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Sample records for senegal sudan tanzania

  1. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, A F; Elamin, K H [Forestry Research Section, Wad Medani (Sudan); Salih, A A [Soil Science Section, Wad Medani (Sudan)

    1996-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, A.F.; Elamin, K.H.; Salih, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Changamoto Za Mawasiliano Kwa Viziwi Katika Tanzania | Muzale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  4. Phosphorus use efficiency of the gum arabi tree (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elamin, K H; Mustafa, A F [Gezira Agricultural Research Centre, Wad Medani (Sudan). Forestry Research Section

    1996-07-01

    This study was conducted to identify gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal L. Willd) provenances with high efficiency for phosphorus uptake and use. Thirteen provenances were collected from different habitats with the gum belt of the Sudan. A preliminary trial was conducted during the period 1989-1992 at the Gezira Agricultural Research Station in Wad Medani. This study revealed that there are clear genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency, nitrogen yield and dry matter production. All the provenances tested also exhibited a high ability for survival under the dry climatic conditions as prevailing in the gum belt of Sudan. Based on differences in phosphorus use efficiency observed in the preliminary study, 4 provenances were selected for a detailed study. Provenance 11 and 2 represented the highly efficient group, provenance 7 the moderately efficient group and provenance 13 the low efficient group. The detailed study revealed that provenance 11 is superior to all others in terms of biomass production as well as in phosphorus use efficiency. Although the ability to take up phosphorus was low, this was compensated by having a high root length density enabling the tree to take up a quantity of phosphorus similar to that taken up by other provenances. The high ability to convert the absorbed phosphorus into a greater quantity of dry matter made this provenance the best in phosphorus use efficiency. These results suggest that provenance 11 may be a suitable candidate to be introduced into the gum belt of Sudan in support of its rehabilitation programme. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs.

  5. Phosphorus use efficiency of the gum arabi tree (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, K.H.; Mustafa, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal L. Willd) provenances with high efficiency for phosphorus uptake and use. Thirteen provenances were collected from different habitats with the gum belt of the Sudan. A preliminary trial was conducted during the period 1989-1992 at the Gezira Agricultural Research Station in Wad Medani. This study revealed that there are clear genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency, nitrogen yield and dry matter production. All the provenances tested also exhibited a high ability for survival under the dry climatic conditions as prevailing in the gum belt of Sudan. Based on differences in phosphorus use efficiency observed in the preliminary study, 4 provenances were selected for a detailed study. Provenance 11 and 2 represented the highly efficient group, provenance 7 the moderately efficient group and provenance 13 the low efficient group. The detailed study revealed that provenance 11 is superior to all others in terms of biomass production as well as in phosphorus use efficiency. Although the ability to take up phosphorus was low, this was compensated by having a high root length density enabling the tree to take up a quantity of phosphorus similar to that taken up by other provenances. The high ability to convert the absorbed phosphorus into a greater quantity of dry matter made this provenance the best in phosphorus use efficiency. These results suggest that provenance 11 may be a suitable candidate to be introduced into the gum belt of Sudan in support of its rehabilitation programme. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  6. The relationship of women's status and empowerment with skilled birth attendant use in Senegal and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Kyoko; Gipson, Jessica D

    2015-07-24

    Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa with 179,000 deaths occurring each year, accounting for 2-thirds of maternal deaths worldwide. Progress in reducing maternal deaths and increasing Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) use at childbirth has stagnated in Africa. Although several studies demonstrate the important influences of women's status and empowerment on SBA use, this evidence is limited, particularly in Africa. Furthermore, few studies empirically test the operationalization of women's empowerment and incorporate multidimensional measures to represent the potentially disparate influence of women's status and empowerment on SBA use across settings. This study examined the relationship of women's status and empowerment with SBA use in two African countries--Senegal and Tanzania--using the 2010 Demographic and Health Surveys (weighted births n = 10,688 in SN; 6748 in TZ). Factor analysis was first conducted to identify the structure and multiple dimensions of empowerment. Then, a multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between these empowerment dimensions and SBA use. Overall, women's status and empowerment were positively related to SBA use. Some sociodemographic characteristics showed similar effects across countries (e.g., age, wealth, residence, marital relationship, parity); however, women's status and empowerment influence SBA use differently by setting. Namely, women's education directly and positively influenced SBA use in Tanzania, but not in Senegal. Further, each of the dimensions of empowerment influenced SBA use in disparate ways. In Tanzania women's higher household decision-making power and employment were related to SBA use, while in Senegal more progressive perceptions of gender norms and older age at first marriage were related to SBA use. This study provides evidence of the disparate influences of women's status and empowerment on SBA use across settings. Results indicate that efforts to

  7. Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Background notes and statistics on Senegal are provided in the document. 196,840 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1990 population of 7 million growing at the annual rate of 3%. The work force totals 3 million. Senegal claims a population comprised of 5 ethnic groups and various others, 3 religious beliefs, and speaking 5 languages. No period of education is listed as compulsory, with the country overall experiencing 28% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 78/1,000, while life expectancy is 48 years. 1989 GDP was $5 billion, and was growing at the rate of 6%. 1988 per capita GDP was $630, with a 1989 inflation rate of 2%. Agriculture accounts for 22% of GDP, industry for 24%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $209 million. Additional data are provided on Senegal's people, government, economy, international affiliations, defense, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. Senegal suffers from a resource-poor economy vulnerable to environmental and international commodity price fluctuations. The country depends heavily on international donor assistance. 70% of the labor force is engaged in farming, with peanuts accounting for 1/2 of agricultural output. Agroindustry investment is planned to bring Senegal further along toward food self-sufficiency. Fishing, phosphate production, and tourism are all areas for economic growth. Economic reforms along with favorable weather in recent years have resulted in real GDP growth. Foreign investment is welcomed in Senegal, as demonstrated by revised terms set forth in the investment code of 1987.

  8. Point‐of‐sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In order to assess the prevalence of point‐of‐sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point‐of‐sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one‐third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Key messages Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point‐of‐sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one‐third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu).Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores.Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS.Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061961

  9. Point-of-sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeny, Mary; Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of point-of-sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point-of-sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one-third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point-of-sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one-third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu). Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores. Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS. Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition

  10. Not only climate change: mobility, vulnerability and socio-economic transformations in environmentally fragile areas in Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia

    2011-02-15

    This paper argues that migration is better defined as an adaptive response to socio-economic, cultural, political and environmental transformations, in most instances closely linked to the need to diversify income sources and reduce dependency on natural resources. Drawing on case studies in Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania, it describes how environmental change at the local level interacts with other factors to shape migration patterns, and how such patterns in turn affect the livelihoods and resilience of individuals, households and communities in areas experiencing the impacts of climate change in the form of desertification, soil degradation, disrupted rainfall patterns and changes in temperature.

  11. Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    industrial sector reinvests part of its benefits, one can reasonably say that this sector could improve its performances in its traditional borders of production and maintenance. This will encourage enterprices concerned to pursue their development which is in straight line the process of economic and social development of Senegal. Regarding solar energy, the investments realised are negligible. But they are necessary and take part in the development process of the Senegalese rural community. This same applies to projects related to the protection of forest and community reforestation. Thus the installation of new and renewable forms of energies like solar energy as well as the reforestation projects are perfectly in line with the 9th Economic and Social Development Plan which is ongoing. This plan insists on the need to preserve the natural and forestry resources and to reinforce their potentialities. In this development strategy, the environment is identified as one of the most strategic sector which will ensure sustainable development. This is why this present project combines sectoral approaches from a more global perspective of actions undertaken (industry, PME, rural and urban zones etc..) convinced about the strong interdependence between the environment, energy and development. The different measures of mitigation options proposed here, will on the one hand compete with the accelaration of the electrification process of rural and village communities, and with sustainable economic develoment of these entities. (au)

  12. Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    Agriculture is the most important industry of the Sudan, and Gezira its major producing area. Gezira cotton earns most of the country's foreign exchange and the need to produce still more has led to intensification of production. The pressures created by this are accentuating old and creating new problems, thus putting strain on the technically good, but limited, resources of the Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), which is responsible for most of the research on agricultural problems in the Sudan. The ARC therefore requested technical assistance from the IAEA to help with these studies. (author)

  13. Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    The Sudan's population characteristics, geographical features, history, political conditions, and foreign relations are profiled. The 1984 population of Sudan has been estimated at 21.1 million, with an estimated annual growth rate of 3.0%. Approximately 25% of the Sudanese population resides in urban areas. Major religions are Islam, indigenous beliefs (in southern Sudan), and Christianity. The official language is Arabic, although English and tribal languages are also spoken. Education is compulsory for 9 years, but the attendance rate is only 48%. The infant mortality rate is 118.0/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 47 years. 78.4% of the work force is engaged in agriculture, 9.8% in industry and commerce, and 6% in government. The estimated gross national product for 1981-83 was $27.36 billion, with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.7% in 1982-83. Per capit income was approximately $361 in 1982, with an average annual inflation rate of 20-30%. Sudan's population is composed of 2 distinct cultures, Arab and black African, and effective collaboration between them poses one of the nation's principal internal problems. The 5 northern regions cover almost 2/3 of Sudan and include most urban centers. Most of the 13 million Sudanese who live in this area are Arabic-speaking Muslims of several distinct tribal groups. The southern region has a population of about 5.5 million and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. The south also contains many tribal groups and uses many more languages than the north. Sudan's primary resources are agricultural. Although the country is trying to diversify its cash crops, cotton and cottonseed account for more than 50% of export earnings. Another large export crop is gum arabic. Grain sorghum is the principal food crop, and wheat is grown for domestic consumption. Livestock production has vast potential and many animals, particularly camels and sheep, are exported to other Arab countries. The inadequate transportation

  14. Assessment of health facility capacity to provide newborn care in Bangladesh, Haiti, Malawi, Senegal, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Rebecca; Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Wang, Wenjuan; Mallick, Lindsay

    2017-12-01

    Despite the importance of health facility capacity to provide comprehensive care, the most widely used indicators for global monitoring of maternal and child health remain contact measures which assess women's use of services only and not the capacity of health facilities to provide those services; there is a gap in monitoring health facilities' capacity to provide newborn care services in low and middle income countries. In this study we demonstrate a measurable framework for assessing health facility capacity to provide newborn care using open access, nationally-representative Service Provision Assessment (SPA) data from the Demographic Health Surveys Program. In particular, we examine whether key newborn-related services are available at the facility (ie, service availability, measured by the availability of basic emergency obstetric care (BEmOC) signal functions, newborn signal functions, and routine perinatal services), and whether the facility has the equipment, medications, training and knowledge necessary to provide those services (ie, service readiness, measured by general facility requirements, equipment, medicines and commodities, and guidelines and staffing) in five countries with high levels of neonatal mortality and recent SPA data: Bangladesh, Haiti, Malawi, Senegal, and Tanzania. In each country, we find that key services and commodities needed for comprehensive delivery and newborn care are missing from a large percentage of facilities with delivery services. Of three domains of service availability examined, scores for routine care availability are highest, while scores for newborn signal function availability are lowest. Of four domains of service readiness examined, scores for general requirements and equipment are highest, while scores for guidelines and staffing are lowest. Both service availability and readiness tend to be highest in hospitals and facilities in urban areas, pointing to substantial equity gaps in the availability of essential

  15. Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    The Sudan currently has a population of 18,618,000, with an annual rate of population growth of 3.1% and a rate of natural increase of 2.8%. Population size estimates for the year 2000 range from 32,064,000-33,762,000. The Sudan does not have an explicit policy to modify population growth, although the government is currently in the early stages of formulating a population policy. The current population growth rate is considered satisfactory because of the lack of population pressure on presently developed land, large areas of undeveloped land and unutilized agricultural potential, and low levels of open unemployment. However, the government seeks to modify spatial distribution to attain a better balance between population and resources. This will be accomplished through social infrastructure investments in rural and desert areas, regional development, sedentarization of nomads, development of new towns, and administrative decentralization. In addition, there is major concern with the high influx of undocumented workers and refugees and the significant emigration of skilled personnel. Life expectancy at birth stands at 45.1 years and the infant mortality rate is 131/1000. Current levels and trends of mortality are considered unacceptably high. Major health problems include schistosomiasis, malaria, malnutrition, infectious childhood diseases, and unsafe water. Primary health care is being prioritized to reduce regional differentials in health status and increase accessibility to health services. The total fertility rate has remained constant at 6-7 births/woman, but the government has been cautious with regard to family planning because of generally negative attitudes of Sudanese women toward birth control. Family planning has been integrated into maternal and child health services, although close to half of all ever-married women have never heard of family planning methods and only 6% of currently married fecund women are contraceptive users. The chief acceptors

  16. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselip, J. A.; Desgain, D.; Mackenzie, G. A.

    2013-05-15

    This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP's AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the 'contributing factors' - a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal 'success factors' - for energy SMEs, about which much has already been written. Indeed, the research findings presented in this report reaffirm most of what has been concluded in previous studies. These studies identified the lack of access to affordable finance as being the predominant, persistent, barrier to establishing and scaling up a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors in the countries studied for this research, it is more relevant to revisit the main assumption behind AREED and other donor-backed programmes designed to promote energy SMEs. The assumption is that the solution to the aforementioned barriers would be overcome by a 'demonstration effect' whereby successful energy SMEs, supported by donor-backed programmes, influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. Experiences drawn from a decade of AREED support across four of the project countries reveal both the presence (Ghana, Senegal) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last

  17. Non-financial constraints to scaling-up small and medium-sized energy enterprises: Findings from field research in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    constraint to establishing and expanding local small and medium-sized energy businesses, a range of significant non-financial constraints were also identified. This article provides a critical evaluation of these non-financial constraints as they were encountered in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, based...... on the findings of a wider study into the key outcomes of the AREED project. These barriers include the institutional frameworks, human capacities and social and cultural factors....

  18. Assessing healthcare providers' knowledge and practices relating to insecticide-treated nets and the prevention of malaria in Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Steven J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs. Methods This study compares what is known about ITNs to the related knowledge and practices of healthcare providers in four low- and middle-income countries. A new questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, translated and administered to 497 healthcare providers in Ghana (140, Laos (136, Senegal (100 and Tanzania (121. Ten questions tested participants' knowledge and clinical practice related to malaria prevention. Additional questions addressed their individual characteristics, working context and research-related activities. Ordinal logistic regressions with knowledge and practices as the dependent variable were conducted in addition to descriptive statistics. Results The survey achieved a 75% response rate (372/497 across Ghana (107/140, Laos (136/136, Senegal (51/100 and Tanzania (78/121. Few participating healthcare providers correctly answered all five knowledge questions about ITNs (13% or self-reported performing all five clinical practices according to established evidence (2%. Statistically significant factors associated with higher knowledge within each country included: 1 training in acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.30-4.73; and 2 ability to read and write English well or very well (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70. Statistically significant factors associated with better clinical practices within each country include: 1 reading scientific journals from their own country (OR

  19. Assessing healthcare providers' knowledge and practices relating to insecticide-treated nets and the prevention of malaria in Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Lavis, John N; Ndossi, Godwin D; Osei, Eric J A; Sidibe, Mintou Fall; Boupha, Boungnong

    2011-12-13

    Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study compares what is known about ITNs to the related knowledge and practices of healthcare providers in four low- and middle-income countries. A new questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, translated and administered to 497 healthcare providers in Ghana (140), Laos (136), Senegal (100) and Tanzania (121). Ten questions tested participants' knowledge and clinical practice related to malaria prevention. Additional questions addressed their individual characteristics, working context and research-related activities. Ordinal logistic regressions with knowledge and practices as the dependent variable were conducted in addition to descriptive statistics. The survey achieved a 75% response rate (372/497) across Ghana (107/140), Laos (136/136), Senegal (51/100) and Tanzania (78/121). Few participating healthcare providers correctly answered all five knowledge questions about ITNs (13%) or self-reported performing all five clinical practices according to established evidence (2%). Statistically significant factors associated with higher knowledge within each country included: 1) training in acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.30-4.73); and 2) ability to read and write English well or very well (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70). Statistically significant factors associated with better clinical practices within each country include: 1) reading scientific journals from their own country (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.10-2.54); 2) working

  20. Epilepsy in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was noted first in Tanzania in the 1960s, has been seen in Uganda, and many cases have been detected in South. Sudan (16). The disorder has not yet been satisfactorily classified. Some cases having nodding in isolation (possibly a form of tic rather than a seizure disorder) but in others there is a definite association ...

  1. Assessing the implementation and influence of policies that support research and innovation systems for health: the cases of Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugwagwa, Julius; Edwards, Daniel; de Haan, Sylvia

    2015-04-18

    Without good policies it will be difficult to provide guidance to research and innovation systems. However, policies need to be followed through and implemented to have the desired effect. We studied the policies and strategies in place to support research and innovation systems for health in Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania, and looked at the extent to which these policies and strategies have been implemented. We reviewed documents and reports and conducted in-depth interviews with 16 key informants representing various actors of the national research for health systems. The results illustrate that there are various policies and strategies governing research and innovation for health in the three countries. However, implementation of these policies and strategies is generally rated as being poor. The reasons highlighted for this include lack of policy coherence, lack of enforcement and accountability mechanisms, and a lack of financing for implementing the policies. These contextual factors seem to be of such importance that even the increased stakeholder involvement and political leadership, as mentioned by the interviewees, cannot guarantee policy implementation. We conclude that due to the contextual realities of the study countries, there is need for greater focus on policy implementation than on developing additional policies. Government institutions should play a central role in all stages of the policy process, and should ensure implementation of defined policies. Strong mechanisms, including financing, that strengthen the position and role of government in policy coordination and the oversight of the policy process will help increase efficient and impactful implementation of research and innovation for health policies.

  2. Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Background notes on Tanzania present a profile of nationality, population count of 26 million, growth rate of 3.5%, ethnic groups (130), religions (33% Muslim, 33% animist, 33% Christian), languages, education (86% primary), literacy (79%), health (infant mortality of 106/1000), and work force (90% agriculture). Geographic data are given for the area, cities, terrain, and climate. The Tanzanian government is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. There is 1 political party and everyone 18 years is eligible to vote. 4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) ($5.9 billion) is devoted to defense. Economic growth is 4.3%/year and person income is $240/capita. Natural resources, agriculture, industry, and trade are identified. $400 million has been received between 1970-92 in US economic aid. The 1992 official exchange rate is 300 Tanzanian shillings to the US dollar. Descriptive text is given for the population, the history of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the government, principal government officials (President, 1st Vice President [VP], 2nd VP and President of Zanzibar, Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, Ambassador to the US, Ambassador to the UN, and US embassy address and phone number), political conditions, the economy, the defense, foreign relations, and US-Tanzanian relations. Principal US officials are identified for the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, USAID Director, and Public Affairs Officer; the US embassy address is given also. The population is 80% rural with a density of 1/sq km in arid areas, 51/sq km on the mainland, and 134/sq km on Zanzibar. The new capital will be Dodoma in central Tanzania. Most residents are of Bantu stock; nomadic groups are the Masai and the Luo. 1% are non-Africans. Government has a strong central executive. The current President is Ali Hassan Mwinyi. The Revolutionary Party is in the primary policymaking body and provides all government leaders. The government seeks to foster the

  3. Award-winning machine boosts sorghum farming in Sudan | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Award-winning machine boosts sorghum farming in Sudan ... The new planter, developed by researchers at Sudan's Agricultural ... Senegal: Staying home at all costs ... This ICT4D article series features results from innovative research on participatory geographic information systems (P-GIS) in Africa.

  4. Sudan PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The development of this system was awarded to MSI in May 2013 to design and help USAID/South Sudan manage a web-based PIMS that is customized to USAID/South Sudan's...

  5. Joint IAEA/FAO evaluation the Agency's activities in some sectors of agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on field evaluation in Kenya, Senegal, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. Special evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A desk review was completed in 1995 of the Agency's activities in the Sub-Saharan region during the previous ten years, covering soil science, irrigation and plant nutrition, plant breeding and genetics, and agricultural biochemistry. As a follow-up of the recommendations of this review, a field evaluation covering activities in Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, as four of the six participants in the first phase of the ongoing regional project ''Increasing Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa'', was conducted in 1996 jointly with the FAO Programme and Budget Evaluation. Ethiopia and Niger were not included in the field evaluation. To date, total disbursement during the last ten years in the 19 projects considered in this evaluation amounted to $2.5 million, evenly distributed in the four countries, plus about $500,000 for training funded outside the projects. Agency inputs included isotope analysers, sample preparation equipment, moisture and density gauges, labelled fertilizers, isotopes and supporting soil laboratory equipment, training of researchers and technicians and expert advice on research trials and on-the-job training on the use of laboratory equipment. Figs, tabs

  6. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Rami S. Habeballa*, Nada B. Hamza and Eisa I. El Gaali. Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan. P. O. Box.

  7. Sudan Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This site is currently only accessible by USAID personnel working on the Sudan program, and some files contained hereon are only accessible by designated offices.

  8. Examining disadoption of gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ruben, R.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Gum arabic production in Sudan has developed over the years in a well-established traditional bush-fallow system in which the gum tree (Acacia senegal) is rotated with annual crops. Following the Sahel drought, the gum area has suffered from deforestation and gum production has declined. Several

  9. Uranium Research in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanouté, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    The work of mining companies have so far not proved economic uranium resources, but they have nevertheless contributed greatly to a better understanding of the geology, particularly in Eastern Senegal, on the upper Precambrian basin including which equivalents exist throughout West Africa (the uranium belt of Zaire) prospected by CEA-COGEMA teams. The researches carried out in Senegal, but also in Guinea and Mali helped establish a detailed map and understand the course of geological history. With new exploration techniques and data of airborne geophysical (radiometric) provided by the Mining Sector Support Programme (PASMI 9th EDF 9 ACP SE 09), AREVA, at the end of the first period validity of the exploration permit increased significantly, the resources. Prospects are favorable to a doubling of resources; objective of a uranium mine in Senegal. Synergies are possible and desirable with joint exploitation of uranium deposits located in Mali, near the border with Senegal.

  10. IDRC in Senegal

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    showed that information technology in the classroom encourages greater stu- dent independence and ... Students at Senegal's new centre of excellence receive advanced training in mathematical ... HIV-carriers benefit from better treatments.

  11. Analisis Konflik Sudan dan Sudan Selatan Pasca Referendum Pemisahan Diri Sudan Selatan dari Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyanti, Putri; Utomo, Tri Cahyo; Paramasatya, Satwika

    2017-01-01

    Conflict is a circumstance which conflict actors such as individuals or groups have dispute between each other to gain the same goal(s). Conflict actors may use violent or peaceful means to settle the conflict. One way to end it is to use referendum of secession if conflict happens within a state territory. South Sudan did referendum of secession in 2011 due to prolonged conflict with Sudan since 1955. But in fact, after South Sudan's independence, conflicts have continued between Sudan and S...

  12. South Sudan Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The SSMJ is the a multi-professional journal in the South Sudan which caters for the needs of Doctors, Nurses, Midwives, Clinical Officers, Pharmacists and all other cadres in the health profession. Its vision is to see a well-trained, skilled professionals delivering high quality healthcare to the population of the South Sudan.

  13. Child nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to reduce malnutrition, particularly in densely populated, peri-urban areas, is considered a priority among governments around the world. The problem is especially acute in Africa due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency. The International Atomic Energy Agency is providing technical support to a community nutrition programme in Senegal where nuclear techniques help to monitor the programme's effectiveness in order to ensure that it produces maximum benefits on vulnerable groups (women and children). (IAEA)

  14. Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce. Copnall, James 2017. London, Hurst Publishers, 317 pp. ISBN 978-184804-830-9. Reviewed by Nicodemus Minde*. Having served as the BBC Sudan correspondent from 2009 to 2012, James. Copnall has compiled an insightful account of the bitter-sweet split of the.

  15. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan JMS is a joint project of continuous medical education program at Faculty of Medicine - Omdurman Islamic University, The National Centre for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Ibn Sina Hospital and Omdurman teaching Hospital (Sudan). Sudan JMS is published every three months. High-quality papers written ...

  16. The typification of Mimosa senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Ross

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the protologue of  Mimosa senegal L. in Species Plantarum ed. I: 521 (1753 indicated that it embraced two different elements. I he absence ol a type specimen or the existence of an illustration from which Linnaeus could have drawn up his diagnostic phrase-name necessitated the selection of a neotype to preserve the application of the name  M. senegal.

  17. Physics training in Senegal

    CERN Multimedia

    Christine Sutton

    2014-01-01

    The third biennial African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications (ASP) took place in Dakar, Senegal, on 3-23 August. The students participating came from the highest number of African countries to date with nearly half of them women.   The aim of the ASP is to build capacity for harvesting and interpreting the results of current and future physics experiments using particle accelerators and to increase proficiency in related applications, such as medicine and information technology. Organised in a Sub-Saharan African country every two years, it is based on the close relationship between theoretical, experimental and applied physics and computing. This year, ASP2014 attracted 328 applicants, and due to budgetary and logistical considerations, 69 were selected and 56 ultimately attended. The students selected came from 21 African countries – the highest number so far – in addition to one student from Iran and another from the US. 32% of the students were female,...

  18. Sudan Investment Climate Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report on Sudan's Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) provides a baseline assessment of challenges to productivity, diversification and inclusion. Chapter 1 describes some of the questions underlying the three issues of competitiveness, diversification and broad-based growth. Chapter 2 analyzes firm performance and competitiveness. Chapter 3 discusses markets and trust. Chapter 4 des...

  19. African Journals Online: Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan JMS is a joint project of continuous medical education program at Faculty of ... or Arabic language dealing with aspects of medical sciences are welcomed. ... dermatologists with new approaches and better management of patients with ... Fiji, Finland, France, France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia ...

  20. Vegetation impoverishment despite greening: a case study from central Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Stefanie M.; Tappan, G. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Recent remote sensing studies have documented a greening trend in the semi-arid Sahel and Sudan zones of West Africa since the early 1980s, which challenges the mainstream paradigm of irreversible land degradation in this region. What the greening trend means on the ground, however, has not yet been explored. This research focuses on a region in central Senegal to examine changes in woody vegetation abundance and composition in selected sites by means of a botanical inventory of woody vegetation species, repeat photography, and perceptions of local land users. Despite the greening, an impoverishment of the woody vegetation cover was observed in the studied sites, indicated by an overall reduction in woody species richness, a loss of large trees, an increasing dominance of shrubs, and a shift towards more arid-tolerant, Sahelian species since 1983. Thus, interpretation of the satellite-derived greening trend as an improvement or recovery is not always justified. The case of central Senegal represents only one of several possible pathways of greening throughout the region, all of which result in similar satellite-derived greening signals.

  1. Offentlig privat samarbejde i Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger baggrunden for Senegals regering og præsident Wades bestræbelser på at fremme ”privatisering” af nationalparken ”Niokolo Koba” og andre naturparker i Senegal gennem ”Public Private Partnership” (PPP) – det man på dansk vil kalde udlicitering. Jeg fokuserer på, hvilken form denne...... delvise privatisering tager, under påvirkning af de barrierer og interessekampe den støder på under den igangværende politiske proces. Det er i særdeleshed interessant, hvordan samspillet mellem internationale aktører på naturbevaringsområdet, udenlandske donorer, private investorer, Senegals regering...

  2. Senegal : School Autonomy and Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Senegal has accelerated the decentralization of education since 1996. Budgetary autonomy is latent. Autonomy over the management of operational budgets has been delegated to the communes, but salaries for teachers are managed at the central level. Autonomy in personnel management is latent. Both school directors and teachers are appointed at the central level. The role of the school counci...

  3. African Journals Online: South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. The SSMJ is the a multi-professional journal in the South Sudan which caters for the needs of Doctors, Nurses, Midwives, Clinical Officers, Pharmacists and all other cadres in the health profession. Its vision is to see a well-trained, skilled professionals delivering high quality healthcare to the ...

  4. All projects related to senegal | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Senegal, Tunisia ... Region: Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, North of Sahara, South of Sahara ... South of Sahara, Cameroon, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Burkina Faso.

  5. Radiation protection in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, O.I.; Hajmusa, E.A.; Shaddad, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory framework as established by the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) Act, promulgated in 1996, is described in the report. Three levels of responsibility in meeting radiation protection requirements are established: the Board, the Radiation Protection Technical Committee as the competent authority in the field of radiation protection, and the SAEC Department of Radiation Protection and Environmental Monitoring as the implementing technical body. The report also refers to environmental activities, patient doses in diagnostic radiology, the management of disused sources, emergency preparedness and orphan sources, and the national training activities in the radiation protection field. (author)

  6. Determination of Tannins of Three Common Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze and compare tannins of three common Acacia species of Sudan, since vegetable tannins are important in leather industry. Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal samples were collected from Sunt Forest in Khartoum State, while Acacia senegal samples were collected from the Debabat Forest in South Kordofan State. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with boiled deionized water. The amount of tannins present in these bulk samples was determined by Folin-Denis method for total phenolic materials, followed by precipitation with hide-powder. The difference between the amount of phenolic materials present before and after addition of hide-powder represents the amount of tannins present. The percentage of tannins in the leaves, bark, and mature and immature fruits of collections of individuals of Acacia species was estimated; mature and immature fruits of Acacia nilotica contain tannins (22.15% and 22.10%, resp.. The leaves of Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal contain tannins (11.80% and 6.30%, resp.. The barks of Acacia seyal, Acacia nilotica, and Acacia senegal contain tannins (12.15%, 10.47%, and 3.49%, resp..

  7. [Geriatrics and gerontology in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumé, Mamadou; Touré, Kamadore; Faye, Atoumane; Moreira, Therese Diop

    2013-01-01

    Senegal is dealing positively with its demographic transition. On September 1st 2006, the Senegalese government introduced the "Plan Sesame", a national free health care program for elderly people aged 60 years and over. The University of Dakar academic authorities support the Sesame plan through an innovative training program in geriatrics and gerontology. Such programs aim to address the challenge of ageing in a developing country.

  8. Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2004-01-01

    The ongoing crisis in Darfur Province in western Sudan has raised serious concerns about a major humanitarian disaster, with an estimated 1 million people displaced and more than 140,000 people forced...

  9. Area Handbook for Senegal. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Harold D.; And Others

    This volume on Senegal is one of a series of handbooks prepared by Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University. It is designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of Senegal. The emphasis is on…

  10. Rights of the Child in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Anne-Laurence; Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Senegal. Part 1 of the report, "Preliminary Observations," discusses Senegal's ratification of the…

  11. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  12. CERN computing equipment for Senegal

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On 26 May, CERN once again had the honour of donating computing equipment to a foreign institute.   This time, around 100 servers and five network hubs were sent to Senegal, making it the seventh country, after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia, Egypt and the Philippines, to receive a donation of computing equipment from the Organization. The official ceremony was held at CERN on 26 May in the presence of the Director-General, Rolf Heuer, and Senegal's ambassador to Geneva, Fodé Seck, who both expressed their enthusiasm for the project. The equipment is intended for Cheikh Anta Diop University (UCAD) in Dakar and will be of particular use to students attending the African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications (ASP 2014) taking place from 3 to 23 August, for which CERN is a partner. The ASP allows a large number of African students to hone their skills in high-energy physics and to forge professional links with fellow physicists in Africa and Europe. ...

