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Sample records for semiconductor chalcopyrite concentrate

  1. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  2. Chalcopyrite semiconductors for quantum well solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar, Maziar; Sadewasser, Sascha; Albert, Juergen; Lehmann, Sebastian; Abou-Ras, Daniel; Lux-Steiner, Martha C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Marron, David Fuertes [Instituto de Energia Solar - ETSIT, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s.n., 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rockett, Angus A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, 1304 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Raesaenen, Esa [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    The possibilities of using highly absorbing chalcopyrite semiconductors of the type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} in a quantum well solar cell structure are explored. Thin alternating layers of 50 nm CuInSe{sub 2} and CuGaSe{sub 2} were grown epitaxially on a GaAs(100) substrate. The optical properties of a resulting structure of three layers indicate charge carrier confinement in the low band gap CuInSe{sub 2} layer. By compositional analysis interdiffusion of In and Ga at the interfaces was found. The compositional profile was converted into a conduction-band diagram, for which the quantization of energy levels was numerically confirmed using the effective-mass approximation. The results provide a promising basis for the future development of chalcopyrite-type quantum well structures and their application, i.e. in quantum well solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Pressure leaching of chalcopyrite concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksei, Kritskii; Kirill, Karimov; Stanislav, Naboichenko

    2018-05-01

    The results of chalcopyrite concentrate processing using low-temperature and high-temperature sulfuric acid pressure leaching are presented. A material of the following composition was used, 21.5 Cu, 0.1 Zn, 0.05 Pb, 0.04 Ni, 26.59 S, 24.52 Fe, 16.28 SiO2 (in wt.%). The influence of technological parameters on the degree of copper and iron extraction into the leach solution was studied in the wide range of values. The following conditions were suggested as the optimal for the high-temperature pressure leaching: t = 190 °C, PO2 = 0.5 MPa, CH2SO4 = 15 g/L, L:S = 6:1. At the mentioned parameters, it is possible to extract at least 98% Cu from concentrate into the leaching solution during 100 minutes. The following conditions were suggested as optimal for the low-temperature pressure leaching: t = 105 °C, PO2 = 1.3-1.5 MPa, CH2SO4 = 90 g/L, L:S = 10:1. At the mentioned parameters, it is possible to extract up to 83% Cu from the concentrate into the leach solution during 300-360 minutes.

  4. Quadrupole interaction in ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Degering, D; Deicher, M; Kortus, J; Magerle, R; Möller, A; Samokhvalov, V; Unterricker, S; Vianden, R

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients have been measured at substitutional lattice sites in ternary semiconductors using perturbed gamma - gamma angular correlation spectroscopy. The experimental results for A/sup I/B/sup III/C/sub 2//sup VI/ chalcopyrite structure compounds and Square Operator A/sup II/B/sub 2//sup III/C/sub 4//sup VI/ defect chalcopyrites are compared with ab-initio calculations. The latter were carried out with the WIEN code that uses the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within a density functional theory. The agreement between experiment and theory is in most cases very good. Furthermore, the anion displacements in AgGaX/sub 2/- compounds (X: S, Se, Te) have been determined theoretically by determining the minimum of the total energy of the electrons in an elementary cell. (20 refs).

  5. Structural trends in off stoichiometric chalcopyrite type compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Energy supply is one of the most controversial topics that are currently discussed in our global community. Most of the energy delivered to the customer today has its origin in fossil and nuclear power plants. Indefinable risks and the radioactive waste repository problem of the latter as well as the global scarcity of fossil resources cause the renewable energies to grow more and more important for achieving sustainability. The main renewable energy sources are wind power, hydroelectric power and solar energy. On the photovoltaic (PV) market different materials are competing as part of different kinds of technologies, with the largest contribution still coming from wafer based crystalline silicon solar cells (95 %). Until now thin film solar cells only contribute a small portion to the whole PV market, but large capacities are under construction. Thin film photovoltaic shows a number of advantages in comparison to wafer based crystalline silicon PV. Among these material usage and production cost reduction are two prominent examples. The type of PV materials, which are analyzed in this work, are high potential compounds that are widely used as absorber layer in thin film solar cells. These are compound semiconductors of the type CuB III C VI 2 (B III = In, Ga and C VI = Se, S). Several years of research have already gone into understanding the efficiency limiting factors for solar cell devices fabricated from this compound. Most of the studies concerning electronic defects are done by spectroscopic methods mostly performed using thin films from different kinds of synthesis, without any real knowledge regarding the structural origin of these defects. This work shows a systematic fundamental structural study of intrinsic point defects that are present within the material at various compositions in CuB III C VI 2 compound semiconductors. The study is done on reference powder samples with well determined chemical composition and using advanced diffraction techniques

  6. Structural trends in off stoichiometric chalcopyrite type compound semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, Christiane

    2011-03-15

    Energy supply is one of the most controversial topics that are currently discussed in our global community. Most of the energy delivered to the customer today has its origin in fossil and nuclear power plants. Indefinable risks and the radioactive waste repository problem of the latter as well as the global scarcity of fossil resources cause the renewable energies to grow more and more important for achieving sustainability. The main renewable energy sources are wind power, hydroelectric power and solar energy. On the photovoltaic (PV) market different materials are competing as part of different kinds of technologies, with the largest contribution still coming from wafer based crystalline silicon solar cells (95 %). Until now thin film solar cells only contribute a small portion to the whole PV market, but large capacities are under construction. Thin film photovoltaic shows a number of advantages in comparison to wafer based crystalline silicon PV. Among these material usage and production cost reduction are two prominent examples. The type of PV materials, which are analyzed in this work, are high potential compounds that are widely used as absorber layer in thin film solar cells. These are compound semiconductors of the type CuB{sup III}C{sup VI}{sub 2} (B{sup III} = In, Ga and C{sup VI} = Se, S). Several years of research have already gone into understanding the efficiency limiting factors for solar cell devices fabricated from this compound. Most of the studies concerning electronic defects are done by spectroscopic methods mostly performed using thin films from different kinds of synthesis, without any real knowledge regarding the structural origin of these defects. This work shows a systematic fundamental structural study of intrinsic point defects that are present within the material at various compositions in CuB{sup III}C{sup VI}{sub 2} compound semiconductors. The study is done on reference powder samples with well determined chemical composition and

  7. Comparative study on the selective chalcopyrite bioleaching of a molybdenite concentrate with mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P; Blázquez, M L; Alguacil, F J; Muñoz, J A; Ballester, A; González, F

    2001-03-01

    This study evaluates different bioleaching treatments of a molybdenite concentrate using mesophilic and thermophilic bacterial cultures. Further studies on the chemical leaching and the electrochemical behavior of the MoS(2) concentrate were carried out. Bioleaching tests showed a progressive removal of chalcopyrite from the molybdenite concentrate with an increase in temperature. Chemical leaching tests support the idea of an indirect attack of the concentrate. Electrochemical tests indicate that chalcopyrite dissolution is favored when molybdenite is present. Therefore, this type of bioleaching treatment could be applied to purify molybdenite flotation concentrates by selectively dissolving chalcopyrite.

  8. ANALYSIS OF A DATA BASE OF CHALCOPYRITE SEMICONDUCTORS IN 2 AND 3 DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ferouani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available  The analysis of the data is currently, in the statisticians, the object of a true phenomenon of mode, characterized at the same time by the passion and the rejection. ¶To determine the characteristics of a whole of data is obviously not an end in itself, but this lapse of memory is unfortunate because the type of data available always influences the direction of research. ¶The factorial analysis in normalized principal components (PCA, is particularly adapted to the reduction of tables of measurements, where one generally works on a matrix of correlation between characters. ¶In this article we will report our results of analysis into 2 and 3 dimensions of the molecular weight and energy of plasmon of semiconductor chalcopyrites by using what one call the datamining materials. ¶All information was presented in the tables envisaged by an ACP method of the semiconductors étudiés. L' analyzes factorial substitutes for primitive measurements of new variables or factors (which are linear combinations of the primitive variables with the help of which it is thus possible to optimize the visualization of the data in a restricted number of figures.Large at the modo we present, the results related to the development of ¶new approaches of Datamining, Analysis in principal components (ACP, of the data-processing techniques which were applied to semiconductors and ¶combined with metals to predict new materials or ultra stable coatings.¶ ¶       

  9. A Moderately Thermophilic Mixed Microbial Culture for Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate at High Pulp Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguang; Zeng, Weimin; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of samples (acid mine drainage, coal mine wastewater, and thermal spring) derived from different sites were collected in China. Thereafter, these samples were combined and then inoculated into a basal salts solution in which different substrates (ferrous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that, the mixed cultures growing on different substrates were pooled equally, resulting in a final mixed culture. After being adapted to gradually increasing pulp densities of chalcopyrite concentrate by serial subculturing for more than 2 years, the final culture was able to efficiently leach the chalcopyrite at a pulp density of 20% (wt/vol). At that pulp density, the culture extracted 60.4% of copper from the chalcopyrite in 25 days. The bacterial and archaeal diversities during adaptation were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and constructing clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that the culture consisted mainly of four species, including Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Ferroplasma thermophilum, before adapting to a pulp density of 4%. However, L. ferriphilum could not be detected when the pulp density was greater than 4%. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to monitor the microbial dynamics during bioleaching at a pulp density of 20%. The results show that A. caldus was the predominant species in the initial stage, while S. acidophilus rather than A. caldus became the predominant species in the middle stage. F. thermophilum accounted for the greatest proportion in the final stage. PMID:24242252

  10. Evolution of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans secreting alginate during bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, R-L; Liu, A; Liu, Y; Yu, Z; Peng, T; Wu, X; Shen, L; Liu, Y; Li, J; Liu, X; Qiu, G; Chen, M; Zeng, W

    2017-06-01

    To explore the distribution disciplinarian of alginate on the chalcopyrite concentrate surface during bioleaching. The evolution of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans secreting alginate during bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate was investigated through gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), and the critical synthetic genes (algA, algC, algD) of alginate were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The GC-MS analysis results indicated that there was a little amount of alginate formed on the mineral surface at the early stage, while increasing largely to the maximum value at the intermediate stage, and then kept a stable value at the end stage. The CLSM analysis of chalcopyrite slice showed the same variation trend of alginate content on the mineral surface. Furthermore, the RT-PCR results showed that during the early stage of bioleaching, the expressions of the algA, algC and the algD genes were all overexpressed. However, at the final stage, the algD gene expression decreased in a large scale, and the algA and algC decreased slightly. This expression pattern was attributed to the fact that algA and algC genes were involved in several biosynthesis reactions, but the algD gene only participated in the alginate biosynthesis and this was considered as the key gene to control alginate synthesis. The content of alginate on the mineral surface increased largely at the beginning of bioleaching, and remained stable at the end of bioleaching due to the restriction of algD gene expression. Our findings provide valuable information to explore the relationship between alginate formation and bioleaching of chalcopyrite. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Defect formation energies and homogeneity ranges of rock salt-, pyrite-, chalcopyrite- and molybdenite-type compound semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiechter, S. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, Berlin D-14109 (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Employing the generalisation of Van Vechten's cavity model, formation energies of neutral point defects in pyrites (FeS{sub 2}, RuS{sub 2}), chalcopyrites (II-IV-V{sub 2} and I-III-VI{sub 2}) as well as molybdenites (MoS{sub 2}, WS{sub 2}) have been estimated. As input parameters the fundamental band gaps, work functions, electron affinities, surface energies, coordination numbers, covalent or ionic radii and unit cell parameters were used. The values calculated for tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated compounds agreed well with measured values. The data obtained can be used to calculate point defect concentrations and homogeneity ranges as a function of partial pressure and temperature. Introducing charged vacancies, the conductivity type can be predicted.

  12. Electronic structure of semiconductor thin films (chalcopyrites) as absorbermaterials for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine for the first time the band structure of CuInS 2 . For this purpose a new GSMBE process with TBDS as sulphur precursor was established to prevent the use of elemental sulphur in an UHV system. Additionally to the deposited films a cleave surface was prepared. The samples were characterized in situ by XPS/UPS and LEED. XRD and SEM were used for further ex situ investigations. The band structure was determined by ARUPS using synchrotron light. CuInS(001) and CuInS 2 (112) were deposited on Si and GaAs. The deposition of CuInS 2 on GaAs showed a strong dependence on the existing surface reconstruction. A 2 x 1 reconstruction of GaAs(001) yielded CuInS 2 (001) films featuring terraces. A deposition on 2 x 2 reconstructed GaAs(111)A surfaces led to a facetted CuInS 2 surface. On sulphur-passivated non-reconstructed GaAs(111)B a deposition of chalcopyrite ordered CuInS 2 free of facets was possible. On the surface of Cu-rich CuInS 2 films CuS crystallites formed. This yields ARUPS spectra showing the electronic stucture of CuInS 2 superimposed by non-dispergative states of the polycrystalline CuS segregations. The effective hole masses were derived from the k vertical stroke vertical stroke measurements. Finally the results of this work showed that the use of a (111) substrate leads to domain formation of the deposited CuInS 2 (112) films. Thus ARUPS spectra of such films show a superposition of the band structures along different directions. (orig.)

  13. The structural, elastic, electronic and dynamical properties of chalcopyrite semiconductor BeGeAs{sub 2} from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciftci, Yasemin Oe. [Gazi University Teknikokullar, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Evecen, Meryem; Aldirmaz, Emine [Amasya University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Amasya (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    First-principles calculations for the structural, elastic, electronic and vibrational properties of BeGeAs{sub 2} with chalcopyrite structure have been reported in the frame work of the density functional theory. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the available data. By considering the electronic band structure and electronic density of states calculation, it is found that this compound is a semiconductor which confirmed the previous work. Single-crystal elastic constants and related properties such as Young's modulus, Poisson ratio, shear modulus and bulk modulus have been predicted using the stress-finite strain technique. It can be seen from the calculated elastic constants that this compound is mechanically stable in the chalcopyrite structure. Pressure dependences of elastic constants and band gap are also reported. Finally, the phonon dispersion curves and total and partial density of states were calculated and discussed. The calculated phonon frequencies BeGeAs{sub 2} are positive, indicating the dynamical stability of the studied compound. (orig.)

  14. Prediction of electronic and optical properties of ZnAl2Te4 defect chalcopyrite semiconductor: an ab-initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayengbam, Rishikanta; Tripathy, S. K.; Pandey, B. P.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the structural, electronic and optical properties of ZnAl2Te4 defect chalcopyrite semiconductor using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) within density functional theory (DFT). We have calculated the optimized lattice constants (a and c) and compared with the available experimental values. The optimized lattice constants have been used to calculate the energy band gap and found to be 1.57 eV. The partial density of states and total density of states have been discussed in detail. The frequency dependent dielectric constant and refractive index have been calculated and plotted in the energy range 0-13 eV. All the above parameters have been compared with the available experimental and theoretical values and found good agreement between them.

  15. Carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, T.

    2007-01-01

    In semiconductor spintronics the key materials issue concerns ferromagnetic semiconductors that would, in particular, permit an integration (in a single multilayer heterostructure) of standard electronic functions of semiconductors with magnetic memory function. Although classical semiconductor materials, such as Si or GaAs, are nonmagnetic, upon substitutional incorporation of magnetic ions (typically of a few atomic percents of Mn 2+ ions) and very heavy doping with conducting carriers (at the level of 10 20 - 10 21 cm -3 ) a ferromagnetic transition can be induced in such diluted magnetic semiconductors (also known as semimagnetic semiconductors). In the lecture the spectacular experimental observations of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism will be discussed for three model semiconductor crystals. p - Ga 1-x Mn x As currently the most actively studied and most perspective ferromagnetic semiconductor of III-V group, in which ferromagnetism appears due to Mn ions providing both local magnetic moments and acting as acceptor centers. p - Sn 1-x Mn x Te and p - Ge 1-x Mn x Te classical diluted magnetic semiconductors of IV-VI group, in which paramagnet-ferromagnet and ferromagnet-spin glass transitions are found for very high hole concentration. n - Eu 1-x Gd x Te mixed magnetic crystals, in which the substitution of Gd 3+ ions for Eu 2+ ions creates very high electron concentration and transforms antiferromagnetic EuTe (insulating compound) into ferromagnetic n-type semiconductor alloy. For each of these materials systems the key physical features will be discussed concerning: local magnetic moments formation, magnetic phase diagram as a function of magnetic ions and carrier concentration as well as Curie temperature and magnetic anisotropy engineering. Various theoretical models proposed to explain the effect of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors will be briefly discussed involving mean field approaches based on Zener and RKKY

  16. Defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} chalcopyrite semiconductors: a comparative study of material properties, defect states, and photovoltaic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qing; Gunawan, Oki; Copel, Matthew; Reuter, Kathleen B; Chey, S Jay; Mitzi, David B [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Deline, Vaughn R [IBM Almaden Resesarch Center, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Understanding defects in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} (CIGS), especially correlating changes in the film formation process with differences in material properties, photovoltaic (PV) device performance, and defect levels extracted from admittance spectroscopy, is a critical but challenging undertaking due to the complex nature of this polycrystalline compound semiconductor. Here we present a systematic comparative study wherein varying defect density levels in CIGS films were intentionally induced by growing CIGS grains using different selenium activity levels. Material characterization results by techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and medium energy ion scattering indicate that this process variation, although not significantly affecting CIGS grain structure, crystal orientation, or bulk composition, leads to enhanced formation of a defective chalcopyrite layer with high density of indium or gallium at copper antisite defects ((In, Ga){sub Cu}) near the CIGS surface, for CIGS films grown with insufficient selenium supply. This defective layer or the film growth conditions associated with it is further linked with observed current-voltage characteristics, including rollover and crossover behavior, and a defect state at around 110 meV (generally denoted as the N1 defect) commonly observed in admittance spectroscopy. The impact of the (In, Ga){sub Cu} defects on device PV performance is also established. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. The dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, T.; Velasquez, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to determinate the effects of parameters and additives on the kinetics of dissolution of chalcopyrite on moderated conditions by means of dissolutions test with chalcopyrite concentrate and pure chalcopyrite in shake flasks and instrumented stirred reactors. A study of the dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride solutions has demonstrated that the rate of dissolution of chalcopyrite is strongly dependent on the potential of the solution within a range of 540 to 630 mV (versus SHE). Leaching at pH around 2.5 results in increased rates of copper dissolution suggesting the possibility to keep the solution potential within the range. Both pyrite and silver ions enhance the dissolution of chalcopyrite and this effect increases when both species are present. The MnO 2 has a negative effect on the dissolution increasing the solution potential to values where the rate decreases considerably. (Author)

  18. Correlation between electronic structure and energy band in Eu-doped CuInTe2 semiconductor compound with chalcopyrite structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Wang; Yong-Quan Guo; Shuai Li

    2017-01-01

    The Eu-doped Cu(In,Eu)Te2 semiconductors with chalcopyrite structures are promising materials for their applications in the absorption layer for thin-film solar cells due to their wider band-gaps and better optical properties than those of CulnTe2.In this paper,the Eu-doped CulnTe2 (Culn1-xEuxTe2,x =0,0.1,0.2,0.3) are studied systemically based on the empirical electron theory (EET).The studies cover crystal structures,bonding regularities,cohesive energies,energy levels,and valence electron structures.The theoretical values fit the experimental results very well.The physical mechanism of a broadened band-gap induced by Eu doping into CuInTe2 is the transitions between different hybridization energy levels induced by electron hopping between s and d orbitals and the transformations from the lattice electrons to valence electrons for Cu and In ions.The research results reveal that the photovoltaic effect induces the increase of lattice electrons of In and causes the electric resistivity to decrease.The Eu doping into CuInTe2 mainly influences the transition between different hybridization energy levels for Cu atoms,which shows that the 3d electron numbers of Cu atoms change before and after Eu doping.In single phase CuIn1-xEuxTe2,the number of valence electrons changes regularly with increasing Eu content,and the calculated band gap Eg also increases,which implies that the optical properties of Eu-doped CuIn1-xEuxTe2 are improved.

  19. Electronic and optical properties of defect CdIn_2Te_4 chalcopyrite semiconductor: A first principle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.; Ganguli, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present detailed study of structural, electronic and optical properties of CdIn_2Te_4 compound. The calculations are carried out using Density Functional theory based Tight Binding Linear Muffin Tin Orbital method. The compound is found to be direct band gap semiconductor with a band gap of 1.03 eV. The band gap is within the limit of LDA underestimation. The calculated structural parameters agree well with the available experimental values. We find a decrements of 9.6% in band gap and significant effects on overall electronic and optical properties due to structural distortions. These effects on optical properties come mainly from the change in transition probability. An-isotropic nature of optical properties get enhanced due to structural distortion. The Calculated real & imaginary parts of dielectric constant and static dielectric constant agree well with the available experimental result. - Highlights: • We present ab-initio calculations of electronic & optical properties of CdIn_2Te_4. • Band gap get reduced by 9.6% due to structural distortion. • Structural distortion has significant effects on optical properties. • Anisotropic nature of optical response functions get enhanced by structural distortion. • Calculated dielectric constant agrees with experimental value.

  20. Expression of Critical Sulfur- and Iron-Oxidation Genes and the Community Dynamics During Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate by Moderate Thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Peng, Tangjian; Zhou, Hongbo; Liu, Xueduan; Gu, Guohua; Chen, Miao; Qiu, Guanzhou; Zeng, Weimin

    2015-07-01

    Sulfate adenylyltransferase gene and 4Fe-4S ferredoxin gene are the key genes related to sulfur and iron oxidations during bioleaching system, respectively. In order to better understand the bioleaching and microorganism synergistic mechanism in chalcopyrite bioleaching by mixed culture of moderate thermophiles, expressions of the two energy metabolism genes and community dynamics of free and attached microorganisms were investigated. Specific primers were designed for real-time quantitative PCR to study the expression of these genes. Real-time PCR results showed that sulfate adenylyltransferase gene was more highly expressed in Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans than that in Acidithiobacillus caldus, and expression of 4Fe-4S ferredoxin gene was higher in Ferroplasma thermophilum than that in S. thermosulfidooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. The results indicated that in the bioleaching system of chalcopyrite concentrate, sulfur and iron oxidations were mainly performed by S. thermosulfidooxidans and F. thermophilum, respectively. The community dynamics results revealed that S. thermosulfidooxidans took up the largest proportion during the whole period, followed by F. thermophilum, A. caldus, and L. ferriphilum. The CCA analysis showed that 4Fe-4S ferredoxin gene expression was mainly affected (positively correlated) by high pH and elevated concentration of ferrous ion, while no factor was observed to prominently influence the expression of sulfate adenylyltransferase gene.

  1. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  2. Electronic structure of semiconductor thin films (chalcopyrites) as absorbermaterials for thin film solar cells; Elektronische Struktur duenner Halbleiterfilme (Chalkopyrite) als Absorbermaterialien fuer Duennschichtsolarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Carsten

    2007-12-11

    The objective of this work was to determine for the first time the band structure of CuInS{sub 2}. For this purpose a new GSMBE process with TBDS as sulphur precursor was established to prevent the use of elemental sulphur in an UHV system. Additionally to the deposited films a cleave surface was prepared. The samples were characterized in situ by XPS/UPS and LEED. XRD and SEM were used for further ex situ investigations. The band structure was determined by ARUPS using synchrotron light. CuInS(001) and CuInS{sub 2}(112) were deposited on Si and GaAs. The deposition of CuInS{sub 2} on GaAs showed a strong dependence on the existing surface reconstruction. A 2 x 1 reconstruction of GaAs(001) yielded CuInS{sub 2}(001) films featuring terraces. A deposition on 2 x 2 reconstructed GaAs(111)A surfaces led to a facetted CuInS{sub 2} surface. On sulphur-passivated non-reconstructed GaAs(111)B a deposition of chalcopyrite ordered CuInS{sub 2} free of facets was possible. On the surface of Cu-rich CuInS{sub 2} films CuS crystallites formed. This yields ARUPS spectra showing the electronic stucture of CuInS{sub 2} superimposed by non-dispergative states of the polycrystalline CuS segregations. The effective hole masses were derived from the k {sub vertical} {sub stroke} {sub vertical} {sub stroke} measurements. Finally the results of this work showed that the use of a (111) substrate leads to domain formation of the deposited CuInS{sub 2}(112) films. Thus ARUPS spectra of such films show a superposition of the band structures along different directions. (orig.)

  3. Effect of Sodium Sulfite on Floatability of Chalcopyrite and Molybdenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Miki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS is commonly used as a copper depressant in the selective flotation of copper and molybdenum ores. However, the process is facing health and safety issues because NaHS readily yields toxic hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S under acidic conditions. In this study, Na2SO3 was proposed as an alternative copper depressant. The effect of Na2SO3 on the surface wettability and floatability of chalcopyrite and molybdenite—typical copper and molybdenum minerals, respectively—was intensively studied using contact angle measurements and flotation tests. Contact angle readings show that the chalcopyrite surface became hydrophilic after the Na2SO3 treatment. Meanwhile, the molybdenite surface was relatively more hydrophobic compared with that of chalcopyrite after the treatment. Flotation tests using pure minerals of chalcopyrite and molybdenite demonstrate that the floatability of chalcopyrite decreased with increasing concentration of Na2SO3. On the other hand, the floatability of molybdenite gradually increased under similar conditions, suggesting that Na2SO3 might have the potential to be used for selective flotation of chalcopyrite and molybdenite. A possible mechanism is proposed in this study to explain the phenomenon using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  4. Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book deals with process and measurement of semiconductor. It contains 20 chapters, which goes as follows; semiconductor industry, introduction of semiconductor manufacturing, yield of semiconductor process, materials, crystal growth and a wafer forming, PN, control pollution, oxidation, photomasking photoresist chemistry, photomasking technologies, diffusion and ion injection, chemical vapor deposition, metallization, wafer test and way of evaluation, semiconductor elements, integrated circuit and semiconductor circuit technology.

  5. The dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride media; Lixiviacion de la calcopirita en medios clorurados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, T.; Velasquez, L.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to determinate the effects of parameters and additives on the kinetics of dissolution of chalcopyrite on moderated conditions by means of dissolutions test with chalcopyrite concentrate and pure chalcopyrite in shake flasks and instrumented stirred reactors. A study of the dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride solutions has demonstrated that the rate of dissolution of chalcopyrite is strongly dependent on the potential of the solution within a range of 540 to 630 mV (versus SHE). Leaching at pH around 2.5 results in increased rates of copper dissolution suggesting the possibility to keep the solution potential within the range. Both pyrite and silver ions enhance the dissolution of chalcopyrite and this effect increases when both species are present. The MnO{sub 2} has a negative effect on the dissolution increasing the solution potential to values where the rate decreases considerably. (Author)

  6. Surface characterization of activated chalcopyrite particles via the FLSmidth ROL process. Part 1: Electron microscope investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karcz, Adam Paul; Damø, Anne Juul; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    Because of its unique semiconductor properties, the world’s most abundant copper mineral (chalcopyrite) is refractory with respect to atmospheric leaching using traditional ferric sulfate lixiviants. A novel approach to address this issue – conducted at FLSmidth – utilizes a mechanochemical Rapid...... of copper(II) to dope the semiconductor lattice and thereby "activate" the chalcopyrite, thereby reducing leach times below 2 hours (>98% recovery). Because the activation plays a major role in accelerating the leaching step, it is critical to understand the nature of this intermediate and its part...... in the ROL process. The current work presents results from electron microscope investigations of surface-activated particles....

  7. Magnetic exchange interactions in Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhani-Benziane, H.; Sahnoun, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), University of Mascara (Algeria); Sahnoun, M., E-mail: sahnoun_cum@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), University of Mascara (Algeria); Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Driz, M. [Laboratoire de Sciences des Matériaux (LSM), University of Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); Daul, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Accurate ab initio full-potential augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) electronic calculations within generalized gradient approximation have been performed for Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrites, focusing on their electronic and magnetic properties as a function of the geometry related to low Mn-impurity concentration and the spin magnetic alignment (i.e., ferromagnetic vs antiferromagnetic). As expected, Mn is found to be a source of holes and localized magnetic moments of about 4 µ{sub B} per Mn atom are calculated which are sufficiently large. The defect calculations are firstly performed by replacing a single cation (namely Zn and Sn) with a single Mn atom in the pure chalcopyrite ZnSnAs{sub 2} supercell, and their corresponding formation energies show that the substitution of a Sn atom (rather than Zn) by Mn is strongly favored. Thereafter, a comparison of total energy differences between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) are given. Surprisingly, the exchange interaction between a Mn pairs is found to oscillate with the distance between them. Consequently, the AFM alignment is energetically favored in Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} compounds, except for low impurity concentration associated with lower distances between neighboring Mn impurities, in this case the stabilization of FM increases. Moreover, the ferromagnetic alignment in the Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} systems behaves half-metallic; the valence band for majority spin orientation is partially filled while there is a gap in the density of states for the minority spin orientation. This semiconducting gap of ~1 eV opened up in the minority channel and is due to the large bonding–antibonding splitting from the p–d hybridization. Our findings suggest that the Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrites could be a different class of ferromagnetic semiconductors. - Highlights: • ab initio calculations were performed on Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrite. • Substitution of a Sn atom (rather than Zn) by Mn

  8. Electron microscope investigations of activated chalcopyrite particles via the FLSmidth® ROL process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karcz, Adam Paul; Damø, Anne Juul; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2017-01-01

    Because of its unique semiconductor properties, the world’s most abundant copper mineral, chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), is refractory with respect to atmospheric leaching using traditional acidic ferric sulfate lixiviants. FLSmidth® has developed a novel approach manipulating lattice properties of semi.......1 and 5 mol percent of copper (II) to dope the lattice and thereby “activate” chalcopyrite. Since lattice restructuring can have such a dramatic influence on semiconductor reactivity, the associated physico-chemical phenomena are worth studying. In this regard, we investigate the relationship between...... chemical activation and deformation of the chalcopyrite crystal lattice through the use of electron microscopy. Although the activation process took only an hour and the extent of conversion was on the order of a few mol%, the lattice was found to be strained throughout the particle. This paper draws some...

  9. Optimization of the use of carbon paste electrodes (CPE for electrochemical study of the chalcopyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela G. Horta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon paste electrodes (CPE of mineral sulfides can be useful for electrochemical studies to overcome problems by using massive ones. Using CPE-chalcopyrite some variables were electrochemically evaluated. These variables were: (i the atmosphere of preparation (air or argon of CPE and elapsed time till its use; (ii scan rate for voltammetric measurements and (iii chalcopyrite concentration in the CPE. Based on cyclic voltammetry, open-circuit potential and electrochemical impedance results the recommendations are: oxygen-free atmosphere to prepare and kept the CPE until around two ours, scan rates from 10 to 40 mV s-1, and chalcopyrite concentrations > 20%.

  10. Catalytic effect of light illumination on bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Gan, Min; Zhu, Jianyu; Li, Qian; Jie, Shiqi; Yang, Baojun; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-04-01

    The influence of visible light exposure on chalcopyrite bioleaching was investigated using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The results indicated, in both shake-flasks and aerated reactors with 8500-lux light, the dissolved Cu was 91.80% and 23.71% higher, respectively, than that in the controls without light. The catalytic effect was found to increase bioleaching to a certain limit, then plateaued as the initial chalcopyrite concentration increased from 2% to 4.5%. Thus a balanced mineral concentration is highly amenable to bioleaching via offering increased available active sites for light adsorption while eschewing mineral aggregation and screening effects. Using semiconducting chalcopyrite, the light facilitated the reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) as metabolic substrates for A.ferrooxidans, leading to better biomass, lower pH and redox potential, which are conducive to chalcopyrite leaching. The light exposure on iron redox cycling was further confirmed by chemical leaching tests using Fe(3+), which exhibited higher Fe(2+) levels in the light-induced system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioleaching of two different types of chalcopyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying-bo; Lin, Hai; Fu, Kai-bin; Xu, Xiao-fang; Zhou, Shan-shan

    2013-02-01

    Two different types of chalcopyrite (pyritic chalcopyrite and porphyry chalcopyrite) were bioleached with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATF6. The bioleaching of the pyritic chalcopyrite and porphyry chalcopyrite is quite different. The copper extraction reaches 46.96% for the pyritic chalcopyrite after 48-d leaching, but it is only 14.50% for the porphyry chalcopyrite. Proper amounts of initial ferrous ions can improve the efficiency of copper extraction for the two different types of chalcopyrite. The optimum dosage of ferrous ions for the pyritic chalcopyrite and porphyry chalcopyrite is different. The adsorption of ATF6 on the pyritic chalcopyrite and porphyry chalcopyrite was also studied in this paper. It is found that ATF6 is selectively adsorbed by the two different types of chalcopyrite; the higher adsorption onto the pyritic chalcopyrite than the porphyry chalcopyrite leads to the higher copper dissolution rate of the pyritic chalcopyrite. In addition, the zeta-potential of chalcopyrite before and after bioleaching further confirms that ATF6 is more easily adsorbed onto the pyritic chalcopyrite.

  12. Advances in copper-chalcopyrite thin films for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Jess; Gaillard, Nicolas; Rocheleau, Richard; Miller, Eric [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1680 East-West Road, Post 109, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Promising alternatives to crystalline silicon as the basic building block of solar cells include copper-chalcopyrite thin films such as copper indium gallium diselenide, a class of thin films exhibiting bandgap-tunable semiconductor behavior, direct bandgaps and high absorption coefficients. These properties allow for the development of novel solar-energy conversion configurations like ultra-high efficiency multi-junction solar cells utilizing combinations of photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical junctions for hydrogen production. This paper discusses the current worldwide status as well as the development and optimization of copper-chalcopyrite thin films deposited onto various substrate types for different photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical applications at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute. (author)

  13. Optical properties of chalcopyrite-type intermediate transition metal band materials from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, I.; Palacios, P.; Wahnon, P.

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of a novel potential high-efficiency photovoltaic material have been studied. This material is based on a chalcopyrite-type semiconductor (CuGaS 2 ) with some Ga atom substituted by Ti and is characterized by the formation of an isolated transition-metal band between the valence band and the conduction band. We present a study in which ab-initio density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation are carried out to determine the optical reflectivity and absorption coefficient of the materials of interest. Calculations for the host semiconductor are in good agreement with experimental results within the limitations of the approach. We find, as desired, that because of the intermediate band, the new Ti-substituted material would be able to absorb photons of energy lower than the band-gap of the host chalcopyrite. We also analyze the partial contributions to the main peaks of its spectrum

  14. A non-linear optimal control problem in obtaining homogeneous concentration for semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-H.; Li, J.-X.

    2006-01-01

    A non-linear optimal control algorithm is examined in this study for the diffusion process of semiconductor materials. The purpose of this algorithm is to estimate an optimal control function such that the homogeneity of the concentration can be controlled during the diffusion process and the diffusion-induced stresses for the semiconductor materials can thus be reduced. The validation of this optimal control analysis utilizing the conjugate gradient method of minimization is analysed by using numerical experiments. Three different diffusion processing times are given and the corresponding optimal control functions are to be determined. Results show that the diffusion time can be shortened significantly by applying the optimal control function at the boundary and the homogeneity of the concentration is also guaranteed. This control function can be obtained within a very short CPU time on a Pentium III 600 MHz PC

  15. Thin-film intermediate band chalcopyrite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes Marron, D.; Marti, A.; Luque, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chalcopyrite-based solar cells currently lead the efficiency tables of thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Further improvements are foreseen upon implementation of an intermediate band in the absorber layers. We present a theoretical analysis of the efficiency limit for this type of device as a function of factors such as the gap of the host, the relative position of the intermediate band with respect to the band edge and the level of light concentration used as illumination. We have also considered the impact of non-idealities on the performance of the device, particularly the effect of electronic losses related to non-radiative recombination

  16. Performance Analysis of Thiocarbonohydrazide as a Novel Selective Depressant for Chalcopyrite in Molybdenite-Chalcopyrite Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changping Guan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel surfactant, thiocarbonohydrazide (TCH, was synthesized and tested for the first time as a selective chalcopyrite depressant in Cu-Mo separation. Its adsorption mechanisms on chalcopyrite were studied by flotation tests, zeta potential, FTIR, XPS and ToF-SIMS measurements. FTIR and zeta potential analyses suggested that there was a strong chemisorption reaction between TCH and chalcopyrite, resulting in the formation of TCH–copper complexes. XPS and ToF-SIMS measurements further confirmed the chemisorption of TCH onto the chalcopyrite surface and showed that this chemisorption reaction is due to its S and N atoms, which form five-membered chelating rings by releasing H ions.

  17. Ab-initio vibrational properties of transition metal chalcopyrite alloys determined as high-efficiency intermediate-band photovoltaic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, P.; Aguilera, I.; Wahnon, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present frozen phonon and linear response ab-initio research into the vibrational properties of the CuGaS 2 chalcopyrite and transition metal substituted (CuGaS 2 )M alloys. These systems are potential candidates for developing a novel solar-cell material with enhanced optoelectronic properties based in the implementation of the intermediate-band concept. We have previously carried out ab-initio calculations of the electronic properties of these kinds of chalcopyrite metal alloys showing a narrow transition metal band isolated in the semiconductor band gap. The substitutes used in the present work are the 3d metal elements, Titanium and Chromium. For the theoretical calculations we use standard density functional theory at local density and generalized gradient approximation levels. We found that the optical phonon branches of the transition metal chalcopyrite, are very sensitive to the specific bonding geometry and small changes in the transition metal environment

  18. Ball milling of chalcopyrite: Moessbauer spectroscopy and XRD studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, H.; Fernandes, M.; Levendis, D.; Schonig, L.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study the behavior of chalcopyrite under ball milling for extended periods in order to determine how it's decompose or transform. Tests were done with chalcopyrite mixed with iron and zinc with and without surfactant. The use of surfactants has various effects such as avoiding oxidation and clustering of the fine particles. In all case magnetic chalcopyrite is transformed into a paramagnetic component showing a disordered structure, thus revealing that Cu atoms have replaced Fe atoms. In the case of ball milling in air, chalcopyrite is decomposed with the lost of iron, while in milling under surfactants, iron enters into the chalcopyrite structure. (author)

  19. Semiconductor Sensors for Studying the Heterogeneous Destruction of Ozone at Low Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obvintseva, L. A.; Sharova, T. B.; Avetisov, A. K.; Sukhareva, I. P.

    2018-06-01

    Prospects for the use of semiconductor resistive sensors in studies of the heterogeneous destruction of ozone at low concentrations (5-400 μg/m3) were shown. The influence of various factors (sensor temperature, gas flow rate, ozone concentration) on the results of ozone concentration measurements with sensors of various types was studied. Methods for forming a sensitive layer of In2O3(3% Fe2O3) sensors with specified parameters of calibration curves were proposed. The optimum conditions for the operation of sensors in a flow mode were formulated. The results of the study of heterogeneous destruction of ozone on microfiber polymer and natural disperse (sand, coals) materials obtained by the developed method were presented.

  20. Galvanic enhancement for high pressure leaching of chalcopyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the galvanic enhancement of the pressure oxidation (POX leaching of a chalcopyrite/chalcocite concentrate, which is believed to take place via a redox reaction. Cu recoveries of >90% could be achieved during POX leaching of this chalcopyrite/chalcocite concentrate at 200°C and 0.7 MPa initial oxygen pressure within 2h in a pressure reactor lined with titanium, which were 18-28% higher than for the same leaching using the teflon liner. A slow heating time seems to produce more sulphur coating, reducing the leaching performance, yielding much lower Cu recovery when the teflon lining was used, although this does not greatly affect the other case when the reactor was lined with titanium. The introduction of an electronic conductor, in this case the titanium surface, is believed to enhance this redox process, in which the oxidation of copper minerals and sulphur to sulphate at the anodic sites (mineral surface encountered during POX leaching takes place simultaneously with the reversible oxidation/reduction of the Fe2+/Fe3+couple and oxygen reduction on titanium.

  1. Current scenario of chalcopyrite bioleaching: a review on the recent advances to its heap-leach technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sandeep; Akcil, Ata; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Deveci, Haci

    2015-11-01

    Chalcopyrite is the primary copper mineral used for production of copper metal. Today, as a result of rapid industrialization, there has been enormous demand to profitably process the low grade chalcopyrite and "dirty" concentrates through bioleaching. In the current scenario, heap bioleaching is the most advanced and preferred eco-friendly technology for processing of low grade, uneconomic/difficult-to-enrich ores for copper extraction. This paper reviews the current status of chalcopyrite bioleaching. Advanced information with the attempts made for understanding the diversity of bioleaching microorganisms; role of OMICs based research for future applications to industrial sectors and chemical/microbial aspects of chalcopyrite bioleaching is discussed. Additionally, the current progress made to overcome the problems of passivation as seen in chalcopyrite bioleaching systems have been conversed. Furthermore, advances in the designing of heap bioleaching plant along with microbial and environmental factors of importance have been reviewed with conclusions into the future prospects of chalcopyrite bioleaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The structure of reconstructed chalcopyrite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinius, Sascha; Islam, Mazharul M.; Bredow, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) surfaces are of major interest for copper exploitation in aqueous solution, called leaching. Since leaching is a surface process knowledge of the surface structure, bonding pattern and oxidation states is important for improving the efficiency. At present such information is not available from experimental studies. Therefore a detailed computational study of chalcopyrite surfaces is performed. The structures of low-index stoichiometric chalcopyrite surfaces {hkl} h, k, l ∈ {0, 1, 2} have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) and global optimization strategies. We have applied ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) in combination with simulated annealing (SA) in order to explore possible reconstructions via a minima hopping (MH) algorithm. In almost all cases reconstruction involving substantial rearrangement has occurred accompanied by reduction of the surface energy. The analysis of the change in the coordination sphere and migration during reconstruction reveals that S-S dimers are formed on the surface. Further it was observed that metal atoms near the surface move toward the bulk forming metal alloys passivated by sulfur. The obtained surface energies of reconstructed surfaces are in the range of 0.53-0.95 J/m2.

  3. High-order optical nonlinearities in nanocomposite films dispersed with semiconductor quantum dots at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yasuo; Matsushima, Shun-suke; Yamagami, Ryu-ichi; Jinzenji, Taka-aki; Sakuma, Shohei; Liu, Xiangming; Izuishi, Takuya; Shen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    We describe the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic-organic nanocomposite films in which semiconductor CdSe quantum dots as high as 6.8 vol.% are dispersed. Open/closed Z-scan measurements, degenerate multi-wave mixing and femtosecond pump-probe/transient grating measurements are conducted. It is shown that the observed fifth-order optical nonlinearity has the cascaded third-order contribution that becomes prominent at high concentrations of CdSe QDs. It is also shown that there are picosecond-scale intensity-dependent and nanosecond-scale intensity-independent decay components in absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. The former is caused by the Auger process, while the latter comes from the electron-hole recombination process. (paper)

  4. Selective depression mechanism of ferric chromium lignin sulfonate for chalcopyrite-galena flotation separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-sheng; Liu, Run-qing; Wang, Li; Sun, Wei; Peng, Hong; Hu, Yue-hua

    2018-05-01

    Selective recovery of chalcopyrite-galena ore by flotation remains a challenging issue. The development of highly efficient, low-cost, and environmentally friendly depressants for this flotation is necessary because most of available reagents (e.g., K2Cr2O4) are expensive and adversely affect the environment. In this study, ferric chromium lignin sulfonate (FCLS), which is a waste-product from the paper and pulp industry, was introduced as a selective depressant for galena with butyl xanthate (BX) as a collector. Results show that the residue recovery of Pb in Cu concentrate was substantially reduced to 4.73% using FCLS compared with 10.71% using the common depressant K2Cr2O4. The underlying mechanisms were revealed using zeta-potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Zeta-potential measurements revealed that FCLS was more efficiently absorbed onto galena than onto chalcopyrite. XPS measurements further suggested that FCLS enhanced the surface oxidation of galena but prevented that of chalcopyrite. Thus, FCLS could be a potential candidate as a depressant for chalcopyrite-galena flotation because of its low cost and its lack of detrimental effects on the environment.

  5. Pressure dependence of Raman modes in the chalcopyrite quaternary alloy AgxCu1-xGaS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Hwan; Yu, Peter Y.

