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Sample records for selfish underdogs pro-sociality

  1. Human Pro-Social Motivation and the Maintenance of Social Order

    OpenAIRE

    Gaechter, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents some insights from basic behavioural research on the role of human pro-social motivation to maintain social order. I argue that social order can be conceptualized as a public good game. Past attempts to explain social order typically relied on the assumption of selfish and rational agents ("homo economicus"). The last twenty years of research in behavioural and experimental economics have challenged this view. After presenting the most important findings of recent resear...

  2. The selfish goal meets the selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, Steven L; Schaller, Mark

    2014-04-01

    The connection between selfish genes and selfish goals is not merely metaphorical. Many goals that shape contemporary cognition and behavior are psychological products of evolutionarily fundamental motivational systems and thus are phenotypic manifestations of genes. An evolutionary perspective can add depth and nuance to our understanding of "selfish goals" and their implications for human cognition and behavior.

  3. CoCo the colorful history of Tandy's underdog computer

    CERN Document Server

    Pitre, Boisy G

    2013-01-01

    CoCo: The Colorful History of Tandy's Underdog Computer is the first book to document the complete history of the Tandy Color Computer (CoCo), a popular 8-bit PC series from the 1980s that competed against the era's biggest names, including the Apple II, IBM PC, and Commodore 64. The book takes you inside the interesting stories and people behind this unique, underdog computer.Both noted computer science and technology advocates, authors Pitre and Loguidice reveal the story of a pivotal period in the home computing revolution from the perspective of Tandy's CoCo. As these computers were sold i

  4. Religious pro-sociality? Experimental evidence from a sample of 766 Spaniards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M; Neuman, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between several personal religion-related variables and social behaviour, using three paradigmatic economic games: the dictator (DG), ultimatum (UG), and trust (TG) games. A large carefully designed sample of the urban adult population in Granada (Spain) is employed (N = 766). From participants' decisions in these games we obtain measures of altruism, bargaining behaviour and sense of fairness/equality, trust, and positive reciprocity. Three dimensions of religiosity are examined: (i) religious denomination; (ii) intensity of religiosity, measured by active participation at church services; and (iii) conversion out into a different denomination than the one raised in. The major results are: (i) individuals with "no religion" made decisions closer to rational selfish behaviour in the DG and the UG compared to those who affiliate with a "standard" religious denomination; (ii) among Catholics, intensity of religiosity is the key variable that affects social behaviour insofar as religiously-active individuals are generally more pro-social than non-active ones; and (iii) the religion raised in seems to have no effect on pro-sociality, beyond the effect of the current measures of religiosity. Importantly, behaviour in the TG is not predicted by any of the religion-related variables we analyse. While the results partially support the notion of religious pro-sociality, on the other hand, they also highlight the importance of closely examining the multidimensional nature of both religiosity and pro-social behaviour.

  5. Religious pro-sociality? Experimental evidence from a sample of 766 Spaniards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Brañas-Garza

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between several personal religion-related variables and social behaviour, using three paradigmatic economic games: the dictator (DG, ultimatum (UG, and trust (TG games. A large carefully designed sample of the urban adult population in Granada (Spain is employed (N = 766. From participants' decisions in these games we obtain measures of altruism, bargaining behaviour and sense of fairness/equality, trust, and positive reciprocity. Three dimensions of religiosity are examined: (i religious denomination; (ii intensity of religiosity, measured by active participation at church services; and (iii conversion out into a different denomination than the one raised in. The major results are: (i individuals with "no religion" made decisions closer to rational selfish behaviour in the DG and the UG compared to those who affiliate with a "standard" religious denomination; (ii among Catholics, intensity of religiosity is the key variable that affects social behaviour insofar as religiously-active individuals are generally more pro-social than non-active ones; and (iii the religion raised in seems to have no effect on pro-sociality, beyond the effect of the current measures of religiosity. Importantly, behaviour in the TG is not predicted by any of the religion-related variables we analyse. While the results partially support the notion of religious pro-sociality, on the other hand, they also highlight the importance of closely examining the multidimensional nature of both religiosity and pro-social behaviour.

  6. Pro-social Motivation beyond Firm Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Milagres, Rosileia

    2014-01-01

    , contradicting the above argument. More constructively, the case of the Genolyptus network points to the importance of intensive communication, rewards that are tied to joint outcomes, knowledge-based authority and consensual decision-making as support arrangements that can build and sustain pro......An influential body of literature in macro-management research (notably, organization theory and strategic management) associates pro-social motivation solely with firm-like organizations, suggesting that such motivation cannot thrive under more market-like arrangements. We question this argument...... on theoretical, as well as empirical, grounds. As to the latter, we discuss the specific case of a network of firms in Brazil, the Genolyptus network. We argue that this particular network manifests strong pro-social motivations. This implies that pro-social motivations may thrive beyond corporate boundaries...

  7. Goals are not selfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, William; von Hippel, Frank A

    2014-04-01

    The metaphor of selfish goals is misguided. Organisms can be considered vessels that further the interests of their genes, but not vessels that further the interests of their goals. Although goals can act at cross-purposes to each other and to longevity, such trade-offs are predicted by evolutionary theory. The metaphor of selfish goals provides no purchase on this problem.

  8. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  9. The Underdog Effect: The Marketing of Disadvantage and Determination through Brand Biography

    OpenAIRE

    Neeru Paharia; Anat Keinan; Jill Avery; Juliet B. Schor

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an underdog brand biography to describe an emerging trend in branding in which firms author a historical account of their humble origins, lack of resources, and determined struggle against the odds. We identify two essential dimensions of an underdog biography: external disadvantage, and passion and determination. We demonstrate that such a biography can increase purchase intentions, real choice, and brand loyalty. We argue that these biographies are effective beca...