  13. Comparison of the toxicity of the dyes Sudan II and Sudan IV to catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Hao, Minglu; Pan, Jie; Zong, Wansong; Liu, Rutao

    2017-10-01

    The mechanisms of the toxicity of Sudan dyes to the key antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) were investigated by spectroscopic methods, calorimetry techniques, enzyme activity assay, and molecular docking. Results showed that Sudan dyes bound to CAT through hydrophobic force, which changed the microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues, leading to a conformational alteration and shrinkage of the protein. Enzyme activity assay and molecular docking revealed that the activity of CAT was slightly inhibited in the presence of Sudan dyes. In comparison, the binding of Sudan II with CAT was slightly stronger than Sudan IV. Also, Sudan II and Sudan IV showed a different impact on the microenvironment of aromatic amino acid residues. But the dyes had very similar effects on conformation and activity of the protein. This work provides an essential reference for the evaluation of Sudan dyes' effects on body's antioxidant defense system and safe use of Sudan dyes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. (acacia senegal) in jigawa state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    tapping and tapping methods.Forest products may be ... the management practices, the precise technique and ... The gum production potential of this species (Acacia senegal) is still ..... Manual on gum Arabic production Pp. 20-23. Wekesa, C ...

  15. Anemia in Kassala Area Eastern Sudan | Karoum | Sudan Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the types and the ways of diagnosis of anemia at Kassala region, Sudan. Methods In this study we examined and investigate 210 patients with anemia. Full blood cell count including peripheral picture, blood film for malaria, urine analysis and stool examination were ...

  16. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leuce...

  17. Senegal: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    Politique et Révolution Passive. ‘Sopi’ or not ‘Sopi’?” Politique Africaine, December 2004. 12 See, for example, Abdou Latif Coulibaly, Contes et ...regional presence of violent extremist groups. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), an criminal- terrorist network with ties to Al Qaeda and roots...FTF_2010_Implementation_Plan_Senegal.pdf. 27 U.N. Development Program and Government of Senegal, Changement Climatique, Sécurité Alimentaire et Développement Humain

  18. Senegal's national policy to combat climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dia Toure, F.

    2007-01-01

    Senegal's participation in the Earth Summit meeting in Rio in 1992 demonstrated its national political stand towards environmental causes. An initiative was taken to educate the population on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in relation to different sectors, including the energy sector, transportation, agriculture, forestry and waste management. Later, a group of negotiators followed the works of subsidiary bodies of the Kyoto Agreement. As a non-Annex 1 developing country, Senegal is not required to reduce GHG emissions as are Annex 1 countries. Therefore, Senegal has used judicial tools to benefit from the transfer of clean technologies. The implementation of Senegal's national adaptation action plan has involved global organizations, sectorial studies, public consultations, prioritization and project formulation. The action plan addresses concerns such as water resources, variation in precipitation, drought, agriculture and its vulnerability, and negative impacts due to climate change. The technical solutions include the promotion of agroforestry technologies; crop diversification; water conservation; community wood use; and, prevention of bush fires. Since several geographical regions within Senegal are also affected by global warming, policies are being formulated to protect humid zones and help in the fight against invasive species. Senegal imports much of its energy sources. Households rely on wood and coal for energy. New measures are being adapted and new sustainable technologies are being proposed for fireplaces, better recycling, and better landfill sites. 8 figs

  19. Olie skaber fred i Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Sydsudan forventes formelt at erklære sin uafhængighed den 9. juli 2011. Men hvad sker der, når Sudan nu deles i Nordsudan og Sydsudan? Oliekilderne ligger i Sydsudan, men den helt nødvendige infrastruktur der skal transformere olie til dollars har man i nord. Da op imod 90% af Sydsudans indtægter...

  20. Tuberculosis awareness in Gezira, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850...

  1. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elradi, E. A. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  2. Partial genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from goats in northern and eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgotlele, T; Macha, E S; Kasanga, C J; Kusiluka, L J M; Karimuribo, E D; Van Doorsselaere, J; Wensman, J J; Munir, M; Misinzo, G

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. The present study was carried out to confirm the presence of PPR virus (PPRV) in Tanzania and to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Samples (oculonasal swabs, tissues and whole blood) were obtained from live goats with clinical presentation suggestive of PPR and goats that died naturally in Ngorongoro (Northern Tanzania) and Mvomero (Eastern Tanzania) districts. The clinical signs observed in goats suspected with PPR included fever, dullness, diarrhea, lacrimation, matting of eye lids, purulent oculonasal discharges, cutaneous nodules, erosions on the soft palate and gums and labored breathing. Post mortem findings included pneumonia, congestion of the intestines, and hemorrhages in lymph nodes associated with the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. PPRV was detected in 21 out of 71 tested animals using primers targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the N gene, indicated that PPRV obtained from Northern and Eastern Tanzania clustered with PPRV strains of Lineage III, together with PPRV from Sudan and Ethiopia. The findings of this study indicate that there are active PPRV infections in Northern and Eastern Tanzania, suggesting risks for potential spread of PPR in the rest of Tanzania. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. History of TB in the Sudan | Zaki | Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Medical history in Sudan is far from being complete. There are no reliable records. Attempt to write on the projects and development of history of TB in the Sudan is a difficult task. Objective: To study and trace the progress of TB in Sudan during the last century through their historical development. Design: A ...

  4. About wind energy in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sall, M.

    1991-01-01

    In Senegal 80% of the energy consumption is still in the form of wood. Therefore, a large reforestation programme is initiated for which water is necessary. Besides using water of wind pumps for tree plantations and vegetable growing projects, the windmills are used for domestic uses and drinking water for animals. Women are the best users of wind pumps. The main problem regarding the use of wind pumps is maintenance. During several years one organization was in charge of maintenance. But as distances (also between wind pumps) are very large and it formerly was a governmental organization, it did not have the power to survive. Also, many farmers did not have the money to pay this organization properly for the maintenance. The most important aspect however, is that donors only support the windpump: its installation and maintenance are excluded. In some cases it appeared that installation of wind pumps was only executed for political reasons, which resulted in no maintenance and therefore in a bad promotion of wind energy. 4 refs

  5. Mwaka Kogwa Na Changamoto Zake | Mohamed | Kiswahili

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  6. Ufundishaji wa Fasihi ya Watoto katika Shule za Msingi Nchini Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  7. Kiswahili - Vol 76, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riwaya ya Kiswahili katika ufundishaji wa historia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2); Zimbabwe (12)

  8. Fasihi ya Kiswahili ya Majaribio: Makutano ya Fasihi Simulizi na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  10. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Maiga, Abdou

    2012-01-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic...... to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources......, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500–900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region...

  11. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  12. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.

  13. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taha Um Bali. Department of Obs & Gyn, Sudan. Prof. Ishag Adam. Department of Obstetric & Gynecology Infectious Disease Medical Education, Khartoum University. Prof. Abdurahman Arshad. Department of Internal Medicine, Pakistan. Assoc. Prof. Suad El Tigani ElMahi, Paediatrics, Sudan. Assoc. Prof. Elhadi Awooda.

  14. Decentralization Fails Women in Sudan | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-05

    Nov 5, 2010 ... In Sudan, decentralization is a process that has occurred over time and is ... In northern Sudan, some women travel three days to reach the nearest hospital. ... Accord stipulate that basic education is free, “in real life, it is not.”.

  15. Senegal : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap (PPPHW) was created in Senegal with technical assistance from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). Housed initially within the Office Nationale de L'Assainissement, the government unit overseeing sanitation within the Ministry of Health, the PPPHW's main objective was to catalyze and coordinate multi-sectoral involvement ...

  16. General organisation of radiation protection in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, P.; Ndiaye, M.; Sow, M.L.; Ndao, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Organization of radiation protection in Senegal is governed by three main texts that define the general principles and implement legal means for their actions. Efficient control of nuclear activities to ensure protection of workers, the environment and patients against ionizing radiation is subject to criminal penalties in case of breach of this legislation. (authors)

  17. Tanzania - Water Supply & Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...

  18. Tanzania Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes any contribution that advances medical science or ... these core objectives the journal publishes papers on original scientific research, short ... The Tanzania Medical Journal is an international Journal - ISSN: 0856-0719 ...

  19. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP).

  20. Sudan and the Not so Comprehensive Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curless, Gareth; Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2013-01-01

    This special section examines the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army. It focuses on why the agreement was possible, the challenges involved in reaching and implementing it, and the issues that now...... lay ahead for both North and South Sudan. The purpose of this undertaking is to tease out what lessons might be learnt from this case for the future study and practice of seeking to settle civil wars through agreement and implementation of conflict settlements. This introductory article first provides...

  1. Pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, I D; Ba, A; Faye, P M; Thiongane, A; Attiyé Kane, M; Sonko, A; Diop, A; Deme Ly, I; Diouf, F N; Ndiaye, O; Leye, M M M; Cissé, M F; Ba, M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to describe the clinical, epidemiological, and outcome characteristics of IPD case patients hospitalized at the Albert-Royer National Children's Hospital (French acronym CHNEAR) to evaluate the disease burden of IPDs in a pediatric hospital of Dakar (Senegal). All children aged 0-15 years hospitalized at the CHNEAR between January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2013 for a documented IPD were included in the study. Medical history, risk factors, clinical, bacteriological, and outcome data was collected. Data was then analyzed using the SPSS software, version 16 (Pearson's Chi(2) test: a P-valueSenegal. Infants<2 years of age are particularly affected. The very high case fatality (17%) was significantly associated with meningeal infection sites hence the need for better access to pneumococcal vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Energy and environment scenarios for Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, M.; Diallo, S.; Sokona, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the energy and environmental dimensions of several proposed energy strategies for Senegal are explored. An analytical framework to compare the energy and measurable environmental impacts of a set of scenarious is developed, and the limitations of the quantitative approach are discussed. It is found that policies to promote substitution of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for charcoal use in households may actually reduce greenhouse gas emission, while also improving more important near-term environmental problems. Substitution of LPG for charcoal would not necessarily lead to a significant increase in Senegal's oil import bill, since other petroleum product usage will continue to dominate. Despite past industrial sector initiatives, considerable potential for energy efficiency investment remains, and presents additional opportunities for minimizing environmental impacts. (author). 33 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Forestry policy and charcoal production in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribot, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the historical, social and political-economic dynamics of environmental policy implementation in Senegal's charcoal market. It explores the relationship between urban demand for charcoal and its rural environmental consequences. It focuses on the ways in which the social and political-economic relations within the market and between the market and state shape production, exchange, regulation, and ultimately the social and econological consequences of charcoal production and use. The article begins by characterizing the patterns of woodfuel supply and use in Senegal and by recounting the historical perception and response to environmental problems associated with the woodfuel trade. It describes the social and economic organization of production and exchange, followed by an analysis of policy implementation. It also shows that where social relations dominate production and exchange, environmental policy making and implementation will be an iterative process. Sustainable resource management is not implemented once and for ever, but will come and go. (author)

  4. Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Editorial: Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan – a. Vision for the Future. Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably .... minus one or both parents. ... There he taught and inspired child health professionals from all over.

  5. Pulmonary tuberculosis case detection in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a Team Leader, Healthcare Projects - Real Medicine Foundation,. Juba, South Sudan ... describes case finding as very low, but treatment success as high. This study was conducted to ... through logistics and capacity building. Standardize ...

  6. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case was confirmed in 1986, Senegal has conducted an aggressive prevention campaign. Senegal's National AIDS Committee has noted the contributions of poverty and migration to the spread of AIDS. By June 1994, 1297 AIDS cases had been reported and an estimated 500,000 people (1.4% of the population) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and 2. The highest rate of HIV infection (14%) exists among commercial sex workers. At present, HIV/AIDS cases are concentrated in Dakar, Kaolack, the Matam region, and Ziguinchor; however, the growing importance of inter-regional trading is expected to spread HIV to the smaller towns and rural areas. Also salient is the recent devaluation by 50% of the CFA franc, which has reduced the public sector workforce and led many poor urban residents into commercial sex work. CFA devaluation has made Senegal attractive to tourists and business visitors--another factor responsible for growth of the legalized commercial sex industry. Although sex workers are instructed in condom use and tested annually for HIV, only 850 of the 2000 registered sex workers have reported for check-ups, and the majority of prostitutes are unregistered. Senegal's AIDS Plan for 1994-98 focuses on care of AIDS patients, pressures placed on family structures by HIV, and AIDS-related erosions in the status of women. Each health service region has its own local plan for AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, supervised by a regional committee. Public education has involved outreach to religious leaders, promotion of affordable condoms, and distribution of over 75,000 leaflets to key target populations. About US $16 million of the $25,688,875-budget HIV/AIDS program for 1994-98 was pledged by external donors.

  7. Area Handbook Series: Sudan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    subbranch of the Eastern Sudanic branch of Nilo-Saharan and sharing a myth of common origin. They are marked by physical similarity and many common cultural...in a people’s system of ideas and myths but not their daily lives. In the north the Muslim religious orders were import.rnt. They brought religion to...the vagina shut) was widely practiced throughout Muslim Africa, and especially among Sudan’s northern Arab pop- ulation. Enormous pressure was put on

  8. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-15

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.  Created: 4/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (proposed).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  9. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. [Serological survey of animal toxoplasmosis in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, B; Mediannikov, O; Roqueplo, C; Perret, C; Demoncheaux, J-P; Sambou, M; Guillot, J; Blaga, R

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. We used modified direct agglutination test for the screening of the animals' sera collected in Senegal. In total, 419 animals' sera have been studied: 103 bovines, 43 sheep, 52 goats, 63 horses, 13 donkeys and 145 dogs. The collection of sera was performed in four different regions of Senegal: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou and Basse Casamance from 2011 to 2013. We have revealed antibodies in 13% of bovines, 16% of sheep, 15% of goats, 30% of horses, 23% of donkeys and 67% of dogs. Private dogs from villages were more often to have the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies compared to security society-owned dogs from Dakar. It may be explained by different meal consumed by dogs (factory-produced meal for dogs from Dakar vs. irregular sources for village dogs). Intense circulation of T. gondii in the studied zone may explain the unusually high seroprevalence among horses and donkeys. Tropical climate with high temperature and humidity is favorable for the conservation of oocysts of T. gondii. Results presented here may contribute to the evaluation of the risks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Senegal.

  11. International Interdisciplinary Research Institute Project in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Paul

    2010-02-01

    The project of an interdisciplinary research institute in Senegal was initiated in 1993 in Senegal (West Africa) and became a template for a similar project in the US in 1999. Since then, numerous meetings and presentations have been held at various national and international institutions, workshops and conferences. The current development of this partnership includes drafts for a full design of all systems at each facility, as well as the physics, applied health and educational programs to be implemented. The Senegal facility was conceived for scientific capacity building and equally to act as a focal point aimed at using the local scientific expertise. An anticipated outcome would be a contribution to the reduction of an ever-growing brain drain process suffered by the country, and the African continent in general. The development of the project led also to a strong African orientation of the facility: built for international collaboration, it is to be a pan-African endeavor and to serve primarily African countries. The facility received a presidential approval in a 2003 meeting and will develop an interdisciplinary program centered on a strong materials science research which will also allow for the establishment of an advanced analytical (physical chemistry) laboratory. A central part of the facility will be linked to state-of-the art accelerator mass spectrometry, cyclotron and low energy electromagnetic accelerator systems. )

  12. Change in air temperature over Sudan and South Sudan with time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual mean air temperature for Sudan and South Sudan for the three periods 1900-1940, 1961- 1990 and 1981-2010 for 12 stations was analyzed with objectives of studying changes in air temperature over the area during the last century and also to study the linkages between mean, maximum and minimum air ...

  13. Phylogenic analysis in Acacia senegal using AFLP molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA markers were used to characterize the genetic diversity and relationships in gum Arabic tree (Acacia senegal). Twenty eight samples of Acacia senegal collected from populations distributed throughout the Gum Arabic belt were tested in comparison with samples of ...

  14. Job Satisfaction in the Coastal Pelagic Fisheries of Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Aliou

    2012-01-01

    The marine fishery in Senegal, West Africa, is a major source of employment and food security. It currently faces the consequences of ecological degradation. This paper examines job satisfaction among small-scale purse seine fishers, who constitute one of the dominant fishing metiers in Senegal. The research sample consists of 80 purse seine…

  15. Ebola Virus Imported from Guinea to Senegal, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Daye; Fall, Gamou; Diallo, Viviane Cissé; Faye, Ousmane; Fortes, Louise Deguenonvo; Faye, Oumar; Bah, Elhadji Ibrahim; Diallo, Kadia Mbaye; Balique, Fanny; Ndour, Cheikh Tidiane; Seydi, Moussa; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2017-06-01

    In March 2014, the World Health Organization declared an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea. In August 2014, a case caused by virus imported from Guinea occurred in Senegal, most likely resulting from nonsecure funerals and travel. Preparedness and surveillance in Senegal probably prevented secondary cases.

  16. Traditional Leafy Vegetables In Senegal: Diversity And Medicinal Uses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six administrative regions of Senegal were investigated. Forty species of vegetable leaves which are traditionally consumed in Senegal have been inventoried. All species are members of twenty-one families the most numerous of which are Amaranthaceae Juss., Malvaceae Juss., Moraceae Link., the Papilionaceae Giseke ...

  17. Tanzania Dental Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Committee of Tanzania Dental. Association would like to Thank. [fUfNJfNJU[[j)~ for its magnanimity towards meeting the cost of this Journal ... ceps is token out of the dental kit and the tooth is removed out of its socket. The tooth is dropped into the waste bucket. The fareceps is placed in the water basin. The socket site is ...

  18. YOUTH EMPLOYMENTin Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some 17.5 millionTanzanians are between 15 and 34 years of age. This number is expected to almost double by 2035. For more information, please refer to Haji, Mahjabeen (2015) Tanzania: Skills and youth employment, a scoping paper commissioned by IDRC and the MasterCard Foundation. Young self-employed.

  19. IDRC in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    worth CA$60 million since 1973. By identifying the major causes of death and disease, IDRC-supported research has helped to significantly reduced child and adult mortality rates in ... mental conditions in communities in. Tanzania and Malawi. Researchers and com- munity members will use the survey results to design ...

  20. Tanzania Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Science (Tanz. J. Sci.) was established in 1975 as a forum for communication and co-ordination between and among scientists and allied professionals. It is also intended as a medium for dissemination of scientific knowledge among scientists and the public at large to promote the advancement of ...

  1. Tanzania Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Medical Journal is a multi – disciplinary journal published two times a year in March - June and September – December. ... To achieve its objectives the journal invites papers on original scientific research, short communications, case reports and letters to the editor, in any branch of medical science. Original ...

  2. Factors Affecting Adoption of Agroforestry Farming System as a Mean for Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment Conservation in Arid Areas of Northern Kordofan State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer, Siddig El Tayeb

    2008-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas represent about 60 percent of Sudan total area. One of the main environmental problems in the arid and semi-arid areas is diffraction's which reduces the natural potential of the already fragile ecosystems and renders rural people vulnerable to food shortages, the vagaries of weather and natural disasters. Deforestation which is considered one of the most critical environmental problems facing the world is one of the main causes of diffraction's. Between the years 1990 and 2005 Sudan lost about 8.8 millions hectares of forests, which represents 11%, of its forests mainly because of subsistence activities such as overgrazing, trees cutting and expansion of traditional agriculture. One of the areas that are very much affected by diffraction's is Northern Kordofan State. To rescue the situation the government of Sudan, with assistance from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and some donors, implemented a project that aimed primarily at restocking Acacia Senegal trees in Northern Kordofan State. This study is intended to explore the factors that caused differential rate of farmers' adoption rate of the Acacia Senegal based agroforestry farming system. The study data was collected from a clustered random sample of 300 farmers, through face to face interviews using a questionnaire that was pre-tested and validated. Frequency distribution and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. It has been found that farmers' adoption of agroforestry farming system in Northern Kordofan state was significantly affected by the farmers' level of formal education, contact with extension agents, level of environmental awareness, cosmopoliteness, total area of owned land and extent of social participation. (author)

  3. Decoding Hermitian Codes with Sudan's Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    1999-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of Sudan's algorithm for list decoding Hermitian codes beyond half the minimum distance. The main ingredients are an explicit method to calculate so-called increasing zero bases, an efficient interpolation algorithm for finding the Q-polynomial, and a reduct......We present an efficient implementation of Sudan's algorithm for list decoding Hermitian codes beyond half the minimum distance. The main ingredients are an explicit method to calculate so-called increasing zero bases, an efficient interpolation algorithm for finding the Q...

  4. Renewable energy activities in Senegal: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, I.; Sarr, J.; Kane, M.M.; Sall, M.

    2000-01-01

    Like many countries in Africa, Senegal is facing economical decline, energy crisis and serious desertification problem in rural areas. These issues could be removed if renewable energy is used as a primary source of energy in rural areas. What is required is a strategy to implement renewable energy technologies at large scale. The government and many non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have tried to comprehend and have strived to address the problem of energy. This paper present a review of activities in the field of renewable energy applications in Senegal, which goes back to the mid 1970s and will discuss the socio-economic benefits that the country has derived from these environmentally sound and appropriate sources of energy. The development and trial of systems were mostly funded so far by donor agencies in collaboration with government and NGOs. Among the applications being supported are solar lighting, water pumping and small power plants. Recent efforts have been aimed at restructuring the programmes and giving them a market orientation. Future trends, some suggestion and recommendations for successful dissemination of renewable energy sources are also drawn. The present situation is seen to be much more promising and favourable for renewable energy. (Author)

  5. Corticosterone regulation in house sparrows invading Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn B; Kilvitis, Holly J; Thiam, Massamba; Ardia, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    What traits help organisms expand their ranges? Several behavioral and life history traits have been identified, but physiological and especially endocrinological factors have been minimally considered. Here, we asked whether steroid hormonal responses to stressors might be important. Previously, we found that corticosterone (CORT) responses to a standard restraint stressor were stronger at a range edge than at the core of the recent house sparrow (Passer domesticus) invasion of Kenya. In related work in the same system, we found that various behaviors (exploratory activity, responses to novelty, etc.) that are affected by CORT in other systems varied among sparrow populations in a manner that would suggest that CORT regulation directly influenced colonization success; birds at the range edge were less averse to novelty and more exploratory than birds from the core. Here, we asked whether the pattern in CORT regulation we observed in Kenya was also detectable in the more recent (∼1970) and independent invasion of Senegal. We found, as in Kenya, that Senegalese range-edge birds mounted stronger CORT responses to restraint than core birds. We also found lower baseline CORT in range-edge than core Senegalese birds, but little evidence for effects of individual sex, body mass or body size on CORT. Follow-up work will be necessary to resolve whether CORT regulation in Senegal (and Kenya) actively facilitated colonization success, but our work implicates glucocorticoids as a mediator of range expansion success, making stress responses potentially useful biomarkers of invasion risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Emergency contraception in Senegal: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mané, Babacar; Brady, Martha; Ramarao, Saumya; Thiam, Ababacar

    2015-02-01

    This paper highlights lessons from introductory efforts and presents new data on community, provider and key opinion leader perspectives to support expanded use of emergency contraception (EC) in Senegal. The paper draws on four data sources: (i) a literature review; (ii) a secondary analysis of a household survey conducted by the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative; (iii) in-depth interviews with key opinion leaders; and (iv) a quantitative survey of healthcare providers from a range of service delivery points. ANALYSIS OF DATA: Knowledge of EC among women is low in urban areas, with only 20% of women having heard of the method and 4% having ever used it. There were serious gaps in providers' technical knowledge about EC; only 57% knew its mode of action and 34% were aware of the need for timely use (within 120 h). Moreover, nearly half reported reluctance to provide EC to married women and even fewer were willing to provide it to youths, particularly to adolescent girls. Responses from key opinion leaders were mixed, demonstrating ambivalence about EC and how it could be offered. In Senegal, the current positive political climate for family planning provides a good opportunity for strengthening EC programming to address knowledge and attitudinal barriers among providers, key opinion leaders and communities.

  7. Energy-environment scenarios for Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M. [Stockholm Environment Inst. Boston, MA (United States); Diallo, S.; Sokona, Y. [Environment and Development in the Third World, Dakar (Senegal)

    1994-06-01

    This paper explores the energy and environmental dimensions of proposed energy strategies for Senegal. We do so using a quantitative analytical framework, and begin to explore how useful such numerical methods can be in an African context. Based on past studies and the environmental database system, we develop a set of emission factors for use in Senegal. Finally, we address ways to integrate the often unquantifiable environmental and economics cost and benefits for environmentally informed decision making. In summary, we find that polices intended to promote the substitution of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for charcoal in households can actually reduce greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to the improvement of more important near-term environmental problems. At the same time, the impacts of LPG substitution on increasing the oil import bill is relatively small when compared to other petroleum product usage.Improving end-use energy efficiency also shows promise, suggesting that new demand-side initiatives are needed. Overall, the integrated energy-environment scenario approach can reveal combined policy impacts that might otherwise be missed in a single project or policy approach. 13 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Dosimetric studies based on the radiation-induced bleaching of Sudan red and Sudan blue dyes in organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, N.; Farag, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of γ-radiation on the absorption spectra of Sudan red and Sudan blue dyes in organic solutions. A continuous decrease in the absorbance values at the absorption bands was observed with an increase of absorbed dose. The radiation sensitivities of decoloration gave widely different radiation chemical reduction yields (G-values) for the bleaching of both dyes depending on whether xylene, ethyl acetate, or chloroform was used as the solvent. On the basis of experimental results, suggestions are made concerning the dye solutions as prospective dosimeters. The following absorbed dose ranges can be covered: 10 1 -10 2 Gy by 10 -5 M Sudan red or Sudan blue in chloroform; 4 x 10 2 -4 x 10 3 Gy by 10 -5 M Sudan red or Sudan Blue in ethyl acetate; 10 3 -3 x 10 4 Gy by 5 x 10 -6 M Sudan red in xylene. (author)

  9. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  10. Tanzania country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  11. All projects related to senegal | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Informal sector, business environment and economic growth: A comparative ... TAX INCENTIVES, CENTRAL AFRICA, ECONOMIC GROWTH, LABOUR MARKET ... URBAN POPULATION, COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION, URBAN PLANNING, ... Laws to protect women in Senegal against violence seem to have little effect in ...

  12. All projects related to senegal | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: DEMOGRAPHIC MODELS, SOCIAL PLANNING, SOCIAL SERVICES, POVERTY MITIGATION, SOCIAL SECURITY. Region: Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 961,200.00. Building National Health Research Information ...

  13. Senegal: Staying home at all costs | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    When a neighbourhood is at risk of flooding, the most logical solution is to build new houses in more secure areas and to relocate the residents. But in Dakar, the capital of Senegal, things are not so simple.

  14. Senegal : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: URBAN HOUSING, HOUSING NEEDS, HOUSING CONDITIONS, LOW COST HOUSING, HOUSING POLICY, HOUSING PROGRAMMES, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Malawi, Senegal, Tunisia, Uganda. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total ...

  15. Germination Response of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to Hot Water Pre-Treatment in Maiduguri, ... of Maiduguri under tree shade, to study the effect of hot water pre-treatment duration. ... Germination response, pre-sowing treatment, gum Arabic, orthodox seeds.

  16. All projects related to Senegal | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... control over land and their involvement in decision-making for responsible, sustainable ... Data in Senegal's health information system is only collected from public health facilities, which doesn't account for the many patients who use private, ...

  17. Tuberculosis stigma in Gezira State, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suleiman MM, Ahmed; Sahal, Nagla; Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) stigma and to determine the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and TB stigma among TB cases and their controls in Gezira State, Sudan. METHODS: A case-control study design was used. New smear-positive TB patients registere...

  18. Dengue fever | Tavodova | South Sudan Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Dengue fever. Milada Tavodova. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  19. Walking Between Houses, Paul Julien in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsadig Mohamed; Andrea Stultiens

    2015-01-01

    April 2015 Sudanese photographer Elsadig Mohamed and I tried to relate the photographs that Paul Julien made when traveling through the country in 1933 and 1948 to stories and realities alive in present day Sudan. This initial research was pretty successful and we thought a first presentation of the

  20. Aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2013-07-01

    To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  1. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations.Material and Methods: This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan.Results: Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless, alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors.Conclusions: Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  2. Walking between houses, Paul Julien in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stultiens, Andrea; Mohamed, Elsadig

    2015-01-01

    April 2015 Sudanese photographer Elsadig Mohamed and I tried to relate the photographs that Paul Julien made when traveling through the country in 1933 and 1948 to stories and realities alive in present day Sudan. This initial research was pretty successful and we thought a first presentation of the

  3. Japan's international peace operations in South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-20

    Nov 20, 2016 ... the new mission was based on the Peace and Security Legislation enacted by the Abe government in .... Japan's commitment to human security and peacekeeping operations in. South Sudan. On the basis of ..... cameras on their helmets in order to prove that their shootings were legally justifiable (Mainichi ...

  4. Assessment and Remediation of Lead Contamination in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Donald E. Jones, MS; Assane Diop, BS; Meredith Block, MPA; Alexander Smith-Jones, BS; Andrea Smith-Jones, MS

    2011-01-01

    Background. This paper describes the impact of improper used lead-acid battery (ULAB) handling and disposal. A specific case study is presented describing the field assessment and remediation of lead contamination in a community in Senegal where at least 18 children died from lead poisoning. Objectives. The assessment and remediation process utilized to address the Senegal lead contamination has been used as a model approach to solving used lead-acid battery (ULAB) contamination in other e...

  5. Corporal Punishment in Tanzania's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…

  6. Verbal Autopsies in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality rates in rural Tanzania are high. In preparation for the introduction of an intervention to reduce maternal deaths by distribution of misoprostol and erythromycin to women living in rural Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, we conducted a limited verbal autopsy by surveying family members of women ...

  7. Senegal country study; Evaluation des couts de reduction des emissions de gaz a effect de serre au Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sow, I

    1998-10-01

    The first part of this study consists of an analysis of the socio-economic development in Senegal and of establishment of inventory and energy balance for greenhouse gases. Scenarios for emission from single economic sectors are discussed. (EG)

  8. A climate trend analysis of Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Adoum, Alkhalil; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, James; White, Libby

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), identifies modest declines in rainfall, accompanied by increases in air temperatures. These analyses are based on quality-controlled station observations. Conclusions: * Summer rains have remained steady in Senegal over the past 20 years but are 15 percent below the 1920-1969 average. * Temperatures have increased by 0.9° Celsius since 1975, amplifying the effect of droughts. * Cereal yields are low but have been improving. * The amount of farmland per person is low and declining rapidly. * Current population and agriculture trends could lead to a 30-percent reduction in per capita cereal production by 2025.

  9. Focus on uranium research in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoute, M.

    2014-01-01

    Two periods stand out in the history of mining exploration for uranium in Senegal: • 1957 - 1965 in the context of a general inventory of the uranium potential of Africa, which is also the time that the large deposits of Niger and Gabon were discovered; • 1973 to the present, is characterized by surveys more focused on specific topics such as Birrimian Superior Precambrian Sedimentary, Secondary and Tertiary Phosphates. The collapse of uranium price that began since 1980 calls into question the validity of these surveys on areas away from the coast that lack infrastructure and forces the elimination of targets where there is little hope of finding high enough concentrations of uranium for possible mining.