    2000-01-01

    Raman scattering in the chalcopyrite quaternary alloy Ag x Cu 1-x GaS 2 has been studied under high pressure (up to 7 GPa) and at low temperature (50 K) using a diamond anvil high pressure cell for alloy concentrations x=1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 and 0. This has allowed us to determine the dependence of their zone-center phonon modes on both pressure and alloy concentration. The resultant phonon pressure coefficients are helpful in understanding the nature of the phonon modes in these chalcopyrites

  6. An insight into the mechanism of charge-transfer of hybrid polymer:ternary/quaternary chalcopyrite colloidal nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Chawla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have demonstrated the structural and optoelectronic properties of the surface of ternary/quaternary (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe chalcopyrite nanocrystallites passivated by tri-n-octylphosphine-oxide (TOPO and tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP and compared their charge transfer characteristics in the respective polymer: chalcopyrite nanocomposites by dispersing them in poly(3-hexylthiophene polymer. It has been found that CZTSe nanocrystallites due to their high crystallinity and well-ordered 3-dimensional network in its pristine form exhibit a higher steric- and photo-stability, resistance against coagulation and homogeneity compared to the CISe and CIGSe counterparts. Moreover, CZTSe nanocrystallites display efficient photoluminescence quenching as evident from the high value of the Stern–Volmer quenching constant (KSV and eventually higher charge transfer efficiency in their respective polymer P3HT:CZTSe composites. We modelled the dependency of the charge transfer from the donor and the charge separation mechanism across the donor–acceptor interface from the extent of crystallinity of the chalcopyrite semiconductors (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe. Quaternary CZTSe chalcopyrites with their high crystallinity and controlled morphology in conjunction with regioregular P3HT polymer is an attractive candidate for hybrid solar cells applications.

  7. An insight into the mechanism of charge-transfer of hybrid polymer:ternary/quaternary chalcopyrite colloidal nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Parul; Singh, Son; Sharma, Shailesh Narain

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated the structural and optoelectronic properties of the surface of ternary/quaternary (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites passivated by tri-n-octylphosphine-oxide (TOPO) and tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) and compared their charge transfer characteristics in the respective polymer: chalcopyrite nanocomposites by dispersing them in poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymer. It has been found that CZTSe nanocrystallites due to their high crystallinity and well-ordered 3-dimensional network in its pristine form exhibit a higher steric- and photo-stability, resistance against coagulation and homogeneity compared to the CISe and CIGSe counterparts. Moreover, CZTSe nanocrystallites display efficient photoluminescence quenching as evident from the high value of the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K SV) and eventually higher charge transfer efficiency in their respective polymer P3HT:CZTSe composites. We modelled the dependency of the charge transfer from the donor and the charge separation mechanism across the donor-acceptor interface from the extent of crystallinity of the chalcopyrite semiconductors (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe). Quaternary CZTSe chalcopyrites with their high crystallinity and controlled morphology in conjunction with regioregular P3HT polymer is an attractive candidate for hybrid solar cells applications.

  8. Study of the Effect of Sodium Sulfide as a Selective Depressor in the Separation of Chalcopyrite and Molybdenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Peng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of collectors, sodium butyl xanthate and kerosene, and a depressor, sodium sulfide, were used in this research. The study applied flotation tests, pulp potential measurements, contact angle measurements, adsorption calculations, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analyses to demonstrate the correlation between reagents and minerals. For xanthate collectors, the best flotation responses of chalcopyrite and molybdenite were obtained at pH = 8, and, for kerosene, these were obtained at pH = 4. The flotation of molybdenite seemed to be less influenced by xanthate than by kerosene, while that of chalcopyrite showed the opposite. The optimum concentration of sodium sulfide for separation was 0.03 mol/L, which rejected 83% chalcopyrite and recovered 82% molybdenite in the single mineral flotation. Pulp potential measurements revealed that the dixanthogen and xanthate were decomposed and desorbed, respectively, from the mineral surface in a reducing environment. The contact angle measurement and adsorption calculation conformed to the flotation response, indicating that few functions of the xanthate and sodium sulfide on the molybdenite flotation were due to their low adsorption densities. The FTIR results further clarified that the xanthate ion was adsorbed on chalcopyrite by forming cuprous xanthate and dixanthogen; however, on molybdenite the adsorption product was only dixanthogen. After conditioning with sodium sulfide, the chalcopyrite surface became clean, but the molybdenite surface still retained slight peaks of dixanthogen. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism was expounded in this research.

  9. Analytical procedure for experimental quantification of carrier concentration in semiconductor devices by using electric scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takaya; Matsumura, Koji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) is based on a contact-mode variant of atomic force microscopy, which is used for imaging two-dimensional carrier (electrons and holes) distributions in semiconductor devices. We introduced a method of quantification of the carrier concentration by experimentally deduced calibration curves, which were prepared for semiconductor materials such as silicon and silicon carbide. The analytical procedure was circulated to research organizations in a round-robin test. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed for practical analysis and for what is expected for industrial pre-standardization from the viewpoint of comparability among users. It was also applied to other electric scanning probe microscopy techniques such as scanning spreading resistance microscopy and scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy. Their depth profiles of carrier concentration were found to be in good agreement with those characterized by SCM. These results suggest that our proposed method will be compatible with future next-generation microscopy. (paper)

  10. Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell using Cr doped Cu-Zn-Se type chalcopyrite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D. Paul; Venkateswaran, C. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India); Ganesan, S.; Suthanthiraraj, S. Austin; Maruthamuthu, P. [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Kovendhan, M. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Chalcopyrites are a versatile class of semiconductors known for their potential in photovoltaic applications. Considering the well established CuInSe{sub 2} as a prototype system, a new compound of the chalcopyrite type, Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-y}Se{sub 2-{delta}}, by replacing In with Zn, has been prepared (both undoped and 2% Cr doped) by the metallurgical method. Thin films have been deposited by the thermal evaporation technique using the stabilized polycrystalline compounds as charge. Structural, compositional, morphological, and optical properties of the films are analyzed and reported. Use of these films as electrodes in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. MODELLING CHALCOPYRITE LEACHING BY Fe+3 IONS WITH THE SHRINKING CORE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rangel Porcaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chalcopyrite leaching by ferric iron is considered a slow process with low copper recovery; a phenomenon ascribed to the passivation of the mineral surface during leaching. Thus, the current study investigated the leaching kinetics of a high purity chalcopyrite sample in the presence of ferric sulfate as oxidant. The effects of the stirring rate, temperature, Eh and Fe3+ concentration on copper extraction were assessed. The leaching data could be described by the shirking core model (SCM for particles of unchanging size and indicated diffusion in the ash layer as the rate-controlling step with a high activation energy (103.9±6.5kJ/mol; likely an outcome of neglecting the effect of particle size distribution (PSD on the kinetics equations. Both the application of the quasi-steady-state assumption to solid-liquid systems and the effect of the particle size distribution on the interpretation of kinetics data are also discussed.

  12. Passivation of chalcopyrite during the leaching with sulphuric acid solution in presence of sodium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miroslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the process of the chalcopyrite leaching in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. Sodium nitrate was used as oxidant in the leaching process. Chemical reactions of leaching and their thermodynamic possibilities are predicted based on the calculated Gibbs energies and analysis of E−pH diagrams. The negative values of the Gibbs energy show that all chemical reactions are thermodynamically feasible at atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range 25-90°C. At high electrode potential and low pH values, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions exist in water solutions. The increase of temperature reduces the probability of Fe3+ ion existence in the system. The chalcopyrite concentrate, enriched in the “Rudnik” flotation plant, with 27.08% Cu, 25.12% Fe, 4.15% Zn and 2.28% Pb was used in the work. XRD and DTA analysis of the concentrate reveals that the sample contains mainly the chalcopyrite with small amount of sphalerite. For the description of the reaction of leaching process the leach residuals, obtained at different conditions, were chosen for XRD, TG/DTA and SEM/EDX analyses. The elemental sulphur and chalcopyrite phases identified in leach residuals confirm our prediction that the elemental sulphur is formed during the leaching process. Accordingly, elemental sulphur is the main product of the reaction, while a minor amount of sulphide sulphur is oxidized to sulphate during the leaching. The sulphur formed during the reaction was precipitated at the particle surfaces, and slowed down the leaching rate in the final stage of leaching process. In the initial stage, the reaction rate was controlled by the surface reaction. The mechanism, latter has been changed into a diffusion controlled one.

  13. Raman spectroscopic study of some chalcopyrite-xanthate flotation products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andreev, GN

    2003-12-16

    Full Text Available of normal vibrations of the corresponding individual compounds. The latter facilitated the Raman spectroscopic elucidation of the reaction products formed on the chalcopyrite surface in real industrial flotation conditions with a sodium isopropyl xanthate...

  14. Effect of amino acids on bioleaching of chalcopyrite ore by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diptajeet

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... ferrooxidans. Efficiency of microbial leaching of chalcopyrite by T. ferrooxidans was investigated in the .... Devasia P, Natarajan KA, Sathyanarayana DN, Ramananda Rao G. (1993). Surface ... Effects of L-cysteine on Ni-Cu.

  15. Diffusion in copper sulphides. An experimental study of chalcocite, chalcopyrite and bornite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, R.; Bucur, R.V.

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion measurements on three copper-containing sulphides have been performed by an electrochemical potentiometric method. Chalcocite (Cu 2 S), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2 ) and Bornite (Cu 5 FeS 4 ) were synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction. The diffusivities were measured on compacted powders yielding both the chemical and the component diffusion coefficients in the temperature range 5-50 C. The chemical diffusion coefficients found were: for Chalcocite 38.7*exp (-5600/T), for Chalcopyrite 15.4*exp(-6000/T) and for Bornite 14.4*exp(-4900/T). The diffusion coefficient for Chalcocite is in good agreement with values found previously, and a reasonable agreement is also found for Chalcopyrite and Bornite when our data are compared with values acquired at much higher temperatures with a different technique. The activation energies (here on a Kelvin scale) are remarkably similar for the three sulfides, considering that their relative errors are of a 10% magnitude, which indicates that the bonding strengths and the diffusion mechanisms are similar. The chemical diffusion coefficients which enter the empirical Fick's diffusion laws that describe concentration changes, are of the order of exp(-8) to exp (-7) cm 2 /s at room temperature. Such values bring the ion mobilities near values found for solid state 'fast ion conductors', used as electrolytes at elevated temperatures. 17 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Diffusion in copper sulphides. An experimental study of chalcocite, chalcopyrite and bornite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R; Bucur, R V [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Chemistry

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion measurements on three copper-containing sulphides have been performed by an electrochemical potentiometric method. Chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) and Bornite (Cu{sub 5}FeS{sub 4}) were synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction. The diffusivities were measured on compacted powders yielding both the chemical and the component diffusion coefficients in the temperature range 5-50 C. The chemical diffusion coefficients found were: for Chalcocite 38.7*exp (-5600/T), for Chalcopyrite 15.4*exp(-6000/T) and for Bornite 14.4*exp(-4900/T). The diffusion coefficient for Chalcocite is in good agreement with values found previously, and a reasonable agreement is also found for Chalcopyrite and Bornite when our data are compared with values acquired at much higher temperatures with a different technique. The activation energies (here on a Kelvin scale) are remarkably similar for the three sulfides, considering that their relative errors are of a 10% magnitude, which indicates that the bonding strengths and the diffusion mechanisms are similar. The chemical diffusion coefficients which enter the empirical Fick`s diffusion laws that describe concentration changes, are of the order of exp(-8) to exp (-7) cm{sup 2}/s at room temperature. Such values bring the ion mobilities near values found for solid state `fast ion conductors`, used as electrolytes at elevated temperatures. 17 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  17. Characterizations of Some Semi magnetic Chalcopyrite Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrag, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Cd 1-x Zn x Se (x=0, 0.5 and 1) and Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 X 0.02 Se (X= Mn, Fe and Co) semiconductor and semi magnetic semiconductor compounds were prepared in the bulk form by melt quenching technique in ice water. Thin films of thickness 300 nm have been deposited on ultra cleaned soda lime glass substrates, at room temperature by thermal evaporation technique. The structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd 1-x Zn x Se (x=0, 0.5 and 1) and Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 X 0.02 Se (X= Mn, Fe and Co) thin film samples have been studied. ESR and magnetic properties of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 X 0.02 Se (X= Mn, Fe and Co) powder samples also have been studied. The structural properties of Cd 1-x Zn x Se (x=0, 0.5 and 1) and Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 X 0.02 Se (X= Mn, Fe and Co) thin film and powder samples have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The crystal structure, lattice parameters, grain size, micro strain and dislocation density were determined from the X- ray diffraction patterns of the investigated samples. The optical properties of the investigated thin film samples were studied. Transmittance and reflectance were measured in wavelength range from 400 nm to 2500 nm and used to calculate the optical constants like absorption coefficient, refractive index and optical band gap. The obtained values of the optical band gap illustrated that the films exhibit direct band gap. The analysis of the obtained values of the refractive index yielded the high frequency dielectric constant and other optical dispersion parameters. The photon energy dependence of the relaxation time, dissipation factor and optical conductivity of the investigated thin film samples were studied also. The temperature dependence of dc conductivity for the investigated thin films was studied in temperature range from 300 K to 420 K. The obtained results showed that there are two different conduction mechanisms with two different values of activation energy in the defined temperature range. The temperature

  18. Processes for chalcopyrite-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Ennaoui, A.; Fischer, C.-H.; Jaeger-Waldau, A.; Klaer, J.; Klenk, R.; Koenenkamp, R.; Matthes, T.; Scheer, R.; Siebentritt, S.; Weidinger, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    2000-02-21

    This contribution deals with the investigations of chalcopyrite solar cells. Main attention is paid to absorber materials with band gaps larger than 1.5 eV. Besides the different efforts to modify and optimise stoichiometric CuInS{sub 2} films, novel deposition technologies for CuGaSe{sub 2} films and buffer layers as well as alternative buffer layers were studied and compared. With ZnSe as alternative buffer layer on Cu(InGa)(S,Se){sub 2} absorbers developed by SSI Camarillo and Siemens Solar, Munich, total area efficiencies up to 13.7% and active area efficiencies up to 15.7% could be reached, respectively. For CuInS{sub 2} two important results were achieved. The efficiency of Cu-poor CuInS{sub 2} cells could be increased to 8.3%. Standard Cu-rich prepared devices led to a new record efficiency of 12.5%. (orig.)

  19. Electronic structure of epitaxial chalcopyrite surfaces and interfaces for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This thesis constitutes a comprehensive study of the surface physics of epitaxial CuInSe 2 films. It comprises analyses of the surface morphology and reconstruction, electronic band structure as well as hetero-junctions relevant to photovoltaic applications. Therefore, especially the aspect of stoichiometry variation from the CuInSe 2 to the copper-deficient defect phases was considered. Preparation and analysis was completely performed under ultra-high vacuum conditions in order to ensure the investigation of well-defined samples free of contaminants. For some of the analysis techniques, single-crystalline samples are indispensable: They allow for the determination of surface periodicity by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). In combination with concentration depth profiling by angle-resolved x-ray photoemission, to types of surface reconstructions could be distinguished for the near-stoichiometric CuInSe 2 (112) surface. In the copper-rich case, it is stabilized by Cu In anti-site defects and on the indium-rich side by 2 V Cu defects, as predicted by surface total energy calculations by Jaffe and Zunger. Both configurations correspond to a c(4 x 2) reconstruction of the zinc blende type (111) surface. For the defect compound CuIn 3 Se 5 , a sphalerite order of the surface was found, which points at a weakening or absence of the chalcopyrite order in the bulk of the material. The unusual stability of the (112) surface could also be proven by comparison with the reconstruction and surface order of (001) and (220) surfaces. The results from surface analysis were used to measure the valence band structure of the epitaxial samples by synchrotron-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The CuInSe 2 (001) surface gives access to the high symmetry directions Γ-T and Γ-N of momentum space. By contrasting the data obtained for the stoichiometric surface with the copper-poor defect compound, a reduction of the valence band dispersion and a broadening of

  20. Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain Cutipay enhances chalcopyrite bioleaching under moderate thermophilic conditions in the presence of chloride ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-Fazzini, Roberto A; Cortés, Maria Paz; Maass, Alejandro; Parada, Pilar

    2014-12-01

    Currently more than 90% of the world's copper is obtained through sulfide mineral processing. Among the copper sulfides, chalcopyrite is the most abundant and therefore economically relevant. However, primary copper sulfide bioleaching is restricted due to high ionic strength raffinate solutions and particularly chloride coming from the dissolution of ores. In this work we describe the chalcopyrite bioleaching capacity of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain Cutipay (DSM 27601) previously described at the genomic level (Travisany et al. (2012) Draft genome sequence of the Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Cutipay strain, an indigenous bacterium isolated from a naturally extreme mining environment in Northern Chile. J Bacteriol 194:6327-6328). Bioleaching assays with the mixotrophic strain Cutipay showed a strong increase in copper recovery from chalcopyrite concentrate at 50°C in the presence of chloride ion, a relevant inhibitory element present in copper bioleaching processes. Compared to the abiotic control and a test with Sulfobacillus acidophilus DSM 10332, strain Cutipay showed an increase of 42 and 69% in copper recovery, respectively, demonstrating its high potential for chalcopyrite bioleaching. Moreover, a genomic comparison highlights the presence of the 2-Haloacid dehalogenase predicted-protein related to a potential new mechanism of chloride resistance in acidophiles. This novel and industrially applicable strain is under patent application CL 2013-03335.

  1. Concentration-elastic-stress instabilities in the distribution of ions and neutral particles in the insulator layer at the semiconductor surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dman, E. I.

    2006-01-01

    Mobile impurities in the form of ions and neutral associations are present in the insulator films that isolate the semiconductor from the metal electrode. If temperatures and the polarizing electric field are sufficiently high, impurities concentrate at the insulator-semiconductor interface where they exchange electrons with the semiconductor. It is shown that the pairwise interaction of particles via the field of elastic stresses caused by the concentration-related expansion of the insulator can give rise to an instability in the impurity distribution that is uniform over the contact. The stationary small-scale ordering of the particles over the contact of the insulator with the semiconductor arises in the solution of point defects, which is accompanied by annular flows of the particles

  2. Peculiarities of the determination of shallow impurity concentrations in semiconductors from the analysis of exciton luminescence spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Glinchuk, K D

    2002-01-01

    An analysis was made of the applicability limits of the method for the determination of the content of shallow acceptors and donors in semiconductors from the ratio of the low-temperature (T = 1.8-4.2 K) luminescence intensities of exciton bands, in particular, induces by radiative annihilation of excitons bound to acceptors (donors) and free excitons. It is shown that correct data about the concentrations of shallow acceptors and donors as well as data on changes in their content as a result of various treatments may be obtained if the occupancy of the defects in question by holes and electrons does not depend on the excitation intensity or external treatments. A way to check the fulfillment of criteria for the method application is suggested. An example is given is given of the method application for determination of thermally stimulated changes in the concentration of shallow acceptors and donors in gallium arsenide

  3. Selective separation of pyrite and chalcopyrite by biomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraprabha, M N; Natarajan, K A; Modak, Jayant M

    2004-09-01

    Selective separation of pyrite from other associated ferrous sulphides at acidic and neutral pH has been a challenging problem. This paper discusses the utility of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans for the selective flotation of chalcopyrite from pyrite. Consequent to interaction with bacterial cells, pyrite remained depressed even in the presence of potassium isopropyl xanthate collector while chalcopyrite exhibited significant flotability. However, when the minerals were conditioned together, the selectivity achieved was poor due to the activation of pyrite surface by the copper ions in solution. The selectivity was improved when the sequence of conditioning with bacterial cells and collector was reversed, since the bacterial cells were able to depress collector interacted pyrite effectively, while having negligible effect on chalcopyrite. The observed behaviour is analysed and discussed in detail. The separation obtained was significant both at acidic and alkaline pH. This selectivity achieved was retained when the minerals were interacted with both bacterial cells and collector simultaneously.

  4. Fe concentration dependence of tunneling magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions using group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor GeFe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Takiguchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Group-IV-based ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge1−xFex (GeFe is one of the most promising materials for spin injection/detection in Si and Ge. In this paper, we demonstrate a systematic study of tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs composed of Fe/MgO/Ge1−xFex with various Fe concentrations (x = 0.065, 0.105, 0.140, and 0.175. With increasing x, the TMR ratio increases up to 1.5% when x≤ 0.105, and it decreases when x> 0.105. This is the first observation of the TMR ratio over 1% in MTJs containing a group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor. With increasing x, while the Curie temperature of GeFe increases, the MgO surface becomes rougher, which is thought to be the cause of the upper limit of the TMR ratio. The quality of the MgO layer on GeFe is an important factor for further improvement of TMR in Fe/MgO/GeFe MTJs.

  5. Radon concentration and exhalation measurements with semiconductor detector and electrostatic precipitator working in a closed circulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, M.; Morawska, L.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus is described and a method presented for the determination of concentration of radon emanated from solid and liquid samples. In this method an object or a sample of air is closed in an hermetically sealed chamber. The air contaminated by radon and its daughters is circulated in a closed system a few times through an electrostatic precipitator mounted in one housing with a semiconductor Si Li detector. The concentration of radon is determined by the alpha activity measurement of its daughters. The sensitivity of the apparatus is very high. While calculating a radon concentration from an activity measurement of RaA (fast method) the sensitivity is about 0.07 pCi/l and when measuring the activity of RaC' (slow method) it is 0.008 pCi/l. Due to the application of an electrostatic precipitator and a silicon detector it is possible to perform alpha spectrometric measurements and thus separate activities of RaA, RaC', and ThC and to calculate 222 Rn or 220 Rn concentrations. The efficiency of RaA, RaB, RaC, ThB and ThC collection is constant, due to the method involving the circulation of the air through the electrostatic precipitator several times. (author)

  6. New SRDN-3 probes with a semi-conductor detector for measuring radon activity concentration in underground spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przylibski, T.A.; Lidia Fijalkowska-Lichwa; Elzbieta Kochowska; Krzysztof Kozak; Jadwiga Mazur

    2010-01-01

    The article presents new Polish probes SRDN-3, developed at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw, equipped with a semi-conductor detector used for continuous measurements of 222 Rn activity concentration. Due to a relatively high lower detection limit, the device is dedicated for use in underground spaces-caves, adits, mines, tourist routes in strongholds, pyramids, etc. Its structure allows for difficult conditions in which the device is transported to the measurement site, as well as hard operating conditions caused chiefly by large ambient relative humidity, reaching up to 100%. The authors present calibration results of these appliances, as well as the results of their work in a cave and an adit in the Sudetes (SW Poland). After almost 2 years of working in difficult conditions, the probes displayed high reliability. No defects of the semi-conductor detectors or the electronics were observed, which ensured problem-free communication of the probe-programmer-PC set. Thanks to this, the authors have a 2 year stock of data, recorded hourly by five probes, at their disposal. The only element that did not withstand the test of extreme operating conditions was one of the combined relative humidity and temperature sensors. No powering problems were observed either, and the batteries were replaced once a year, before the winter season. Also the programmer functioned faultlessly, enabling data transmission to a PC, which, being much more sensitive to operating conditions, had been placed away from the site of probe exposure. After using more sensitive temperature, relative humidity and pressure sensors, SRDN-3 probes will certainly prove an excellent tool for microclimate measurements (including measurement of air-atmosphere exchange) in caves and other underground sites. Even nowadays they are already a satisfactory tool for monitoring 222 Rn concentration in underground spaces. (author)

  7. Electrochemical dissolution of chalcopyrite studied by voltammetry of immobilized microparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, L.; Lux, L.; Grygar, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2006), s. 293-296 ISSN 0366-6352 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) No1/1108/04; APVT(SK) No20-009404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : chalcopyrite * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2006

  8. Modelling of chalcopyrite oxidation reactions in the Outokumpu flash smelting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokainen, T.; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    A mathematical model for simulating oxidation reactions of chalcopyrite particles together with momentum, heat and mass transfer between particle and gas phase in a flash smelting furnace reaction shaft is presented. In simulation, the equations governing the gas flow are solved numerically with a commercial fluid flow package, Phoenics. The particle phase is introduced into the gas flow by a Particle Source In Cell (PSIC) - technique, where a number of discrete particles is tracked in a gas flow and the relevant source terms for momentum, mass, and heat transfer are added to the gas phase equations. The gas phase equations used are elliptic in nature and the fluid turbulence is described by the (k-{epsilon}) -model. Thermal gas phase radiation is simulated with a six-flux radiation model. The chemical reactions of concentrate particles are assumed to happen at two sharp interfaces, and a shrinking core model is applied to describe the mass transfer of chemical species through the reaction product layer. In a molten state, the oxygen consumption is controlled by a film penetration concept. The reacting concentrate particles are a mixture of chalcopyrite and silica. Also a certain amount of pure inert silica is fed to the process as flux. In the simulations the calculation domain includes the concentrate burner and a cylindrical reaction shaft of an industrial scale flash smelting furnace. Some examples about the simulations carried out by the combustion model are presented. (author)

  9. Modelling of chalcopyrite oxidation reactions in the Outokumpu flash smelting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokainen, T; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    A mathematical model for simulating oxidation reactions of chalcopyrite particles together with momentum, heat and mass transfer between particle and gas phase in a flash smelting furnace reaction shaft is presented. In simulation, the equations governing the gas flow are solved numerically with a commercial fluid flow package, Phoenics. The particle phase is introduced into the gas flow by a Particle Source In Cell (PSIC) - technique, where a number of discrete particles is tracked in a gas flow and the relevant source terms for momentum, mass, and heat transfer are added to the gas phase equations. The gas phase equations used are elliptic in nature and the fluid turbulence is described by the (k-{epsilon}) -model. Thermal gas phase radiation is simulated with a six-flux radiation model. The chemical reactions of concentrate particles are assumed to happen at two sharp interfaces, and a shrinking core model is applied to describe the mass transfer of chemical species through the reaction product layer. In a molten state, the oxygen consumption is controlled by a film penetration concept. The reacting concentrate particles are a mixture of chalcopyrite and silica. Also a certain amount of pure inert silica is fed to the process as flux. In the simulations the calculation domain includes the concentrate burner and a cylindrical reaction shaft of an industrial scale flash smelting furnace. Some examples about the simulations carried out by the combustion model are presented. (author)

  10. Determination of radon concentration in spring gases with a portable semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Yanaga, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Horiuchi, K.; Nakahara, H.; Murakami, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A portable integrating radon meter, alpha METER-400, was tested. The instrument detects α-rays of energy greater than 2.59 MeV. With this detector, the concentration of 222 Rn in spring gases at volcanic regions was determined. The results were compared with those observed by the liquid scintillation counting method. (author)

  11. Influence of temperature on the fixation and penetration of silver during the chalcopyrite leaching using moderate thermophilic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancho, L.; Blazquez, M. L.; Munoz, J. A.; Gonzalez, F.; Ballester, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bio leaching of chalcopyrite using mesophilic microorganisms considerable improves in the presence of silver. However, the studies carried out with moderate thermophilic microorganisms do not show a significant improvement with regard to the use of mesophilic bacteria. The main objective of the present work has been to study the silver fixation on chalcopyrite ar 35 and 45 degree centigree and its influence on the microbiological attack. Different observations using SEM, EDS microanalysis and concentration profiles using electron microprobe have been carried out. The study of the different samples showed that silver fixation was more favourable at 35 degree centigree than at 45 degree centigree. In addition, bacterial action improved silver penetration through attack cracks. (Author)

  12. Effect of pH values on the extracellular polysaccharide secreted by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans during chalcopyrite bioleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run-lan; Liu, Jing; Tan, Jian-xi; Zeng, Wei-min; Shi, Li-juan; Gu, Guo-hua; Qin, Wen-qing; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2014-04-01

    The pH value plays an important role in the bioleaching of sulphide minerals. The effect of pH values on the extracellular polysaccharide secreted by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated in different phases of bacterial growth during chalcopyrite bioleaching. It is found that extracellular polysaccharide secretion from the cells attached to chalcopyrite is more efficiently than that of the free cells in the bioleaching solution. Three factors, pH values, the concentration of soluble metal ions, and the bacterial growth and metabolism, affect extracellular polysaccharide secretion in the free cells, and are related to the bacterial growth phase. Extracellular polysaccharide secretion from the attached cells is mainly dependent on the pH value of the bacterial culture.

  13. The dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in amorphous semiconductors on paramagnetic centre concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, A.F.; Mashin, A.I.; Satanin, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In silicon amorphized by ion implantation (a-Si) the dependence of magnetic ordering temperature (theta) on localized spin concentration (Nsub(s)) is studied by EPR method. Nsub(s) changes by varying the Ne + ion dose from 6x10 14 to 2x10 17 cm -2 and sample annealing. From the comparison of the data obtained with literature ones conclusions are made about the existence of two critical values of Nsub(s) in a-Si (approximately 10 19 and approximately 2x10 20 cm -3 ), when a transition occurs from paramagnetism to antiferromagnetism (at T < theta) and from antiferromagnetism to ferromagnetism, respectively. (author)

  14. Basic Research Opportunities in Cu-Chalcopyrite Photovoltaics: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, A.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Kapur, V.; Wei, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review is presented of fundamental research topics of primary importance to the development of improved solar cells based on chalcopyrite-structure materials. The opinions presented are a consensus opinion of the authors of the paper, with input from members of the chalcopyrite solar cells research community in the United States. Major topical areas identified included, in order of importance, are (1) development of an integrated predictive understanding of CIGS(S) materials and devices, (2) development of novel deposition techniques and characterization of the mechanisms of growth in existing and novel processes, (3) novel materials, especially with wide-energy gaps (is greater than or equal to 1.7 eV) other than Cu-based chalcopyrites, (4) development of real-time material characterizations for process control, and (5) alternative front- and rear-contact materials. Although the five topics identified are quite broad, they do not include all topics of interest. Also discussed briefly are some other potential research areas not in the highest priority topics, in particular, areas identified as primarily ''engineering'' rather than ''science.''

  15. Heterocoagulation of chalcopyrite and pyrite minerals in flotation separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Timothy K; Nguyen, Anh V; Evans, Geoffrey M

    2005-06-30

    Heterocoagulation between various fine mineral particles contained within a mineral suspension with different structural and surface chemistry can interfere with the ability of the flotation processes to selectively separate the minerals involved. This paper examines the interactions between chalcopyrite (a copper mineral) and pyrite (an iron mineral often bearing gold) as they approach each other in suspensions with added chemicals, and relates the results to the experimental data for the flotation recovery and selectivity. The heterocoagulation was experimentally studied using the electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) technique and was modelled by incorporating colloidal forces, including the van der Waals, electrostatic double layer and hydrophobic forces. The ELS results indicated that pyrite has a positive zeta potential (zeta) up to its isoelectric point (IEP) at approximately pH 2.2, while chalcopyrite has a positive zeta up to its IEP at approximately pH 5.5. This produces heterocoagulation of chalcopyrite with pyrite between pH 2.2 and pH 5.5. The heterocoagulation was confirmed by the ELS spectra measured with a ZetaPlus instrument from Brookhaven and by small-scale flotation experiments.

  16. Effects of pyrite and sphalerite on population compositions, dynamics and copper extraction efficiency in chalcopyrite bioleaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Xueduan; Dong, Weiling; Liang, Yili; Niu, Jiaojiao; Gu, Yabing; Ma, Liyuan; Hao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Huaqun

    2017-07-01

    This study used an artificial microbial community with four known moderately thermophilic acidophiles (three bacteria including Acidithiobacillus caldus S1, Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans ST and Leptospirillum ferriphilum YSK, and one archaea, Ferroplasma thermophilum L1) to explore the variation of microbial community structure, composition, dynamics and function (e.g., copper extraction efficiency) in chalcopyrite bioleaching (C) systems with additions of pyrite (CP) or sphalerite (CS). The community compositions and dynamics in the solution and on the ore surface were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that the addition of pyrite or sphalerite changed the microbial community composition and dynamics dramatically during the chalcopyrite bioleaching process. For example, A. caldus (above 60%) was the dominant species at the initial stage in three groups, and at the middle stage, still dominated C group (above 70%), but it was replaced by L. ferriphilum (above 60%) in CP and CS groups; at the final stage, L. ferriphilum dominated C group, while F. thermophilum dominated CP group on the ore surface. Furthermore, the additions of pyrite or sphalerite both made the increase of redox potential (ORP) and the concentrations of Fe 3+ and H + , which would affect the microbial community compositions and copper extraction efficiency. Additionally, pyrite could enhance copper extraction efficiency (e.g., improving around 13.2% on day 6) during chalcopyrite bioleaching; on the contrary, sphalerite restrained it.

  17. Surface characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry of products formed during the potentiostatic reduction of chalcopyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, Dora; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Leinen, Dietmar; Ramos-Barrado, Jose R.

    2008-01-01

    Surface characterization of the transient products that precede chalcocite formation during chalcopyrite reduction was carried out. The experimental strategy employed in the present work consisted of the application of different potential pulses (fixed energetic conditions) on the surface of chalcopyrite electrodes in 1.7 M H 2 SO 4 . The chemical products formed at different potential pulses were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and XPS. Each electrogenerated species presented a specific voltammetric behavior and an XPS spectrum, in which the values of principal photoelectronic peak bond energies for Cu 2p 3/2 , Fe 2p 3/2 and S 2p 3/2 and the atomic concentrations were considered. Several potential intervals could be identified: in 0.115 ≥ E cat ≥ -0.085 V vs. SHE, an intermediate copper sulfide is formed whose composition is between those of chalcopyrite and bornite, such as talnakhite. The reduction of this product occurs slowly, giving bornite at potentials less than -0.085 V. In the applied potential region -0.085 ≥ E cat > -0.185 V, the bornite gradually decomposes causing the incomplete conversion to chalcocite. In the potential interval -0.185 > E cat ≥ -0.285 V, energetic conditions are large enough to allow the immediate decomposition of bornite, forming chalcocite in a more quantitative manner

  18. Synergistic bioleaching of chalcopyrite and bornite in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Wang, Jun; Hu, Minghao; Qin, Wenqing; Zhang, Yansheng; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2013-12-01

    Bioleaching of chalcopyrite and bornite in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was carried out to investigate the influences between each other during bioleaching. Bioleaching results indicated that bornite accelerated the dissolution of chalcopyrite, and chalcopyrite also accelerated the dissolution of bornite, it could be described as a synergistic effect during bioleaching, this synergistic effect might be attributed to the galvanic effect between chalcopyrite and bornite, and to the relatively low solution potential as the addition of bornite. Significantly amount of elemental sulfur and jarosite formed on the minerals surface might be the main passivation film inhibiting the further dissolution, and the amount of elemental sulfur significantly increased with the addition of bornite. Results of electrochemical measurements indicated that the oxidation and reduction mechanisms of chalcopyrite and bornite were similar, the addition of bornite or chalcopyrite did not change the oxidative and reductive mechanisms, but increased the oxidation rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interface temperature and surface energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wen

    Full Text Available The microwave-assisted leaching was a new approach to intensify the copper recovery from chalcopyrite by hydrometallurgy. In this work, the effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interfacial reaction temperature and surface energy were investigated. The activation energy of chalcopyrite leaching was affected indistinctively by the microwave-assisted heating (39.1 kJ/mol compared with the conventional heating (43.9 kJ/mol. However, the boiling point of the leaching system increased through microwave-assisted heating. Because of the improved boiling point and the selective heating of microwave, the interfacial reaction temperature increased significantly, which gave rise to the increase of the leaching recovery of copper. Moreover, the surface energy of the chalcopyrite through microwave-assisted heating was also enhanced, which was beneficial to strengthen the leaching of chalcopyrite. Keywords: Microwave-assisted heating, Chalcopyrite, Leaching kinetics, Interface temperature, Surface energy

  20. Suppression of antiferromagnetic interactions through Cu vacancies in Mn-substituted CuInSe2 chalcopyrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jinlei; Brunetta, Carl D; Aitken, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Stoichiometric and Cu-poor Cu 0.95-x Mn 0.05 InSe 2 (x = 0-0.20) compounds were synthesized by high-temperature, solid-state reactions. The presence of copper vacancies is revealed by Rietveld refinements of combined neutron and x-ray powder diffraction data. The antiferromagnetic interaction is depressed by the copper deficiency, which may be explained as the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Se-eMn superexchange interaction and the hole-mediated ferromagnetic exchange induced by the copper vacancy. The introduction of copper vacancies is proposed to be a viable route to impart carrier-mediated ferromagnetic exchange in the chalcopyrite-based dilute magnetic semiconductors. (paper)

  1. A stochastic model of solid state thin film deposition: Application to chalcopyrite growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Lovelett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing high fidelity quantitative models of solid state reaction systems can be challenging, especially in deposition systems where, in addition to the multiple competing processes occurring simultaneously, the solid interacts with its atmosphere. In this work, we develop a model for the growth of a thin solid film where species from the atmosphere adsorb, diffuse, and react with the film. The model is mesoscale and describes an entire film with thickness on the order of microns. Because it is stochastic, the model allows us to examine inhomogeneities and agglomerations that would be impossible to characterize with deterministic methods. We demonstrate the modeling approach with the example of chalcopyrite Cu(InGa(SeS2 thin film growth via precursor reaction, which is a common industrial method for fabricating thin film photovoltaic modules. The model is used to understand how and why through-film variation in the composition of Cu(InGa(SeS2 thin films arises and persists. We believe that the model will be valuable as an effective quantitative description of many other materials systems used in semiconductors, energy storage, and other fast-growing industries.

  2. Saline-water bioleaching of chalcopyrite with thermophilic, iron(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Helen R; Collinson, David M; Corbett, Melissa K; Shiers, Denis W; Kaksonen, Anna H; Watkin, Elizabeth L J

    2016-09-01

    The application of thermoacidophiles for chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) bioleaching in hot, acidic, saline solution was investigated as a possible process route for rapid Cu extraction. The study comprised a discussion of protective mechanisms employed for the survival and/or adaptation of thermoacidophiles to osmotic stress, a compilation of chloride tolerances for three genera of thermoacidophiles applied in bioleaching and an experimental study of the activities of three species in a saline bioleaching system. The data showed that the oxidation rates of iron(II) and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (tetrathionate) were reduced in the presence of chloride levels well below chloride concentrations in seawater, limiting the applicability of these microorganisms in the bioleaching of CuFeS2 in saline water. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Co-Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite and Silver-Bearing Bornite in a Mixed Moderately Thermophilic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congren Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chalcopyrite and bornite are two important copper minerals, and they often coexist. In this study, the co-bioleaching of chalcopyrite and silver-bearing bornite by mixed moderately thermophilic culture at 50 °C was investigated. The bioleaching results show that the extraction percentage of Cu for co-bioleaching of chalcopyrite (Ccp and silver-bearing bornite (Bn (Ccp/Bn = 3:1 was 94.6%. Compared to bioleaching of chalcopyrite or silver-bearing bornite alone, the Cu extraction percentage was greatly enhanced when they were bioleached together. The leaching residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Silver-bearing bornite dissolved preferentially compared to chalcopyrite, due to galvanic interactions. Simultaneously, Ag+ was released from the silver-bearing bornite into solution. Ag2S formed on the surface because Cu and Fe in the chalcopyrite were replaced by Ag+, accelerating chalcopyrite dissolution and enrichment of Ag on the surface of the chalcopyrite.

  4. Insights into the relation between adhesion force and chalcopyrite-bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianyu; Wang, Qianfen; Zhou, Shuang; Li, Qian; Gan, Min; Jiang, Hao; Qin, Wenqing; Liu, Xueduan; Hu, Yuehua; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a study on the relation between bacterial adhesion force and bioleaching rate of chalcopyrite, which sheds light on the influence of interfacial interaction on bioleaching behavior. In our research, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) were adapted to grow with FeSO4 · 7H2O, element sulfur or chalcopyrite. Then, surface properties of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and chalcopyrite were analyzed by contact angle, zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adhesion force between bacteria and chalcopyrite was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Attachment and bioleaching behaviors were also monitored. The results showed that A. ferrooxidans adapted with chalcopyrite exhibited the strongest adhesion force to chalcopyrite and the highest bioleaching rate. Culture adapted with sulfur bacteria took second place and FeSO4 · 7H2O-adapted bacteria were the lowest. Bioleaching rate and bacterial attachment capacity were positively related to bacterial adhesion force, which is affected by the nature of energy source. According to this work, the attachment of bacteria to chalcopyrite surface is one of the most important aspects that influence the bioleaching process of chalcopyrite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenol Removal by a Novel Non-Photo-Dependent Semiconductor Catalyst in a Pilot-Scaled Study: Effects of Initial Phenol Concentration, Light, and Catalyst Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-photo-dependent semiconductor catalyst (CT was employed to degrade phenol in the present pilot-scaled study. Effect of operational parameters such as phenol initial concentration, light area, and catalyst loading on phenol degradation, was compared between CT catalyst and the conventional photocatalyst titanium dioxide. CT catalyst excelled titanium dioxide in treating and mineralizing low-level phenol, under both mild UV radiation and thunder conditions of nonphoton. The result suggested that CT catalyst could be applied in circumstances when light is not easily accessible in pollutant-carrying media (e.g., particles, cloudy water, and colored water.

  6. Analysis of a data base of chalcopyrite semiconductors in 2 and 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of the data is currently, in the statisticians, the object of a true phenomenon of mode, characterized at the same time by the passion and the rejection. To determine the characteristics of a whole of data is obviously not an end in itself, but this lapse of memory is unfortunate because the type of data available ...

  7. Computational Study of Chalcopyrite Semiconductors and Their Non-Linear Optical Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambrecht, Walter R

    2007-01-01

    ... (Including cation antisites, cation and anion vacancies) and CdGeAs2; a study of the feasibility of nonciritical phase matching and associated nonlinear optical parameters in CdSiP2 and CdSIAs2...

  8. Complete genome sequence of Acidihalobacter prosperus strain F5, an extremely acidophilic, iron- and sulfur-oxidizing halophile with potential industrial applicability in saline water bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleque, Himel N; Corbett, Melissa K; Ramsay, Joshua P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Boxall, Naomi J; Watkin, Elizabeth L J

    2017-11-20

    Successful process development for the bioleaching of mineral ores, particularly the refractory copper sulfide ore chalcopyrite, remains a challenge in regions where freshwater is scarce and source water contains high concentrations of chloride ion. In this study, a pure isolate of Acidihalobacter prosperus strain F5 was characterized for its ability to leach base metals from sulfide ores (pyrite, chalcopyrite and pentlandite) at increasing chloride ion concentrations. F5 successfully released base metals from ores including pyrite and pentlandite at up to 30gL -1 chloride ion and chalcopyrite up to 18gL -1 chloride ion. In order to understand the genetic mechanisms of tolerance to high acid, saline and heavy metal stress the genome of F5 was sequenced and analysed. As well as being the first strain of Ac. prosperus to be isolated from Australia it is also the first complete genome of the Ac. prosperus species to be sequenced. The F5 genome contains genes involved in the biosynthesis of compatible solutes and genes encoding monovalent cation/proton antiporters and heavy metal transporters which could explain its abilities to tolerate high salinity, acidity and heavy metal stress. Genome analysis also confirmed the presence of genes involved in copper tolerance. The study demonstrates the potential biotechnological applicability of Ac. prosperus strain F5 for saline water bioleaching of mineral ores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dissolution characteristics of sericite in chalcopyrite bioleaching and its effect on copper extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying-bo; Li, Hao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of sericite particle size, rotation speed, and leaching temperature on sericite dissolution and copper extraction in a chalcopyrite bioleaching system were examined. Finer particles, appropriate temperature and rotation speed for Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans resulted in a higher Al3+ dissolution concentration. The Al3+ dissolution concentration reached its highest concentration of 38.66 mg/L after 48-d leaching when the sericite particle size, temperature, and rotation speed were -43 μm, 30°C, and 160 r/min, respectively. Meanwhile, the sericite particle size, rotation speed, and temperature can affect copper extraction. The copper extraction rate is higher when the sericite particle size is finer. An appropriately high temperature is favorable for copper leaching. The dissolution of sericite fitted the shrinking core model, 1-(2/3) α-(1- α)2/3 = k 1 t, which indicates that internal diffusion is the decision step controlling the overall reaction rate in the leaching process. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed small precipitates covered on the surface of sericite after leaching, which increased the diffusion resistance of the leaching solution and dissolved ions.

  10. Schottky contact analysis of photovoltaic chalcopyrite thin film absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, E.; Mertens, V.; Parisi, J.; Reineke-Koch, R.; Koentges, M.