  10. Dogs do not show pro-social preferences towards humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Quervel-Chaumette

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species’ propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context since it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners. In a recent study, using a food delivery paradigm, dogs were shown to preferentially express pro-social choices towards familiar compared to unfamiliar conspecifics. Using the same set-up and methods in the current study, we investigated dogs’ pro-social preferences towards familiar and unfamiliar human partners. We found that dogs’ pro-social tendencies did not extend to humans and the identity of the human partners did not influence the rate of food delivery. Interestingly, dogs tested with their human partners spent more time gazing at humans, and did so for longer after food consumption had ended than dogs tested with conspecific partners in the initial study. To allow comparability between results from dogs tested with a conspecific and a human partner, the latter were asked not to communicate with dogs in any way. However, this lack of communication from the human may have been aversive to dogs, leading them to cease performing the task earlier compared to the dogs paired with familiar conspecifics in the prior study. This is in line with previous findings suggesting that human communication in such contexts highly affects dogs’ responses. Consequently, we encourage further studies to examine dogs’ pro-social behavior towards humans taking into consideration their

  11. The emotional consequences of pro-social behavior in markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt

    that emotional responses are important explanations of this finding. It is first argued that the emotional response to a pro-social decision combined with private good purchase is different from the response to a similar decision in a non-market situation. Through evidence from a laboratory experiment...

  12. Memory for Pro-Social Intentions: When Competing Motives Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Ferrante, Donatella; Bianco, Carmela; Villani, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    Memory for future actions, or "prospective memory" (PM), often involves remembering to do things "for others". The present article explores the motivational mechanisms underlying memory for pro-social intentions through the manipulation of the social relevance of goals and presence of material rewards during an activity-based PM task. Results…

  13. User's manual for the UNDERDOG [Underground Nuclear Depository Evaluation, Reduction, and Detailed Output Generator] data reduction software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.R.; Shepard, L.K.

    1987-12-01

    UNDERDOG is a computer program that aids experimentalists in the process of data reduction. This software allows a user to reduce, extract, and generate displays of data collected at the WIPP site. UNDERDOG contains three major functional components: a Data Reduction package, a Data Analysis interface, and a Publication-Quality Output generator. It also maintains audit trails of all actions performed for quality assurance purposes and provides mechanisms which control an individual's access to the data. UNDERDOG was designed to run on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX computer using the VMS operating system. 8 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Pro-Social Behaviours: Between Altruism and Self-interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Elena Diacon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A widely discussed attribute in the economic literature is the prevalence of self-interest. In this article we seek to analyze the concept of altruism from the economic perspective and from the general perspective of human action. We endeavour to clarify the relative confusion around it and to analyze its relation with charity and volunteering. Then, we go further and analyse what is causing such actions. Based on this, we attempt to find out whether the pro-social actions can be considered an effect of self-interest, or, conversely, of altruism.

  15. Selfishness Level of Strategic Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apt, K.R.; Schäfer, G.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new measure of the discrepancy in strategic games between the social welfare in a Nash equilibrium and in a social optimum, that we call selfishness level. It is the smallest fraction of the social welfare that needs to be offered to each player to achieve that a social optimum is

  16. Altruistic functions for selfish DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Carninci, Piero

    2009-09-15

    Mammalian genomes are comprised of 30-50% transposed elements (TEs). The vast majority of these TEs are truncated and mutated fragments of retrotransposons that are no longer capable of transposition. Although initially regarded as important factors in the evolution of gene regulatory networks, TEs are now commonly perceived as neutrally evolving and non-functional genomic elements. In a major development, recent works have strongly contradicted this "selfish DNA" or "junk DNA" dogma by demonstrating that TEs use a host of novel promoters to generate RNA on a massive scale across most eukaryotic cells. This transcription frequently functions to control the expression of protein-coding genes via alternative promoters, cis regulatory non protein-coding RNAs and the formation of double stranded short RNAs. If considered in sum, these findings challenge the designation of TEs as selfish and neutrally evolving genomic elements. Here, we will expand upon these themes and discuss challenges in establishing novel TE functions in vivo.

  17. Pro-socially shareable entertainment television programmes: a programming alternative in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Svenkerud, P J

    1994-12-01

    Over the period 1975-82, the Mexican television network created and aired seven entertainment soap operas promoting educational-development themes like adult literacy, smaller family size norms, and an higher social status for women. These emissions earned high ratings in Mexico and in other Latin American countries where they were subsequently broadcast. Evidence suggests that many of the social objectives of the soaps were met. In light of such success, the authors investigated the potential of pro-socially shareable entertainment television programs in developing countries. These programs use entertaining media formats to carry pro-social messages to a wide, yet culturally-proximate audience group. Entertainment television genres such as melodramatic soap operas offer certain advantages for carrying pro-socially shareable messages to audiences. The possibility of using other television genres and media channels, however, also needs to be seriously considered. Pro-socially shareable entertainment programs do have their limitations and problems, with a certain degree of message dilution invariably accompanying the quest for shareability. Targeting specific problems in specific audience groups is difficult and the identity of a relatively small homogeneous group can be threatened in a larger culturally proximate group. The value-laden nature of pro-social content can also be problematic.

  18. Suicide and the selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    The application of an evolutionary perspective to human behaviour generates philosophical, political and scientific controversy. Modern human symbolic consciousness is not the cumulation of the long trend that natural selection would predict. The new archaeological data suggested the anatomical and behavioural innovation has been episodic and rare separated by long periods of stagnate. New behavioural mode and the new skeletal structure of modem human arose as an incidental exaptation. Additionally the genetic basis dysfunction connected with suicide behaviour and growing statistic suicide among teenager is contradictory to the theory that our behaviour are programmed in any detail by selfish genes. In this cases genetically determined suicidal behaviour should be rapidly eliminated by natural selection.

  19. Genealogical evidence for epidemics of selfish genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Par K; Taylor, Douglas R

    2002-08-20

    Some genetic elements spread infectiously in populations by increasing their rate of genetic transmission at the expense of other genes in the genome. These so-called selfish genetic elements comprise a substantial portion of eukaryotic genomes and have long been viewed as a potent evolutionary force. Despite this view, little is known about the evolutionary history of selfish genetic elements in natural populations, or their genetic effects on other portions of the genome. Here we use nuclear and chloroplast gene genealogies in two species of Silene to show the historical pattern of selection on a well known selfish genetic element, cytoplasmic male sterility. We provide evidence that evolution of cytoplasmic male sterility has been characterized by frequent turnovers of mutations in natural populations, thus supporting an epidemic model for the evolution of selfish genes, where new mutations repeatedly arise and rapidly sweep through populations.