  10. [Migration, urbanization, and development policy in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, D

    1992-01-01

    "The various studies focussing on human settlements in Senegal show that the share of population living in cities is ever increasing because of the massive and continuous flow from rural areas. The persistance of such migration trends from the country to cities deepens regional disparities, compounds the difficulties and cost of city management and development, specially in the case of Dakar, and runs counter to the goals of social and economic development plans.... The growing importance of such phenomena calls for the designing of corrective measures in favour of rural areas and small towns in order to settle rural populations and halt the inordinate and chaotic geographical growth of large cities. Failing this, development efforts may well be compromised." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  11. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  12. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  13. Processes of Incubating African Female Entrepreneurs: Some Evidences from Senegal and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Imani Silver Kyaruzi; Chantal Ahoefa Hales

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the processes of incubating African female entrepreneurs. It is observed that despite the growing interest and large volume of literature on business incubation and their role in local economic growth, theories have been silent on explaining the role(s) of “female incubatees” within this process. The particular focus of this paper is on our current understanding of the nature of the complex processes of providing business support services to female entrepreneurs in...

  14. Sickle cell disease in western Sudan: genetic epidemiology and predictors of knowledge attitude and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daak, Ahmed A; Elsamani, Elfatih; Ali, Eltigani H; Mohamed, Fatma A; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E; Elderdery, Abozer Y; Talbot, Octavious; Kraft, Peter; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) and determinants of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards SCD in western Kordofan State, Sudan. A community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in three towns. Three hundred and seventy-two households were polled, and blood samples for haemoglobin phenotyping were collected from 1116 individuals. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and KAP data were collected using investigator-administered questionnaires. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed. About 50.9% of the study population were Misseriya tribes. Consanguineous marriages were reported by 67.5% of the households. The highest percentage of homozygous SCD was 2.8% among children under 5 years of age. About 24.9% were carriers of HbS allele (HbAS). HbS allele frequency was highest in children aged 5-11 years (18.3%, CI: 13.7-22.9%) and lowest in males >15 years old (12.0%, CI: 6.1-17.9%). The average HbS frequency across all age groups was 14.5% (95% CI: 12.2-16.8%). The most frequent β-globin gene cluster haplotype was the Cameroon (30.8%), followed by the Benin (21.8%), the Senegal (12.8%) and the Bantu (2.2%) haplotypes. About 17.0% of all-cause child deaths were due to SCD. The estimated change in log odds of having the SS genotype per year increase in age was (-) 0.0058 (95% CI -0.0359, 0.0242). This represents a non-statistically significant 2.9% increase in 5-year mortality for individuals with the SS genotype relative to those with AS and AA genotypes. About 46.9% of the households had poor knowledge, 26.1% had satisfactory knowledge, and 26.9% had good knowledge about sickle cell disease. Mothers' and fathers' educational levels were significant predictors of good knowledge about SCD (P < 0.05). About 48.0% had a satisfactory attitude towards sickle cell disease while 30.7% had poor attitude and only 21.3 showed good attitudes. Poor knowledge about SCD and low socio

  15. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers to...

  16. Country Presentation Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIFANGA, L.D.; GYIMBI, H.; MLOWOLA, V.; KASONGWA, M.

    2010-01-01

    Discusses overview of incidents and developments involving illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials in Tanzania.13 cases have been recorded between 1996 and 2008. All cases occurred in Dar Es Salam. Police, customs and security staff intercepted the sources and culprits arrested. The latest incident occurred in May 2008 and involved illegal possession of a capsule labelled nuclear material (U-238). A total of 14 sources were seized . Types of sources seized were u-238, Caesium-137, Strontium-90 and Radium-226.

  17. Nutrition and mortality assessment--southern Sudan, March 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-30

    During the last 5 years of Sudan's decade-long civil war, increased fighting and food shortages in southern Sudan have led to displacement of large numbers of persons. In late 1992, the United Nations (UN), the government of Sudan, and factions of the Sudanese People's Liberation Army negotiated increased access for delivery of relief aid to civilians in southern Sudan. To assist in the targeting of food and other relief aid, CDC and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance conducted rapid assessments of nutritional status (children aged Akon (Bahr el Ghazal) (Figure 1). This report summarizes findings of the assessments.

  18. Methods for extraction and characterization of tannins from some acacia species of sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgailani, I.E.H.; Ishak, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05), 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins. (author)

  19. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  20. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah; Maiga, Abdou; Moussa, Ibrahim Bouzou; Barbier, Bruno; Diouf, Awa; Diallo, Drissa; Da, Evariste Dapola; Dabi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic changes and their perceptions were compared across north-south and west-east rainfall gradients. More than 80% of all households found that rainfall had decreased, especially in the wettest areas. Increases in wind speeds and temperature were perceived by an overall 60-80% of households. Contrary to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500-900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region, especially in the 500-900 mm zones and the western part of SSWA.

  1. Sleeping sickness situation in Tanzania | Kibona | Tanzania Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. A class of Sudan-decodable codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2000-01-01

    In this article, Sudan's algorithm is modified into an efficient method to list-decode a class of codes which can be seen as a generalization of Reed-Solomon codes. The algorithm is specialized into a very efficient method for unique decoding. The code construction can be generalized based...... on algebraic-geometry codes and the decoding algorithms are generalized accordingly. Comparisons with Reed-Solomon and Hermitian codes are made....

  3. Eye diseases in Akon Payam, South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Lado L Sube; Joseph Monday Lawrence; Richard Lado L Loro; Anthony Y Lasuba; Oromo Francis Seriano; Almutez Gharaibeh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among patients in Akon payam, Warrap State, South Sudan. Methods and materials: This was a cross-sectional study of 862 patients conducted at Akon in the period 18 – 31 September 2015. The Snellen E chart was used to measure visual acuity, and all patients had a basic eye examination. Their vision status was categorized according to the World Health Organization classification. Data were entered and a...

  4. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by me...

  5. Cointegration growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassan, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    This analytical review explores the links between growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan for the period 1956-2003. This paper build upon different models to investigate empirically the relationship between economic growth - as measured by GDP per capita growth- and inequality as measured by Gini coefficient (the growth, inequality and poverty triangle hypotheses), using data from the national and international sources. The paper tries to answer the following questions: i) whether growth, ine...

  6. Comparative study of radon in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Shaza Ismail Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted primarily to contribute radon data for radon map in Sudan and identify regions with elevated radon levels and improve data collection and analysis for the future radon levels evaluation. This study partially covered three states of Sudan ( Red Sea - Khartoum - South Khordofan). Previous work done has been considered in this study which focused and investigated the levels of radon concentration in ( indoor radon gas and water) by using gamma spectrometry equipped with ( HPGe detector) or (Na1 (T1) detector). The results obtained are within the acceptable levels and dose not poses any risk from radiation protection point of view. Red Sea state ( port-sudan): (124.39±6.21) Bq/m 3 . Khartoum state ( Suba): (151.52) Bq/m 3 . (Omdurman): ( 127±23) Bq/m 3 . Radon in water: (59) Bq/L. South Kordofan State: (102.8) Bq/m 3 . In water (Kadugli): (3 1 39)) Bq/L.(Author)

  7. Tanzania Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research (TJHR) aims to facilitate the advance of health sciences by publishing high quality research and review articles that communicate new ideas and developments in biomedical and health research. TJHR is ...

  8. Tanzania's healthcare breakthrough | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-18

    Nov 18, 2010 ... A model for success. The effects have ... health systems. Globally, there is a growing acceptance of the TEHIP lessons. ... has ended." — Hassan Mshinda, Director General, Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology ...

  9. The environmental problems of the Senegal coast. Les problemes environnementaux de la cote du Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niang-Diop, I

    1994-01-01

    Situated at the western extremity of the African continent, Senegal possesses a 707 km coastline. The coastal zone, defined as the area lying between an elevation of 6 m on the land side and 10 m depth on the sea side, represents a total area of 12,150 km[sup 2], or 3% of the total land area. A review is presented of the environmental problems facing the Senegalese coastal zone. These problems are numerous and include erosion and desertification, increases in water salinity, and mangrove swamp degradation. These threats are all likely to be enhanced by any climate change caused by global warming, which will lead to sea level rise. Because the coastal zone is highly populated and contains the majority of the country's economic activity, this zone has strategic importance to Senegal. It is important that policy towards this zone trends in the direction of sustainable development. Policy decisions must take into account the environmental threats to the coastal zone, and it is important to raise public awareness on these issues. However, any political action must be matched by measures to relieve the human pressures on the coast. The interior of the country is semi-desert, which encourages a rural exodus. Costal zone management must therefore be coupled with sustainable development throughout the country. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Eradicating tsetse flies: Senegal nears first victory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, costing the agriculture industry more than US $4 billion annually. The tsetse fly transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death.

  11. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Romania, 2. Russian Federation, 16. Saudi Arabia, 3. Senegal, 1. Singapore, 11. South Africa, 12. Spain, 1. Sri Lanka, 4. Sudan, 1. Sweden, 4. Switzerland, 1. Syrian Arab Republic, 6. Taiwan, 5. Tanzania, 3. Thailand, 15. Trinidad and Tobago, 1. Tunisia, 26. Turkey, 13. Ukraine, 31. United Arab Emirates, 4. United Kingdom ...

  12. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Romania, 20. Russian Federation, 82. Rwanda, 5. Saudi Arabia, 36. Senegal, 12. Serbia, 7. Singapore, 10. Slovakia (Slovak Republic), 4. Slovenia, 5. South Africa, 59. Spain, 60. Sri Lanka, 6. Sudan, 6. Sweden, 13. Switzerland, 15. Syrian Arab Republic, 16. Taiwan, 33. Tanzania, 25. Thailand, 43. Togo, 8. Trinidad and ...

  13. CIFSRF Call 6 Eligible Country List January 5.2015

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    wmanchur

    Saint Lucia. Sao Tome and Principe. Senegal. Seychelles. Sierra Leoneℓ. Somaliaℓ. South Africa. South Sudanℓ. Sri Lanka. St. Kitts and Nevis. Sudan. Swaziland. Tanzania. Togo. Trinidad and Tobago. Tunisia. Uganda†. Vietnam. Zambia. Zimbabwe. *Countries for which projects will have to address a research problem of ...

  14. Note on the use of nuclear energy in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanouté, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    In a context marked by the scarcity of fossil energy resources, Government of Senegal has made diversification, one of its major axes of the new development policy of the sector under consideration. Indeed, Senegal has identified nuclear energy as one of the best solutions to guarantee the satisfaction of the energy needs of future generations. The policy of Senegal in this area is in line with that established by the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) and is part of a coherent approach whose implementation over the period 2008-2020 is reflected in the following steps: Phase 1: deficit reduction program; 2nd: infrastructure development program to facilitate regional trade and to have a competitive energy; Beyond 2020: program for the emergence of an integrated market for trade and taking sustainable development more into account. It is on this horizon that the positioning of electricity production from nuclear power is expected and our country is already preparing for this deadline

  15. Bartonella bovis and Candidatus Bartonella davousti in cattle from Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Sambou, Masse; Scandola, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2017-02-01

    In Senegal, domestic ruminants play a vital role in the economy and agriculture and as a food source for people. Bartonellosis in animals is a neglected disease in the tropical regions, and little information is available about the occurrence of this disease in African ruminants. Human bartonellosis due to Bartonella quintana has been previously reported in Senegal. In this study, 199 domestic ruminants, including 104 cattle, 43 sheep, and 52 goats were sampled in villages from the Senegalese regions of Sine Saloum and Casamance. We isolated 29 Bartonella strains, all exclusively from cattle. Molecular and genetic characterization of isolated strains identified 27 strains as Bartonella bovis and two strains as potentially new species. The strains described here represent the first Bartonella strains isolated from domestic ruminants in Senegal and the first putative new Bartonella sp. isolated from cattle in Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High Prevalence of Mansonella perstans Filariasis in Rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassene, Hubert; Sambou, Masse; Fenollar, Florence; Clarke, Siân; Djiba, Sawdiatou; Mourembou, Gaël; L. Y., Alioune Badara; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Large parts of African and American countries are colonized by Mansonella, a very common but poorly described filarial nematode. Bloodsucking flies of the genus Culicoides are suspected to be the vector of Mansonella perstans, but no study in Senegal has confirmed that Culicoides can transmit the parasite. Designed specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used to identify microfilaria in stained blood smears. This study was performed in July and December 2010 in the southeastern Senegal, which is known to be endemic for M. perstans. We analyzed 297 blood smears from febrile and afebrile resident people by qPCR. The global prevalence of M. perstans was approximately 14.5% in both febrile and afebrile individuals. The age group of > 30 years had the highest prevalence (22.0%). No Culicoides among 1,159 studied specimens was positive for M. perstans and its vector in Senegal still requires identification. PMID:26078318

  17. The Game of Peace and Justice in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Den internationale strafferetsdomstol udsendte i marts 2009 en arrestordre på Sudans præsident Omar al-Bashir. Det internationale samfund har siden været delt på spørgsmålet om arrestordrens konsekvenser og betydning i forhold til at skabe fred og stabilitet i Sudan. I dette brief analyserer majo...

  18. Nodding syndrome in Mundri county, South Sudan: Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nodding Syndrome is a seizure disorder of children in Mundri County, Western Equatoria, South Sudan. The disorder is reported to be spreading in South Sudan and northern Uganda. Objective: To describe environmental, nutritional, infectious, and other factors that existed before and during the de novo 1991 ...

  19. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the

  20. 75 FR 62069 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... the formulation of a final rule. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by FAR Case 2009-041 by any of... final rule, FAR Case 2008- 004, Prohibition on Restricted Business Operations in Sudan and Imports from... rule, FAR Case 2008-004, Prohibition on Restricted Business Operations in Sudan and Imports from Burma...

  1. South Sudan and the Emerging Security Implications for East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuey, Aldo Ajou Deng

    2018-01-01

    South Sudan achieved political independence in 2011, before plunging into a series of civil wars that have culminated with the signing of the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development, IGAD, driven peace agreement. The Sudan People's Liberation Movement, SPLM, Government has not created conducive environment for political stability in South…

  2. South Sudan Medical Journal - Vol 11, No 1 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitude and practice, and service barriers in a tuberculosis programme in Lakes State, South Sudan: a qualitative study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... HIV/AIDS: Knowledge, attitudes and practices among adolescents in Nimule, South Sudan · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. Data Performativity, Performing Health Work: Malaria and Labor in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichenor, Marlee

    2017-07-01

    In this article, I investigate the ramifications of health data production in the health fight against malaria in and around Dakar, Senegal. Malaria health development funding at the community level is contingent on performativity; the Global Fund's "performance-based funding," for example, requires that local actors produce certain forms of evidence and that intermediaries synthesize this evidence into citable data. Analyzing the practices of diagnosis and approximation in health clinics and in global malaria documents, I argue that data production in Senegal is conditioned by and reifies preconceived notions of malaria as a problem addressable by the enumeration of technological fixes.

  4. Use of stable isotopes in human nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, the Laboratory of Nutrition of the Department of Animal Biology of the Faculty of Science and Technology of UCAD has been using stable isotopic techniques for nearly twenty years. Stable isotopes were applied to different target populations to measure milk production, exclusive breastfeeding, body composition, micronutrient bioavailability and total energy expenditure.The application of stable isotopic techniques in nutrition has contributed to advocacy for exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months in Senegal. It enabled government decision-makers to obtain essential information on the quality of foods needed for optimal effect during pregnancy and for infant growth and the results were reflected in the national policy on micronutrient supplementation.

  5. The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or…

  6. Urban agriculture in Tanzania : issues of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.

    2004-01-01

    This book, the result of a collaborative study carried out by researchers from Tanzania, Israel and the Netherlands, assesses the sustainability of urban agriculture in two medium-sized towns in Tanzania: Morogoro and Mbeya. It first gives an overview of urban agriculture in Tanzania and a

  7. Institutional Support : African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania) was registered as a national nongovernmental organization in 2001. ... While resource flows to ATPS-Tanzania from ATPS headquarters in Nairobi were reliable, the organization produced a larger volume of research outputs than most other ATPS national ...

  8. [Pathological profiles of retinoblastoma in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, C; Doh, K; Thiam, I; Ndoye Roth, P; Moreira, C; Woto-Gaye, G

    2016-11-01

    Describe the macroscopic and microscopic profiles of retinoblastoma (RB) in Senegal and correlate histological criteria with progression to establish severity factors. We realized a retrospective study over 10 years (January 2005-December 2014). Only patients (n=67) who underwent histological analysis of the enucleation specimen (n=68) were followed until the end of the study. The tumor measured an average of 3.8cm (2/4.5). Endophytic tumor development was observed in 55 cases (80.8%), exophytic in 6 cases (8.9%) and mixed in 7 cases (10.3%). Retinal detachment was present in 13 cases (19.2%). The RB was well differentiated in 11 cases (16.2%), moderately differentiated in 31 cases (45.6%) and undifferentiated in 26 cases. Optic nerve (ON) invasion was present in 18 cases (26.5%). The tumor was extraretinal in 37 cases (54.4%). The anterior chamber was invaded in 6 cases (8.8%). The global survival at 2 years was 84% and 70% at 5 years. On multivariate analysis, well differentiated tumors and stage pT1 were associated with remission. Retrolaminar ON invasion, massive choroidal invasion and stage pT3 were risk factors for recurrence. Poor tumor differentiation, invasion of the ON resection margin, tumor invasion through the sclera, and stage pT4 were predictive of death. The pathologist is a principal actor in the management of RB because his account guide the post-surgical management strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Sudan-decoding generalized geometric Goppa codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydtmann, Agnes Eileen

    2003-01-01

    Generalized geometric Goppa codes are vector spaces of n-tuples with entries from different extension fields of a ground field. They are derived from evaluating functions similar to conventional geometric Goppa codes, but allowing evaluation in places of arbitrary degree. A decoding scheme...... for these codes based on Sudan's improved algorithm is presented and its error-correcting capacity is analyzed. For the implementation of the algorithm it is necessary that the so-called increasing zero bases of certain spaces of functions are available. A method to obtain such bases is developed....

  10. All projects related to senegal | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: DECENTRALIZATION, LOCAL GOVERNMENT, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, PRIVATE SECTOR, PUBLIC SECTOR, PARTNERSHIP. Region: Senegal, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Total Funding: CA$ 403,600.00. Integration of ICTs into the Basic Curriculum in Primary Schools in Sénégal - Phase II. Project.

  11. Senegal : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: URBAN AGRICULTURE, WATER REUSE, COMPOSTING, SOLID WASTES, WASTE RECYCLING, LOW COST HOUSING, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Senegal. Programme: Climate Change. Financement total : CA$ 450,000.00. Femmes, migration et droits au Mali et au ...

  12. Law and population in Senegal : a survey of legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snyder, F.G.; Savané, M.-A.

    1977-01-01

    Leiden : African Studies Centre (ASC Research report, no. 5), p. 242, 1977.This preliminary survey provides, in a reference format, a compendium of legislation potentially affecting the growth, distribution and composition of thepopulation in Senegal. It starts with an introduction to the

  13. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... chemical properties of gum were determined for infested and control trees. A. senegal infested by A. ... also in the textile, pottery, lithography, cosmetics and ... Deforestation within the gum belt has lead to an increase in desert .... Atomic Absorption = V*N EDTA*1000/Volume of extract (mg/l). Where, V is the ...

  14. Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ofLuwero and Nakasongola Districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  15. Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia senegal belongs to the subgenus, Aculeiferum. It is an African arid and semi arid zone multipurpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control besides other multiple uses. Genetic variation and resulting variable groupings were assessed using combined ...

  16. Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero and Nakasongola districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Analysis of dendrometric characteristics of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study gives an analysis of the dendrometric parameters of a middle Sahelian species (Acacia senegal) in semi-arid environment to get better knowledge of its behavior. The research lays the principle that the species behaves differently according to the ecogeographical stations. So, its characteristics change from one ...

  18. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in northern region of Senegal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging worldwide epidemic but few data are available in African populations. We aimed to assess prevalence of CKD in adult populations of Saint-Louis (northern Senegal). Methods: In a population-based survey between January and May 2012, we included 1,037 adults ...

  19. Senegal : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Food security, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, RURAL COMMUNITIES, LAND MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURAL POLICY. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Togo, Burkina Faso. Programme: Fondements pour l' ...

  20. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  1. senegal : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    initiative de Bajenu Gox à l'amélioration de la santé des mères et des enfants dans tout le Sénégal. Région: Senegal, Canada. Programme: Maternal and Child Health. Financement total : CA$ 852,400.00. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de ...

  2. Træernes rolle i et landbrugslandskab i Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2010-01-01

    Ved at gå ind i et eksisterende projektsamarbejde er det lykkedes Steen Christensen at gennemføre et vellykket feltarbejde i Senegal inden for et 6-måneders speciale. Resultaterne fra projektet vil kunne indgå som grundlag for en lokal forvaltning som tager sigte på at beskytte træerne som er en...

  3. Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.

  4. Equality a collective effort in Senegal | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-11-08

    Nov 8, 2011 ... ... of women who are economically active in Senegal work on the land in agriculture. ... By bringing decision-making close to the citizens, this provided an opportunity for ... The country's development is in the balance, she says. “This could change their way of life, their social status, and their children's future ...

  5. Les urgences urologiques au centre hospitalier de Louga, Senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urological emergencies at the hospital of Louga, Senegal: Epidemiologic features and evaluation of the management. Abstract ... The managements were: installation of a urethral catheter (n = 255), extraction of urinary bladder clot (n = 06), medical treatment (n = 82) and surgical treatment (n = 152). During surgery, 170 ...

  6. Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... species grows to 2-15 m tall with a flat or rounded crown. (Maundu et al., 1999). ... Our knowledge on the structure of genetic diversity of. A. senegal in Kenya ..... conclusion that spatial organization of local populations and the ...

  7. All projects related to senegal | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    West Africa has been identified as a new lucrative market by the tobacco industry. ... job and wealth creation, essential elements of a strategy for inclusive growth. ... Laws to protect women in Senegal against violence seem to have little effect ...

  8. Energy and environment: A political ecology of woodfuels in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, E. Mark

    This study examines relationships between energy use and the exploitation of woodland natural resources in the West African nation of Senegal. As in many other countries in the developing world, the majority of the population in Senegal depend on woodfuels, i.e., firewood and charcoal, to satisfy most of their household energy needs. Consequences of this situation include added pressure on the country's limited natural resource base, and increased socioeconomic hardship, particularly for women, as woodfuel resources become increasingly scarce. Woodfuel energy problems in developing countries are typically described in terms of an imbalance between supply and demand that is driven by rapid population growth. However, recent research suggests that a number of other factors should be explored in order to achieve a more thorough understanding of the relationship between woodfuel energy and forest resource management. This study attempts to determine what some of these factors are, and to explain how they inform the energy-environment situation in the case of Senegal. In addition, I examine the scope for addressing Senegal's woodfuel problem through greater local community participation in managing energy and natural resources, a current thrust in many international initiatives designed to help the country cope with this persistent problem. A relatively new conceptual framework for the analysis of human-environment relationships---viz. political ecology---is employed in this study. I attempt to show how political ecology can contribute to the resolution of Senegal's energy-environment dilemma by considering a more inclusive suite of social, economic, political, and environmental variables than has been explored by previous approaches. Findings from the research demonstrate the ability of the political ecology approach to capture many heretofore unexplored factors related to the energy-environment nexus in Senegal. A detailed matrix is generated that illustrates the

  9. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Khadime; Tine, Roger Clément Kouly; Ndiaye, Magatte; Sow, Doudou; Sarr, Aïssatou; Mbuyi, Marie Louise Tshibola; Diouf, Ibrahima; Lô, Amy Colé; Abiola, Annie; Seck, Mame Cheikh; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Badiane, Aïda Sadikh; N'Diaye, Jean Louis A; Ndiaye, Daouda; Faye, Oumar; Dieng, Thérèse; Dieng, Yémou; Ndir, Oumar; Gaye, Oumar; Faye, Babacar

    2015-07-16

    In Senegal, a significant decrease of malaria transmission intensity has been noted the last years. Parasitaemia has become lower and, therefore, more difficult to detect by microscopy. In the context of submicroscopic parasitaemia, it has become relevant to rely on relevant malaria surveillance tools to better document malaria epidemiology in such settings. Serological markers have been proposed as an essential tool for malaria surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the sero-epidemiological situation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in two sentinel sites in Senegal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in Velingara (south Senegal) and Keur Soce (central Senegal) between September and October 2010. Children under 10 years old, living in these areas, were enrolled using two-level, random sampling methods. P. falciparum infection was diagnosed using microscopy. P. falciparum antibodies against circumsporozoite protein (CSP), apical membrane protein (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein 1_42 (MSP1_42) were measured by ELISA method. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was done to assess factors associated with P. falciparum antibodies carriage. A total of 1,865 children under 10 years old were enrolled. The overall falciparum malaria prevalence was 4.99% with high prevalence in Velingara of 10.03% compared to Keur Soce of 0.3%. Symptomatic malaria cases (fever associated with parasitaemia) represented 17.37%. Seroprevalence of anti-AMA1, anti-MSP1_42 and anti-CSP antibody was 38.12, 41.55 and 40.38%, respectively. The seroprevalence was more important in Velingara and increased with age, active malaria infection and area of residence. The use of serological markers can contribute to improved malaria surveillance in areas with declining malaria transmission. This study provided useful baseline information about the sero-epidemiological situation of malaria in Senegal and can contribute to the identification of malaria hot spots in order to concentrate

  10. Human papillomavirus infection in women in four regions of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, El Hadji Seydou; Gheit, Tarik; Dem, Ahmadou; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Toure-Kane, Ndeye Coumba; Mboup, Souleymane; Tommasino, Massimo; Sylla, Bakary S; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh

    2014-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in Senegal. However, there are few data concerning the human papillomavirus (HPV) types inducing neoplasia and cervical cancers and their prevalence in the general population of Senegal. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HPV infection in Senegalese women aged 18 years and older in Dakar Region and three other regions. Cervical samples were collected from 498 women aged 18-80 years (mean, 42.1 years) in Dakar Region. Also, 438 samples were collected from three other regions: Thiès, Saint-Louis, and Louga. The samples were screened for 21 HPV genotypes using an HPV type-specific E7 PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping assay (TS-MPG). The prevalence of high risk (HR)-HPV in Dakar Region was 17.4%. HPV 52 (3.2%) was the most prevalent HPV type, followed by HPV 31 (3.0%) and HPV 16, 45, and 53 (all 2.8%). In the Thiès, Saint-Louis, and Louga Regions, the prevalence of HR-HPV was 23.2%, 13.1%, and 19.4%, respectively. The study revealed the specificity of HPV prevalence in Dakar Region and other regions of Senegal. The observed patterns show some differences compared with other regions of the world. These findings raise the possibility that, in addition to HPV 16 and HPV 18, other HPV types should be considered for a vaccination program in Senegal. However, additional studies to determine the HPV type distribution in cervical cancer specimens in Senegal are required to further corroborate this hypothesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Village poultry production in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Awad, S.; Hass, W.

    2002-01-01

    A survey form provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division was used to collect data on village poultry production in the Sudan. The production system in the households was based on scavenging indigenous domestic chickens, at times accompanied by pigeons, guinea fowls, ducks or turkeys. The average flock size was 18.8 birds and included 44.3% hens, 10% cocks, 20% growers and 24.8% chicks. The hen to cock ratio was 4.4:1. Average egg production was 3.1 per hen per month, of which 76% were incubated by hens. About 78% of incubated eggs hatched of which 75% survived the brooding period. Approximately half of the households provided the chickens with housing. Around 25.7% of interviewed households used chicken manure as fertilizer. While scavenging, chickens fed on insects, grass, vegetables and kitchen wastes. Feed supplements included sorghum, millet and sometimes wheat bran and alfalfa. The ownership of village chickens was shared between all gender categories and all were involved in the management of the birds. The major constraints to village poultry production in the Sudan were identified and included inadequate health care, poor production, inappropriate housing and poor knowledge of poultry management. (author)

  12. Morocco and Senegal: Faces of Islam in Africa. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Morocco and Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Morocco and Senegal in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the United States and different grade levels and subject areas. The 13 curriculum projects in the collection are: (1) "Doorway to Morocco: A Student Guide" (Sue Robertson); (2)…

  13. Prehospital emergency care and injury prevention in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Elbashir

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Due to an absence of published literature in Sudan, much of the data have been recorded from paper records and empirical observations. Prehospital care and injury prevention in the Sudan is a recent initiative, but it is developing into a promising model with many opportunities for improvement. This momentum should be nurtured and requires a purposive, collective collaboration to draw a blueprint for a locally relevant, effective and efficient prehospital system in Sudan. It is hoped that this article will highlight and encourage further progress.

  14. Soil and Terrain Database for Senegal and the Gambia (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Senegal_Gambia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Senegal and The Gambia primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Senegal_Gambia), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for

  15. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  16. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying Customized Climate Advisory Information to Translate Extreme Rainfall Events into Farming Options in the Sudan-Sahel of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salack, S.; Worou, N. O.; Sanfo, S.; Nikiema, M. P.; Boubacar, I.; Paturel, J. E.; Tondoh, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    In West Africa, the risk of food insecurity linked to the low productivity of small holder farming increases as a result of rainfall extremes. In its recent evolution, the rainy season in the Sudan-Sahel zone presents mixed patterns of extreme climatic events. In addition to intense rain events, the distribution of events is associated with pockets of intra-seasonal long dry spells. The negative consequences of these mixed patterns are obvious on the farm: soil water logging, erosion of arable land, dwartness and dessication of crops, and loss in production. The capacity of local farming communities to respond accordingly to rainfall extreme events is often constrained by lack of access to climate information and advisory on smart crop management practices that can help translate extreme rainfall events into farming options. The objective of this work is to expose the framework and the pre-liminary results of a scheme that customizes climate-advisory information package delivery to subsistence farmers in Bakel (Senegal), Ouahigouya & Dano (Burkina Faso) and Bolgatanga (Ghana) for sustainable family agriculture. The package is based on the provision of timely climate information (48-hours, dekadal & seasonal) embedded with smart crop management practices to explore and exploite the potential advantage of intense rainfall and extreme dry spells in millet, maize, sorghum and cowpea farming communities. It is sent via mobile phones and used on selected farms (i.e agro-climatic farm schools) on which some small on-farm infrastructure were built to alleviate negative impacts of weather. Results provide prominent insight on how co-production of weather/climate information, customized access and guidiance on its use can induce fast learning (capacity building of actors), motivation for adaptation, sustainability, potential changes in cropping system, yields and family income in the face of a rainfall extremes at local scales of Sudan-Sahel of West Africa. Keywords: Climate

  18. Mapping long-term changes in savannah crop productivity in Senegal through trend analysis of time-series of remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Christian; Rasmussen, Michael Schultz

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing, NDVI, trend analysis, environmental change, rainfall, land cover change, Senegal......Remote sensing, NDVI, trend analysis, environmental change, rainfall, land cover change, Senegal...

  19. Effects of passive smoking on children health | Salih | Sudan Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Health care system in Sudan: review and analysis of Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health care system in Sudan: review and analysis of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threats (SWOT Analysis). Ebrahim M.A. Ebrahim, Luam Ghebrehiwot, Tasneem Abdalgfar, Muhammad Hanafiah Juni ...