    2007-01-01

    Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements serve to analyze thermally evaporated Al Schottky contacts on Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 based photovoltaic thin film devices, either taken as grown or etched in a bromine-methanol solution. The characteristics of the Schottky contacts on the as-grown films give evidence for some dielectric layer developing between the metal and the semiconductor. Etching the semiconductor surface prior to evaporation of the Al front contact yields a pure metal-semiconductor behavior, including effects that can be attributed to an additional diode at the Mo contact. Simulations confirm the experimental results

  11. Bioleaching of chalcopyrite and bornite by moderately thermophilic bacteria: an emphasis on their interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-bo; Wang, Jun; Gan, Xiao-wen; Qin, Wen-qing; Hu, Ming-hao; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2015-08-01

    Interactions between chalcopyrite and bornite during bioleaching by moderately thermophilic bacteria were investigated mainly by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical measurements performed in conjunction with bioleaching experiments. The results showed that a synergistic effect existed between chalcopyrite and bornite during bioleaching by both Acidithiobacillus caldus and Leptospirillum ferriphilum and that extremely high copper extraction could be achieved when chalcopyrite and bornite coexisted in a bioleaching system. Bornite dissolved preferentially because of its lower corrosion potential, and its dissolution was accelerated by the galvanic current during the initial stage of bioleaching. The galvanic current and optimum redox potential of 390-480 mV vs. Ag/AgCl promoted the reduction of chalcopyrite to chalcocite (Cu2S), thus accelerating its dissolution.

  12. Bioleaching of two different genetic types of chalcopyrite and their comparative mineralogical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sha; Gu, Guohua; Ji, Jing; Xu, Baoke

    2018-02-01

    The bioleaching of two different genetic types of chalcopyrite by the moderate thermophile Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans was investigated by leaching behaviors elucidation and their comparative mineralogical assessment. The leaching experiment showed that the skarn-type chalcopyrite (STC) revealed a much faster leaching rate with 33.34% copper extracted finally, while only 23.53% copper was bioleached for the porphyry-type chalcopyrite (PTC). The mineralogical properties were analyzed by XRD, SEM, XPS, and Fermi energy calculation. XRD indicated that the unit cell volume of STC was a little larger than that of PTC. SEM indicated that the surface of STC had more steps and ridges. XPS spectra showed that Cu(I) was the dominant species of copper on the surfaces of the two chalcopyrite samples, and STC had much more copper with lower Cu 2p 3/2 binding energy. Additionally, the Fermi energy of STC was much higher than that of PTC. These mineralogical differences were in good agreement with the bioleaching behaviors of chalcopyrite. This study will provide some new information for evaluating the oxidation kinetics of chalcopyrite.

  13. Synthesis of nanoparticle emulsion collector HNP and its application in microfine chalcopyrite flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, G. C.; Ding, J.; Huang, C. H.; Kang, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophobic polystyrene nanoparticles bearing thiazole groups named HNP were used as collectors to improve recovery of microfine chalcopyrite in flotation. HNP adsorbs onto microfine particles selectively, which were modified hydrophobically to induce flotation effectively. Particle size and scanning electron microscope analysis for HNP show that HNP is a spherical nano particles with small size, uniform distribution and good dispersion. Infrared spectrum analysis for HNP proved that functional monomer 2-mercapto styrene acrylic thiazole was bonded chemically onto styrene. Flotation test results indicate that HNP is the right collector of chalcopyrite. Especially, the recovery of chalcopyrite is higher than 95% in neutral and acid media. FTIR results reveal that the flotation selectivity of collector HNP is due to strong chemical absorption onto chalcopyrite surface. Zeta potential analysis shows that the zeta potential of chalcopyrite decreased more quickly after interaction with HNP with the increase of pulp pH value, confirming that collector HNP is an anionic collector. Scanning electron microscope conform that HNP has good selective adsorption on chalcopyrite.

  14. The n-Cu0.9Ag0.1In3Se5 chalcopyrite, electronic as well as ionic conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R

    2008-01-01

    A resistance increase with time of the n-Cu 0.9 Ag 0.1 In 3 Se 5 chalcopyrite has been observed. This new effect is analysed in terms of a hypothesis of ion migration and Schottky barrier formation. These results might explain why different solar cell efficiencies are obtained for the chalcopyrites, CuInSe 2 and CuIn x Ga 1-x Se 2 , when an In-rich film is deposited on top of the chalcopyrite. In these solar cells, ion migration can exist and a new effect appears similar to the one observed in our compound. The ions, probably the cations, are moved by the electrical field towards the cathode. A gradient of mobile ions appears across the sample and the positive charge is accumulated near this electrode such that it varies the metal-semiconductor interface. This interface is a Schottky barrier where the contact potential is a function of time due to the arrival of ions. The electrical measurements have been carried out on a solid state device, graphite/n-Cu 0.9 Ag 0.1 In 3 Se 5 /graphite. The current intensity and the potential drop across the sample have been measured with time when a constant electrical potential is applied for 600 s at dark or under ultraviolet illumination and at room temperature. A comparative study in similar electrical conditions is done; the current intensity difference and the potential drop across the difference (under ultraviolet illumination minus at dark) are not constant and both measurements increase with time

  15. Development of a composite collector scheme for flotation of chalcopyrite ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.M.; Ahmad, I.

    2005-01-01

    Xanthate-type collectors reported for the upgradation of Chalcopyrite ore of North Waziristan area were studied and a new technique was developed, in which -two collectors were used (composite collectors) in the bulk-stage process of froth-flotation to achieve metallurgical grade with maximum recovery. The collectors studied were thiol-type surfactants, such as sodium ethyl xanthate (NaEX), sodium propyl xanthate (NaPX), sodium butyl xanthate (NaBX) and sodium Amyl xanthate (NaAX). Mixed collectors examined were in the varying dosage ratio of (0-100:100-0) through the combination of(i) sodium ethyl xanthate with sodium propyl xanthate, sodium ethyl xanthate with sodium butyl xanthate, sodium ethyl xanthate with sodium amyl xanthate, (ii) sodium propyl xanthate with sodium butyl xanthate, sodium propyl xanthate with sodium amyl xanthate and (iii) sodium butyl xanthate with sodium amyl xanthate. All the remaining flotation parameters were kept constant during the various flotation tests. The results were compared and the conclusions were drawn that the optimum grade in the concentrate was obtained with a mixture having a ratio of 4: 1 with sodium ethyl xanthate and sodium butyl xanthate. Recovery of copper content in the concentrate was achieved with ratio of 2:3 with sodium butyl xanthate and sodium amyl xanthate. (author)

  16. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  17. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  18. Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

    2013-05-21

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  19. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans secretome containing a newly described lipoprotein Licanantase enhances chalcopyrite bioleaching rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla Fazzini, Roberto A.; Levican, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the mineral–bacteria interphase where electron and mass transfer processes occur is a key element of the bioleaching processes of sulfide minerals. This interphase is composed of proteins, metabolites, and other compounds embedded in extracellular polymeric substances mainly consisting of sugars and lipids (Gehrke et al., Appl Environ Microbiol 64(7):2743–2747, 1998). On this respect, despite Acidithiobacilli—a ubiquitous bacterial genera in bioleaching processes (Rawlings, Microb Cell Fact 4(1):13, 2005)—has long been recognized as secreting bacteria (Jones and Starkey, J Bacteriol 82:788–789, 1961; Schaeffer and Umbreit, J Bacteriol 85:492–493, 1963), few studies have been carried out in order to clarify the nature and the role of the secreted protein component: the secretome. This work characterizes for the first time the sulfur (meta)secretome of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain DSM 17318 in pure and mixed cultures with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans DSM 16786, identifying the major component of these secreted fractions as a single lipoprotein named here as Licanantase. Bioleaching assays with the addition of Licanantase-enriched concentrated secretome fractions show that this newly found lipoprotein as an active protein additive exerts an increasing effect on chalcopyrite bioleaching rate. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00253-010-3063-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21191788

  20. Effect of nickel doping concentration on structural and magnetic properties of ultrafine diluted magnetic semiconductor ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prashant K.; Dutta, Ranu K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2009-01-01

    The ZnO:Ni 2+ nanoparticles of mean size 2-12 nm were synthesized at room temperature by the simple co-precipitation method. The crystallite structure, morphology and size were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The wurtzite structure of ZnO gradually degrades with the increasing Ni doping concentration and an additional NiO-associated diffraction peak was observed above 15% of Ni 2+ doping. The change in magnetic behavior of the nanoparticles of ZnO with varying Ni 2+ doping concentration was investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Initially, these nanoparticles showed strong ferromagnetic behavior, however, at higher doping percentage of Ni 2+ , the ferromagnetic behavior was suppressed and paramagnetic nature was observed. The enhanced antiferromagnetic interaction between neighboring Ni-Ni ions suppressed the ferromagnetism at higher doping concentrations of Ni 2+ .

  1. Semiconductor-metal transitions in liquid In100-xSex alloys: A concentration-induced transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlat, G.; San Miguel, A.; Xu, H.; Aouizerat, A.; Blase, X.; Zuniga, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of In 100-x Se x liquid alloys close to their melting points have been investigated by combining x-ray-absorption experiments with ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. Extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure data have been acquired at both the In and Se K edges in a large concentration range (x=20% to x=50% of Se content). Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations have been carried out at the two most extreme concentrations explored experimentally. Liquid InSe is found to retain a semiconducting behavior which results from a low-dimensional structure, reminiscent of that of the ambient solid phase, characterized by strong In-Se interactions within tetrahedral units. On the other side, the In 80 Se 20 liquid alloy shows a metalliclike behavior which is correlated to a more dense-packed structure

  2. Interplay between hopping and band transport in high-mobility disordered semiconductors at large carrier concentrations: The case of the amorphous oxide InGaZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishchuk, I. I.; Kadashchuk, A.; Bhoolokam, A.; de Jamblinne de Meux, A.; Pourtois, G.; Gavrilyuk, M. M.; Köhler, A.; Bässler, H.; Heremans, P.; Genoe, J.

    2016-05-01

    We suggest an analytic theory based on the effective medium approximation (EMA) which is able to describe charge-carrier transport in a disordered semiconductor with a significant degree of degeneration realized at high carrier concentrations, especially relevant in some thin-film transistors (TFTs), when the Fermi level is very close to the conduction-band edge. The EMA model is based on special averaging of the Fermi-Dirac carrier distributions using a suitably normalized cumulative density-of-state distribution that includes both delocalized states and the localized states. The principal advantage of the present model is its ability to describe universally effective drift and Hall mobility in heterogeneous materials as a function of disorder, temperature, and carrier concentration within the same theoretical formalism. It also bridges a gap between hopping and bandlike transport in an energetically heterogeneous system. The key assumption of the model is that the charge carriers move through delocalized states and that, in addition to the tail of the localized states, the disorder can give rise to spatial energy variation of the transport-band edge being described by a Gaussian distribution. It can explain a puzzling observation of activated and carrier-concentration-dependent Hall mobility in a disordered system featuring an ideal Hall effect. The present model has been successfully applied to describe experimental results on the charge transport measured in an amorphous oxide semiconductor, In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO). In particular, the model reproduces well both the conventional Meyer-Neldel (MN) compensation behavior for the charge-carrier mobility and inverse-MN effect for the conductivity observed in the same a-IGZO TFT. The model was further supported by ab initio calculations revealing that the amorphization of IGZO gives rise to variation of the conduction-band edge rather than to the creation of localized states. The obtained changes agree with the one we

  3. Galvanic Interaction between Chalcopyrite and Pyrite with Low Alloy and High Carbon Chromium Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the galvanic interaction between pyrite and chalcopyrite with two types of grinding media (low alloy and high carbon chromium steel ball in grinding of a porphyry copper sulphide ore. Results indicated that injection of different gases into mill altered the oxidation-reduction environment during grinding. High carbon chromium steel ball under nitrogen gas has the lowest galvanic current, and low alloy steel ball under oxygen gas had the highest galvanic current. Also, results showed that the media is anodic relative to pyrite and chalcopyrite, and therefore pyrite or chalcopyrite with a higher rest potential acted as the cathode, whilst the grinding media with a lower rest potential acted as the anode, when they are electrochemically contacted. It was also found that low alloy steel under oxygen produced the highest amount of EDTA extractable iron in the slurry, whilst high carbon chromium steel under nitrogen atmosphere led to the lowest amount.

  4. Chalcopyrite Dissolution at 650 mV and 750 mV in the Presence of Pyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubiao Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution of chalcopyrite in association with pyrite in mine waste results in the severe environmental issue of acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD. To better understand chalcopyrite dissolution, and the impact of chalcopyrite’s galvanic interaction with pyrite, chalcopyrite dissolution has been examined at 75 °C, pH 1.0, in the presence of quartz (as an inert mineral and pyrite. The presence of pyrite increased the chalcopyrite dissolution rate by more than five times at Eh of 650 mV (SHE (Cu recovery 2.5 cf. 12% over 132 days due to galvanic interaction between chalcopyrite and pyrite. Dissolution of Cu and Fe was stoichiometric and no pyrite dissolved. Although the chalcopyrite dissolution rate at 750 mV (SHE was approximately four-fold greater (Cu recovery of 45% within 132 days as compared to at 650 mV in the presence of pyrite, the galvanic interaction between chalcopyrite and pyrite was negligible. Approximately all of the sulfur from the leached chalcopyrite was converted to S0 at 750 mV, regardless of the presence of pyrite. At this Eh approximately 60% of the sulfur associated with pyrite dissolution was oxidised to S0 and the remaining 40% was released in soluble forms, e.g., SO42−.

  5. Combined DFT and XPS investigation of iodine anions adsorption on the sulfur terminated (001) chalcopyrite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kui, E-mail: likui9606@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhao, Yaolin, E-mail: zhaoyaolin@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Peng, E-mail: zp32@qq.com [Sino Shaanxi Nuclear Industry Group, Xi’an 710100 (China); He, Chaohui, E-mail: hechaohui@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Deng, Jia, E-mail: djkokocase@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Ding, Shujiang, E-mail: dingsj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shi, Weiqun, E-mail: shiwq@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology and Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Metal surface sites of (001)-S surface of chalcopyrite show significant chemical affinity to iodide and iodate. • The energetically favorable active site is copper for iodide adsorption and iron for iodate adsorption, respectively. • Iodate undergoes a dissociative adsorption on the copper site of chalcopyrite surface. - Abstract: The adsorption of iodine anions (iodide and iodate) on the sulfur terminated (001) chalcopyrite surface has been systematically investigated combining first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Based on the total energy calculations and geometric optimization, the thermodynamically preferred site was copper atom for iodide adsorption and iron atom for iodate adsorption, respectively. In the case of Cu site mode, the iodate underwent a dissociative adsorption, where one I−O bond of iodate ion was broken and the dissociative oxygen atom adsorbed on the adjacent sulphur site. Projected density of states (PDOS) analysis further clarified the interaction mechanism between active sites of chalcopyrite surface and adsorbates. In addition, full-range XPS spectra qualitatively revealed the presence of iodine on chalcopyrite surface. High resolution XPS spectra of the I 3d peaks after adsorption verified the chemical environment of iodine. The binding energies of 618.8 eV and 623.5 eV for I 3d{sub 5/2} peaks unveiled that the adsorption of iodide and iodate ions on copper-iron sulfide minerals was the result of formation of low solubility metal iodides precipitate. Also two I 3d peaks with low intensity around 618 eV and 630 eV might be related to the inorganic reduction of iodate to iodide by reducing S{sup 2−} ion of chalcopyrite.

  6. The influence of mechanical activation of chalcopyrite on the selective leaching of copper by sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achimovičová, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper chalcopyrite, CuFeS2, has been selective leached by H2SO4 as leaching agent (170 g/dm3 in procedure of hydrometallurgical production of copper. Mechanical activation of the chalcopyrite resulted in mechanochemical surface oxidation as well as in the mineral surface and bulk disordering. Furthermore, the formation of agglomerates during grinding was also occured. Surface changes of the samples using infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods were investigated before and after leaching. The leaching rate, specific surface area, structural disorder as well as copper extraction increased with the mechanical activation of mineral.

  7. Introductory semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Greg

    2004-01-01

    ATOMS AND BONDINGThe Periodic TableIonic BondingCovalent BondingMetallic bondingvan der Waals BondingStart a DatabaseENERGY BANDS AND EFFECTIVE MASSSemiconductors, Insulators and MetalsSemiconductorsInsulatorsMetalsThe Concept of Effective MassCARRIER CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMICONDUCTORSDonors and AcceptorsFermi-LevelCarrier Concentration EquationsDonors and Acceptors Both PresentCONDUCTION IN SEMICONDUCTORSCarrier DriftCarrier MobilitySaturated Drift VelocityMobility Variation with TemperatureA Derivation of Ohm's LawDrift Current EquationsSemiconductor Band Diagrams with an Electric Field Presen

  8. Proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustakas, T.D.; Pankove, J.I.; Hamakawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors. Wide band gap semiconductors are under intense study because of their potential applications in photonic devices in the visible and ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and devices for high temperature, high frequency and high power electronics. Additionally, due to their unique mechanical, thermal, optical, chemical, and electronic properties many wide band gap semiconductors are anticipated to find applications in thermoelectric, electrooptic, piezoelectric and acoustooptic devices as well as protective coatings, hard coatings and heat sinks. Material systems covered in this symposium include diamond, II-VI compounds, III-V nitrides, silicon carbide, boron compounds, amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductors, chalcopyrites, oxides and halides. The various papers addressed recent experimental and theoretical developments. They covered issues related to crystal growth (bulk and thin films), structure and microstructure, defects, doping, optoelectronic properties and device applications. A theoretical session was dedicated to identifying common themes in the heteroepitaxy and the role of defects in doping, compensation and phase stability of this unique class of materials. Important experimental milestones included the demonstrations of bright blue injection luminescence at room temperatures from junctions based on III-V nitrides and a similar result from multiple quantum wells in a ZnSe double heterojunction at liquid nitrogen temperatures

  9. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  10. Isolation of a strain of Acidithiobacillus caldus and its role in bioleaching of chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.G.; Bo, F.; Bo, Z.H.; Xi, L.; Jian, G.; Fei, L.F.; Hua, C.X. [Central South University of Technology, Changsha (China)

    2007-09-15

    A moderately thermophilic and acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium named S-2, was isolated from coal heap drainage. The bacterium was motile, Gramnegative, rod-shaped, measured 0.4 to 0.6 by 1 to 2 gm, and grew optimally at 42-45{sup o}C and an initial pH of 2.5. The strain S-2 grew autotrophically by using elemental sulfur, sodium thiosulfate and potassium tetrathionate as energy sources. The strain did not use organic matter and inorganic minerals including ferrous sulfate, pyrite and chalcopyrite as energy sources. The morphological, biochemical, physiological characterization and analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain S2 is most closely related to Acidithiobacillus caldus (> 99% similarity in gene sequence). The combination of the strain S-2 with Leptospirillum ferriphilum or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in chalcopyrite bioleaching improved the copper-leaching efficiency. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that the chalcopyrite surface in a mixed culture of Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Acidithiobacillus caldus was heavily etched. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated that Acidithiobacillus caldus has the potential role to enhance the recovery of copper from chalcopyrite by oxidizing the sulfur formed during the bioleaching progress.

  11. Semiconductor spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jianbai; Chang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.

  12. Fundamental Flotation Behaviors of Chalcopyrite and Galena Using O-Isopropyl-N-Ethyl Thionocarbamate as a Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Bu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Copper and lead are two important and widely used metals in industry. Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 is associated with galena (PbS in ore, and it has been a research hotspot in separating galena from chalcopyrite by flotation. In this study, the flotation behaviors of chalcopyrite and galena were studied through flotation tests, adsorption measurements, solution chemistry calculation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The results show that the floatability of chalcopyrite is better than that of galena in the presence of O-isopropyl-N-ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC, and the recovery difference between chalcopyrite and galena is about 20% when IPETC is 7 × 10−4 mol/L at pH 9.5, while the floatability difference between the two minerals is significant. Competitive adsorption of OH− and IPETC on mineral surfaces leads to lower floatability of galena than that of chalcopyrite. IPETC is able to remove the hydration layer on mineral surfaces and then adsorb on active sites. The floatability of minerals is enhanced with the increase of their hydrophobicity. This study provides a reference to separate galena from chalcopyrite.

  13. A Study of the Effect of Djurliete, Bornite and Chalcopyrite during the Dissolution of Gold with a Solution of Ammonia-Cyanide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Fulton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The high solubility of copper sulphide minerals is an issue in the cyanidation of gold ores. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of individual copper sulphide minerals on the Hunt process, which showed advantages over cyanidation. High purity djurleite, bornite and chalcopyrite, with a P70 of 70–74 microns, were mixed with fine quartz and gold powder (3–8 micron to obtain a copper concentration of 0.3%. The ammonia-cyanide leaching of slurry with djurleite proved to be more effective than cyanidation; producing comparable extraction of gold (99%, while reducing the cyanide consumption from 5.8 to 1.2 kg/t NaCN. Lead nitrate improved the Hunt leaching. The lower cyanide consumption is associated to a significant reduction of copper dissolved. XPS surface analysis of djurleite showed that lead nitrate favored the formation of Cu(OH2 species. Lead was also detected on the surface (oxide or hydroxide. Sulphide and copper compounds (cyanide and sulphide were reaction products responsible for inhibiting the dissolution of gold. Lead nitrate added in the Hunt leaching of bornite produced 99% gold extraction. Surface reaction products were similar to djurleite. The cyanide consumption (~4.4 kg/t NaCN was not reduced by the addition of ammonia. Cyanidation of chalcopyrite showed a lower consumption of cyanide 0.33 kg/t NaCN compared to 0.21 kg/t NaCN for Hunt. No significant interferences were observed in gold leaching with a slurry containing chalcopyrite.

  14. Luminescent solar concentrators: Semiconductor solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    There are increasing public and private pressures for the adoption of renewable energy technologies, of which solar is anticipated to be a prime player1. As it becomes increasingly desirable to generate energy nearer the point of demand (such as within a city centre) it is also more apparent that

  15. Semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marstein Erik Stensrud

    2003-07-01

    This thesis presents a study of two material systems containing semiconductor nanocrystals, namely porous silicon (PSi) films and germanium (Ge) nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) films. The PSi films were made by anodic etching of silicon (Si) substrates in an electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid. The PSi films were doped with erbium (Er) using two different doping methods. electrochemical doping and doping by immersing the PSi films in a solution containing Er. The resulting Er concentration profiles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEN1) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The main subject of the work on PSi presented in this thesis was investigating and comparing these two doping methods. Ge nanocrystals were made by implanting Ge ions into Si02 films that were subsequently annealed. However. nanocrystal formation occurred only for certain sets of processing parameters. The dependence of the microstructure of the Ge implanted Si02 films on the processing parameters were therefore investigated. A range of methods were employed for these investigations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The observed structures, ranging from Ge nanocrystals to voids with diameters of several tens of nanometers and Ge rich Si02 films without any nanocrystals is described. A model explaining the void formation is also presented. For certain sets of processing parameters. An accumulation of Ge at the Si-Si02 interface was observed. The effect of this accumulation on the electrical properties of MOS structures made from Ge implanted SiO2 films was investigated using CV-measurements. (Author)

  16. Semiconductor spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, J.; Abiague, A.M.; Ertler, Ch.; Stano, P.; Zutic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Spintronics refers commonly to phenomena in which the spin of electrons in a solid state environment plays the determining role. In a more narrow sense spintronics is an emerging research field of electronics: spintronics devices are based on a spin control of electronics, or on an electrical and optical control of spin of magnetism. While metal spintronics has already found its niche in the computer industry - giant magnetoresistance systems are used as hard disk read heads - semiconductor spintronics is vet demonstrate its full potential. This review presents selected themes of semiconductor spintronics, introducing important concepts in spin transport, spin transport, spin injection. Silsbee-Johnson spin-charge coupling, and spin-dependent tunneling, as well as spin relaxation and spin dynamics. The most fundamental spin-dependent interaction in nonmagnetic semiconductors is spin-orbit coupling. Depending on the crystal symmetries of the material, as well as on the structural properties of semiconductor based heterostructures, the spin-orbit coupling takes on different functional forms, giving a nice playground of effective spin-orbit Hamiltonians. The effective Hamiltonians for the most relevant classes of materials and heterostructures are derived here from realistic electronic band structure descriptions. Most semiconductor device systems are still theoretical concepts, waiting for experimental demonstrations. A review of selected proposed, and a few demonstrated devices is presented, with detailed description of two important classes: magnetic resonant tunnel structures and bipolar magnetic diodes and transistors. In view of the importance of ferromagnetic semiconductor material, a brief discussion of diluted magnetic semiconductors is included. In most cases the presentation is of tutorial style, introducing the essential theoretical formalism at an accessible level, with case-study-like illustrations of actual experimental results, as well as with brief

  17. Influence of temperature on the fixation and penetration of silver during the chalcopyrite leaching using moderate thermophilic microorganisms; Influencia de la temperatura en la fijacion y penetracion de la plata durante la lixiviacion de calcopirita con microorganismos termofilos moderados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancho, L.; Blazquez, M. L.; Munoz, J. A.; Gonzalez, F.; Ballester, A.

    2004-07-01

    Bio leaching of chalcopyrite using mesophilic microorganisms considerable improves in the presence of silver. However, the studies carried out with moderate thermophilic microorganisms do not show a significant improvement with regard to the use of mesophilic bacteria. The main objective of the present work has been to study the silver fixation on chalcopyrite ar 35 and 45 degree centigree and its influence on the microbiological attack. Different observations using SEM, EDS microanalysis and concentration profiles using electron microprobe have been carried out. The study of the different samples showed that silver fixation was more favourable at 35 degree centigree than at 45 degree centigree. In addition, bacterial action improved silver penetration through attack cracks. (Author)

  18. Impact on sediments and water by release of copper from chalcopyrite bearing rock due to acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anoop Kant; Pradhan, Manoj; Tiwari, Onkar Nath

    2018-04-01

    Mining activity causes transition of rock-mass from its original position in earth into open environment. The action of environmental elements such air, water, microorganisms leads to oxidation of minerals which constitute the rock. The oxidation of sulphide minerals in presence of moisture releases acidic mine discharge (AMD). The acidic nature of AMD causes leaching of metals from rock minerals. Dissolution of other minerals may occur upon reaction with AMD. Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) undergoes oxidation in acidic condition releasing copper among other products. This study reveals contamination of copper in sediment samples and seepage water from the tailing dam of a large copper project in located in central India. Elevation was studied using GIS to ascertain to the topographic elevation of tailing dam area. It was located at relatively high altitude causing seepage to flow away from tailing dam. The seepage water from tailing dam was found to be acidic with mean pH value of 4.0 and elevated copper content. Similarly, sediments from seepage water flow displayed elevated copper concentration. The copper concentration in seepage water was found with a mean value of 10.73 mg/l. The sediments from seepage water flow also displayed elevated copper concentration with mean value of 26.92 g/kg. This indicates impact on sediments by release of copper due to acidic mine drainage.

  19. Short communication: Adverse effect of surface-active reagents on the bioleaching of pyrite and chalcopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, G; Escobar, B; Rubio, J; Badilla-Ohlbaum, R

    1995-09-01

    Oxidation of Fe(II) iron and bioleaching of pyrite and chalcopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was adversely affected by isopropylxanthate, a flotation agent, and by LIX 984, a solvent-extraction agent, each at ≤ 1 g/l. The reagents/l were adsorbed on the bacterial surface, decreasing the bacteria's development and preventing biooxidation. Both reagents inhibited the bioleaching of pyrite and LIX 984 also inhibited the bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

  20. Oxide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Bengt G; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scient

  1. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  2. Grain-size distributions and grain boundaries of chalcopyrite-type thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Ras, D.; Schorr, S.; Schock, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    CuInSe 2 , CuGaSe 2 , Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and CuInS 2 thin-film solar absorbers in completed solar cells were studied in cross section by means of electronbackscatter diffraction. From the data acquired, grain-size distributions were extracted, and also the most frequent grain boundaries were determined. The grain-size distributions of all chalcopyrite-type thin films studied can be described well by lognormal distribution functions. The most frequent grainboundary types in these thin films are 60 - left angle 221 right angle tet and 71 - left angle 110 right angle tet (near) Σ3 twin boundaries. These results can be related directly to the importance of {112} tet planes during the topotactical growth of chalcopyrite-type thin films. Based on energetic considerations, it is assumed that the most frequent twin boundaries exhibit a 180 - left angle 221 right angle tet constellation. (orig.)

  3. Flotation performances and surface properties of chalcopyrite with xanthate collector added before and after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huiqing; Wu, Di; Abdelmonem, Mohamed

    In this study, effects of the collector added before grinding and after grinding on the subsequent flotation and mineral surface properties were investigated. The pH was controlled at 10 during the grinding and flotation processes opened to the atmosphere. With enough amounts of sodium butyl xanthate addition, adding the collector before grinding recovered more chalcopyrite than adding it after grinding in single mineral flotation. The Eh of each ground pulp before and after conditioning were measured and it was found that adding collector before grinding obtained higher and relatively suitable pulp potential for chalcopyrite flotation. Particle size analyses of the flotation products indicate that the different flotation recoveries occurred due to the different flotation losses in fine particles (flotation feedings and found that more carbon and oxygen, and less iron were remained on mineral surfaces when the collector was added before grinding, due to the higher collector adsorption capacity, larger free oxygen adsorbance and less iron oxide/hydroxide species.

  4. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lan; Lin Xianzhong; Ennaoui Ahmed; Wolf Christian; Lux-Steiner Martha Ch.; Klenk Reiner

    2016-01-01

    We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating ...

  5. Bond charges and electronic charge transfer in ternary semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    By means of a simple molecule-theoretic model of 'linear superposition of two-electron molecules' the bond charges between nearest neighbours and the effective charges of ions are calculated for ternary zinc-blende structure alloys as well as chalcopyrite semiconductors. Taking into account both, the charge transfer among the ions caused by the differences of electronegativities of atoms used and between the bonds created by the internal stress of the lattice a nearly unvaried averaged bond charge amount of the alloy is found, but rather dramatically changed local bond charge parameters in comparison with the respective values of binary compounds used. This fact should influence the noncentral force interaction in such semiconductors. (author)

  6. Synthesis of Novel Ether Thionocarbamates and Study on Their Flotation Performance for Chalcopyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel ether thionocarbamates, O-butoxy isopropyl-N-ethoxycarbonyl thionocarbamate (BIPECTC and O-(2-butoxy-1-methylethoxy isopropyl-N-ethoxycarbonyl thionocarbamate (BMIPECTC, were synthesized in this study. Their collecting efficiencies in the flotation of chalcopyrite were investigated using flotation tests, adsorption measurements, ultraviolet spectra (UV and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and density functional theory (DFT calculations. The synthesized ether thionocarbamates showed better frothing properties than methyl-isobutyl-carbinol (MIBC and stronger affinity to chalcopyrite compared with O-isopropyl-N-ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC and O-isobutyl-N-ethoxycarbonyl thionocarbamate (IBECTC. UV spectra analysis showed that the ether thionocarbamates react with Cu2+, with the exception of Fe2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+. Additionally, it was further confirmed by FTIR spectra that a chemical reaction occurs between copper ion and BIPECTC and BMIPECTC. The adsorption capacity measurements revealed that chalcopyrite exhibits good adsorption ability for ether thionocarbamates at an approximate pH of 8–10, which agrees with the flotation tests. The quantum chemistry calculation results indicated that the ether thionocarbamates exhibit stronger collecting ability for copper mineral in terms of frontier molecular orbital analysis, binding model simulation with copper ions and the molecular hydrophobicity compared with IPETC and IBECTC. The computational results are in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  8. Electronic structure of epitaxial chalcopyrite surfaces and interfaces for photovoltaics; Elektronische Struktur epitaktischer Chalkopyrite und deren Heterokontakte fuer die Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Andreas

    2012-02-14

    This thesis constitutes a comprehensive study of the surface physics of epitaxial CuInSe{sub 2} films. It comprises analyses of the surface morphology and reconstruction, electronic band structure as well as hetero-junctions relevant to photovoltaic applications. Therefore, especially the aspect of stoichiometry variation from the CuInSe{sub 2} to the copper-deficient defect phases was considered. Preparation and analysis was completely performed under ultra-high vacuum conditions in order to ensure the investigation of well-defined samples free of contaminants. For some of the analysis techniques, single-crystalline samples are indispensable: They allow for the determination of surface periodicity by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). In combination with concentration depth profiling by angle-resolved x-ray photoemission, to types of surface reconstructions could be distinguished for the near-stoichiometric CuInSe{sub 2}(112) surface. In the copper-rich case, it is stabilized by Cu{sub In} anti-site defects and on the indium-rich side by 2 V{sub Cu} defects, as predicted by surface total energy calculations by Jaffe and Zunger. Both configurations correspond to a c(4 x 2) reconstruction of the zinc blende type (111) surface. For the defect compound CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5}, a sphalerite order of the surface was found, which points at a weakening or absence of the chalcopyrite order in the bulk of the material. The unusual stability of the (112) surface could also be proven by comparison with the reconstruction and surface order of (001) and (220) surfaces. The results from surface analysis were used to measure the valence band structure of the epitaxial samples by synchrotron-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The CuInSe{sub 2}(001) surface gives access to the high symmetry directions {Gamma}-T and {Gamma}-N of momentum space. By contrasting the data obtained for the stoichiometric surface with the copper-poor defect compound, a reduction of the

  9. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  10. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  11. Semiconductor annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Scovell, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A process for annealing crystal damage in ion implanted semiconductor devices in which the device is rapidly heated to a temperature between 450 and 900 0 C and allowed to cool. It has been found that such heating of the device to these relatively low temperatures results in rapid annealing. In one application the device may be heated on a graphite element mounted between electrodes in an inert atmosphere in a chamber. (author)

  12. Investigation of energy gene expressions and community structures of free and attached acidophilic bacteria in chalcopyrite bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianyu; Jiao, Weifeng; Li, Qian; Liu, Xueduan; Qin, Wenqing; Qiu, Guanzhou; Hu, Yuehua; Chai, Liyuan

    2012-12-01

    In order to better understand the bioleaching mechanism, expression of genes involved in energy conservation and community structure of free and attached acidophilic bacteria in chalcopyrite bioleaching were investigated. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we studied the expression of genes involved in energy conservation in free and attached Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans during bioleaching of chalcopyrite. Sulfur oxidation genes of attached A. ferrooxidans were up-regulated while ferrous iron oxidation genes were down-regulated compared with free A. ferrooxidans in the solution. The up-regulation may be induced by elemental sulfur on the mineral surface. This conclusion was supported by the results of HPLC analysis. Sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and ferrous-oxidizing Leptospirillum ferrooxidans were the members of the mixed culture in chalcopyrite bioleaching. Study of the community structure of free and attached bacteria showed that A. thiooxidans dominated the attached bacteria while L. ferrooxidans dominated the free bacteria. With respect to available energy sources during bioleaching of chalcopyrite, sulfur-oxidizers tend to be on the mineral surfaces whereas ferrous iron-oxidizers tend to be suspended in the aqueous phase. Taken together, these results indicate that the main role of attached acidophilic bacteria was to oxidize elemental sulfur and dissolution of chalcopyrite involved chiefly an indirect bioleaching mechanism.

  13. Semiconductor annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Scovell, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    A process for annealing crystal damage in ion implanted semiconductor devices is described in which the device is rapidly heated to a temperature between 450 and 600 0 C and allowed to cool. It has been found that such heating of the device to these relatively low temperatures results in rapid annealing. In one application the device may be heated on a graphite element mounted between electrodes in an inert atmosphere in a chamber. The process may be enhanced by the application of optical radiation from a Xenon lamp. (author)

  14. Optically coupled semiconductor device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagaya, Naoki

    1988-11-18

    This invention concerns an optically coupled semiconductor device using the light as input signal and a MOS transistor for the output side in order to control on-off of the output side by the input signal which is insulated from the output. Concerning this sort of element, when a MOS transistor and a load resistance are planned to be accumulated on the same chip, a resistor and control of impurity concentration of the channel, etc. become necessary despite that the only formation of a simple P-N junction is enough, for a solar cell, hence cost reduction thereof cannot be done. In order to remove this defect, this invention offers an optically coupled semiconductor device featuring that two solar cells are connected in reverse parallel between the gate sources of the output MOS transistors and an operational light emitting element is individually set facing a respective solar cell. 4 figs.

  15. Magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihler, Christoph

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis we investigated in detail the properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P, and Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films with a focus on the magnetic anisotropy and the changes of their properties upon hydrogenation. We applied two complementary spectroscopic techniques to address the position of H in magnetic semiconductors: (i) Electron paramagnetic resonance, which provides direct information on the symmetry of the crystal field of the Mn{sup 2+} atoms and (ii) x-ray absorption fine structure analysis which allows to probe the local crystallographic neighborhood of the absorbing Mn atom via analysing the fine structure at the Mn K absorption edge. Finally, we discussed the obstacles that have to be overcome to achieve Curie temperatures above the current maximum in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As of 185 K. Here, we outlined in detail the generic problem of the formation of precipitates at the example of Ge:MN. (orig.)

  16. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  17. Novel integration strategy for enhancing chalcopyrite bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus sp. in a 7-L fermenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Zhan, Xiao; Wang, Wu

    2014-06-01

    An integrated strategy (additional energy substrate-three stage pH control-fed batch) was firstly proposed for efficiently improving chalcopyrite bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus sp. in a 7-L fermenter. The strain adaptive-growing phase was greatly shortened from 8days into 4days with the supplement of additional 2g/L Fe(2+)+2g/L S(0). Jarosite passivation was effectively weakened basing on higher biomass via the three-stage pH-stat control (pH 1.3-1.0-0.7). The mineral substrate inhibition was attenuated by fed-batch fermentation. With the integrated strategy, the biochemical reaction was promoted and achieved a better balance. Meanwhile, the domination course of A. thiooxidans in the microbial community was shortened from 14days to 8days. As the results of integrated strategy, the final copper ion and productivity reached 89.1mg/L and 2.23mg/(Ld), respectively, which was improved by 52.8% compared to the uncontrolled batch bioleaching. The integrated strategy could be further exploited for industrial chalcopyrite bioleaching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical and spectroscopic study of interfacial interactions between chalcopyrite and typical flotation process reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Gustavo; Lázaro, Isabel; Rodríguez, Israel; Reyes, Juan Luis; Larios, Roxana; Cruz, Roel

    2016-02-01

    Comparative voltammetry and differential double-layer capacitance studies were performed to evaluate interfacial interactions between chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and n-isopropyl xanthate (X) in the presence of ammonium bisulfite/39wt% SO2 and caustic starch at different pH values. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and microflotation tests were used to establish the type and extent of xanthate adsorption as well as the species involved under different mineral surface conditions in this study. The results demonstrate that the species that favor a greater hydrophobicity of chalcopyrite are primarily CuX and S0, whereas oxides and hydroxides of Cu and Fe as well as an excess of starch decrease the hydrophobicity. A conditioning of the mineral surface with ammonium bisulfite/39wt% SO2 at pH 6 promotes the activation of surface and enhances the xanthate adsorption. However, this effect is diminished at pH ≥ 8, when an excess of starch is added during the preconditioning step.

  19. Thermophilic archaeal community succession and function change associated with the leaching rate in bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Xia, Jin-lan; Yang, Yi; Nie, Zhen-yuan; Peng, An-an; Liu, Hong-chang; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2013-04-01

    The community succession and function change of thermophilic archaea Acidianus brierleyi, Metallosphaera sedula, Acidianus manzaensis and Sulfolobus metallicus were studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of amplifying 16S rRNA genes fragments and real-time qPCR analysis of amplifying sulfur-oxidizing soxB gene associated with chalcopyrite bioleaching rate at different temperatures and initial pH values. The analysis results of the community succession indicated that temperature and initial pH value had a significant effect on the consortium, and S. metallicus was most sensitive to the environmental change, A. brierleyi showed the best adaptability and sulfur oxidation ability and predominated in various leaching systems. Meanwhile, the leaching rate of chalcopyrite closely related to the consortium function embodied by soxB gene, which could prove a desirable way for revealing microbial sulfur oxidation difference and tracking the function change of the consortium, and for optimizing the leaching parameters and improving the recovery of valuable metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective Excitation of Window and Buffer Layers in Chalcopyrite Devices and Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burst, James M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beall, Carolyn L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bowers, Karen A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mansfield, Lorelle M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Window and buffer layers in chalcopyrite devices are well known to affect junctions, conduction, and photo-absorption properties of the device. Some of these layers, particularly 'buffers,' which are deposited directly on top of the absorber, exhibit metastable effects upon exposure to light. Thus, to understand device performance and/or metastability, it is sometimes desirable to selectively excite different layers in the device stack. Absorption characteristics of various window and buffer layers used in chalcopyrite devices are measured. These characteristics are compared with emission spectra of common and available light sources that might be used to optically excite such layers. Effects of the window and buffer absorption on device quantum efficiency and metastability are discussed. For the case of bath-deposited Zn(O,S) buffers, we conclude that this layer is not optically excited in research devices or modules. This provides a complimentary mechanism to the chemical differences that may cause long time constants (compared to devices with CdS buffers) associated with reaching a stable 'light-soaked' state.

  1. Epitaxial growth of chalcopyrite CuInS2 films on GaAs (001) substrates by evaporation method with elemental sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozomu, Tsuboi; Satoshi, Kobayash; Nozomu, Tsuboi; Takashi, Tamogami

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductor CuInS 2 is one of the potential candidates for absorber layers in high-efficiency thin film solar cells due to its direct bandgap Eg of 1.5 eV, which matches with solar spectrum. However, CuInS 2 solar cells face the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency compared with Cu(InGa)Se 2 solar cells. Investigation of fundamental properties of CuInS 2 films is necessary to understand key issues for solar cell performance. Although in bulk CuInS 2 is known to crystallize into chalcopyrite (CH) structure, in thin film other structures such as Cu-Au (CA) and sphalerite (SP) structures may coexist. It was reported epitaxial growth of slightly Cu-rich CuInS 2 films with c-axis orientated CA only and/or with a mixture of a- and c-axes orientated CH structures on GaP (001) at substrate temperature of 500 degrees using the conventional evaporation method with three elemental sources. Successful growth of epitaxial CH structured CuInS 2 were observed for films grown on GaP at 570 degrees with slightly Cu-rich composition. In this paper, CuInS 2 films with various [Cu]/[In] ratios are grown on GaAs(001) substrates, and the composition range in terms of the [Cu]/[In] ratio where epitaxial films with CH structure grow and the structural qualities of the films are discussed in comparison with those on GaP substrates. Films with various ratios of [Cu]/[In]=0.8 ≤1.9 are grown at 500 degrees and 570 degrees using the evaporation system described in our previous reports. Regardless of the substrate temperature, noticeable X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of CH structured CuInS 2 phase are observed in slightly Cu-rich films. However, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of the slightly Cu-rich films grown at 570 degrees exhibit noticeable spots not only due to the CH structure but also due to the CA structure. The amount of the CA structure is considered to be small because of the absence of the XRD peaks of the CA

  2. Presentation on mechanisms and applications of chalcopyrite and pyrite bioleaching in biohydrometallurgy - a presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huang; Dongwei, Li

    2014-12-01

    This review outlines classic and current research, scientific documents and research achievements in bioleaching, particularly in respect of the bioleaching of chalcopyrite and pyrite. The diversity and commonality of the microbial leaching process can be easily studied through comparing the bioleaching mechanism and the application of these two metal sulfides. The crystal, electronic and surface structures of chalcopyrite and pyrite are summarized in detail in this paper. It determines the specific and complicated interaction pathways, kinetics of the atmospheric/aqueous oxidation, and the control process of bioleaching of the minerals as the precondition. Bioleaching of metal sulfides is performed by a diverse group of microorganisms and microbial communities. The species of the bacteria which have a significant effect on leaching ores are miraculously diverse. The newly identified acidophilic microorganisms with unique characteristics for efficient bioleaching of sulfidic minerals are increasing sharply. The cell-to-cell communication mechanisms, which are still implicit, elusive and intangible at present day, have gradually become a research hotspot. The different mineralogy characteristics and the acid solubility of the metal sulfides (e.g., chalcopyrite and pyrite) cause two different dissolution pathways, the thiosulfate and the polysulfide pathways. The bioleaching mechanisms are categorized by contact (an electrostatic attachment) and noncontact (planktonic) process, with emphasis on the produce of extracellular polymeric substances and formation of biofilm on the surface of the metal sulfides in this paper. The division of the direct and indirect effect are not adopted due to the redox chain, the reduction of the ferric iron and oxidation of the ferrous iron. The molecular oxygen is reduced by the electrons extracted from the specific metal sulfide, via a redox chain forming a supercomplex spanning the periplasmic space and connecting both outer and inner

  3. Redox properties of small semiconductor particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver, N.; Nitzan, A.