  20. Price reactions when consumers are concerned about pro-social reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    In this paper, we propose a reputation-signalling model of demand for consumer goods containing pro-social characteristics such as a ‘fair trade’ or ‘organic’ certification. We show that reputation signalling can reverse price reactions resembling the crowding-out of pre-existing motives for pro-......-social behavior seen in situations of volunteering and charitable giving. Finally, using a unique combination of questionnaire and purchase panel data, we present evidence of such reputation-driven reversal of price reactions in the Danish market for organic milk....

  1. What's the right thing to do? Increasing pro-sociality with simple moral nudges

    OpenAIRE

    Capraro, Valerio; Jagfeld, Glorianna; Klein, Rana; Mul, Mathijs; van de Pol, Iris

    2017-01-01

    The conflict between pro-self and pro-social behaviour is at the core of many key problems of our time, as, for example, the reduction of air pollution and the redistribution of scarce resources. For the well-being of our societies, it is thus crucial to find mechanisms to promote pro-social choices over egoistic ones. Particularly important, because cheap and easy to implement, are those mechanisms that can change people's behaviour without forbidding any options or significantly changing th...

  2. Genealogical evidence for epidemics of selfish genes

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvarsson, Pär K.; Taylor, Douglas R.

    2002-01-01

    Some genetic elements spread infectiously in populations by increasing their rate of genetic transmission at the expense of other genes in the genome. These so-called selfish genetic elements comprise a substantial portion of eukaryotic genomes and have long been viewed as a potent evolutionary force. Despite this view, little is known about the evolutionary history of selfish genetic elements in natural populations, or their genetic effects on other portions of the genome. Here we use nuclea...

  3. Going "Above and Beyond": Are Those High in Autistic Traits Less Pro-Social?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Leila; Vyas, Karishma; Bellesi, Giulia; Roberts, Victoria; Channon, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explored how the cognitive differences associated with autistic spectrum disorder translate into everyday social behaviour. This study investigated pro-social behaviour in students scoring high and low on the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ), using a novel scenario task: "Above and Beyond." Each scenario involved an…

  4. Pro-Social Behavior Amongst Students of Tertiary Institutions: An Explorative and a Quantitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Samuel; Yidana, Xiaaba Dantallah; Ambotumah, Bernard Baba; Mensah-Livivnstone, Ike Joe Nii Annang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore antecedents of pro-social behavior amongst university students, using a private university as a case study. Following an explorative research, the study was guided by some theories relating to the phenomenon, focusing on gender and location factors. A quantitative approach was used in the follow up to the…

  5. Ethical leadership and employee pro-social rule-breaking behavior in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Jinqiang; Xu, Shiyong; Ouyang, Kan; Herst, David; Farndale, E.

    2018-01-01

    Chinese people generally show flexibility in obeying formal rules and emphasize rules in terms of virtue. In such a cultural background, we explore the effects of ethical leadership and ethical idealism on employee pro-social rule-breaking behavior (PSRB). Our study incorporates individual traits

  6. The impact of perception of consistency and inconsistency in parenting style on pro-social motives of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmakar R.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the most dynamic and eventful period of human development. During this crucial period of life, adolescents encounter challenges in life and constantly adapting to the relationship dynamics with friends, family, school and society. There is tendency of adolescents to engage in antisocial or pro-social behaviour. Adolescents’ relationship with parents and guardian significantly influence their antisocial and prosocial behavior. Pro-social behavior is defined as a behavior that is primarily aimed at benefiting others. Some pro-social behaviour is extrinsically motivated whereas some are intrinsically motivated. The present study investigated the nature of prosocial behaviour among adolescents and impact of consistency and inconsistency of parenting style on prosocial behaviour. A group of 610 adolescents (310 boys and 300 girls aged between 16—18 years (mean = 17.07 and standard deviation = 1.02 was selected for the present study. Pro-social Motivation Questionnaire and Parental Authority Questionnaire were used to measure pro-social motive and parenting style, respectively. The results indicate that adolescents generally show higher level of intrinsic pro-social motive. Adolescent girls prefer to display internalised and empathetic pro-social motives whereas adolescent boys tend to gain others’ approval by displaying heroic activities. Consistency in parenting style facilitates intrinsic pro-social motive only when both parents are authoritative in nature. The result interestingly reveals that inconsistent parenting style is not always bad. Authoritative and permissive dyad facilitates intrinsic pro-social motive among adolescents. Implications for parental socialisation in families and pro-social motive among adolescents are discussed.

  7. Appetite for the selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostan, Iztok; Poljsak, Borut; Simcic, Marjan; Tijskens, L M M

    2010-06-01

    In developed countries, where the majority of the population has enough income to afford healthy diets, a large number of the inhabitants nevertheless choose unhealthy nutrition. WHO and FAO strategies to overcome this problem are mostly based on educational means. Implicitly, this approach is based on the presumption that the main causes of the problem are ignorance and culturally acquired bad habits. It has already been shown that wild animals, evidently acting solely on instinct without cultural effects, display tendencies that may damage their longevity: they tend to avoid healthy types of caloric restriction, prefer processed to raw food, and have an excessive intake of food stimulants and proteins when available (Ostan et al., 2009). This paper presents evidence for such nutritional patterns in humans as well and broadens the discourse to include proteins and fats and describes some human biological traits that present important differences between humans and other primates; among them are the human tendency for overeating and the inadequacy of a totally raw diet for human consumption (despite having some advantages for the human immune system). From an evolutionary perspective these strategies offer a biological advantage by enhancing the reproductive capability of the organisms, according to Dawkins' theory of the Selfish Gene. Genomic-based pleasure of such nutrition seems to be the main cause of instinctive nutritional drives. Further research on the process of food acceptance is needed to determine the role and importance of genomic-based pleasure compared to epigenetic or culture-based pleasure. Both, however, seem to be important and very stable factors in human nutritional choice and seem to prevail over conscious factors in food acceptance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence against the selfish operon theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, Csaba; Hurst, Laurence D

