieta-O'Farrill, Gregorio; Ramírez-Ramírez, Moisés; Villanueva-Sáenz, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Rectal prolapse is defined as the protrusion of the rectal wall through the anal canal; with a prevalence of less than 0.5%. The most frequent symptoms include pain, incomplete defecation sensation with blood and mucus, fecal incontinence and/or constipation. The surgical approach can be perineal or abdominal with the tendency for minimal invasion. Robot-assisted procedures are a novel option that offer technique advantages over open or laparoscopic approaches. 67 year-old female, who presented with rectal prolapse, posterior to an episode of constipation, that required manual reduction, associated with transanal hemorrhage during defecation and occasional fecal incontinence. A RMI defecography was performed that reported complete rectal and uterine prolapse, and cystocele. A robotic assisted Frykman-Goldberg procedure wass performed. There are more than 100 surgical procedures for rectal prolapse treatment. We report the first robot assisted procedure in Mexico. Robotic assisted surgery has the same safety rate as laparoscopic surgery, with the advantages of better instrument mobility, no human hand tremor, better vision, and access to complicated and narrow areas. Robotic surgery as the surgical treatment is a feasible, safe and effective option, there is no difference in recurrence and function compared with laparoscopy. It facilitates the technique, improves nerve preservation and bleeding. Further clinical, prospective and randomized studies to compare the different minimal invasive approaches, their functional and long term results for this pathology are needed. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Robotics and general surgery.

    Jacob, Brian P; Gagner, Michel

    2003-12-01

    Robotics are now being used in all surgical fields, including general surgery. By increasing intra-abdominal articulations while operating through small incisions, robotics are increasingly being used for a large number of visceral and solid organ operations, including those for the gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, intestines, colon, and rectum, as well as for the endocrine organs. Robotics and general surgery are blending for the first time in history and as a specialty field should continue to grow for many years to come. We continuously demand solutions to questions and limitations that are experienced in our daily work. Laparoscopy is laden with limitations such as fixed axis points at the trocar insertion sites, two-dimensional video monitors, limited dexterity at the instrument tips, lack of haptic sensation, and in some cases poor ergonomics. The creation of a surgical robot system with 3D visual capacity seems to deal with most of these limitations. Although some in the surgical community continue to test the feasibility of these surgical robots and to question the necessity of such an expensive venture, others are already postulating how to improve the next generation of telemanipulators, and in so doing are looking beyond today's horizon to find simpler solutions. As the robotic era enters the world of the general surgeon, more and more complex procedures will be able to be approached through small incisions. As technology catches up with our imaginations, robotic instruments (as opposed to robots) and 3D monitoring will become routine and continue to improve patient care by providing surgeons with the most precise, least traumatic ways of treating surgical disease.

  19. Are online poker problem gamblers sensation seekers?

    Bonnaire, Céline

    2018-03-31

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and online poker gambling in a community sample of adult online poker players, when controlling for age, gender, anxiety and depression. In total, 288 online poker gamblers were recruited. Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (CPGI), sensation seeking (SSS), depression and anxiety (HADS) were evaluated. Problem online poker gamblers have higher sensation seeking scores (total, thrill and adventure, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility subscores) and depression scores than non-problem online poker gamblers. Being male, with total sensation seeking, disinhibition and depression scores are factors associated with online poker problem gambling. These findings are interesting in terms of harm reduction. For example, because disinhibition could lead to increased time and money spent, protective behavioral strategies like setting time and monetary limits should be encouraged in poker online gamblers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Perineal Sensation Predictive of Spina Bifida Outcome

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic examination, including perineal sensation, was conducted in a prospective cohort study of 117 consecutive patients with open spina bifida at St George's, University of London, and Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

  1. The existence of propagated sensation along the meridian proved by neuroelectrophysiology

    Xu, Jinsen; Zheng, Shuxia; Pan, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Propagated sensation along the meridian can occur when acupoints are stimulated by acupuncture or electrical impulses. In this study, participants with notable propagated sensation along the dian were given electro-acupuncture at the Jianyu (LI15) acupoint of the large intestine meridian. When participants stated that the sensation reached the back of their hand, regular nervous system action discharge was examined using a physiological recording electrode placed on the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The topographical maps of brain-evoked potential in the primary cortical somatosensory area were also detected. When Guangming (GB37) acupoint in the lower limb and Hegu (LI4) acupoint in the upper limb were stimulated, subjects without propagated sensation along the meridian exhibited a high potential reaction in the corresponding area of the brain cortical so-matosensory area. For subjects with a notable propagated sensation along the meridian, the tion area was larger and extended into the face representative area. These electrophysiological measures directly prove the existence of propagated sensation along the meridian, and the pheral stimulated site is consistent with the corresponding primary cortical somatosensory area, which presents a high potential reaction. PMID:25206574

  2. Performance Comparison Between FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand

    Carbone, Giuseppe; Rossi, Cesare; Savino, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two robotic hands that have been\\ud developed at University Federico II of Naples and at the\\ud University of Cassino. FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand\\ud are described in terms of design and operational features.\\ud In particular, careful attention is paid to the differences\\ud between the above-mentioned hands in terms of transmission\\ud systems. FEDERICA Hand uses tendons and pulleys\\ud to drive phalanxes, while LARM Hand uses cross four-bar\\ud linkages. Results of experime...

  3. Visual sensations induced by relativistic pions

    McNulty, P.J.; Pease, V.P.; Bond, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    Visual sensations were experienced when bursts of high-energy pions passed through the dark-adapted right eyes of three human subjects. The threshold for a visual sensation was typically 1 to 3 μrad at the retina. Data are presented to show that the mechanism is Cerenkov radiation generated within the vitreous humor. Threshold measurements agree with published optical data. A comparison is made between our observations and the light flashes observed in deep space by Apollo astronauts

  4. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  5. Sensation, mechanoreceptor, and nerve fiber function after nerve regeneration

    Krarup, Christian; Rosén, Birgitta; Boeckstyns, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis, and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber...... function after nerve regeneration. Methods: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique, including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors, were followed for 2...... years, and results were compared to noninjured hands. Results: At both repair methods, touch thresholds at the finger tips recovered to 81 ± 3% and tactile gnosis only to 20 ± 4% (p nerve action potentials (SNAPs) remained dispersed and areas recovered to 23 ± 2...

  6. Validation of the efficiency of a robotic rehabilitation training system for recovery of severe plegie hand motor function after a stroke.

    Tanabe, Hirofumi; Ikuta, Munehiro; Morita, Yoshifumi

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a rehabilitation training system called the Useful and Ultimate Rehabilitation System PARKO (UR System PARKO) to promote the recovery of motor function of the severe chronic plegic hand of stroke patients. This system was equipped with two functions to realize two conditions: (1) fixing of all fingers to a hyperextended position and (2) extending the elbow joint while applying resistance load to the fingertips. A clinical test was conducted with two patients to determine the therapeutic effect of the UR System PARKO for severe plegic hand. In both patients, the active ranges of motion of finger extension improved after training with the UR System PARKO. Moreover, the Modified Ashworth scale scores of finger extension increased. Thus, training reduced the spastic paralysis. These results suggest the effectiveness of training with the UR System PARKO for recovery of motor function as reflected in the finger extension of the severe plegic hand.

  7. Sensation Following Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Implants.

    Lagergren, Jakob; Wickman, Marie; Hansson, Per

    2010-01-01

    Sensation is a neglected aspect of the outcome of breast reconstructions with implants. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the cutaneous somatosensory status in breasts following mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with permanent adjustable prostheses and to analyze the patients' subjective experience of the sensation. Twenty-four consecutive patients diagnosed with invasive or in situ breast carcinoma were examined preoperatively and 2 years after mastectomy and reconstruction, for assessment of perception thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, and heat pain above and below the areola. Von Frey filaments and a Peltier element-based thermode were used. The patients completed a questionnaire concerning their experienced sensation in the reconstructed breast. Using quantitative somato-sensory testing, the sensation to all the examined modalities was significantly impaired compared to preoperatively. Most affected was the area above the areola. Patients given postoperative radiotherapy (n = 9) did not differ from those without radiotherapy (n = 15) regarding any of the modalities. All patients reported reduced sensation in the reconstructed breast compared to that preoperatively. Twenty-three patients stated that the reconstructed breast felt different from the other breast; nevertheless 16 reported that the reconstructed breast felt like a real breast. The study revealed sensation impairment following mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with implants. Patients should be informed about this effect preoperatively to allow adequate expectations regarding the sensation outcome. However, two-thirds of the study patients considered that the reconstructed breast felt like a real breast, which must be one of the main purposes of a breast reconstruction.

  8. Robot engineering

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  9. Robot engineering

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  10. Investigating the Effects of Three Needling Parameters (Manipulation, Retention Time, and Insertion Site) on Needling Sensation and Pain Profiles: A Study of Eight Deep Needling Interventions

    Loyeung, Bertrand Y. K.; Cobbin, Deirdre M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi) is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP) on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP) maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site. PMID:24159337

  11. Grasping versus knitting: A geometric perspective. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by M. Santello et al.