    1992-01-01

    The size dependence of electrical and thermodynamic quantities of intermediate-sized semiconductor particles in an electrolyte solution with a given redox pair are studied. The equilibrium constant for this system is then derived based on the relationship of the electrolytic redox components to the size, charges, and concentration of the semiconductor particles. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  4. Enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges for antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2})/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors with varied Sb doping concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Ma, Wen-Hai [School of Physical Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Mao, Yan-Li, E-mail: ylmao1@163.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Institute for Computational Materials Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized with varied Sb doping concentration, and the Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors were prepared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. The separation efficiency of photoinduced charges was characterized with surface photovoltage (SPV) technique. Compared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} presents an enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges, and the SPV enhancements were estimated to be 1.40, 1.43, and 1.99 for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. To understand the enhancement, the band structure of Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} in the heterojunction semiconductor was determined, and the conduction band offsets (CBO) between Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} were estimated to be 0.56, 0.64, and 0.98 eV for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. These results indicate that the separation efficiency enhancement is resulting from the energy level matching, and the increase of enhancement is due to the rising of CBO.

  5. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  6. Examples of neutron diffraction texture analysis on one and the same chalcopyrite sample before and after experimental deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, E.M.; Brokmeier, H.G.; Siemes, H.

    1994-01-01

    Natural chalcopyrite specimens from Mt. Isa, Australia were investigated by neutron diffraction texture analysis. The preferred orientation of the specimens consists of 3 main orientation components. After axial shortening at a temperature of 25 C the initial orientation components became weaker, a new component was detected. (orig.)

  7. Radiation tolerance of Si{sub 1−y}C{sub y} source/drain n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors with different carbon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Toshiyuki, E-mail: nakashima_t@cdk.co.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki (Japan); Chuo Denshi Kogyo Co., Ltd., 3400 Kohoyama, Matsubase, Uki, Kumamoto (Japan); Asai, Yuki; Hori, Masato; Yoneoka, Masashi; Tsunoda, Isao; Takakura, Kenichiro [Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Koshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan); Gonzalez, Mireia Bargallo [Institut de Microelectronica de Barcelona (Centre Nacional de Microelectronica — Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas) Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Simoen, Eddy [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Claeys, Cor [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Yoshino, Kenji [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2014-04-30

    The 2-MeV electron radiation damage of silicon–carbon source/drain (S/D) n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors with different carbon (C) concentrations is studied. Before irradiation, an enhancement of the electron mobility with C concentration of the S/D stressors is clearly observed. On the other hand, after electron irradiation, both the threshold voltage shift and the maximum electron mobility degradation are independent on the C concentration for all electron fluences studied. These results indicate that the strain induced electron mobility enhancement due to the C doping is retained after irradiation in the studied devices. - Highlights: • We have investigated the electron irradiation effect of the Si{sub 1−y}C{sub y} S/D n-MOSFETs. • The threshold voltage variations by irradiation are independent on the C doping. • The electron-mobility decreased for all C concentrations by electron irradiation. • The strain induced mobility enhancement effect is retained after irradiation.

  8. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating and inkjet printing. Active area efficiencies of 12.8% and 12.2% have been achieved for In2S3-buffered solar cells respectively, matching the performance of CdS-buffered cells prepared with the same batch of absorbers.

  9. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control.

  10. Simulation of Bioleaching Heat Effects for Enhancement of Copper Recovery from Sarcheshmeh Chalcopyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Ali Reza; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.; Manafi, Zahra

    2014-08-01

    A heat-transfer model was formulated to determine the distribution of temperature within a bioheap of chalcopyrite of Sarcheshmeh copper mine. Bioleaching employs mixed mesophilic and thermophilic microbes for Cu extraction. Thermophiles are better than mesophiles to dissolve CuFeS2. The solution irrigation and aeration rates were taken into account as the main operational factors. The model was validated by comparing the temperature profiles of test columns with those of bioheap. The model was used to find the optimal ratio of irrigation to aeration. It was found that when the solution was fed at a flow rate of 5 kg/m2 h and air was blown at a flow rate of 7.5 kg/m2 h, the transition from a mesophilic to thermophilic state inside the heap was possible. In this situation, the maximum temperature rise inside the heap was about 332 K (59 °C) after 60 days.

  11. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Lin, Xianzhong; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Wolf, Christian; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Klenk, Reiner

    2016-02-01

    We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating and inkjet printing. Active area efficiencies of 12.8% and 12.2% have been achieved for In2S3-buffered solar cells respectively, matching the performance of CdS-buffered cells prepared with the same batch of absorbers.

  12. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  13. Development of semiconductor electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, John.

    1977-01-01

    In 1931, Wilson applied Block's theory about the energy bands for the motion of electrons in a crystal lattice to semiconductors and showed that conduction can take place in two different ways, by electrons and by holes. Not long afterwards Frenkel showed that these carriers can flow by diffusion in a concentration gradient as well as under the influence of an electric field and wrote down equations for the current flow. The third major contribution, in the late 1930's was the explanation of rectification at a metalsemiconductor contact by Mott and more completely by Schottky. In late 1947 the first transistor of the point contact type was invented by Brattin, Shockley and Bardeen. Then after single crystals of Ge were grown, the junction transistor was developed by the same group. The first silicon transistors appeared in 1954. Then an important step was discovery of the planar transistor by Hoenri in 1960 which led to development of integrated circuits by 1962. Many transistors are produced by batch processing on a slice of silicon. Then in 1965 Mos (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) transistor and in 1968 LSI (Large Scale Intergration circuits) were developed. Aside from electronic circuits, there are many other applications of semiconductors, including junction power rectifiers, junction luminescence (including lasers), solar batteries, radiation detectors, microwave oscillators and charged-coupled devices for computer memories and devices. One of the latest developments is a microprocessor with thousands of transistors and associated circuitry on a single small chip of silicon. It can be programmed to provide a variety of circuit functions, thus it is not necessary to go through the great expense of LSI's for each desired function, but to use standard microprocessors and program to do the job

  14. Development and field-scale optimization of a honeycomb zeolite rotor concentrator/recuperative oxidizer for the abatement of volatile organic carbons from semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Chen, Yufeng; Cao, Limei; Guo, Yuling; Jia, Jinping

    2012-01-03

    The combined concentrator/oxidizer system has been proposed as an effective physical-chemical option and proven to be a viable solution that enables Volatile Organic Carbons (VOCs) emitters to comply with the regulations. In this work, a field scale honeycomb zeolite rotor concentrator combined with a recuperative oxidizer was developed and applied for the treatment of the VOC waste gas. The research shows the following: (1) for the adsorption rotor, zeolite is a more appropriate material than Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). The designing and operation parameters of the concentrator were discussed in detail including the size and the optimal rotation speed of rotor. Also the developed rotor performance's was evaluated in the field; (2) Direct Fired Thermal Oxidizer (DFTO), Recuperative Oxidizer (RO), Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer (RTO) and Regenerative Catalytic oxidizer (RCO) are the available incinerators and the RO was selected as the oxidizer in this work; (3) The overall performance of the developed rotor/oxidizer was explored in a field scale under varying conditions; (4) The energy saving strategy was fulfilled by reducing heat loss from the oxidizer and recovering heat from the exhaust gas. Data shows that the developed rotor/oxidizer could remove over 95% VOCs with reasonable cost and this could be helpful for similar plants when considering VOC abatement.

  15. Assessment of the flotability of chalcopyrite, molybdenite and pyrite using biosolids and their main components as collectors for greening the froth flotation of copper sulphide ores.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobarzo, Francisco; Herrera Urbina, Ronaldo; Higueras Higueras, Pablo Leon; Sáez Navarrete, César; Godoy Faúndez, Alex; Reyes Bozo, Lorenzo; Vásquez Bestagno, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids and representative compounds of their main components ? humic acids, sugars, and proteins ? have been tested as possible environment-friendly collectors and frothers for the flotation of copper sulphide ores. The floatability of chalcopyrite and molybdenite ? both valuable sulphide minerals present in these ores ? as well as non-valuable pyrite was assessed through Hallimond tube flotation tests. Humic acids exhibit similar collector ability for chalcopyrite and molybdenite as that ...

  16. Solid spectroscopy: semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da

    1983-01-01

    Photoemission as technique of study of the semiconductor electronic structure is shortly discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous semiconductors, where volume and surface electronic structure, core levels and O and H chemisorption in GaAs, Schottky barrier are treated, respectively. Amorphous semiconductors are also discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Community dynamics of attached and free cells and the effects of attached cells on chalcopyrite bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailin; Feng, Shoushuai; Xin, Yu; Wang, Wu

    2014-02-01

    The community dynamics of attached and free cells of Acidithiobacillus sp. were investigated and compared during chalcopyrite bioleaching process. In the mixed strains system, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the dominant species at the early stage while Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans owned competitive advantage from the middle stage to the end of bioprocess. Meanwhile, compared to A. ferrooxidans, more significant effects of attached cells on free biomass with A. thiooxidans were shown in either the pure or mixed strains systems. Moreover, the effects of attached cells on key chemical parameters were also studied in different adsorption-deficient systems. Consistently, the greatest reduction of key chemical ion was shown with A. thiooxidans and the loss of bioleaching efficiency was high to 50.5%. These results all demonstrated the bioleaching function of attached cells was more efficient than the free cells, especially with A. thiooxidans. These notable results would help us to further understand the chalcopyrite bioleaching. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Influencing Mechanisms of Sodium Hexametaphosphate on Chalcopyrite Flotation in the Presence of MgCl2 and CaCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanqing Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea water has been used in flotation plants, showing a promising way to save fresh water usage. Previous studies indicated that divalent salts in sea water played negative roles in chalcopyrite flotation, but not much work have been conducted to understand the eliminating mechanisms. This study systematically investigated the effects of divalent cations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ on natural flotability of chalcopyrite in the absence of collectors and frothers. The reduced recovery was mainly due to the adsorption of Mg and Ca hydroxyl complexes and precipitation on chalcopyrite surfaces, giving rise to a less hydrophobic surface. The addition of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP, however, significantly improved chalcopyrite recovery. Species calculation, contact angle, zeta potential, FTIR and XPS analyses were conducted to understand the influencing mechanisms of divalent ions and the beneficial effects of SHMP on chalcopyrite recovery. The primary mechanism was that SHMP prevented the adsorption of positively charged Mg and Ca compounds or precipitation with hydrophilic properties such as Mg(OH2 on chalcopyrite surfaces, confirmed by the Derjguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO theory. Secondly, SHMP reacted with Mg2+ and Ca2+ to form dissolvable complexes, thereby declining the formation of insoluble Mg2+ and Ca2+ compounds or precipitation.

  19. Optimization of Electrochemically Deposited Highly Doped ZnO Bilayers on Ga-Rich Chalcopyrite Selenide for Cost-Effective Photovoltaic Device Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra N. Papadimitriou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High quality polycrystalline bilayers of aluminium doped ZnO (Al:ZnO were successively electrodeposited in the form of columnar structures preferentially oriented along the ( 10 1 ¯ 1 crystallographic direction from aqueous solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO32 at negative electrochemical potential of EC = (−0.8–(−1.2 V and moderate temperature of 80 °C on gallium rich (30% Ga chalcopyrite selenide Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS with chemically deposited ZnSe buffer (ZnSe/Cu(In,GaSe2/Mo/glass. The aluminium doped ZnO layer properties have initially been probed by deposition of Al:ZnO/i-ZnO bilayers directly on Mo/glass substrates. The band-gap energy of the Al:ZnO/i-ZnO reference layers was found to vary from 3.2 to 3.7 eV by varying the AlCl3 solute dopant concentration from 1 to 20 mM. The electrical resistivity of indium-pellet contacted highly doped Al:ZnO sheet of In/Al:ZnO/i-ZnO/Mo/glass reference samples was of the order ρ ~10−5 Ω·cm; the respective carrier concentration of the order 1022 cm−3 is commensurate with that of sputtered Al:ZnO layers. For crystal quality optimization of the bilayers by maintenance of the volatile selenium content of the chalcopyrite, they were subjected to 2-step annealing under successive temperature raise and N2 flux regulation. The hydrostatic compressive strain due to Al3+ incorporation in the ZnO lattice of bilayers processed successively with 5 and 12 mM AlCl3 dopant was εh = −0.046 and the respective stress σh = −20 GPa. The surface reflectivity of maximum 5% over the scanned region of 180–900 nm and the (optical band gap of Eg = 3.67 eV were indicative of the high optical quality of the electrochemically deposited (ECD Al:ZnO bilayers.

  20. Insights to the effects of free cells on community structure of attached cells and chalcopyrite bioleaching during different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of free cells on community structure of attached cells and chalcopyrite bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus sp. during different stages were investigated. The attached cells of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans owned the community advantage from 14thd to the end of bioprocess in the normal system. The community structure of attached cells was greatly influenced in the free cells-deficient systems. Compared to A. thiooxidans, the attached cells community of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans had a higher dependence on its free cells. Meanwhile, the analysis of key biochemical parameters revealed that the effects of free cells on chalcopyrite bioleaching in different stages were diverse, ranging from 32.8% to 64.3%. The bioleaching contribution of free cells of A. ferrooxidans in the stationary stage (8-14thd) was higher than those of A. thiooxidans, while the situation was gradually reversed in the jarosite passivation inhibited stage (26-40thd). These results may be useful in guiding chalcopyrite bioleaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The community dynamics of major bioleaching microorganisms during chalcopyrite leaching under the effect of organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qihou; Tian, Ye; Fu, Xian; Yin, Huaqun; Zhou, Zhijun; Liang, Yiting; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Jie; Liu, Hongwei; Liang, Yili; Shen, Li; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2011-08-01

    To determine the effect of organics (yeast extract) on microbial community during chalcopyrite bioleaching at different temperature, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to analyze community dynamics of major bacteria applied in bioleaching. The results showed that yeast extract exerted great impact on microbial community, and therefore influencing bioleaching rate. To be specific, yeast extract was adverse to this bioleaching process at 30°C due to decreased proportion of important chemolithotrophs such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. However, yeast extract could promote bioleaching rate at 40°C on account of the increased number and enhanced work of Ferroplasma thermophilum, a kind of facultative bacteria. Similarly, bioleaching rate was enhanced under the effect of yeast extract at 50°C owing to the work of Acidianus brierleyi. At 60°C, bioleaching rate was close to 100% and temperature was the dominant factor determining bioleaching rate. Interestingly, the existence of yeast extract greatly enhanced the relative competitiveness of Ferroplasma thermophilum in this complex bioleaching microbial community.

  2. Structural, electronic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of ZnCdTe{sub 2} chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Tarik [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P. 230, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Reshak, Ali H. [Institute of Physical Biology, South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Microelectronic Engineering, University of Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Block A, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian, 02600 Arau Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique, Universite de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Baltache, H.; Amrani, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique, Universite de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Bouhemadou, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Setif, Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2011-03-15

    We report results of first-principles density functional calculations using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the Engel-Vosko-GGA (EV-GGA) formalism were used for the exchange-correlation energy to calculate the structural, electronic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of the chalcopyrite ZnCdTe{sub 2} compound. The valence band maximum and the conduction band minimum are located at the {gamma}-point, resulting in a direct band gap of about 0.71 eV for GGA and 1.29 eV for EV-GGA. The results of bulk properties, such as lattice parameters (a, c, and u), bulk modulus B, and its pressure derivative B' are evaluated. The optical properties of this compound, namely the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric function, reflectivity, and refractive index, show a considerable anisotropy as a consequence ZnCdTe{sub 2} posseses a strong birefringence. In addition, the extinction coefficient, the electron energy loss function, and the nonlinear susceptibility are calculated and their spectra are analyzed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. An optimized In–CuGa metallic precursors for chalcopyrite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jun-feng, E-mail: junfeng.han@cnrs-imn.fr [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liao, Cheng [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan Province 601207 (China); Jiang, Tao; Xie, Hua-mu; Zhao, Kui [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Besland, M.-P. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2013-10-31

    We report a study of CuGa–In metallic precursors for chalcopyrite thin film. CuGa and In thin films were prepared by DC sputtering at room temperature. Due to low melting point of indium, the sputtering power on indium target was optimized. Then, CuGa and In multilayers were annealed at low temperature. At 120 °C, the annealing treatment could enhance diffusion and alloying of CuGa and In layers; however, at 160 °C, it caused a cohesion and crystalline of indium from the alloy which consequently formed irregular nodules on the film surface. The precursors were selenized to form copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin films. The morphological and structural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. The relationships between metallic precursors and CIGS films were discussed in the paper. A smooth precursor layer was the key factor to obtain a homogeneous and compact CIGS film. - Highlights: • An optimized sputtered indium film • An optimized alloying process of metallic precursor • An observation of nodules forming on the indium film and precursor surface • An observation of cauliflower structure in copper indium gallium selenide film • The relationship between precursor and CIGS film surface morphology.

  4. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  5. Fermi level dependent native defect formation: Consequences for metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walukiewicz, W.

    1988-02-01

    The amphoteric native defect model of the Schottky barrier formation is used to analyze the Fermi level pinning at metal/semiconductor interfaces for submonolayer metal coverages. It is assumed that the energy required for defect generation is released in the process of surface back-relaxation. Model calculations for metal/GaAs interfaces show a weak dependence of the Fermi level pinning on the thickness of metal deposited at room temperature. This weak dependence indicates a strong dependence of the defect formation energy on the Fermi level, a unique feature of amphoteric native defects. This result is in very good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that a very distinct asymmetry in the Fermi level pinning on p- and n-type GaAs observed at liquid nitrogen temperatures can be understood in terms of much different recombination rates for amphoteric native defects in those two types of materials. Also, it is demonstrated that the Fermi level stabilization energy, a central concept of the amphoteric defect system, plays a fundamental role in other phenomena in semiconductors such as semiconductor/semiconductor heterointerface intermixing and saturation of free carrier concentration. 33 refs., 6 figs

  6. Semiconductor apparatus and method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor apparatus (1) and a method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus (1), wherein the semiconductor apparatus (1) comprises a semiconductor layer (2) and a passivation layer (3), arranged on a surface of the semiconductor layer (2), for passivating the

  7. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  8. Bistable amphoteric centers in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitina, A. G.; Zuev, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that, at thermodynamic equilibrium, the release of charge carriers from the localized states of bistable amphoteric centers into quasi-free states depends on the degree of compensation. This brings about different functional dependences of the concentration of free charge carriers on temperature. It is found that, in uncompensated semiconductors, the concentration of free charge carriers follows the same dependence in the case of bistable amphoteric centers and bistable amphoteric U - centers, although the distributions of charge carriers over the charge states and configurations are different for these types of centers. The results can be used for interpreting various experimental data insufficiently explained in the context of the traditional approach

  9. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  10. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  11. Mechanisms of current flow in metal-semiconductor ohmic contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, T. V.; Gol'dberg, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    Published data on the properties of metal-semiconductor ohmic contacts and mechanisms of current flow in these contacts (thermionic emission, field emission, thermal-field emission, and also current flow through metal shunts) are reviewed. Theoretical dependences of the resistance of an ohmic contact on temperature and the charge-carrier concentration in a semiconductor were compared with experimental data on ohmic contacts to II-VI semiconductors (ZnSe, ZnO), III-V semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN, GaAs, GaP, InP), Group IV semiconductors (SiC, diamond), and alloys of these semiconductors. In ohmic contacts based on lightly doped semiconductors, the main mechanism of current flow is thermionic emission with the metal-semiconductor potential barrier height equal to 0.1-0.2 eV. In ohmic contacts based on heavily doped semiconductors, the current flow is effected owing to the field emission, while the metal-semiconductor potential barrier height is equal to 0.3-0.5 eV. In alloyed In contacts to GaP and GaN, a mechanism of current flow that is not characteristic of Schottky diodes (current flow through metal shunts formed by deposition of metal atoms onto dislocations or other imperfections in semiconductors) is observed

  12. Semiconductor integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.E.; Schwenker, R.O.; Ziegler, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    An improved method involving ion implantation to form non-epitaxial semiconductor integrated circuits. These are made by forming a silicon substrate of one conductivity type with a recessed silicon dioxide region extending into the substrate and enclosing a portion of the silicon substrate. A beam of ions of opposite conductivity type impurity is directed at the substrate at an energy and dosage level sufficient to form a first region of opposite conductivity within the silicon dioxide region. This impurity having a concentration peak below the surface of the substrate forms a region of the one conductivity type which extends from the substrate surface into the first opposite type region to a depth between the concentration peak and the surface and forms a second region of opposite conductivity type. The method, materials and ion beam conditions are detailed. Vertical bipolar integrated circuits can be made this way when the first opposite type conductivity region will function as a collector. Also circuits with inverted bipolar devices when this first region functions as a 'buried'' emitter region. (U.K.)

  13. Semiconductors data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Madelung, Otfried

    2004-01-01

    This volume Semiconductors: Data Handbook contains frequently used data from the corresponding larger Landolt-Börnstein handbooks in a low price book for the individual scientist working in the laboratory. The Handbook contain important information about a large number of semiconductors

  14. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  15. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakonov, Mikhail I

    2008-01-01

    This book describes beautiful optical and transport phenomena related to the electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors with emphasis on a clear presentation of the physics involved. Recent results on quantum wells and quantum dots are reviewed. The book is intended for students and researchers in the fields of semiconductor physics and nanoelectronics.

  16. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  17. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...... to a decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate...

  18. Organic semiconductor crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-22

    Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.

  19. Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Subhendu [Bloomfield Hills, MI; Yang, Chi C [Troy, MI; Yan, Baojie [Rochester Hills, MI

    2011-03-08

    A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

  20. Ripening of Semiconductor Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Florian D; Riedinger, Andreas; Ochsenbein, David R; Knüsel, Philippe N; Erwin, Steven C; Mazzotti, Marco; Norris, David J

    2017-11-08

    Ostwald ripening describes how the size distribution of colloidal particles evolves with time due to thermodynamic driving forces. Typically, small particles shrink and provide material to larger particles, which leads to size defocusing. Semiconductor nanoplatelets, thin quasi-two-dimensional (2D) particles with thicknesses of only a few atomic layers but larger lateral dimensions, offer a unique system to investigate this phenomenon. Experiments show that the distribution of nanoplatelet thicknesses does not defocus during ripening, but instead jumps sequentially from m to (m + 1) monolayers, allowing precise thickness control. We investigate how this counterintuitive process occurs in CdSe nanoplatelets. We develop a microscopic model that treats the kinetics and thermodynamics of attachment and detachment of monomers as a function of their concentration. We then simulate the growth process from nucleation through ripening. For a given thickness, we observe Ostwald ripening in the lateral direction, but none perpendicular. Thicker populations arise instead from nuclei that capture material from thinner nanoplatelets as they dissolve laterally. Optical experiments that attempt to track the thickness and lateral extent of nanoplatelets during ripening appear consistent with these conclusions. Understanding such effects can lead to better synthetic control, enabling further exploration of quasi-2D nanomaterials.

  1. Charged Semiconductor Defects Structure, Thermodynamics and Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Seebauer, Edmund G

    2009-01-01

    The technologically useful properties of a solid often depend upon the types and concentrations of the defects it contains. Not surprisingly, defects in semiconductors have been studied for many years, in many cases with a view towards controlling their behavior through various forms of "defect engineering." For example, in the bulk, charging significantly affects the total concentration of defects that are available to mediate phenomena such as solid-state diffusion. Surface defects play an important role in mediating surface mass transport during high temperature processing steps such as epitaxial film deposition, diffusional smoothing in reflow, and nanostructure formation in memory device fabrication. Charged Semiconductor Defects details the current state of knowledge regarding the properties of the ionized defects that can affect the behavior of advanced transistors, photo-active devices, catalysts, and sensors. Features: Group IV, III-V, and oxide semiconductors; Intrinsic and extrinsic defects; and, P...

  2. A High-Yield Synthesis of Chalcopyrite CuInS2 Nanoparticles with Exceptional Size Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivin Sun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report high-yield and efficient size-controlled syntheses of Chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanoparticles by decomposing molecular single source precursors (SSPs via microwave irradiation in the presence of 1,2-ethanedithiol at reaction temperatures as low as 100°C and times as short as 30 minutes. The nanoparticles sizes were 1.8 nm to 10.8 nm as reaction temperatures were varied from 100°C to 200°C with the bandgaps from 2.71 eV to 1.28 eV with good size control and high yields (64%–95%. The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed by XRD, UV-Vis, ICP-OES, XPS, SEM, EDS, and HRTEM. Titration studies by 1H NMR using SSP 1 with 1,2-ethanedithiol and benzyl mercaptan were conducted to elucidate the formation of Chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanoparticles.

  3. Co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions reveal the mechanism of chalcopyrite bioleaching coupling with microbial community succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liyuan; Wang, Xingjie; Feng, Xue; Liang, Yili; Xiao, Yunhua; Hao, Xiaodong; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Xueduan

    2017-01-01

    The effect of co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions on chalcopyrite bioleaching was investigated. Communities were rebuilt by six typical strains isolated from the same habitat. The results indicated, by community with more sulfur oxidizers at both 30 and 40°C, the final copper extraction rate was 19.8% and 6.5% higher, respectively, than that with more ferrous oxidizers. The variations of pH, redox potential, ferrous and copper ions in leachate also provided evidences that community with more sulfur oxidizers was more efficient. Community succession of free and attached cells revealed that initial proportions played decisive roles on community dynamics at 30°C, while communities shared similar structures, not relevant to initial proportions at 40°C. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed different microbial functions on mineral surface. A mechanism model for chalcopyrite bioleaching was established coupling with community succession. This will provide theoretical basis for reconstructing an efficient community in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative study of solution-processed low- and high-band-gap chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se Jin; Moon, Sung Hwan; Min, Byoung Koun; Cho, Yunae; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Gwak, Jihye; Kim, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    Low-cost and printable chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells were fabricated by a precursor solution-based coating method with a multi-step heat-treatment process (oxidation, sulfurization, and selenization). The high-band-gap (1.57 eV) Cu(In x Ga 1−x )S 2 (CIGS) solar cell showed a high open-circuit voltage of 787 mV, whereas the low-band-gap (1.12 eV) Cu(In x Ga 1−x )(S 1−y Se y ) 2 (CIGSSe) cell exhibited a high short-circuit current density of 32.6 mA cm −2 . The energy conversion efficiencies were 8.28% for CIGS and 8.81% for CIGSSe under standard irradiation conditions. Despite similar efficiencies, the two samples showed notable differences in grain size, surface morphology, and interfacial properties. Low-temperature transport and admittance characteristics of the samples clearly revealed how their structural differences influenced their photovoltaic and electrical properties. Such analyses provide insight into the enhanced solar cell performance of the solution-processed chalcopyrite thin films. (paper)

  5. Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Source Precursors for Chalcopyrite I-III-VI2 Thin-Film Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Harris, Jerry D.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Dickman, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provide an attractive approach to fabricating solar arrays with high mass-specific power. A polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer is among the new generation of photovoltaic device technologies for thin film solar cells. At NASA Glenn Research Center we have focused on the development of new single-source precursors (SSPs) for deposition of semiconducting chalcopyrite materials onto lightweight, flexible substrates. We describe the syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering. Copper indium disulfide and related thin-film materials were deposited via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition using SSPs. Processing and post-processing parameters were varied in order to modify morphology, stoichiometry, crystallography, electrical properties, and optical properties to optimize device quality. Growth at atmospheric pressure in a horizontal hotwall reactor at 395 C yielded the best device films. Placing the susceptor closer to the evaporation zone and flowing a more precursor-rich carrier gas through the reactor yielded shinier-, smoother-, and denser-looking films. Growth of (112)-oriented films yielded more Cu-rich films with fewer secondary phases than growth of (204)/(220)-oriented films. Post-deposition sulfur-vapor annealing enhanced stoichiometry and crystallinity of the films. Photoluminescence studies revealed four major emission bands and a broad band associated with deep defects. The highest device efficiency for an aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposited cell was one percent.

  6. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, C.A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some problems openned in the study of defects in semiconductors are presented. In particular, a review is made of the more important problems in Si monocrystals of basic and technological interest: microdefects and the presence of oxigen and carbon. The techniques usually utilized in the semiconductor material characterization are emphatized according its potentialities. Some applications of x-ray techniques in the epitaxial shell characterization in heterostructures, importants in electronic optics, are shown. The increase in the efficiency of these defect analysis methods in semiconductor materials with the use of synchrotron x-ray sources is shown. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    2005-03-01

    This volume offers a solid foundation for understanding the most important devices used in the hottest areas of electronic engineering today, from semiconductor fundamentals to state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in the telecommunications and computing industries. Kevin Brennan describes future approaches to computing hardware and RF power amplifiers, and explains how emerging trends and system demands of computing and telecommunications systems influence the choice, design and operation of semiconductor devices. In addition, he covers MODFETs and MOSFETs, short channel effects, and the challenges faced by continuing miniaturization. His book is both an excellent senior/graduate text and a valuable reference for practicing engineers and researchers.

  8. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  9. Physics of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mroziewicz, B; Nakwaski, W

    2013-01-01

    Written for readers who have some background in solid state physics but do not necessarily possess any knowledge of semiconductor lasers, this book provides a comprehensive and concise account of fundamental semiconductor laser physics, technology and properties. The principles of operation of these lasers are therefore discussed in detail with the interrelations between their design and optical, electrical and thermal properties. The relative merits of a large number of laser structures and their parameters are described to acquaint the reader with the various aspects of the semiconductor l

  10. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  11. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  12. Limestone-Concentrate-Pellet Roasting in wet Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    A roast process for treating chalcopyrite concentrate was developed. The investigation of the reaction of limestone-concentrate-pellet in a wet carbon dioxide flow was carried out by means of a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine at which temperatures the roasting reaction would take place. The thermodynamic calculations on the roast reaction were made by the use of SOLGASMIX-PV program. The TGA curves and thermodynamic calculations indicated that the conversion of chalcopyrite into bornite took place at about 975K, and the conversion of bornite into chalcocite at 1065-1123K. The thermodynamic calculations also showed that the sulfur released was fixed as calcium sulfide within roasted pellets. X-ray diffraction examination identified these phases in products.

  13. Biggest semiconductor installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Scientists and technicians at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, commonly known by its French acronym CERN (Centre Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire), have completed the installation of the largest semiconductor silicon detector.

  14. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  15. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  16. Market survey of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, I.M.; Diegel, D.; Brown, A.; Brinker, C.S. den

    1977-06-01

    Examination of technology and product trends over the range of current and future products in integrated circuits and optoelectronic displays. Analysis and forecast of major economic influences that affect the production costs of integrated circuits and optoelectronic displays. Forecast of the applications and markets for integrated circuits up to 1985 in West Europe, the USA and Japan. Historic development of the semiconductor industry and the prevailing tendencies - factors which influence success in the semiconductor industry. (orig.) [de

  17. Magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de W.J.M.; Swagten, H.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A review will be given of the magnetic characteristics of diluted magnetic semiconductors and the relation with the driving exchange mechanisms. II–VI as well as IV–VI compounds will be considered. The relevance of the long-range interaction and the role of the carrier concentration will be

  18. Electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einevoll, G.T.

    1991-02-01

    Ten papers on the electronic properties of semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures constitute the backbone of this thesis. Four papers address the form and validity of the single-band effective mass approximation for semiconductor heterostructures. In four other papers properties of acceptor states in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures are studied using the novel effective bond-orbital model. The last two papers deal with localized excitions. 122 refs

  19. Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P D C; Veal, T D

    2011-08-24

    Despite an extensive research effort for over 60 years, an understanding of the origins of conductivity in wide band gap transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors remains elusive. While TCOs have already found widespread use in device applications requiring a transparent contact, there are currently enormous efforts to (i) increase the conductivity of existing materials, (ii) identify suitable alternatives, and (iii) attempt to gain semiconductor-engineering levels of control over their carrier density, essential for the incorporation of TCOs into a new generation of multifunctional transparent electronic devices. These efforts, however, are dependent on a microscopic identification of the defects and impurities leading to the high unintentional carrier densities present in these materials. Here, we review recent developments towards such an understanding. While oxygen vacancies are commonly assumed to be the source of the conductivity, there is increasing evidence that this is not a sufficient mechanism to explain the total measured carrier concentrations. In fact, many studies suggest that oxygen vacancies are deep, rather than shallow, donors, and their abundance in as-grown material is also debated. We discuss other potential contributions to the conductivity in TCOs, including other native defects, their complexes, and in particular hydrogen impurities. Convincing theoretical and experimental evidence is presented for the donor nature of hydrogen across a range of TCO materials, and while its stability and the role of interstitial versus substitutional species are still somewhat open questions, it is one of the leading contenders for yielding unintentional conductivity in TCOs. We also review recent work indicating that the surfaces of TCOs can support very high carrier densities, opposite to the case for conventional semiconductors. In thin-film materials/devices and, in particular, nanostructures, the surface can have a large impact on the total

  20. Ion implantation in semiconductors and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guernet, G.; Bruel, M.; Gailliard, J.P.; Garcia, M.; Robic, J.Y.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of ion implantation techniques in the field of semiconductors and its extension to various fields such as metallurgy, mechanics, superconductivity and opto-electronics are considered. As for semiconductors ion implantation is evoked as: a means of predeposition of impurities at low doping level (10 11 to 10 14 cm -2 ); a means for obtaining profiles of controlled concentration; a means of reaching high doping levels with using 'strong current' implantation machines of the second generation. Some results obtained are presented [fr

  1. Measuring trace elements in semiconductors: methods and pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, R M

    1980-02-01

    Some of the principles which govern the analytic methods available for the detection and quantitative measurement of impurity concentrations in semiconductors are described. Ways of assuring the quality of analytical data are suggested. (SPH)

  2. Nuclear relaxation in semiconductors doped with magnetic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nichuk, S.V.; Tovstyuk, N.K.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature and concentration dependences are investigated of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time with account of spin diffusion for degenerated and non-degenerated semicon- ductors doped with magnetic impurities. In case of the non-degenerated semiconductor the time is shown to grow with temperature, while in case of degenerated semiconductor it is practically independent of temperature. The impurity concentration growth results in decreasing the spin-lattice relaxation time

  3. Magnetic susceptibility of semiconductor melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutvitskij, V.A.; Shurygin, P.M.

    1975-01-01

    The temperature dependences chi of various alloys confirm the existence of cluster formations in molten semiconductors, the stability of these formations in melts being considerably affected by the anion nature. The concentrational dependences of the magnetic susceptibility for all the investigated systems exhibit the diamagnetism maxima corresponding to the compound compositions. Heating the melt causes ''smearing'' the maxima, which is related with the cluster structure dissociation. The existence of the maxima concentrational dependence chi corresponding to BiTe and BiSe is found in the isotherms. The non-linear dependence of chi on the composition shows the absence of a single-valued relation between the phase diagram and the chi-diagram for melts

  4. Thermoelectricity Generation and Electron-Magnon Scattering in a Natural Chalcopyrite Mineral from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Ran; Khan, Atta Ullah; Tsujii, Naohito; Takai, Ken; Nakamura, Ryuhei; Mori, Takao

    2015-10-26

    Current high-performance thermoelectric materials require elaborate doping and synthesis procedures, particularly in regard to the artificial structure, and the underlying thermoelectric mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we report that a natural chalcopyrite mineral, Cu1+x Fe1-x S2 , obtained from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent can directly generate thermoelectricity. The resistivity displayed an excellent semiconducting character, and a large thermoelectric power and high power factor were found in the low x region. Notably, electron-magnon scattering and a large effective mass was detected in this region, thus suggesting that the strong coupling of doped carriers and antiferromagnetic spins resulted in the natural enhancement of thermoelectric properties during mineralization reactions. The present findings demonstrate the feasibility of thermoelectric energy generation and electron/hole carrier modulation with natural materials that are abundant in the Earth's crust. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Method of doping a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Rapp, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient

  6. Structural and elastic properties of defect chalcopyrite HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomis, O., E-mail: osgohi@fis.upv.es [Centro de Tecnologías Físicas: Acústica, Materiales y Astrofísica, MALTA Consolider Team, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain); Santamaría-Pérez, D. [Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, MALTA Consolider Team, Universitat de València, Edificio de Investigación, C/Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, 46100 València (Spain); Departamento de Química Física I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, MALTA Consolider Team, Avenida Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vilaplana, R.; Luna, R. [Centro de Tecnologías Físicas: Acústica, Materiales y Astrofísica, MALTA Consolider Team, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain); Sans, J.A.; Manjón, F.J. [Instituto de Diseño para la Fabricación y Producción Automatizada, MALTA Consolider Team, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain); Errandonea, D. [Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, MALTA Consolider Team, Universitat de València, Edificio de Investigación, C/Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, 46100 València (Spain); and others

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Single crystals of HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} with defect-chalcopyrite (DC) structure were synthesized. • High-pressure X-ray diffraction in DC-HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} was performed. • Equation of state of DC-HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} determined (bulk modulus of 48.4 GPa). • Calculated elastic constants of DC-HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} reported at different pressures. • DC-HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} becomes mechanically unstable above 13.8 GPa. -- Abstract: In this work, we focus on the study of the structural and elastic properties of mercury digallium sulfide (HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}) at high pressures. This compound belongs to the family of AB{sub 2}X{sub 4} ordered-vacancy compounds and exhibits a tetragonal defect chalcopyrite structure. X-ray diffraction measurements at room temperature have been performed under compression up to 15.1 GPa in a diamond anvil cell. Our measurements have been complemented and compared with ab initio total energy calculations. The axial compressibility and the equation of state of the low-pressure phase of HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} have been experimentally and theoretically determined and compared to other related ordered-vacancy compounds. The pressure dependence of the theoretical cation–anion and vacancy-anion distances and compressibilities in HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} are reported and discussed in comparison to other related ordered-vacancy compounds. Finally, the pressure dependence of the theoretical elastic constants and elastic moduli of HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} has been studied. Our calculations indicate that the low-pressure phase of HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} becomes mechanically unstable above 13.8 GPa.

  7. Characteristics of chemical bond and vacancy formation in chalcopyrite-type CuInSe2 and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    We studied characteristics of chemical bond and vacancy formation in chalcopyrite-type CuInSe 2 (CIS) by first principles calculations. The chalcopyrite-type CIS has two kinds of chemical bonds, Cu-Se and In-Se. The Cu-Se bond is a weak covalent bonding because electrons occupy both bonding and antibonding orbitals of Cu 3d and Se 4p and occupy only the bonding orbital (a 1 ) of Cu 4s and Se 4p and do not occupy the antibonding orbital (a 1 * ) of Cu 4s and Se 4p. On the other hand, the In-Se bond has a partially covalent and partially ionic character because the In 5s orbital covalently interacts with Se 4p; the In 5p orbital is higher than Se 4p and so the electron in the In 5p orbital moves to the Se 4p orbital. The average bond order of the Cu-Se and In-Se bonds can be calculated to be 1/4 and 1, respectively. The bond order of Cu-Se is smaller than that of In-Se. The characteristics of these two chemical bonds are related to the formation of Cu and In vacancies in CIS. The formation energy of the Cu vacancy is smaller than that of the In vacancy under both Cu-poor and In-poor conditions. The displacement (Δl) of the surrounding Se atoms after the formation of the Cu vacancy is smaller than the Δl after the formation of the In vacancy. The interesting and unique characteristics of CIS are discussed on the basis of the characteristics of the chemical bond. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Fundamentals of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Numai, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    This book explains physics under the operating principles of semiconductor lasers in detail based on the experience of the author, dealing with the first manufacturing of phase-shifted DFB-LDs and recent research on transverse modes.   The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.    Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.

  9. Coherent dynamics in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    enhanced in quantum confined lower-dimensional systems, where exciton and biexciton effects dominate the spectra even at room temperature. The coherent dynamics of excitons are at modest densities well described by the optical Bloch equations and a number of the dynamical effects known from atomic......Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...

  10. Hydrogen in semiconductors II

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Norbert H; Weber, Eicke R; Nickel, Norbert H

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition ...

  11. Photoelectronic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bube, Richard H

    1992-01-01

    The interaction between light and electrons in semiconductors forms the basis for many interesting and practically significant properties. This book examines the fundamental physics underlying this rich complexity of photoelectronic properties of semiconductors, and will familiarise the reader with the relatively simple models that are useful in describing these fundamentals. The basic physics is also illustrated with typical recent examples of experimental data and observations. Following introductory material on the basic concepts, the book moves on to consider a wide range of phenomena, including photoconductivity, recombination effects, photoelectronic methods of defect analysis, photoeffects at grain boundaries, amorphous semiconductors, photovoltaic effects and photoeffects in quantum wells and superlattices. The author is Professor of Materials Science and Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, and has taught this material for many years. He is an experienced author, his earlier books having fo...

  12. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Optimization of bandgap of chalcopyrite semiconductors; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kinseitaihaba no saitekika no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konagai, M [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on research on optimization of bandgap in thin film compound solar cells. In research on Cu(InGa)Se2 thin film solar cells by using a gas phase selenide making process, discussions were given on optimizing the following three processes: a process to raise temperature of a precursor film formed at a substrate temperature of about 150{degree}C, a selenide making process to perform annealing at about 500{degree}C, and a temperature reducing process. Good characteristics were obtained when selenium amount in the precursor is about 50%. In a bandgap control viewpoint, it was found that the conversion efficiency decreases rapidly when Ga composition is higher than 50%. A conversion efficiency of 14.9% was obtained to date at the Ga/(In+Ga) ratio of 0.4. In research on Cu(InGa)Se2 thin film solar cells by using a simultaneous deposition method, a conversion efficiency of 13.5% was obtained at a bandgap width of about 1.3 eV during research on manufacturing ZnO/CdS/Cu(InGa)Se2 thin film solar cells by using the simultaneous deposition method. Research has been carried out on manufacturing Cu(InGa)Se2 thin film solar cells using ZnSe interface layers. 8 figs.

  13. Two dimensional tunable photonic crystals and n doped semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Hussein A.; El-Naggar, Sahar A.; Aly, Arafa H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the effect of the doping concentration on the properties of two dimensional semiconductor photonic band structures. We consider two structures; type I(II) that is composed of n doped semiconductor (air) rods arranged into a square lattice of air (n doped semiconductor). We consider three different shapes of rods. Our numerical method is based on the frequency dependent plane wave expansion method. The numerical results show that the photonic band gaps in type II are more sensitive to the changes in the doping concentration than those of type I. In addition, the width of the gap of type II is less sensitive to the shape of the rods than that of type I. Moreover, the cutoff frequency can be strongly tuned by the doping concentrations. Our structures could be of technical use in optical electronics for semiconductor applications

  14. Advances in semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, James J; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scien

  15. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr

    2015-07-15

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  16. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  17. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  18. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light

  19. Physical principles of semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micek, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The general properties of semiconductors with respect to the possibilities of their use as the ionization radiation detectors are discussed. Some chosen types of semiconductor junctions and their characteristics are briefly presented. There are also discussed the physical phenomena connected with the formation of barriers in various types of semiconductor counters. Finally, the basic properties of three main types of semiconductor detectors are given. (author)

  20. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  1. Handbook of luminescent semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy is an important approach for examining the optical interactions in semiconductors and optical devices with the goal of gaining insight into material properties. With contributions from researchers at the forefront of this field, Handbook of Luminescent Semiconductor Materials explores the use of this technique to study semiconductor materials in a variety of applications, including solid-state lighting, solar energy conversion, optical devices, and biological imaging. After introducing basic semiconductor theory and photoluminescence principles, the book focuses

  2. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  3. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  4. Semi-conductor rectifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for treating a semiconductor rectifier, comprising: heating the rectifier to a temperature in the range of 100 0 C to 500 0 C, irradiating the rectifier while maintaining its temperature within the said range, and then annealing the rectifier at a temperature of between 280 0 C and 350 0 C for between two and ten hours. (author)

  5. Semiconductor detector physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1987-01-01

    Comprehension of semiconductor detectors follows comprehension of some elements of solid state physics. They are recalled here, limited to the necessary physical principles, that is to say the conductivity. P-n and MIS junctions are discussed in view of their use in detection. Material and structure (MOS, p-n, multilayer, ..) are also reviewed [fr

  6. Temperature dependent electronic conduction in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.G.; Munn, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This review describes the temperature dependence of bulk-controlled electronic currents in semiconductors. The scope of the article is wide in that it contrasts conduction mechanisms in inorganic and organic solids and also single crystal and disordered semiconductors. In many experimental situations it is the metal-semiconductor contact or the interface between two dissimilar semiconductors that governs the temperature dependence of the conductivity. However, in order to keep the length of the review within reasonable bounds, these topics have been largely avoided and emphasis is therefore placed on bulk-limited currents. A central feature of electronic conduction in semiconductors is the concentrations of mobile electrons and holes that contribute to the conductivity. Various statistical approaches may be used to calculate these densities which are normally strongly temperature dependent. Section 1 emphasizes the relationship between the position of the Fermi level, the distribution of quantum states, the total number of electrons available and the absolute temperature of the system. The inclusion of experimental data for several materials is designed to assist the experimentalist in his interpretation of activation energy curves. Sections 2 and 3 refer to electronic conduction in disordered solids and molecular crystals, respectively. In these cases alternative approaches to the conventional band theory approach must be considered. For example, the velocities of the charge carriers are usually substantially lower than those in conventional inorganic single crystal semiconductors, thus introducing the possibility of an activated mobility. Some general electronic properties of these materials are given in the introduction to each of these sections and these help to set the conduction mechanisms in context. (orig.)