  1. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 8, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Article Gum Arabic in treatment of functional constipation in children in Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MW Ali, OM Sabir, MOE Gadour, 73-76 ...

  2. Childbirth in South Sudan: Preferences, practice and perceptions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b American Refugee Committee International, Juba, South Sudan ... at birth in the three county catchment areas of Kapoeta Civil Hospital. .... oblige him to offer an animal sacrifice. ... the 140th American Public Health Association Annual.

  3. Medicines utilization and trends in Sudan between 2006 and 2010

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discipline, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and ..... Table 5: Antianaemic preparations utilization in NHIF-Sudan based on retail prices ...

  4. Generalized Sudan's List Decoding for Order Domain Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2007-01-01

    We generalize Sudan's list decoding algorithm without multiplicity to evaluation codes coming from arbitrary order domains. The number of correctable errors by the proposed method is larger than the original list decoding without multiplicity....

  5. Microcredit supply under Islamic Banking in Khartoum State, Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    been negatively impacted by the financial sanctions imposed on Sudan since ... to in Arabic language as “Riba”1 is the most significant principle of Islamic finance. ..... of microcredit approval among those who maintain accounting records is ...

  6. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 10, No 3 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyshormonogenesis) in Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Nada Mukhtar, Elshibli M Elshibli, Huda Abdelmonein, Mohamed A Abdullah, Imad F Elmula, 109-116 ...

  7. Security regionalism and flaws of externally forged peace in Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the IGAD peace process in Sudan, highlighting the dynamics ..... that according to erroneous US intelligence produced chemical weapons ..... However, Garang's death in a helicopter accident in July 2005 exposed the.

  8. The youth and post-war recovery in southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan to improve the situation through the creation of new livelihood options ... or pulled from their classrooms by armed people, leaving them with memories that will remain ... 1 See the movie 'Blood Diamonds' directed by Edward Zwick.

  9. Currency Crisis in Sudan in 2012: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamedin Bannaga, Dr.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sudan currency crisis in 2012 occurred when the Sudanese pound lost 66 percent of its value against the US dollar. In this article we adopt statistical methods such as the signal approach and econometric methods such as the Probit Model for identifying and evaluating the currency crisis. We utilize some economic indicators that have the ability to predict the crisis. We examined the capability of these indicators in generating an early warning system for Sudan currency crisis. The study confirms that the incidence of currency crisis in Sudan increases by increase in inflation rate, increase in import percentage of GDP, rise in claims against the central government, reduction in external reserves and existence of political crisis. Moreover, the study finds that the most important predictor of currency crisis in Sudan is decline in external reserves.

  10. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction. Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground. Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center). The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses, and host rain

  11. Editorial: The call to battle cancer in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oromo Francis Seriano Omojo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment is still nascent to non-existent in South Sudan. Basic surgical removal of cancer growths is the only option for many people. The country does not possess an oncology facility and consequently, with no access to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, treatment is a major challenge. Those who can afford it are referred for further management to countries such as the Sudan, Egypt, Uganda, India or South Africa.

  12. An Evaluation of the Partitioning of Sudan and US Contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Adeleke, Oniya Olusegun

    2015-01-01

    A country is partitioned when a region within her existing boundary breaks its legitimate bonds with such a country or state in order to become an independent state in its own right. This does not include, independence after colonization, unilateral declaration of independence or de facto control of a region/territory by militias. This thesis evaluates the impact of US diplomatic engagement in Sudan. Why did the US spend her resources, time and energy to bring about the division of Sudan? Was...

  13. Sudan : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La mise en ¿uvre d'un système communautaire complet de soins de santé primaires constitue un important défi dans des régions comme le Soudan du Sud et le nord de l'Ouganda qui ont été marquées par des conflits. Région: South Sudan, Uganda, Canada, Sudan. Programme: Maternal and Child Health. Financement ...

  14. The Separation of Southern Sudan: A Possible American Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    sorghum, sesame seeds, gum arabic, sugarcane, millet, livestock Industry Motor vehicle assembly, cement, cotton, edible oils and sugar refining Exports... industry . Presently, it is Sudan’s largest oil consumer, and it maintains a 47% interest in Sudan’s two biggest oil consortiums.32 Because China has...92.81 billion; $2,300 per capita Resources Oil , natural gas, gold, iron ore, copper, and other industrial metals Agriculture Cotton, peanuts

  15. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  16. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...

  17. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  18. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...

  19. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, Adam Khatir [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Po, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 40} K and fallout radionuclide {sup 137} Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun rock phosphate deposits in the eastern part of the Nuba mountains in Western Sudan, and surface marine sediments and marine organisms collected from the sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using a high resolution gamma-spectrometry, radiochemical separation and {alpha} spectrometry. The external exposure due to {gamma} radiation from the ground has been calculated. The average exposure was found to be 45.4 {+-} 21.3 nGy/h, corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 {mu}Sv/y. With the exception of some areas, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nation-wide average concentrations of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 238} U, {sup 232} Th, {sup 40} K and {sup 137} Cs determined were 31.6 {+-} 27, 20.1 {+-} 16.4, 19.1 {+-} 8.1, 280.3 {+-} 137.6 and 4.1 {+-} 4.3 Bq/Kg, respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. The exchangeable radium fraction constitutes 19-24% of the total radium content. The data show that {sup 238} U and its decay products are the principal contributors of radioactivity in both phosphate deposits at Uro and Kurun. The equivalent mass concentrations of uranium in the Uro rock phosphate fall within the range that could be economically recovered as the by-product of fertilizer industry. The mean activity concentrations weighted by average agricultural consumption of 300 kg/ha of untreated ground rock fertilizer resulted in an annual distribution of 120.63 Bq Ra/m{sup 2} with Uro rock and 12.97, 0.21 and 4.24 Bq/m{sup 2} respectively, with Kurun rock fertilizer. The external radiation exposure over agricultural areas was estimated 23.41 x 10

  20. Assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, A.K.; Ahamed, M.M.O.; El Khangi, F.A.; El Nigumi, Y.O.; Holm, E.

    1997-01-01

    Calculations of the external exposure due to γ radiation from the ground have been made from the results of the measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in the soil at various locations in Sudan. The average exposure was found to be 45 nGy.h -1 , corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 μSv.y -1 . With the exception of the Arkuri and Dumper areas in the western part of the country, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nationwide average concentrations of 226 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs determined were 31.62, 20.11, 19.10, 280.29 and 4.12 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. (author)

  1. Soap Industry In Sudan Challenges And Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Tag Elsir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify relationship between the working situation of soap industries in Sudan and their engineering management strategies considering number of samples of soap industries which facing a problem of misunderstanding of applying the total quality management systems in Sudanese soap factories which are almost owned by famous rich families as a one of the total profit indicators when taking into consideration the competition and consumer satisfaction beside the long term conservation of energy and machinery life. To discover the fact behind this clear links have been establish between the evaluation of strategies and the summary of findings derived from the raw data by using the inductive method represented by observation data collection pattern of data hypothesis and generalization a theory which confirms the prediction that the chosen samples were suffering directly from engineering management strategies execution either for energy management or materials management systems because of lacking or not applying the proper strategy.

  2. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Adam Khatir

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, 226 Ra, 210 Po, 228 Ra, 40 K and fallout radionuclide 137 Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun rock phosphate deposits in the eastern part of the Nuba mountains in Western Sudan, and surface marine sediments and marine organisms collected from the sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using a high resolution gamma-spectrometry, radiochemical separation and α spectrometry. The external exposure due to γ radiation from the ground has been calculated. The average exposure was found to be 45.4 ± 21.3 nGy/h, corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 μSv/y. With the exception of some areas, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nation-wide average concentrations of 226 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs determined were 31.6 ± 27, 20.1 ± 16.4, 19.1 ± 8.1, 280.3 ± 137.6 and 4.1 ± 4.3 Bq/Kg, respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. The exchangeable radium fraction constitutes 19-24% of the total radium content. The data show that 238 U and its decay products are the principal contributors of radioactivity in both phosphate deposits at Uro and Kurun. The equivalent mass concentrations of uranium in the Uro rock phosphate fall within the range that could be economically recovered as the by-product of fertilizer industry. The mean activity concentrations weighted by average agricultural consumption of 300 kg/ha of untreated ground rock fertilizer resulted in an annual distribution of 120.63 Bq Ra/m 2 with Uro rock and 12.97, 0.21 and 4.24 Bq/m 2 respectively, with Kurun rock fertilizer. The external radiation exposure over agricultural areas was estimated 23.41 x 10 -9 Gy/h and 2.59 x 10 -9 Gy/h at 1 m above ground level for Uro and Kurun rock phosphate fertilizers

  3. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  4. Status of nuclear forensic support in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Mohammedelmoez Eltayeb Abderahman

    2015-08-01

    The central problem investigated in this thesis is nuclear forensic support in Sudan, the thesis comprises five chapters, began with an introduction containing the art of forensic science, stated the importance of the it in criminal investigations. The forensic science was defined, and stated the principle of which it underlying, including: principle of individuality and principle of exchange, the divisions of this science has been clarified, then it discussed the crime scene and the collecting of evidence, where starting the forensic science at the crime scene, with clarifying the principle of crime scene investigation. Nuclear and other radioactive material was discussed: defining a radioactivity with the material source. It placed into 3 general categories: special nuclear materials, reactor fuel, and commercial radioactive sources, and mention each category and it characteristics. Radiation is part of our environment was clarified, and discussed what the effect on organisms and populations are. Nuclear forensics was presented,and how problem of the safeguarding of the nuclear material beginning. The emerging nature of the problem was discussed, the radiological crime scene management was explained, importance of securing the scene with an examples of equipment and instruments for on-scene radiation safety assessment and how the collection of evidence, storage forensic laboratory analysis was discussed and how set the designated nuclear forensic laboratory, also nuclear forensic interpretation, and the chain of custody was mentioned. The role of Regulating Authority in Nuclear forensic support was discussed, specifically in Sudan, International Cooperation have also been reminded, as well as memorandum of understanding was mentioned between SNRRA and the administration of forensic evidence, and one of it results is the radiological surveys unit in forensic administration, how the unit is configured, the role of the unit, finally conclusion of research was

  5. Sudan: the human price of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This series of eight information bulletins by Amnesty International is intended to draw attention to the link between the massive human rights violations by the security forces of the Government of Sudan and various government-allied militia forces, and the oil operations by foreign companies (which include Canada's Talisman Energy, Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd., and Roll'n Oil Field Industries). The human rights violations cited by Amnesty International include atrocities and the forcible internal displacement of large populations of local people living in the oil fields and surrounding areas. It is alleged that the foreign oil companies involved in this lucrative operation expect the Sudanese government to provide a secure environment and protect oil company staff and assets, and turn a blind eye to human rights violations by the government security forces in the name of protecting the security of the oil-producing areas. In raising awareness of the problem, Amnesty International hopes to establish a dialogue with the foreign oil companies and sensitize them to their responsibilities to promote a better human rights environment in the areas where they are active in oil exploration and extraction. The information bulletins provide a background to the problem; detail the human rights violations committed in the name of oil; establish the link between oil, weapons purchases by the Sudanese government and human rights violations; describe the oil companies and their responsibilities and international standards on internal displacement of populations; and makes recommendations to the Government of Sudan, to the armed opposition groups, to the oil companies and to the international community at large to bring an end to the human rights violations that over the last three decades have cost tens of thousands of lives and displaced hundreds of thousands of people

  6. Seroprevalence of African Swine Fever in Senegal, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Ismaila; Grosbois, Vladimir; Jori, Ferran; Blanco, Esther; Vial, Laurence; Akakpo, Ayayi J.; Bada-Alhambedji, Rianatou; Kone, Philippe; Roger, Francois L.

    2011-01-01

    In Senegal, during 2002–2007, 11 outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) were reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Despite this, little was known of the epidemiology of ASF in the country. To determine the prevalence of ASF in Senegal in 2006, we tested serum specimens collected from a sample of pigs in the 3 main pig-farming regions for antibodies to ASF virus using an ELISA. Of 747 serum samples examined, 126 were positive for ASF, suggesting a prevalence of 16.9%. The estimated prevalences within each of the regions (Fatick, Kolda, and Ziguinchor) were 13.3%, 7.8%, and 22.1%, respectively, with statistical evidence to suggest that the prevalence in Ziguinchor was higher than in Fatick or Kolda. This regional difference is considered in relation to different farming systems and illegal trade with neighboring countries where the infection is endemic. PMID:21192854

  7. A National Medical Information System for Senegal: Architecture and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Gaoussou; Diallo, Al Hassim; Lo, Moussa; Tendeng, Jacques-Noël; Lo, Seynabou

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, great amounts of data are daily generated by medical activities such as consultation, hospitalization, blood test, x-ray, birth, death, etc. These data are still recorded in register, printed images, audios and movies which are manually processed. However, some medical organizations have their own software for non-standardized patient record management, appointment, wages, etc. without any possibility of sharing these data or communicating with other medical structures. This leads to lots of limitations in reusing or sharing these data because of their possible structural and semantic heterogeneity. To overcome these problems we have proposed a National Medical Information System for Senegal (SIMENS). As an integrated platform, SIMENS provides an EHR system that supports healthcare activities, a mobile version and a web portal. The SIMENS architecture proposes also a data and application integration services for supporting interoperability and decision making.

  8. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  9. Cholera outbreak in Senegal in 2005: was climate a factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Constantin de Magny

    Full Text Available Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae and occurs as widespread epidemics in Africa. In 2005, there were 31,719 cholera cases, with 458 deaths in the Republic of Senegal. We retrospectively investigated the climate origin of the devastating floods in mid-August 2005, in the Dakar Region of Senegal and the subsequent outbreak of cholera along with the pattern of cholera outbreaks in three other regions of that country. We compared rainfall patterns between 2002 and 2005 and the relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST gradient in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and precipitation over Senegal for 2005. Results showed a specific pattern of rainfall throughout the Dakar region during August, 2005, and the associated rainfall anomaly coincided with an exacerbation of the cholera epidemic. Comparison of rainfall and epidemiological patterns revealed that the temporal dynamics of precipitation, which was abrupt and heavy, was presumably the determining factor. Analysis of the SST gradient showed that the Atlantic Ocean SST variability in 2005 differed from that of 2002 to 2004, a result of a prominent Atlantic meridional mode. The influence of this intense precipitation on cholera transmission over a densely populated and crowded region was detectable for both Dakar and Thiès, Senegal. Thus, high resolution rainfall forecasts at subseasonal time scales should provide a way forward for an early warning system in Africa for cholera and, thereby, trigger epidemic preparedness. Clearly, attention must be paid to both natural and human induced environmental factors to devise appropriate action to prevent cholera and other waterborne disease epidemics in the region.

  10. Gender parity in Senegal – A continuing struggle

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the Senegalese women’s movement, supported by political elites and international norms, managed to push for the adoption of one of the world’s most radical gender quota laws to date. This was achieved without the support of the powerful religious leaders, the marabouts. However, the marabouts fought back in the 2014 local elections and thwarted the full implementation of parity. This CMI Insight explores the on-going fight for parity in Senegal.

  11. Analysis of national Jatropha biodiesel programme in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kofi Ackom

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing Jatropha curcas for energy applications in has been established through several initiatives in Senegal. The government of Senegal launched the National Jatropha Programme (NJP in 2006 with the goal of planting 321,000 ha of Jatropha curcas, with an average of 1000 hectares (ha in each rural locality. This paper reviews existing policies with relevance to Jatropha curcas L production in Senegal. It assesses the NJP implementation, identifies potential gaps and provides recommendations with regards to planning, institutional management, regulation, and implementation. The potential of Jatropha and other biodiesel crop options, based on findings from an agro-environmental mapping exercise have been shown. Findings show that prior policies in agricultural and energy sectors had been instrumental in developing the NJP. It highlights significant challenges in the value chain, the implementation of NJP and on the importance of using empirical assessment of evidence to inform on the biodiesel crop type compared to a focus on only one crop, Jatropha. Agro-environmental mapping was identified as useful technique prior to biodiesel cultivation. The work reported here indicates Jatropha having the largest suitability of land areas equating to almost thirty times (30 the original estimations in the NJP followed by Pongamia and sunflower with 6,796,000 ha and 5,298,900 ha respectively. Recommendations are provided suggesting, scientifically sound analysis from agro-environmental mapping to inform on the suitability of areas for Jatropha cultivation and on environmentally, socially and culturally sensitive areas. Policy options have been suggested for environmentally benigned sustained biodiesel activities in Senegal.

  12. Traditional wealth, modern goods, and demographic behavior in rural Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Garenne, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationships of demographic indicators (fertility, mortality, marriage, education) with modern and traditional wealth in rural Senegal. Data were based on rural households interviewed in the 2011 DHS survey. An Absolute Wealth Index was computed from a list of 15 modern goods. A Traditional Wealth Index was computed from data on land and livestock per capita. Modern wealth was always associated with modern demographic behavior (lower fertility, lower mortality, hig...

  13. Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.  Created: 6/9/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/24/2010.

  14. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  15. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  16. Shelf Projects: The Political Life of Exploration Geology in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn d'Avignon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 2000s, southeastern Senegal has emerged as a premier gold exploration and mining frontier. At present, the Sabodala gold mine, owned by the Canadian company Teranga Gold, is the only operational gold mine and mill in Senegal. But two more open-pit gold operations are scheduled to open this year, and several other companies have announced discoveries of industrial-scale deposits. By documenting the shifting ownership and exploration of the Sabodala deposit, this article draws attention to how the protracted phase of mineral research shapes the political life of mining operations in Africa and elsewhere in the global South. Geological exploration in colonial and post-colonial Senegal, as in much of Africa, has relied heavily on the expertise of indigenous miners and smelters. Mining Sabodala has thus unearthed multi-vocal and contested histories of gold discovery. Historians of science have established that field assistants and experts in Africa have produced agronomic and medical knowledge typically credited to “the West.” By extending this argument to gold exploration, the article brings African history into dialogue with an emergent anthropology of subterranean knowledge production.

  17. Report on the planning of Senegal's energy demand by MAED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanouté, Mamadou

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to strengthen the capacities of the participants in the implementation of a global energy balance of a country using the MAED model. The training which saw the participation of two teams (Senegal and Mali) took place from 30 July to 17 August 2012. The aim of this study is to: 1. Develop future scenarios on the volution of energy consumption. 2. Propose concrete measures to enable the country to face Soaring prices of petroleum products. 3. Streamlining and distributing energy consumption in a safe and sustainable manner. 4. Better planning for energy demand. Also, this study showed that the household sector occupies the leading position in terms of energy consumption. The Agriculture sector does not consume much energy because of the lack of modernization that prevails in the agricultural process with the use of rudimentary tools when tractors are used in developed countries. However, given the objectives of the State of Senegal to revive the economy of Senegal, there are significant changes in all sectors. The share of agriculture in GDP tends to decline in the future as the share of services increases slightly. In the household sector, it should be stressed that the use of modern biomass tends to increase in the coming decades to the detriment of traditional fuels which follow a stagnant trend.

  18. Interrelationships of Non-Formal Mother Tongue Education and Citizenship in Guinea and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Andrea; Yerende, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Guinea and Senegal are multilingual countries that use French as a language of instruction in the formal educational sector with some significant exceptions. As in many other African countries, such exceptions in Guinea and Senegal, use local African languages primarily in the non-formal sector for a variety of purposes, such as adult literacy and…

  19. The Senegal Project: A Cultural Foods Unit for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Senegal Project is the culminating project in a unit on cultural foods in an 8th grade family and consumer sciences (FCS) course. Initially, students take a quick world tour by studying and cooking foods from Mexico, Italy, China, and India followed by a "more depth and less breadth" study of Senegal, a country with a culture vastly…

  20. Use of remote sensing data in distributed hydrological models: applications in the Senegal River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Andersen, Jens Asger; Gybkjær, Gorm

    1999-01-01

    Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she......Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she...

  1. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  2. The Derg-SPLM/A Cooperation: An Aspect of Ethio-Sudan Proxy Wars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The warm and friendly Ethio-Sudan diplomatic relations that followed Sudan's independence in 1956 and the long standing frontier trade between the two countries have been severely damaged by the outbreak of civil wars in southern Sudan in 1955 as well as in Eritrea in 1962. As the civil wars intensified in both countries ...

  3. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software, or...

  4. Radioactive waste management in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)

  5. Talisman Energy Inc : corporate social responsibility report 2001 : Sudan operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Talisman Energy Inc. is a large independent Canadian oil and gas producer with operations worldwide, including operations in Sudan, Malaysia, Trinidad and Colombia. This report includes a discussion on seismic exploration in the Acevedo block in Colombia, but most of the report focuses on operations in Sudan because that is the primary concern of many stakeholders, particularly the impact of the long-running civil war in that country and the way in which oil revenues will be used. The report describes Talisman Energy's compliance with the International Code of Ethics for Canadian Business which Talisman adopted in December 1999. The report evaluates Talisman's progress towards achieving objectives in the areas of human rights, community participation, employee rights, ethical business conduct, health, safety and the environment. Talisman will continue to advocate peace and the fair distribution of oil revenues. It was noted that the funding provided by the Sudan oil project consortium Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) for community development was increased for 2002. Talisman and GNPOC funding helps in community development initiatives such as the provision of water wells, health clinics and schools in Sudan. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) was asked by Talisman to gather comments on the company's operations in Sudan from a range of stakeholder groups. This report presents audit statements by PwC regarding Talisman's social responsibility. The report also included an independent opinion regarding the challenge of facing ethical dilemmas in business. tabs., figs.

  6. Determination of Aniline Degraded From Sudan I in Cloths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.K.; Fung, L.C.; Men, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    A method development for the determination of an aromatic amine degraded from an azo dye in cloths was carried out. Sodium dithionite was used to cleave the azo bond of Sudan I into its aromatic amines, and the amines, mainly aniline were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The efficiency of the reduction process of Sudan I, based on the degree of decolorisation of dye, was measured using the spectrophotometer. The optimized values of the reduction process was found effective when 1:1 ratio of 0.30 % sodium dithionite to Sudan I (dit/ Sud) was used at pH 8. The recovery percentage and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of this method was found to be 62.9 - 88.4 % and 7.6 - 21.5 %, respectively. The proposed method was tested on self-dyed cloth samples with Sudan I. Aniline released from the reduction of Sudan I was detected in the self-dyed cloth samples. The results of this study demonstrate the applicability of sodium dithionite for the reduction of the azo dye in the cloth samples. (author)

  7. Tanzania | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    We have a rich history of supporting research in Tanzania, a politically stable democracy. ... importance of improving health and agriculture in order to reduce poverty. ... For more than a decade, we have provided grants that foster the capacity to ... fellowships and foster links between researchers and institutions in Tanzania ...

  8. Micro Level Perspectives on Growth (Tanzania) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poverty reduction through growth is the idea behind the market-oriented reforms that Tanzania has undertaken since the mid-1980s. However, poverty is still ... Outputs. Papers. Private sector development in Tanzania : opportunities, challenges and strategic interventions to enhance competitiveness; final report. 42201.

  9. Tanzania | Page 41 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexander Soucy is correct to identify insecticide-treated bednets and inexpensive anti-malarial drugs as crucial to the global fight against malaria ('An easy way to save three million lives,' April 26). Read more about Tanzania ... Legislation on competition brings productivity and business investment to Tanzania. Increasing ...

  10. Water resources management in Tanzania: identifying research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at identifying research gaps and needs and recommendations for a research agenda on water resources management in Tanzania. We reviewed published literature on water resources management in Tanzania in order to highlight what is currently known, and to identify knowledge gaps, and suggest ...

  11. Tanzania | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Quality Improvement for Maternal and Newborn Health in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (IMCHA). Language English. Read more about Building an Enhanced Cadre of Community Health Workers to Improve Maternal and Newborn Health in Rural Tanzania (IMCHA). Language English.

  12. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA: EXPERIENCES FROM. NORTHERN ... affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. .... Serengeti Plains are shared by NCA and the SNP. Normally, in .... communication network) and social services .... motivation to conserve nature.

  13. Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific Innovations. ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... Through review of various innovations developed by universities including SUA, it was established that there are several innovations in different fields especially in crop cultivation, animal ...

  14. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of dengue in PortSudan, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbashir Hagir M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To investigate maternal and perinatal outcomes (maternal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight and perinatal mortality of dengue at PortSudan and Elmawani hospitals in the eastern Sudan. Method This was a retrospective Cohort study where medical files of women with dengue were reviewed. Results There were 10820 deliveries and 78 (0.7% pregnant women with confirmed dengue IgM serology at the mean (SD gestational age of 29.4(8.2 weeks. While the majority of these women had dengue fever (46, 58.9%, hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome were the presentations in 18 (23.0% and 12, (15.3% of these women, respectively. There were 17(21.7% maternal deaths. Fourteen (17.9% of these 78 women had preterm deliveries and 19 (24.3% neonates were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit. Nineteen (24.3% women gave birth to low birth weight babies. There were seven (8.9% perinatal deaths. Eight (10.2% patients delivered by caesarean section due to various obstetrical indications. Conclusion Thus dengue has poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in this setting. Preventive measures against dengue should be employed in the region, and more research on dengue during pregnancy is needed.

  15. Senegal: where "card-carrying" sex workers are legal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    An estimated 1.5% of Senegal's 5 million adult population is HIV-seropositive, with 3000 people having already died of AIDS-related illnesses. Although 75% of those with AIDS are men, women comprise the majority of people infected with HIV. This latter phenomenon is most likely the result of men having become infected before women because of the former's greater degree of travel relative to women. Infection with HIV-2 accounts for 70% of those with HIV, but for only 30% of AIDS cases. HIV-1 is, however, becoming a growing problem since it seems to be transmitted more easily and develop into AIDS more quickly. 15% of prostitutes in Senegal are HIV-seropositive compared to more than 50% of comparable subgroups in most African countries. Experts cannot say for sure why Senegal has a comparatively low rate of HIV, but several factors have been posited as explanations. The comparatively low rate of infection could be related to the long distance between Senegal and the HIV-1 epicenters of east and central Africa, the ability of HIV-2 infection to help the body fight off HIV-1, the strong Islamic influence which has made male circumcision universal thus reducing the risk of contracting HIV, the provision of AIDS awareness and prevention early in the epidemic, and the government's permissive approach to commercial sex. This latter factor is probably the most important related to the current status of HIV/AIDS in Senegal. It has been legal since 1966 to sell sex as long as the sex worker is registered, over 21 years old, has a regular medical check-up, and can present an up-to-date medical report card to the police upon request. This approach was established by then-president Senghor to reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Registered sex workers since 1986 have been tested for HIV, advised on how to avoid infection, and given free condoms. In anonymous questionnaires, 70-75% of all Dakar's official sex workers reported always using

  16. The management of the Diama reservoir (Senegal River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvail, S.; Hamerlynck, O.

    2003-04-01

    The Senegal River is regulated by 2 dams built in the 1980's by the "Organisation pour la Mise en Valeur du fleuve Sénégal" (OMVS), a river basin management organisation grouping Mali, Senegal and Mauritania. The initial objectives of OMVS, which were to regulate the Senegal flows in order to develop irrigated agriculture, produce hydropower and facilitate river navigation has been only partially met. The maintenance of the annual flood by the upstream dam (Manantali), initially to be phased out when irrigated agriculture would have replaced the traditional recession agriculture, is now scheduled to continue indefinitely on the basis of socio-economic and environmental concerns. This change of mindset has however not affected the management of the downstream dam (Diama). Initially conceived as a salt-wedge dam, its function evolved to a reservoir dam with a high and constant water level. During the dry season, the water level is maintained high and constant in order to reduce the pumping costs for the irrigated agriculture in the delta. During the flood season (July-October) the dam is primarily managed for risk avoidance: limit flooding downstream of the dam (especially the city of St. Louis) and secure the infrastructure of the dam itself. The permanent freshwater reservoir lake has adverse effects on ecosystems, on human and animal health and a high social cost for the traditional stakeholders of the deltaic floodplain (fishermen, livestock keepers and gatherers). Upstream of the reservoir there is an excess of stagnant freshwater and managers are confronted with the development of invasive species while substantial downstream flooding is essential for the estuarine ecosystems and local livelihoods. The presentation will review the different approaches to the management of the Diama reservoir and proposes different management scenarios and compares their economical, environmental, and social costs and benefits.

  17. Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. In this work, we determined the complete or near-complete (only lacking the control region) mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 17 specimens representing 11 endemic species (Lautoconus belairensis, Lautoconus bruguieresi, Lautoconus cacao, Lautoconus cloveri, Lautoconus cf. echinophilus, Lautoconus guinaicus, Lautoconus hybridus, Lautoconus senegalensis, Lautoconus mercator, Lautoconus taslei, and Lautoconus unifasciatus). We also sequenced the complete mt genome of Lautoconus guanche from the Canary Islands, which has been related to the cones endemic to Senegal. All mt genomes share the same gene arrangement, which conforms to the consensus reported for Conidae, Neogastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods recovered three major lineages, whose divergence coincided in time with sea level and ocean current changes as well as temperature fluctuations during the Messinian salinity crisis and the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Furthermore, the three lineages corresponded to distinct types of radular tooth (robust, small, and elongated), suggesting that dietary specialization could be an additional evolutionary driver in the diversification of the cones endemic to Senegal. The reconstructed phylogeny showed several cases of phenotypic convergence (cryptic species) and questions the validity of some species (ecotypes or phenotypic plasticity), both results having important taxonomic and conservation consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sentinel surveillance for influenza in Senegal, 1996-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye; Dosseh, Annick; Ndiaye, Kader; Sagna, Monique; Gregory, Victoria; Goudiaby, Deborah; Hay, Alan; Diop, Ousmane M

    2012-12-15

    Data on influenza in tropical and resource-limited countries are scarce. In this study we present results from 14 years of influenza surveillance in Senegal, one of the few tropical countries in Africa from which longitudinal data are available. From 1996 to 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness at 13 facilities in order to investigate the epidemiology of seasonal influenza and the characteristics of the circulating influenza viruses. Specimens were tested for influenza using viral isolation and/or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). From 1996 to 2009, specimens were obtained from 9176 patients; 1233 (13%) were influenza-positive by virus isolation and/or RT-PCR. Among positive samples, 958 (77%) were influenza A, 268 (22%) influenza B, and 7 (1%) influenza type C; of influenza A viruses, 619 (65%) were A(H3) and 339 (35%) A(H1), of which 13 (1%) were identified as H1N2. The proportion positive was similar for children 55 years (9%). Although influenza A(H1), A(H3), and B all circulated during most years, influenza A(H3N2) predominated during 9 of the 14 years. Influenza activity consistently peaked during the rainy season (July-September). Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses circulating in Senegal were similar to contemporary viruses circulating elsewhere in the world. Our data confirm that influenza is prevalent in Senegal, occurs in seasonal epidemics, and contributes to the burden of respiratory diseases in all age groups.