    Laumond, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    Grasping an object is a matter of first moving a prehensile organ at some position in the world, and then managing the contact relationship between the prehensile organ and the object. Once the contact relationship has been established and made stable, the object is part of the body and it can move in the world. As any action, the action of grasping is ontologically anchored in the physical space while the correlative movement originates in the space of the body. Robots-as any living system-access the physical space only indirectly through sensors and motors. Sensors and motors constitute the space of the body where homeostasis takes place. Physical space and both sensor space and motor space constitute a triangulation, which is the locus of the action embodiment, i.e. the locus of operations allowing the fundamental inversion between world-centered and body-centered frames. Referring to these three fundamental spaces, geometry appears as the best abstraction to capture the nature of action-driven movements. Indeed, a particular geometry is captured by a particular group of transformations of the points of a space such that every point or every direction in space can be transformed by an element of the group to every other point or direction within the group. Quoting mathematician Poincaré, the issue is not find the truest geometry but the most practical one to account for the complexity of the world [1]. Geometry is then the language fostering the dialog between neurophysiology and engineering about natural and artificial movement science and technology. Evolution has found amazing solutions that allow organisms to rapidly and efficiently manage the relationship between their body and the world [2]. It is then natural that roboticists consider taking inspiration of these natural solutions, while contributing to better understand their origin.

  12. Dimensions of sensation assessed in urinary urgency: a systematic review.

    Das, Rebekah; Buckley, Jonathan; Williams, Marie

    2013-10-01

    Urinary urgency is an adverse sensory experience. Confirmation of the multidimensional nature of other adverse sensory experiences such as pain and dyspnea has improved the understanding of neurophysiological and perceptual mechanisms leading to innovations in assessment and treatment. It has been suggested that the sensation of urgency may include multiple dimensions such as intensity, suddenness and unpleasantness. In this systematic review we determine which dimensions of sensation have been assessed by instruments used to measure urinary urgency. A systematic search was undertaken of MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, Ageline, Web of Science, InformIT Health and Scopus databases to identify studies that included assessments of urinary urge or urgency. Articles were included in the analysis if they were primary studies that described the method used to measure urge/urgency in adults and published in English in peer reviewed publications since January 1, 2000. Articles were excluded from study if urgency was measured only in conjunction with other symptoms (eg frequency or incontinence) or if there was no English version of the instrument. Secondary analyses and systematic reviews were retained to hand search references for additional primary studies. Data were extracted for the instruments used to measure urge/urgency. For each instrument the items specific to urinary urgency were reviewed using a prospectively developed categorization process for the sensory dimension and the measurement metric. Items used to assess urinary urgency were collated in a matrix (sensory dimensions vs assessment metric). The most frequently used dimensions, metrics and combinations were descriptively analyzed. After removal of duplicate articles 1,048 full text articles were screened and 411 were excluded, leaving 637 eligible articles from which data were extracted. A total of 216 instruments were identified which were 1 of 6 types, namely 1) wider symptom questionnaires, 2) urgency

  13. Hydraulic bilateral construction robot; Yuatsushiki bilateral kensetsu robot

    Maehata, K.; Mori, N. [Kayaba Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    Concerning a hydraulic bilateral construction robot, its system constitution, structures and functions of important components, and the results of some tests are explained, and the researches conducted at Gifu University are described. The construction robot in this report is a servo controlled system of a version developed from the mini-shovel now available in the market. It is equipped, in addition to an electrohydraulic servo control system, with various sensors for detecting the robot attitude, vibration, and load state, and with a camera for visualizing the surrounding landscape. It is also provided with a bilateral joy stick which is a remote control actuator capable of working sensation feedback and with a rocking unit that creates robot movements of rolling, pitching, and heaving. The construction robot discussed here, with output increased and response faster thanks to the employment of a hydraulic driving system for the aim of building a robot system superior in performance to the conventional model designed primarily for heavy duty, proves after tests to be a highly sophisticated remotely controlled robot control system. (NEDO)

  14. Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.

    Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess.

  15. Sensation seekers as a healthcare marketing metasegment.

    Self, Donald R; Findley, Carolyn Sara

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses "sensation seekers" as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these individuals as an important target. Various inputs to sensation-seeking causation are explored, including biological/chemical, psychological, and the impact of external characteristics. Using a combination for regulatory focus and risk homeostasis, propositions are provided for improving the effectiveness of the communications. Recommendations for prevention efforts focusing on reaching this subculture using television, along with other electronic media are proposed, including recommendations for message construction and presentation venues.

  16. A transcription factor for cold sensation!

    Milbrandt Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to feel hot and cold is critical for animals and human beings to survive in the natural environment. Unlike other sensations, the physiology of cold sensation is mostly unknown. In the present study, we use genetically modified mice that do not express nerve growth factor-inducible B (NGFIB to investigate the possible role of NGFIB in cold sensation. We found that genetic deletion of NGFIB selectively affected behavioral responses to cold stimuli while behavioral responses to noxious heat or mechanical stimuli were normal. Furthermore, behavioral responses remained reduced or blocked in NGFIB knockout mice even after repetitive application of cold stimuli. Our results provide strong evidence that the first transcription factor NGFIB determines the ability of animals to respond to cold stimulation.

  17. Re: The Effect of Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair on Vaginal Sensation

    Lowenstein L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between the pelvic organ prolapse (POP and sensory functioning of the genital region has not been studied well. It is not also obvious whether the changes occurring at the same time are the cause or the result. In this study, the authors investigated the quantitative sensory changes one day before and 6 months after the surgical repair of POP by robotic sacrocolpopexy. They also used the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory-6 which quantifies the bother and distress caused by the pelvic symptoms. By this method, the initial perception of a sensation of temperature (hot or cold and vibration was measured. After six months, sensitivity to thermal stimuli was found to be significantly improved, but there was no significant change in the vaginal and clitoral vibratory sensory thresholds. The value of reduced sensation in the genitals is not a well-known issue. We know that the thermal and vibratory sensations are diminished in female sexual dysfunction and they can be important in orgasmic function also. It is a well-designed study although it has some limitations. The anatomic correction in POP surgery could improve the genital sensation. Prevention or, at least, early correction of POP can provide serious advantages not only for urinary system but also for the genital functions of women.

  18. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Robot-assisted general surgery.

    Hazey, Jeffrey W; Melvin, W Scott

    2004-06-01

    With the initiation of laparoscopic techniques in general surgery, we have seen a significant expansion of minimally invasive techniques in the last 16 years. More recently, robotic-assisted laparoscopy has moved into the general surgeon's armamentarium to address some of the shortcomings of laparoscopic surgery. AESOP (Computer Motion, Goleta, CA) addressed the issue of visualization as a robotic camera holder. With the introduction of the ZEUS robotic surgical system (Computer Motion), the ability to remotely operate laparoscopic instruments became a reality. US Food and Drug Administration approval in July 2000 of the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) further defined the ability of a robotic-assist device to address limitations in laparoscopy. This includes a significant improvement in instrument dexterity, dampening of natural hand tremors, three-dimensional visualization, ergonomics, and camera stability. As experience with robotic technology increased and its applications to advanced laparoscopic procedures have become more understood, more procedures have been performed with robotic assistance. Numerous studies have shown equivalent or improved patient outcomes when robotic-assist devices are used. Initially, robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy was deemed safe, and now robotics has been shown to be safe in foregut procedures, including Nissen fundoplication, Heller myotomy, gastric banding procedures, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These techniques have been extrapolated to solid-organ procedures (splenectomy, adrenalectomy, and pancreatic surgery) as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic colectomy. In this chapter, we review the evolution of robotic technology and its applications in general surgical procedures.

  20. Emotion based human-robot interaction

    Berns Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-machine interaction is a major challenge in the development of complex humanoid robots. In addition to verbal communication the use of non-verbal cues such as hand, arm and body gestures or mimics can improve the understanding of the intention of the robot. On the other hand, by perceiving such mechanisms of a human in a typical interaction scenario the humanoid robot can adapt its interaction skills in a better way. In this work, the perception system of two social robots, ROMAN and ROBIN of the RRLAB of the TU Kaiserslautern, is presented in the range of human-robot interaction.

  1. Degloving injuries of the hand

    R Krishnamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion of skin from the hand or fingers is an injury that has a dramatic presentation. The entire musculo-skeletal unit of the finger is intact, and the patient can often move the parts of his naked hand quite normally. The challenge for the reconstructive surgeon lies in resurfacing the hand or finger with a good quality pliable sensate skin cover while preserving the movements and function of the hand. Traditionally, skin grafting has been the standard method of reconstruction in such injuries. However, skin grafting does have many disadvantages, too. This article deals with the features of such injuries, management protocols and other reconstructive options available in the armamentarium of the hand surgeon.

  2. Stiff Hands

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Stiff Hands Email to a friend * required fields ...

  3. Hand Infections

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...

  4. Thermal sensation models: a systematic comparison.

    Koelblen, B; Psikuta, A; Bogdan, A; Annaheim, S; Rossi, R M

    2017-05-01

    Thermal sensation models, capable of predicting human's perception of thermal surroundings, are commonly used to assess given indoor conditions. These models differ in many aspects, such as the number and type of input conditions, the range of conditions in which the models can be applied, and the complexity of equations. Moreover, the models are associated with various thermal sensation scales. In this study, a systematic comparison of seven existing thermal sensation models has been performed with regard to exposures including various air temperatures, clothing thermal insulation, and metabolic rate values after a careful investigation of the models' range of applicability. Thermo-physiological data needed as input for some of the models were obtained from a mathematical model for human physiological responses. The comparison showed differences between models' predictions for the analyzed conditions, mostly higher than typical intersubject differences in votes. Therefore, it can be concluded that the choice of model strongly influences the assessment of indoor spaces. The issue of comparing different thermal sensation scales has also been discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rate of decay of auditory sensation

    Plomp, R.