  7. Numerical study of the electronic structure, elastic and optical properties of defect quaternary semiconductor CuGaSnSe4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kesheng; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Xianzhou; Jiao, Zhaoyong

    2018-06-01

    The electronic structure, elastic and optical properties of the defect quaternary semiconductor CuGaSnSe4 in I 4 bar structure are systematically investigated using first-principles calculations. We summarize and discuss some of the studies on CuGaSnSe4 in partially ordered chalcopyrite structure and find that there are three atomic arrangements so far, but it is still uncertain which is the most stable. Through detailed simulation and comparison with the corresponding literature, we get three models and predict that M1 model should be the most stable. The band structure and optical properties of compound CuGaSnSe4, including dielectric constant, refractive index and absorption spectrum, are drawn for a more intuitive understanding. The elastic constants are also calculated, which not only prove that CuGaSnSe4 in I 4 bar structure is stable naturally but also help solve the problem of no data to accurately predict axial thermal expansion coefficients. The calculated values of the zero frequency dielectric constant and refractive index are comparable to those of the corresponding chalcopyrite structure but slightly larger.

  8. Semiconductor processing with excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; Christie, W.H.; van der Leeden, G.A.; Rothe, D.E.; Cheng, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of pulsed excimer lasers for semiconductor processing are reviewed. Extensive comparisons of the quality of annealing of ion-implanted Si obtained with XeCl and ruby lasers have been made. The results indicate that irrespective of the large differences in the optical properties of Si at uv and visible wavelengths, the efficiency of usage of the incident energy for annealing is comparable for the two lasers. However, because of the excellent optical beam quality, the XeCl laser can provide superior control of the surface melting and the resulting junction depth. Furthermore, the concentrations of electrically active point defects in the XeCl laser annealed region are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from ruby or Nd:YAG lasers. All these results seem to suggest that XeCl lasers should be suitable for fabricating not only solar cells but also the more advanced device structures required for VLSI or VHSIC applications

  9. Specific heat in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanlı, A. M.; Ibragimov, B. G.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, we have calculated the specific heat and magnetization of a quantum ring of a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) material in the presence of magnetic field. We take into account the effect of Rashba spin-orbital interaction, the exchange interaction and the Zeeman term on the specific heat. We have calculated the energy spectrum of the electrons in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring. Moreover we have calculated the specific heat dependency on the magnetic field and Mn concentration at finite temperature of a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring.

  10. Introduction to the Physics of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gaj, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    The book deals with diluted magnetic semiconductors, a class of materials important to the emerging field of spintronics. In these materials semiconducting properties, both transport and optical, are influenced by the presence of magnetic ions. It concentrates on basic physical mechanisms (e.g. carrier-ion and ion-ion interactions) and resulting phenomena (e.g. magnetic polaron formation and spin relaxation). Introduction to the Physics of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors is addressed to graduate-level and doctoral students and young researchers entering the field. The authors have been actively involved in the creation of this branch of semiconductor physics.

  11. Improvement in grade of minerals using simultaneous Bio-oxidation of invisible gold concentrate and deep-sea manganese crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, EunJi; Cho, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Cheon Young

    2016-04-01

    Many sulfides of metal such as galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite, are semiconductors. When two kinds of such minerals contact each other in an electrolyte, a galvanic couple, where the mineral of lower rest potential as anode, and that of higher rest potential as cathode forms. Manganese dioxide is also a semiconductor with much higher rest potential than all sulfides mentioned above, so that a galvanic couple in which both the minerals would dissolve simultaneously can form, when it contacts with any of the sulfides. The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in grade of minerals using the simultaneous bio-oxidation of deep-sea manganese crust and invisible gold concentrate. The samples(deep-sea manganese crust and invisible gold concentrate) were characterized by chemical and XRD analysis. The primary components of the invisible gold concentrate was pyrite and quartz and the deep-sea manganese crust was amorphous material, as detected using XRD. The result of chemical analysis showed that Au, Ag, Te contents in the invisible gold concentrate 130.2, 954.1 and 1,043.6 mg/kg, respectively. and that Mn, Ni, Co contents in the deep-sea manganese crust 19,501.5, 151.9, 400.4 mg/kg, respectively. In order to increase the bacteria's tolerance of heavy metals, the bacteria using bio-oxidation experiments were repeatedly subcultured in an Cu adaptation-medium containing of 382.98 mg/l for 20 periods of 21 days. The improvement in grade of samples of in present adapted bacteria condition was greater than another conditions(control and in present non-adapted bacteria). The Au-Ag-Te contents in the invisible gold concentrate was enhanced in the order of physical oxidation, simultaneous/non-adaptive bio-oxidation, adaptive/bio-oxidation, simultaneous/adaptive bio-oxidation. If the bacteria is adapted to heavy metal ions and an optimization of conditions is found in future bio-oxidation-leaching processes. Acknowledgment : "This research was supported

  12. Evidence for the existence of two electronic states in the chalcopyrite-type alloys CuFe(S1-zSez)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimes, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Woolley, J.C.; Lamarche, G.

    1994-01-01

    Results of Moessbauer spectroscopy for the chalcopyrite-type of alloys CuFe(S 1-z Se z ) 2 in the range of composition 0 ≤ z ≤ 0.45 are presented. Room temperature spectra show two contributions: one is a magnetic spectrum (six lines) with a value of the hyperfine field near to that of chalcopyrite (z = 0, in which an antiferromagnetic order occurs below T = 823 K), the other having only one line. The relative area of the single-line contribution increases as z increases. For z = 0.2, we also made Moessbauer measurements as a function of temperature. The ratio of the two contributions evolves according to a Boltzmann law, in which the single line corresponds to the excited state at 81 K above the antiferromagnetic ground state. (orig.)

  13. Defect chalcopyrite Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}){sub 3}Se{sub 5} (0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, M.A.; Wiesner, H.; Niles, D.; Ramanathan, K.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties of defect chalcopyrite Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}){sub 3}Se{sub 5} (0chalcopyrite CuIn{sub 1 {minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} absorber materials is presented. Considering the chalcopyrite/defect chalcopyrite junction model, the authors postulate that the traditionally poor device performance of uniform high-Ga-content absorbers (x>0.3) is due to a relatively inferior character - both structural and electrical - at the very chalcopyrite/defect chalcopyrite interface. They demonstrate that this situation can be circumvented (for absorbers with x>0.3) by properly engineering such an interface by reducing Ga content in the region near the surface of the absorber.

  14. Carrier-lifetime-controlled selective etching process for semiconductors using photochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for selectively photochemically etching a semiconductor material. It comprises introducing at least one impurity into at least one selected region of a semiconductor material to be etched to increase a local impurity concentration in the at least one selected region relative to an impurity concentration in regions of the semiconductor material adjacent thereto, for reducing minority carrier lifetimes within the at least one selected region relative to the adjacent regions for thereby providing a photochemical etch-inhibiting mask at the at least one selected region; and etching the semiconductor material by subjecting the surface of the semiconductor material to a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction for selectively etching the regions of the semiconductor material adjacent the at least one selected region having the increase impurity concentration; wherein the step of introducing at least one impurity is performed so as not to produce damage to the at least one selected region before any etching is performed

  15. Unraveling the mechanism of molecular doping in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mityashin, Alexander; Olivier, Yoann; Van Regemorter, Tanguy; Rolin, Cedric; Verlaak, Stijn; Martinelli, Nicolas G; Beljonne, David; Cornil, Jérôme; Genoe, Jan; Heremans, Paul

    2012-03-22

    The mechanism by which molecular dopants donate free charge carriers to the host organic semiconductor is investigated and is found to be quite different from the one in inorganic semiconductors. In organics, a strong correlation between the doping concentration and its charge donation efficiency is demonstrated. Moreover, there is a threshold doping level below which doping simply has no electrical effect. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Quantitative autoradiography of semiconductor base material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutler, H.C.; Freyer, K.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiographic methods for the quantitative determination of elements interesting in semiconductor technology and their distribution in silicon are described. Whereas the local concentration and distribution of phosphorus has been determined with the aid of silver halide films the neutron-induced autoradiography has been applied in the case of boron. Silicon disks containing diffused phosphorus or implanted or diffused boron have been used as standard samples. Different possibilities of the quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms are considered and compared

  17. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amita [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2+ state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2+ state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

  18. Scientific communications: Re-Os sulfide (bornite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite) systematics of the carbonate-hosted copper deposits at ruby creek, southern brooks range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, D.; Kelley, K.D.; Hitzman, M.W.; Zieg, J.

    2009-01-01

    New Re-Os data for chalcopyrite, bornite, and pyrite from the carbonate-hosted Cu deposit at Ruby Creek (Bornite), Alaska, show extremely high Re abundances (hundreds of ppb, low ppm) and contain essentially no common Os. The Re-Os data provide the first absolute ages of ore formation for the carbonate-hosted Ruby Creek Cu-(Co) deposit and demonstrate that the Re-Os systematics of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite are unaffected by greenschist metamorphism. The Re-Os data show that the main phase of Cu mineralization pre dominantly occurred at 384 ?? 4.2 Ma, with an earlier phase possibly at ???400 Ma. The Re-Os data are consistent with the observed paragenetic sequence and coincide with zircon U-Pb ages from igneous rocks within the Ambler metallogenic belt, some of which are spatially and genetically associated with regional volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. The latter may suggest a temporal link between regional magmatism and hydrothermal mineralization in the Ambler district. The utility of bornite and chalcopyrite, in addition to pyrite, contributes to a new understanding of Re-Os geochronology and permits a refinement of the genetic model for the Ruby Creek deposit. ?? 2009 Society of Economices Geologists, Inc.

  19. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  20. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The...

  1. Semiconductor physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor Physics - An Introduction - is suitable for the senior undergraduate or new graduate student majoring in electrical engineering or physics. It will also be useful to solid-state scientists and device engineers involved in semiconductor design and technology. The text provides a lucid account of charge transport, energy transport and optical processes, and a detailed description of many devices. It includes sections on superlattices and quantum well structures, the effects of deep-level impurities on transport, the quantum Hall effect and the calculation of the influence of a magnetic field on the carrier distribution function. This 6th edition has been revised and corrected, and new sections have been added to different chapters.

  2. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  3. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  4. Hydrogen Sensors Using Nitride-Based Semiconductor Diodes: The Role of Metal/Semiconductor Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Irokawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I review my recent results in investigating hydrogen sensors using nitride-based semiconductor diodes, focusing on the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with the devices. Firstly, effects of interfacial modification in the devices on hydrogen detection sensitivity are discussed. Surface defects of GaN under Schottky electrodes do not play a critical role in hydrogen sensing characteristics. However, dielectric layers inserted in metal/semiconductor interfaces are found to cause dramatic changes in hydrogen sensing performance, implying that chemical selectivity to hydrogen could be realized. The capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristics reveal that the work function change in the Schottky metal is not responsible mechanism for hydrogen sensitivity. The interface between the metal and the semiconductor plays a critical role in the interaction of hydrogen with semiconductor devises. Secondly, low-frequency C-V characterization is employed to investigate the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with diodes. As a result, it is suggested that the formation of a metal/semiconductor interfacial polarization could be attributed to hydrogen-related dipoles. In addition, using low-frequency C-V characterization leads to clear detection of 100 ppm hydrogen even at room temperature where it is hard to detect hydrogen by using conventional current-voltage (I-V characterization, suggesting that low-frequency C-V method would be effective in detecting very low hydrogen concentrations.

  5. Doping of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K. [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Images through semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Improved image processing techniques are constantly being developed for television and for scanners using X-rays or other radiation for industrial or medical applications, etc. As Erik Heijne of CERN explains here, particle physics too has its own special requirements for image processing. The increasing use of semiconductor techniques for handling measurements down to the level of a few microns provides another example of the close interplay between scientific research and technological development. (orig.).

  7. Muonium states in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    There is a brief summary of what is known about the muonium states isotropic, anisotropic and diamagnetic in diamond and zincblende semiconductors. The report deals with muonium spectroscopy, including the formation probabilities, hyperfine parameters and electronic g-factors of the states. The dynamics of the states is treated including a discussion of the transition from isotropic Mu to anisotropic Mu in diamond, temperature-dependent linewidthes in silicon and germanium and effects of daping and radiation damage

  8. Nonradiative recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Abakumov, VN; Yassievich, IN

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, great progress has been made in the understandingof recombination processes controlling the number of excessfree carriers in semiconductors under nonequilibrium conditions. As a result, it is now possible to give a comprehensivetheoretical description of these processes. The authors haveselected a number of experimental results which elucidate theunderlying physical problems and enable a test of theoreticalmodels. The following topics are dealt with: phenomenological theory ofrecombination, theoretical models of shallow and deep localizedstates, cascade model of carrier captu

  9. Doping of organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  11. Survey of semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    1992-01-01

    Any book that covers a large variety of subjects and is written by one author lacks by necessity the depth provided by an expert in his or her own field of specialization. This book is no exception. It has been written with the encouragement of my students and colleagues, who felt that an extensive card file I had accumulated over the years of teaching solid state and semiconductor physics would be helpful to more than just a few of us. This file, updated from time to time, contained lecture notes and other entries that were useful in my research and permitted me to give to my students a broader spectrum of information than is available in typical textbooks. When assembling this material into a book, I divided the top­ ics into material dealing with the homogeneous semiconductor, the subject of the previously published Volume 1, and the inhomoge­ neous semiconductor, the subject of this Volume 2. In order to keep the book to a manageable size, sections of tutorial character which can be used as text for a g...

  12. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-01-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  13. The Physics of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    1999-02-01

    Modern fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce semiconductor devices whose dimensions are so small that quantum mechanical effects dominate their behavior. This book describes the key elements of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and solid-state physics that are necessary in understanding these modern semiconductor devices. The author begins with a review of elementary quantum mechanics, and then describes more advanced topics, such as multiple quantum wells. He then disusses equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Following this introduction, he provides a thorough treatment of solid-state physics, covering electron motion in periodic potentials, electron-phonon interaction, and recombination processes. The final four chapters deal exclusively with real devices, such as semiconductor lasers, photodiodes, flat panel displays, and MOSFETs. The book contains many homework exercises and is suitable as a textbook for electrical engineering, materials science, or physics students taking courses in solid-state device physics. It will also be a valuable reference for practicing engineers in optoelectronics and related areas.

  14. Activity coefficients of electrons and holes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orazem, M.E.; Newman, J.

    1984-01-01

    Dilute-solution transport equations with constant activity coefficients are commonly used to model semiconductors. These equations are consistent with a Boltzmann distribution and are invalid in regions where the species concentration is close to the respective site concentration. A more rigorous treatment of transport in a semiconductor requires activity coefficients which are functions of concentration. Expressions are presented for activity coefficients of electrons and holes in semiconductors for which conduction- and valence-band energy levels are given by the respective bandedge energy levels. These activity coefficients are functions of concentration and are thermodynamically consistent. The use of activity coefficients in macroscopic transport relationships allows a description of electron transport in a manner consistent with the Fermi-Dirac distribution

  15. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, Stefanie M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Lauermann, Iver, E-mail: Iver.lauermann@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F., E-mail: Emad.Aziz@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  16. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-01-01

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  17. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-02-01

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  18. First-principles study of structural, electronic, linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ga{2}PSb ternary chalcopyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouahrani, T.; Reshak, A. H.; de La Roza, A. Otero; Mebrouki, M.; Luaña, V.; Khenata, R.; Amrani, B.

    2009-12-01

    We report results from first-principles density functional calculations using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the Engel-Vosko-generalized gradient approximation (EV-GGA) were used for the exchange-correlation energy of the structural, electronic, linear and nonlinear optical properties of the chalcopyrite Ga2PSb compound. The valence band maximum (VBM) is located at the Γv point, and the conduction band minimum (CBM) is located at the Γc point, resulting in a direct band gap of about 0.365 eV for GGA and 0.83 eV for EV-GGA. In comparison with the experimental one (1.2 eV) we found that EV-GGA calculation gives energy gap in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The spin orbit coupling has marginal influence on the optical properties. The ground state quantities such as lattice parameters (a, c and u), bulk modules B and its pressure derivative B^primeare evaluated.

  19. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-01-01

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode–semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode–semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect. PMID:28346349

  20. Comparison of Analytic and Numerical Models With Commercially Available Simulation Tools for the Prediction of Semiconductor Freeze-Out and Exhaustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeves, Derek

    2002-01-01

    .... An efficient and reliable method is needed to accomplish this task. Silvaco International's semiconductor simulation software was used to predict temperature dependent majority carrier concentration for a semiconductor cell...

  1. Bioleaching of a complex nickel–iron concentrate by mesophile bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Luciano Rodrigo Gomes; Barbosa, Alexandre Ferraz; Souza, Adelson Dias de; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the bioleaching of a complex nickel–iron concentrate (pentlandite, pyrrhotite, and minor amounts of chalcopyrite) using acidophile iron-oxidizing bacteria. It aims to improve the understanding of the mechanism of bacterial action on nickel sulphide bioleaching. The effects of the external addition of Fe(II) and the mineralogical assembly on the extraction of nickel are evaluated. A high nickel extraction (around 70%) can be achieved in batch experiments. Moreover, the e...

  2. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  3. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  4. Electrowetting on semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Cesar; Deegan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Applying a voltage difference between a conductor and a sessile droplet sitting on a thin dielectric film separating it from the conductor will cause the drop to spread. When the conductor is a good metal, the change of the drop's contact angle due to the voltage is given by the Young-Lippmann (YL) equation. Here, we report experiments with lightly doped, single crystal silicon as the conductive electrode. We derive a modified YL equation that includes effects due to the semiconductor and contact line pinning. We show that light induces a non-reversible wetting transition, and that our model agrees well with our experimental results.

  5. Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57 Co and 60 Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239 Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

  6. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  7. Lattice Location of Transition Metals in Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS366 %title\\\\ \\\\Transition metals (TMs) in semiconductors have been the subject of considerable research for nearly 40 years. This is due both to their role as important model impurities for deep centers in semiconductors, and to their technological impact as widespread contaminants in Si processing, where the miniaturization of devices requires to keep their sheet concentration below 10$^{10}$ cm$^{-2}$. As a consequence of the low TM solubility, conventional ion beam methods for direct lattice location have failed completely in identifying the lattice sites of isolated transition metals. Although electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has yielded valuable information on a variety of TM centers, it has been unable to detect certain defects considered by theory, e.g., isolated interstitial or substitutional Cu in Si. The proposed identity of other EPR centers such as substitutional Fe in Si, still needs confirmation by additional experimental methods. As a consequence, the knowledge on the structural propert...

  8. Tunable Broadband Acoustic Gain in Piezoelectric Semiconductors at ε-Near-Zero Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Willatzen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductors have emerged as materials capable to amplify sound waves when electrons are set to drift at supersonic speeds. Several experiments have demonstrated this behaviour at moderate amplification levels for some intrinsic semiconductors and carrier concentrations......-compensation in metamaterials and applicable for sensing such as nonlinear devices. The paper contains a detailed derivation and discussion of transmission and reflection coefficients for pressure pulses impinging on a semiconductor slab and the acoustic gain enhancement that can be achieved by dynamic switching...

  9. Orbital frustration induced unusual ordering in semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Yin, Wanjian; Chen, Shiyou; Gong, Xingao; Wei, Suhuai; Xiang, Hongjun

    It is well known that ternary zinc-blende semiconductors are always more stable in the chalcopyrite (CH) structure than the Cu-Au (CA) structure because CH structure has large Coulomb interaction and reduced strain energy. Surprisingly, an experimental study showed that ZnFeSe2 alloy takes the CA order as the ground state structure, which is consistent with our density function theory (DFT) calculations showing that the CA order has lower energy than the CH order for ZnFeSe2. We reveal that the orbital degree of freedom of high-spin Fe2+ ion (d6) in the tetrahedral crystal field plays a key role in stabilizing the CA order. First, the spin-minority d electron of the Fe2+ ion tends to occupy the dx2-y 2 -like orbital instead of the d3z2 -r2 -like orbital because of its large negative Coulomb energy. Second, for a nearest-neighboring Fe2+ pair, two spin-minority d electrons with occupied dx2-y 2 -like orbitals in the plane containing the Fe-Fe bond has lower electronic kinetic energy. Both conditions can be satisfied in the CA ordered ZnFeSe2 alloy, while there is an orbital frustration in the CH structure. Our results suggest that orbital degree of freedom provides a new way to manipulate the structure and properties of alloys. Work at Fudan was supported by NSFC (11374056), the Special Funds for Major State Basic Research (2012CB921400, 2015CB921700), Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar), and Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation.

  10. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.E.

    1977-10-01

    The use of modulation spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of solids has been very productive. The construction of a wide range Wavelength Modulation Spectrometer to study the optical properties of solids is described in detail. Extensions of the working range of the spectrometer into the vacuum ultraviolet are discussed. Measurements of the reflectivity and derivative reflectivity spectra of the lead chalcogenides, the chalcopyrite ZnGeP/sub 2/, the layer compounds GaSe and GaS and their alloys, the ferroelectric SbSI, layer compounds SnS/sub 2/ and SnSe/sub 2/, and HfS/sub 2/ were made. The results of these measurements are presented along with their interpretation in terms of band structure calculations.

  11. Single filament semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botez, D.

    1980-01-01

    A semiconductor laser comprising: a body of semiconductor material including a substrate having a surface and a pair of spaced, substantially parallel dove-tailed shaped grooves in said surface, said body having a pair of end surfaces between which said grooves extend, said end surfaces being reflective to light with at least one of said end surfaces being partially transparent to light a first epitaxial layer over said surface of the substrate and the surfaces of the grooves, said first epitaxial layer having a flat surface portion over the portion of the substrate surface between the grooves, a thin second epitaxial layer over said first epitaxial layer, a third epitaxial layer over said second epitaxial layer, said first and third epitaxial layers being of opposite conductivity types and the second epitaxial layer being the active recombination region of the laser with the light being generated therein in the vicinity of the portion which is over the flat surface portion of the first epitaxial layer, and a pair of contacts on said body with one contact being over said third epitaxial body and the other being on said substrate

  12. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  13. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F

    1983-02-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered.

  14. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding the low-temperature electrical transport properties of semiconductor nanowires. The semiconductor nanowires (1-100 nm in diameter) are grown from nanoscale gold particles via a chemical process called vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)

  15. Semiconductor photocatalysis principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kisch, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the basic principles of semiconductor photocatalysis, this book also gives a brief introduction to photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, and homogeneous photocatalysis. In addition, the author - one of the leading authorities in the field - presents important environmental and practical aspects. A valuable, one-stop source for all chemists, material scientists, and physicists working in this area, as well as novice researchers entering semiconductor photocatalysis.

  16. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

  17. Semiconductor materials and their properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, Pierre; van Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre; Reinders, Angele; Verlinden, Pierre; van Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor materials are the basic materials which are used in photovoltaic (PV) devices. This chapter introduces solid-state physics and semiconductor properties that are relevant to photovoltaics without spending too much time on unnecessary information. Usually atoms in the group of

  18. Optical coherent control in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    of quantum control including the recent applications to semiconductors and nanostructures. We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductors on CC results. Photoluminescence (PL) and the coherent emission in four-wave mixing (FWM) is recorded after resonant excitation with phase...

  19. Terahertz Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the nonlinear optical effects – selfphase modulation and saturable absorption of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor. Resulting from THz-induced modulation of Drude plasma, these nonlinear optical effects, in particular, lead to self-shortening and nonlinear spectral...... breathing of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor....

  20. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, F.

    1983-01-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered. (Author) [pt

  1. Structural, elastic, electronic, bonding, and optical properties of BeAZ2 (A = Si, Ge, Sn; Z = P, As) chalcopyrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, Shah; Murtaza, G.; Ouahrani, T.; Khenata, R.; Yousaf, Masood; Omran, S.Bin; Mohammad, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    A first principles density functional theory (DFT) technique is used to study the structural, chemical bonding, electronic and optical properties of BeAZ 2 (A = Si, Ge, Sn; Z = P, As) chalcopyrite materials. The calculated parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental results. The lattice constants and the equilibrium volume increased as we moved from Si to Ge to Sn, whereas the c/a and internal parameters u decreased by shifting the cation from P to As. These compounds are elastically stable. An investigation of the band gap using the WC-GGA, EV-GGA, PBE-GGA and mBJ-metaGGA potentials suggested that BeSiP 2 and BeSiAs 2 are direct band gap compounds, whereas BeGeP 2, BeGeAs 2, BeSnP 2, BeSnAs 2 are indirect band gap compounds. The energy band gaps decreased by changing B from Si to Sn and increased by changing the anion C from P to As. The bonding among the cations and anions is primarily ionic. In the optical properties, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric functions, reflectivity and optical conductivity have been studied over a wide energy range. - Highlights: • The compounds are studied by FP-LAPW method within mBJ approximation. • All of the studied materials show isotropic behaviour. • All the compounds show direct band gap nature. • Bonding nature is mostly covalent among the studied compounds. • High absorption peaks and reflectivity ensures there utility in optoelectronic devices

  2. Organic semiconductors in a spin

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, I

    2002-01-01

    A little palladium can go a long way in polymer-based light-emitting diodes. Inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide are essential for countless applications in everyday life, ranging from PCs to CD players. However, while they offer unrivalled computational speed, inorganic semiconductors are also rigid and brittle, which means that they are less suited to applications such as displays and flexible electronics. A completely different class of materials - organic semiconductors - are being developed for these applications. Organic semiconductors have many attractive features: they are easy to make, they can emit visible light, and there is tremendous scope for tailoring their properties to specific applications by changing their chemical structure. Research groups and companies around the world have developed a wide range of organic-semiconductor devices, including transistors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells and lasers. (U.K.)

  3. Ion implantation for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey-Morgan, T.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Over the past two decades, thousands of particle accelerators have been used to implant foreign atoms like boron, phosphorus and arsenic into silicon crystal wafers to produce special embedded layers for manufacturing semiconductor devices. Depending on the device required, the atomic species, the depth of implant and doping levels are the main parameters for the implantation process; the selection and parameter control is totally automated. The depth of the implant, usually less than 1 micron, is determined by the ion energy, which can be varied between 2 and 600 keV. The ion beam is extracted from a Freeman or Bernas type ion source and accelerated to 60 keV before mass analysis. For higher beam energies postacceleration is applied up to 200 keV and even higher energies can be achieved by mass selecting multiplycharged ions, but with a corresponding reduction in beam output. Depending on the device to be manufactured, doping levels can range from 10 10 to 10 15 atoms/cm 2 and are controlled by implanter beam currents in the range up to 30mA; continuous process monitoring ensures uniformity across the wafer of better than 1 % . As semiconductor devices get smaller, additional sophistication is required in the design of the implanter. The silicon wafers charge electrically during implantation and this charge must be dissipated continuously to reduce the electrical stress in the device and avoid destructive electrical breakdown. Electron flood guns produce low energy electrons (below 10 electronvolts) to neutralize positive charge buildup and implanter design must ensure minimum contamination by other isotopic species and ensure low internal sputter rates. The pace of technology in the semiconductor industry is such that implanters are being built now for 256 Megabit circuits but which are only likely to be widely available five years from now. Several specialist companies manufacture implanter systems, each costing around US$5 million, depending on the

  4. Synthesis of single phase chalcopyrite CuIn1−xGaxSe2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nanoparticles by one-pot method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Dawei; Chen, Qinmiao; Hong, Ruijin; Tao, Chunxian; Huang, Yuanshen; Ni, Zhengji; Zhuang, Songlin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile and rapid one-pot synthesis method is presented. • The effects of various Ga contents are investigated. • Single phase chalcopyrite CuIn 1−x Ga x Se 2 nanoparticles can be easily synthesized. • The phase formation sequence is from CuSe to CuGaSe 2 , then to CuIn 1−x Ga x Se 2 . • The possible reaction mechanism of CuIn 1−x Ga x Se 2 nanoparticles is proposed. - Abstract: Single phase chalcopyrite and near stoichiometric CuIn 1−x Ga x Se 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using a facile and rapid one-pot method. The effects of various Ga contents on crystal phase, morphology, element composition and absorption spectrum of the as-synthesized CuIn 1−x Ga x Se 2 nanoparticles were investigated in detail. The XRD and Raman patterns indicated that the as-synthesized nanoparticles had a single phase chalcopyrite structure, and the diffraction peaks shifted toward larger diffraction angles or higher frequencies with increasing Ga content. The FE-SEM images showed that the as-synthesized nanoparticles were polydispersed in both size and shape, and the nanoparticles with higher Ga content were more prone to aggregate. The Vis–IR absorption spectra showed strong absorption in the entire visible light region. The estimated band gap increased from 1.00 eV to 1.68 eV as Ga content increasing

  5. Flotation of Chalcopyrite and Molybdenite in the Presence of Organics in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sinche-Gonzalez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the water constituents that has not been investigated in great detail for potential detrimental effect on mineral flotation is organic matter. This study investigates the effect of natural organic materials contained in water, such as humic, fulvic and tannic acids, on the flotation of copper and molybdenum sulphides in alkaline conditions and in concentrations similar to those found in natural waters. Results show that copper and molybdenum grades decreased with the addition of humic, tannic and fulvic acid in that order, with a larger depression of molybdenite grade and recovery. Adsorption studies using ultraviolet (UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS surface analysis confirmed that these organic materials were adsorbed on the minerals surface. Complimentary analyses of froth characteristics, particle size distribution and fine particles entrainment were also conducted to explain the cause of the negative effect of these organic materials on flotation. The flotation results were explained in terms of the decrease in the hydrophobicity of the mineral surfaces due to the adsorption of hydrophilic groups in these organic materials which then prevent bubble-particle adhesion. The larger detrimental effect of humic acid is due to its higher adsorption on the minerals, high molecular weight and carbon content compared with the other organic acids used.

  6. Nanopatterned organic semiconductors for visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xilu; Dong, Yurong; Zeng, Pan; Yu, Yan; Xie, Yujun; Gong, Junyi; Shi, Meng; Liang, Rongqing; Ou, Qiongrong; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Shuyu

    2018-03-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is becoming an important and promising supplement to the existing Wi-Fi network for the coming 5G communications. Organic light-emitting semiconductors present much fast fluorescent decay rates compared to those of conventional colour-converting phosphors, therefore capable of achieving much higher bandwidths. Here we explore how nanopatterned organic semiconductors can further enhance the data rates of VLC links by improving bandwidths and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and by supporting spatial multiplexing. We first demonstrate a colour-converting VLC system based on nanopatterned hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM), the bandwidth of which is enhanced by 50%. With regard to enhancing SNRs, we achieve a tripling of optical gain by integrating a nanopatterned luminescent concentrator to a signal receiver. In addition, we demonstrate highly directional fluorescent VLC antennas based on nanoimprinted polymer films, paving the way to achieving parallel VLC communications via spatialmultiplexing. These results indicate nanopatterned organic semiconductors provide a promising route to high speed VLC links.

  7. Semiconductor radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  8. Semiconductor testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen.

    1992-01-01

    In a method of avoiding use of nuclear radiation, eg gamma rays, X-rays, electron beams, for testing semiconductor components for resistance to hard radiation, which hard radiation causes data corruption in some memory devices and 'latch-up' in others, similar fault effects can be achieved using a xenon or other 'light' flash gun even though the penetration of light is significantly less than that of gamma rays. The method involves treating a device with gamma radiation, measuring a particular fault current at the onset of a fault event, repeating the test with light to confirm the occurrence of the fault event at the same measured fault current, and using the fault current value as a reference for future tests using light on similar devices. (author)

  9. Radial semiconductor drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)

  10. Energy distribution in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ance, C.

    1979-01-01

    For various semiconductors the dispersive energy Esub(d) defined in the Wemple-Didomenico model is connected with the covalent and ionic energies Esub(h) and C. A continuous curve of ionicity against the ratio of the two energies Esub(A) and Esub(B), connected to Esub(h) and C is reported. Afromowitz's model is applied to the ternary compounds Gasub(1-x)Alsub(x)Sb using optical decomposition. From these results the average energy gap Esub(g) is given by Esub(g) = D 0 M 0 sup((IB))/(epsilon 1 (0)-1) where M 0 sup((IB)) is the interband transition contribution to the optical moment M 0 . (author)

  11. Organic Semiconductor Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2005-03-01

    Recent developments on organic photovoltaic elements are reviewed. Semiconducting conjugated polymers and molecules as well as nanocrystalline inorganic semiconductors are used in composite thin films. The photophysics of such photoactive devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting molecules onto acceptor type molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C60 and/or nanoparticles. Similar to the first steps in natural photosynthesis, this photoinduced electron transfer leads to a number of potentially interesting applications which include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena. Examples of photovoltaic architectures are discussed with their potential in terrestrial solar energy conversion. Several materials are introduced and discussed for their photovoltaic activities. Furthermore, nanomorphology has been investigated with AFM, SEM and TEM. The morphology/property relationship for a given photoactive system is found to be a major effect.

  12. The influence of pressure on the birefringence in semiconductor compounds ZnS, CuGaS2, and InPS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrentyev, A.A.; Gabrelian, B.V.; Kulagin, B.B.; Nikiforov, I.Ya.; Sobolev, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Using the modified method of augmented plane waves and the code WIEN2k the calculations of the electron band structure, densities of electron states, and imaginary part of dielectric response function were carried out for different polarization of the vector of electrical field ε xx and ε zz for the semiconductor compounds ZnS, CuGaS 2 , and InPS 4 . The calculations were performed both for undisturbed crystals and for distorted crystals due to the applied pressure. The compounds studied have the similar crystallographic structures: ZnS - sphalerite, CuGaS 2 - chalcopyrite, and InPS 4 - twice defective chalcopyrite. It is known, that in cubic ZnS there is no birefringence, whereas in CuGaS 2 and InPS 4 there is one. But CuGaS 2 has so called isotropic point (where ε xx =ε zz ) in the visible optical range, and InPS 4 has no such point. Our calculations of ε xx and ε zz have shown that in ZnS under the pressure the isotropic points arise, but in InPS 4 they do not exist. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Calculation of the internal electric field within doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, G J

    2012-01-01

    A detailed model for the calculation of the internal potential and electric field profile within doped semiconductors is developed from a first-principles approach and presented in this paper. The model utilizes Poisson's equation and basic Boltzmann statistics to develop a standard nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann equation (NPBE) for doped semiconductors. The resultant NPBE links the internal electrostatic potential within the doped semiconductor to the doping concentration profile of the semiconductor device under consideration. The NPBE is solved by the application of numerical methods, is general in formulation, supporting multiple simultaneous dopant configurations, and may be applied to any semiconductor type. Calculated results of the electric field profile for various semiconductor dopant structures derived using the model are additionally presented in this paper. The electric field results predicted by the model are shown to be in excellent agreement with those found by other methods. The model may be expanded to accommodate effects involving internal substrate electron–hole pair generation (gemination) caused by photo-ionization for application to and the modeling of solar cell device structures. (paper)

  14. Faraday effect in semimagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, P.I.; Savchuk, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the Faraday effect in a new class of materials -semimagnetic semiconductors (SS) have been received. Mechanisms of the giant Faraday effect in SS based on s, p-d exchange interaction of excitons, electrons and holes with magnetic ions have been discussed. Faraday rotation as a function of a radiation wavelength, magnetic component concentration, temperature, magnetic field intensity for crystals A 2 B 6 (Mn)A 2 x -1Mn xB 6 : and other SS (GaAs(Mn), CdP 2 (Mn),Pb 1-X2 )Mn x J 2 have been considered. We have attended to use FR for the study of a paramagnetic-spin glass transmission for determining the role of the relaxation effects with a participation of magnetic Mn 2+ ions, exitons, polarons in the direct and inverse Faraday effects. In addition the features of FR in thin films of SS and in spin superlattices have been discussed. Finally, we have analysed possibilities of applying the SS Faraday effect for developing magnetooptic devices (optical isolators and fibre optic sensors of magnetic fields)

  15. Magnetic excitations in ferromagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furdyna, J.K.; Liu, X.; Zhou, Y.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic excitations in a series of GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductor films were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Using the FMR approach, multi-mode spin wave resonance spectra have been observed, whose analysis provides information on magnetic anisotropy (including surface anisotropy), distribution of magnetization precession within the GaMnAs film, dynamic surface spin pinning (derived from surface anisotropy), and the value of exchange stiffness constant D. These studies illustrate a combination of magnetism and semiconductor physics that is unique to magnetic semiconductors

  16. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  17. Semiconductors integrated circuit design for manufacturability

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinki, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Because of the continuous evolution of integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM) and design for manufacturability (DfM), most books on the subject are obsolete before they even go to press. That's why the field requires a reference that takes the focus off of numbers and concentrates more on larger economic concepts than on technical details. Semiconductors: Integrated Circuit Design for Manufacturability covers the gradual evolution of integrated circuit design (ICD) as a basis to propose strategies for improving return-on-investment (ROI) for ICD in manufacturing. Where most books put the spotl

  18. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1990-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and X-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. (orig.)

  19. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs

  20. Semiconductor device comprising a pn-heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    An electric device is disclosed comprising a pn-heterojunction ( 4 ) formed by a nanowire ( 3 ) of 111 -V semiconductor material and a semiconductor body ( 1 ) comprising a group IV semiconductor material. The nanowire ( 3 ) is positioned in direct contact with the surface ( 2 ) of the semiconductor

  1. Toward designing semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunctions for photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2018-02-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysts show a great potential for environmental and energy-related applications, however one of the major disadvantages is their relatively low photocatalytic performance due to the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Therefore, intensive research is being conducted toward design of heterojunctions, which have been shown to be effective for improving the charge-transfer properties and efficiency of photocatalysts. According to the type of band alignment and direction of internal electric field, heterojunctions are categorized into five different types, each of which is associated with its own charge transfer characteristics. Since the design of heterojunctions requires the knowledge of band edge positions of component semiconductors, the commonly used techniques for the assessment of band edge positions are reviewed. Among them the electronegativity-based calculation method is applied for a large number of popular visible-light-active semiconductors, including some widely investigated bismuth-containing semiconductors. On basis of the calculated band edge positions and the type of component semiconductors reported, heterojunctions composed of the selected bismuth-containing semiconductors are proposed. Finally, the most popular synthetic techniques for the fabrication of heterojunctions are briefly discussed.

  2. Melting phenomenon and laser annealing in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, J.

    1981-03-01

    The work on annealing of displacement damage, dissolution of boron precipitates, and the broadening of dopant profiles in semiconductors after treating with ruby and dye laser pulses is reviewed in order to provide convincing evidence for the melting phenomenon and illustrate the mechanism associated with laser annealing. The nature of the solid-liquid interface and the interface instability during rapid solidification is considered in detail. It is shown that solute concentrations after pulsed laser annealing can far exceed retrograde maxima values. However, there is a critical solute concentration above which a planar solid-liquid interface becomes unstable and breaks into a cellular structure. The solute concentrations and cell sizes associated with this instability are calculated using a perturbation theory, and compared with experimental results

  3. Method of manufacturing a semiconductor device and semiconductor device obtained with such a method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a semiconductor device (10) with a semiconductor body (1) which is provided with at least one semiconductor element, wherein on the surface of the semiconductor body (1) a mesa- shaped semiconductor region (2) is formed, a masking layer (3) is

  4. Selective, electrochemical etching of a semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Rajendra P.; Bhat, Ishwara B.; Chow, Tat-Sing

    2018-03-20

    Methods for facilitating fabricating semiconductor structures are provided which include: providing a multilayer structure including a semiconductor layer, the semiconductor layer including a dopant and having an increased conductivity; selectively increasing, using electrochemical processing, porosity of the semiconductor layer, at least in part, the selectively increasing porosity utilizing the increased conductivity of the semiconductor layer; and removing, at least in part, the semiconductor layer with the selectively increased porosity from the multilayer structure. By way of example, the selectively increasing porosity may include selectively, anodically oxidizing, at least in part, the semiconductor layer of the multilayer structure.

  5. Metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  6. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Hsuan Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  7. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A guide to the theory, application and potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. It offers an overview of resonance fluorescence emission.$bAn understanding of the interaction between light and matter on a quantum level is of fundamental interest and has many applications in optical technologies. The quantum nature of the interaction has recently attracted great attention for applications of semiconductor nanostructures in quantum information processing. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures is a key guide to the theory, experimental realisation, and future potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. Part one provides a comprehensive overview of single quantum dot systems, beginning with a look at resonance fluorescence emission. Quantum optics with single quantum dots in photonic crystal and micro cavities are explored in detail, before part two goes on to review nanolasers with quantum dot emitters. Light-matter interaction...

  8. Atomic layer deposition for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume discusses atomic layer deposition (ALD) for all modern semiconductor devices, moving from the basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of ALD processes to sections on ALD for memories, logic devices, and machines.

  9. Semiconductor technology program. Progress briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reviewed. Activities include: optical linewidth and thermal resistance measurements; device modeling; dopant density profiles; resonance ionization spectroscopy; and deep level measurements. Standardized oxide charge terminology is also described.

  10. Semiconductor radiation detectors. Device physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    2007-01-01

    Starting from basic principles, the author, whose own contributions to these developments have been significant, describes the rapidly growing field of modern semiconductor detectors used for energy and position measurement radiation. This development was stimulated by requirements in elementary particle physics where it has led to important scientific discoveries. It has now spread to many other fields of science and technology. The book is written in a didactic way and includes an introduction to semiconductor physics. The working principles of semiconductor radiation detectors are explained in an intuitive way, followed by formal quantitative analysis. Broad coverage is also given to electronic signal readout and to the subject of radiation damage. The book is the first to comprehensively cover the semiconductor radiation detectors currently in use. It is useful as a teaching guide and as a reference work for research and applications. (orig.)

  11. Self-assembling peptide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Makam, Pandeeswar; Aizen, Ruth; Gazit, Ehud

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductors are central to the modern electronics and optics industries. Conventional semiconductive materials bear inherent limitations, especially in emerging fields such as interfacing with biological systems and bottom-up fabrication. A promising candidate for bioinspired and durable nanoscale semiconductors is the family of self-assembled nanostructures comprising short peptides. The highly ordered and directional intermolecular π-π interactions and hydrogen-bonding network allow the formation of quantum confined structures within the peptide self-assemblies, thus decreasing the band gaps of the superstructures into semiconductor regions. As a result of the diverse architectures and ease of modification of peptide self-assemblies, their semiconductivity can be readily tuned, doped, and functionalized. Therefore, this family of electroactive supramolecular materials may bridge the gap between the inorganic semiconductor world and biological systems. PMID:29146781

  12. Temperature controller of semiconductor laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Vít; Číp, Ondřej

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 3 (2003), s. 10 - 12 ISSN 0928-5008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : temperature controller * semiconductor laser * laser diode Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  13. Optimization of staged bioleaching of low-grade chalcopyrite ore in the presence and absence of chloride in the irrigating lixiviant: ANFIS simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakylabad, Ali Behrad; Schaffie, Mahin; Naseri, Ali; Ranjbar, Mohammad; Manafi, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    In this investigation, copper was bioleached from a low-grade chalcopyrite ore using a chloride-containing lixiviant. In this regard, firstly, the composition of the bacterial culture media was designed to control the cost in commercial application. The bacterial culture used in this process was acclimated to the presence of chloride in the lixiviant. Practically speaking, the modified culture helped the bio-heap-leaching system operate in the chloridic media. Compared to the copper recovery from the low-grade chalcopyrite by bioleaching in the absence of chloride, bioleaching in the presence of chloride resulted in improved copper recovery. The composition of the lixiviant used in this study was a modification with respect to the basal salts in 9 K medium to optimize the leaching process. When leaching the ore in columns, 76.81 % Cu (based on solid residues of bioleaching operation) was recovered by staged leaching with lixiviant containing 34.22 mM NaCl. The quantitative findings were supported by SEM/EDS observations, X-ray elemental mapping, and mineralogical analysis of the ore before and after leaching. Finally, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to simulate the operational parameters affecting the bioleaching operation in chloride-sulfate system.