    2004-06-01

    According to the selfish operon hypothesis, the clustering of genes and their subsequent organization into operons is beneficial for the constituent genes because it enables the horizontal gene transfer of weakly selected, functionally coupled genes. The majority of these are expected to be non-essential genes. From our analysis of the Escherichia coli genome, we conclude that the selfish operon hypothesis is unlikely to provide a general explanation for clustering nor can it account for the gene composition of operons. Contrary to expectations, essential genes with related functions have an especially strong tendency to cluster, even if they are not in operons. Moreover, essential genes are particularly abundant in operons.

  9. Rats prefer mutual rewards in a ProSocial Choice Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julen eHernandez-Lallement

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pro-sociality, i.e. the preference for outcomes that produce benefits for other individuals, is ubiquitous in humans. Recently, cross-species comparisons of social behavior have offered important new insights into the evolution of pro-sociality. Here, we present a rodent analog of the Pro-social Choice Task that controls strategic components, de-confounds other-regarding choice motives from the animals’ natural tendencies to maximize own food access and directly tests the effect of social context on choice allocation. We trained pairs of rats – an actor and a partner rat – in a double T-maze task where actors decided between two alternatives only differing in the reward delivered to the partner. The own reward choice yielded a reward only accessible to the actor whereas the both reward choice produced an additional reward for a partner (partner condition or an inanimate toy (toy Condition, located in an adjacent compartment. We found that actors chose both reward at levels above chance and more often in the partner than in the toy condition. Moreover, we show that this choice pattern adapts to the current social context and that the observed behavior is stable over time.

  10. The Effects of Collaboration and Competition on Pro-Social Prospective Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido D’Angelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The social underpinnings of remembering to perform an action in the future (i.e., prospective memory, PM have been recently shown to be an important feature of prospective memory functioning (Brandimonte, Ferrante, Bianco, & Villani, 2010. One emergent, though neglected, issue refers to the way people remember to do things 'with others' and 'for others'. In two experiments, participants were requested to collaborate or compete during an event-based PM task. In Experiment 1, they could also gain money for donation, while in Experiment 2 they could get personal earnings. Participants completed a parity judgment ongoing task and a PM task. Results revealed that a decrease in PM performance occurred with collaboration, as a result of responsibility sharing. In contrast, the pro-social nature of the PM task improved participants' performance. Interestingly, pro-sociality prevented the detrimental effect of collaboration (experiments 1 and 2, while a personal gain did not contrast responsibility sharing (experiment 2. Surprisingly, competition did not significantly affect PM performance. Finally, an increase of the monitoring costs during the ongoing task was associated with pro-social goals. This pattern of result suggests that PM is influenced by social drives and points to a pivotal role of motivation in regulating conscious mechanisms underlying memory for intentions.

  11. Assisted suicide of a selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M S; Beeman, R W

    1999-01-01

    Medea (M) factors and the hybrid incompatibility factor (H) are involved in two incompatibility systems in flour beetles that were previously thought to be independent. M factors are a novel class of selfish genes that act by maternal lethality to nonself. The H factor causes the death of hybrids with a paternally derived H gene and previously uncharacterized maternal cofactors. We now find that M factors exhibit their selfish behavior only in the absence of the H factor. Furthermore, we show that the previously uncharacterized maternal cofactors required for H-associated hybrid inviability are identical to M factors. We propose that incompatibility between H strains and M strains is due to suppression by the H factor of the self-rescuing activity of the lethal M genes. This interaction has the effect of converting M elements from selfish into self-destructive or "suicidal" genes. M factors are globally widespread, but are conspicuously absent from India, the only country where the H factor is known to occur. Such a mechanism could prevent the spread of selfish M elements by establishing an absolute barrier to hybridization in the boundary between M and non-M zones.

  12. The impact of perception of consistency and inconsistency in parenting style on pro-social motives of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Karmakar R.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the most dynamic and eventful period of human development. During this crucial period of life, adolescents encounter challenges in life and constantly adapting to the relationship dynamics with friends, family, school and society. There is tendency of adolescents to engage in antisocial or pro-social behaviour. Adolescents’ relationship with parents and guardian significantly influence their antisocial and prosocial behavior. Pro-social behavior is defined as a behavior that is...

  13. The Neural Basis of and a Common Neural Circuitry in Different Types of Pro-social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pro-social behaviors are voluntary behaviors that benefit other people or society as a whole, such as charitable donations, cooperation, trust, altruistic punishment, and fairness. These behaviors have been widely described through non self-interest decision-making in behavioral experimental studies and are thought to be increased by social preference motives. Importantly, recent studies using a combination of neuroimaging and brain stimulation, designed to reveal the neural mechanisms of pro-social behaviors, have found that a wide range of brain areas, specifically the prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, are correlated or causally related with pro-social behaviors. In this review, we summarize the research on the neural basis of various kinds of pro-social behaviors and describe a common shared neural circuitry of these pro-social behaviors. We introduce several general ways in which experimental economics and neuroscience can be combined to develop important contributions to understanding social decision-making and pro-social behaviors. Future research should attempt to explore the neural circuitry between the frontal lobes and deeper brain areas.

  14. Selfishness and Cooperation: Challenge for Social Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation is a great challenge for natural selection. Some scholars assume that cooperation could not evolve within the framework of natural selection. It is undeniable that natural selection, at least at the individual level, favors selfishness and defectors. Nonetheless, this selfish tendency does not necessarily imply that cooperation could not evolve by means of natural selection. In this paper, we specifically acknowledge certain basic challenges for the evolution of the human ability to cooperate at the level of large groups. In this paper, we discuss topics like the human ability for “supercooperation,” the importance of repetition and reputation, and Multilevel Selection Theory as the basic mechanisms of evolution of cooperation.