    1964-01-01

    The rate of decay of auditory sensation was investigated by measuring the minimum silent interval that must be introduced between two noise pulses to be perceived. The value of this critical time Δt was determined for difierent intensity levels of both the first and the second pulse. It is shown

  6. Visual sensations induced by Cherenkov radiation

    McNulty, P.J.; Pease, V.P.; Bond, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Pulses of relativistic singly charged particles entering the eyeball induce a variety of visual phenomena by means of Cerenkov radiation generated during their passage through the vitreous. These phenomena are similar in appearance to many of the visual sensations experienced by Apollo astronauts exposed to the cosmic rays in deep space

  7. Phantom breast sensations are frequent after mastectomy

    Hansen, Dorthe Marie Helbo; Kehlet, Henrik; Gærtner, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Phantom breast sensation (PBS) following mastectomy has been recognized for many years. PBS is a feeling that the removed breast is still there. The reported prevalence and risk factors have not been established in large well-defined patient series. The purpose of this study was to examine...... the prevalence of PBS following mastectomy and associated risk factors....

  8. Robotic aortic surgery.

    Duran, Cassidy; Kashef, Elika; El-Sayed, Hosam F; Bismuth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Surgical robotics was first utilized to facilitate neurosurgical biopsies in 1985, and it has since found application in orthopedics, urology, gynecology, and cardiothoracic, general, and vascular surgery. Surgical assistance systems provide intelligent, versatile tools that augment the physician's ability to treat patients by eliminating hand tremor and enabling dexterous operation inside the patient's body. Surgical robotics systems have enabled surgeons to treat otherwise untreatable conditions while also reducing morbidity and error rates, shortening operative times, reducing radiation exposure, and improving overall workflow. These capabilities have begun to be realized in two important realms of aortic vascular surgery, namely, flexible robotics for exclusion of complex aortic aneurysms using branched endografts, and robot-assisted laparoscopic aortic surgery for occlusive and aneurysmal disease.

  9. Evolutionary robotics

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to ...

  10. Robot Aesthetics

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    This paper considers art-based research practice in robotics through a discussion of our course and relevant research projects in autonomous art. The undergraduate course integrates basic concepts of computer science, robotic art, live performance and aesthetic theory. Through practice...... in robotics research (such as aesthetics, culture and perception), we believe robot aesthetics is an important area for research in contemporary aesthetics....

  11. Filigree Robotics

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture.......Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture....

  12. Hand Fractures

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... DESCRIPTION The bones of the hand serve as a framework. This framework supports the muscles that make the wrist and fingers move. When ...

  13. Cryotherapy, Sensation, and Isometric-Force Variability

    Denegar, Craig R.; Buckley, William E.; Newell, Karl M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the changes in sensation of pressure, 2-point discrimination, and submaximal isometric-force production variability due to cryotherapy. Design and Setting: Sensation was assessed using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures factorial design, with treatment (ice immersion or control), limb (right or left), digit (finger or thumb), and sensation test time (baseline, posttreatment, or postisometric-force trials) as independent variables. Dependent variables were changes in sensation of pressure and 2-point discrimination. Isometric-force variability was tested with a 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures factorial design. Treatment condition (ice immersion or control), limb (right or left), and percentage (10, 25, or 40) of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were the independent variables. The dependent variables were the precision or variability (the standard deviation of mean isometric force) and the accuracy or targeting error (the root mean square error) of the isometric force for each percentage of MVIC. Subjects: Fifteen volunteer college students (8 men, 7 women; age = 22 ± 3 years; mass = 72 ± 21.9 kg; height = 183.4 ± 11.6 cm). Measurements: We measured sensation in the distal palmar aspect of the index finger and thumb. Sensation of pressure and 2-point discrimination were measured before treatment (baseline), after treatment (15 minutes of ice immersion or control), and at the completion of isometric testing (final). Variability (standard deviation of mean isometric force) of the submaximal isometric finger forces was measured by having the subjects exert a pinching force with the thumb and index finger for 30 seconds. Subjects performed the pinching task at the 3 submaximal levels of MVIC (10%, 25%, and 40%), with the order of trials assigned randomly. The subjects were given a target representing the submaximal percentage of MVIC and visual feedback of the force produced as they pinched the testing device. The force exerted

  14. Opponency of astringent and fat sensations.

    des Gachons, Catherine Peyrot; Mura, Emi; Speziale, Camille; Favreau, Charlotte J; Dubreuil, Guillaume F; Breslin, Paul A S

    2012-10-09

    In most cultures, people ingest a variety of astringent foods and beverages during meals, but the reasons for this practice are unclear. Many popular beliefs and heuristics, such as high tannin wines should be balanced with fatty foods, for example 'red wine with red meat', suggest that astringents such as pickles, sorbets, wines, and teas 'cleanse' the palate while eating. Oral astringents elicit 'dry, rough' sensations [1], in part, by breaking down mucinous lubricating proteins in saliva [2,3]. The introduction of oral lubricants, including fats, partially diminishes strong astringent sensations [4,5]. Thus, it appears that astringency and fattiness can oppose each other perceptually on an oral rheological spectrum. Most teas, wines, and 'palate cleansers', however, are only mildly astringent and an explanation of how they could oppose the fattiness of meals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that weakly astringent stimuli can elicit strong sensations after repeated sampling. Astringency builds with exposures [6] to an asymptotic level determined by the structure and concentration of the compound. We also establish that multiple sips of a mild astringent solution, similar to a wine or tea, decrease oral fat sensations elicited by fatty food consumption when astringent and fatty stimuli alternate, mimicking the patterning that occurs during a real meal. Consequently, we reveal a principle underlying the international practice of 'palate cleansing'. Repeatedly alternating samples of astringent beverages with fatty foods yielded ratings of fattiness and astringency that were lower than if rinsing with water or if presented alone without alternation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of proprioception by BCI raises a stronger body ownership illusion in control of a humanlike robot

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot?s body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing t...

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Tactile Sensation by Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation.

    Yem, Vibol; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    An electrotactile display is a tactile interface that provides tactile perception by passing electrical current through the surface of the skin. It is actively used instead of mechanical tactile displays for tactile feedback because of several advantages such as its small and thin size, light weight, and high responsiveness. However, the similarities and differences between these sensations is still not clear. This study directly compares the intensity sensation of electrotactile stimulation to that of mechanical stimulation, and investigates the characteristic sensation of anodic and cathodic stimulation. In the experiment, participants underwent a 30 pps electrotactile stimulus every one second to their middle finger, and were asked to match this intensity by adjusting the intensity of a mechanical tactile stimulus to an index finger. The results showed that anodic stimulation mainly produced vibration sensation, whereas cathodic sensation produced both vibration and pressure sensations. Relatively low pressure sensation was also observed for anodic stimulation but it remains low, regardless of the increasing of electrical intensity.

  17. Relationship of the Cold-Heat Sensation of the Limbs and Abdomen with Physiological Biomarkers

    Duong Duc Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between the regional Cold-Heat sensation, the key indicator of the Cold-Heat patterns in traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM, and various biomarkers in Korean population. 734 apparently healthy volunteers aged 20 years and older were enrolled. Three scale self-report questions on the general thermal feel in hands, legs, and abdomen were examined. We found that 65% of women tended to perceive their body, particularly their hands and legs, to be cold, versus 25% of men. Energy expenditure and temperature load at resting state were lower in women, independently of body mass index (BMI. Those with warm hands and warm legs had a 0.74 and 0.52 kg/m2 higher BMI than those with cold hands and cold legs, respectively, regardless of age, gender, and body weight. Norepinephrine was higher, whereas the dynamic changes in glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test were lower in those with cold extremities, particularly hands. No consistent differences in biomarkers were found for the abdominal dimension. These results suggest that gender, BMI, the sympathetic nervous system, and glucose metabolism are potential determinants of the Cold-Heat sensation in the hands and legs, but not the abdomen.

  18. Pain and thermal sensation in the cold: the effect of interval versus continuous exercise.

    Muller, Matthew D; Muller, Sarah M; Ryan, Edward J; Bellar, David M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-06-01

    Military and factory work often involves exposure to cold temperatures. With prolonged exposure, individuals report feeling cold and develop pain in their hands, both of which might be alleviated by endogenous heat production via exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) cycle ergometry alter thermal sensation, hand pain, mean finger temperature, and skin surface temperature gradient (forearm-finger) following immobility in moderate cold. Fourteen young men underwent two trials (each was three total hours in 5°C) consisting of a 90-min period of acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min of exercise (INT or CONT), and a 60-min recovery period (REC). INT and CONT were isoenergetic, reflecting 50 ± 1% of each individual's VO(2) peak. All perceptual scales were significantly correlated during ACE (i.e., test-retest reliability). As expected, individuals felt colder and reported more hand pain during ACE, as compared to thermoneutral conditions. Relative to ACE, both INT and CONT increased mean finger temperature, which was associated with warmer thermal sensation and less hand pain. During REC in 5°C, individuals felt colder and reported more hand pain than during exercise. Although there were no perceptual differences between INT and CONT, moderate exercise in general can cause subjective feelings of warmth and less hand pain in people acutely exposed to moderate cold.