  14. Tunable optical properties of ZnCdTe2-xSex(x =0.625) chalcopyrite for photovoltaics; a mBJLDA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Manish K.; Paudyal, D.; Harmon, B. N.

    In the present study, we have performed ab-initio simulations of sp-element defect in ZnCdTe2-xSex (x =0.625) chalcopyrite to check the tuning of band gap as compared to the pristine case. The exchange and correlation (XC) effects are taken into account by an orbital independent modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential as coupled with Local Density Approximation (LDA) for these calculations. The calculated energy band structures show a direct band gap at the point in the brillouin zone for the pristine as well as the defected case and the band gap decreases with inclusion of sp-disorder. The imaginary dielectric function predicts the optical band gap of pristine ZnCdTe2 very close to the experimental value and the results are in reasonable agreement without applying any scissor operator. With inclusion of sp-element defect, the optical spectra is tuned to optimal region, suitable for photovoltaics. It is apparent that mBJ functional is well suited for calculating electronic structure of pristine as well as defected ZnCdTe2chalcopyrite. MKK acknowledges financial support from UGC, India in the form of RAMAN Post-doctoral fellowship. This work at Ames Laboratory was supported by the DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences Division under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  15. In situ monitoring the growth of thin-film ZnS/Zn (S,O) bilayer on Cu-chalcopyrite for high performance thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez-Araoz, R.; Abou-Ras, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solar Energy Division, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Niesen, T.P. [AVANCIS GmbH and Co KG Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); Neisser, A.; Wilchelmi, K. [SULFURCELL Solartechnik GmbH Barbara-McClintock-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Lux-Steiner, M.Ch. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solar Energy Division, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solar Energy Division, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: ennaoui@helmholtz-berlin.de

    2009-02-02

    This paper highlights the crucial role that the control of the chemical bath deposition (CBD) process plays for buffer production of Cu-chalcopyrite solar-cell devices. ZnS/Zn (S,O) bilayer was deposited on CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) and Cu(In,Ga)(SSe){sub 2} (CIGSSe) and monitored using turbidity measurements of the solution. The results were correlated to the X-ray photoemission spectra of the samples obtained by interruption of the process at sequential stages. Two different feature regimes were distinguished: In the first stage, a heterogeneous reaction takes place on the absorber resulting in the formation of pure ZnS. The second stage of the process is homogeneous, and the in-situ turbidity measurement shows a loss in the transmission of light through the CBD solution. The measured ZnL3M45M45 Auger-peaks, during this second stage of the process, show a shift of the kinetic energy from pure ZnS to a solid-solution ZnS/ZnO ('Zn (S,O)') with decreasing amount of sulfur. These results are supported by the observations from Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. This paper also demonstrates that monitoring of the CBD process combined with the basic understanding using surface and interface analysis have contributed to improve the reproducibility and to enhance the photovoltaic performance of Cu-chalcopyrite thin-film solar modules.

  16. In situ monitoring the growth of thin-film ZnS/Zn (S,O) bilayer on Cu-chalcopyrite for high performance thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez-Araoz, R.; Abou-Ras, D.; Niesen, T.P.; Neisser, A.; Wilchelmi, K.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights the crucial role that the control of the chemical bath deposition (CBD) process plays for buffer production of Cu-chalcopyrite solar-cell devices. ZnS/Zn (S,O) bilayer was deposited on CuInS 2 (CIS) and Cu(In,Ga)(SSe) 2 (CIGSSe) and monitored using turbidity measurements of the solution. The results were correlated to the X-ray photoemission spectra of the samples obtained by interruption of the process at sequential stages. Two different feature regimes were distinguished: In the first stage, a heterogeneous reaction takes place on the absorber resulting in the formation of pure ZnS. The second stage of the process is homogeneous, and the in-situ turbidity measurement shows a loss in the transmission of light through the CBD solution. The measured ZnL3M45M45 Auger-peaks, during this second stage of the process, show a shift of the kinetic energy from pure ZnS to a solid-solution ZnS/ZnO ('Zn (S,O)') with decreasing amount of sulfur. These results are supported by the observations from Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. This paper also demonstrates that monitoring of the CBD process combined with the basic understanding using surface and interface analysis have contributed to improve the reproducibility and to enhance the photovoltaic performance of Cu-chalcopyrite thin-film solar modules

  17. Wake fields in semiconductor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1994-05-01

    It is shown that an intense short laser pulse propagating through a semiconductor plasma will generated longitudinal Langmuir waves in its wake. The measurable wake field can be used as a diagnostic to study nonlinear optical phenomena. For narrow gap semiconductors (for examples InSb) with Kane-type dispersion relation, the system can simulate, at currently available laser powers, the physics underlying wake-field accelerators. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  18. Semiconductor research with reactor neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro

    1992-01-01

    Reactor neutrons play an important role for characterization of semiconductor materials as same as other advanced materials. On the other hand reactor neutrons bring about not only malignant irradiation effects called radiation damage, but also useful effects such as neutron transmutation doping and defect formation for opto-electronics. Research works on semiconductor materials with the reactor neutrons of the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) are briefly reviewed. In this review, a stress is laid on the present author's works. (author)

  19. Semiconductor crystal high resolution imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Craig S. (Inventor); Matteson, James (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A radiation imaging device (10). The radiation image device (10) comprises a subject radiation station (12) producing photon emissions (14), and at least one semiconductor crystal detector (16) arranged in an edge-on orientation with respect to the emitted photons (14) to directly receive the emitted photons (14) and produce a signal. The semiconductor crystal detector (16) comprises at least one anode and at least one cathode that produces the signal in response to the emitted photons (14).

  20. Dissipative chaos in semiconductor superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moghadam

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the motion of electron in a miniband of a semiconductor superlattice (SSL under the influence of external electric and magnetic fields is investigated. The electric field is applied in a direction perpendicular to the layers of the semiconductor superlattice, and the magnetic field is applied in different direction Numerical calculations show conditions led to the possibility of chaotic behaviors.

  1. Instability of homogeneous distribution of charged substitutional impurity in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevskij, M.I.; Ershov, S.N.; Panteleev, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism is suggested of instability of uniform impurity distribution in a semiconductor. The mechanism is associated with the vacancy wind effect and deflection from local neutrality in case of impurity concentration fluctuation occurrence. It is shown that the mechanism can be realized by irradiation of silicon doped with group-3 and group 5 elements

  2. Reducing leakage current in semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth; Palacios, Tomas Apostol

    2018-03-06

    A semiconductor device includes a first region having a first semiconductor material and a second region having a second semiconductor material. The second region is formed over the first region. The semiconductor device also includes a current blocking structure formed in the first region between first and second terminals of the semiconductor device. The current blocking structure is configured to reduce current flow in the first region between the first and second terminals.

  3. Optical orientation in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V L

    2008-01-01

    The physics of optical pumping of semiconductor electrons in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids is discussed. Optically oriented semiconductor electrons detect the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic film. In turn, the ferromagnetism of the hybrid can be controlled optically with the help of a semiconductor. Spin–spin interactions near the ferromagnet/semiconductor interface play a crucial role in the optical readout and the manipulation of ferromagnetism

  4. Optical orientation in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2008-11-01

    The physics of optical pumping of semiconductor electrons in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids is discussed. Optically oriented semiconductor electrons detect the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic film. In turn, the ferromagnetism of the hybrid can be controlled optically with the help of a semiconductor. Spin-spin interactions near the ferromagnet/semiconductor interface play a crucial role in the optical readout and the manipulation of ferromagnetism.

  5. Optical Orientation in Ferromagnet/Semiconductor Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    The physics of optical pumping of semiconductor electrons in the ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids is discussed. Optically oriented semiconductor electrons detect the magnetic state of the ferromagnetic film. In turn, the ferromagnetism of the hybrid can be controlled optically with the help of the semiconductor. Spin-spin interactions near the interface ferromagnet/semiconductor play crucial role in the optical readout and the manipulation of ferromagnetism.

  6. Semiconductors for plasmonics and metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, G.V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Plasmonics has conventionally been in the realm of metal-optics. However, conventional metals as plasmonic elements in the near-infrared (NIR) and visible spectral ranges suffer from problems such as large losses and incompatibility with semiconductor technology. Replacing metals with semiconduct......Plasmonics has conventionally been in the realm of metal-optics. However, conventional metals as plasmonic elements in the near-infrared (NIR) and visible spectral ranges suffer from problems such as large losses and incompatibility with semiconductor technology. Replacing metals...... with semiconductors can alleviate these problems if only semiconductors could exhibit negative real permittivity. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a low loss semiconductor that can show negative real permittivity in the NIR. A comparative assessment of AZO-based plasmonic devices such as superlens and hyperlens...... with their metal-based counterparts shows that AZO-based devices significantly outperform at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. This provides a strong stimulus in turning to semiconductor plasmonics at the telecommunication wavelengths. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)....

  7. A semiconductor laser device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaro, K.; Naoki, T.; Satosi, K.; Yasutosi, K.

    1984-03-17

    A device is proposed which makes it possible to obtain single vertical mode emission in the absence of noise. Noise suppression is achieved by a method which determines the relationship between the donor densities in the second and third layers of an n type semiconductor laser, and the total output optical emission of layers with respect to the emission from the entire laser. The device consists of a photoresist film with a window applied to a 100 GaAs n type conductivity substrate using a standard method. Chemical etching through this window in the substrate is used to generate a slot approximately 1 micrometer in size. After the photoresist film is removed, the following layers are deposited from the liquid phase onto the substrate in the sequence indicated: a telurium doped protective layer of n type AlxGa(1-x) As; 2) an undoped active p type AlyGa(1-6) As layer and a tellurium doped upper protective n type conductivity GaAs layer.

  8. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.

  9. Semiconductor acceleration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyanagi, Katsumichi; Kobayashi, Mitsuo; Goto, Tomoaki

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports a practical semiconductor acceleration sensor especially suited for automotive air bag systems. The acceleration sensor includes four beams arranged in a swastika structure. Two piezoresistors are formed on each beam. These eight piezoresistors constitute a Wheatstone bridge. The swastika structure of the sensing elements, an upper glass plate and a lower glass plate exhibit the squeeze film effect which enhances air dumping, by which the constituent silicon is prevented from breakdown. The present acceleration sensor has the following features. The acceleration force component perpendicular to the sensing direction can be cancelled. The cross-axis sensitivity is less than 3 percent. And, the erroneous offset caused by the differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent materials can be canceled. The high aspect ratio configuration realized by plasma etching facilitates reducing the dimensions and improving the sensitivity of the acceleration sensor. The present acceleration sensor is 3.9 mm by 3.9 mm in area and 1.2 mm in thickness. The present acceleration sensor can measure from -50 to +50 G with sensitivity of 0.275 mV/G and with non-linearity of less than 1 percent. The acceleration sensor withstands shock of 3000 G.

  10. Current-voltage characteristics of the semiconductor nanowires under the metal-semiconductor-metal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zhang, Xitian; Gao, Hong; Wang, Mingjiao

    2013-12-01

    We present a method to calculate the I-V characteristics of semiconductor nanowires under the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure. The carrier concentration as an important parameter is introduced into the expression of the current. The subband structure of the nanowire has been considered for associating it with the position of the Fermi level and circumventing the uncertainties of the contact areas in the contacts. The tunneling and thermionic emission currents in the two Schottky barriers at the two metal-semiconductor contacts are discussed. We find that the two barriers have different influences on the I-V characteristics of the MSM structure, one of which under the forward bias plays the role of threshold voltage if its barrier height is large and the applied voltage is small, and the other under the reverse bias controls the shapes of I-V curves. Our calculations show that the shapes of the I-V curves for the MSM structure are mainly determined by the barrier heights of the contacts and the carrier concentration. The nearly identical I-V characteristics can be obtained by using different values of the barrier heights and carrier concentration, which means that the contact type conversion can be ascribed not only to the changes of the barrier heights but also that of the carrier concentration. We also discuss the mechanisms of the ohmic-Schottky conversions and clarify the ambiguity in the literature. The possibility about the variation of the carrier concentration under the applied fields has been confirmed by experimental results.

  11. Photo-electret effects in homogenous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabiev, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the given work is shown the opportunity and created the theory of photo-electret condition in semiconductors with Dember mechanism of photo-voltage generation. Photo-electret of such type can be created, instead of traditional and without an external field as a result of only one illumination. Polar factor, in this case, is the distinction of electrons and holes mobility. Considered the multilayered structure with homogeneous photoactive micro areas shared by the layers, which are interfering to alignment of carriers concentration. We consider, that the homogeneous photoactive areas contain deep levels of stick. Because of addition of elementary photo voltage in separate micro photo cells it is formed the abnormal-large photo voltage (APV-effect). Let's notice, that Dember photo-voltage in a separate micro photo-cell ≤kT/q. From the received expressions, in practically important, special case, when quasi- balance between valent zone and stick levels established in much more smaller time, than free hole lifetime, and we received, that photo-voltage is relaxing. Comparing of the received expressions with the laws of photo voltage attenuation in p-n- junction structures shows their identity; the difference is only in absolute meanings of photo voltage. During the illumination in the semiconductor are created the superfluous concentration of charge carriers and part from them stays at deep levels. At de-energizing light there is a gradual generation of carriers located at these levels

  12. Semiconductor lasers stability, instability and chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the fascinating recent advances made concerning the chaos, stability and instability of semiconductor lasers, and discusses their applications and future prospects in detail. It emphasizes the dynamics in semiconductor lasers by optical and electronic feedback, optical injection, and injection current modulation. Applications of semiconductor laser chaos, control and noise, and semiconductor lasers are also demonstrated. Semiconductor lasers with new structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are intriguing and promising devices. Current topics include fast physical number generation using chaotic semiconductor lasers for secure communication, development of chaos, quantum-dot semiconductor lasers and quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. This fourth edition has been significantly expanded to reflect the latest developments. The fundamental theory of laser chaos and the chaotic dynamics in se...

  13. Design and exploration of semiconductors from first principles: A review of recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Fumiyasu; Kumagai, Yu

    2018-06-01

    Recent first-principles approaches to semiconductors are reviewed, with an emphasis on theoretical insight into emerging materials and in silico exploration of as-yet-unreported materials. As relevant theory and methodologies have developed, along with computer performance, it is now feasible to predict a variety of material properties ab initio at the practical level of accuracy required for detailed understanding and elaborate design of semiconductors; these material properties include (i) fundamental bulk properties such as band gaps, effective masses, dielectric constants, and optical absorption coefficients; (ii) the properties of point defects, including native defects, residual impurities, and dopants, such as donor, acceptor, and deep-trap levels, and formation energies, which determine the carrier type and density; and (iii) absolute and relative band positions, including ionization potentials and electron affinities at semiconductor surfaces, band offsets at heterointerfaces between dissimilar semiconductors, and Schottky barrier heights at metal–semiconductor interfaces, which are often discussed systematically using band alignment or lineup diagrams. These predictions from first principles have made it possible to elucidate the characteristics of semiconductors used in industry, including group III–V compounds such as GaN, GaP, and GaAs and their alloys with related Al and In compounds; amorphous oxides, represented by In–Ga–Zn–O transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), represented by In2O3, SnO2, and ZnO; and photovoltaic absorber and buffer layer materials such as CdTe and CdS among group II–VI compounds and chalcopyrite CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, and CuIn1‑ x Ga x Se2 (CIGS) alloys, in addition to the prototypical elemental semiconductors Si and Ge. Semiconductors attracting renewed or emerging interest have also been investigated, for instance, divalent tin compounds, including SnO and SnS; wurtzite-derived ternary compounds such as ZnSnN2 and Cu

  14. Semiconductor optoelectronic infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingworth, A.R.

    2001-08-01

    We use spectroscopy to study infrared optoelectronic inter and intraband semiconductor carrier dynamics. The overall aim of this thesis was to study both III-V and Pb chalcogenide material systems in order to show their future potential use in infrared emitters. The effects of bandstructure engineering have been studied in the output characteristics of mid-IR III-V laser diodes to show which processes (defects, radiative, Auger and phonon) dominate and whether non-radiative processes can be suppressed. A new three-beam pump probe experiment was used to investigate interband recombination directly in passive materials. Experiments on PbSe and theory for non-parabolic near-mirror bands and non-degenerate statistics were in good agreement. Comparisons with HgCdTe showed a reduction in the Auger coefficient of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the PbSe. Using Landau confinement to model spatial confinement in quantum dots (QDs) 'phonon bottlenecking' was studied. The results obtained from pump probe and cyclotron resonance saturation measurements showed a clear suppression in the cooling of carriers when Landau level separation was not resonant with LO phonon energy. When a bulk laser diode was placed in a magnetic field to produce a quasi quantum wire device the resulting enhanced differential gain and reduced Auger recombination lowered I th by 30%. This result showed many peaks in the light output which occurred when the LO phonon energy was a multiple of the Landau level separation. This showed for the first time evidence of the phonon bottleneck in a working laser device. A new technique called time resolved optically detected cyclotron resonance, was used as a precursor to finding the carrier dynamics within a spatially confined quantum dot. By moving to the case of a spatial QD using an optically detected intraband resonance it was possible to measure the energy separation interband levels and conduction and valence sublevels within the dot simultaneously. Furthermore

  15. Simulation of semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriato, D.

    2001-09-01

    In this thesis a drift diffusion model coupled with self-consistent solutions of Poisson's and Schroedinger's equations, is developed and used to investigate the operation of Gunn diodes and GaN-based LEDs. The model also includes parameters derived from Monte Carlo calculations of the simulated devices. In this way the characteristics of a Monte Carlo approach and of a quantum solver are built into a fast and flexible drift-diffusion model that can be used for testing a large number of heterostructure designs in a time-effective way. The full model and its numerical implementation are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 the theory of Gunn diodes is presented. A basic model of the dynamics of domain formation and domain transport is described with particular regard to accumulation and dipole domains. Several modes of operation of the Gunn device are described, varying from the resonance mode to the quenched mode. Details about transferred electron devices and negative differential resistance in semiconductor materials are given. In chapter 4 results from the simulation of a simple conventional gunn device confirm the importance of the doping condition at the cathode. Accumulation or dipole domains are achieved respectively with high and low doping densities. The limits of a conventional Gunn diode are explained and solved by introducing the heterostructure Gunn diode. This new design consists of a conventional GaAs transit region coupled with an electron launcher at the cathode, made using an AIGaAs heterostructure step. Simulations show the importance of the insertion of a thin highly-doped layer between the transit region and the electron launcher in order to improve device operation. Chapter 5 is an introduction to Ill-nitrides, in particular GaN and its alloy ln-GaN. We outline the discrepancy in the elastic and piezoelectric parameters found in the literature. Strain, dislocations and piezoelectricity are presented as the main features of a InGaN/GaN system

  16. Analysis of fluctuations in semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Petru

    The random nature of ion implantation and diffusion processes as well as inevitable tolerances in fabrication result in random fluctuations of doping concentrations and oxide thickness in semiconductor devices. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in ultrasmall (nanoscale) semiconductor devices when the spatial scale of doping and oxide thickness variations become comparable with the geometric dimensions of devices. In the dissertation, the effects of these fluctuations on device characteristics are analyzed by using a new technique for the analysis of random doping and oxide thickness induced fluctuations. This technique is universal in nature in the sense that it is applicable to any transport model (drift-diffusion, semiclassical transport, quantum transport etc.) and it can be naturally extended to take into account random fluctuations of the oxide (trapped) charges and channel length. The technique is based on linearization of the transport equations with respect to the fluctuating quantities. It is computationally much (a few orders of magnitude) more efficient than the traditional Monte-Carlo approach and it yields information on the sensitivity of fluctuations of parameters of interest (e.g. threshold voltage, small-signal parameters, cut-off frequencies, etc.) to the locations of doping and oxide thickness fluctuations. For this reason, it can be very instrumental in the design of fluctuation-resistant structures of semiconductor devices. Quantum mechanical effects are taken into account by using the density-gradient model as well as through self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger computations. Special attention is paid to the presenting of the technique in a form that is suitable for implementation on commercial device simulators. The numerical implementation of the technique is discussed in detail and numerous computational results are presented and compared with those previously published in literature.

  17. High pressure semiconductor physics I

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, R K; Paul, William; Suski, Tadeusz

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise indeed that this tra...

  18. Introduction to cathodoluminescence in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussac, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of cathodoluminescence in a scanning electron microscope leads to acquire a spectrum in a place of the sample surface, or to register the intensity profile of a special emission band along a scanning line, or also to realize a map of the irradiated sample. Composition variations can then, at ambient temperature, be determined, also defects can be shown, together with grain joints and dislocations, radiative and non radiative regions can be distinguished and, at low temperature, elementary processes of luminescence can be studied and impurities identified in semiconductors. Through this analysis method is applicable to every insulating or semiconductor material (that is to say to every material having a gap), in this article only crystalline semi-conductor will be studied [fr

  19. Catalysts, Protection Layers, and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest solar fuel to produce and in this presentation we shall give a short overview of the pros and cons of various tandem devices [1]. The large band gap semiconductor needs to be in front, but apart from that we can chose to have either the anode in front or back using either...... acid or alkaline conditions. Since most relevant semiconductors are very prone to corrosion the advantage of using buried junctions and using protection layers offering shall be discussed [2-4]. Next we shall discuss the availability of various catalysts for being coupled to these protections layers...... and how their stability may be evaluated [5, 6]. Examples of half-cell reaction using protection layers for both cathode and anode will be discussed though some of recent examples under both alkaline and acidic conditions. Si is a very good low band gap semiconductor and by using TiO2 as a protection...

  20. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V−1 s−1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m−2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics. PMID:26620323

  1. Thiophene-Based Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Gulsen; Cinar, M Emin; Ozturk, Turan

    2017-10-24

    Thiophene-based π-conjugated organic small molecules and polymers are the research subject of significant current interest owing to their potential use as organic semiconductors in material chemistry. Despite simple and similar molecular structures, the hitherto reported properties of thiophene-based organic semiconductors are rather diverse. Design of high performance organic semiconducting materials requires a thorough understanding of inter- and intra-molecular interactions, solid-state packing, and the influence of both factors on the charge carrier transport. In this chapter, thiophene-based organic semiconductors, which are classified in terms of their chemical structures and their structure-property relationships, are addressed for the potential applications as organic photovoltaics (OPVs), organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  2. Determination of molybdenum in flotation concentrates by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 0.05 N ammoniacal solution after the decomposition of the concentrate with aqua regia. Negros ore from Philippines was used as a flotation feed, which contained chalcopyrites and calcium-magnesium minerals. Among the metals tested copper, iron and the alkaline earths interfered. Less than 50 ppm of copper yielded lower results for molybdenum. Higher results came out with more than 50 ppm of copper. In the presence of iron and citric acid (0.4 g/100 ml) which is a suppressor for hydroxide formation, a lower estimation resulted for molybdenum. Calcium interfered, lower results by 2 and >10% being obtained with respective 2.5 and 20 ppm of calcium. More than 20 ppm of magnesium behaved similarly. Sodium sulfate (0.5 g/100 ml) served as the suppressor for copper, iron and citric acid; 100 ppm each of copper and iron did not interfere in this way. Interferences due to calcium and magnesium (less than 60 ppm) was able to be masked by the addition of sodium silicate (200 ppm as silica). The analysis of flotation products and synthetic samples consisting of molybdenite, chalcopyrite, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate revealed that the atomic absorption method can be applied to the analysis of the concentrates for molybdenum with an error of about 2%. (auth.)

  3. Organic semiconductors in sensor applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malliaras, George; Owens, Róisín

    2008-01-01

    Organic semiconductors offer unique characteristics such as tunability of electronic properties via chemical synthesis, compatibility with mechanically flexible substrates, low-cost manufacturing, and facile integration with chemical and biological functionalities. These characteristics have prompted the application of organic semiconductors and their devices in physical, chemical, and biological sensors. This book covers this rapidly emerging field by discussing both optical and electrical sensor concepts. Novel transducers based on organic light-emitting diodes and organic thin-film transistors, as well as systems-on-a-chip architectures are presented. Functionalization techniques to enhance specificity are outlined, and models for the sensor response are described.

  4. Semiconductors and semimetals epitaxial microstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Beer, Albert C; Gossard, Arthur C

    1994-01-01

    Newly developed semiconductor microstructures can now guide light and electrons resulting in important consequences for state-of-the-art electronic and photonic devices. This volume introduces a new generation of epitaxial microstructures. Special emphasis has been given to atomic control during growth and the interrelationship between the atomic arrangements and the properties of the structures.Key Features* Atomic-level control of semiconductor microstructures* Molecular beam epitaxy, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition* Quantum wells and quantum wires* Lasers, photon(IR)detectors, heterostructure transistors

  5. Introduction to semiconductor manufacturing technology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    IC chip manufacturing processes, such as photolithography, etch, CVD, PVD, CMP, ion implantation, RTP, inspection, and metrology, are complex methods that draw upon many disciplines. [i]Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies, Second Edition[/i] thoroughly describes the complicated processes with minimal mathematics, chemistry, and physics; it covers advanced concepts while keeping the contents accessible to readers without advanced degrees. Designed as a textbook for college students, this book provides a realistic picture of the semiconductor industry and an in-depth discuss

  6. Wide gap semiconductor microwave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V V; Aroutiounian, V M

    2007-01-01

    A review of properties of wide gap semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, GaN and AlGaN/GaN that are relevant to electronic, optoelectronic and microwave applications is presented. We discuss the latest situation and perspectives based on experimental and theoretical results obtained for wide gap semiconductor devices. Parameters are taken from the literature and from some of our theoretical works. The correspondence between theoretical results and parameters of devices is critically analysed. (review article)

  7. Detection of radioactivity by semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The class of detectors discussed in this chapter has a responsive component involving a diode, a junction between two types of semiconductor materials. Although diode detectors are not particularly efficient in counting radioactive emissions, they are superior to other commercially available detectors in spectroscopy. Consequently, diode detectors are used extensively for quanlitative purposes and for quantitative purposes when mixtures of radionuclides are present, not the usual situation with biological or medical research. Topics addressed in this chapter are as follows: Band Theory; Semiconductors and Junctions; and Radiation Detectors. 6 refs., 14 figs

  8. Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther

    We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....

  9. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  10. Integrating magnetism into semiconductor electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenya, Boris P; Korenev, Vladimir L [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-30

    The view of a ferromagnetic-semiconducting hybrid structure as a single tunable system is presented. Based on an analysis of existing experiments it is shown that, contrary to a 'common sense', a nonmagnetic semiconductor is capable of playing an important role in controlling ferromagnetism. Magnetic properties of a hybrid (the hysteresis loop and the spatial orientation of magnetization) can be tuned both optically and electrically by utilizing semiconductor-making the hybrid an electronic-write-in and electronic-read-out elementary storage unit. (methodological notes)

  11. Integrating magnetism into semiconductor electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharchenya, Boris P; Korenev, Vladimir L

    2005-01-01

    The view of a ferromagnetic-semiconducting hybrid structure as a single tunable system is presented. Based on an analysis of existing experiments it is shown that, contrary to a 'common sense', a nonmagnetic semiconductor is capable of playing an important role in controlling ferromagnetism. Magnetic properties of a hybrid (the hysteresis loop and the spatial orientation of magnetization) can be tuned both optically and electrically by utilizing semiconductor-making the hybrid an electronic-write-in and electronic-read-out elementary storage unit. (methodological notes)

  12. Semiconductor lasers and herterojunction leds

    CERN Document Server

    Kressel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs presents an introduction to the subject of semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs. The book reviews relevant basic solid-state and electromagnetic principles; the relevant concepts in solid state physics; and the p-n junctions and heterojunctions. The text also describes stimulated emission and gain; the relevant concepts in electromagnetic field theory; and the modes in laser structures. The relation between electrical and optical properties of laser diodes; epitaxial technology; binary III-V compounds; and diode fabrication are also consider

  13. First and second harmonic generation of the XAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (X=Zn,Cd,Hg) defect chalcopyrite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Tarik, E-mail: tarik_ouahrani@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P.230,13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Ecole Preparatoire en Sciences et Techniques, Depertement de Physique EPST-T, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M), Universite de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Lasri, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P.230,13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Universite Dr Tahar Moulay de Saida, B.P. 138, Cite el Nasr, Saida 20000 (Algeria); Reshak, Ali H. [School of Complex systems, FFPW- South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Bouhemadou, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Bin-Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-09-15

    The chemical bonding of the ZnAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4}, CdAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and HgAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} defect chalcopyrites has been studied in the framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). The GW quasi-particle approximation is used to correct the DFT-underestimation of energy gap, and as a consequence the linear and nonlinear optical properties are significantly enhanced. The second harmonic generation (SHG) displays certain dependence with the ionicity degree decrease through the dependency of the SHG on the band gap. The occurrence of the AIM saddle point is characterized and some clarifying features in relationship with the density topology are exposed, which enable to understand the relation with the second harmonic generation effect.

  14. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  15. Influence of phonons on semiconductor quantum emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldtmann, Thomas

    2009-07-06

    A microscopic theory of interacting charge carriers, lattice vibrations, and light modes in semiconductor systems is presented. The theory is applied to study quantum dots and phonon-assisted luminescence in bulk semiconductors and heterostructures. (orig.)

  16. Semiconductor structure and recess formation etch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bin; Sun, Min; Palacios, Tomas Apostol

    2017-02-14

    A semiconductor structure has a first layer that includes a first semiconductor material and a second layer that includes a second semiconductor material. The first semiconductor material is selectively etchable over the second semiconductor material using a first etching process. The first layer is disposed over the second layer. A recess is disposed at least in the first layer. Also described is a method of forming a semiconductor structure that includes a recess. The method includes etching a region in a first layer using a first etching process. The first layer includes a first semiconductor material. The first etching process stops at a second layer beneath the first layer. The second layer includes a second semiconductor material.

  17. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2005-01-01

    Provides detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. This textbook emphasizes understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and features an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems.

  18. Plasmonic doped semiconductor nanocrystals: Properties, fabrication, applications and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco; Manna, Liberato

    2017-02-01

    Degenerately doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are of recent interest to the NC community due to their tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the near infrared (NIR). The high level of doping in such materials with carrier densities in the range of 1021cm-3 leads to degeneracy of the doping levels and intense plasmonic absorption in the NIR. The lower carrier density in degenerately doped semiconductor NCs compared to noble metals enables LSPR tuning over a wide spectral range, since even a minor change of the carrier density strongly affects the spectral position of the LSPR. Two classes of degenerate semiconductors are most relevant in this respect: impurity doped semiconductors, such as metal oxides, and vacancy doped semiconductors, such as copper chalcogenides. In the latter it is the density of copper vacancies that controls the carrier concentration, while in the former the introduction of impurity atoms adds carriers to the system. LSPR tuning in vacancy doped semiconductor NCs such as copper chalcogenides occurs by chemically controlling the copper vacancy density. This goes in hand with complex structural modifications of the copper chalcogenide crystal lattice. In contrast the LSPR of degenerately doped metal oxide NCs is modified by varying the doping concentration or by the choice of host and dopant atoms, but also through the addition of capacitive charge carriers to the conduction band of the metal oxide upon post-synthetic treatments, such as by electrochemical- or photodoping. The NIR LSPRs and the option of their spectral fine-tuning make accessible important new features, such as the controlled coupling of the LSPR to other physical signatures or the enhancement of optical signals in the NIR, sensing application by LSPR tracking, energy production from the NIR plasmon resonance or bio-medical applications in the biological window. In this review we highlight the recent advances in the synthesis of various different plasmonic

  19. Absolute instability of polaron mode in semiconductor magnetoplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Dubey, Swati; Ghosh, S.

    2018-01-01

    Using coupled mode theory under hydrodynamic regime, a compact dispersion relation is derived for polaron mode in semiconductor magnetoplasma. The propagation and amplification characteristics of the wave are explored in detail. The analysis deals with the behaviour of anomalous threshold and amplification derived from dispersion relation, as function of external parameters like doping concentration and applied magnetic field. The results of this investigation are hoped to be useful in understanding electron-longitudinal optical phonon interplay in polar n-type semiconductor plasmas under the influence of coupled collective cyclotron excitations. The best results in terms of smaller threshold and higher gain of polaron mode could be achieved by choosing moderate doping concentration in the medium at higher magnetic field. For numerical appreciation of the results, relevant data of III-V n-GaAs compound semiconductor at 77 K is used. Present study provides a qualitative picture of polaron mode in magnetized n-type polar semiconductor medium duly shined by a CO2 laser.

  20. Nuclear radiation detection by a variband semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Possibilities of using a variband semiconductor for detecting nuclear radiations are considered. It is shown that the variaband quasielectric field effectively collects charges induced by a nuclear particle only at a small mean free path in the semiconductor (up to 100 μm), the luminescence spectrum of the variband semiconductor when a nuclear particle gets into it, in principle, permits to determine both the energy and mean free path in the semiconductor (even at large mean free paths) [ru

  1. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Doped Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields.......We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields....

  2. Laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighineanu, I.; Dorogan, V.; Suruceanu, G.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the technology of optoelectronic semiconductor devices and may be used in the production of laser semiconductor diodes integrated with optical nonlinear elements. The laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler includes a semiconductor substrate, a laser structure with waveguide. metal contacts in the waveguide of the laser structure it is formed a nanostructured field so that the nanostructure provides for the fulfillment of the phase synchronism conditions

  3. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  4. Automation and Integration in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Da-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Semiconductor automation originates from the prevention and avoidance of frauds in daily fab operations. As semiconductor technology and business continuously advance and grow, manufacturing systems must aggressively evolve to meet the changing technical and business requirements in this industry. Semiconductor manufacturing has been suffering pains from islands of automation. The problems associated with these systems are limited

  5. Elastic, vibration and thermodynamic properties of Cu1‑x Ag x InTe2 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) chalcopyrite compounds via first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuhan; Wang, Peida; Mei, Huayue; Jia, Zhenyuan; Cheng, Nanpu

    2018-06-01

    CuInTe2 chalcopyrite compound is widely used in the fields of optoelectronics and pyroelectricity, and doping atoms can further improve the physical properties of the CuInTe2 compound. For all we know, this is the first time that the elastic behaviors and lattice dynamical properties of Ag-doped CuInTe2 compounds with the tetragonal system are determined theoretically. The elastic, lattice dynamical and thermal properties of Cu1‑x Ag x InTe2 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) compounds have been investigated by using density functional theory. The obtained elastic constants of Cu1‑x Ag x InTe2 compounds indicate that these compounds are mechanically stable and elastic anisotropic. The anisotropy of the {001} plane is more obvious than those of the {100} and {010} planes. Additionally, with increasing Ag doping concentrations, the bulk and shear moduli of Cu1‑x Ag x InTe2 compounds decrease and their toughness improves. The phonon spectra and density of states reveal that Cu (or Ag) atoms in Cu1‑x Ag x InTe2 compounds form chemical bonds with Te atoms, and Cu-Te bonds are gradually replaced by Ag-Te bonds with increasing Ag doping concentration. Vibration modes of Cu1‑x Ag x InTe2 compounds at the {{Γ }} point in the Brillouin zone show that each Cu1‑x Ag x InTe2 (x = 0 and 1) crystal includes five irreducible representations (A1, A2, B1, B2 and E). As for Cu1‑x Ag x InTe2 (x = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75) compounds, each crystal has three irreducible representations (A, B and E). The atomic displacements of several typical phonon modes in CuInTe2 crystals have been analyzed to deepen the understanding of lattice vibrations in Cu1‑x AgxInTe2 compounds. With increasing Ag doping concentration, the Debye temperatures of Cu1‑x Ag x InTe2 compounds decrease, while their heat capacities increase.

  6. Semiconductor nanostructures for infrared applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zurauskiene, N.; Asmontas, S.; Dargys, A.; Kundrotas, J.; Janssen, G.; Goovaerts, E.; Marcinkevicius, S.; Koenraad, P.M.; Wolter, J.H.; Leon, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and optically detected microwave resonance (ODMR) spectroscopy investigations of semiconductor quantum dots and quantum wells. The ODMR spectra of InAs/GaAs QDs were detected via modulation of the total intensity of the QDs emission

  7. A Brief History of ... Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tudor

    2005-01-01

    The development of studies in semiconductor materials is traced from its beginnings with Michael Faraday in 1833 to the production of the first silicon transistor in 1954, which heralded the age of silicon electronics and microelectronics. Prior to the advent of band theory, work was patchy and driven by needs of technology. However, the arrival…

  8. Semiconductor radiation detectors: device physics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutz, Gerhard

    1999-01-01

    ..., including nuclear physics, elementary particle physics, optical and x-ray astronomy, medicine, and materials testing - and the number of applications is growing continually. Closely related, and initiated by the application of semiconductors, is the development of low-noise low-power integrated electronics for signal readout. The success of semicond...

  9. Towards filament free semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2000-01-01

    We outline physical models and simulations for suppression of self-focusing and filamentation in large aperture semiconductor lasers. The principal technical objective is to generate multi-watt CW or quasi-CW outputs with nearly diffraction limited beams, suitable for long distance free space...... propagation structures in lasers and amplifiers which suppress lateral reflections....

  10. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Marcher

    1999-01-01

    In this work we present an experimental technique for investigating ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor optical amplifiers at room temperature. These dynamics, influenced by carrier heating, spectral hole-burning and two-photon absorption, are very important for device applications in inf...

  11. Radiation damage in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.

    1981-12-01

    A survey is presented of the important damage-producing interactions in semiconductor detectors and estimates of defect numbers are made for MeV protons, neutrons and electrons. Damage effects of fast neutrons in germanium gamma ray spectrometers are given in some detail. General effects in silicon detectors are discussed and damage constants and their relationship to leakage current is introduced

  12. Transmutation doping of semiconductors by charged particles (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskii, V.V.; Zakharenkov, L.F.; Shustrov, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of the state of the art in one of the current topics in radiation doping of semiconductors, which is process of nuclear transmutation doping (NTD) charged particles. In contrast to the neutron and photonuclear transmutation doping, which have been dealt with in monographs and reviews, NTD caused by the action of charged particles is a subject growing very rapidly in the last 10-15 years, but still lacking systematic accounts. The review consists of three sections. The first section deals with the characteristics of nuclear reactions in semiconductors caused by the action of charged particles: the main stress is on the modeling of NTD processes in semiconductors under the action of charged particles. An analysis is made of the modeling intended to give the total numbers of donors and acceptor impurities introduced by the NTD process, to optimize the compensation coefficients, and to estimate the distributions of the dopants with depth in a semiconductor crystal. In the second section the state of the art of experimental investigations of NTD under the influence of charged particles is considered. In view of the specific objects that have been investigated experimntally, the second section is divided into three subsections: silicon, III-V compounds, other semiconductors and related materials (such as high-temperature superconductors, ferroelectric films, etc.). An analysis is made of the communications reporting experimental data on the total numbers of dopants which are introduced, concentration of the electrically active fraction of the impurity, profiles of the dopant distributions, and conditions for efficient annealing of radiation defects. The third section deals with the suitability of NTD by charged particles for the fabrication of semiconductor devices. 45 refs

  13. Transient photoconductivity in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpawenayo, P.

    1997-07-01

    Localized states in amorphous semiconductors are divided in disorder induced shallow trap levels and dangling bonds deep states. Dangling bonds are assumed here to be either neutral or charged and their energy distribution is a single gaussian. Here, it is shown analytically that transient photocurrent in amorphous semiconductors is fully controlled by charge carriers transitions between localized states for one part and tunneling hopping carriers on the other. Localized dangling bonds deep states act as non radiative recombination centres, while hopping tunnelling is assisted by the Coulomb interaction between defects sites. The half-width of defects distribution is the disorder parameter that determines the carrier hopping time between defects sites. The macroscopic time that explains the long decay response times observed will all types of amorphous semiconductors is duly thought to be temperature dependent. Basic equations developed by Longeaud and Kleider are solved for the general case of a semiconductor after photo-generation. It turns out that the transient photoconductivity decay has two components; one with short response times from carriers trap-release transitions between shallow levels and extended states and a hopping component made of inter-dependent exponentials whose time constants span in larger ranges depending on disorder. The photoconductivity hopping component appears as an additional term to be added to photocurrents derived from existing models. The results of the present study explain and complete the power law decay derived in the multiple trapping models developed 20 years ago only in the approximation of the short response time regime. The long response time regime is described by the hopping macroscopic time. The present model is verified for all samples of amorphous semiconductors known so far. Finally, it is proposed to improved the modulated photoconductivity calculation techniques by including the long-lasting hopping dark documents

  14. Nonlinear interactions in magnetised piezoelectric semiconductor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Giriraj; Ghosh, S.

    2000-01-01

    Based on hydrodynamics model of plasmas an analytical investigation of frequency modulational interaction between copropagating high frequency pump and acoustic mode and consequent amplification (steady-state and transient) of the modulated waves is carried out in a magnetised piezoelectric semiconductor medium. The phenomenon of modulation amplification is treated as four wave interaction process involving cubic nonlinearity of the medium. Gain constants, threshold-pump intensities and optimum-pulse duration for the onset of modulational instabilities are estimated. The analysis has been performed in non-dispersive regime of the acoustic mode, which is one of the preconditions for achieving an appreciable initial steady-state growth of the modulated signal wave. It is found that the transient gain diminishes very rapidly if one chooses the pump pulse duration beyond the maximum gain point. Moreover, the desired value of the gain can be obtained by adjusting intensity and pulse duration of the pump and doping concentration of the medium concerned. (author)

  15. Role of the Muon in Semiconductor Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengyan, Rick (P. W.)

    Muons are used in semiconductor research as an experimentally accessible analog to the isolated Hydrogen (H) impurity - a complex that is very difficult (or impossible) to study by other means. Hydrogen impurities of any concentration can modify the electrical, optical or magnetic properties of the host. For instance, H can be incorporated to remove electrically active levels from the energy gap (i.e. passivation) while some can form isolated centers that tend to be responsible for the trap and release of charge carriers and participate in site and charge-state dynamics which certainly affect the electrical properties of the host. Therefore, it can be quite useful to characterize these impurities in semiconducting materials that are of interest for use in devices. A muon has the same charge and spin as a proton but a mass that is nine times lighter. When implanted in a target material, a positively charged muon can behave as a light proton or bind with an electron to form a complex known as Muonium (Mu) with properties that are very similar to that of ionic or neutral H, respectively. A result of these similarities and direct non-destructive implantation is that Mu provides a direct measure of local electronic structure, thermal stability and charge-state transitions of these impurity centers. Since any material can be subjected to muon implantation and it is the muons themselves that mimic the H impurity centers, these measurements do not depend (at all) on the host's solubility of hydrogen nor do they require some minimum concentration; unlike many other techniques, such as EPR, ENDOR, NMR, or IR vibrational spectroscopy. Here we summarize major contributions muons have made to the field of semiconductor research followed by a few case studies to demonstrate the technique and detailed knowledge of the physical and electronic structures as well as dynamics (e.g.: charge-state and site transitions; local motion; long-range diffusion) of Mu/H that can be obtained.

  16. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported

  17. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; (i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and (ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Nonlinear charge transport in bipolar semiconductors due to electron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Valdovinos, S.; Gurevich, Yu.G.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that when strong electric field is applied to a semiconductor sample, the current voltage characteristic deviates from the linear response. In this letter, we propose a new point of view of nonlinearity in semiconductors which is associated with the electron temperature dependence on the recombination rate. The heating of the charge carriers breaks the balance between generation and recombination, giving rise to nonequilibrium charge carriers concentration and nonlinearity. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of nonlinearity of current-voltage characteristic (CVC) is proposed. • The hot electron temperature violates the equilibrium between electrons and holes. • This violation gives rise to nonequilibrium concentration of electrons and holes. • This leads to nonlinear CVC (along with the heating nonlinearity).