  15. A formal theory of the selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A; Welch, J J

    2011-08-01

    Adaptation is conventionally regarded as occurring at the level of the individual organism. In contrast, the theory of the selfish gene proposes that it is more correct to view adaptation as occurring at the level of the gene. This view has received much popular attention, yet has enjoyed only limited uptake in the primary research literature. Indeed, the idea of ascribing goals and strategies to genes has been highly controversial. Here, we develop a formal theory of the selfish gene, using optimization theory to capture the analogy of 'gene as fitness-maximizing agent' in mathematical terms. We provide formal justification for this view of adaptation by deriving mathematical correspondences that translate the optimization formalism into dynamical population genetics. We show that in the context of social interactions between genes, it is the gene's inclusive fitness that provides the appropriate maximand. Hence, genic selection can drive the evolution of altruistic genes. Finally, we use the formalism to assess the various criticisms that have been levelled at the theory of the selfish gene, dispelling some and strengthening others. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. A parasitic selfish gene that affects host promiscuity

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo-Perez, Paulina; Goddard, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Selfish genes demonstrate transmission bias and invade sexual populations despite conferring no benefit to their hosts. While the molecular genetics and evolutionary dynamics of selfish genes are reasonably well characterized, their effects on hosts are not. Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are one well-studied family of selfish genes that are assumed to be benign. However, we show that carrying HEGs is costly for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrating that these genetic elements are not nec...

  17. A parasitic selfish gene that affects host promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Perez, Paulina; Goddard, Matthew R

    2013-11-07

    Selfish genes demonstrate transmission bias and invade sexual populations despite conferring no benefit to their hosts. While the molecular genetics and evolutionary dynamics of selfish genes are reasonably well characterized, their effects on hosts are not. Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are one well-studied family of selfish genes that are assumed to be benign. However, we show that carrying HEGs is costly for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrating that these genetic elements are not necessarily benign but maybe parasitic. We estimate a selective load of approximately 1-2% in 'natural' niches. The second aspect we examine is the ability of HEGs to affect hosts' sexual behaviour. As all selfish genes critically rely on sex for spread, then any selfish gene correlated with increased host sexuality will enjoy a transmission advantage. While classic parasites are known to manipulate host behaviour, we are not aware of any evidence showing a selfish gene is capable of affecting host promiscuity. The data presented here show a selfish element may increase the propensity of its eukaryote host to undergo sex and along with increased rates of non-Mendelian inheritance, this may counterbalance mitotic selective load and promote spread. Demonstration that selfish genes are correlated with increased promiscuity in eukaryotes connects with ideas suggesting that selfish genes promoted the evolution of sex initially.

  18. Selfish brain and selfish immune system interplay: A theoretical framework for metabolic comorbidities of mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Ana Sayuri; Mansur, Rodrigo Barbachan; Rizzo, Lucas Bortolotto; Rosenstock, Tatiana; McIntyre, Roger S; Brietzke, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    According to the "selfish brain" theory, the brain regulates its own energy supply influencing the peripheral metabolism and food intake according to its needs. The immune system has been likewise "selfish" due to independent energy consumption; and it may compete with the brain (another high energy-consumer) for glucose. In mood disorders, stress in mood episodes or physiological stress activate homeostasis mechanisms from the brain and the immune system to solve the imbalance. The interaction between the selfish brain and the selfish immune system may explain various conditions of medical impairment in mood disorders, such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and immune dysregulation. The objective of this study is to comprehensively review the literature regarding the competition between the brain and the immune system for energy substrate. Targeting the energetic regulation of the brain and the immune system and their cross-talk open alternative treatments and a different approach in the study of general medical comorbidities in mood disorders, although more investigation is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ayn Rand: To be Selfish or Not to be Selfish--That is the Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Tyrus L.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2009-01-01

    Ayn Rand's "The Virtue of Selfishness" (1961) is comprised of a philosophy that defies the entire premise of what our education system is and shall be built upon. The "Objectivist" perspective has depicted a clear distinction between the "Have's" and the "Have Not's" or the Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. The "Objectivist" perspective believes that…

  20. Genetic and environmental contributions to pro-social attitudes: a twin study of social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J Philippe

    2004-12-22

    Although 51 twin and adoption studies have been performed on the genetic architecture of antisocial behaviour, only four previous studies have examined a genetic contribution to pro-social behaviour. Earlier work by the author with the University of London Institute of Psychiatry Adult Twin Register found that genes contributed approximately half of the variance to measures of self-report altruism, empathy, nurturance and aggression, including acts of violence. The present study extends those results by using a 22-item Social Responsibility Questionnaire with 174 pairs of monozygotic twins and 148 pairs of dizygotic twins. Forty-two per cent of the reliable variance was due to the twins' genes, 23% to the twins' common environment and the remainder to the twins' non-shared environment.

  1. The Selfish Brain: Stress and Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim ePeters

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain occupies a special hierarchical position in human energy metabolism. If cerebral homeostasis is threatened, the brain behaves in a "selfish" manner by competing for energy resources with the body. Here we present a logistic approach, which is based on the principles of supply and demand known from economics. In this "cerebral supply chain" model, the brain constitutes the final consumer. In order to illustrate the operating mode of the cerebral supply chain, we take experimental data which allow to assess the supply, demand and need of the brain under conditions of psychosocial stress. The experimental results show that the brain under conditions of psychosocial stress actively demands energy from the body, in order to cover its increased energy needs. The data demonstrate that the stressed brain uses a mechanism referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" to limit glucose fluxes into peripheral tissue (muscle, fat and to enhance cerebral glucose supply. Furthermore psychosocial stress elicits a marked increase in eating behavior in the post-stress phase. Subjects ingested more carbohydrates without any preference for sweet ingredients. These experimentally observed changes of cerebral demand, supply and need are integrated into a logistic framework describing the supply chain of the selfish brain.