  19. Relationship of the Cold-Heat Sensation of the Limbs and Abdomen with Physiological Biomarkers.

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, JeongHoon; Kim, GaYul; Song, JiYeon; Kim, JiEun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between the regional Cold-Heat sensation, the key indicator of the Cold-Heat patterns in traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM), and various biomarkers in Korean population. 734 apparently healthy volunteers aged 20 years and older were enrolled. Three scale self-report questions on the general thermal feel in hands, legs, and abdomen were examined. We found that 65% of women tended to perceive their body, particularly their hands and legs, to be cold, versus 25% of men. Energy expenditure and temperature load at resting state were lower in women, independently of body mass index (BMI). Those with warm hands and warm legs had a 0.74 and 0.52 kg/m 2 higher BMI than those with cold hands and cold legs, respectively, regardless of age, gender, and body weight. Norepinephrine was higher, whereas the dynamic changes in glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test were lower in those with cold extremities, particularly hands. No consistent differences in biomarkers were found for the abdominal dimension. These results suggest that gender, BMI, the sympathetic nervous system, and glucose metabolism are potential determinants of the Cold-Heat sensation in the hands and legs, but not the abdomen.

  20. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth.

    Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2015-12-01

    To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hand Therapy

    ... from conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tennis elbow , as well as from chronic problems such as ... Tools Advice from a Certified Hand Therapist on Tennis Elbow Advice from a Certified Hand Therapist: Living with( ...

  2. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  3. Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface.

    Tabot, Gregg A; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-11-01

    Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry--the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation--and that of adaptation--the brain's ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hand Anatomy

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  5. Transferring human impedance regulation skills to robots

    Ajoudani, Arash

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces novel thinking and techniques to the control of robotic manipulation. In particular, the concept of teleimpedance control as an alternative method to bilateral force-reflecting teleoperation control for robotic manipulation is introduced. In teleimpedance control, a compound reference command is sent to the slave robot including both the desired motion trajectory and impedance profile, which are then realized by the remote controller. This concept forms a basis for the development of the controllers for a robotic arm, a dual-arm setup, a synergy-driven robotic hand, and a compliant exoskeleton for improved interaction performance.

  6. Robotic environments

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  7. Circadian typology and sensation seeking in adolescents.

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana

    2012-12-01

    The relationship of circadian typology with personality has been largely studied in adults, but there are few studies exploring such relationship in adolescents. Adolescence has been associated with a greater tendency to eveningness preference, sleeping problems, poorer academic achievement, earlier substance use, or risky behaviors, and it is suggested that this association might be mediated by personality factors. Given the relevance of identifying the behavioral outcomes of young evening types to detect and prevent health problems, the present study aimed to explore, for the first time, the relationship between sensation seeking and circadian typology in an adolescent sample of 688 students (51.45% boys) from 12 to 16 yrs old. They answered the Spanish versions of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) and the Junior Sensation Seeking Scale (J-SSS), which includes four subscales measuring Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. Analyses showed that boys obtained significantly higher scores than girls on J-SSS total score and all subscales except Boredom Susceptibility, whereas evening-type adolescents of both sexes scored significantly higher than neither types and than morning types on J-SSS total score. These results indicate that evening-type adolescents show a greater desire for varied, new, complex, and intense sensations, and they are ready for experiencing more risks than morning types. The implications of this study suggest the need of being aware of individual differences in the SS trait in evening-type adolescents, as well as taking into account the wide variety of behaviors associated with it, either prosocial or antisocial, to design better preventive health and academic programs.

  8. [Hand osteoarthritis].

    Šenolt, Ladislav

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.

  9. Healthcare Robotics

    Riek, Laurel D.

    2017-01-01

    Robots have the potential to be a game changer in healthcare: improving health and well-being, filling care gaps, supporting care givers, and aiding health care workers. However, before robots are able to be widely deployed, it is crucial that both the research and industrial communities work together to establish a strong evidence-base for healthcare robotics, and surmount likely adoption barriers. This article presents a broad contextualization of robots in healthcare by identifying key sta...

  10. Android Hands

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Humans have adjusted their space, their actions, and their performed tasks according to their morphology, abilities, and limitations. Thus, the properties of a social robot should fit within these predetermined boundaries when, and if it is beneficial for the user, and the notion of the task...

  11. Industrial Robots.

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  12. Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School

    Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

  13. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  14. Embodied neurofeedback with an anthropomorphic robotic hand

    Braun, Niclas; Emkes, Reiner; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback-guided motor imagery training (NF-MIT) has been suggested as a promising therapy for stroke-induced motor impairment. Whereas much NF-MIT research has aimed at signal processing optimization, the type of sensory feedback given to the participant has received less attention. Often the feedback signal is highly abstract and not inherently coupled to the mental act performed. In this study, we asked whether an embodied feedback signal is more efficient for neurofeedback operation t...

  15. Robots in Elderly Care

    Alessandro Vercelli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low birth rate and the long life expectancy represent an explosive mixture, resulting in the rapid aging of population. The costs of healthcare in the grey society are increasing dramatically, and soon there will be not enough resources and people for care. This context requires conceptually new elderly care solutions progressively reducing the percentages of the human-based care. Research on robot-based solutions for elderly care and active ageing aims to answer these needs. From a general perspective, robotics has the power to completely reshape the landscape of healthcare both in its structure and its operation. In fact, the long-term sustainability of healthcare systems could be addressed by automation powered by digital health technologies, such as artificial intelligence, 3D-printing or robotics. The latter could take over monotonous work from healthcare workers, which would allow them to focus more on patients and to have lesser workload. Robots might be used in elder care with several different aims. (i Robots may act as caregivers, i.e. assist the elderly, (ii they can provide remainders and instructions for activities of daily life and safety, and/or assist their carers in daily tasks; (iii they can help monitor their behaviour and health; and (iv provide companionship, including entertainment and hobbies, reminiscence and social contact. The use of Robots with human subjects/patients raise several sensitive questions. First of all, robots may represent information hubs, and can collect an incredible amount of data about the subjects and their environment. In fact, they record habits such as sleeping, exercising, third persons entering in the house, appointments. Communications may be continuously recorded. Moreover, by connecting with medical devices, they can store medical data. On one hand, this represents a very powerful tool to collect information about the single subject (precision medicine, about disease (thus eventually finding

  16. Loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster.

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Nagumo, Kiyomi; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Fujinawa, Naoto; Hashimoto, Tasuku

    2003-01-01

    A case of sacral herpes zoster infection in a 56-year-old man with the complication of loss of urinary voiding sensation is presented. He had typical herpes zoster eruption on the left S2 dermatome, hypalgesia of the S1-S4 dermatomes, and absence of urinary voiding sensation. There was no other urinary symptom at the first medical examination. Urinary complications associated with herpes zoster are uncommon, but two types, acute cystitis and acute retention, have been recognized. No cases of loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster have been reported. In this case, hypalgesia of the sacral dermatomes was mild compared to the marked loss of urethral sensation. This inconsistency is explained by the hypothesis that the number of urethral fibers is very small as compared to that of cutaneous fibers, therefore, urethral sensation would be more severely disturbed than cutaneous sensation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Urethral sensation following reconstructive pelvic surgery.

    Abernethy, M G; Davis, C; Lowenstein, L; Mueller, E R; Brubaker, L; Kenton, K

    2014-11-01

    Most urethral neuromuscular function data focus on efferent rather than afferent innervation. We aimed to determine if changes exist in urethral afferent nerve function before and after reconstructive pelvic surgery (RPS). Secondarily, we compared afferent urethral innervation in women with and without stress urinary incontinence undergoing RPS. Participants underwent current perception threshold (CPT) and urethral anal reflex (UAR) testing prior to surgery and again post-operatively. Wilcoxon signed ranked test and Spearman's correlations were used and all tests were two-sided. p = 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Urethral CPT thresholds increased significantly after RPS, consistent with decreased urethral afferent function. Pre-operative urethral CPT thresholds at 5 and 250 Hz were lower in SUI women (10 [IQR 5-29], 40 [32-750]) compared with continent women (63 [14-99], 73 [51-109]; p = 0.45, p = 0.020), signifying increased urethral sensation or easier activation of urethral afferents in SUI women. Reconstructive pelvic surgery is associated with a short-term deleterious impact on urethral afferent function, as demonstrated by the higher levels of stimuli required to activate urethral afferent nerves (decreased urethral sensation) immediately after RPS. Women with SUI required lower levels of stimuli to activate urethral afferent nerves prior to RPS, although UAR latencies were similar regardless of concomitant SUI.

  18. [Robot-assisted pancreatic resection].

    Müssle, B; Distler, M; Weitz, J; Welsch, T

    2017-06-01

    Although robot-assisted pancreatic surgery has been considered critically in the past, it is nowadays an established standard technique in some centers, for distal pancreatectomy and pancreatic head resection. Compared with the laparoscopic approach, the use of robot-assisted surgery seems to be advantageous for acquiring the skills for pancreatic, bile duct and vascular anastomoses during pancreatic head resection and total pancreatectomy. On the other hand, the use of the robot is associated with increased costs and only highly effective and professional robotic programs in centers for pancreatic surgery will achieve top surgical and oncological quality, acceptable operation times and a reduction in duration of hospital stay. Moreover, new technologies, such as intraoperative fluorescence guidance and augmented reality will define additional indications for robot-assisted pancreatic surgery.

  19. Robot Mechanisms

    Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanišić, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of robot mechanisms, primarily considering industrial manipulators and humanoid arms. The book is intended for both teaching and self-study. Emphasis is given to the fundamentals of kinematic analysis and the design of robot mechanisms. The coverage of topics is untypical. The focus is on robot kinematics. The book creates a balance between theoretical and practical aspects in the development and application of robot mechanisms, and includes the latest achievements and trends in robot science and technology.