  19. Nonlinear charge transport in bipolar semiconductors due to electron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Valdovinos, S., E-mail: sergiom@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Académica de Física, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, CP 98060, Zacatecas, Zac, México (Mexico); Gurevich, Yu.G. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Física, Av. IPN 2508, México D.F., CP 07360, México (Mexico)

    2016-05-27

    It is known that when strong electric field is applied to a semiconductor sample, the current voltage characteristic deviates from the linear response. In this letter, we propose a new point of view of nonlinearity in semiconductors which is associated with the electron temperature dependence on the recombination rate. The heating of the charge carriers breaks the balance between generation and recombination, giving rise to nonequilibrium charge carriers concentration and nonlinearity. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of nonlinearity of current-voltage characteristic (CVC) is proposed. • The hot electron temperature violates the equilibrium between electrons and holes. • This violation gives rise to nonequilibrium concentration of electrons and holes. • This leads to nonlinear CVC (along with the heating nonlinearity).

  20. Transversal light forces in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg, M

    2003-01-01

    The transversal light force is a well established effect in atomic and molecular systems that are exposed to spatially inhomogeneous light fields. In this paper it is shown theoretically that in an excited semiconductor, containing an electron-hole plasma or excitons, a similar light force exists, if the semiconductor is exposed to an ultrashort spatially inhomogeneous light field. The analysis is based on the equations of motion for the Wigner distribution functions of charge carrier populations and interband polarizations. The results show that, while the light force on the electron-hole plasma or the excitons does exist, its effects on the kinetic behaviour of the electron-hole plasma or the excitons are different compared to the situation in an atomic or molecular system. A detailed analysis presented here traces this difference back to the principal differences between atoms and molecules on the one hand and electron-hole plasmas or excitons on the other hand.

  1. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  2. Hypersonic modes in nanophononic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepplestone, S P; Srivastava, G P

    2008-09-05

    Frequency gaps and negative group velocities of hypersonic phonon modes in periodically arranged composite semiconductors are presented. Trends and criteria for phononic gaps are discussed using a variety of atomic-level theoretical approaches. From our calculations, the possibility of achieving semiconductor-based one-dimensional phononic structures is established. We present results of the location and size of gaps, as well as negative group velocities of phonon modes in such structures. In addition to reproducing the results of recent measurements of the locations of the band gaps in the nanosized Si/Si{0.4}Ge{0.6} superlattice, we show that such a system is a true one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystal.

  3. Dielectric function of semiconductor superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guoyi.

    1990-08-01

    We present a calculation of the dielectric function for semiconductor GaAs/Ga 1-x Al x As superlattice taking account of the extension of the electron envelope function and the difference of both the dielectric constant and width between GaAs and Ga 1-x Al x As layers. In the appropriate limits, our results exactly reduce to the well-known results of the quasi two-dimensional electron gas obtained by Lee and Spector and of the period array of two-dimensional electron layers obtained by Das Sarma and Quinn. By means of the dielectric function of the superlattice, the dispersion relation of the collective excitation and the screening property of semiconductor superlattice are discussed and compared with the results of the quasi two-dimensional system and with the results of the periodic array of the two-dimensional electron layers. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of optoelectronic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with standard spectroscopic techniques which can be used to analyze semiconductor samples or devices, in both, bulk, micrometer and submicrometer scale. The book aims helping experimental physicists and engineers to choose the right analytical spectroscopic technique in order to get specific information about their specific demands. For this purpose, the techniques including technical details such as apparatus and probed sample region are described. More important, also the expected outcome from experiments is provided. This involves also the link to theory, that is not subject of this book, and the link to current experimental results in the literature which are presented in a review-like style. Many special spectroscopic techniques are introduced and their relationship to the standard techniques is revealed. Thus the book works also as a type of guide or reference book for people researching in optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  5. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  6. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  7. Semiconductors put spin in spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Electrons and holes, which carry the current in semiconductor devices, are quantum-mechanical objects characterized by a set of quantum numbers - the band index, the wave-vector (which is closely related to the electron or hole velocity) and spin. The spin, however, is one of the strangest properties of particles. In simple terms, we can think of the spin as an internal rotation of the electron, but it has no classical counterpart. The spin is connected to a quantized magnetic moment and hence acts as a microscopic magnet. Thus the electron spin can adopt one of two directions (''up'' or ''down'') in a magnetic field. The spin plays no role in conventional electronics and the current in any semiconductor device is made up of a mixture of electrons with randomly oriented spins. However, a new range of electronic devices that transport the spin of the electrons, in addition to their charge, is being developed. But the biggest obstacle to making practical ''spin electronic'' or ''spintronic'' devices so far has been finding a way of injecting spin-polarized electrons or holes into the semiconductor and then detecting them. Recently a team of physicists from the University of Wuerzburg in Germany, and also a collaboration of researchers from Tohoku University in Japan and the University of California at Santa Barbara, have found a way round these problems using either semi-magnetic or ferromagnetic semiconductors as ''spin aligners'' (R Fiederling et al. 1999 Nature 402 787; Y Ohno et al. 1999 Nature 402 790). In this article the author presents the latest breakthrough in spintronics research. (UK)

  8. X-ray diffraction study of chalcopyrite CuFeS2, pentlandite (Fe,Ni)9S8 and Pyrrhotite Fe1-xS obtained from Cu-Ni orebodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.; Ekosse, G.

    1998-05-01

    The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique is applied to study five samples of Cu-Ni orebodies, and it is shown that they contain chalcopyrite CuFeS 2 as the source of Cu, pentlandite (Fe,Ni) 9 S 8 as the source of Ni and pyrrhotite Fe 1-x S as a dominant compound. There are also other less dominant compounds such as bunsenite NiO, chalcocite Cu 2 S, penrosite (Ni, Cu)Se 2 and magnetite Fe 3 O 4 . Using the obtained XRD data, we obtain the lattice parameters for tetragonal chalcopyrite as a=b=5.3069A and c=10.3836A, cubic pentlandite as a=b=c=10.0487A, and hexagonal pyrrhotite as a=b=6.8820A and c=22.8037A. (author)

  9. Dry etching technology for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    This book is a must-have reference to dry etching technology for semiconductors, which will enable engineers to develop new etching processes for further miniaturization and integration of semiconductor integrated circuits.  The author describes the device manufacturing flow, and explains in which part of the flow dry etching is actually used. The content is designed as a practical guide for engineers working at chip makers, equipment suppliers and materials suppliers, and university students studying plasma, focusing on the topics they need most, such as detailed etching processes for each material (Si, SiO2, Metal etc) used in semiconductor devices, etching equipment used in manufacturing fabs, explanation of why a particular plasma source and gas chemistry are used for the etching of each material, and how to develop etching processes.  The latest, key technologies are also described, such as 3D IC Etching, Dual Damascene Etching, Low-k Etching, Hi-k/Metal Gate Etching, FinFET Etching, Double Patterning ...

  10. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices. PMID:28681843

  11. Radiation tolerance of amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaides, R.V.; DeFeo, S.; Doremus, L.W.

    1976-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the threshold radiation damage in amorphous semiconductors, radiation tests were performed on amorphous semiconductor thin film materials and on threshold and memory devices. The influence of flash x-rays and neutron radiation upon the switching voltages, on- and off-state characteristics, dielectric response, optical transmission, absorption band edge and photoconductivity were measured prior to, during and following irradiation. These extensive tests showed the high radiation tolerance of amorphous semiconductor materials. Electrical and optical properties, other than photoconductivity, have a neutron radiation tolerance threshold above 10 17 nvt in the steady state and 10 14 nvt in short (50 μsec to 16 msec) pulses. Photoconductivity increases by 1 1 / 2 orders of magnitude at the level of 10 14 nvt (short pulses of 50 μsec). Super flash x-rays up to 5000 rads (Si), 20 nsec, do not initiate switching in off-state samples which are voltage biased up to 90 percent of the threshold voltage. Both memory and threshold amorphous devices are capable of switching on and off during nuclear radiation transients at least as high as 2 x 10 14 nvt in 50 μsec pulses

  12. Thienoacene-based organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimiya, Kazuo; Shinamura, Shoji; Osaka, Itaru; Miyazaki, Eigo

    2011-10-11

    Thienoacenes consist of fused thiophene rings in a ladder-type molecular structure and have been intensively studied as potential organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in the last decade. They are reviewed here. Despite their simple and similar molecular structures, the hitherto reported properties of thienoacene-based OFETs are rather diverse. This Review focuses on four classes of thienoacenes, which are classified in terms of their chemical structures, and elucidates the molecular electronic structure of each class. The packing structures of thienoacenes and the thus-estimated solid-state electronic structures are correlated to their carrier transport properties in OFET devices. With this perspective of the molecular structures of thienoacenes and their carrier transport properties in OFET devices, the structure-property relationships in thienoacene-based organic semiconductors are discussed. The discussion provides insight into new molecular design strategies for the development of superior organic semiconductors. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Identification of defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Stavola, Michael; Weber, Eicke R; Stavola, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors.The"Willardson and Beer"Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices,Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise indeed that this traditi...

  14. The Electrical Characteristics of The N-Organic Semiconductor/P-Inorganic Semiconductor Diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    n-organic semiconductor (PEDOT) / p-inorganic semiconductor Si diode was formed by deep coating method. The method has been achieved by coating n-inorganic semiconductor PEDOT on top of p-inorganic semiconductor. The n-organic semiconductor PEDOT/ p-inorganic semiconductor diode demonstrated rectifying behavior by the current-voltage (I-V) curves studied at room temperature. The barrier height , ideality factor values were obtained as of 0.88 eV and 1.95 respectively. The diode showed non-ideal I-V behavior with an ideality factor greater than unity that could be ascribed to the interfacial layer

  15. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.

    1993-04-01

    In this thesis, experimental results of the transition metals Ti, V, Nb, Mo, and W as impurity centres in silicon are presented. Transition metal doping was accomplished by ion implantation. Emphasis is put on energy level position, electrical and optical properties of the encountered defect levels. Junction space charge methods (JSCM) such as DLTS, photocapacitance and photocurrent techniques are employed. Three energy levels are found for the 3d-transition metals Ti(E c -0.06eV, E c -0.30eV, E v +0.26) and V(E c -0.21eV, E c -0,48e, E v +0.36eV), and for the 4d-element Nb(E c -0.29eV, E c -0.58eV, E v +0.163eV) in Silicon, whereas only one transition metal induced level is found for Mo(E v +0.30eV) and W(E v +0.38eV) respectively. Electrical and optical characteristics of Si 1-x Ge x ,0.7 7 cm -2 . The solvent Bi, used in the LPE-process, is found to be the dominant impurity element. Furthermore, liquid phase epitaxy of high purity In 0.53 Ga 0.57 As on InP, together with the properties of the Cu-induced acceptor in this material are examined. Free electron concentrations of n=5x10 14 cm -3 and electron Hall-mobilities of μ 77K = 44000 cm 2 /Vs are achieved. The energy level position of the Cu-acceptor is found to be E v +0.025eV. Photoluminescence and Hall-effect measurements, together with JSCM are the main characterization methods used. The band linups of In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As with GaAs and with InP are determined according to the Cu-acceptor energy level position in these materials. Additionally, the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the Cu-acceptor energy level position in In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As is examined. (103 refs.)

  16. New Icosahedral Boron Carbide Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria Mora, Elena Maria

    Novel semiconductor boron carbide films and boron carbide films doped with aromatic compounds have been investigated and characterized. Most of these semiconductors were formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The aromatic compound additives used, in this thesis, were pyridine (Py), aniline, and diaminobenzene (DAB). As one of the key parameters for semiconducting device functionality is the metal contact and, therefore, the chemical interactions or band bending that may occur at the metal/semiconductor interface, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to investigate the interaction of gold (Au) with these novel boron carbide-based semiconductors. Both n- and p-type films have been tested and pure boron carbide devices are compared to those containing aromatic compounds. The results show that boron carbide seems to behave differently from other semiconductors, opening a way for new analysis and approaches in device's functionality. By studying the electrical and optical properties of these films, it has been found that samples containing the aromatic compound exhibit an improvement in the electron-hole separation and charge extraction, as well as a decrease in the band gap. The hole carrier lifetimes for each sample were extracted from the capacitance-voltage, C(V), and current-voltage, I(V), curves. Additionally, devices, with boron carbide with the addition of pyridine, exhibited better collection of neutron capture generated pulses at ZERO applied bias, compared to the pure boron carbide samples. This is consistent with the longer carrier lifetimes estimated for these films. The I-V curves, as a function of external magnetic field, of the pure boron carbide films and films containing DAB demonstrate that significant room temperature negative magneto-resistance (> 100% for pure samples, and > 50% for samples containing DAB) is possible in the resulting dielectric thin films. Inclusion of DAB is not essential for significant negative magneto

  17. A laboratory study of removing Arsenic from a synthetic copper concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajadod, J.

    2000-01-01

    Arsenic is the 20th most abundant element if the earth's crust at a level of about 2 ppm. It is a constituent of over 300 minerals and is commonly found in non-ferrous ores such as copper, lead, zinc, gold and uranium. Efficient separation of arsenic minerals from other sulphide minerals is of great importance for the metallurgical performance of flotation processes. This work was undertaken to study the separation of engirt, an arsenic-bearing mineral from chalcopyrite in copper concentrates. To achieve this aim the possible depression of engirt using some sulphide depressants was studied

  18. Role of band states and trap states in the electrical properties of organic semiconductors: Hopping versus mobility edge model

    KAUST Repository

    Mehraeen, Shafigh; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bré das, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    We compare the merits of a hopping model and a mobility edge model in the description of the effect of charge-carrier concentration on the electrical conductivity, carrier mobility, and Fermi energy of organic semiconductors. We consider the case

  19. Organic semiconductor growth and morphology considerations for organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkar, Ajay A; Mannsfeld, Stefan; Bao, Zhenan; Stingelin, Natalie

    2010-09-08

    Analogous to conventional inorganic semiconductors, the performance of organic semiconductors is directly related to their molecular packing, crystallinity, growth mode, and purity. In order to achieve the best possible performance, it is critical to understand how organic semiconductors nucleate and grow. Clever use of surface and dielectric modification chemistry can allow one to control the growth and morphology, which greatly influence the electrical properties of the organic transistor. In this Review, the nucleation and growth of organic semiconductors on dielectric surfaces is addressed. The first part of the Review concentrates on small-molecule organic semiconductors. The role of deposition conditions on film formation is described. The modification of the dielectric interface using polymers or self-assembled mono-layers and their effect on organic-semiconductor growth and performance is also discussed. The goal of this Review is primarily to discuss the thin-film formation of organic semiconducting species. The patterning of single crystals is discussed, while their nucleation and growth has been described elsewhere (see the Review by Liu et. al).([¹]) The second part of the Review focuses on polymeric semiconductors. The dependence of physico-chemical properties, such as chain length (i.e., molecular weight) of the constituting macromolecule, and the influence of small molecular species on, e.g., melting temperature, as well as routes to induce order in such macromolecules, are described.

  20. Submillimeter Spectroscopic Study of Semiconductor Processing Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Yaser H.

    Plasmas used for manufacturing processes of semiconductor devices are complex and challenging to characterize. The development and improvement of plasma processes and models rely on feedback from experimental measurements. Current diagnostic methods are not capable of measuring absolute densities of plasma species with high resolution without altering the plasma, or without input from other measurements. At pressures below 100 mTorr, spectroscopic measurements of rotational transitions in the submillimeter/terahertz (SMM) spectral region are narrow enough in relation to the sparsity of spectral lines that absolute specificity of measurement is possible. The frequency resolution of SMM sources is such that spectral absorption features can be fully resolved. Processing plasmas are a similar pressure and temperature to the environment used to study astrophysical species in the SMM spectral region. Many of the molecular neutrals, radicals, and ions present in processing plasmas have been studied in the laboratory and their absorption spectra have been cataloged or are in the literature for the purpose of astrophysical study. Recent developments in SMM devices have made its technology commercially available for applications outside of specialized laboratories. The methods developed over several decades in the SMM spectral region for these laboratory studies are directly applicable for diagnostic measurements in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. In this work, a continuous wave, intensity calibrated SMM absorption spectrometer was developed as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. A major advantage of intensity calibrated rotational absorption spectroscopy is its ability to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species from first principles without altering the plasma environment. An important part of this work was the design of the optical components which couple 500 - 750 GHz radiation through a commercial inductively coupled plasma

  1. Electronic properties of semiconductor surfaces and metal/semiconductor interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallarida, M.

    2005-05-15

    This thesis reports investigations of the electronic properties of a semiconductor surface (silicon carbide), a reactive metal/semiconductor interface (manganese/silicon) and a non-reactive metal/semiconductor interface (aluminum-magnesium alloy/silicon). The (2 x 1) reconstruction of the 6H-SiC(0001) surface has been obtained by cleaving the sample along the (0001) direction. This reconstruction has not been observed up to now for this compound, and has been compared with those of similar elemental semiconductors of the fourth group of the periodic table. This comparison has been carried out by making use of photoemission spectroscopy, analyzing the core level shifts of both Si 2p and C 1s core levels in terms of charge transfer between atoms of both elements and in different chemical environments. From this comparison, a difference between the reconstruction on the Si-terminated and the C-terminated surface was established, due to the ionic nature of the Si-C bond. The growth of manganese films on Si(111) in the 1-5 ML thickness range has been studied by means of LEED, STM and photoemission spectroscopy. By the complementary use of these surface science techniques, two different phases have been observed for two thickness regimes (<1 ML and >1 ML), which exhibit a different electronic character. The two reconstructions, the (1 x 1)-phase and the ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 -phase, are due to silicide formation, as observed in core level spectroscopy. The growth proceeds via island formation in the monolayer regime, while the thicker films show flat layers interrupted by deep holes. On the basis of STM investigations, this growth mode has been attributed to strain due to lattice mismatch between the substrate and the silicide. Co-deposition of Al and Mg onto a Si(111) substrate at low temperature (100K) resulted in the formation of thin alloy films. By varying the relative content of both elements, the thin films exhibited different electronic properties

  2. Roadmap on semiconductor-cell biointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bozhi; Xu, Shuai; Rogers, John A.; Cestellos-Blanco, Stefano; Yang, Peidong; Carvalho-de-Souza, João L.; Bezanilla, Francisco; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan; Hjort, Martin; Cao, Yuhong; Melosh, Nicholas; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Benfenati, Fabio; Galli, Giulia; Gygi, Francois; Kautz, Rylan; Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Kim, Samuel S.; Lu, Timothy K.; Anikeeva, Polina; Cifra, Michal; Krivosudský, Ondrej; Havelka, Daniel; Jiang, Yuanwen

    2018-05-01

    This roadmap outlines the role semiconductor-based materials play in understanding the complex biophysical dynamics at multiple length scales, as well as the design and implementation of next-generation electronic, optoelectronic, and mechanical devices for biointerfaces. The roadmap emphasizes the advantages of semiconductor building blocks in interfacing, monitoring, and manipulating the activity of biological components, and discusses the possibility of using active semiconductor-cell interfaces for discovering new signaling processes in the biological world.

  3. Semiconductor industry: a survey of structure, conduct, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbink, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    The study describes the structure, conduct, and performance of the semiconductor industry. The industry is characterized by a high rate of innovation and technological change, rapidly falling costs and prices, and rapidly rising sales in boom periods as well as large declines in sales in recession periods. These desirable performance characteristics take place in an industry that has moderately high domestic levels of concentration. However, there are many features that cause this industry to have behavior and performance that is markedly different from such highly concentrated industries as automobiles and steel. These features were investigated and are reported

  4. Excitonic optical bistability in n-type doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Le Thi Cat Tuong

    1991-07-01

    A resonant monochromatic pump laser generates coherent excitons in an n-type doped semiconductor. Both exciton-exciton and exciton-donor interactions come into play. The former interaction can give rise to the appearance of optical bistability which is heavily influenced by the latter one. When optical bistability occurs at a fixed laser frequency both its holding intensity and hysteresis loop size are shown to decrease with increasing donor concentration. Two possibilities are suggested for experimentally determining one of the two parameters of the system - the exciton-donor coupling constant and the donor concentration, if the other parameter is known beforehand. (author). 36 refs, 2 figs

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresse, J.F.; Dupuy, M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of scanning electron microscopy in semiconductors opens up a large field of use. The operating modes lending themselves to the study of semiconductors are the induced current, cathodoluminescence and the use of the potential contrast which can also be applied very effectively to the study of the devices (planar in particular). However, a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of the penetration of electrons, generation and recombination of generated carriers in a semiconductor is necessary in order to attain a better understanding of the operating modes peculiar to semiconductors [fr

  6. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Martin J.

    1989-06-20

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  7. Porous and Nanoporous Semiconductors and Emerging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pores in single-crystalline semiconductors can be produced in a wide range of geometries and morphologies, including the “nanometer” regime. Porous semiconductors may have properties completely different from the bulk, and metamaterials with, for example, optical properties not encountered in natural materials are emerging. Possible applications of porous semiconductors include various novel sensors, but also more “exotic” uses as, for example, high explosives or electrodes for micro-fuel cells. The paper briefly reviews pore formation (including more applied aspects of large area etching, properties of porous semiconductors, and emerging applications.

  8. Metallurgy and purification of semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughal, G.R.; Ali, M.M.; Ali, I.

    1996-01-01

    In this article the metallurgical aspects of semiconductor science and technology have been stressed here rather than of the physical and electronic aspect of the subject. Semiconductor technology has not merely presented the metallurgist with new challenges. The ease with which the semiconductor planes cleave make possible, the preparation and study of virgin surface. Semiconductor materials were being widely employed in the study of sub-boundaries and structures and can largely contribute to the study of certain aspects of nucleation and growth, precipitation phenomena, mechanical behaviour, in metallurgy. (A.B.)

  9. Emission and Absorption Entropy Generation in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Varpula, Aapo; Prunnila, Mika

    2013-01-01

    While emission and absorption entropy generation is well known in black bodies, it has not previously been studied in semiconductors, even though semiconductors are widely used for solar light absorption in modern solar cells [1]. We present an analysis of the entropy generation in semiconductor...... materials due to emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the emission and absorption entropy generation reduces the fundamental limit on the efficiency of any semiconductor solar cell even further than the Landsberg limit. The results are derived from purely thermodynamical...

  10. Semiconductor Lasers Stability, Instability and Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2008-01-01

    This monograph describes fascinating recent progress in the field of chaos, stability and instability of semiconductor lasers. Applications and future prospects are discussed in detail. The book emphasizes the various dynamics induced in semiconductor lasers by optical and electronic feedback, optical injection, and injection current modulation. Recent results of both theoretical and experimental investigations are presented. Demonstrating applications of semiconductor laser chaos, control and noise, Semiconductor Lasers describes suppression and chaotic secure communications. For those who are interested in optics but not familiar with nonlinear systems, a brief introduction to chaos analysis is presented.

  11. Method of manufacturing a semiconductor sensor device and semiconductor sensor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a semiconductor sensor device (10) for sensing a substance comprising a plurality of mutually parallel mesa-shaped semiconductor regions (1) which are formed on a surface of a semiconductor body (11) and which are connected at a first end to a first

  12. Ultrafast laser-semiconductor interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schile, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the ultrafast (< 100 fs) interactions of infrared, sub-100 fs laser pulses with IR, photosensitive semiconductor materials InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe are reported. Both the carrier dynamics and the associated Terahertz radiation from these materials are discussed. The most recent developments of femtosecond (< 100 fs) Optical Parametric Oscillators (OPO) has extended the wavelength range from the visible to 5.2 μm. The photogenerated semiconductor free carrier dynamics are determined in the 77 to 300 degrees K temperature range using the Transmission Correlation Peak (TCP) method. The electron-phonon scattering times are typically 200 - 600 fs. Depending upon the material composition and substrate on which the IR crystalline materials are deposited, the nonlinear TCP absorption gives recombination rates as fast as 10's of picoseconds. For the HgCdTe, there exists a 400 fs electron-phonon scattering process along with a much longer 3600 fs loss process. Studies of the interactions of these ultrashort laser pulses with semiconductors produce Terahertz (Thz) radiative pulses. With undoped InSb, there is a substantial change in the spectral content of this THz radiation between 80 - 260 degrees K while the spectrum of Te-doped InSb remains nearly unchanged, an effect attributed to its mobility being dominated by impurity scattering. At 80 degrees K, the terahertz radiation from undoped InSb is dependent on wavelength, with both a higher frequency spectrum and much larger amplitudes generated at longer wavelengths. No such effect is observed at 260 degrees K. Finally, new results on the dependence of the emitted THz radiation on the InSb crystal's orientation is presented

  13. 100% spin accumulation in non-half-metallic ferromagnet-semiconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, A G; Niggemann, J; Smelyanskiy, V N; Osipov, V V

    2007-01-01

    We show that the spin polarization of electron density in non-magnetic degenerate semiconductors can achieve 100%. The effect of 100% spin accumulation does not require a half-metallic ferromagnetic contact and can be realized in ferromagnet-semiconductor FM-n + -n junctions even at moderate spin selectivity of the FM-n + contact when the electrons with spin 'up' are extracted from n semiconductor through the heavily doped n + layer into the ferromagnet and the electrons with spin 'down' are accumulated near the n + -n interface. We derived a general equation relating spin polarization of the current to that of the electron density in non-magnetic semiconductors. We found that the effect of complete spin polarization is achieved near the n + -n interface when the concentration of the spin 'up' electrons tends to zero in this region while the diffusion current of these electrons remains finite

  14. Laser interferometric method for determining the carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manukhov, V. V. [Saint Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Fedortsov, A. B.; Ivanov, A. S., E-mail: ivaleks58@gmail.com [Saint Petersburg Mining University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A new laser interferometric method for measuring the carrier diffusion length in semiconductors is proposed. The method is based on the interference–absorption interaction of two laser radiations in a semiconductor. Injected radiation generates additional carriers in a semiconductor, which causes a change in the material’s optical constants and modulation of the probing radiation passed through the sample. When changing the distance between carrier generation and probing points, a decrease in the carrier concentration, which depends on the diffusion length, is recorded. The diffusion length is determined by comparing the experimental and theoretical dependences of the probe signal on the divergence of the injector and probe beams. The method is successfully tested on semiconductor samples with different thicknesses and surface states and can be used in scientific research and the electronics industry.

  15. Ion implantation in semiconductor bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ions are selectively implanted into layers of a semiconductor substrate of, for example, semi-insulating gallium arsenide via a photoresist implantation mask and a metallic layer of, for example, titanium disposed between the substrate surface and the photoresist mask. After implantation the mask and metallic layer are removed and the substrate heat treated for annealing purposes. The metallic layer acts as a buffer layer and prevents possible contamination of the substrate surface, by photoresist residues, at the annealing stage. Such contamination would adversely affect the electrical properties of the substrate surface, particularly gallium arsenide substrates. (author)

  16. Method of manufacturing semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.S.E.

    1980-01-01

    A method of improving the electrical characteristics of semiconductor devices such as SCR's, rectifiers and triacs during their manufacture is described. The system consists of electron irradiation at an energy in excess of 250 KeV and most preferably between 1.5 and 12 MeV, producing an irradiation dose of between 5.10 12 and 5.10 15 electrons per sq. cm., and at a temperature in excess of 100 0 C preferably between 150 and 375 0 C. (U.K.)

  17. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1994-08-01

    Control of the isotopic composition of semiconductors offers a wide range of new scientific opportunities. In this paper a number of recent results obtained with isotopically pure as well as deliberately mixed diamond and Ge bulk single crystals and Ge isotope superlattices will be reviewed. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, bandstructure and lattice constant in subtle but theoretically well understood ways. Large effects are observed for thermal conductivity, local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping (NTD). Several experiments which could profit greatly from isotope control are proposed

  18. Theory of semiconductor laser cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, Greg

    Recently laser cooling of semiconductors has received renewed attention, with the hope that a semiconductor cooler might be able to achieve cryogenic temperatures. In order to study semiconductor laser cooling at cryogenic temperatures, it is crucial that the theory include both the effects of excitons and the electron-hole plasma. In this dissertation, I present a theoretical analysis of laser cooling of bulk GaAs based on a microscopic many-particle theory of absorption and luminescence of a partially ionized electron-hole plasma. This theory has been analyzed from a temperature 10K to 500K. It is shown that at high temperatures (above 300K), cooling can be modeled using older models with a few parameter changes. Below 200K, band filling effects dominate over Auger recombination. Below 30K excitonic effects are essential for laser cooling. In all cases, excitonic effects make cooling easier then predicted by a free carrier model. The initial cooling model is based on the assumption of a homogeneous undoped semiconductor. This model has been systematically modified to include effects that are present in real laser cooling experiments. The following modifications have been performed. (1) Propagation and polariton effects have been included. (2) The effect of p-doping has been included. (n-doping can be modeled in a similar fashion.) (3) In experiments, a passivation layer is required to minimize non-radiative recombination. The passivation results in a npn heterostructure. The effect of the npn heterostructure on cooling has been analyzed. (4) The effect of a Gaussian pump beam was analyzed and (5) Some of the parameters in the cooling model have a large uncertainty. The effect of modifying these parameters has been analyzed. Most of the extensions to the original theory have only had a modest effect on the overall results. However we find that the current passivation technique may not be sufficient to allow cooling. The passivation technique currently used appears

  19. Chaotic bursting in semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel, Stefan; Yanchuk, Serhiy

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the dynamic mechanisms for low frequency fluctuations in semiconductor lasers subjected to delayed optical feedback, using the Lang-Kobayashi model. This system of delay differential equations displays pronounced envelope dynamics, ranging from erratic, so called low frequency fluctuations to regular pulse packages, if the time scales of fast oscillations and envelope dynamics are well separated. We investigate the parameter regions where low frequency fluctuations occur and compute their Lyapunov spectra. Using the geometric singular perturbation theory, we study this intermittent chaotic behavior and characterize these solutions as bursting slow-fast oscillations.

  20. Processing of insulators and semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Nathaniel R.; Joshi, Pooran C.; Duty, Chad Edward; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Angelini, Joseph Attilio

    2015-06-16

    A method is disclosed for processing an insulator material or a semiconductor material. The method includes pulsing a plasma lamp onto the material to diffuse a doping substance into the material, to activate the doping substance in the material or to metallize a large area region of the material. The method may further include pulsing a laser onto a selected region of the material to diffuse a doping substance into the material, to activate the doping substance in the material or to metallize a selected region of the material.

  1. Electron beam writing on semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierhenke, H.; Kutzer, E.; Pascher, A.; Plitzner, H.; Rummel, P.; Siemens A.G., Muenchen; Siemens A.G., Muenchen

    1979-08-01

    Reported are the results of the 3 1/2 year research project 'Electron beam Writing on Semiconductors'. Work has been done in the field of direct wafer exposure techniques, and of mask making. Described are resist technology, setting up of a research device, exploration of alignment procedures, manufacturing of devices and their radiation influence. Furthermore, investigations and measurements of an electron beam machine bought for mask making purposes, the development of LSI-circuits with this machine, the software necessary and important developments of digital subsystems are reported. (orig.) [de

  2. Trace analysis of semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cali, J Paul; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Trace Analysis of Semiconductor Materials is a guidebook concerned with procedures of ultra-trace analysis. This book discusses six distinct techniques of trace analysis. These techniques are the most common and can be applied to various problems compared to other methods. Each of the four chapters basically includes an introduction to the principles and general statements. The theoretical basis for the technique involved is then briefly discussed. Practical applications of the techniques and the different instrumentations are explained. Then, the applications to trace analysis as pertaining

  3. Application of positron annihilation techniques for semiconductor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwasz, G.P.; Zecca, A.; Brusa, R.S.; Pliszka, D.

    2004-01-01

    Positron annihilation techniques, being non-destructive, allowing depth profiling down to a few micrometers and detecting open-volume defects (vacancies, dislocations etc.) at single ppm concentrations constitute a valuable and complementary method, compared to other solid-state-physics studies. We give examples of investigation in the field of semiconductors with different techniques, both with and without use of positron low-energy beams. The Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation line method and the slow positron beam were used to study helium-implanted silicon and the surface reduction processes in semiconducting glasses. The positron lifetime technique and coincidence spectra of the Doppler broadening were used for systematic studies of metals and semiconductors. Doppler-coincidence method was then used to identify the kinetics of oxygen precipitates in Czochralski-grown silicon

  4. COHERENT LIDAR SYSTEM BASED ON A SEMICONDUCTOR LASER AND AMPLIFIER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost coherent LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system for remote wind-speed determination, determination of particle concentration, and/or temperature based on an all semiconductor light source and related methods. The present...... invention provides a coherent LIDAR system comprising a semiconductor laser for emission of a measurement beam of electromagnetic radiation directed towards a measurement volume for illumination of particles in the measurement volume, a reference beam generator for generation of a reference beam, a detector...... for generation of a detector signal by mixing of the reference beam with light emitted from the particles in the measurement volume illuminated by the measurement beam, and a signal processor for generating a velocity signal corresponding to the velocity of the particles based on the detector signal....

  5. Energy relaxation and heating of magnons in ferromagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenblit, I.Ya.; Tankhilevich, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The warming-up of electrons and magnons by a high electrical field in ferromagnetic semiconductors with wide conduction bands has been considered. The warming-up of magnons determines the dependence of the magnetic characteristics of the semiconductor (for example, its magnetization) on the electric field and leads to some interesting peculiarities in the current-voltage characteristic (CVC). In some cases, owing to a rapid decrease of electrical conductivity with the increasing temperature of magnons, the CVC may contain a descending part. Since the energy relaxation of magnons occurs very slowly, the time during which the stationary state sets in, although varying widely as a function of the lattice temperature T and the electron gas concentration n, may reach values of the order of milliseconds

  6. Electronic structure of point defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneval, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    trace concentration (of the order of one part per million). However, owing to the heavy burden of the quantum-mechanical electronic structure calculations, which grow very rapidly with the number of electrons, the present day simulations do not easily exceed a few hundred atoms nowadays. This induces effective defect concentrations of the order of one percent which are very far from the diluted defects observed in the experiments. The extrapolation of high concentrations to low concentrations is difficult because defects in semiconductors often bear a net electric charge which induces long-range interactions between the spuriously interacting charged defects. The first part of my work presents the techniques available in this area, improvements in the techniques and some understanding of these spurious interactions. The second topic addressed in this memoir focuses on improving the electronic structure of defects in semiconductors and insulators. Defects in these materials introduce discrete electronic levels within the band gap of the pristine bulk material. These electronic levels correspond to the electrons involved in the defect states. Their wave function is more or less localized around the defect region and the filling of the state may also vary with the thermodynamic conditions (Fermi level). These levels inside the band gap govern the modification of the properties of electronic and optical transport. Unfortunately the standard ab initio approaches, in the context of Density Functional Theory (DFT), are unable to get the correct band gaps of semiconductors and insulators. This is why many defect properties cannot be predicted with certainty within these approaches. This second part demonstrates how the introduction of the many-body perturbation theory in the so-called GW approximation solves the problem of band gaps and thus allows one to obtain more reliable defect properties. Of course, the field of ab initio electronic structure for defects is far from being

  7. Automated capacitive spectrometer for measuring the parameters of deep centers in semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shajmeev, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    An automated capacitive spectrometer for determining deep centers parameters in semiconductor materials and instruments is described. The facility can be used in studying electrically active defects (impurity, radiation, thermal) having deep levels in the forbidden semiconductor zone. The facility permits to determine the following parameters of the deep centers: concentration of each deep level taken separately within 5x10 -1 +-5x10 -15 of the alloying impurity concentration, level energy position in the forbidden semiconductor zone in the range from 0.08 MeV above the valency zone ceiling to 0.08 eV below the conductivity zone bottom, hole or electron capture cross-section on the deep center; concentration profile of deep levels

  8. Suitability of integrated protection diodes from diverse semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wanum, Maurice; Lebouille, Tom; Visser, Guido; van Vliet, Frank Edward

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this article diodes from three different semiconductor technologies are compared based on their suitability to protect a receiver. The semiconductor materials involved are silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. The diodes in the diverse semiconductor technologies themselves are

  9. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    -orbit coupling. They have also led to the demonstration of a wide range of novel phenomena including some, like tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance, which have subsequently been achieved in metal ferromagnetic systems. However despite considerable effort over many years the maximum Curie point achieved in (Ga,Mn)As is still less than 200 K. So unless some major new breakthrough is achieved these materials are unlikely to be of use for practical spin electronics technologies. In 2000, Dietl et al [1] published a seminal paper in which mean field theory was used to predict which of the common diamagnetic semiconductors would exhibit a Curie point above ambient if doped with 5 at.% Mn and a hole concentration of 3.5 × 1020 cm-3. Of the many host semiconductors simulated, only ZnO and GaN were predicted to exhibit a critical temperature in excess of 300 K. Since 2000, high-Tc DMS research has proliferated in both experimental and theoretical arenas. Many papers have been published containing claims of new DMS materials based largely on limited film growth, powder diffraction, and magnetometry. In these papers, a film which exhibits a hysteretic SQUID or VSM loop at 300 K and phase purity with only the host semiconductor detected by XRD are often claimed to be true ferromagnetic DMSs. Many of these papers are flawed because the criteria for a well-defined DMS are much more extensive. These include: (i) a random dopant distribution, (ii) a well-known and preferably unique charge state and preferentially a unique local structural environment for the dopant, (iii) a demonstrated coupling of the dopant spin to the host band structure, leading to spin polarization of the majority carriers, and (iv) a rational dependence of the saturation magnetization and Curie point on the magnetic dopant and carrier concentrations. Implicit in this list is that trivial causes of ferromagnetism, such as magnetic contamination and magnetic secondary phase formation, are eliminated. Yet, in many

  10. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  11. Semiconductor nanostructures for artificial photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong

    2012-02-01

    Nanowires, with their unique capability to bridge the nanoscopic and macroscopic worlds, have already been demonstrated as important materials for different energy conversion. One emerging and exciting direction is their application for solar to fuel conversion. The generation of fuels by the direct conversion of solar energy in a fully integrated system is an attractive goal, but no such system has been demonstrated that shows the required efficiency, is sufficiently durable, or can be manufactured at reasonable cost. One of the most critical issues in solar water splitting is the development of a suitable photoanode with high efficiency and long-term durability in an aqueous environment. Semiconductor nanowires represent an important class of nanostructure building block for direct solar-to-fuel application because of their high surface area, tunable bandgap and efficient charge transport and collection. Nanowires can be readily designed and synthesized to deterministically incorporate heterojunctions with improved light absorption, charge separation and vectorial transport. Meanwhile, it is also possible to selectively decorate different oxidation or reduction catalysts onto specific segments of the nanowires to mimic the compartmentalized reactions in natural photosynthesis. In this talk, I will highlight several recent examples in this lab using semiconductor nanowires and their heterostructures for the purpose of direct solar water splitting.

  12. Dopants and defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    McCluskey, Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    "The book goes beyond the usual textbook in that it provides more specific examples of real-world defect physics … The book will be most useful for beginning graduate students in materials science. … an easy reading, broad introductory overview of the field …"-Materials Today, July-August 2012"… well written, with clear, lucid explanations …"-Chemistry World"The scientific development towards the method of controllable doping transformed the erratic and not reproducible family of semiconductor materials into the truly wonderful basis of modern microelectronics. This book tells the remarkable success story and I recommend it!"-Hans J. Queisser, Max-Planck-Institute, Stuttgart, Germany"McCluskey and Haller have written an outstanding modern guide to this field that will be useful to newcomers, and also to active researchers who want to broaden their horizons, as a means to learn the capabilities and limitations of the many techniques that are used in semiconductor-defect science."-Professor Michael J....

  13. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector (CERN,LHCC,94-43 (1994)) is designed to study a wide range of physics at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at luminosities up to 10 34 cm -2 s -1 with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) forms a key component of the Inner Detector (vol. 1, ATLAS TDR 4, CERN,LHCC 97-16 (1997); vol. 2, ATLAS TDR 5, CERN,LHCC 97-17 (1997)) which is situated inside a 2 T solenoid field. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) utilises 4088 silicon modules with binary readout mounted on carbon fibre composite structures arranged in the forms of barrels in the central region and discs in the forward region. The construction of the SCT is now well advanced. The design of the SCT modules, services and support structures will be briefly outlined. A description of the various stages in the construction process will be presented with examples of the performance achieved and the main difficulties encountered. Finally, the current status of the construction is reviewed

  14. Charge transport in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bässler, Heinz; Köhler, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Modern optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors and organic solar cells require well controlled motion of charges for their efficient operation. The understanding of the processes that determine charge transport is therefore of paramount importance for designing materials with improved structure-property relationships. Before discussing different regimes of charge transport in organic semiconductors, we present a brief introduction into the conceptual framework in which we interpret the relevant photophysical processes. That is, we compare a molecular picture of electronic excitations against the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger semiconductor band model. After a brief description of experimental techniques needed to measure charge mobilities, we then elaborate on the parameters controlling charge transport in technologically relevant materials. Thus, we consider the influences of electronic coupling between molecular units, disorder, polaronic effects and space charge. A particular focus is given to the recent progress made in understanding charge transport on short time scales and short length scales. The mechanism for charge injection is briefly addressed towards the end of this chapter.

  15. Modeling of semiconductor nanostructures and semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of Part I is to give an overview of some of the methods that have been implemented into the nextnano 3 software. Examples are discussed that give insight into doping, strain and mobility. Applications of the single-band Schroedinger equation include three-dimensional superlattices, and a qubit that is manipulated by a magnetic field. Results of the multi-band k.p method are presented for HgTe-CdTe and InAs-GaSb superlattices, and for a SiGe-Si quantum cascade structure. Particular focus is put on a detailed description of the contact block reduction (CBR) method that has been developed within our research group. By means of this approach, quantum transport in the ballistic limit in one, two and three dimensions can be calculated. I provide a very detailed description of the algorithm and present several well documented examples that highlight the key points of this method. Calculating quantum transport in three dimensions is a very challenging task where computationally efficient algorithms - apart from the CBR method - are not available yet. Part II describes the methods that I have implemented into the nextnano 3 software for calculating systems that consist of a combination of semiconductor materials and liquids. These biosensors have a solid-electrolyte interface, and the charges in the solid and in the electrolyte are coupled to each other through the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. I apply this model to a silicon based protein sensor, where I solve the Schroedinger equation together with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation self-consistently, and compare theoretical results with experiment. Furthermore, I have developed a novel approach to model the charge density profiles at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces that allows us to distinguish hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces. Our approach extends previous work where ion specific potentials of mean force describe the distribution of ion species at the interface. I apply this new model to recently

  16. Modeling of semiconductor nanostructures and semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birner, Stefan

    2011-11-15

    The main objective of Part I is to give an overview of some of the methods that have been implemented into the nextnano{sup 3} software. Examples are discussed that give insight into doping, strain and mobility. Applications of the single-band Schroedinger equation include three-dimensional superlattices, and a qubit that is manipulated by a magnetic field. Results of the multi-band k.p method are presented for HgTe-CdTe and InAs-GaSb superlattices, and for a SiGe-Si quantum cascade structure. Particular focus is put on a detailed description of the contact block reduction (CBR) method that has been developed within our research group. By means of this approach, quantum transport in the ballistic limit in one, two and three dimensions can be calculated. I provide a very detailed description of the algorithm and present several well documented examples that highlight the key points of this method. Calculating quantum transport in three dimensions is a very challenging task where computationally efficient algorithms - apart from the CBR method - are not available yet. Part II describes the methods that I have implemented into the nextnano{sup 3} software for calculating systems that consist of a combination of semiconductor materials and liquids. These biosensors have a solid-electrolyte interface, and the charges in the solid and in the electrolyte are coupled to each other through the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. I apply this model to a silicon based protein sensor, where I solve the Schroedinger equation together with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation self-consistently, and compare theoretical results with experiment. Furthermore, I have developed a novel approach to model the charge density profiles at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces that allows us to distinguish hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces. Our approach extends previous work where ion specific potentials of mean force describe the distribution of ion species at the interface. I apply this new model

  17. FY1995 development of novel processes for copper concentrates without producing sulfuric acid; 1995 nendo hiryusan hasseigata no atarashii doshigen shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To develop a novel process for copper concentrates which includes leaching of copper with acidic cupric chloride solutions, aiming at the recovery of sulfur in its elemental form, and leaching of gold from the residue with dissolved bromine. The effect of bromide ions on the leaching of chalcopyrite with 1.0 mol dm{sup -3} CuCl{sub 2} has been investigated at 353 K, and it was found that bromide ions have no influence on the leaching rate and the morphology of elemental sulfur deposited on the surface of chalcopyrite. Dissolved bromine has trivial effects on the morphology and oxidation of porous elemental sulfur covering the residue. However, the dissolved bromine even at 0.02 mol dm-3 depresses the leaching rate of chalcopyrite significantly. Electrotechnical oxidation of cuprous ions, chloride ions and bromide ions in the solution has examined to understand the regeneration of leachant, and it was found that these ions are oxidized simultaneously on the anode surface under the condition of galvanostatic electrolysis, but these oxidants diffuse toward the bulk of solution and react with their reductants. Thus the redox potential of the solution increases gradually showing the temporary stagnation in potential for oxidation of Cu{sup +}, Br{sup -} and Cl{sup -} ions respectively. (NEDO)

  18. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  19. Terahertz plasmonics with semiconductor surfaces and antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Rivas, J.; Berrier, A.