  19. The Domestic Origins of Sudan's External Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahman Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic factors played a significant role in Sudan's external debt crisis which emerged in the early 1980's. Personal rule and related political survival considerations undermined on-going economic adjustment programmes and prompted heavy external borrowing. Borrowing from abroad went unchecked because of the absence of an effective debt management system. It was also fuelled by economic corruption and the decline of cotton, Sudan's principal export crop. The absence of an effective debt management mechanism and economic corruption were a product of the lack of political and fiscal accountability in the context of personal rule.

  20. Eye diseases in Akon Payam, South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lado L Sube

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among patients in Akon payam, Warrap State, South Sudan. Methods and materials: This was a cross-sectional study of 862 patients conducted at Akon in the period 18 – 31 September 2015. The Snellen E chart was used to measure visual acuity, and all patients had a basic eye examination. Their vision status was categorized according to the World Health Organization classification. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22(IBM. Results: The age range of the study population was 3 - 86 years; 81.9% were aged 41-80 years. 50.8% were males and 49.2% were females. There were 1483 bilaterally blind eyes giving a prevalence of blindness of 86% (95% CI: 3.2497-3.3531 with prevalence of visual impairment of 3.9 %( 95% CI: 2.5001-3.0944. Cataract (59.7% was the commonest eye disease, followed by glaucoma (15.1%, corneal dystrophy (9.3%, allergic conjunctivitis (5.5%, corneal scar (1.9%, refractive errors(1.8% and others(6.7%. Among those who are blind cataract (66% was the major agent with females affected more than males .It was followed by glaucoma (16.7%, corneal dystrophy (10%, corneal scar(1.8% and the rest of agents(5.4%. The main age group affected by blindness was the 41- 80 years age group (87% and the least was below 20 years (1.1%. There was a strong association between age and sex with the causes of blindness. Conclusion: There was equal sex preponderance with more blindness in those aged 41 years or above. Cataract and glaucoma still remained major cause of blindness in this payam. More effort is needed by the government to reduce the burden of these diseases.

  1. Imaginary Sudan – Reflections on the Formation of the Notion of Sudan in the Period of European Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Kurcz Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The author explores how the images from the colonial past affected what we understand today under the notion of Sudan. He concentrates on the category of the Nile, Sudanese-Egyptian analogies, the history making processes and colonial rule. Moreover points out that the the British used and reproduced a Muslim concept of cultural geography of Africa, and in particular, the notion of Bilad as-Sudan (”Land of the Blacks”), constituting the essence of division into white and black Africa. In this...

  2. The Origin and Evolutionary History of HIV-1 Subtype C in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Matthieu; Leye, Nafissatou; Vidal, Nicole; Fargette, Denis; Diop, Halimatou; Toure Kane, Coumba; Gascuel, Olivier; Peeters, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Background The classification of HIV-1 strains in subtypes and Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) has helped in tracking the course of the HIV pandemic. In Senegal, which is located at the tip of West Africa, CRF02_AG predominates in the general population and Female Sex Workers (FSWs). In contrast, 40% of Men having Sex with Men (MSM) in Senegal are infected with subtype C. In this study we analyzed the geographical origins and introduction dates of HIV-1 C in Senegal in order to better understand the evolutionary history of this subtype, which predominates today in the MSM population Methodology/Principal Findings We used a combination of phylogenetic analyses and a Bayesian coalescent-based approach, to study the phylogenetic relationships in pol of 56 subtype C isolates from Senegal with 3,025 subtype C strains that were sampled worldwide. Our analysis shows a significantly well supported cluster which contains all subtype C strains that circulate among MSM in Senegal. The MSM cluster and other strains from Senegal are widely dispersed among the different subclusters of African HIV-1 C strains, suggesting multiple introductions of subtype C in Senegal from many different southern and east African countries. More detailed analyses show that HIV-1 C strains from MSM are more closely related to those from southern Africa. The estimated date of the MRCA of subtype C in the MSM population in Senegal is estimated to be in the early 80's. Conclusions/Significance Our evolutionary reconstructions suggest that multiple subtype C viruses with a common ancestor originating in the early 1970s entered Senegal. There was only one efficient spread in the MSM population, which most likely resulted from a single introduction, underlining the importance of high-risk behavior in spread of viruses. PMID:22470456

  3. Væksten i Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Haagen Larsen, Pernille; Schack Wiedenbeien, Emma; Nørreager Christensen, Martin; Høj Brunn, Christoffer; Ferklov, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In our group, it has been decided to write about the growth in Africa. We believe a conflict can be seen between the year of focus to effort an improvement in Africa’s growth and the lack of change. However it is to be seen that there is a noticeable change compared to the time minimal effort spent. As case we have chosen to look at the conditions of establishing further expanding, development and growth of one of the poorest countries in the world, Tanzania. We have chosen to look into the e...

  4. Mycetoma in the Sudan: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fahal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old males (76%. The majority (68% were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%. In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%. History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76% and hand (8% were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%, thigh (2%, buttock (2% and arm and forearm (1%. Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2% of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7% had postoperative recurrence. Different types of

  5. Mycetoma in the Sudan: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed M; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh

    2015-03-01

    This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of amputations

  6. Confederation: A better tool for good neighborliness and prosperous relationships between Sudan and South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Akec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende renovar el debate sobre la confederación como una herramienta prometedora para una mejor gestión de las relaciones entre los dos Sudanes después de la independencia de Sudán del Sur en julio de 2011 ante la creciente preocupación sobre el modelo único unidad-separación, insuficiente a la hora de abordar las complejas relaciones en la era post-independencia. Basado en un trabajo original del autor presentado en noviembre de 2010 en el St Antony's College, Oxford, el artículo analiza la literatura actual sobre el tema de la confederación en Sudán y en otros lugares, examina el Acuerdo General de Paz (AGP y sus implicaciones para el futuro de Sudán, y traza la evolución histórica de la confederación como concepto en el vocabulario político de Sudán -especialmente en lo que concierne a las relaciones Norte-Sur. El artículo examina además su utilidad como herramienta potencial para construir una relación más próspera y duradera entre los dos Sudanes, al mismo tiempo que subraya los desafíos en el caso de su adopción, y evalúa los factores de éxito existentes.

  7. Revolution, Modernity and (Trans)National Shi`i Islam: Rethinking Religious Conversion in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtman, Mara A

    2009-07-01

    The establishment of a Shi`i Islamic network in Senegal is one alternative to following the country's dominant Sufi orders. I examine Senegalese conversion narratives and the central role played by the Iranian Revolution, contextualizing life stories (trans)nationally in Senegal's political economy and global networks with Iran and Lebanon. Converts localize foreign religious ideologies into a 'national' Islam through the discourse that Shi`i education can bring peace and economic development to Senegal. Senegalese Shi`a perceive that proselytizing, media technologies, and Muslim networking can lead to social, cultural and perhaps even political change through translating the Iranian Revolution into a non-violent reform movement.

  8. Sustainability Assessment of the Agricultural and Energy Systems of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrke Gaudreau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve decision-making, sustainability-based approaches to assessment of options and undertakings demand that we move beyond narrowly defined considerations to address the full suite of requirements for progress towards sustainability. This paper reports on a sustainability assessment exercise that originally focused on burning agricultural residues, primarily peanut shells, for cooking applications in Senegal. The scope of assessment had to be expanded to address the agricultural and energy systems of Senegal, when closer examination revealed a complex set of energy and agricultural system interactions that could undermine the anticipated positive effects of initiatives centred primarily on peanut residue cookstoves. The case highlights the need to be open to expanding the scope of assessment to address underlying and/or unexpected issues that cannot be addressed appropriately at the project scale. In particular, the case illustrates how the assessment of an energy system may serve as an entry point into a deeper exploration of the context in which the energy system is embedded. The analysis also illustrates a situation in which different paths that may be followed, each with its own degree of uncertainty, path dependence, feasibility, fairness, cultural sensitivity, trade-off acceptability and possibilities for public judgement of overall desirability.

  9. Historicising ‘Irregular’ Migration from Senegal to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Maher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary discourses on migration from West Africa to Europe tend to frame migrants as victims of syndicated trafficking cartels that truck in human desperation. As part of this narrative, migrants are increasingly portrayed as ‘modern-day slaves’ in need of humanitarian protection. In both media and policy circles, African migrants are commonly referred to as desperate travellers who fall prey to exploitative ‘slave traders’ on their clandestine journeys to Europe. And yet, such framings do not adequately account for the ways in which migration from West Africa to Europe has a long and profound history, and thus does not sufficiently correspond to histories of enslavement. Nor do such framings appreciate how contemporary movements within and outside West Africa are informed by interrelated political genealogies that tie Europe to Africa in mutually dialectic ways. Focusing on the case of Senegal, this article aims to disrupt the ‘migrant as slave’ narrative by looking back at the histories of regional and international mobility that continue to shape population movements out of Senegal today.

  10. Representation through Privatisation: Regionalisation of Forest Governance in Tambacounda, Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Ece

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Government officials, development agents and scholars showcase Senegal's 1996 regionalization reforms as a step towards the deepening of decentralisation. Yet this article shows that the reforms narrowed down local democracy via neoliberal processes. The reforms defined the regional councils as development intermediaries, to serve as a space for the negotiation of public-private partnership contracts between local governments and business interests. Focusing on Tambacounda Region of Senegal, the article analyses the effects of the reforms on forest governance at regional and rural-community scales. First, using two project case studies, it illustrates the use of forest management plans and project-based environmental committees in enabling privatisation of rural community forest governance at the expense of democratic processes. Second, it examines how the intermediary role of the regional council compromised its ability to represent the substantive interests of base-level rural communities and helped instrumentalise the council to promote different privatisation alternatives offered by 'community-based' projects. This role was facilitated by a public-private development agency of the council. The discursive analysis of a regional council meeting illustrates that rather than offering a deliberative and participatory forum, council meetings were used to make representation claims about the 'local people' and to push a market-based neoliberal rationality.

  11. Aspects epidemiologiques et cliniques des pemphigus au Senegal [Epidemiological and clinical aspects of pemphigus in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Diallo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to specify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pemphigus in the Department of Dermatology of the University Hospital of Dakar. Patients and Methodology: All medical records of patients seen for pemphigus in our department over a 11-year period were analyzed retrospectively. Results: We collected 105 cases of pemphigus, corresponding to a frequency of 10 cases/year and a hospital prevalence of 2.7%. Thus, pemphigus held the second rank of blistering autoimmune bullous diseases after bullous pemphigoid. The mean age of patients was 47.62 years and the age group [40-59 years] was predominantly affected (28 cases; 45 %. There were 41 femeles and 21 men (F/M ratio: 2. We did not find an endemic focus in our country. Clinical forms were dominated by pemphigus foliaceus (30 cases; 48.5 %, followed by pemphigus vulguaris (19 cases; 30.6 % and finally by pemphigus erythematosus (13 cases; 21%. In 16 cases (25 %, the pemphigus had begun after the consumption of a traditional medicinal plant (8 cases. An associated toxidermia was found in12 cases. Pruritus was present in 43 patients (69.35%. Discussion: In Senegal, pemphigus are common diseases, but without however an endemic focuc. They occur in young women, with a predominance of superficial forms, especially pemphigus foliaceus. The presence of pruritus and associated toxidermia to traditional medicinal plants are common. RÉSUMÉ Introduction: L’objectif de cette étude était de préciser les aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques des pemphigus au CHU de Dakar. Patients et Méthodes: Tous les dossiers des malades admis pour pemphigus ont été analysé de façon rétrospective sur une période de 11 ans. Résultats: Nous avons colligé 105 cas de pemphigus, correspondant à une fréquence de 10 cas/an et une prévalence hospitalière de 2,7 %. Les pemphigus occupaient le 2° rang des dermatoses bulleuses auto-immunes après la pemphigoide

  12. Interethnic conflict in Jonglei State, South Sudan: Emerging ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the escalation of interethnic confl icts between the Lou Nuer and the Murle in Jonglei State of South Sudan. Historically, interethnic confl icts in Jonglei were best described as environmental confl icts, in which multiple ethnic groups competed over scarce resources for cattle grazing. Cattle raiding was ...

  13. Use of Diode Laser (810) nm In Frenectomy | Awooda | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of frenum could be done by surgical excision using scalpel through different techniques eg. (Vertical, Z plasty and hemostat). Modern technology now offers an ... tissue surgery because of its time saving, patients comfort and easy manipulation. Sudan Joural of Medical Studies Vol. 2 (1) 2007: pp. 45-47 ...

  14. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 3, No 4 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute intussusception in children seen at El Obeid Hospital, Western Sudan. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, brady-arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in Sudanese Patients with acute Myocardial Infarction · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  15. South Sudan Medical Journal - Vol 6, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension in Juba, South Sudan: A retrospective cohort study of single blood pressure readings among potential blood donors at Juba Teaching Hospital 2010-2012 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rachel Wake, Charles Mazinda, 4-6 ...

  16. Seroprevalence of Q fever in Goats in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaeldin A Salih

    Full Text Available Aim: The survey was carried out to detect anti- C. burnetii antibodies in goat's sera samples in eight States in the Sudan during September 2010 – July 2011. Materials and Methods: In a preliminary study, four hundred and sixty caprine sera samples collected from eight States in the Sudan were screened for anti- Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA (iELISA kit. Results: The results showed an overall prevalence rate 24.22% of Q fever antibodies. The prevalence rate of antibodies ranged from 6.7% in Kassala to 40% in South Darfur. The prevalence rates were highest in South Darfur (40% and South Kordofan (34.7%, moderate in El Gazira (29.7%, Khartoum (29.1%, the Northern (24% and the River Nile (20.2% States. It was lowest in the White Nile (7.5% and Kassala (6.7% States. Conclusion: It could be concluded that Q fever is prevalent in goats in the Sudan. Therefore, further epizootiological investigations on Q fever in other farm animals and man at the country level is important to monitor and determine the magnitude of Q fever infection in order to estimate its economic impact on animal industry and its public health hazard in the Sudan. In addition, the impact of Q fever among shepherds should be studied. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 394-397

  17. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  18. Security Promotion Seen from Below: Experiences from South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.; Rouw, H.

    2011-01-01

    The report is based on 8 weeks of field research in South Sudan between March and April 2011, and looks at the linkages between security interventions such as DDR, SALW control and SSR in relation to community security. It opens with an analysis of what security constitutes and assesses what various

  19. Nodding syndrome in Mundri county, South Sudan: environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Juba, South Sudan, and by an electronic search for information on the environmental ... (www.sudanarchive.net), a word-searchable, full-text database of historical and ..... the sight of food and placement of food in the mouth, as well as the act ...

  20. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan : policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  1. Physician burnout syndrome | Ibnouf | Sudan Journal of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to high light the Physician Burnout Syndrome and its relation to unintentional medical errors and society lack of satisfaction. Methods: Brief literature review and observations from the current atmosphere of medical practice in Sudan. Conclusion: Early detection is the responsibility of ...

  2. Ethiopia's Involvement in South Sudan's Struggle for Independence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines three successive Ethiopian governments' involvement in South Sudan's struggle for independence and its concomitant conflict and peace processes within the broad context of the north-east African security situation from the middle of the 1950s to the present. It argues that this framework is of value not ...

  3. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 1, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthamoeba keratitis in Sudan: outcome of ketoconazole treatment in six patients · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Abdel Mageed M Imam, El Sheikh Mahgoub, 34-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sjms.v1i1.38437 ...

  4. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 7, No 3 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of spinal anesthesia on cesarean section outcome in Omdurman maternity hospital - Sudan 2011 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. UT Ahmed, RA Alwahab, S Ismail, KA Alillah, IO Murwan, F Alysaa, 147-152 ...

  5. All projects related to sudan | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Implementing comprehensive, community-focused primary health care is a major challenge in post-conflict regions such as South Sudan and neighbouring Northern Uganda. Topic: MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, HEALTH SERVICES, AFRICA, MATERNAL MORTALITY, INFANT MORTALITY, Gender. Region: South ...

  6. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Y.S.A.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Crosato, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roseires Reservoir is located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan (figure 1). It is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its storage capacity due to

  7. Do not forget tuberculous meningitis | Tibbutt | South Sudan Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Do not forget tuberculous meningitis. David Tibbutt. Abstract.

  8. Cancer in Children at El Obeid Hospital, Western Sudan. | Doumi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Cancers in children were seen at Western Sudan, and cases admitted to hospital only reflect the tip of the iceberg as many cases were directly referred to Oncology Hospitals. Establishment of a local radiation and isotopes centre is needed in this part of the country to provide oncology services and to integrate ...

  9. South Sudan Medical Journal - Vol 7, No 4 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Juba Teaching Hospital Blood Bank, South Sudan · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Kenneth L.L. Sube, Oromo F. Seriano, Rose P. Gore, Salvador Jaja, Richard L. Loro, Emmanuel Oryem Lino, Opiaka A.

  10. Maternal Mortality in Ribat University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal death is a tragedy that leaves an enormous negative impact on the family. The objectives of the study were to determine the rate and causes of maternal mortality in Ribat University Hospital Methods: This was a descriptive, hospital-based study conducted in Ribat University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan ...

  11. Climate change impacts on productivity of dry lands in Sudan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sudan is one of the top 13 countries regarding the extent of dry land coverage. The area that fell under dry land classification is more than 1.5 million km2. Despite the extensive coverage of dry lands, it is water and not land that limits the agricultural production. Thus climate change and variability were expected to present ...

  12. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan. Policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  13. Social norms and family planning decisions in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Sumit; Kok, Maryse; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline EW

    2016-01-01

    Background: With a maternal mortality ratio of 789 per 100,000 live births, and a contraceptive prevalence rate of 4.7%, South Sudan has one of the worst reproductive health situations in the world. Understanding the social norms around sexuality and reproduction, across different ethnic groups, is

  14. Consanguinity and Disorders of Sexual Developments in the Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Consanguinity is very common in the Sudanese society. There is a lack of studies on consanguinity and its impact on genetic diseases in Sudan. In this study we correlated Disorders of Sexual developments (DSDs), as an example of genetic conditions, in relation with consanguinity. Material and Methods: A ...

  15. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  16. Endocrine Hypertension | Elamin | Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is noted in both adults and children but it is more relevant for children where it comes second to renal hypertension, the common cause of hypertension in that age group. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 3 (3) 2008: pp.

  17. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among

  18. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 3, No 3 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noise Induced Hearing Loss among Khartoum International Airport Employees · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among health care workers in Omdurman, Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  19. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 11, No 4 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indications, outcome and complications of ureteroscopy, at Gezira Hospital for renal diseases and surgery, Sudan: a seven years 'experience · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mustafa O. Mansour, Sami M. Taha, Abd Elmahmood Abdallah, Mohammed El Imam ...

  20. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 3, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy in 210 Sudanese Patients at Gezera Hospital for Renal Diseases & Surgery (GHRD&S) Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ME Imam, O Omran, O Taha, F Nogud, A Abdelmahmod, I Walaa, E Widaa, N Yosif, ...

  1. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 5, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morbidity and Mortality Pattern of Neonates Admitted into Nursery Unit in Wad Medani Hospital, Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EM Elhassan, AA Hassanb, OA Mirghani, I Adam. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sjms.v5i1.56023 ...

  2. All projects related to Sudan | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC DISPARITY, ECONOMIC STAGNATION, SOCIAL INEQUALITY, ... Indonesia, Nepal, Sudan, El Salvador, North and Central America, South Africa, North of ... institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality. ... Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map · Copyright · Open access policy ...

  3. Occult Hepatitis B Virus in Gezira State Sudan | Gasmelseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is simply defined as serologically undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-ve), despite the presence of circulating HBV DNA. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of occult HBV among Screened HBsAg subjects in Gezira State, Sudan.

  4. Tunnel Vision or Kaleidoscope: Competing Concepts on Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking the ethnic-cultural make-up of Sudan, the article compares and contrasts a dominant concept of 'unity in conformity', endorsed since independence by Northern ruling groups, to 'unity in diversity', propagated by marginalised ethnic nationalities and underprivileged classes. After setting the context of the debate ...

  5. Cancer management in Sudan: Current status and future perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Sudan is one of the developing countries that face a great challenge with cancer management. About 5700 cases had been seen during year 2007 in Radiation and Isotope Center- Khartoum (RICK) and Institute of Nuclear medicine, Molecular biology, and Oncology (INMO) Wadmedani which are the only ...

  6. Managing nuclear information in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawe, S.F.; Sungita, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear information management and the applications of nuclear technology in Tanzania are limited to medical, agriculture, research and some industrial applications. It is demanding that the National database for nuclear information be established to keep the track of the information on radiation facilities, manpower development, radiation sources and radioactive waste management. In this paper the current status of nuclear information management in Tanzania is presented. The development, setbacks and future plans for establishment of national database with consequent improvement of nuclear information management are discussed. The National Radiation Commission (NRC) which is an official government body responsible for atomic energy matters in collaboration with other institutions applying nuclear technology keeps the records and inventory of facilities, manpower development and projects related to the nuclear field. The available information about nuclear application activities has been obtained through possessors' declaration, monitoring at entry/exit points, periodic reports from the licensees, radiation safety inspections, and the available link with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to facilitate the dissemination of information, five ICT centres to serve in the fields of research, nuclear instrumentation, human health and agriculture have been established. The inventory of radiation facilities/materials and human resource is being build up as an initial input to the National database. Establishment of INIS centre is expected to improve the nuclear information management system in the country. The government and the IAEA are encouraged to support nuclear information management especially by strengthening ICT centres and facilitating the establishment of INIS National centre. (author)

  7. Managing nuclear information in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawe, S.F.; Sungita, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear information management and the applications of nuclear technology in Tanzania are limited to medical, agriculture, research and some industrial applications. It is demanding that the National database for nuclear information be established to keep the track of the information on radiation facilities, manpower development, radiation sources and radioactive waste management. In this paper the current status of nuclear information management in Tanzania is presented. The development, setbacks and future plans for establishment of national database with consequent improvement of nuclear information management are discussed. The National Radiation Commission (NRC) which is an official government body responsible for atomic energy matters in collaboration with other institutions applying nuclear technology, keeps the records and inventory of facilities, manpower development and projects related to the nuclear field. The available information about nuclear application activities has been obtained through possessors' declaration, monitoring at entry/exit points, periodic reports from the licensees, radiation safety inspections, and the available link with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA). In order to facilitate the dissemination of information, five ICT centers to serve in the fields of research, nuclear instrumentation, human health and agriculture have been established. The inventory of radiation facilities/materials and human resource is being build up as an initial input to the National database. Establishment of INIS center is expected to improve the nuclear information management system in the country. The government and the IAEA are encouraged to support nuclear information management especially by strengthening ICT centers and facilitating the establishment of INIS National center. (author)

  8. The prevalence of blinding trachoma in northern states of Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite historical evidence of blinding trachoma, there have been no widespread contemporary surveys of trachoma prevalence in the northern states of Sudan. We aimed to conduct district-level surveys in this vast region in order to map the extent of the problem and estimate the need for trachoma control interventions to eliminate blinding trachoma. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Separate, population based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 88 localities (districts in 12 northern states of Sudan between 2006 and 2010. Two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. Key prevalence indicators were trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF in children aged 1-9 years and trachomatous trichiasis (TT in adults aged 15 years and above. The sample comprised 1,260 clusters from which 25,624 households were surveyed. A total of 106,697 participants (81.6% response rate were examined for trachoma signs. TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts and between 5% and 9% in 11 districts. TT prevalence among adults was above 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%. The overall number of people with TT in the population was estimated to be 31,072 (lower and upper bounds = 26,125-36,955. CONCLUSION: Trachoma mapping is complete in the northern states of Sudan except for the Darfur States. The survey findings will facilitate programme planning and inform deployment of resources for elimination of trachoma from the northern states of Sudan by 2015, in accordance with the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH objectives.

  9. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  10. Regional Dermatology Training Centre in Moshi, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    because, in many parts of the world, there ... Annual prizes are awarded for the student achieving the highest mark in the overall assessment ... 31 No. 7. Dermatology in Tanzania prize). A second training programme (MMed) provides 4-year.

  11. Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor cabanisi in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... in Tanzania: a breeding record in a traditional beehive ... Scimitarbills Rhinopomastus minor entering a hole on the bottom of one of the bee- ... resident of open bushed and wooded habitats in lower rainfall areas east of Lake.

  12. Read full report, Youth employment in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But the quality of formal education in Tanzania is poor. Less than 12 percent ... NGOs offer a broad range of services and training for youth, including fostering ..... Service workers. 20.6 ..... customer/market validation training provided by profes-.

  13. Financial Institutions And Poverty Alleviation In Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financial institutions in Tanzania have operated under a competitive financial system ... to move away from the tenets of a centrally planned economy towards free-market orientation. ... They have also favored traders rather than producers.

  14. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    industry in Tanzania economy, it has been shown repeatedly ... What factors restrain faster growth of domestic .... needs (i.e. food, clothing and shelter) is no longer ... communication network) and social services ..... Advertising, Promotion and.

  15. Tanzania Journal of Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science (TJS), is professional, peer reviewed journal, published in ... Optics, Thin films, Zoography, Military sciences, Biological sciences, Biodiversity, ... animal and veterinary sciences, Geology, Agricultural Sciences, Cytology, ... available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

  16. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by human-induced activities. Over the past ... Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review on water resources ..... requirements for biodiversity and human health. .... Global warming is altering regional climates.

  17. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    example, the contribution from vegetable products fell by 7%, and that from textiles .... 43 -‐ Furskins and artificial fur, manufactures thereof ... example, while Tanzania has comparative advantage in raw hides and skins (see Figure 6), it.

  18. african indigenous and traditional vegetables in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in four regions of Tanzania with a total of 160 sellers ... washing; and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ..... and endosulfan and metalaxyl/mencozeb mix as.

  19. Tanzania Monitoring and Evaluation Management Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — MEMS II is a two-year project to enable USAID/Tanzania and a number of its partners to meet their multifold performance reporting responsibilities; upgrade,...

  20. Maternal and child health is a community affair in Senegal | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-29

    Sep 29, 2017 ... In Senegal, neighbourhood women known as godmothers bring vital ... Research is finding ways to make their work sustainable and better valued by ... end of the month, giving a clearer picture of each worker's performance.

  1. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors......; lack of clearly defined markets; demand-side barriers to purchase relatively high capital-intense energy products. Where numerous energy SMEs are in operation and thus where a valid demonstration effect can be identified, there is a perceived paradox that serves to undermine commercial interest...... in investing in energy SMEs. The paradox is that the donor-supported businesses that were issued with concessional and/or flexible loans serve to demonstrate that these businesses depend upon such concessional terms, i.e., that they could not survive in ‘the real world’. While this assumption is widely...

  2. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.

  3. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kazaura, Method R; Masatu, Melkiory C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A question...

  4. Trade, Food Standards and Poverty: The Case of High-Value Vegetable Exports from Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Maertens, Miet

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural supply chains are changing globally with pervasive food standards and increased vertical coordination. The impact of these changes for developing countries and for small farmers in those countries is not yet well understood. We analyze the developments in high-standards FFV supply chains and the effects for small farmers and rural households in Senegal. We use a unique dataset derived from company level interviews and household surveys in the main horticulture zone in Senegal. Su...

  5. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Shamkhali, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  6. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Across Africa, postharvest losses along the food chain from farm to fork jeopardize the food ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania ... Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania.

  7. Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017) ... factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and animal welfare in selected villages in Nyasa, Tanzania ... Thoracic radiographic anatomy in sheep · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...

  11. Gastrointestinal parasitism in wildlife at Hann Zoological Park (Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Dahourou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 24 animals of eight different species were collected at Hann Zoological Park in Senegal. They were analyzed with the Telemann-Rivas qualitative microscopic method and Mac Master quantitative method. Of all the samples, 66.7% were positive, and each positive animal was infested with at least one helminth egg species, whereas protozoa were present in only four animals. In carnivores, the eggs of parasites such as Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati, and hookworm eggs were the most present, whereas in primates, the eggs of Trichuris sp. and Entamoeba sp. have been identified. This study provides a basis for the establishment of treat­ments in these animals.

  12. Jatropha curcas improvement Induced mutation: Thies University Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diédhiou, Ibrahima

    2011-06-01

    The objectives are: 1. to collect accessions of Jatropha curcas in Senegal and establish the genetic variability of this collection. 2. to improve the oil yield of Jatropha curcas by using radiation induced mutation methods to produce highly productive genotypes adapted to local conditions. The choice of Jatropha Curcas is explained by: * Intensive cultivation of Jatropha curcas initiated in many countries of West Africa to produce biodiesel. *There is a craze of private companies to promote this new agricultural value chain. * Jobs and substantial revenues are expected for the rural. *Unfortunately, there is little reliable knowledge to support this dynamic development. Also, the preliminary results showed a high variability of agro-morphological traits in local accessions which could affect negatively the profitability.

  13. Marie Curie: the Curie Institute in Senegal to Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Paul

    Sub-Saharan Africa is not a place where one will look first when radioactivity or nuclear physics is mentioned. Conducting forefront research at the international stage at US national facilities such as the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia or the National Superconducting Cyclotron Facility/Facility for Rare Isotope Beams in Michigan does not point to Historically Black Colleges either. The two are actually intrinsically connected as my personal journey from my early exposure to radiation at the Curie Institute at the LeDantec Hospital in Senegal lead me to Hampton University. The former, through one of my uncles, catapulted me into a nuclear physics PhD while the latter houses the only nuclear physics program at an HBCU to date that has established itself as one of the premier programs in the nation. This talk will review the impact of Marie Curie in my life as a nuclear physicist.

  14. Analysis of national Jatropha biodiesel programme in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafrallah, Touria; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    and other biodiesel crop options, based on findings from an agro-environmental mapping exercise have been shown. Findings show that prior policies in agricultural and energy sectors had been instrumental in developing the NJP. It highlights significant challenges in the value chain, the implementation...... of NJP and on the importance of using empirical assessment of evidence to inform on the biodiesel crop type compared to a focus on only one crop, Jatropha. Agro-environmental mapping was identified as useful technique prior to biodiesel cultivation. The work reported here indicates Jatropha having...... on the suitability of areas for Jatropha cultivation and on environmentally, socially and culturally sensitive areas. Policy options have been suggested for environmentally benigned sustained biodiesel activities in Senegal....

  15. Strategic behavior and marriage payments: theory and evidence from Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspart, Frederic; Platteau, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes an original theory of marriage payments based on insights gained from firsthand information collected in the Senegal River valley. This theory postulates that decisions about the bride-price, which are made by the bride's father, take into account the likely effects of the amount set on the risk of ill-treatment of the wife and the risk of marriage failure. Based on a sequential game with three players (the bride's father, the husband, and the wife) and a matching process, it leads to a number of important predictions that are tested against Senegalese data relating to bride-prices and various characteristics of women. The empirical results confirm that parents behave strategically by keeping bride-prices down so as to reduce the risk of marriage failure for their daughters. Other interesting effects on marriage payments and the probability of separation are also highlighted, stressing the role of the bride's bargaining power in her own family.