  20. Service Robots for Hospitals

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan

    services to maintain the quality of healthcare provided. This thesis and the Industrial PhD project aim to address logistics, which is the most resource demanding service in a hospital. The scale of the transportation tasks is huge and the material flow in a hospital is comparable to that of a factory. We......Hospitals are complex and dynamic organisms that are vital to the well-being of societies. Providing good quality healthcare is the ultimate goal of a hospital, and it is what most of us are only concerned with. A hospital, on the other hand, has to orchestrate a great deal of supplementary...... believe that these transportation tasks, to a great extent, can be and will be automated using mobile robots. This thesis consequently addresses the key technical issues of implementing service robots in hospitals. In simple terms, a robotic system for automating hospital logistics has to be reliable...

  1. From robot to human grasping simulation

    León, Beatriz; Sancho-Bru, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    The human hand and its dexterity in grasping and manipulating objects are some of the hallmarks of the human species. For years, anatomic and biomechanical studies have deepened the understanding of the human hand’s functioning and, in parallel, the robotics community has been working on the design of robotic hands capable of manipulating objects with a performance similar to that of the human hand. However, although many researchers have partially studied various aspects, to date there has been no comprehensive characterization of the human hand’s function for grasping and manipulation of

  2. Robot Futures

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  3. Robotics education

    Benton, O.

    1984-01-01

    Robotics education courses are rapidly spreading throughout the nation's colleges and universities. Engineering schools are offering robotics courses as part of their mechanical or manufacturing engineering degree program. Two year colleges are developing an Associate Degree in robotics. In addition to regular courses, colleges are offering seminars in robotics and related fields. These seminars draw excellent participation at costs running up to $200 per day for each participant. The last one drew 275 people from Texas to Virginia. Seminars are also offered by trade associations, private consulting firms, and robot vendors. IBM, for example, has the Robotic Assembly Institute in Boca Raton and charges about $1,000 per week for course. This is basically for owners of IBM robots. Education (and training) can be as short as one day or as long as two years. Here is the educational pattern that is developing now

  4. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part III: Whole-body sensation and comfort

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie [Center for the Built Environment, UC Berkeley (United States); Han, Taeyoung [General Motors Company (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specific human subject tests in a climate chamber. They were validated against a test of automobile passengers. The series is intended to present the models' rationale, structure, and coefficients, so that others can test them and develop them further as additional empirical data becomes available. A) The whole-body (overall) sensation model has two forms, depending on whether all of the body's segments have sensations effectively in the same direction (e.g warm or cool), or whether some segments have sensations opposite to those of the rest of the body. For each, individual body parts have different weights for warm versus cool sensations, and strong local sensations dominate the overall sensation. If all sensations are near neutral, the overall sensation is close to the average of all body sensations. B) The overall comfort model also has two forms. Under stable conditions, people evaluate their overall comfort by a complaint-driven process, meaning that when two body parts are strongly uncomfortable, no matter how comfortable the other body parts might be, the overall comfort will be near the discomfort level of the two most uncomfortable parts. When the environmental conditions are transient, or people have control over their environments, overall comfort is better than that of the two most uncomfortable body parts. This can be accounted for by adding the most comfortable vote to the two most uncomfortable ones. (author)

  5. Analyzing Robotic Kinematics Via Computed Simulations

    Carnahan, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    Computing system assists in evaluation of kinematics of conceptual robot. Displays positions and motions of robotic manipulator within work cell. Also displays interactions between robotic manipulator and other objects. Results of simulation displayed on graphical computer workstation. System includes both off-the-shelf software originally developed for automotive industry and specially developed software. Simulation system also used to design human-equivalent hand, to model optical train in infrared system, and to develop graphical interface for teleoperator simulation system.

  6. The perception of materials through oral sensation.

    Howes, Philip D; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception.

  7. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  8. A central neural circuit for itch sensation.

    Mu, Di; Deng, Juan; Liu, Ke-Fei; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Shi, Yu-Feng; Guo, Wei-Min; Mao, Qun-Quan; Liu, Xing-Jun; Li, Hui; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-08-18

    Although itch sensation is an important protective mechanism for animals, chronic itch remains a challenging clinical problem. Itch processing has been studied extensively at the spinal level. However, how itch information is transmitted to the brain and what central circuits underlie the itch-induced scratching behavior remain largely unknown. We found that the spinoparabrachial pathway was activated during itch processing and that optogenetic suppression of this pathway impaired itch-induced scratching behaviors. Itch-mediating spinal neurons, which express the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, are disynaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus via glutamatergic spinal projection neurons. Blockade of synaptic output of glutamatergic neurons in the parabrachial nucleus suppressed pruritogen-induced scratching behavior. Thus, our studies reveal a central neural circuit that is critical for itch signal processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. Air Turbulence and sensation of draught

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Hanzawa, H.

    1988-01-01

    the sedentary subjects were exposed to six mean air velocities ranging from 0.05 m/s to 0.40 m/s. The air temperature was kept constant at 23°C. They were asked whether and where they could feel air movement and whether or not it felt uncomfortable. The turbulence intensity had a significant impact...... on the occurence of draught sensation. A model is presented which predicts the percentage of people dissatisfied because of draught as a function of air temperature, mean velocity and turbulence intensity. The model can be a useful tool for quantifying the draught risk in spaces and for developing air distribution...... systems with a low draught risk....

  10. An Efficient Solution for Hand Gesture Recognition from Video Sequence

    PRODAN, R.-C.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a system of hand gesture recognition by image processing for human robot interaction. The recognition and interpretation of the hand postures acquired through a video camera allow the control of the robotic arm activity: motion - translation and rotation in 3D - and tightening/releasing the clamp. A gesture dictionary was defined and heuristic algorithms for recognition were developed and tested. The system can be used for academic and industrial purposes, especially for those activities where the movements of the robotic arm were not previously scheduled, for training the robot easier than using a remote control. Besides the gesture dictionary, the novelty of the paper consists in a new technique for detecting the relative positions of the fingers in order to recognize the various hand postures, and in the achievement of a robust system for controlling robots by postures of the hands.

  11. The ISOLDE target robots

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  12. Lego Robotics: STEM Sport of the Mind

    Gura, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Lego robotics is engaging, hands-on, and encompasses every one of the NETS for Students. It also inspires a love of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and provides the experience students need to use digital age skills in the real world. In this article, the author discusses how schools get involved with Lego Robotics and…

  13. Compact Tactile Sensors for Robot Fingers

    Martin, Toby B.; Lussy, David; Gaudiano, Frank; Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.; Rodriguez, Dagoberto; Bielski, Paul; Butzer, Melisa

    2004-01-01

    Compact transducer arrays that measure spatial distributions of force or pressure have been demonstrated as prototypes of tactile sensors to be mounted on fingers and palms of dexterous robot hands. The pressure- or force-distribution feedback provided by these sensors is essential for the further development and implementation of robot-control capabilities for humanlike grasping and manipulation.

  14. Starting a Robotics Program in Your County

    Habib, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    The current mission mandates of the National 4-H Headquarters are Citizenship, Healthy Living, and Science. Robotics programs are excellent in fulfilling the Science mandate. Robotics engages students in STEM (Science, Engineering, Technology, and Mathematics) fields by providing interactive, hands-on, minds-on, cross-disciplinary learning…

  15. Robotic buildings(s)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  16. Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

  17. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    M Guszkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.

  18. Comparison of thermal comfort and sensation scales : a case study

    Vesely, Michal; Zeiler, Wim; Li, Rongling; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; te Kulve, M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal sensation is a conscious feeling that grades the thermal environment, while thermal comfort expresses satisfaction with this feeling. Multiple scales to quantify thermal sensation and comfort have been developed throughout the history of research on thermal comfort. In this paper, the most

  19. Message sensation and cognition values: factors of competition or integration?

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  20. 'Errors of Judgment': The Case of Pain Sensations | Loonat | South ...

    Hill, in his paper 'Introspective Awareness of Sensations', argues that we do sometimes commit 'errors of judgment' and he draws on an example that involves the perception of pain to illustrate his point. I analyze Hill's example and draw on other examples of pain sensations to show how errors of judgment are not possible.

  1. Gesture Commanding of a Robot with EVA Gloves

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gestures commands allow a human operator to directly interact with a robot without the use of intermediary hand controllers. There are two main types of hand gesture...

  2. Sensation seeking in opium abusers compared to normal people

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that it is possible to identify people at risk of substance abuse using some personality variables. Identification of these people might help social planners to deal with these people specifically in their prevention attempts. The aim of this study was to compare the sensation seeking of opium addicted and non-addicted people using the sensation seeking scale. Such a comparison might help to identify personality variables that are effective in turning toward substance abuse. In order to measure the sensation seeking of subjects “Sensation Seeking Scale” (SSS were used. 31 opium abusers were matched to 31 normal controls according to the following variables: age, education, father and mother education. Results showed that opium abusers obtain higher scores on the total sensation seeking score ,“variety seeking” and “experience seeking” subscales.

  3. Sensation of agency and perception of temporal order.

    Timm, Jana; Schönwiesner, Marc; SanMiguel, Iria; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    After adaptation to a fixed temporal delay between actions and their sensory consequences, stimuli delivered during the delay are perceived to occur prior to actions. Temporal judgments are also influenced by the sensation of agency (experience of causing our own actions and their sensory consequences). Sensory consequences of voluntary actions are perceived to occur earlier in time than those of involuntary actions. However, it is unclear whether temporal order illusions influence the sensation of agency. Thus, we tested how the illusionary reversal of motor actions and sound events affect the sensation of agency. We observed an absence of the sensation of agency in the auditory modality in a condition in which sounds were falsely perceived as preceding motor acts relative to the perceived temporal order in the control condition. This finding suggests a strong association between the sensation of agency and the temporal order perception of actions and their consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Soft Robotics.