  2. Great Expectations: The Role of Rules in Guiding Pro-Social Behaviour in Groups with High versus Low Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Leila; Vyas, Karishma; Bellesi, Giulia; Cassell, Diana; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Measuring autistic traits in the general population has proven sensitive for examining cognition. The present study extended this to pro-social behaviour, investigating the influence of expectations to help others. A novel task describing characters in need of help was administered to students scoring high versus low on the Autism-Spectrum…

  3. Prevention of School Bullying: The Important Role of Autonomy-Supportive Teaching and Internalization of Pro-Social Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Guy; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Bibi, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined students' perceptions of autonomy-supportive teaching (AST) and its relations to internalization of pro-social values and bullying in class. Aims: We hypothesized that: (1) teachers' AST, which involves provision of rationale and taking the student's perspective, would relate positively to students' identified…

  4. Does teachers’ education about social competence influence the frequency of pro-social and aggressive behavior in preschool children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavina Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children’s aggressive behavior is a common problem of specialists who work in preschool institutions, with proportionally less frequent occurrence of pro-social behavior. The aim of this action research was to determine whether additional training of educators in ways and skills of stimulating children’s social competence can influence reduced the frequency of aggressive and increased the frequency of pro-social behavior among children of preschool age. The training included 49 teachers, educators in kindergarten Čakovec, and comprised lectures, workshops and practical application that lasted for three months, under the mentorship of a psychologist. Before carrying out the activities and after the implementation period of three months, educators used the scale Pros/Ag (N = 466 to evaluate the children. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in the frequency of pro-social behavior and decrease in the frequency of aggressive behavior in children of both genders. However, in the absence of a control group, the reason for progress in the desired direction may be the maturation and error of evaluators, and hence the results can be generalized to a limited extent. Qualitative analysis of gender differences suggests the possibility that education leads to equalization of boys and girls in pro-social behavior, but not in aggressive behavior. The number of participants, as well as the results obtained, suggests interest and need to organize additional training in this area.

  5. Connection between participation in sport and pro-social orientation and aggression of adolescents: Differences according to gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Former researches on the contribution of organized sport to antisocial and pro-social behavior of the young have yielded discordant and contradictory results. However, in the majority of researches, it was determined that active practice of sport has a different effect on psycho-social development of male and female participants. We have undertaken the research with the aim of examining whether there is a connection between the participation of the pupils of secondary school age in organized sport activities and their pro-social value orientation and aggressiveness, and, if there is, whether there are gender differences in that connection. The sample consisted of 300 pupils of secondary school (Mathematical High School in Belgrade, out of which 150 (49 female and 101 male regularly practice sport for more than two years, and 150 pupils (84 male and 66 female do not practice organized sport. The indicators of practicing sport are: the length of practicing sport activities, regularity and intensity of training, participation in contests and the kind of sport (individual or team sport. The following variables of pro-social orientation were examined: readiness for cooperation, caring for other people, social responsibility and empathy. Aggressiveness was examined through aggressive tendencies towards others. All variables were examined by the application of appropriate questionnaires and evaluation scales which were answered by the pupils themselves. The results have shown significant (although low, positive correlations between practicing sport and pro-social values, as well as the negative (low correlation between practicing sport and aggression, for both genders of students. Statistically significant differences were found between boys and girls regarding pro-social orientation (higher level in girls, as well as aggressiveness (higher levels in boys. Significant correlations were lower and more numerous in male than in female respondents.

  6. Sperm competition, immunity, selfish genes and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Z; Price, T A R; Wedell, N

    2008-10-01

    Sperm competition is widespread and has played an important role in shaping male reproductive characters such as testis size and numbers of sperm produced, and this is reflected in the rapid evolution of many reproductive genes. Additionally, sperm competition has been implicated in the rapid evolution of seminal fluids. However, our understanding of the molecular basis of many traits thought to be important in sperm competition is rudimentary. Furthermore, links between sperm competition and a range of issues not directly related to reproduction are only just beginning to be explored. These include associations between sperm competition and selfish genes, immunity and diseases such as cancer.We briefly review these topics and suggest areas we consider worthy of additional research.

  7. Selfish Gene Algorithm Vs Genetic Algorithm: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Norharyati Md; Khalid, Noor Elaiza Abdul; Hashim, Rathiah; Noor, Noorhayati Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary algorithm is one of the algorithms inspired by the nature. Within little more than a decade hundreds of papers have reported successful applications of EAs. In this paper, the Selfish Gene Algorithms (SFGA), as one of the latest evolutionary algorithms (EAs) inspired from the Selfish Gene Theory which is an interpretation of Darwinian Theory ideas from the biologist Richards Dawkins on 1989. In this paper, following a brief introduction to the Selfish Gene Algorithm (SFGA), the chronology of its evolution is presented. It is the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the concepts of Selfish Gene Algorithm (SFGA) as well as its opportunities and challenges. Accordingly, the history, step involves in the algorithm are discussed and its different applications together with an analysis of these applications are evaluated.

  8. The dynamics of maternal-effect selfish genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N G

    1998-03-21

    Maternal-effect selfish genes such as Medea or Scat act to kill progeny that do not bear a copy of the selfish gene present in the mother. Previous models of this system allowed for two types of allele, the selfish (killer) type and the sensitive (susceptible) wild-type. These models predict that the invasion conditions of the selfish allele are quite broad and that if invasion is possible a high frequency equilibrium is to be expected. The selfish element is therefore predicted to persist. Here a hypothetical third allele that neither kills nor is killed (i.e. insensitive) is considered. Such an allele could enter a population by recombination, mutation or migration. The incorporation of this third allele profoundly affects the dynamics of the system and, under some parameter values, it is possible for the spread of the insensitive allele to lead, eventually, to the fixation of the wild-type allele (reversible evolution). This is most likely if the death of progeny provides no direct benefit to the surviving sibs (i.e. in the absence of fitness compensation), as in insects without gregarious broods. Under these circumstances the selfish element cannot spread when infinitely rare, only after having risen to some finite frequency. A fitness cost to bearing the killer allele then causes its loss. However, if fitness compensation is found (e.g. in placental mammals) the invasion of the selfish element from an infinitely low level is possible for a wide range of costs and both stable coexistences of all three alleles and limit cycles of all three are then found. It is therefore to be expected that in mammals selfish maternal-effect genes are more likely both to spread and to persist than in insects, due to their different levels of fitness compensation.