  16. Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in southeastern Senegal, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diawo Diallo

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal.Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground, savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes tested: Ae. furcifer (5, Ae. luteocephalus (5, Ae. africanus (5, Ae. vittatus (3, Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each collected in June (3, September (10, October (11, November (6 and December (1. ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated.This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

  17. Nuclear cardiology in Senegal: a luxury or a need?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbodj, M.; Seck Gassama, S.; Ndong, B.; Ndoye, O.; Toure Sow, H.; Senghor, S.R.; Diop, S.N.; Solanki, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: to sensitize at the same time experts and public authorities on the interest of the establishment of nuclear cardiology in Senegal. Material and method: the radioimmunoassay of micro-albuminuria, early marker of cardiovascular morbid-mortality was carried out in the nuclear medicine department of Dakar on a population of 100 diabetic patients (74 of type 1 and 26 of type 2) presenting one or more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Out of these patients, 39% had abnormal rest ECG, asymptomatic in half of the cases. Results: prevalence of micro-albuminuria is high (24%). There is no significant difference in distribution between type I and type 2. Micro-albuminuria > 30 mg/24 h exists in 16,3% of patients with lipid abnormalities (ratio: total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol > 5), 30% of obese, 75% of hypertensive patients and 43,6% of patients with abnormal rest ECG, who would benefit from myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI): about 17% of patients involved in this study. No or weak correlation is found between micro-albuminuria and traditional risk factors. Conclusion: From these results and available epidemiological data in 2005, the estimate of the requirements in nuclear cardiology for the Senegalese diabetic population, indicates that 3740 patients should have benefited that year from it. Considering that this figure underestimates the real needs, taking into account the needs brought back to a population of 10 million inhabitants and the expect expansion of the diabetic disease, it appears justified to include the nuclear cardiology in the national programmes of prevention of the public health in Senegal. (author)

  18. Mediation Outcomes from the Second Sudan Civil War: An Analysis of Abuja and Igad Peace Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Grasping the Nettle : Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict, eds. Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall (Washington, DC: United...Issues: The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 2003): xi; Ruth Iyob and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, Sudan: The Elusive...however, considered the possibility of a unified identity in the New Sudan.148 Countering the GoS’s assertions that Sudan had historical roots in

  19. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, A RECOVERY SCHEME IN PERIPHERIES: THE PETRONAS AND CNPC ENTERPRISES IN SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    ELNAZEER ELTOM SHAAELDIN; MOHD RIZAL MOHD YAKKOP; KAMARUZAMAN YUSOFF; ALI ALWI; AZRAI ABDULLAH

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy and mainly the impact of multinational corporations on performing construction, as well as the basic services supply in fragile social economic conditions in Sudan. It reveals that within Sudan state weakness and poor conditions in peripheries, war zone areas in particular, reflect invasive challenges facing the country, and thus, applying corporations’ helps to meet and increase the supply of public needs and recovery in instable Sudan. Through a qualitative ...

  20. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nour S.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese aid and loans to Sudan caused mixed positive-negative impacts. The positive impact is competence building and providing alternative complementary sources of finance to complement domestic capital a...

  1. Epidemiology and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in West-Nile Populations of Sudan and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Neuner, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Bürgerkriege haben für die betroffenen Länder verheerende Auswirkungen auf soz-ialer, wirtschaftlicher, medizinischer und politischer Ebene. In einer epidemiologischen Studie, die im West-Nil Gebiet von Sudan und Uganda durchgeführt wurde, sollten die psychischen Folgen des sudanesischen Bürgerkrieges untersucht werden. Dabei wurden drei Populationen miteinander verglichen: Sudanesen, die im Sudan verblieben waren (n =664), Flüchtlinge, die aus dem Sudan nach Uganda geflohen waren (n = 1240) ...

  2. Assessment of the impacts of oil: Opportunities and challenges for economic development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the impacts of oil and discusses the opportunities and challenges for enhancing economic development in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis in this paper is that we provide a more comprehensive analysis using the most recent secondary data to discuss the positive and negative impacts of oil for enhancing economic development in Sudan. We explain that the various positive impacts of oil and the opportunities for enhancing development in Sudan's economy inc...

  3. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  4. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  5. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    /119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  6. The Status of Women in Physics in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbagi, Abdrazig M.; Sirelkhatim, Amna H.; Abdelrahman, Wafaa S.; Osman, Mai E.; Shatir, Tahani S.

    2009-04-01

    The progress of women in physics education in the last five years was surveyed in the six top universities in Sudan. The data reveal great increases in the number of females studying undergraduate physics. Most were studying experimental physics rather than theoretical physics, especially the laser and electronics fields. It appears undergraduate laboratory experiments are an important factor in attracting women to physics. Our survey found that girls are encouraged to study physics at the high school level. However, the data also showed that the fewer tendencies to study physics among the women after high school are due to the limited job opportunities and low income of teachers. Postgraduate physics study is handicapped by lack of institutions, financial constraints, and lack of qualified advisors. Improvement of education systems and new ways of teaching will have great influences on attracting women to physics in Sudan.

  7. Engendering Responses to Complex Emergencies: Lessons from South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    bolster the effectiveness of their response—for both women and men—in the affected communities. But what do the gender dimensions of a complex emergency... gender justice in South Sudan,” Oxfam (March 2013). 2 Thomas Pluemper and Eric Neumeyer, “The Unequal Burden of War: The Effect of Armed Conflict...single natural disaster, but by a combination of political and ethnic conflict, social inequality , poverty, and many other interrelated factors. As

  8. Master degree in different nuclear sciences; Sudan Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Sudan Academy of Sciences has enriched the professional and research fields with a considerable number of qualified staff in medical physics, radiation protection, nuclear sciences and technologies. These programs have great interest due to the increased market demand, introduction of these fields in the university syllabus, and the appreciated funds from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Arab Atomic Energy Agency via training and expert missions. (author)

  9. Response to the cholera outbreak in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On Thursday, May 15th 2014, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of the Republic of South Sudan declared a cholera outbreak in the capital Juba. As we go to press, the cholera has spread to other parts of the country and the cases are increasing. In its press statement, the MoH said it had “Reactivated a national emergency ...

  10. Environmental effects of bio energy systems in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Nour, Salah Eldin Ali

    1999-01-01

    Biomass plays a vital role in Sudan and constitutes about 87% of the total energy consumption. Firewood and charcoal are the main sources of fuel representing more than 90% of household energy. The utilization of the bio energy i.e fuelwood, charcoal, agricultural residues and animal wastes has negative and positive effects on the environment. This paper summarize the environmental impacts and health effects resulting from energy production, supply and consumption

  11. Prevalence of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle in central Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, M.; Babiker, H.I.; Bakheit, M.A.; A Rahman, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The study was conducted to validate an antibody-detection ELISA test (Ab-ELISA) using pre-coated ELISA plates with crude antigen preparation of Trypanosoma vivax and to study the prevalence of T. vivax infection in central Sudan. A total of 704 blood samples were collected from cattle in central Sudan, a known endemic area of T. vivax infection. Additionally, 74 blood samples were collected from northern Sudan (Atbra town), an area presumed to be T. vivax-free. Sera were collected during the period September 1998 to May 1999 during three different seasons (summer, autumn and winter). Under the existing laboratory conditions, the test showed a clear distinction between different controls, i.e. strong positive control (C++), weak positive control (C+), negative control (C-) and the conjugate control (Cc). A percent positivity of 25% was taken as a cut-off value to determine the positivity or negativity of the test. The acceptable optical density range of strong positive control (C++) was 0.65-1.22. Lower and upper percent positivity limits for different controls were also determined. The study showed that T. vivax is endemic in central Sudan with 1.4% prevalence based on parasitological examination and 29.26% on Ab-ELISA. The infection rate was significantly higher during the autumn and winter than in summer. Young cattle showed significantly lower infection rates than adults as indicated by both the parasitological and the Ab-ELISA test. In relation to husbandry practice, migratory cattle showed significantly higher rates of prevalence than resident cattle. There was no significant difference in average packed red cell volume (PCV) values between ELISA positive and ELISA negative animals. Calves of less than one year of age showed significantly lower PCV values when belonging to migratory herds than to resident herds. (author)

  12. Towards a better estimation of water power potential in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Khalid Abd ELFattah M. and others

    1999-01-01

    This paper present the previous and recent studies for the estimation of hydropower potential of Sudan from Nilotic and non-Nilotic sources. The theoretical availability of the hydropower potential was elaborated. The paper also highlights on the technical feasibility of the potential. It is worth mentioning that, reasons of he differences between theoretical and feasible potential were discussed. A procedure for ranking the available potential is concisely presented. Furthermore, the paper presents and discusses widely the available hydropower potential for international interconnections

  13. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed O. Hussien

    Full Text Available Aim: This cross-sectional survey was conducted to detect anti- N. caninum antibodies in bovine dams' sera samples in nine States of the Sudan. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy six bovine dams' sera samples collected from nine States in the Sudan were screened for anti-Neospora caninum antibodies using a commercial competitive ELISA (cELISA kits. Results: The results showed an overall prevalence rate of 15.9% (range 6.7% - 70% of Neospora caninum antibodies. The prevalence rates were high in White Nile (70% and North Kordofan (30%, moderate in the Northern (15.6%, Red Sea (13.3% States and was low in the South Kordofan (9.4% and River Nile (6.7%. States with high values of percentage inhibition (PI detected in White Nile State compared to other States. No antibodies were detected in El Gadarif, Kassala and South Darfur States. The prevalence was observed to be high in crossbred dams (70% with statistically significant difference (P<0.05 compared to local ecotype (9.3%. However, no correlation was observed between infection rates in two age groups. Conclusion: Neosporosis is prevalent in cattle in most States of Sudan. Absence of evidence of infection in three of the States investigated may reflect the small number of herds and sera tested. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 465-468

  14. Assessment of radioactivity in building material(granite) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z. A; Salih, I; Albadwai, K. A; Salih, A. M; Salih, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work radioactivity in building materials (granite) central Sudan was evaluated. In general the building materials used in Sudan are derived either from rocks or soil. These contain trace amounts of naturally occurring radioactive materials(NORMs), so it contains radionuclides from uranium and thorium series and natural potassium. The levels of these radionuclides vary according to the geology of their site of origin. High levels increase the risk of radiation exposure in homes(especially exposure due to radon). Investigation of radioactivity in granite used of the building materials in Sudan is carried out, a total of 18 major samples of granite have been collected and measured using X- ray fluorescence system (30 mci). The activity concentrations have been determined for uranium ("2"3"8U), thorium ('2"3"2Th) and potassium("4"0K) in each sample. The concentrations of uranium have been found to range from 14.81 Bq/kg to 24.572 Bq/kg, thorium between 10.02 Bq/kg and 10.020-84.79 Bq/kg and the potassium concentration varies between 13.33 Bq/kg to 82.13 Bq/kg. Limits of radioactivity in the granite are based on dose criteria for controls. This study can be used as a reference for more extensive studies of the same subject in future. (Author)

  15. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  16. Tanzania.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variation (Seebeck, 1973: Mackinnon-e't ar: 1990): Majority of paststlidies"on' reproductive performance from' tropicar-are'as have been' largely limited to'the assessment of effects of>. ·no'n.,genetk factors and breed difference's : '(Galiila. and Arthur, 1989), Genetic parameter es-, timates and infonnation. on the'extent of ...

  17. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  18. Cultural Considerations for Security Cooperation Operations in South Sudan: Understanding the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    relationships among people, living and dead, animals, plants, and natural and supernatural phenomena. “Fatalism, the belief that life is destined...thoughts persist today. According to quotes from militiamen in one of 14 Nenad Marinkovic’s articles , “Almost all South Sudan militias claim...foreign threats. He utilized these very arms to wage war against the SPLA and supply the government backed militias.63 In an article in the Small War

  19. Exploring Foreign Tourists’ Image of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the economy of African continent and Tanzania in particular has witnessed a business boom of the tourism sector. While the sector has continued to grow and become a dependable source of direct and indirect employment to youths in urban and rural areas, the sector has been awash...... with challenges. These challenges include terrorism attacks, energy crises and poor infrastructure. However, the impact of these challenges on the image of Tanzania as a tourist destination has not received the deserved attention. This study explores the perception of visitors towards Tanzania as a tourist....... Front line employees, various tourist sites and access to services emerged to be strong tourist destination image factors. This implies that the efforts of marketing tourism destination should focus on promoting all the sites the country has....

  20. Type 1 diabetes care updates: Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandi Catherine Muze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is located in east Africa with a population of 45 million. The country′s population is growing at 2.5% annually. The International Diabetes Federation Child Sponsorship Program was launched in Tanzania in 2005. The number of type 1 diabetes mellitus children enrolled in the changing diabetes in children program in Tanzania has augmented from almost below 50 in 2005 to over 1200 in 2014. The country had an overall trend of HbA1c value of 14% in 2005 while the same has reduced over the years to 10% in 2012-13. The program has been able to reduce the proportion of patients with HbA1c values of 11-14%; from 71.9% in 2008 to 49.8% in 2012-13. The challenges, which CDiC faces are misdiagnosis, low public awareness, and stigma especially in the reproductive age/adolescent groups.

  1. [Ebola contacts' surveillance: social impact and ethical issues in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, A; Ndione, A G; Badji, D; Sow, K

    2016-10-01

    Quarantine has been widely used during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa mainly to control transmission chains. This measure raises ethical issues that require documentation of the modalities of quarantine at the field level and its social effects for contact persons. In Senegal, 74 people were in contact with the Ebola case coming from Guinea in September 2014. Of these, 34 members of the case's household were contained together at home and monitored by officers. The remaining 40 health care workers from two facilities were dispersed in their family households and monitored by telephone or during doctors' visits. The study is based on in-depth interviews with 43 adult contacts about their experiences and perceptions, with additional observation for interpretation and contextualization.Containment at home was applied differently to contacts who lived with patient zero than to professional health care contacts. No coercion was used at first since all contacts adhered to surveillance, but some of them did not fully comply with movement restrictions. Contacts found biosafety precautions stigmatizing, especially during the first days when health workers and contacts were feeling an acute fear of contagion. The material support that was provided-food and money-was necessary since contacts could not work nor get resources, but it was too limited and delayed. The relational support they received was appreciated, as well as the protection from stigmatization by the police and follow-up workers. But the information delivered to contacts was insufficient, and some of them, including health workers, had little knowledge about EVD and Ebola transmission, which caused anxiety and emotional suffering. Some contacts experienced the loss of their jobs and loss of income; several could not easily or fully return to their previous living routines.Beyond its recommendations to enhance support measures, the study identifies the ethical stakes of quarantine in Senegal regarding

  2. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heera Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels; atherogenic index (AI; cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO; planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34±0.72 and increased lumen volume (51.65±3.66, administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.

  3. Initiative for 100% rural electrification in developing countries: Case study of Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diouf, Boucar; Pode, Ramchandra; Osei, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest access to electricity in the World. In Senegal, less than 25% of the rural population benefit of electricity service. Solar energy offers an important potential to Senegal with over 3000 h of sunlight a year. This is a real opportunity to generalize the access to electricity. But, the efforts to bridge the gap must be diversified and completed. We approach the problem of rural electrification with a different point of view. Grid expansion and centralized solutions may be adequate for villages with a population organized in high-density of habitations. Small size villages or those with highly dispersed population may need different propositions because of cost. These regions will not be the priority of electrification programs. Furthermore, this rural population is characterized by its low income and saving. Such a conjuncture suggests the opportunity of a service based fees model for access to electricity. On the basis of a fees-for-service model, individual standalone photovoltaic systems may be a more appropriate solution to cover the priority needs of lighting and mobile phones battery charge for telecommunication. We present a pilot project in a village of Senegal to support the model and demonstrate its feasibility. - Highlights: • Rural electrification in developing countries. • Problems of access to electricity in rural areas. • Fees-for-service solution for small villages/highly dispersed population villages. • Situation of Senegal. • Presentation of a pilot project in a small village of Senegal

  4. Importation and containment of Ebola virus disease - Senegal, August-September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey; Thwing, Julie; Diack, Papa Amadou

    2014-10-03

    On August 29, 2014, Senegal confirmed its first case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a Guinean man, aged 21 years, who had traveled from Guinea to Dakar, Senegal, in mid-August to visit family. Senegalese medical and public health personnel were alerted about this patient after public health staff in Guinea contacted his family in Senegal on August 27. The patient had been admitted to a referral hospital in Senegal on August 26. He was promptly isolated, and a blood sample was sent for laboratory confirmation; Ebola was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction at Institut Pasteur Dakar on August 29. The patient's mother and sister had been admitted to an Ebola treatment unit in Guinea on August 26, where they had named the patient as a contact and reported his recent travel to Senegal. Ebola was likely transmitted to the family from the brother of the patient, who had traveled by land from Sierra Leone to Guinea in early August seeking treatment from a traditional healer. The brother died in Guinea on August 10; family members, including the patient, participated in preparing the body for burial.

  5. 78 FR 1872 - Extension and Redesignation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Hybrid Mission in Darfur USCIS--U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services What is Temporary Protected... by violent conflicts in four distinct areas: Darfur and the three transitional areas along the Sudan-South Sudan border (Abyei, Blue Nile State, and Southern Kordofan). In some areas of Darfur, Government...

  6. Wages in the food chain in South Sudan: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in South Sudan, conducted between the 1st of June and the 19th of July 2013 in the southern and eastern regions of South Sudan. In total 1,329 persons were interviewed; 71% were men, 29% women and 37% were

  7. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese

  8. The Birth of a Nation Is Only the Beginning: The Travails of South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Just three years since it broke away from Sudan, the new country of South Sudan is embroiled in a violent civil war. This article examines what went wrong and why, by discussing the incredible difficulty of building a new nation from scratch following years of conflict, war, suspicion, and great expectations. How this tragedy will end is anyone's…

  9. A grammar of Gaahmg, a Nilo-Saharan language of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirtz, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the grammar of Gaahmg, a Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic language spoken in the Blue Nile Province of North Sudan. The comprehensive description provides an analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax. Ten texts of various genre are given to help illustrated the

  10. The Cultural Politics of Language in Sudan: Against the Racialising Logic of Language Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhay, Ashraf; Eljak, Nada; Mugaddam, AbdelRahim; Makoni, Sinfree

    2017-01-01

    The sociolinguistic repertoires of individuals in Sudan are products of institutionalised orders of normalisation. The visibility of language in popular and official discourses in Sudan is always linked with wider cultural and political projects. This paper intends to engage with and explicate this observation by, first, examining how the dominant…

  11. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  12. Management of TB in the private sector in Khartoum, Sudan: quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Sudan has a large and growing private health sector. No survey was done in Sudan to show the extent of the use of private health care services by the population. Also precise data on tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment in the private sector are not available. Material and methods. A facility-based ...

  13. 76 FR 63629 - Designation of Republic of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... drinking water. South Sudan census results indicate that more than 50 percent of the population lives below... 2011, the World Food Programme warned of growing signs of drought in the Horn of Africa. As of July 21... regarding the availability of nationality documentation presented by the very recent creation of South Sudan...

  14. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, M.M.; Osman, O.F.; El-Raba'a, F.M.A.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Elnaiem, D.E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a

  15. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Mo'awia M.; Osman, Omran F.; El-Raba'a, Fathi Ma; Schallig, Henk Dfh; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A.

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host

  16. Occupational dose trends in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, W.E.; Nyanda, A.M.; Ngaile, J.E.; Lema, U.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers in Tanzania from 1986 to 1997. The analysis of dose records observes over this period, a fluctuating trend both in the individual and collective doses. The trend is more related to the fluctuations of the number of radiation workers than to the possible radiation safety changes of the working conditions. It has been found that, the maximum annual dose for the worker in all work categories was about 18 mSv y -1 . This suggests that the occupational radiation exposure in all practices satisfies the current dose limitation system. The national exposure summary shows that, the highest collective dose of 12.8 man-Sv which is 90% of the total collective dose, was due to medical applications. The applications in industry and research had a contribution of nearly 0.8 and 0.7 man-Sv respectively. From the professional point of view, the medical diagnostic radiographers received the highest collective dose of 11.2 man-Sv. Although the medical physicists recorded the minimum collective dose of nearly 0.07 man-Sv, the data shows that this profession received the highest mean dose of about 33 mSv in 12 years. Some achievements of the personnel monitoring services and suggestions for future improvement are pointed out. (author)

  17. Transcultural nursing course in Tanzania, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Rhoda

    2012-06-01

    A transcultural nursing course in Tanzania was offered in fall 2010 at Williston State College, located in North Dakota. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory (Principles of Developing Cultural Competence) was the framework used for the experience. The course provided nursing students the opportunity to learn about the culture, health, and illness beliefs of Tanzanians; their values and practices; the prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and the differences and similarities between the healthcare systems, hospice/palliative care, and home visits in Tanzania as compared to the United States.

  18. Porcine Cysticercosis and Risk Factors in The Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arss Secka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During a stratified cross-sectional survey, 1705 pigs were sampled from 279 randomly selected households, 63 randomly selected communities and villages, from four study areas in The Gambia and Senegal during the period October 2007 to January 2008. Porcine cysticercosis prevalence detected by tongue inspection at animal level per study area ranged from 0.1% to 1.0%. Using an antigen-detection ELISA the seroprevalence of cysticercosis at both community/village and animal levels for the four selected study areas is: Western region 80.0% (95%CI: 52.4%–93.6% and 4.8% (95%CI: 3.4%–6.5%, Bignona 86.7% (95%CI: 59.8%–96.6% and 8.9% (95%CI: 5.0%–15.5%, Kolda 82.4% (95%CI: 46.8%–96.1% and 13.2% (95%CI: 10.8%–16.0%, and Ziguinchor 81.3% (95%CI: 43.5%–96.1% and 6.4% (95%CI: 4.0%–10.1%, respectively. No risk factors for cysticercosis were found significant in this study. This study proved that porcine cysticercosis is endemic and distributed widely in the study areas though its incidence might be suppressed by the generalised use of toilets and latrines in the study areas.

  19. The Productive Use of Rural Piped Water in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph P. Hall

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a growing interest in the potential benefits related to the productive use of rural piped water around the homestead. However, there is limited empirical research on the extent to which, and conditions under which, this activity occurs. Using data obtained from a comprehensive study of 47 rural piped water systems in Senegal, this paper reveals the extent of piped-water-based productive activity occurring and identifies important system-level variables associated with this activity. Three-quarters (74% of the households surveyed depend on water for their livelihoods with around one-half (54% relying on piped water. High levels of piped-water-based productive activity were found to be associated with shorter distances from a community to a city or paved road (i.e. markets, more capable water system operators and water committees, and communities that contributed to the construction of the piped water system. Further, access to electricity was associated with higher productive incomes from water-based productive activities, highlighting the role that non-water-related inputs have on the extent of productive activities undertaken. Finally, an analysis of the technical performance of piped water systems found no statistically significant association between high vs. low levels of productive activity and system performance; however, a positive relationship was found between system performance and the percentage of households engaged in productive activities.

  20. Access to antiretroviral drugs and AIDS management in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, Alice; Ciss, Mounirou; Taverne, Bernard; Sow, Papa S; Egrot, Marc; Faye, Mame A; Lanièce, Isabelle; Sylla, Omar; Delaporte, Eric; Ndoye, Ibrahima

    2003-07-01

    Description and analysis of the Senegalese Antiretroviral Drug Access Initiative (ISAARV), the first governmental highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treatment programme in Africa, launched in 1998. ISAARV was initially an experimental project designed to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of HAART in an African context. It was based on four principles: collective definition of the strategy, with involvement of the health professionals who would be called on to execute the programme; matching the objectives to available means (gradual enrollment according to drug availability); monitoring by several research programmes; and ongoing adaptation of treatment and follow-up according to the latest international recommendations. Persons qualifying for antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are selected on the basis of immunological and clinical criteria, regardless of economic and social considerations. A system of subsidies was created to favor access to ARV. Following the ARV price reductions that occurred in November 2000, 100% subsidies were created for the poorest participants. Optimal adherence was ensured by monthly follow-up by pharmacists and support groups held by social workers and patient associations. The chosen supply and distribution system allowed drug dispensing to be strictly controlled. The ISAARV programme demonstrates that HAART can be successfully prescribed in Africa. This experience has served as the basis for the creation of a national treatment programme in Senegal planned to treat 7000 patients by 2006.

  1. Emigration Rates From Sample Surveys: An Application to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willekens, Frans; Zinn, Sabine; Leuchter, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    What is the emigration rate of a country, and how reliable is that figure? Answering these questions is not at all straightforward. Most data on international migration are census data on foreign-born population. These migrant stock data describe the immigrant population in destination countries but offer limited information on the rate at which people leave their country of origin. The emigration rate depends on the number leaving in a given period and the population at risk of leaving, weighted by the duration at risk. Emigration surveys provide a useful data source for estimating emigration rates, provided that the estimation method accounts for sample design. In this study, emigration rates and confidence intervals are estimated from a sample survey of households in the Dakar region in Senegal, which was part of the Migration between Africa and Europe survey. The sample was a stratified two-stage sample with oversampling of households with members abroad or return migrants. A combination of methods of survival analysis (time-to-event data) and replication variance estimation (bootstrapping) yields emigration rates and design-consistent confidence intervals that are representative for the study population.

  2. Regulating sex work: subjectivity and stigma in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ellen E

    2017-01-01

    Senegal provides a unique example of a sub-Saharan African country with a legal framework for the regulation of commercial sex work. While registering as a legal sex worker affords women access to valuable social and medical resources, sex work is condemned by Senegalese society. Women who engage in sex work occupy a socially marginal status and confront a variety of stigmatising discourses and practices that legitimate their marginality. This paper examines two institutions that provide social and medical services to registered sex workers in Dakar: a medical clinic and a non-governmental organisation. It highlights the discourses about sex work that women encounter within these institutions and in their everyday lives. Women's accounts reveal a variety of strategies for managing stigma, from discretion and deception to asserting self-worth. As registered sex workers negotiate their precarious social position, their strategies both reproduce and challenge stigmatising representations of sex work. Their experiences demonstrate the contradictory outcomes of the Senegalese approach to regulating sex work.

  3. [Interdigital tinea pedis resulting from Fusarium spp. in Dakar, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Diallo, M A; Ndiaye, M; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, D

    2018-03-01

    Fungal interdigital tinea pedis (ITP) is a common pathology mainly due to dermatophytes and yeasts. Fusarium sp. is rarely incriminated in the genesis of intertrigo. In Dakar, a recent study conducted in 2016 on fungal ITP showed that Fusarium were more involved in the etiology of ITP than dermatophytes, coming just after yeasts dominated by Candida. Following this, we wanted to draw attention to the increasing incidence of ITP resulting from Fusarium spp., in Dakar, Senegal, and to analyze the epidemiological and mycological particularities of these ITP due to Fusarium spp. A retrospective study including all patients received at the laboratory for suspicion of ITP between January 1st, 2014 and June 30th, 2017 was conducted. Diagnosis was based on mycological examination, including direct examination and culture. Mycological analysis was considered positive when direct examination and culture were positive after at least one repeat. Twenty-nine cases of Fusarium ITP accounting for 44.6% of all ITP in the study period were diagnosed in 15 men and 14 women. The mean age of the patients was 48.4 years. Fusarium ITP were diagnosed in immunocompetent patients except in two diabetics. The mean duration of the lesions was 6.83 years. The most frequent species isolated belonged to the Fusarium solani complex with 19 cases. Fusarium ITP in a healthy subject requires regular monitoring because any subsequent decrease in immune defenses could lead to fatal hematogenous spread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Diaspora, faith, and science: building a Mouride hospital in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ellen E; Babou, Cheikh Anta

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a development initiative spearheaded by the members of a transnational diaspora – the creation of a medical hospital in the holy city of Touba in central Senegal. Although the construction of the hospital is decidedly a philanthropic project, Hôpital Matlaboul Fawzaini is better understood as part of the larger place-making project of the Muridiyya and the pursuit of symbolic capital by a particular Mouride "dahira". The "dahira's" project illuminates important processes of forging global connections and transnational localities, and underscores the importance of understanding the complex motivations behind diaspora development. The hospital's history reveals the delicate negotiations between state actors and diaspora organizations, and the complexities of public–private partnerships for development. In a reversal of state withdrawal in the neo-liberal era, a diaspora association was able to wrest new financial commitments from the state by completing a large infrastructure project. Despite this success, we argue that these kinds of projects, which are by nature uneven and sporadic, reflect particular historical conjunctures and do not offer a panacea for the failure of state-led development.

  5. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) and the fight against deforestation: the Senegal example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubacar, B.

    1993-01-01

    Domestic LPG consumption in Senegal is over 40,000 tonnes in 1992, thus preserving more than 33,000 hectares of forest. Three reasons explain the success of the 'butanization' policy implemented by the country in its fight against deforestation: political desire, constant cooperation between the public authorities and distributors, but also a supply of gas and inexpensive cookers. The penetration of these butane cookers on the market occurred mainly in urban areas (it is the leading household appliance of urban families in Senegal), but it is also quite visible in rural areas as well, explained Mr. Boubacar Barry General Manager of Totalgaz Senegal in his speech 'How to fight the Growing Desert with Simple Means and a little imagination' during the 6th World LPG Meeting last October in Marrakech. 2 figs., 3 photos

  6. People and pixels in the Sahel: a study linking coarse-resolution remote sensing observations to land users' perceptions of their changing environment in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Herrmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence from satellite observations of a re-greening across much of the Sahel and Sudan zones over the past three decades has raised questions about the extent and reversibility of desertification. Historical ground data that could help in interpreting the re-greening are scarce. To fill that void, we tapped into the collective memories of local land users from central and western Senegal in 39 focus groups and assessed the spatial association between their perceptions of vegetation changes over time and remote sensing-derived trends. To provide context to the vegetation changes, we also explored the land users' perspective on the evolution of other environmental and human variables that are potentially related to the greening, using participatory research methods. While increases in vegetation were confirmed by the study participants for certain areas, which spatially corresponded to satellite-observed re-greening, vegetation degradation dominated their perceptions of change. This degradation, although spatially extensive according to land users, flies under the radar of coarse-resolution remote sensing data because it is not necessarily associated with a decrease in biomass but rather with undesired changes in species composition. Few significant differences were found in the perceived trends of population pressure, environmental, and livelihood variables between communities that have greened up according to satellite data and those that have not. Our findings challenge the prevailing chain of assumptions of the satellite-observed greening trend indicating an improvement of environmental conditions in the sense of a rehabilitation of the vegetation cover after the great droughts of the 1970s and 1980s, and the improvement of environmental conditions possibly translating into more stable livelihoods and greater well-being of the populations. For monitoring desertification and rehabilitation, there is a need to develop remote sensing

  7. Comparison of Malaria Simulations Driven by Meteorological Observations and Reanalysis Products in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Ibrahima; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Deme, Abdoulaye; Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andrew P; Cisse, Moustapha; Sy, Ibrahima; Dia, Ibrahima; Ermert, Volker; Ndione, Jacques-André; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2017-09-25

    The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of climate parameters is crucial to study the impact of climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The use of malaria models is an alternative way of producing potential malaria historical data for Senegal due to the lack of reliable observations for malaria outbreaks over a long time period. Consequently, here we use the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM), driven by different climatic datasets, in order to study and validate simulated malaria parameters over Senegal. The findings confirm that the risk of malaria transmission is mainly linked to climate variables such as rainfall and temperature as well as specific landscape characteristics. For the whole of Senegal, a lag of two months is generally observed between the peak of rainfall in August and the maximum number of reported malaria cases in October. The malaria transmission season usually takes place from September to November, corresponding to the second peak of temperature occurring in October. Observed malaria data from the Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme (PNLP, National Malaria control Programme in Senegal) and outputs from the meteorological data used in this study were compared. The malaria model outputs present some consistencies with observed malaria dynamics over Senegal, and further allow the exploration of simulations performed with reanalysis data sets over a longer time period. The simulated malaria risk significantly decreased during the 1970s and 1980s over Senegal. This result is consistent with the observed decrease of malaria vectors and malaria cases reported by field entomologists and clinicians in the literature. The main differences between model outputs and observations regard amplitude, but can be related not only to reanalysis deficiencies but also to other environmental and socio-economic factors that are not included in this mechanistic malaria model framework. The present study can be considered as a

  8. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results: Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions: Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities.