    Whitesides, George M

    2018-04-09

    This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Constraint Study for a Hand Exoskeleton: Human Hand Kinematics and Dynamics

    Fai Chen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the number of projects studying the human hand from the robotic point of view has increased rapidly, due to the growing interest in academic and industrial applications. Nevertheless, the complexity of the human hand given its large number of degrees of freedom (DoF within a significantly reduced space requires an exhaustive analysis, before proposing any applications. The aim of this paper is to provide a complete summary of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the human hand as a preliminary step towards the development of hand devices such as prosthetic/robotic hands and exoskeletons imitating the human hand shape and functionality. A collection of data and constraints relevant to hand movements is presented, and the direct and inverse kinematics are solved for all the fingers as well as the dynamics; anthropometric data and dynamics equations allow performing simulations to understand the behavior of the finger.

  6. [Voice and vibration sensations in the speech forming organs: clinical and theoretical aspects of rare symptoms specific for schizophrenia].

    Vilela, W; Lolas, F; Wolpert, E

    1978-01-01

    When studying 750 psychiatric in-patients with psychoses of various diagnostic groups, the symptoms of voice sensations and vibration feelings could only be found among patients with paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, these symptoms were located exclusively in body areas that are involved in the peripheral motor production of voice and speech (areas of head, throat, thorax). In 11 of 15 such cases that could be identified, the sensations of voices and vibrations occurred simultaneously and in identical body parts; in the remaining 4 cases only voices without vibration sensations were reported. Therefore these symptoms can be considered as highly specific for schizophrenia. According to the terminology of Bleuler these two symptoms are because of their rareness to be taken as accessoric symptoms; according to the terminology of Kurt Schneider they have the value of first rank symptoms because of their highly diagnostic specifity for schizophrenia. The pathogenesis of these symptoms is on the one hand discussed under the perspective of language development and the changing function of language for behaviour control; on the other hand, the pathogenesis of these symptoms is discussed from the viewpoint of cybernetic, or neurophysiological-neuroanatomical foundation of speech production and speech control. Both models of explanation have in common that the ideational component of speech is noticed as acustic halluzinations and the motor proprioceptive part of speech is noticed as sensation of vibrations, both in a typically schiphrenic manner, i.e. dissociated and ego-alienated.

  7. Restoring natural sensory feedback in real-time bidirectional hand prostheses

    Raspopovic, Stanisa; Capogrosso, Marco; Petrini, Francesco Maria

    2014-01-01

    Hand loss is a highly disabling event that markedly affects the quality of life. To achieve a close to natural replacement for the lost hand, the user should be provided with the rich sensations that we naturally perceive when grasping or manipulating an object. Ideal bidirectional hand prosthese...

  8. Testing for and the role of anal and rectal sensation.

    Rogers, J

    1992-03-01

    The rectum is insensitive to stimuli capable of causing pain and other sensations when applied to a somatic cutaneous surface. It is, however, sensitive to distension by an experimental balloon introduced through the anus, though it is not known whether it is the stretching or reflex contraction of the gut wall, or the distortion of the mesentery and adjacent structures which induces the sensation. No specific sensory receptors are seen on careful histological examination of the rectum in humans. However, myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibres are seen adjacent to the rectal mucosa, but no intraepithelial fibres arise from these. The sensation of rectal distension travels with the parasympathetic system to S2, S3 and S4. The two main methods for quantifying rectal sensation are rectal balloon distension and mucosal electrosensitivity. The balloon is progressively distended until particular sensations are perceived by the patient. The volumes at which these sensations are perceived are recorded. Three sensory thresholds are usually defined: constant sensation of fullness, urge to defecate, and maximum tolerated volume. The modalities of anal sensation can be precisely defined. Touch, pain and temperature sensation exist in normal subjects. There is profuse innervation of the anal canal with a variety of specialized sensory nerve endings: Meissner's corpuscles which record touch sensation, Krause end-bulbs which respond to thermal stimuli, Golgi-Mazzoni bodies and pacinian corpuscles which respond to changes in tension and pressure, and genital corpuscles which respond to friction. In addition, there are large diameter free nerve endings within the epithelium. The nerve pathway for anal canal sensation is via the inferior haemorrhoidal branches of the pudendal nerve to the sacral roots of S2, S3 and S4. Anal sensation may be quantitatively measured in response to electrical stimulation. The technique involves the use of a specialized constant current generator

  9. Robotics 101

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  10. Vitruvian Robot

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    future. A real version of Ava would not last long in a human world because she is basically a solipsist, who does not really care about humans. She cannot co-create the line humans walk along. The robots created as ‘perfect women’ (sex robots) today are very far from the ideal image of Ava...

  11. Development of a Robotic Colonoscopic Manipulation System, Using Haptic Feedback Algorithm.

    Woo, Jaehong; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Seo, Jong Tae; Kim, Tae Il; Yi, Byung Ju

    2017-01-01

    Colonoscopy is one of the most effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools for colorectal diseases. We aim to propose a master-slave robotic colonoscopy that is controllable in remote site using conventional colonoscopy. The master and slave robot were developed to use conventional flexible colonoscopy. The robotic colonoscopic procedure was performed using a colonoscope training model by one expert endoscopist and two unexperienced engineers. To provide the haptic sensation, the insertion force and the rotating torque were measured and sent to the master robot. A slave robot was developed to hold the colonoscopy and its knob, and perform insertion, rotation, and two tilting motions of colonoscope. A master robot was designed to teach motions of the slave robot. These measured force and torque were scaled down by one tenth to provide the operator with some reflection force and torque at the haptic device. The haptic sensation and feedback system was successful and helpful to feel the constrained force or torque in colon. The insertion time using robotic system decreased with repeated procedures. This work proposed a robotic approach for colonoscopy using haptic feedback algorithm, and this robotic device would effectively perform colonoscopy with reduced burden and comparable safety for patients in remote site.

  12. Development of a Robotic Colonoscopic Manipulation System, Using Haptic Feedback Algorithm

    Woo, Jaehong; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Seo, Jong Tae

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Colonoscopy is one of the most effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools for colorectal diseases. We aim to propose a master-slave robotic colonoscopy that is controllable in remote site using conventional colonoscopy. Materials and Methods The master and slave robot were developed to use conventional flexible colonoscopy. The robotic colonoscopic procedure was performed using a colonoscope training model by one expert endoscopist and two unexperienced engineers. To provide the haptic sensation, the insertion force and the rotating torque were measured and sent to the master robot. Results A slave robot was developed to hold the colonoscopy and its knob, and perform insertion, rotation, and two tilting motions of colonoscope. A master robot was designed to teach motions of the slave robot. These measured force and torque were scaled down by one tenth to provide the operator with some reflection force and torque at the haptic device. The haptic sensation and feedback system was successful and helpful to feel the constrained force or torque in colon. The insertion time using robotic system decreased with repeated procedures. Conclusion This work proposed a robotic approach for colonoscopy using haptic feedback algorithm, and this robotic device would effectively perform colonoscopy with reduced burden and comparable safety for patients in remote site. PMID:27873506

  13. Epiglottic cyst as an etiological factor of globus sensation.

    Polat, Bahtiyar; Karahatay, Serdar; Gerek, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Globus is a subjective complaint that describes a sensation of a lump or a foreign body in the throat. Despite being a well-known and common clinical condition, the etiological factors have not been definitely elucidated yet. The study was set up to ascertain the relationship between epiglottic cysts and globus sensation. All patients undergoing investigation and treatments for globus sensation were included in the study. Patients with epiglottic cysts but no other possible causes of globus sensation were constituted the series of patients. Patients were asked to assess the levels of complaint before and after the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser excisions of the cysts. Epiglottic cysts were found in 10 (5.4%) of the 182 patients. Three of these 10 patients who had concomitant diseases or conditions that may cause globus sensation and one patient who refused the surgery were excluded from the study. All the remaining six patients reported relief of the globus sensation after the CO2 laser excisions of the cysts. Our results, obtained from this limited series, indicated that epiglottic cysts may be considered as one of the etiological factors of globus sensation.

  14. Robot Teachers

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Ess, Charles Melvin; Bhroin, Niamh Ni

    The world's first robot teacher, Saya, was introduced to a classroom in Japan in 2009. Saya, had the appearance of a young female teacher. She could express six basic emotions, take the register and shout orders like 'be quiet' (The Guardian, 2009). Since 2009, humanoid robot technologies have...... developed. It is now suggested that robot teachers may become regular features in educational settings, and may even 'take over' from human teachers in ten to fifteen years (cf. Amundsen, 2017 online; Gohd, 2017 online). Designed to look and act like a particular kind of human; robot teachers mediate human...... existence and roles, while also aiming to support education through sophisticated, automated, human-like interaction. Our paper explores the design and existential implications of ARTIE, a robot teacher at Oxford Brookes University (2017, online). Drawing on an initial empirical exploration we propose...