  9. Selfish cells in altruistic cell society - a theoretical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, M

    1993-09-01

    In multicellular organisms, internal evolution of individual cells is strictly forbidden and 'evolutional' DNA replication should be performed only by the sexual reproduction system. Wholistic negative control system called 'homeostasis' serves all service to germ line cells. All somatic cells are altruistic to the germ line cells. However, in malignant tumors, it seems that individual cells replicate and behave 'selfishly' and evolve against the internal microenvironment. Tumor cells only express the occult selfishness which is programmed in normal cells a priori. This phenomenon is based on the failure of identical DNA replication, and results in 'autonomy' and 'anomie' of cellular society as shown in tumor cells. Genetic programs of normal cells connote this cellular autonomy and anomie introduced by the deletion of regulators on structure genes. It is rather paradoxical that the somatic cells get their freedom from wholistic negative regulation programmed internally. However, this is not a true paradox, since multicellular organisms have clearly been evolved from 'monads' in which cells proliferate without wholistic regulation. Somatic cells revolt against germ cell DNA, called 'selfish replicator' by Dawkins. It is an inevitable destiny that the 'selfishness' coded in genome should be revenged by itself. Selfish replicator in germ cell line should be revolted by its selfishness in the expansion of somatic cells, since they have an orthogenesis to get more selfishness in order to increase their genome. Tumor heterogeneity and progression can be fully explained by this self-contradictory process which produces heterogeneous gene copies different from the original clone in the tumor, although 'selfish' gene replication is the final target of being. Furthermore, we have to discard the concept of clonality of tumor cells since genetic instability is a fundamental feature of tumors. Finally, tumor cells and proto-oncogenes can be considered as the ultimate parasite

  10. HUBUNGAN INTENSI PROSOSIAL DENGAN KEPUASAN KERJA PUSTAKAWAN UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA (The Correlation between the Pro-social Intention and the Job Satisfaction of Gadjah Mada University Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singgih Widodo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at investigating the correlation between the pro-social intention and the job satisfaction of Gadjah Mada University Librarians. The subjects of the study are 70 librarians of Gadjah Mada University. The data is collected using Pro-social Intention Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale and questionnaire. An interview is also conducted with some of the subjects and users to gain a deeper understanding of quantitative analysis results. The first hypothesis of the study suggests that the pro-social intention is positively correlated to the job satisfaction. The higher is the pro-social intention, the higher the job satisfaction is. The results of Pearson product moment correlation analysis indicate that the correlation coefficient between the pro-social intention and the job satisfaction is r = 0,481, p< 0,01. It means that there is a significant correlation between the pro-social intention and the job satisfaction. The second hypothesis suggests that controlling the factors of age and position, the pro-social intention remains positively correlated to the job satisfaction. It is tested using partial correlation analysis. The results of the analysis is r = 0,437, p

  11. The Attempts of Pro-Social Communication Agents in Communicating and Shaping Environmental Behaviour via the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, James A

    2009-01-01

    With the increase in focus on environmental advertising during the early 1990s, it is surprising that more research has not focused on advertisings effect on influencing and shaping consumer behaviour change. This is seen as crucial in the next few decreased due to a general agreement on the effect that consumers behaviours have on climate change. Communicating this pro-social behaviour change has in recent years diversified into Internet communications and other communication agents, as well...

  12. Ubiquitin--conserved protein or selfish gene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catic, André; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2005-11-01

    The posttranslational modifier ubiquitin is encoded by a multigene family containing three primary members, which yield the precursor protein polyubiquitin and two ubiquitin moieties, Ub(L40) and Ub(S27), that are fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27, respectively. The gene encoding polyubiquitin is highly conserved and, until now, those encoding Ub(L40) and Ub(S27) have been generally considered to be equally invariant. The evolution of the ribosomal ubiquitin moieties is, however, proving to be more dynamic. It seems that the genes encoding Ub(L40) and Ub(S27) are actively maintained by homologous recombination with the invariant polyubiquitin locus. Failure to recombine leads to deterioration of the sequence of the ribosomal ubiquitin moieties in several phyla, although this deterioration is evidently constrained by the structural requirements of the ubiquitin fold. Only a few amino acids in ubiquitin are vital for its function, and we propose that conservation of all three ubiquitin genes is driven not only by functional properties of the ubiquitin protein, but also by the propensity of the polyubiquitin locus to act as a 'selfish gene'.

  13. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, H L; Kern, W; Peters, A

    2006-01-01

    stimulate the activity of the PVN in a way similar to the activation by the hippocampus-amydala system. The activity of PVN is influenced by the hippocampal outflow which in turn is the consequence of a balance of low-affinity and high-affinity glucocorticoid receptors. This set-point can permanently be displaced by extreme stress situations, by starvation, exercise, hormones, drugs or by endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Disorders in the "energy on request" process will influence the allocation of energy and in so doing alter the body mass of the organism. In this "selfish brain theory" the neocortex and the limbic system play a central role in the pathogenesis of diseases, such as anorexia nervosa, obesity and diabetes mellitus type II. From these considerations it appears that the primary disturbance in obesity is a displacement of the hippocampal set-point of the system. The resulting permanent activation of the feedback system must result in a likewise permanent activation of the sympatico-adrenal system, which induces insulin resistance, hypertension and the other components of the metabolic syndrome. Available therapies for treatment of the metabolic syndrome (blockade of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors, insulin and insulin secretagogues) interfere with mechanisms, which must be considered compensatory. This explains why these therapies are disappointing in the long run. New therapeutic strategies based on the "selfish brain theory" will be discussed.