    2009-01-01

    Semiconductors have a Drude-like behavior at terahertz (THz) frequencies similar to metals at optical frequencies. Narrow band gap semiconductors have a dielectric constant with a negative real component and a relatively small imaginary component. This permittivity is characteristic of noble metals

  20. neutron-Induced Failures in semiconductor Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-13

    Single Event Effects are a very significant failure mode in modern semiconductor devices that may limit their reliability. Accelerated testing is important for semiconductor industry. Considerable more work is needed in this field to mitigate the problem. Mitigation of this problem will probably come from Physicists and Electrical Engineers working together

  1. Semiconductor composition containing iron, dysprosium, and terbium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Malasi, Abhinav; Taz, Humaira; Farah, Annettee E.; Kalyanaraman, Ramakrishnan; Duscher, Gerd Josef Mansfred; Patel, Maulik K.

    2017-09-26

    An amorphous semiconductor composition includes 1 to 70 atomic percent iron, 15 to 65 atomic percent dysprosium, 15 to 35 atomic percent terbium, balance X, wherein X is at least one of an oxidizing element and a reducing element. The composition has an essentially amorphous microstructure, an optical transmittance of at least 50% in at least the visible spectrum and semiconductor electrical properties.

  2. Epitaxy of semiconductor-superconductor nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogstrup, P.; Ziino, N.L.B.; Chang, W.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the properties of semiconductor/metal interfaces is a powerful method for designing functionality and improving the performance of electrical devices. Recently semiconductor/superconductor hybrids have appeared as an important example where the atomic scale uniformity of the interface...

  3. Power semiconductor device adaptive cooling assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a power semiconductor device (100) cooling assembly for cooling a power semiconductor device (100), wherein the assembly comprises an actively cooled heat sink (102) and a controller (208; 300), wherein the controller (208; 300) is adapted for adjusting the cooling

  4. Two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2018-01-01

    The hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM) has been successful in describing the optical properties of metallic nanostructures, but for semiconductors where several different kinds of charge carriers are present an extended theory is required. We present a two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors...

  5. Miniature semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Takacs, G.; Cornelius, I. M.; Yudelev, M.; Zaider, M.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon mini-semiconductor detectors are found in wide applications for in vivo personal dosimetry and dosimetry and Micro-dosimetry of different radiation oncology modalities. These applications are based on integral and spectroscopy modes of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor and silicon p-n junction detectors. The advantages and limitations of each are discussed. (authors)

  6. Dispersion-induced nonlinearities in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Mecozzi, A.

    2002-01-01

    A dispersive and saturable medium is shown, under very general conditions, to possess ultrafast dynamic behaviour due to non-adiabatic polarisation dynamics. Simple analytical expressions relating the effect to the refractive index dispersion of a semiconductor ire derived and the magnitude...... of the equivalent Kerr coefficient is shown to be in qualitative agreement with measurements on active semiconductor waveguides....

  7. Electronic structure of filled tetrahedral semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, D.M.; Zunger, Alex; Groot, R. de

    1985-01-01

    We discuss the susceptibility of zinc-blende semiconductors to band-structure modification by insertion of small atoms at their tetrahedral interstitial states. GaP is found to become a direct-gap semiconductor with two He atoms present at its interstitial sites; Si does not. Analysis of the factors

  8. Apparatus for testing semiconductor devices and capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for testing semiconductor devices. The apparatus tests the impedance of the semiconductor devices in both conducting and non-conducting states to detect semiconductors whose impedance in the conducting state is too high or whose impedance in the non-conducting state is too low. The apparatus uses a battery source for low voltage d.c. The circuitry for detecting when the impedance is too high in the conducting state includes a lamp in series with the battery source and the semiconductor device, whereby the impedance of the semiconductor device determines whether sufficient current will flow through the lamp to cause the lamp to illuminate. A d.c. to d.c. converter is provided to boost the voltage from the battery source to a relatively high voltage d.c. The relatively high voltage d.c. can be connected by a switch to circuitry for detecting when the impedance of the semiconductor device in the non-conducting state is too low. The circuitry for detecting when the impedance of the semiconductor device is too low includes a resistor which senses the current flowing in the device and converts the current into a voltage proportional to the leakage current. This voltage is then compared against a fixed reference. Further circuitry is provided for providing a visual indication when the voltage representative of leakage in relation to the reference signal indicates that there is excessive current flow through the semiconductor device

  9. Modelling the metal–semiconductor band structure in implanted ohmic contacts to GaN and SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Tomás, A; Fontserè, A; Placidi, M; Jennings, M R; Gammon, P M

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a method to model the metal–semiconductor (M–S) band structure to an implanted ohmic contact to a wide band gap semiconductor (WBG) such as GaN and SiC. The performance and understanding of the M–S contact to a WBG semiconductor is of great importance as it influences the overall performance of a semiconductor device. In this work we explore in a numerical fashion the ohmic contact properties to a WBG semiconductor taking into account the partial ionization of impurities and analysing its dependence on the temperature, the barrier height, the impurity level band energy and carrier concentration. The effect of the M–S Schottky barrier lowering and the Schottky barrier inhomogeneities are discussed. The model is applied to a fabricated ohmic contact to GaN where the M–S band structure can be completely determined. (paper)

  10. Manipulating semiconductor colloidal stability through doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2014-10-10

    The interface between a doped semiconductor material and electrolyte solution is of considerable fundamental interest, and is relevant to systems of practical importance. Both adjacent domains contain mobile charges, which respond to potential variations. This is exploited to design electronic and optoelectronic sensors, and other enabling semiconductor colloidal materials. We show that the charge mobility in both phases leads to a new type of interaction between semiconductor colloids suspended in aqueous electrolyte solutions. This interaction is due to the electrostatic response of the semiconductor interior to disturbances in the external field upon the approach of two particles. The electrostatic repulsion between two charged colloids is reduced from the one governed by the charged groups present at the particles surfaces. This type of interaction is unique to semiconductor particles and may have a substantial effect on the suspension dynamics and stability.

  11. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Junhao

    2010-01-01

    Narrow gap semiconductors obey the general rules of semiconductor science, but often exhibit extreme features of these rules because of the same properties that produce their narrow gaps. Consequently these materials provide sensitive tests of theory, and the opportunity for the design of innovative devices. Narrow gap semiconductors are the most important materials for the preparation of advanced modern infrared systems. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors offers descriptions of the materials science and device physics of these unique materials. Topics covered include impurities and defects, recombination mechanisms, surface and interface properties, and the properties of low dimensional systems for infrared applications. This book will help readers to understand not only the semiconductor physics and materials science, but also how they relate to advanced opto-electronic devices. The last chapter applies the understanding of device physics to photoconductive detectors, photovoltaic infrared detector...

  12. Semiconductor Lasers Stability, Instability and Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2013-01-01

    This third edition of “Semiconductor Lasers, Stability, Instability and Chaos” was significantly extended.  In the previous edition, the dynamics and characteristics of chaos in semiconductor lasers after the introduction of the fundamental theory of laser chaos and chaotic dynamics induced by self-optical feedback and optical injection was discussed. Semiconductor lasers with new device structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are interesting devices from the viewpoint of chaotic dynamics since they essentially involve chaotic dynamics even in their free-running oscillations. These topics are also treated with respect to the new developments in the current edition. Also the control of such instabilities and chaos control are critical issues for applications. Another interesting and important issue of semiconductor laser chaos in this third edition is chaos synchronization between two lasers and the application to optical secure communication. One o...

  13. Molecular semiconductors photoelectrical properties and solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Ch

    1985-01-01

    During the past thirty years considerable efforts have been made to design the synthesis and the study of molecular semiconductors. Molecular semiconductors - and more generally molecular materials - involve interactions between individual subunits which can be separately synthesized. Organic and metallo-organic derivatives are the basis of most of the molecular materials. A survey of the literature on molecular semiconductors leaves one rather confused. It does seem to be very difficult to correlate the molecular structure of these semiconductors with their experimental electrical properties. For inorganic materials a simple definition delimits a fairly homogeneous family. If an inorganic material has a conductivity intermediate between that of an 12 1 1 3 1 1 insulator « 10- n- cm- ) and that of a metal (> 10 n- cm- ), then it is a semiconductor and will exhibit the characteristic properties of this family, such as junction formation, photoconductivity, and the photovoltaic effect. For molecular compounds,...

  14. Centro-Apical Self-Organization of Organic Semiconductors in a Line-Printed Organic Semiconductor: Polymer Blend for One-Step Printing Fabrication of Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Yong-Jae; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Eunji; Lim, Ho Sun; Kim, Min; Song, Yong-Won; Cho, Jinhan; Lim, Jung Ah

    2015-09-11

    Here we report the first demonstration for centro-apical self-organization of organic semiconductors in a line-printed organic semiconductor: polymer blend. Key feature of this work is that organic semiconductor molecules were vertically segregated on top of the polymer phase and simultaneously crystallized at the center of the printed line pattern after solvent evaporation without an additive process. The thickness and width of the centro-apically segregated organic semiconductor crystalline stripe in the printed blend pattern were controlled by varying the relative content of the organic semiconductors, printing speed, and solution concentrations. The centro-apical self-organization of organic semiconductor molecules in a printed polymer blend may be attributed to the combination of an energetically favorable vertical phase-separation and hydrodynamic fluids inside the droplet during solvent evaporation. Finally, a centro-apically phase-separated bilayer structure of organic semiconductor: polymer blend was successfully demonstrated as a facile method to form the semiconductor and dielectric layer for OFETs in one- step.

  15. InSb semiconductors and (In,Mn)Sb diluted magnetic semiconductors. Growth and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Lien

    2011-04-13

    This dissertation describes investigations of the growth by molecular beam epitaxy and the characterization of the semiconductor InSb as well as the diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Sb. The InSb films were grown on GaAs (001) substrate and Si (001) offcut by 4 toward (110) substrate up to a thickness of about 2 {mu}m, in spite of a large lattice mismatch between the epi-layer and substrate (14.6% between InSb and GaAs, and 19.3% between InSb and Si). After optimizing the growth conditions, the best InSb films grown directly on GaAs without any special technique results in a high crystal quality, low noise, and an electron mobility of 41100 cm{sup 2}/V s Vs with associated electron concentration of 2.9.10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} at 300 K. Such structures could be used, for example, for infrared detector structures. The growth of InSb on Si, however, is a challenge. In order to successfully grow InSb on Si, tilted substrates and the insertion of buffer layers were used, which helps to reduce the lattice mismatch as well as the formation of defects, and hence to improve the crystal quality. An electron mobility of 24000 cm{sup 2}/V s measured at 300 K, with an associated carrier concentration of 2.6.10{sup 1}6 cm{sup -3} is found for the best sample that was grown at 340 C with a 0.06 {mu}m-thick GaSb/AlSb superlattice buffer layer. The smaller value of electron mobility (compared to the best GaAsbased sample) is related to a higher density of microtwins and stacking faults as well as threading dislocations in the near-interface region as shown by transmission electron microscopy. Deep level noise spectra indicate the existence of deep levels in both GaAs and Si-based samples. The samples grown on Si exhibit the lowest Hooge factor at 300 K, lower than the samples grown on GaAs. Taking the optimized growth conditions of InSb/GaAs, the diluted magnetic semiconductor In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Sb/GaAs (001) is prepared by adding a few percent of Mn into the

  16. Electrochemical dissolution of fresh and passivated chalcopyrite electrodes. Effect of pyrite on the reduction of Fe3+ ions and transport processes within the passive film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera, O.G.; Quiroz, L.; Dixon, D.G.; Asselin, E.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • FeS 2 increased the dissolution rate of fresh and passivated CuFeS 2 electrodes. • Fe 3+ reduction was the rate controlling step in the dissolution of fresh CuFeS 2 . • Diffusion within the passive film controlled the dissolution rate of passivated CuFeS 2 . - Abstract: The effect of pyrite (FeS 2 ) on the electrochemical dissolution of fresh and passivated chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2 ) electrodes has been studied. Current density values for the dissolution of CuFeS 2 were calculated from EIS measurements. FeS 2 increased the dissolution rate of fresh and passivated CuFeS 2 electrodes indicating that the galvanic effect continued even after the electrode was chemically passivated. The dissolution rate of CuFeS 2 decreased by a factor of 3 after the passivation treatment. Due to the low diffusion rates of ions within the CuFeS 2 passive film and due to an increase in the resistance to the transfer of electrons at the electrode/film interface, the activity of FeS 2 for the reduction of Fe 3+ ions was also reduced by a factor of 2.3 even though FeS 2 was not exposed to any chemical treatment. The results in this work indicate that the dissolution rate of the fresh CuFeS 2 electrode was controlled by the reduction of Fe 3+ ions whereas for the passivated CuFeS 2 electrode the dissolution rate was controlled by diffusion within the passive film

  17. Structural, elastic, electronic, bonding, and optical properties of BeAZ{sub 2} (A = Si, Ge, Sn; Z = P, As) chalcopyrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahad, Shah [Department of Physics, Hazara University Mansehra, KPK, Mansehra (Pakistan); Murtaza, G., E-mail: murtaza@icp.edu.pk [Materials Modeling Laboratory, Department of Physics, Islamia College University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Ouahrani, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, B.P. 230, Université de Tlemcen, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Ecole Préparatoire en Sciences et Techniques, BP 165 R.P., 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Khenata, R., E-mail: khenata_rabah@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Yousaf, Masood [Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials, Institute for Basic Science, Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Omran, S.Bin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Mohammad, Saleh [Department of Physics, Hazara University Mansehra, KPK, Mansehra (Pakistan)

    2015-10-15

    A first principles density functional theory (DFT) technique is used to study the structural, chemical bonding, electronic and optical properties of BeAZ{sub 2} (A = Si, Ge, Sn; Z = P, As) chalcopyrite materials. The calculated parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental results. The lattice constants and the equilibrium volume increased as we moved from Si to Ge to Sn, whereas the c/a and internal parameters u decreased by shifting the cation from P to As. These compounds are elastically stable. An investigation of the band gap using the WC-GGA, EV-GGA, PBE-GGA and mBJ-metaGGA potentials suggested that BeSiP{sub 2} and BeSiAs{sub 2} are direct band gap compounds, whereas BeGeP{sub 2,} BeGeAs{sub 2,} BeSnP{sub 2,} BeSnAs{sub 2} are indirect band gap compounds. The energy band gaps decreased by changing B from Si to Sn and increased by changing the anion C from P to As. The bonding among the cations and anions is primarily ionic. In the optical properties, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric functions, reflectivity and optical conductivity have been studied over a wide energy range. - Highlights: • The compounds are studied by FP-LAPW method within mBJ approximation. • All of the studied materials show isotropic behaviour. • All the compounds show direct band gap nature. • Bonding nature is mostly covalent among the studied compounds. • High absorption peaks and reflectivity ensures there utility in optoelectronic devices.

  18. Elementary steps in electrical doping of organic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz

    2018-03-15

    Fermi level control by doping is established since decades in inorganic semiconductors and has been successfully introduced in organic semiconductors. Despite its commercial success in the multi-billion OLED display business, molecular doping is little understood, with its elementary steps controversially discussed and mostly-empirical-materials design. Particularly puzzling is the efficient carrier release, despite a presumably large Coulomb barrier. Here we quantitatively investigate doping as a two-step process, involving single-electron transfer from donor to acceptor molecules and subsequent dissociation of the ground-state integer-charge transfer complex (ICTC). We show that carrier release by ICTC dissociation has an activation energy of only a few tens of meV, despite a Coulomb binding of several 100 meV. We resolve this discrepancy by taking energetic disorder into account. The overall doping process is explained by an extended semiconductor model in which occupation of ICTCs causes the classically known reserve regime at device-relevant doping concentrations.

  19. Mercuric iodide semiconductor detectors encapsulated in polymeric resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao F. Trencher; Santos, Robinson A. dos; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Oliveira, Adriano S.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M., E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disch, Christian; Fiederle, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg - UniFreibrug, Freiburg Materials Research Center - FMF, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The development of new semiconductor radiation detectors always finds many setback factors, such as: high concentration of impurities in the start materials, poor long term stability, the surface oxidation and other difficulties discussed extensively in the literature, that limit their use. In this work was studied, the application of a coating resin on HgI2 detectors, in order to protect the semiconductor crystal reactions from atmospheric gases and to isolate electrically the surface of the crystals. Four polymeric resins were analyzed: Resin 1: 50% - 100%Heptane, 10% - 25% methylcyclohexane, <1% cyclohexane; Resin 2: 25% - 50% ethanol, 25% - 50% acetone, <2,5% ethylacetate; Resin 3: 50% - 100% methylacetate, 5% - 10% n-butylacetate; Resin 4: 50% - 100% ethyl-2-cyanacrylat. The influence of the polymeric resin type used on the spectroscopic performance of the HgI{sub 2} semiconductor detector is, clearly, demonstrated. The better result was found for the detector encapsulated with Resin 3. An increase of up to 26 times at the stability time was observed for the detectors encapsulated compared to that non-encapsulated detector. (author)

  20. Surface planarization effect of siloxane derivatives in organic semiconductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanoue, Kei [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Harada, Hironobu; Ando, Kento [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yahiro, Masayuki [Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies, 2-1-22, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0001 (Japan); Fukai, Jun, E-mail: jfukai@chem-eng.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    The ability of siloxane surface control additives (SCAs) to planarize organic semiconductor films with a thickness of tens of nanometers printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with stripe-patterned bank structures using a liquid-phase method is demonstrated. Three types of SCAs with different molecular structures are examined in organic solutions of toluene, anisole and tetralin containing N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as a solute and typical organic semiconductor. While there is an optimum SCA and concentration for each solution, one type of SCA is comprehensively effective for all solutions. This SCA increased contact angle, which is contrary to the typical behavior of SCAs. Scanning electron microscope images of the thin films near the banks reveal that this SCA did not change the contact area between the film and substrate surface, which is related to the effectiveness of the SCA. SCAs did not affect the current–voltage characteristics of green organic light-emitting diodes, but did increase external quantum efficiencies, suggesting that SCAs can be used to improve the quality of solution-deposited films for use in optical devices. - Highlights: • Surface control additives planarize organic semiconductor films coated on surfaces. • The most effective additive increases the contact angle of solutions during drying. • The effect of additives is deduced from solutal Marangoni forces. • Additives have little effect on organic light-emitting diode performance.

  1. Surface planarization effect of siloxane derivatives in organic semiconductor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Kei; Harada, Hironobu; Ando, Kento; Yahiro, Masayuki; Fukai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The ability of siloxane surface control additives (SCAs) to planarize organic semiconductor films with a thickness of tens of nanometers printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with stripe-patterned bank structures using a liquid-phase method is demonstrated. Three types of SCAs with different molecular structures are examined in organic solutions of toluene, anisole and tetralin containing N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as a solute and typical organic semiconductor. While there is an optimum SCA and concentration for each solution, one type of SCA is comprehensively effective for all solutions. This SCA increased contact angle, which is contrary to the typical behavior of SCAs. Scanning electron microscope images of the thin films near the banks reveal that this SCA did not change the contact area between the film and substrate surface, which is related to the effectiveness of the SCA. SCAs did not affect the current–voltage characteristics of green organic light-emitting diodes, but did increase external quantum efficiencies, suggesting that SCAs can be used to improve the quality of solution-deposited films for use in optical devices. - Highlights: • Surface control additives planarize organic semiconductor films coated on surfaces. • The most effective additive increases the contact angle of solutions during drying. • The effect of additives is deduced from solutal Marangoni forces. • Additives have little effect on organic light-emitting diode performance.

  2. Photoelectrochemical processes in organic semiconductor: Ambipolar perylene diimide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Yong; Chung, In Jae

    2018-03-01

    A thin film of N,N‧-dioctadecyl-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C18) is spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Using the PTCDI-C18/ITO electrode, we fabricate a photoelectrochemical cell with the ITO/PTCDI-C18/Redox Electrolyte/Pt configuration. The electrochemical properties of this device are investigated as a function of hydroquinone (HQ) concentration, bias voltage, and wavelength of light. Anodic photocurrent is observed at V ≥ -0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl, indicating that the PTCDI-C18 film acts as an n-type semiconductor as usual. However, when benzoquinone (BQ) is inserted into the electrolyte system instead of HQ, cathodic photocurrent is observed at V ≤ 0.0 V, displaying that PTCDI-C18 abnormally serves as a p-type semiconductor. Hence the overall results reveal that the PTCDI-C18 film can be an ambipolar functional semiconductor depending on the redox couple in the appropriate voltage.

  3. TSOM method for semiconductor metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attota, Ravikiran; Dixson, Ronald G.; Kramar, John A.; Potzick, James E.; Vladár, András E.; Bunday, Benjamin; Novak, Erik; Rudack, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) is a new metrology method that achieves 3D nanoscale measurement sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes; measurement sensitivities are comparable to what is typical when using scatterometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TSOM can be used in both reflection and transmission modes and is applicable to a variety of target materials and shapes. Nanometrology applications that have been demonstrated by experiments or simulations include defect analysis, inspection and process control; critical dimension, photomask, overlay, nanoparticle, thin film, and 3D interconnect metrologies; line-edge roughness measurements; and nanoscale movements of parts in MEMS/NEMS. Industries that could benefit include semiconductor, data storage, photonics, biotechnology, and nanomanufacturing. TSOM is relatively simple and inexpensive, has a high throughput, and provides nanoscale sensitivity for 3D measurements with potentially significant savings and yield improvements in manufacturing.

  4. Semirelativity in semiconductors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Wlodek

    2017-09-20

    An analogy between behavior of electrons in narrow-gap semiconductors (NGS) and relativistic electrons in vacuum is reviewed. Energy band structures [Formula: see text] are considered for various NGS materials and their correspondence to the energy-momentum relation in special relativity is emphasized. It is indicated that special relativity for vacuum is analogous to a two-band [Formula: see text] description for NGS. The maximum electron velocity in NGS is [Formula: see text], which corresponds to the light velocity in vacuum. An effective mass of charge carriers in semiconductors is introduced, relating their velocity to quasimomentum and it is shown that this mass depends on electron energy (or velocity) in a way similar to the mass of free relativistic electrons. In [Formula: see text] alloys one can reach vanishing energy gap at which electrons and light holes become three-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. A wavelength [Formula: see text] is defined for NGS, in analogy to the Compton wavelength in relativistic quantum mechanics. It is estimated that [Formula: see text] is on the order of tens of Angstroms in typical semiconducting materials which is experimentally confirmed in tunneling experiments on energy dispersion in the forbidden gap. Statistical properties of the electron gas in NGS are calculated and their similarity is demonstrated to those of the Juttner gas of relativistic particles. Interband electron tunneling in NGS is described and shown to be in close analogy to the predicted but unobserved tunneling between negative and positive energies resulting from the Dirac equation for free electrons. It is demonstrated that the relativistic analogy holds for orbital and spin properties of electrons in the presence of an external magnetic field. In particular, it is shown that the spin magnetic moment of both NGS electrons and relativistic electrons approaches zero with increasing energy. This conclusion is confirmed experimentally for NGS. Electrons

  5. Reconfigurable engineered motile semiconductor microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiri, Ugonna; Shields, C Wyatt; Han, Koohee; Tyler, Talmage; Velev, Orlin D; Jokerst, Nan

    2018-05-03

    Locally energized particles form the basis for emerging classes of active matter. The design of active particles has led to their controlled locomotion and assembly. The next generation of particles should demonstrate robust control over their active assembly, disassembly, and reconfiguration. Here we introduce a class of semiconductor microparticles that can be comprehensively designed (in size, shape, electric polarizability, and patterned coatings) using standard microfabrication tools. These custom silicon particles draw energy from external electric fields to actively propel, while interacting hydrodynamically, and sequentially assemble and disassemble on demand. We show that a number of electrokinetic effects, such as dielectrophoresis, induced charge electrophoresis, and diode propulsion, can selectively power the microparticle motions and interactions. The ability to achieve on-demand locomotion, tractable fluid flows, synchronized motility, and reversible assembly using engineered silicon microparticles may enable advanced applications that include remotely powered microsensors, artificial muscles, reconfigurable neural networks and computational systems.

  6. High throughput semiconductor deposition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David L.; Ptak, Aaron Joseph; Kuech, Thomas F.; Schulte, Kevin; Simon, John D.

    2017-11-21

    A reactor for growing or depositing semiconductor films or devices. The reactor may be designed for inline production of III-V materials grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The operating principles of the HVPE reactor can be used to provide a completely or partially inline reactor for many different materials. An exemplary design of the reactor is shown in the attached drawings. In some instances, all or many of the pieces of the reactor formed of quartz, such as welded quartz tubing, while other reactors are made from metal with appropriate corrosion resistant coatings such as quartz or other materials, e.g., corrosion resistant material, or stainless steel tubing or pipes may be used with a corrosion resistant material useful with HVPE-type reactants and gases. Using HVPE in the reactor allows use of lower-cost precursors at higher deposition rates such as in the range of 1 to 5 .mu.m/minute.

  7. Volatile organometallic and semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on a project concerned with the metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of mercury-cadmium telluride (MCT) undertaken by a research consortium based in the Clayton area involving Monash University Chemistry Department, Telecom Research Laboratories, and CSIRO Division of Material Sciences and Technology. An M.R. Semicon 226 MOCVD reactor, operating near atmospheric presure with hydrogen carrier gas has been used. Most applications of MCT are direct consequence of its responsiveness to radiation in infrared region spectrum. The main aims of the project were to prepare and assess a range of volatile organometallics that might find use as a dopant sources for MCT, to prepare and study the properties of a range of different lanthanide complexes for MOCVD applications and to fully characterize the semiconductor wafers after growth. 19 refs., 3 figs

  8. Theory of Defects in Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Drabold, David A

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor science and technology is the art of defect engineering. The theoretical modeling of defects has improved dramatically over the past decade. These tools are now applied to a wide range of materials issues: quantum dots, buckyballs, spintronics, interfaces, amorphous systems, and many others. This volume presents a coherent and detailed description of the field, and brings together leaders in theoretical research. Today's state-of-the-art, as well as tomorrow’s tools, are discussed: the supercell-pseudopotential method, the GW formalism,Quantum Monte Carlo, learn-on-the-fly molecular dynamics, finite-temperature treatments, etc. A wealth of applications are included, from point defects to wafer bonding or the propagation of dislocation.

  9. Semirelativity in semiconductors: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Wlodek

    2017-09-01

    An analogy between behavior of electrons in narrow-gap semiconductors (NGS) and relativistic electrons in vacuum is reviewed. Energy band structures \\varepsilon ≤ft(\\mathbf{k}\\right) are considered for various NGS materials and their correspondence to the energy-momentum relation in special relativity is emphasized. It is indicated that special relativity for vacuum is analogous to a two-band \\mathbf{k}\\centerdot \\mathbf{p} description for NGS. The maximum electron velocity in NGS is u≃ 1× {{10}8}~\\text{cm}~{{\\text{s}}-1} , which corresponds to the light velocity in vacuum. An effective mass of charge carriers in semiconductors is introduced, relating their velocity to quasimomentum and it is shown that this mass depends on electron energy (or velocity) in a way similar to the mass of free relativistic electrons. In \\text{H}{{\\text{g}}1-x}\\text{C}{{\\text{d}}x}\\text{Te} alloys one can reach vanishing energy gap at which electrons and light holes become three-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. A wavelength {λz} is defined for NGS, in analogy to the Compton wavelength in relativistic quantum mechanics. It is estimated that {λz} is on the order of tens of Angstroms in typical semiconducting materials which is experimentally confirmed in tunneling experiments on energy dispersion in the forbidden gap. Statistical properties of the electron gas in NGS are calculated and their similarity is demonstrated to those of the Juttner gas of relativistic particles. Interband electron tunneling in NGS is described and shown to be in close analogy to the predicted but unobserved tunneling between negative and positive energies resulting from the Dirac equation for free electrons. It is demonstrated that the relativistic analogy holds for orbital and spin properties of electrons in the presence of an external magnetic field. In particular, it is shown that the spin magnetic moment of both NGS electrons and relativistic electrons approaches zero with increasing

  10. Photodiodes based on fullerene semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Cheylan, S.; Fonrodona, M.; Stella, M.; Andreu, J.; Alcubilla, R.

    2007-01-01

    Fullerene thin films have been deposited by thermal evaporation on glass substrates at room temperature. A comprehensive optical characterization was performed, including low-level optical absorption measured by photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The optical absorption spectrum reveals a direct bandgap of 2.3 eV and absorption bands at 2.8 and 3.6 eV, which are related to the creation of charge-transfer excitons. Various photodiodes on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates were also fabricated, using different metallic contacts in order to compare their respective electrical characteristics. The influence of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) buffer layer between the indium-tin-oxide electrode and the fullerene semiconductor is also demonstrated. These results are discussed in terms of the workfunction for each electrode. Finally, the behaviour of the external quantum efficiency is analyzed for the whole wavelength spectrum

  11. Fundamentals of semiconductor processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    El-Kareh, Badih

    1995-01-01

    The drive toward new semiconductor technologies is intricately related to market demands for cheaper, smaller, faster, and more reliable circuits with lower power consumption. The development of new processing tools and technologies is aimed at optimizing one or more of these requirements. This goal can, however, only be achieved by a concerted effort between scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators in research, development, and manufac­ turing. It is therefore important that experts in specific disciplines, such as device and circuit design, understand the principle, capabil­ ities, and limitations of tools and processing technologies. It is also important that those working on specific unit processes, such as lithography or hot processes, be familiar with other unit processes used to manufacture the product. Several excellent books have been published on the subject of process technologies. These texts, however, cover subjects in too much detail, or do not cover topics important to modem tech­ n...

  12. Semiconductor Nanomaterials-Based Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI Mass Spectrometric Approaches to Proteome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Kailasa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs or nanoparticles (NPs exhibit very unusual physico-chemcial and optical properties. This review article introduces the applications of semiconductor nanomaterials (NMs in fluorescence spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS for biomolecule analysis. Due to their unique physico-chemical and optical properties, semiconductors NMs have created many new platforms for investigating biomolecular structures and information in modern biology. These semiconductor NMs served as effective fluorescent probes for sensing proteins and cells and acted as affinity or concentrating probes for enriching peptides, proteins and bacteria proteins prior to MALDI-MS analysis.

  13. The 2-6 semiconductor superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunshor, R. L.; Otsuka, N.

    1992-12-01

    The first operational semiconductor diode lasers were demonstrated in the summer of 1991 independently by two U.S. groups, one at 3M and the other a team effort shared by Purdue and Brown Universities. As a result of the close collaboration between MBE and TEM groups within the grant, the structures for lasing and LED (as well as display device) operation were realized with the lowest defect concentrations ever reported for 2-6 structures grown on GaAs by MBE. The reduction of the dislocation levels resulted from an iterative process where the growth could be modified in response to the TEM analysis. The AFOSR funded interface studies have led to our appreciation of the electrical and microstructural considerations obtaining at 2-6/3-5 heterovalent interfaces. As a result the Purdue/Brown group has had equal success in making laser diodes with substrates of both doping types. The Purdue/Brown collaboration has obtained CW operations at 77 K as well as pulsed operation at room temperature using a Zn(S,Se)-based device configuration emitting in the blue (490 nm at room temperature).

  14. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  15. Foreword: Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of superconductivity in diamond, much attention has been given to the issue of superconductivity in semiconductors. Because diamond has a large band gap of 5.5 eV, it is called a wide-gap semiconductor. Upon heavy boron doping over 3×1020 cm−3, diamond becomes metallic and demonstrates superconductivity at temperatures below 11.4 K. This discovery implies that a semiconductor can become a superconductor upon carrier doping. Recently, superconductivity was also discovered in boron-doped silicon and SiC semiconductors. The number of superconducting semiconductors has increased. In 2008 an Fe-based superconductor was discovered in a research project on carrier doping in a LaCuSeO wide-gap semiconductor. This discovery enhanced research activities in the field of superconductivity, where many scientists place particular importance on superconductivity in semiconductors.This focus issue features a variety of topics on superconductivity in semiconductors selected from the 2nd International Workshop on Superconductivity in Diamond and Related Materials (IWSDRM2008, which was held at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS, Tsukuba, Japan in July 2008. The 1st workshop was held in 2005 and was published as a special issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM in 2006 (Takano 2006 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7 S1.The selection of papers describe many important experimental and theoretical studies on superconductivity in semiconductors. Topics on boron-doped diamond include isotope effects (Ekimov et al and the detailed structure of boron sites, and the relation between superconductivity and disorder induced by boron doping. Regarding other semiconductors, the superconducting properties of silicon and SiC (Kriener et al, Muranaka et al and Yanase et al are discussed, and In2O3 (Makise et al is presented as a new superconducting semiconductor. Iron-based superconductors are presented as a new series of high

  16. Frequency modulation of semiconductor disk laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, O G [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-31

    A numerical model is constructed for a semiconductor disk laser mode-locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and the effect that the phase modulation caused by gain and absorption saturation in the semiconductor has on pulse generation is examined. The results demonstrate that, in a laser cavity with sufficient second-order dispersion, alternating-sign frequency modulation of pulses can be compensated for. We also examine a model for tuning the dispersion in the cavity of a disk laser using a Gires–Tournois interferometer with limited thirdorder dispersion. (control of radiation parameters)

  17. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2002-01-01

    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  18. Laser Cooling of 2-6 Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0067 Laser Cooling of II-VI Semiconductors Qihua Xiong NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final Report 08/12/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...From - To) 15 May 2013 to 14 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laser Cooling of II-VI Semiconductors 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-13-1...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The breakthrough of laser cooling in semiconductor has stimulated strong interest in further scaling up towards

  19. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [El Cerrito, CA; Choi, Heonjin [Seoul, KR; Lee, Sangkwon [Daejeon, KR; He, Rongrui [Albany, CA; Zhang, Yanfeng [El Cerrito, CA; Kuykendal, Tevye [Berkeley, CA; Pauzauskie, Peter [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  20. Improvements in or relating to semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.; Groves, I.S.; Leigh, P.A.; McIntyre, N.; O'Hara, S.; Speight, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing semiconductor devices is described consisting of a series of physical and chemical techniques which results in the production of semiconductor devices such as IMPATT diodes of DC-RF efficiency and high reliability (lifetime). The diodes can be mass produced without significant variation of the technology. One of the techniques used is the high energy proton bombardment of the semiconductor material in depth to passivate specific zones. The energy of the protons is increased in stages at intervals of less than 0.11 MeV up to a predetermined maximum energy. (UK)

  1. Theory of the negative differential conductivity effect in semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Hong Anh; Nguyen Hong Shon; Le Vu Ky

    1990-01-01

    A new mechanism of the negative differential conductivity (NDC) effect in semiconductor superlattices (SL) is proposed and analysed that is due to the conduction electron trapping by donor centers. It is shown that the NDC effect occurs for sufficently high (but reasonable) impurity concentration and not too large value of the τ ε /τ c ratio (where τ ε is the electron energy relaxation time and τ c the electron life time in the conduction band) when the applied d.c. electric field reaches certain critical value defined by the physical parameters of the sample. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  2. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  3. Mn-AlInN: a new diluted magnetic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Abdul; Ali, Akbar; Sharif, Rehana; Zhu, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mn ions have been incorporated into MOCVD grown Al 1-x In x N/GaN thin films by ion implantation to achieve the room temperature ferromagnetism in the samples. Magnetic characterizations revealed the presence of two ferromagnetic transitions: one has Curie points at ∝260 K and the other above room temperature. In-diffusion of indium caused by the Mn implantation leads to the partition of AlInN epilayer into two diluted magnetic semiconductor sub-layers depending on the Mn concentration. The Curie temperature of 260 K is assigned to the layer having lower concentration, whereas T c above room temperature is assumed to be associated to the layer having higher Mn concentration. (orig.)

  4. Mn-AlInN: a new diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul; Ali, Akbar [Quaid-i-Azam University, Advance Materials Physics Laboratory, Physics Department, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sharif, Rehana [University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Zhu, J.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Mn ions have been incorporated into MOCVD grown Al{sub 1-x}In{sub x}N/GaN thin films by ion implantation to achieve the room temperature ferromagnetism in the samples. Magnetic characterizations revealed the presence of two ferromagnetic transitions: one has Curie points at {proportional_to}260 K and the other above room temperature. In-diffusion of indium caused by the Mn implantation leads to the partition of AlInN epilayer into two diluted magnetic semiconductor sub-layers depending on the Mn concentration. The Curie temperature of 260 K is assigned to the layer having lower concentration, whereas T{sub c} above room temperature is assumed to be associated to the layer having higher Mn concentration. (orig.)

  5. Life-cycle assessment of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Semiconductors presents the first and thus far only available transparent and complete life cycle assessment of semiconductor devices. A lack of reliable semiconductor LCA data has been a major challenge to evaluation of the potential environmental benefits of information technologies (IT). The analysis and results presented in this book will allow a higher degree of confidence and certainty in decisions concerning the use of IT in efforts to reduce climate change and other environmental effects. Coverage includes but is not limited to semiconductor manufacturing trends by product type and geography, unique coverage of life-cycle assessment, with a focus on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of energy and global warming missions for CMOS logic devices, life cycle assessment of flash memory and life cycle assessment of DRAM. The information and conclusions discussed here will be highly relevant and useful to individuals and institutions. The book also: Provides a detailed, complete a...

  6. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 25; Issue 6. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation technology ... Department of Electronic Science, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, India ...

  7. Second harmonic spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Yu, Ping; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor nanostructures and their application to optoelectronic devices have attracted much attention recently. Lower-dimensional structures, and in particular quantum dots, are highly anisotropic resulting in broken symmetry as compared to their bulk counterparts. This is not only reflected...

  8. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture...

  9. Semiconductors detectors: basics principals, fabrication and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Coelho, L.F. de.

    1982-05-01

    The fabrication and repairing techniques of semiconductor detectors, are described. These methods are shown in the way they are applied by the semiconductor detector laboratory of the KFA-Julich, where they have been developed during the last 15 years. The history of the semiconductor detectors is presented here, being also described the detector fabrication experiences inside Brazil. The key problems of manufacturing are raised. In order to understand the fabrication and repairing techniques the working principles of these detectors, are described. The cases in which worked during the stay in the KFA-Julich, particularly the fabrication of a plane Ge (Li) detector, with side entry, and the repair of a coaxial Ge (Li) is described. The vanguard problems being researched in Julich are also described. Finally it is discussed a timetable for the semiconductor detector laboratory of the UFRJ, which laboratory is in the mounting stage now. (Author) [pt

  10. Photocatalytic semiconductors synthesis, characterization, and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume examines the different methods used for the synthesis of a great number of photocatalysts, including TiO2, ZnO and other modified semiconductors, as well as characterization techniques used for determining the optical, structural and morphological properties of the semiconducting materials. Additionally, the authors discuss photoelectrochemical methods for determining the light activity of the photocatalytic semiconductors by means of measurement of properties such as band gap energy, flat band potential and kinetics of hole and electron transfer. Photocatalytic Semiconductors: Synthesis, Characterization and Environmental Applications provide an overview of the semiconductor materials from first- to third-generation photocatalysts and their applications in wastewater treatment and water disinfection. The book further presents economic and toxicological aspects in the production and application of photocatalytic materials.

  11. Analysis and simulation of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Selberherr, Siegfried

    1984-01-01

    The invention of semiconductor devices is a fairly recent one, considering classical time scales in human life. The bipolar transistor was announced in 1947, and the MOS transistor, in a practically usable manner, was demonstrated in 1960. From these beginnings the semiconductor device field has grown rapidly. The first integrated circuits, which contained just a few devices, became commercially available in the early 1960s. Immediately thereafter an evolution has taken place so that today, less than 25 years later, the manufacture of integrated circuits with over 400.000 devices per single chip is possible. Coincident with the growth in semiconductor device development, the literature concerning semiconductor device and technology issues has literally exploded. In the last decade about 50.000 papers have been published on these subjects. The advent of so called Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI) has certainly revealed the need for a better understanding of basic device behavior. The miniaturization of the s...

  12. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  13. Advances in semiconductor photodetectors for scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, R.; Olschner, F.; Shah, K.; Squillante, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductors photodetectors have long seemed an attractive alternative for scintillation detection, but only recently have semiconductor photodiodes been proven suitable for some room temperature applications. There are many applications, however for which the performance of standard silicon p-i-n photodiodes is not satisfactory. This article reviews recent progress in two different families of novel semiconductor photodetectors: (1) wide bandgap compound semiconductors and (2) silicon photodetectors with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The compounds discussed and compared in this paper are HgI 2 , PbI 2 , InI, TlBr, TlBr 1-x I x and HgBr 1-x I x . The paper will also examine unity gain silicon drift diodes and avalanche photodiodes with maximum room temperature gain greater than 10000. (orig.)

  14. Semiconductor Photonic Components for RF Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Paul

    2002-01-01

    ... time delay beam formation and beam steering subsystem in phased array antennas. Device and material approaches were investigated to improve the modulator based on semiconductor structures for achieving high spur free dynamic range (SFDR...

  15. Semiconductor Photonic Components for RF Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Paul

    2001-01-01

    ... delay beam formation and beam steering subsystems in phased array antennas. Device and material approaches were investigated to improve the modulator based on semiconductor structures for achieving high spur free dynamic range (SFDR...

  16. Room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xun; Chen, Hongyi; Hao, Feng; Liu, Ruiheng; Wang, Tuo; Qiu, Pengfei; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri; Chen, Lidong

    2018-05-01

    Ductility is common in metals and metal-based alloys, but is rarely observed in inorganic semiconductors and ceramic insulators. In particular, room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductors were not known until now. Here, we report an inorganic α-Ag2S semiconductor that exhibits extraordinary metal-like ductility with high plastic deformation strains at room temperature. Analysis of the chemical bonding reveals systems of planes with relatively weak atomic interactions in the crystal structure. In combination with irregularly distributed silver-silver and sulfur-silver bonds due to the silver diffusion, they suppress the cleavage of the material, and thus result in unprecedented ductility. This work opens up the possibility of searching for ductile inorganic semiconductors/ceramics for flexible electronic devices.

  17. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ridgway, Mark

    2015-01-01

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique with which to probe the properties of matter, equally applicable to the solid, liquid and gas phases. Semiconductors are arguably our most technologically-relevant group of materials given they form the basis of the electronic and photonic devices that now so widely permeate almost every aspect of our society. The most effective utilisation of these materials today and tomorrow necessitates a detailed knowledge of their structural and vibrational properties. Through a series of comprehensive reviews, this book demonstrates the versatility of XAS for semiconductor materials analysis and presents important research activities in this ever growing field. A short introduction of the technique, aimed primarily at XAS newcomers, is followed by twenty independent chapters dedicated to distinct groups of materials. Topics span dopants in crystalline semiconductors and disorder in amorphous semiconductors to alloys and nanometric material as well as in-sit...

  18. Revenue sharing in semiconductor industry supply chain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to reduce demand opportunities, inventory needs and production efficiencies, in addition to reducing .... design based on coalition structures in semiconductor supply chain. ..... supplier/contract manufacturer for a product/component category.

  19. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-11-01

    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.

  20. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.