  9. Transport of radioactive material in Sudan practice and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, M. K. E.

    2010-12-01

    In the last couple of decades there has been an impressive increase in applications of radioactive material. Such an extensive and widely spread usage of radioactive materials demands safe transportation of radioactive material from the production site to the application location, as well as quick and effective response in a case of an unexpected transportation event according to Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) regulation. The thesis described the local practice for transport of radioactive material as compared to the international standards for radiation protection, and also discussed the emergency procedures that must be follow in case of accident during transport of radioactive material. Furthermore, the objective of this study was also to set proposals for how to cope in the event of a radiological accident. The study methods included survey of current literature on safe transport of radioactive material, survey of national regulations on the subjects in additional to case studies aimed at investigating the practical issues pertinent to transport of radioactive materials in Sudan. A comprehensive review was presented on how to classification of radioactive packages and general requirement for all packaging and packages according to international standard. transport of number of radioactive sources from Khartoum airport to the field was evaluated with regard transport index, category of source, type of package, dose rate around the source, time to destination and means of transport of doses to public, worker are be made. All results were within the limit specified in the national as well as international regulation. The study has addressed for the first time the practice of transport of radioactive material in Sudan. It is anticipated that the results will encourage national organizational and professional bodies to enhance radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. (Author)

  10. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities. PMID:27900934

  11. Construction and Demolition Waste Characteristics in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction industry generates a lot of construction and demolition (C&D) waste which puts some challenges to its management. For example, currently, in many towns in Tanzania, there are no landfill sites for solid waste disposal; and as a consequence open air dumping sites are used. Dumping C&D waste puts ...

  12. Marketing Dental Services | Tuominen | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Marketing Dental Services. R Tuominen. Abstract. No Abstract.

  13. Boosting youth employment prospects in Tanzania | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... Return to main page, Addressing the youth employment challenge in Africa. Related links: Youth Employment Promotion a Priority Agenda for Tanzania, The Guardian; Report: National Stakeholders Consultative Workshop on Youth Employment (PDF, 1.74 MB); Watch the workshop video on YouTube ...

  14. Country programme review. United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaron, A.; Hance, R.; Yurtsever, Y.; Maudarbocus, V.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a review of past and present IAEA Technical Co-operation Activities in Tanzania and gives descriptions of the current status of nuclear applications in food and agriculture, human health, water resources and industrial applications/nuclear instrumentation

  15. Tanzania | Page 26 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · South of Sahara. Tanzania. Tanzanie. Read more about Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa. Language English. Read more about Free and Open Source Management Information Systems and Microfinance - Phase II. Language English. Read more about La microfinance et les TIC : systèmes ...

  16. Teaching 'natural product chemistry' in Tanzania | Buchanan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products 'historically' and 'today' have vast importance. This article describes the course 'Natural Product Chemistry', a new course in the 2011/2012 academic year in the Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences at St. John's University of Tanzania. It reveals how the course has been applied to the African and ...

  17. Tanzania | Page 29 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corn, cassava and pulses are the main food sources in rural Tanzania. Meat is scarce for rural populations, and don't expect to find carrots, kale or squash at the local market! Animal products – particularly offal –, green vegetables and orange fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamin A. As a result, Tanzanians ...

  18. Tanzania | Page 35 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers working in Tanzania's Morogoro and Dodoma districts have made an important discovery. By fortifying hay with cassava tops and sweet potato vines, they provided dairy goats with a cheap, protein-rich feed that enabled them to produce more milk. Read more about Better feed for animals means better food for ...

  19. Tanzania | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Introducing dairy goats in semi-arid regions of Tanzania has led to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, as well as an increase in household milk consumption. In these trials led by Canadian and Tanzanian researchers, cassava and sweet potato leaves are a significant feed supplement.

  20. AIDS in dentistry | Muya | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. AIDS in dentistry. RJ Muya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  1. AIDS in dentistry | Muya | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  2. Tanzania | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about ​Promoting locally fortified sunflower oil using e-vouchers. Language English. Read more about ​Affordable natural product reduces fruit losses, increases incomes. Language English. Read more about Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Élevage de la ...

  3. Newspaper coverage of agricultural information in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S.Sife

    Introduction. Agriculture is a key sector of economy in Tanzania. ... media to reach a wide audience, newspapers have additional advantages of being in permanent form ... advertisements, politics, entertainment, and crime events while ignoring developmental topics such as ..... Social Sciences, 3(8): 578–582. Kayode, J.

  4. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation accommodates the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and ...

  5. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  6. Biofuel investment in Tanzania: Omissions in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib-Mintz, Nazia

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuels as a component of climate change mitigation, energy security, and a fossil fuel alternative attracts investors to developing countries like Tanzania. Ample unused land is critical for first generation biofuels production and an important feature to attract foreign direct investments that can contribute towards agricultural modernization and poverty reduction initiatives. Despite the economic justifications, the existing institutional and infrastructural capacities dictate the impacts of biofuels market penetrations. Furthermore, exogenous factors like global recessionary pressure depressed oil prices below the level at which biofuel production were profitable in 2007, making Tanzania's competitiveness and potential benefits questionable. This paper investigates the extent that first generation, jatropha-based biofuels industry development in Tanzania observed during fieldwork in Kisarawe and Bahi may fulfill policy objectives. This paper argues that without strong regulatory frameworks for land, investment management, and rural development, biofuel industrialization could further exacerbate poverty and food insecurity in Tanzania. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for first generation biofuel development while keeping in mind implications of second generation production. Since the topic is broad and multifaceted, a multidisciplinary approach is used that includes political, institutional, and agricultural economics to analyze and conceptualize biofuel industry development and food security.

  7. Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco consumption in Tanzania rose by 20% between 2002 and 2007, and is predicted to increase by a further 46% by 2016. The impact of this increase in consumption on public health and economic development is likely to be serious. Experience elsewhere has shown that the single most effective way to reverse this ...

  8. Tanzania | Page 28 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Taxes sur les cigarettes en Tanzanie. Language French. Read more about Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Réseau des développeurs - logiciels d'exploitation libre pour assistants numériques personnels utilisés dans la collecte de données sur la ...

  9. Tanzania | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Bourses de recherche pour la lutte antitabac en Afrique. Language French. Read more about Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa. Language English. Read more about Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge to Create Jobs for Women in Rural Areas of Tanzania and Rwanda.

  10. Opalescence: Tooth Whitening Systems | Fischer | Tanzania Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  11. Tanzania | Page 36 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Kenyan sociologist and gender specialist at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has heard the stories first-hand from her work in hundreds of communities throughout Kenya, Tanzania, and southern Africa. Read more about Empowering African women and communities through agriculture. Language ...

  12. Deficiency within pavement Maintenance Organization in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the rules and regulations of the public administrative system do not allow for an effective and efficient management of road maintenance. Lack of equipment and adequate qualified personnel in the field of road maintenance is too an added deficiency. As a consequence, Tanzania has started to put road ...

  13. CHECKLIST OF THE MILLIPEDES (DIPLOPODA) OF TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, these many-legged animals are not insects (which have three .... Simon Stuart, who was carrying out studies on birds, contributed many specimens ... Diversity Project of November 1994 provided a series of millipede specimens. ... Tanzania records: Morogoro Region, Morogoro Rural Distr., Uluguru Mts, Lupanga.

  14. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Magesa, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds...

  15. The Spread of Islam in the Niger and Senegal Valleys before the Rise of Almoravids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elyas Hussein

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study traces the early contacts of the middle and upper Niger and Senegal Rivers with the Muslims in the first five centuries after hijrah and shows the spread of Islam and the rise of states long before the emergence of Al-Moravids. It analyses the early Muslim expansion in the Western Sahara, the role of the Ibāḍiyyah in central Sahara and the efforts of the Sanhadja in the Western Sahara which resulted in the spread of Islam and rise of Islamic kingdoms in the Niger and the Senegal Valleys before the 5th centaury AH.

  16. Distributed hydrological modelling of the Senegal river basin - model construction and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2001-01-01

    A modified version of the physically-based distributed MIKE SHE model code was applied to the 375,000 km(2) Senegal River Basin. On the basis of conventional data from meteorological stations and readily accessible databases on topography, soil types, vegetation type, etc. three models with diffe......A modified version of the physically-based distributed MIKE SHE model code was applied to the 375,000 km(2) Senegal River Basin. On the basis of conventional data from meteorological stations and readily accessible databases on topography, soil types, vegetation type, etc. three models...

  17. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  18. Rapid fluorescence assay for Sudan dyes using polyethyleneimine-coated copper nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Yu; Li, Jia Xing; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun; Qu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    We report that the intensity of the blue fluorescence of copper nanoclusters coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) is strongly reduced in the presence of the food dyestuffs Sudan I-IV. This finding was exploited in a label-free fluorescence assay for these Sudan dyes both in ethanol and aqueous solutions. The PEI-capped nanoclusters have an average diameter of 1.8 nm and are displaying, under 355 nm excitation, a blue emission at 480 nm that matches the absorption bands of the Sudan dyes. The clusters are stable in solution for at least 1 month. Under optimum conditions, this assay can be applied to the quantification of the dyes Sudan I, II, III, and IV, respectively, in the 0.1−30, 0.1–30, 0.1–25, and 0.1–25 μM concentration ranges, and the detection limits (3σ/slope) are 65, 70, 45, and 50 nM, respectively. The capability of reducing the fluorescence of the PEI-capped copper nanoclusters is directly related to the number of the functional groups in that Sudan III and IV give lower detection limits. This analytical scheme exhibits a remarkably high selectivity for the Sudan dyes over potentially interfering substances. The method was successfully applied to determine Sudan I, II, III, and IV in hot chilli powder. (author)

  19. [Water quality and personal hygiene in rural areas of Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, A; Ndiaye, N M; Faye, D; Tal-Dia, A

    2011-02-01

    The high prevalence of diarrhea in developing countries is mostly due to poor water quality and hygiene practices. The purpose of this study was to assess water quality as well as hygiene practices and their determinants in Ngohé, i.e., a rural community (RC) in Senegal. A combined approach consisting of a cross-sectional descriptive survey and bacterial analysis of water was used. Study was conducted in 312 randomly selected households. Data was collected through individual interviews with the assistance of a guide. Water for bacteriological analysis was collected from various sources, i.e., 3 modem borehole wells, 2 protected wells, and 10 traditional wells. Study points included home water treatment, drinking water source, latrine use, hand washing habits, and bacteria identified in water. A multiple regression model was used for data analysis. The household survey population was 59% male, 61% illiterate, and 93% married. Mean age was 44.8 +/- 18.1 years. Chlorination technique was inadequate in 62% of cases. Latrines were not restricted to adult use in 76% of homes. Hand washing was not performed at critical times in 94%. Drinking water was drawn from traditional wells in 48% of households, modem borehole wells in 45% and protected wells in 7%. Escherichia coli was found in water from all three sources and Vibrio cholerae was found in two traditional wells. Level of education, average monthly income, knowledge about chlorination techniques, and source of the water consumed were the main behavioral determinants (p < 0.05). Water treatment at the source and in the home as well as protection of water sources is necessary to ensure water quality. This will require effective public education campaigns and financial support for improvement of sanitary facilities.

  20. Accepted monitoring or endured quarantine? Ebola contacts' perceptions in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, Alice; Badji, Dioumel; Ndione, Albert Gautier; Sow, Khoudia

    2017-04-01

    During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic, transmission chains were controlled through contact tracing, i.e., identification and follow-up of people exposed to Ebola cases. WHO recommendations for daily check-ups of physical symptoms with social distancing for 21 days were unevenly applied and sometimes interpreted as quarantine. Criticisms arose regarding the use of coercion and questioned contact tracing on ethical grounds. This article aims to analyze contact cases' perceptions and acceptance of contact monitoring at the field level. In Senegal, an imported case of Ebola virus disease in September 2014 resulted in placing 74 contact cases in home containment with daily visits by volunteers. An ethnographic study based on in-depth interviews with all stakeholders performed in September-October 2014 showed four main perceptions of monitoring: a biosecurity preventive measure, suspension of professional activity, stigma attached to Ebola, and a social obligation. Contacts demonstrated diverse attitudes. Initially, most contacts agreed to comply because they feared being infected. They adhered to the national Ebola response measures and appreciated the empathy shown by volunteers. Later, acceptance was improved by the provision of moral, economic, and social support, and by the final lack of any new contamination. But it was limited by the socio-economic impact on fulfilling basic needs, the fear of being infected, how contacts' family members interpreted monitoring, conflation of contacts as Ebola cases, and challenging the rationale for containment. Acceptance was also related to individual aspects, such as the professional status of women and health workers who had been exposed, and contextual aspects, such as the media's role in the social production of stigma. Ethnographic results show that, even when contacts adhere rather than comply to containment through coercion, contact monitoring raises several ethical issues. These insights should contribute to

  1. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The light goes on in the bush. Solar energy for Senegal. Im Busch geht das Licht an. Solarenergie fuer den Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, H.

    1990-08-01

    The article is about a joint project between Germany and Senegal for the 'testing and propagation of photovoltaic solar power systems', sponsored by Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). The project, scheduled at present for a duration of five years (1987-1991), receives grants of just under DM 21 million and is to demonstrate to the rural population of the Western African state of Senegal how to meet their basic electric power demand for lighting, radio and television, because only a fraction of the more than 13 000 Senegalese villages may expect to be connected to the national power grid during the decades to come. Distances are too long and consumption rates too small to erect a conventional power grid at reasonable cost in this large country covering 200 000 km{sup 2} and populated by just under 10 million inhabitants only. (orig./ORU).

  3. Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin Abdelrhman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess participants’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS and to identify the factors associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study carried out at Omdurman National Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre, Sudan covered 870 participants. Sociodemographic data as well as information related to sexual behavior were collected. Results. Most of the respondents were knowledgeable about the true transmission modes for AIDS virus. Very few respondents knew someone infected with AIDS (4.5%, died of AIDS (8.1%, accepted to live with someone infected with AIDS (4.7% or to work with someone infected with AIDS (2.1%. Regarding sexual behavior, 96.5% had reported their first sexual experience between 20 and 30 years, with 85.7% reporting one or two partners, and only 1.8% reported using condom. Multivariate logistic regression showed that circumcision, religion, marital status, age at first sex, number of sexual partners, education level, and misconception of knowledge are the main risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. Our results showed that a number of diversity risk factors were associated with HIV/AIDS. It is unlikely that a holistic approach will be found to immediately change sexual-risk-relating behavior. Interventions including sustained educational programs, promotion of condom, and encouragement of voluntary testing and active involvement of the country’s political and religious leaders will be needed to alleviate this problem.

  4. Dosimetry for Patients undergoing Radiographic Examinations in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halato, M.A.; Kafi, S.T.; Ahmed, A.M.; Sid Ahamed, F.A.; Ibrahim, Z.; Suliman, M.F.; Suliman, I.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we estimated the entrance skin doses ESDs for patients undergoing selected diagnostic X -ray examinations in two large public hospitals in Khartoum state, Sudan. The study included the examinations of the chest posterior-anterior (PA) , skull antero-posterior (AP), skull Lateral (LAT) , Lumber spine AP/LAT, abdomen Intravenous urogram (IVU) and Pelvis AP. Totally, 241 patients were included in this study. ESDs were estimated from patients specific exposure parameters using established relation between output (μ Gy/mAs) and tube voltage (kVp). The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.18 - 1.05 mGy for chest PA, 0.98 - 3.48 mGy for Skull (AP), 0.66 - 2.75 mGy for skull (LAT), 1.22 - 4.35 mGy for abdomen (IVU), 1.18 - 5.75 mGy for Pelvis, 1.52 - 5.01 mGy Lumbar spine AP and 2.48 - 10.41 mGy for Lumbar spine (LAT). These values compare well with the international reference dose levels. This study provides additional data that can help the regulatory authority to establish reference dose level for diagnostic radiology in Sudan

  5. ["Palimpsest scar" lesions in a context of torture (Darfur, Sudan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P; Bou Abdallah, F; Mostefai Dulac, Y; Deo, S; Jacqueline, S; Brun, L; Hervé, C

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the current exponentially growing refugee population from the Middle-East and East Africa (Sudan, Darfur, Eritrea), clinicians (including forensic pathologists) are seeing atypical skin lesions, mainly of a traumatic nature, but in some cases associated with long-standing lesions related to ethnic practices. A case of torture sequelae is presented herein in a patient originally from Darfur (Sudan): cutaneous incisions were made on old scars several times using a knife. The clinical presentation of scarification lesions and that of atypically healed wounds (presumably an effect of inflammation induced by the introduction of irritating foreign bodies such as sand, salt, etc.) are completely different: in all cases they indicate a relative timeframe of the facts, which the clinician should not overlook in reconstructing the patient's course and the injuries to which he has been subjected (hence the proposed designation of "palimpsest scar", in the sense that a palimpsest is a manuscript on a parchment that previously contained writing but has been scratched clean to be overwritten). Thus, a "palimpsest scar" constitutes a fresh scar on top of and hiding another (ritual) scar in a context of ethnic cleansing. The diagnostic and clinical significance comes from the importance of differentiating between ethnic-type lesions and those induced by physical violence and abuse in a context of war. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Emergency measles control activities--Darfur, Sudan, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    The Darfur region of Sudan, composed of three states with a population of approximately six million, has experienced civil conflict during the previous year, resulting in the internal displacement of approximately one million residents and an exodus of an estimated 170,000 persons to neighboring Chad. The conflict has left a vulnerable population with limited access to food, health care, and other basic necessities. In addition, measles vaccination coverage has been adversely affected; in 2003, coverage was reported to be 46%, 57%, and 77% in North, West, and South Darfur, respectively. This report describes measles-control activities in Darfur region conducted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) in Sudan in collaboration with the United Nations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) during March-August 2004. Ongoing measles transmission in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) and neighboring communities in Darfur led to a regionwide measles vaccination campaign targeting all children aged 9 months-15 years, resulting in a reduction in reported measles cases. Once security is improved, ongoing efforts to increase measles vaccine coverage will be required to eliminate persistent susceptibility to measles in the Darfur population.

  7. Radiation protection in well logging: case studies in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    This study is performed to improve radiation protection level in well logging include tow case studies in Sudan (Lost or misplaced sources). General review of radiation and radiation protection basic concept is highlighted discussed. Also preview of well logging practice and source of radiation use in well logging, safety of radiation sources, storage and manage of not use sources (weak sources) and protection of worker and potential exposure for public and worker, investigations in cause of lost or misplaced sources in well. Assessment was made in well logging using checklist prepared in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA basic safety standard, International Committee for Radiological Protection ICRP and safety in transport of radiation sources. The checklist includes all requirement of radiation protection. It is found that all requirement was present except the delay of calibration of radiation detectors, the movement of radiation sources form storage to base of manipulated area need adequate care for shielding and safe transport and personal monitoring service must be provide in Sudan. Investigation was made in cause of lose of nine radiation source in well it is found that all those sources were loss in different depth in the well and with deferent location and there was no risk because there was no contamination of fluids which caused by damage of loss sources. Some recommendations were stated that, if implemented could improve the status of radiation protection in well logging. (Author)

  8. Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Mona

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

  9. Individual Monitoring service for occupational exposure in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, E.E.; Shaddad, I.; Medani, B.E.; Osman, M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Individual Monitoring Service (IMS) is a dosimetry service provided by Radiation Protection Department (RPD) of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) to monitor about 400 occupational exposed workers all over the country. Measurements were done using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). The calibration of the TLD system was performed on a phantom with application of suitable correction factors in the SSDL using Cs-137 and different qualities of x-ray energies. Personal dose equivalents Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) were evaluated by employing one individual dosimeter to be carried continuously by the occupational exposed person while at work. In this work the dose received by workers in x-ray diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, research and industrial radiography were evaluated. Radiation doses for the years 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 were compared. From the results obtained, it was noticed that individual monitoring service had expanded over the last years. The average individual annual dose in different applications is less than 1 mSv/y except for the workers in industrial radiography, only 12 radiation workers (3.64 %) received doses exceeding 1 mSv and no individual approached the dose limit of 20 mSv recommended by the ICRP and set by Sudan's regulations. (author)

  10. Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Geography: Sudan is the largest country in Africa with a total area of 2.6M km 2 and malaria endemicity increases from north to south as the isohytes increase. Malaria Situation: Malaria is hypoendemic in the north, meso-endemic in the central regions and some holoendemic transmission in the south where transmission is perennial. Epidemiology: P. falciparum is the main parasitic species and malaria prevalence was 12.75 in 1998. There are 31 species of Anopheles identified in Sudan, 18 of which are malaria infectious. An. arabiensis is the principal vector and is distributed thoughout the country. An. funestus and An. gambiae are vectors in the south. An. arabiensis is highly endophilic except in the east and is strongly anthropophilic. The species is well adapted to dry conditions and in the seasonal breeding areas the vector density can be virtually zero. It is not clear how these areas become re-infested in the rainy season. There is little inversion polymorphism in Sudanese populations of An. arabiensis. Malaria Control: Mosquito control activities focus mainly on residual house spraying but with some fogging activities in irrigated areas. Malathion house spraying is used in Khartoum but the use of impregnated bed nets is not popular. There is also some aerial spraying.

  11. Calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Youssif, B.E.; Beineen, A.A.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results of measurements for the calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments carried out during the period 2006-2008 at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. The work performed included quality assurance measurements, measurements for the dosimeter calibrations and uncertainty analysis. Calibrations were performed using 137 Cs gamma ray sources produced by OB 85 and OB 34/1 gamma calibrators producing air kerma rate that ranged from 10 μGy/h to 50 mGy/h. Area monitoring instruments were calibrated in terms of ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) derived using air kerma to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results are presented for 78 area monitoring instruments representing most commonly used types in Sudan. Radioactive check source measurements for the reference chamber showed deviation within 1% limit. The accuracy in the beam output measurements was within 5% internationally considered as acceptable. The results highlighted the importance of radiation protection calibrations. Regulations are further need to ensure safety aspect really meet the required international standards.

  12. Spatial accessibility to basic public health services in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Macharia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available At independence in 2011, South Sudan’s health sector was almost non-existent. The first national health strategic plan aimed to achieve an integrated health facility network that would mean that 70% of the population were within 5 km of a health service provider. Publically available data on functioning and closed health facilities, population distribution, road networks, land use and elevation were used to compute the fraction of the population within 1 hour walking distance of the nearest public health facility offering curative services. This metric was summarised for each of the 78 counties in South Sudan and compared with simpler metrics of the proportion of the population within 5 km of a health facility. In 2016, it is estimated that there were 1747 public health facilities, out of which 294 were non-functional in part due to the on-going civil conflict. Access to a service provider was poor with only 25.7% of the population living within one-hour walking time to a facility and 28.6% of the population within 5 km. These metrics, when applied sub-nationally, identified the same high priority, most vulnerable counties. Simple metrics based upon population distribution and location of facilities might be as valuable as more complex models of health access, where attribute data on travel routes are imperfect or incomplete and sparse. Disparities exist in South Sudan among counties and those with the poorest health access should be targeted for priority expansion of clinical services.

  13. Rhizobial Inoculation Increases Soil Microbial Functioning and Gum Arabic Production of 13-Year-Old Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Trees in the North Part of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Dioumacor; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Nourou Sall, Saïdou; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Sylla, Samba N; Diouf, Diegane

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), acid phosphatase activities, and gum arabic production by 13-year-old Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal) under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July) for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302, and CIRADF 303). Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0-25 cm under uninoculated and inoculated trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season) using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA, and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N) content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass, and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes.

  14. Rhizobial inoculation increases soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production of 13-years old Senegalia senegal (L. Britton, trees in the North part of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dioumacor FALL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA, acid phosphatase activities and gum arabic production by 13-years old Senegalia senegal (Syn. Acacia senegal under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302 and CIRADF 303. Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0-25 cm under uninoculated (UIN and inoculated (IN trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes.

  15. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  16. Development of an overload control strategy for the Republic of Senegal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available , particularly because there are currently no weighbridges in the country being used for overload control law enforcement. Recognising the need for an effective overload strategy for Senegal, the Ministry of Public Works and Transport decided to initiate a study...

  17. English in Education Policy Shift in Senegal: From Traditional Pedagogies to Communicative Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Ibrahima

    2014-01-01

    Despite its allegiance to French, language-in-education planning in Senegal has given top priority to English in its education system. In the 1980s, policy-makers shifted English language teaching pedagogy from the Centre de Linguistique Appliquée de Dakar (CLAD) [Centre for Applied Linguistics of Dakar] teaching methods to Communicative Language…

  18. Linkages between observed, modeled Saharan dust loading and meningitis in Senegal during 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diokhane, Aminata Mbow; Jenkins, Gregory S.; Manga, Noel; Drame, Mamadou S.; Mbodji, Boubacar

    2016-04-01

    The Sahara desert transports large quantities of dust over the Sahelian region during the Northern Hemisphere winter and spring seasons (December-April). In episodic events, high dust concentrations are found at the surface, negatively impacting respiratory health. Bacterial meningitis in particular is known to affect populations that live in the Sahelian zones, which is otherwise known as the meningitis belt. During the winter and spring of 2012, suspected meningitis cases (SMCs) were with three times higher than in 2013. We show higher surface particular matter concentrations at Dakar, Senegal and elevated atmospheric dust loading in Senegal for the period of 1 January-31 May during 2012 relative to 2013. We analyze simulated particulate matter over Senegal from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model during 2012 and 2013. The results show higher simulated dust concentrations during the winter season of 2012 for Senegal. The WRF model correctly captures the large dust events from 1 January-31 March but has shown less skill during April and May for simulated dust concentrations. The results also show that the boundary conditions are the key feature for correctly simulating large dust events and initial conditions are less important.

  19. Cognitive Skills among Children in Senegal: Disentangling the Roles of Schooling and Family Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Sahn, David E.

    2009-01-01

    We use unique data to estimate the determinants of cognitive ability among 14-17-year olds in Senegal. Unlike standard school-based samples, tests were administered to current students as well as to children no longer--or never--enrolled. Years of schooling strongly affects cognitive skills, but conditional on years of school, parental education…

  20. Thelastoma gueyei sp. n. (Nematoda: Thelastomatidae) from the Senegal diplopod Archispirostreptus tumuliporus (Diplopoda: Spirostreptidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubková, B.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Matějusová, I.; Hodová, I.; Koubek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2006), s. 739-747 ISSN 1388-5545 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6093403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : DNA barcoding * Senegal * long-tailed thelastomatids Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2006

  1. New species of the feather mite subfamily Pterodectinae (Astigmata, Proctophyllodidae) from passerines in Senegal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Koubek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2010), s. 399-413 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Feather mites * systematics * Senegal * Passeriformes * Proctophyllodidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2010

  2. When Cultural Norms Discourage Talking to Babies: Effectiveness of a Parenting Program in Rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ann; Fernald, Anne; Diop, Yatma

    2017-01-01

    In some areas of rural Africa, long-standing cultural traditions and beliefs may discourage parents from verbally engaging with their young children. This study assessed the effectiveness of a parenting program designed to encourage verbal engagement between caregivers and infants in Wolof-speaking villages in rural Senegal. Caregivers (n = 443)…

  3. Language Use along the Urban Street in Senegal: Perspectives from Proprietors of Commercial Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohata, Mariko

    2012-01-01

    Senegal adopted French as the country's sole official language at the time of independence in 1960, since when the language has been used in administration and other formal domains. Similarly, French is employed throughout the formal education system as the language of instruction. Since the 1990s, however, government has mounted an ambitious…

  4. Glycemic Control in a Clinic-Based Sample of Diabetics in M'Bour Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; NDao, Fatou; Ba, Fatou Niass Niang; Diaw, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Senegal is faced with a significant and increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. However, little information is available about diabetes management among Senegalese diabetics. Purpose: The current study aims to describe the level of glycemic control among a convenience sample of diabetics who receive…

  5. Republic of Senegal Disaster Preparedness and Response Exercise: Lessons Learned and Progress Toward Key Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Jordan, John J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Gaye, Dame B; Beadling, Charles W

    2017-04-01

    The Republic of Senegal Disaster Preparedness and Response Exercise was held from June 2-6, 2014, in Dakar, Senegal. The goal was to assist in familiarizing roles and responsibilities within 3 existing plans and to update the National Disaster Management Strategic Work Plan. There were 60 participants in the exercise, which was driven by a series of evolving disaster scenarios. During the separate Disaster Management Strategic Work Plan review, participants refined a list of projects, including specific tasks to provide a "road map" for completing each project, project timelines, and estimated resource requirements. Project staff administered a survey to conference participants. A total of 86% of respondents had improved knowledge of Senegal disaster plans as a result of the exercise. A total of 89% of respondents had a better understanding of their ministry's role in disaster response, and 92% had a better understanding of the role of the military during a pandemic. Participants also generated ideas for disaster management system improvement in Senegal through a formal "gap analysis." Participants were in strong agreement that the exercise helped them to better understand the contents of their disaster response plans, build relationships across ministerial lines, and effectively enhance future disaster response efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:183-189).

  6. Politics, Gender and Youth Citizenship in Senegal: Youth Policing of Dissent and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossouard, Barbara; Dunne, Máiréad

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on empirical research on youth as active citizens in Senegal with specific reference to their education and their sexual and reproductive health rights. In a context of postcoloniality which claims to have privileged secular, republican understandings of the constitution, the authors seek to illuminate how youth activists…

  7. Science and Religion on the Blackboard: Exploring Schoolmasters' Beliefs and Practices in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croché, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article treats the various forms of adjustment between scientific and religious discourses at school. It aims to analyse the beliefs and practices of schoolmasters and to explore how the oppositions between the "dominant" discourses of Western science and those of religion are addressed in secondary education in Senegal. The…

  8. Studies on the biology of schistosomiasis with emphasis on the Senegal river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southgate VR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the Diama dam on the Senegal river, the Manantali dam on the Bafing river, Mali and the ensuing ecological changes have led to a massive outbreak of Schistosoma mansoni in Northern Senegal, associated with high intensity of infections, due to intense transmission, and the creation of new foci of S. haematobium. Data on the vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndombo, near Richard Toll, Senegal are presented with sympatric and allopatric (Cameroon S. mansoni. Comparisons are made on infectivity, cercarial production, chronobiology of cercarial emergence and longevity of infected snails. Recent data on the intermediate host specificity of different isolates of S. haematobium from the Lower and Middle Valley of the Senegal river basin (SRB demonstrate the existence of at least two strains of S. haematobium. The role of Bulinus truncatus in the transmission of S. haematobium in the Lower and Middle Valleys of the SRB is reviewed. Both S. haematobium and S. mansoni are transmitted in the same foci in some areas of the SRB.