  15. Robot vision

    Hall, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Almost all industrial robots use internal sensors such as shaft encoders which measure rotary position, or tachometers which measure velocity, to control their motions. Most controllers also provide interface capabilities so that signals from conveyors, machine tools, and the robot itself may be used to accomplish a task. However, advanced external sensors, such as visual sensors, can provide a much greater degree of adaptability for robot control as well as add automatic inspection capabilities to the industrial robot. Visual and other sensors are now being used in fundamental operations such as material processing with immediate inspection, material handling with adaption, arc welding, and complex assembly tasks. A new industry of robot vision has emerged. The application of these systems is an area of great potential

  16. Social Robots

    Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us as indiv......Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us...... as individuals seems to be limited by our technical limitations and phantasy alone. This collection contributes to the field of social robotics by exploring its boundaries from a philosophically informed standpoint. It constructively outlines central potentials and challenges and thereby also provides a stable...

  17. Robotic seeding

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  18. Micro intelligence robot

    Jeon, Yon Ho

    1991-07-01

    This book gives descriptions of micro robot about conception of robots and micro robot, match rules of conference of micro robots, search methods of mazes, and future and prospect of robots. It also explains making and design of 8 beat robot like making technique, software, sensor board circuit, and stepping motor catalog, speedy 3, Mr. Black and Mr. White, making and design of 16 beat robot, such as micro robot artist, Jerry 2 and magic art of shortening distances algorithm of robot simulation.

  19. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  20. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  1. Elastic Inflatable Actuators for Soft Robotic Applications.

    Gorissen, Benjamin; Reynaerts, Dominiek; Konishi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Kim, Joon-Wan; De Volder, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The 20th century's robotic systems have been made from stiff materials, and much of the developments have pursued ever more accurate and dynamic robots, which thrive in industrial automation, and will probably continue to do so for decades to come. However, the 21st century's robotic legacy may very well become that of soft robots. This emerging domain is characterized by continuous soft structures that simultaneously fulfill the role of robotic link and actuator, where prime focus is on design and fabrication of robotic hardware instead of software control. These robots are anticipated to take a prominent role in delicate tasks where classic robots fail, such as in minimally invasive surgery, active prosthetics, and automation tasks involving delicate irregular objects. Central to the development of these robots is the fabrication of soft actuators. This article reviews a particularly attractive type of soft actuators that are driven by pressurized fluids. These actuators have recently gained traction on the one hand due to the technology push from better simulation tools and new manufacturing technologies, and on the other hand by a market pull from applications. This paper provides an overview of the different advanced soft actuator configurations, their design, fabrication, and applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hand eczema

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Flyvholm, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients/materials......Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients...... dermatitis, younger age, male sex (male doctors), and working hours. Eighty nine per cent of subjects reported mild/moderate lesions. Atopic dermatitis was the only factor significantly related to severity. Sick leave was reported by 8% of subjects, and notification to the authorities by 12%. Conclusions...... or severity, but cultural differences between professions with respect to coping with the eczema were significant. Atopic dermatitis was related to increased prevalence and severity, and preventive efforts should be made for healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis....

  3. Hand Osteoblastoma

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  4. Review of emerging surgical robotic technology.

    Peters, Brian S; Armijo, Priscila R; Krause, Crystal; Choudhury, Songita A; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2018-04-01

    The use of laparoscopic and robotic procedures has increased in general surgery. Minimally invasive robotic surgery has made tremendous progress in a relatively short period of time, realizing improvements for both the patient and surgeon. This has led to an increase in the use and development of robotic devices and platforms for general surgery. The purpose of this review is to explore current and emerging surgical robotic technologies in a growing and dynamic environment of research and development. This review explores medical and surgical robotic endoscopic surgery and peripheral technologies currently available or in development. The devices discussed here are specific to general surgery, including laparoscopy, colonoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and thoracoscopy. Benefits and limitations of each technology were identified and applicable future directions were described. A number of FDA-approved devices and platforms for robotic surgery were reviewed, including the da Vinci Surgical System, Sensei X Robotic Catheter System, FreeHand 1.2, invendoscopy E200 system, Flex® Robotic System, Senhance, ARES, the Single-Port Instrument Delivery Extended Research (SPIDER), and the NeoGuide Colonoscope. Additionally, platforms were reviewed which have not yet obtained FDA approval including MiroSurge, ViaCath System, SPORT™ Surgical System, SurgiBot, Versius Robotic System, Master and Slave Transluminal Endoscopic Robot, Verb Surgical, Miniature In Vivo Robot, and the Einstein Surgical Robot. The use and demand for robotic medical and surgical platforms is increasing and new technologies are continually being developed. New technologies are increasingly implemented to improve on the capabilities of previously established systems. Future studies are needed to further evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each robotic surgical device and platform in the operating suite.

  5. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments: Part III: whole-body sensation and comfort

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie; Han, Taeyoung

    2009-01-01

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specifi...

  6. More than a feeling: sensation from cortical stimulation

    Nielsen, Kristina J; Callaway, Edward M

    2008-01-01

    Changes in neuronal firing underlie sensation, but how many neurons are needed to perceive these activity shifts? Two new studies in Nature suggest that the experimental modulation of only a few neurons can influence perception.

  7. Prognostic value of thumb pain sensation in birth brachial plexopathy

    Carlos O. Heise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6. The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

  8. Correlation Factors Describing Primary and Spatial Sensations of Sound Fields

    ANDO, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The theory of subjective preference of the sound field in a concert hall is established based on the model of human auditory-brain system. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) mechanism and the interaural crosscorrelation function (IACF) mechanism for signals arriving at two ear entrances, and the specialization of human cerebral hemispheres. This theory can be developed to describe primary sensations such as pitch or missing fundamental, loudness, timbre and, in addition, duration sensation which is introduced here as a fourth. These four primary sensations may be formulated by the temporal factors extracted from the ACF associated with the left hemisphere and, spatial sensations such as localization in the horizontal plane, apparent source width and subjective diffuseness are described by the spatial factors extracted from the IACF associated with the right hemisphere. Any important subjective responses of sound fields may be described by both temporal and spatial factors.

  9. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  10. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses with metabolic step-changes

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; deDear, Richard

    2006-01-01

    at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise....... The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative...... average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10-5 min 25% and during the prior 20-10 min 10%....

  11. Thirst sensation and oral dryness following alcohol intake

    Kiyotoshi Inenaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Substantial acute and chronic intakes of alcohol or ethanol (EtOH severely influence oral sensations, such as thirst and oral dryness (dry mouth, xerostomia. Thirst sensation and oral dryness are primarily caused by the activation of neurons in brain regions, including the circumventricular organs and hypothalamus, which are referred to as the dipsogenic center, and by a decrease in salivary secretion, respectively. The sensation of thirst experienced after heavy-alcohol drinking is widely regarded as a consequence of EtOH-induced diuresis; however, EtOH in high doses induces anti-diuresis. Recently, it has been proposed that the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde induces thirst via two distinct processes in the central nervous system from EtOH-induced diuresis, based on the results of animal experiments. The present review describes new insights regarding the induction mechanism of thirst sensation and oral dryness after drinking alcohol.

  12. Conscious sensation, conscious perception and sensorimotor theories of consciousness

    Gamez, David

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that the differences between our conscious sensations (color, sound, smell, etc.) could be linked to the different ways in which our senses process and structure information. It is also proposed that the organization of our conscious sensations into a conscious perception of a three-dimensional world could be linked to our mastery of sensorimotor contingencies. These hypotheses are supported by a number of observations, including the appearance of consciou...

  13. Physical Self Perception and Sensation seeking tendency in gym gores

    Schlegel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Annotation: The work deals with the relationship between physical self-concept and experience of the search terms sensation seeking. It contains theoretical research of these areas, their position in the discourse of fitness and also presents a starting points for comparison. The research was conducted on a group of gym-goers and analyzed the relationship of concepts Physical Self Perception Profile and Sensation Seeking Scale version V including individual subscales. Comparison showed a weak...

  14. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    M Guszkowska; A Bołdak

    2010-01-01

    The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98); wakeboarding (n=30); snowboarding (n=30);...

  15. Robotic fabrication in architecture, art, and design

    Braumann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Architects, artists, and designers have been fascinated by robots for many decades, from Villemard’s utopian vision of an architect building a house with robotic labor in 1910, to the design of buildings that are robots themselves, such as Archigram’s Walking City. Today, they are again approaching the topic of robotic fabrication but this time employing a different strategy: instead of utopian proposals like Archigram’s or the highly specialized robots that were used by Japan’s construction industry in the 1990s, the current focus of architectural robotics is on industrial robots. These robotic arms have six degrees of freedom and are widely used in industry, especially for automotive production lines. What makes robotic arms so interesting for the creative industry is their multi-functionality: instead of having to develop specialized machines, a multifunctional robot arm can be equipped with a wide range of end-effectors, similar to a human hand using various tools. Therefore, architectural researc...

  16. Flavoured cigarettes, sensation seeking and adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brands.

    Manning, K C; Kelly, K J; Comello, M L

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of cigarette package flavour descriptors and sensation seeking on adolescents' brand perceptions. High school students (n = 253) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and sequentially exposed to cigarette package illustrations for three different brands. In the flavour descriptor condition, the packages included a description of the cigarettes as "cherry", while in the traditional descriptor condition the cigarette brands were described with common phrases found on tobacco packages such as "domestic blend." Following exposure to each package participants' hedonic beliefs, brand attitudes and trial intentions were assessed. Sensation seeking was also measured, and participants were categorised as lower or higher sensation seekers. Across hedonic belief, brand attitude and trial intention measures, there were interactions between package descriptor condition and sensation seeking. These interactions revealed that among high (but not low) sensation seekers, exposure to cigarette packages including sweet flavour descriptors led to more favourable brand impressions than did exposure to packages with traditional descriptors. Among high sensation seeking youths, the appeal of cigarette brands is enhanced through the use of flavours and associated descriptions on product packaging.