  9. African Universities and the State: Prospects for Reform in Senegal and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemon, Thomas Owen; Salmi, Jamil

    1993-01-01

    In both Senegal and Uganda, higher education reform will occur only if the universities have more administrative and fiscal autonomy. A shift from government participation in governance, enrollment, and use of resources in favor of more indirect control is recommended. However, the specific policy approaches recommended for the two countries…

  10. The Wolof of Saloum : social structure and rural development in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    The study refers to the Wolof of Saloum, Senegal. Its aim was to examine which factors had induced change in rural stratification, co-operation and cohesion. Their significance for administration of rural development was studied. Views of historians and anthropologists are discussed.

  11. Scaling up Sexuality Education in Senegal: Integrating Family Life Education into the National Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Katie; Traoré Seck, Aminata; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, school-based sexuality education has evolved over 20 years from family life education (FLE) pilot projects into cross-curricular subjects located within the national curriculum of primary and secondary schools. We conducted a literature review and semi-structured interviews to gather information regarding the scale and nature of FLE…

  12. Pedogenese et potentialites forestieres des sols sulfates acides sales des Tannes du Sine Saloum, Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadio, S.

    1989-01-01

    Soils of the "Tannes region" of the Sine Saloum bassin, Senegal, are characterized by great heterogenity in morphology and physical and chemical properties. Their caracteristics are linked to topographic position, material and hydrology.

    Their recent pedogenetical evolution is a

  13. Morphometric and molecular characterization of Parapharyngodon echinatus (Nematoda, Pharyngodonidae) from the Senegal gecko ( Tarentola parvicarinata )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašová, Š.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hodová, I.; Matějusová, I.; Koubek, Petr; Koubková, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 274-283 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Nematoda * Senegal gecko * West Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.748, year: 2008

  14. Sustainability Assessment of Large Irrigation Dams in Senegal: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Senegal River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw eManikowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting in the 1970s, the Senegalese Government invested in the development of irrigated schemes in the Senegalese part of the Senegal River Valley (S-SRV. From that time to 2012, the irrigated schemes increased from 10,000 ha to more than 110,000 ha. In the meantime, the economic viability of these schemes started to be questioned. It also appeared that the environmental health and social costs might outweigh the benefits of irrigation. Using a life cycle assessment approach and project cost-benefits modelling, this study (i quantified the costs and benefits of the S-SRV irrigated rice production, (ii evaluated the costs and benefits of its externalities and (iii discussed the irrigated rice support policy. The net financial revenues from the irrigated schemes were positive, but their economic equivalences. The economic return rate (EER was below the expected 12% and the net present value (NPV over 20 years of the project represented a loss of about US$-19.6 million. However, if we also include the project’s negative externalities, such as the reduced productivity of the valley ecosystems, protection cost of human health, environmental degradation and social impacts, then the NPV would be much worse, approximately US$-572.1 million. Therefore, the results show that to stop the economic loss and alleviate the human suffering, the S-SRV development policy should be revised using an integrated approach and the exploitation technology should aim at environmental sustainability. This paper may offer useful insights for reviewing the current Senegalese policies for the valley, as well as for assessing other similar cases or future projects worldwide, particularly in critical zones of developing countries.

  15. Malaria prevalence, prevention and treatment seeking practices among nomadic pastoralists in northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Mame Cheikh; Thwing, Julie; Fall, Fatou Ba; Gomis, Jules Francois; Deme, Awa; Ndiaye, Yaye Die; Daniels, Rachel; Volkman, Sarah K; Ndiop, Medoune; Ba, Mady; Ndiaye, Daouda

    2017-10-13

    Malaria transmission in Senegal is highly stratified, from low in the dry north to moderately high in the moist south. In northern Senegal, along the Senegal River Valley and in the Ferlo semi-desert region, annual incidence is less than five cases per 1000 inhabitants. Many nomadic pastoralists have permanent dwellings in the Ferlo Desert and Senegal River Valley, but spend dry season in the south with their herds, returning north when the rains start, leading to a concern that this population could contribute to ongoing transmission in the north. A modified snowball sampling survey was conducted at six sites in northern Senegal to determine the malaria prevention and treatment seeking practices and parasite prevalence among nomadic pastoralists in the Senegal River Valley and the Ferlo Desert. Nomadic pastoralists aged 6 months and older were surveyed during September and October 2014, and data regarding demographics, access to care and preventive measures were collected. Parasite infection was detected using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy (thin and thick smears) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular barcodes were determined by high resolution melting (HRM). Of 1800 participants, 61% were male. Sixty-four percent had at least one bed net in the household, and 53% reported using a net the night before. Only 29% had received a net from a mass distribution campaign. Of the 8% (142) who reported having had fever in the last month, 55% sought care, 20% of whom received a diagnostic test, one-third of which (n = 5) were reported to be positive. Parasite prevalence was 0.44% by thick smear and 0.50% by PCR. None of the molecular barcodes identified among the nomadic pastoralists had been previously identified in Senegal. While access to and utilization of malaria control interventions among nomadic pastoralists was lower than the general population, parasite prevalence was lower than expected and sheds doubt on the perception that they are a

  16. Transboundary water resources management and livelihoods: interactions in the Senegal river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Laurent; Beltrando, Gérard

    2016-04-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 90 % of wetlands provide ecosystem services to societies, especially for agriculture and fishing. However, tropical rivers are increasingly regulated to provide hydroelectricity and irrigated agriculture. Modifications of flows create new hydrological conditions that affect floodplains ecology and peoples' livelihoods. In the Senegal river valley, large dams were built during the 1980's to secure water resources after a decade of water scarcity in the 1970's: Manantali in the upper basin with a reservoir of 12km3 and Diama close to estuary to avoid saltwater intrusion during dry season. Senegal river water resources are known under the supervision of Senegal River Basin Development Organization (OMVS), which defines water allocation between different goals (electricity, irrigation, traditional activities). This study, based on the concept of socio-hydrology, analyses socio-ecological changes following thirty years of dam management. The work enlightens adaptation mechanisms of livelihoods from people living along the river floodplain and feedback on water ressources. The study uses a mixed method approach, combining hydrological analyses, literature review and data collection from surveys on stakeholders and key informants level in the middle Senegal valley. Our results suggest that in all the Senegal river valley, socio-ecological changes are driven by new hydrological conditions. If dam management benefit for peoples with electrification and development of an irrigated agriculture, it has also emphasized the floodplain degradation. Flooded area has decline and are more irregular, causing an erosion of floodplain supporting services (traditional activities as fishing, grazing and flood-recession agriculture). These conditions reduce peoples' livelihood possibilities and irrigation is the only regular activity. As a feedback, irrigated agriculture increases withdrawals in the river and, recently, in aquifers posing a new uncertainty on water

  17. Investigating molecular basis of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Badara; Konate, Lassana; Irving, Helen; Riveron, Jacob M; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-08-12

    Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa, notably in Senegal. The highly anthropophilic and endophilic behaviours of this mosquito make it a good target for vector control operations through the use of insecticide treated nets, long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying. However, little is known about patterns of resistance to insecticides and the underlying resistance mechanisms in field populations of this vector in Senegal. Here, we assessed the susceptibility status of An. funestus populations from Gankette Balla, located in northern Senegal and investigated the potential resistance mechanisms. WHO bioassays indicated that An. funestus is resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05 % (74.64 % mortality), DDT 4 % (83.36 % mortality) and deltamethrin 0.05 % (88.53 % mortality). Suspected resistance was observed to permethrin 0.75 % (91.19 % mortality), bendiocarb 0.1 % (94.13 % mortality) and dieldrin 4 % (96.41 % mortality). However, this population is fully susceptible to malathion 5 % (100 % mortality) and fenitrothion 1 % (100 % mortality). The microarray and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Gankette Balla is conferred by metabolic resistance mechanisms under the probable control of cytochrome P450 genes among which CYP6M7 is the most overexpressed. The absence of overexpression of the P450 gene, CYP6P9a, indicates that the resistance mechanism in Senegal is different to that observed in southern Africa. This study represents the first report of pyrethroid and DDT resistance in An. funestus from Senegal and shows that resistance to insecticides is not only confined to An. gambiae as previously thought. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to manage the resistance in this species to ensure the continued effectiveness of malaria control.

  18. Future Climate Change Impacts on Streamflows of Two Main West Africa River Basins: Senegal and Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansoumana Bodian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the effect of climate change on the two main river basins of Senegal in West Africa: the Senegal and Gambia River Basins. We used downscaled projected future rainfall and potential evapotranspiration based on projected temperature from six General Circulation Models (CanESM2, CNRM, CSIRO, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-ES, and MIROC5 and two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 to force the GR4J model. The GR4J model was calibrated and validated using observed daily rainfall, potential evapotranspiration from observed daily temperature, and streamflow data. For the cross-validation, two periods for each river basin were considered: 1961–1982 and 1983–2004 for the Senegal River Basin at Bafing Makana, and 1969–1985 and 1986–2000 for the Gambia River Basin at Mako. Model efficiency is evaluated using a multi-criteria function (Fagg which aggregates Nash and Sutcliffe criteria, cumulative volume error, and mean volume error. Alternating periods of simulation for calibration and validation were used. This process allows us to choose the parameters that best reflect the rainfall-runoff relationship. Once the model was calibrated and validated, we simulated streamflow at Bafing Makana and Mako stations in the near future at a daily scale. The characteristic flow rates were calculated to evaluate their possible evolution under the projected climate scenarios at the 2050 horizon. For the near future (2050 horizon, compared to the 1971–2000 reference period, results showed that for both river basins, multi-model ensemble predicted a decrease of annual streamflow from 8% (Senegal River Basin to 22% (Gambia River Basin under the RCP4.5 scenario. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the decrease is more pronounced: 16% (Senegal River Basin and 26% (Gambia River Basin. The Gambia River Basin will be more affected by the climate change.

  19. Post-conflict mental health in South Sudan: overview of common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-conflict mental health in South Sudan: overview of common psychiatric disorders Part 1: Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ...

  20. 78 FR 65865 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... in Sudan's Darfur region posed an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and... emergency and to implement the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-344). Because the...

  1. 76 FR 68053 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... 26, 2006, in Executive Order 13400, the President determined that the conflict in Sudan's Darfur... implement the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-344). Because the actions and...

  2. 77 FR 66357 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... in Sudan's Darfur region posed an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and... emergency and to implement the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-344). Because the...

  3. Blind Spots: Domestic Entrepreneurship and Private-sector Development in South-Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Twijnstra (Rens); D.J.M. Hilhorst (Thea)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPolicy discourse on private sector development in fragile states has started attributing great importance to domestic entrepreneurship. This chapter follows Dutch initiatives to support entrepreneurs in South Sudan between 2009 and 2015. Despite the rhetoric, support for entrepreneurs

  4. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Leishmania parasites isolated from an endemic focus in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, L.; Pratlong, F.; Zijlstra, E. E.; Kroon, C. C.; Dedet, I. P.; Kager, P. A.; Schönian, G.; Ghalib, H. W.; El-Hassan, A. M.; Meredith, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve Leishmania isolates from visceral leishmaniasis patients in eastern Sudan were characterized using isoenzyme analysis, Southern blotting and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 'fingerprinting'. Isoenzyme analysis revealed the presence of 3 zymodemes: MON-18, MON-30 and MON-82, corresponding to

  5. Assessment of Genetic Connectivity between Sudan and Saudi Arabia for Commercially Important Fish Species

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Sara N.

    2017-01-01

    loci). Samples from three geographically separate regions along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline, as well as from Sudan, were analyzed to address latitudinal and cross-sea connectivity. I was able to determine that little genetic differentiation

  6. Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Sudan has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for 4 decades. An estimated 2 million people have died over the past decade due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes...

  7. Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Sudan has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for 4 decades. An estimated 2 million people have died over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes...

  8. Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Sudan has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for 4 decades. An estimated 2 million people have died over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes...

  9. Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Sudan has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for 4 decades. An estimated 2 million people have died over the past decade due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes...

  10. Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2006-01-01

    Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades An estimated 2 million people have died over the past two decades due to war-related...

  11. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Collected from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Ryo; Qiu, Yongjin; Salim, Bashir; Hassan, Shawgi Mohamed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of the importance of emerging vector-borne diseases, human tick-borne diseases, particularly rickettsial infections, are overlooked, especially in the countries such as Sudan with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. This study aimed at detection and genetic characterization of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from Sudan. The samples were first screened for the presence of rickettsial agents by gltA real-time PCR and subsequently characterized by gltA and ompA PCR and size-based multispacer typing. The results demonstrated the wide distribution of Rickettsia africae and/or closely related species across Sudan. The results of this report highlight the need for careful consideration of rickettsial infections in patients with nonmalarial febrile illness in this country. Nationwide surveillance on ticks associated with human rickettsial infections in Sudan is warranted.

  12. Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2008-01-01

    ...) signed a peace framework agreement in Kenya. On May 26, 2004, the government of Sudan and the SPLM signed three protocols on Power Sharing, on the Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile, and on the long disputed Abyei area...

  13. The Situation of Street Children in Selected Cities of South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... magnitude, causes and effects of child streetism in six state capitals of South Sudan and suggest the way forward. ... The possible factors included war-induced displacement, family disruption, ...

  14. Tanzania | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is 2002. Parents and babies wait patiently to see the community health worker in Mvomero, Tanzania. “People have faith in the services. They are treated well and diagnosed properly,” says Samuel Hassain, here with his sick grandson. Health worker Y.E. Kapito marvels that “it has been six to eight months since I heard of ...

  15. Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration in South Sudan: The limits of conventional peace and security templates

    OpenAIRE

    Munive, Jairo

    2013-01-01

    This report explores the DDR programme in South Sudan; in particular how it has evolved, what the major challenges have been to its implementation and, finally, what can realistically be expected from renewed efforts to disarm and reintegrate fighters vis-à-vis security imperatives on the ground. DDR has been identified as a main priority in the Republic of South Sudan and a prerequisite to pave the way for future stability and development. The basic argument presented here is that standard D...

  16. Assessment of the molecular marker of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance (Pfcrt) in Senegal after several years of chloroquine withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndiaye, Magatte; Faye, Babacar; Tine, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. As a result of widespread antimalarial drug resistance, all African countries with endemic malaria have, in recent years, changed their malaria treatment policy. In Senegal, the health authorities changed from chloroquine (CQ) to a combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus...... at the molecular level in selected sites in Senegal, because the scientific community is interested in using CQ again. Finger prick blood samples were collected from Plasmodium falciparum-positive children below the age of 10 years (N = 474) during cross-sectional surveys conducted in two study sites in Senegal...... with different malaria transmission levels. One site is in central Senegal, and the other site is in the southern part of the country. All samples were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt; codons 72-76) using polymerase chain reaction...

  17. Notes of the migration of the thiof (Epinephelus aeneus E. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1817) along the coast of Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Bellemans, MS.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of so far published information on the eco-biology, reproduction, depths distributions and specific fishery of Epinephelus aeneus in the eastern central Atlantic enables to suggest the existence of a bathymetrie migration along the coast of Senegal.

  18. Carbonization of some fast-growing species in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P.; Khalifa, A.W. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan). Forestry Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Four wood species, indigenous Acacia seyal (talh) and exotic fast-growing Conocarpus lancifolius (damas), Eucalyptus microtheca (kafur) and Prosopis chilensis (mesquite) grown in Sudan, were assessed and compared as raw materials for charcoal making. The effects of production method (traditional earth mound and improved metal kiln) and the physical and chemical properties of the wood and bark on the yield and quality of charcoal produced were assessed. Regression analyses of wood properties and heat value data indicated high negative correlations of the wood heat value with halocellulose and ash, and high positive correlations with wood density, lignin, and alcohol-benzene and hot-water solubles. Carbonization with the Tropical Products Institute metal kiln produced higher yields (33%) than the traditional earth mound (27%), although the difference in energy transformation yields was found to be insignificant both between appliances and species. (author)

  19. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Ishag

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54% were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  20. Holocene Lake and Shallow Water Sediments at Mograt Island, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittrich Annett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of stratigraphic excavation and soil studies carried out at Mograt Island, the largest of the Nilotic islands in Sudan. Due to its restricted insular environments, Holocene alluvial deposits were observed to be interlocked with archaeological remains of different periods, allowing for a combined chronostratigraphic approach to study both cultural and climatic events. To better understand the environmental context through soil components and pedological features at a microscopic scale, soil block samples were accordingly collected and studied by the application of soil micromorphology. This approach provides insights into the history of Nile terrace aggradation through the suspension of Nile sediment loads under stillwater conditions as well as of the periodical establishment of shallow water pools at the islands′ plateaus by the surface run-off from local rains. Since these patterns vary significantly from the present situation, they offer a key to the scenario in which specific early agricultural and animal herding practices evolved.

  1. CONTROL OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN THE GEZIRA IRRIGATION SCHEME, SUDAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mutamad; Abubaker, Hwiada

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the changing patterns of infection with Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in the Gezira Irrigation Scheme, Sudan. Taking a historical perspective, it shows the way in which factors such as ecology, biology, social and economic variables and politics have shaped patterns of infection, and how different kinds of strategies have been developed to control schistosomal infection over time. Wider political and economic issues at both national and international levels have shaped these strategies, influencing the prevalence and intensity of schistosomal infection at a local level. By highlighting the inter-play between the above-mentioned factors, the article reflects on the wisdom of prioritizing community-directed mass drug administration for the control of schistosomiasis in Gezira and elsewhere. The review demonstrates that not all efforts to control schistosomiasis are sustainable. A comprehensive control strategy involving political commitment, community participation and socioeconomic development is important for sustainable control of schistosomal infection.

  2. Coral Reefs and Their Management in Tanzania | Wagner | Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management approaches and strategies implemented by various ICM programs, conservation areas and marine parks in Tanzania. It also provides recommendations for further research and coral reef management strategies. Keywords: coral reefs, threats, management, recent initiatives, Tanzania West Indian Ocean ...

  3. 24 STATUS OF LIBRARY AUTOMATION IN TANZANIA'S PUBLIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.S. Samzugi

    universities. Kasulwa's (2008) report has mentioned the automation efforts in Tanzania, ... System (EMIS) and E-Library system for All Higher Education and Research Institutions in. Tanzania. ... Both telephone and face-to-face methods were used. ... Qualitative data collected from interviews with directors of libraries, on the.

  4. Creating Fiscal Space for Social Sectors Development in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses fiscal space creation and use in the context of development of social sectors in Tanzania. The paper observes that Tanzania is making good progress in creating and using her fiscal space. The priority being accorded to social sectors, especially in education and health is in the right direction. However ...

  5. All projects related to tanzania | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Tanzania, the maternal mortality rate of 454 deaths per 100,000 live births means that ... and employment options in poor rural communities in Rwanda and Tanzania. ... of fruit results in post-harvest losses of nearly 40% in tropical countries.

  6. Sixty Years of Special Needs Education in Tanzania: Celebrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study traces the development of special needs education in Tanzania from 1950, and discusses the achievements and the persistent challenges that Tanzania is facing as we celebrate 60 years since the first special education school was started. Both documentation and interview methods were used to collect ...

  7. All projects related to tanzania | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, HEALTH EXPENDITURE, HEALTH FINANCING. Region: South of Sahara, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, South Africa. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 366,015.00. Food Security, Adequate Care and Environment (Tanzania and Malawi). Project.

  8. Social security systems in Tanzania: Phase I Overview of social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper starts by examining the concept of social security in Tanzania, showing that there are three key issues in social security which have not been adequately addressed by existing social security schemes and need immediate attention. The paper then examines the nature and forms of social security in Tanzania in a ...

  9. Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania. T Marchant, AK Mushi, R Nathan, O Mukasa, S Abdulla, C Lengeler, JRM Armstrong Schellenberg. Abstract. A fertility survey using qualitative and quantitative techniques described a high fertility setting (TFR 5.8) in southern Tanzania where family planning use ...

  10. tanzania : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: HIV, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, PREGNANCY, VIRUSES, TANZANIA, ZAMBIA, BOTSWANA, DISEASE TRANSMISSION, Gender. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia. Programme: Santé des mères et des enfants. Financement total : CA$ 55,000.00. Les pertes après ...

  11. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 14, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical manifestations and outcomes of severe malaria among children admitted to Rungwe and Kyela district hospitals in south-western Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Dermatological malignancies at a University teaching Hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: A retrospective review of 154 cases · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT OF SUDAN I-IV: ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS AND POTENTIAL RISK ON SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudan dyes (Table 1 [1], a class of synthetic azo dyes and classified as category 3 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer[2], have been received considerable attention all over the world, especially in the past decade, which are found to be non-authorized and illegally added into food products, such as chili-, curry-, curcuma- and palm oil-containing foodstuffs, meats, spice mix, as well as feedstuffs and feed poultry, to enhance or maintain the appearance due to their intensive color and low price[3,4]. In addition, they are extensively applied in industrial and scientific areas, such as oils, textiles, plastics, waxes, inks, films, cosmetic products, shoe and floor polishing, and spirit varnishing[5-7]. Obviously, there exist a variety of potential sources for environmental contamination by Sudan dyes, thus threatening human health and the safety of ecosystems. It is reported that sub parts per billion levels of Sudan dyes were present in paprika fruits during the vegetation process, particularly, Sudan I existed in almost all samples, including paprika fruits, soils and agronomic materials from some fields in China[8],the levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatments, and pesticides and fertilizers constitute the major source of Sudan I contamination[9]. Till now, the investigation on contaminative behavior and environmental effects is rarely involved, and biogeochemical cycles of Sudan dyes are rarely concerned either.

  13. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Benzekri, Noelle A.; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Gu?ye, Nd?ye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Ba?la; Hawes, Stephen E.; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HI...

  14. Shoreline Changes on the Wave-Influenced Senegal River Delta, West Africa: The Roles of Natural Processes and Human Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Sadio , Mamadou; Anthony , Edward ,; Diaw , Amadou ,; DUSSOUILLEZ , Philippe; FLEURY , Jules; Kane , Alioune; Almar , Rafael; Kestenare , Élodie

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The Senegal River delta in West Africa, one of the finest examples of " wave-influenced " deltas, is bounded by a spit periodically breached by waves, each breach then acting as a shifting mouth of the Senegal River. Using European Re-Analysis (ERA) hindcast wave data from 1984 to 2015 generated by the Wave Atmospheric Model (WAM) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), we calculated longshore sediment transport rates along the spit. We also ...

  15. Estimating environmental and occupational contribution to cancer in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Y. M. Y.; Beden, S. J.; Khalifa, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    This study was performed in Radiation and Isotopes Center of Khartoum (RICK) and National Cancer Institute (NCI) University of Gazeria. It focused on cancer patients who were treated by radiation therapy in the period between 2008 and 2009. The study investigator the risk and causative factors and geographical distribution over the sudan states and the relationship of incidence with some patient's customs and dietary habits. This study summarizes recent scientific evidence of environmental and occupational links to nearly 30 types of cancer. the discussion of each cancer type is introduced by highlights of trends in incidence. The study considers additional indication that involuntary exposures are linked to cancers, such as patterns observed in different geographic areas and among different population patterns of cancer in children. The purpose of this study is to review scientific evidence, particular y epidemiologic evidence. regarding the contribution of environmental and occupational exposures to the overall cancer incidence in the Sudan. The study discussed that the widespread exposures from air and water pollution, the work environment, exposure resulting form personal habits such as smoking and drinking and the diet are major contributors to cancer in human. In the past three decades, there have been several efforts to estimate the proportion of caner due to these involuntary exposure, starting with an ambitious effort by different scientists. This study provided and alternative interpretation of the evidence of cancer incidence to particular factors. We conclude the study by recommending the significance of giving environmental and occupational links to cancer serious consideration by individuals and institutions concerned with cancer prevention, particularly those involved in research and education. (Author)

  16. The Impact of Conflict on Forests in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, V.; Kasischke, E. S.; Dempewolf, J.; Loboda, T. V.; Geores, M.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of armed conflict on ecosystems are complex and difficult to assess due to restricted access to affected areas making satellite remote sensing a useful tool for studying direct and indirect effects of conflict on the landscape. The Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) in South Sudan together with the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) in Northern Uganda share a boundary and encompass a biologically diverse montane ecosystem. This study used satellite data combined with general human population trends to examine the impact of armed conflict and its outcome on similar forest ecosystems both during and after hostilities. A Disturbance Index (DI) was used to investigate the location and extent of forest cover loss and gain in three areas for two key time periods. Results indicate that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the ICFR. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by some gains in forest cover. Discussions with local inhabitants confirmed these findings and provided further insights into the underlying causes impacting forest cover and wildlife. South Sudan is the latest nation to join the Global Environment Facility (GEF). While the GEF does not explicitly address conflict, many of the projects it supports occur in conflict and post-conflict zones with wide-ranging repercussions for both people and the environment. In an effort to assess best practices for working in conflict and post-conflict areas, the GEF Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will undertake an analysis of GEF-funded projects over the last two decades to identify where the GEF has promoted cooperation between groups and states, and/or made a positive contribution toward conflict avoidance resulting in shared environmental benefits.

  17. Plain radiography procedures in Sudan: examination frequency and collective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, B. E. Y.

    2010-12-01

    According to the previous studies diagnostic examinations are the largest man-made source to collective dose (CED) in world. It was observed that, despite of the large number of medical x-ray installations in Sudan and in particular conventional x-ray procedures, studies aimed at estimating collective effective dose in diagnostic radiology were lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual frequency of plain radiography examinations and to estimate the annual collective effective dose to Sudanese population due to plain radiography examinations, selected by their high frequencies or their relatively high doses delivered to patient. To have an idea about the typical examinations frequencies, data were collected from a sample of ten hospitals in Khartoum. The collected data provided information about the x-ray machine manufacture, year of installation and frequency of some examinations per day. The annual collective doses from all medical examinations to the population are: 441, 166, 630, 544, 276, 525, 30, 9, 12 and 161 man Sv from abdomen AP, chest AP, pelvis, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spain PA, lumbar- sacral joints, Skull AP, Skull LAT, Skull PA and from others examination, respectively. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated 2793 man Sv, with the largest contribution of pelvis and LS examinations and lowest contribution of skull examinations. Collective effective dose resulting from the use of plain radiography examinations in the Sudan is small compared with global results. But that dose not negate the need to conduct radiological surveys in frequent intervals to meet the increase of successive x-ray equipment to try to estimate and reduce the doses of patients and the public. (Author)

  18. IAEA responds to cancer crisis in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: On the occasion of World Cancer Day (4 February), the IAEA announced that its Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) will establish its first Centre of Excellence in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. This low-income East African country has one of the continent's highest cancer rates and only one cancer treatment centre. 'Cancer is a growing crisis all across the developing world,' explains IAEA Director General and Nobel Laureate Mohammed ElBaradei. 'We can save thousands of lives if we put together the tools, the knowledge and the political will to fight cancer effectively,' he said. Cancer is the second most common cause of death worldwide after cardiovascular disease. Over 7 million people died of cancer in 2005, and close to 11 million new cancer cases were diagnosed, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). More than 70 percent of cancer deaths now occur in low and middle income countries - the very countries least able to address this growing burden. Cancer-related deaths are projected to increase to more than 9 million people annually by 2015. Already cancer claims twice the number of lives worldwide as AIDS. Low income nations now face a dual burden of communicable and chronic diseases such as cancer. The IAEA spends about 12 million dollars each year for improving cancer treatment in the developing world. Last year, it established the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), to build partnerships with the WHO and other organizations dedicated to controlling cancer. Much of the IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize Award has been dedicated to helping the developing world deal with the dramatic rise in cancer that is overwhelming limited health resources and equipment. The harsh reality of developing nations is one of overburdened health systems with little cancer screening and unnecessarily late cancer diagnosis and non-curative treatment. The IAEA estimates that approximately 5,000 cancer care centres and systems - plus the

  19. Comparison of Malaria Simulations Driven by Meteorological Observations and Reanalysis Products in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Diouf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of climate parameters is crucial to study the impact of climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The use of malaria models is an alternative way of producing potential malaria historical data for Senegal due to the lack of reliable observations for malaria outbreaks over a long time period. Consequently, here we use the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM, driven by different climatic datasets, in order to study and validate simulated malaria parameters over Senegal. The findings confirm that the risk of malaria transmission is mainly linked to climate variables such as rainfall and temperature as well as specific landscape characteristics. For the whole of Senegal, a lag of two months is generally observed between the peak of rainfall in August and the maximum number of reported malaria cases in October. The malaria transmission season usually takes place from September to November, corresponding to the second peak of temperature occurring in October. Observed malaria data from the Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme (PNLP, National Malaria control Programme in Senegal and outputs from the meteorological data used in this study were compared. The malaria model outputs present some consistencies with observed malaria dynamics over Senegal, and further allow the exploration of simulations performed with reanalysis data sets over a longer time period. The simulated malaria risk significantly decreased during the 1970s and 1980s over Senegal. This result is consistent with the observed decrease of malaria vectors and malaria cases reported by field entomologists and clinicians in the literature. The main differences between model outputs and observations regard amplitude, but can be related not only to reanalysis deficiencies but also to other environmental and socio-economic factors that are not included in this mechanistic malaria model framework. The present study can be

  20. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of measles strains in Senegal, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Ndongo; Fall, Ameth; Ka, Rouguiyatou; Fall, Amary; Kiori, David E; Goudiaby, Deborah G; Fall, Aichatou D; Faye, El Hadj Abdourahmane; Dosseh, Annick; Ndiaye, Kader; Diop, Ousmane M; Niang, Mbayame Nd

    2015-01-01

    In Senegal, with the variable routine vaccination coverage, the risk for illness and death from measles still exists as evidenced by the measles epidemic episode in 2009. Since 2002 a laboratory-based surveillance system of measles was established by the Ministry of Health and the Institut Pasteur de Dakar. The present study analysed the data collected over the 10 years inclusive between 2004-2013 in order to define a measles epidemiological profile in Senegal, and we carried out a phylogenetic analysis of measles virus circulating in Senegal over the period 2009-2012. A total number of 4580 samples were collected from suspected cases, with the most cases between 2008 and 2010 (2219/4580; 48.4%). The majority of suspected cases are found in children from 4-6 years old (29%). 981 (21.4%) were measles laboratory-confirmed by IgM ELISA. The measles confirmation rate per year is very high during 2009-2010 periods (48.5% for each year). Regarding age groups, the highest measles IgM-positivity rate occurred among persons aged over 15 years with 39.4% (115/292) followed by 2-3 years old age group with 30.4% (323/1062) and 30% (148/494) in children under one year old group. The majority of suspected cases were collected between February and June and paradoxically confirmed cases rates increased from July (77/270; 28.6%) and reached a peak in November with 60% (93/155). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the 29 sequences from strains that circulated in Senegal between 2009 and 2012 belong to the B3 genotype and they are clustered in B3.1 (2011-2012) and B3.3 (2009-2011) sub-genotypes according to a temporal parameter. Improvements in the measles surveillance in Senegal are required and the introduction of oral fluid and FTA cards as an alternative to transportation of sera should be investigated to improve surveillance. The introduction of a national vaccine database including number of doses of measles-containing vaccine will greatly improve efforts to interrupt and