  17. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one’s thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  18. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis.

    Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.

  19. Space Robotics Challenge

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  20. Robotic arm

    Kwech, H.

    1989-01-01

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs

  1. Robotic surgery

    ... with this type of surgery give it some advantages over standard endoscopic techniques. The surgeon can make ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 87. Muller CL, Fried GM. Emerging technology in surgery: Informatics, electronics, robotics. In: ...

  2. Robotic parathyroidectomy.

    Okoh, Alexis Kofi; Sound, Sara; Berber, Eren

    2015-09-01

    Robotic parathyroidectomy has recently been described. Although the procedure eliminates the neck scar, it is technically more demanding than the conventional approaches. This report is a review of the patients' selection criteria, technique, and outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Light Robotics

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  4. Robotic arm

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  5. Effects of morphine on respiratory load detection, load magnitude perception and tactile sensation in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Tomazini Martins, Rodrigo; Carberry, Jayne C; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E; Eckert, Danny J

    2018-04-26

    Pharyngeal and respiratory sensation is impaired in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Opioids may further diminish respiratory sensation. Thus, protective pharyngeal neuromuscular and arousal responses to airway occlusion that rely on respiratory sensation could be impaired with opioids to worsen OSA severity. However, little is known about the effects of opioids on upper airway and respiratory sensation in people with OSA. This study was designed to determine the effects of 40mg of MS-Contin on tactile sensation, respiratory load detection and respiratory magnitude perception in people with OSA during wakefulness. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over design (1 week wash-out) was used. 21 men with untreated OSA (apnea/hypopnea index=26{plus minus}17events/h) recruited from a larger clinical study completed the protocol. Tactile sensation using von Frey filaments on the back of the hand, internal mucosa of the cheek, uvula and posterior pharyngeal wall were not different between placebo and morphine (e.g. posterior wall=0.16[0.16,0.4]vs. 0.4[0.14,1.8]g, p=0.261). Similarly, compared to placebo, morphine did not alter respiratory load detection thresholds (nadir mask pressure detected=-2.05[-3.37,-1.55] vs. -2.19[-3.36,-1.41]cmH 2 O, p=0.767), or respiratory load magnitude perception (mean Borg scores during a 5 resistive load [range: 5-126cmH 2 O/L/s] protocol=4.5{plus minus}1.6 vs. 4.2{plus minus}1.2, p=0.347) but did reduce minute ventilation during quiet breathing (11.4{plus minus}3.3 vs. 10.7{plus minus}2.6L/min, prespiratory sensation in men with mild to moderate, untreated, OSA. This suggests that altered respiratory sensation to acute mechanical stimuli is not likely to be a mechanism that contributes to worsening of OSA with a moderate dose of morphine.

  6. Detection of optogenetic stimulation in somatosensory cortex by non-human primates--towards artificial tactile sensation.

    May, Travis; Ozden, Ilker; Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest.

  7. Detection of optogenetic stimulation in somatosensory cortex by non-human primates--towards artificial tactile sensation.

    Travis May

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest.

  8. Recent advances in robotics

    Beni, G.; Hackwood, S.

    1984-01-01

    Featuring 10 contributions, this volume offers a state-of-the-art report on robotic science and technology. It covers robots in modern industry, robotic control to help the disabled, kinematics and dynamics, six-legged walking robots, a vector analysis of robot manipulators, tactile sensing in robots, and more

  9. Robotic Finger Assembly

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  10. Robotics Offer Newfound Surgical Capabilities

    2008-01-01

    Barrett Technology Inc., of Cambridge, Massachusetts, completed three Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center, during which the company developed and commercialized three core technologies: a robotic arm, a hand that functions atop the arm, and a motor driver to operate the robotics. Among many industry uses, recently, an adaptation of the arm has been cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in a minimally invasive knee surgery procedure, where its precision control makes it ideal for inserting a very small implant.

  11. Monitor, the prelude to robotics

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Robots and teleoperator systems will play an important role in future energy systems regardless of the particular energy source. Present remote handling systems were developed for radioactive environments; however, future sources, such as fusion reactors, solar concentrators, and wind generators will also produce environments too hostile for practical ''hands on'' maintenance. Teleoperator systems developed at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) are a logical prelude to performing remote operations with robots. The ''Monitor'' remote handling systems represented state-of-the-art mechanical hardware and operating techniques - the only elements missing are suitable computer and software interfaces

  12. Review of surgical robotics user interface: what is the best way to control robotic surgery?

    Simorov, Anton; Otte, R Stephen; Kopietz, Courtni M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2012-08-01

    As surgical robots begin to occupy a larger place in operating rooms around the world, continued innovation is necessary to improve our outcomes. A comprehensive review of current surgical robotic user interfaces was performed to describe the modern surgical platforms, identify the benefits, and address the issues of feedback and limitations of visualization. Most robots currently used in surgery employ a master/slave relationship, with the surgeon seated at a work-console, manipulating the master system and visualizing the operation on a video screen. Although enormous strides have been made to advance current technology to the point of clinical use, limitations still exist. A lack of haptic feedback to the surgeon and the inability of the surgeon to be stationed at the operating table are the most notable examples. The future of robotic surgery sees a marked increase in the visualization technologies used in the operating room, as well as in the robots' abilities to convey haptic feedback to the surgeon. This will allow unparalleled sensation for the surgeon and almost eliminate inadvertent tissue contact and injury. A novel design for a user interface will allow the surgeon to have access to the patient bedside, remaining sterile throughout the procedure, employ a head-mounted three-dimensional visualization system, and allow the most intuitive master manipulation of the slave robot to date.

  13. Laboratory robotics systems at the Savannah River Laboratory

    Dyches, G.M.; Burkett, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Many analytical chemistry methods normally used at the Savannah River site require repetitive procedures and handling of radioactive and other hazardous solutions. Robotics is being investigated as a method of reducing personnel fatigue and radiation exposure and also increasing product quality. Several applications of various commercially available robot systems are discussed involving cold (nonradioactive) and hot (radioactive) sample preparations and glovebox waste removal. Problems encountered in robot programming, parts fixturing, design of special robot hands and other support equipment, glovebox operation, and operator-system interaction are discussed. A typical robot system cost analysis for one application is given

  14. The Neural Mechanisms of Re-Experiencing Mental Fatigue Sensation: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present s...

  15. Disturbances of sensation occasioned by experimental arrest of blood flow

    Alfred Auersperg

    1949-12-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of sensation in the hand were studied during and after experimental arrest of circulation to the arm. Blockage of circulation was performed as outlined by Lewis and Pochin, by putting the cuff of a sphygmomanometer on the upper arm and bringing the pressure rapidly up to 200 mm/Hg. The experiments listed below were intended to demonstrate the variability of a central reaction brought about by fairly definite disturbances of the ischaemic periphery. All experiments were made on the present writers and repeated on nine other subjects, none of whom had systolic pressure reaching 150 mm/Hg. I - Blockage of circulation in both arms led to symmetrical phenomena in both hands (thermal paresthesias, tingling and hyposthesia, both under symmetrical experimental circumstances, and under the following variations: So long as the cuff pressure on both arms was above the systolic blood pressure, differences as great as 300 mm/Hg in one cuff and 150 mm in the other did not alter the symmetry of the effects. Neither was symmetry and synchronism of paresthesias affected when compression on one side preceded equal compression on the other up to 20 seconds. II - When a punctate pressure is applied to the paresthetic field the paresthesias disappear around that point and the latter is clearly brought out from the indifferent background produced in the area of depressed skin. On the basis of Kugelberg's findings, it seems that this occurs because the impulses caused by pressure have a higher frequency and substitute the spontaneous abnormal discharges of the ischaemic nerve fibers. III - Repeated mechanical stimulation of a fingertip during the experiment failed to show any influence on sensory (touch thresholds, in contrast, therefore, to what would be expected on the basis of the physiologic experiments which show rapid fatigue of ischaemic structures. IV - In contrast to what might be expected from the intense changes undergone by receptors in the

  16. Soft Robotics Week

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  17. Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT

    Simang Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deqi is defined in relation to acupuncture needling as a sensory perception of varying character. In a recently published sham laser validation study, we found that subjects in the verum and the sham laser group experienced deqi sensations. Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results. Methods A detailed re-analysis focusing on deqi sensations was performed from data collected in a previously published placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical cross-over trial for a sham laser evaluation. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (28 ± 10.7 years; 16 women, 18 men received two laser acupuncture treatments at three acupuncture points LI4 (hégu, LU7 (liéque, and LR3 (táichong; once by verum laser and once using a sham device containing an inactive laser in randomized order. Outcome measures were frequency, intensity (evaluated by visual analogue scale; VAS, and quality of the subjects' sensations perceived during treatments (assessed with the "acupuncture sensation scale". Results Both, verum and the sham laser acupuncture result in similar deqi sensations with regard to frequency (p-value = 0.67, intensity (p-value = 0.71 and quality (p-values between 0.15 - 0.98. In both groups the most frequently used adjectives to describe these perceptions were "spreading", "radiating", "tingling", "tugging", "pulsing", "warm", "dull", and "electric". Sensations reported were consistent with the perception of deqi as previously defined in literature. Subjects' conviction regarding the effectiveness of laser acupuncture or the history of having received acupuncture treatments before did not correlate with the frequency or intensity of sensations reported. Conclusions Since deqi sensations, described as sensory perceptions, were elicited without any cutaneous sensory input, we assume that they are a

  18. Rehabilitation robotics.

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical robotics.

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  20. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.