  14. Experiencia de libre albedrío en la conducta pro-social determinada por la alegría (The experience of free will in pro-social behaviour mediated by happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Coma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isen and Levin (1972 suggested that pro-social behaviour was mediated by happiness. This study replicated the experiment conducted by Isen and Levin in a sample of 127 people, introducing some changes to adapt it to the current settings. The experience of freedom of the participants was recorded and the results related to Gazzaniga’s construction of belief. The hypothesis provided by Isen and Levin was upheld in the current setting and the experience of free will in the participants.

  15. Social Motivation: Costs and Benefits of Selfishness and Otherishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer; Canevello, Amy; Brown, Ashley A

    2017-01-03

    We examine recent evidence on the consequences of selfishness and otherishness for psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships. In the first sections, we consider recent evidence regarding the costs and benefits of giving time, money, and support to others and the costs and benefits of taking or receiving those things from others. Then, because the behaviors of giving and taking can be motivated either by selfish or otherish concerns, we next consider the costs and benefits of the motivation underlying giving and taking. We also examine why and for whom selfishness and otherishness have consequences for psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships. We focus on mechanisms identified in research, including intrapsychic mechanisms such as positive and negative affect, self-esteem and self-efficacy, a sense of meaning and purpose in life, and a sense of connectedness to or isolation from others, as well as interpersonal processes such as reciprocation of support and responsiveness.

  16. A maternal-effect selfish genetic element in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Eyal; Burga, Alejandro; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2017-06-09

    Selfish genetic elements spread in natural populations and have an important role in genome evolution. We discovered a selfish element causing embryonic lethality in crosses between wild strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans The element is made up of sup-35 , a maternal-effect toxin that kills developing embryos, and pha-1 , its zygotically expressed antidote. pha-1 has long been considered essential for pharynx development on the basis of its mutant phenotype, but this phenotype arises from a loss of suppression of sup-35 toxicity. Inactive copies of the sup-35/pha-1 element show high sequence divergence from active copies, and phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that they represent ancestral stages in the evolution of the element. Our results suggest that other essential genes identified by genetic screens may turn out to be components of selfish elements. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. The contribution of work characteristics and risk propensity in explaining pro-social rule breaking among teachers in Wakiso District, Uganda

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    Waweru I. Kahari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explored the mechanisms that drive pro-social rule breaking among teachers in Ugandan private secondary schools. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the contribution of work characteristics and risk propensity in promoting pro-social rule breaking among teachers in one of the Ugandan districts that has a high number of private schools. Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on pro-social rule breaking in Uganda, this study sought to explore the concept and shed light on the mechanisms that influence this. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research process formed the basis for this study. Two hundred and forty-two teachers from 15 private secondary schools in Wakiso District formed the targeted sample size. A response rate of 87% was registered. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted in order to assess the influence of each of the variables on the dependent variable, by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Main findings: The regression results showed that work characteristics were a statistically significant predictor of pro-social rule breaking, but risk propensity was not. The results finally showed that there was no moderation effect of risk propensity on the relationship between work characteristics and pro-social rule breaking. Practical implications: The schools should expect more pro-social rule-breaking tendencies when the tasks given to the teachers are complex and when the teachers operate with autonomy. The environment in which the private secondary school teachers in Uganda work, motivates them to sometimes break rules in a bid to perform better or minimise the complexity associated with work. Contribution: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge on pro-social rule breaking and provides insights into the key drivers of the same among private secondary school teachers in the Ugandan context.

  18. Social insects: from selfish genes to self organisation and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Franks, Nigel R.

    2006-01-01

    Selfish gene and self-organisation approaches have revolutionised the study of social insects and have provided unparalleled insights into the highly sophisticated nature of insect social evolution. Here, we briefly review the core programs and interfaces with communication and recognition studies...

  19. Cancer : A reproductive strategy of "ultra-selfish" genes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    2004-01-01

    A hypothesis is presented in which the process of "malignant transformation" which ultimately results in the rapidly dividing tumor(s)(cells) causing "cancer", is regarded as an evolved reproductive strategy of "ultra-selfish" (proto-)(onco-) genes, already present in the genome, or introduced by a

  20. Cancer: a reproductive strategy of "ultra-selfish" genes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuiling, G A

    2004-01-01

    A hypothesis is presented in which the process of "malignant transformation" which ultimately results in the rapidly dividing tumor(s)(cells) causing "cancer", is regarded as an evolved reproductive strategy of "ultra-selfish" (proto-)(onco-) genes, already present in the genome, or introduced by a virus.

  1. Social insects: from selfish genes to self organisation and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Jacobus J; Franks, Nigel R

    2006-06-01

    Selfish gene and self-organisation approaches have revolutionised the study of social insects and have provided unparalleled insights into the highly sophisticated nature of insect social evolution. Here, we briefly review the core programs and interfaces with communication and recognition studies that characterise these fields today, and offer an interdisciplinary future perspective for the study of social insect evolutionary biology.

  2. Preschoolers' group bias in punishing selfishness in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Gao, Xiaohe

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that both adults and children tend to favor members of their own group and expect reciprocity of such in-group privilege. If a person is treated unfairly by an in-group member, a conflict arises between the tendency of in-group favoritism and the desire to punish violators of in-group norms. How do children solve the conflict at different points in development? We compared how preschoolers punished in-group and out-group members (marked by color preference) for selfishness in the Ultimatum Game. We found that (a) 3- to 6-year-old Chinese children rejected selfish allocations more often than fair ones, showing a robust preference for fairness; (b) 3- and 4-year-olds showed no group differences in their punishment behavior, suggesting that second-party punishment of selfishness is not biased during early childhood; (c) 5- and 6-year-old girls were more likely to punish selfishness of in-groups than of out-groups, illuminating an early sign of maintaining group-based fairness norms even at a personal cost; and (d) 5- and 6-year-old boys, however, punished in-groups and out-groups equally often and punished out-groups more often than did girls. These age and gender differences in children's punishment imply that socialization may play an important role in showing group bias when enforcing fairness norms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  4. VALORES, COMPORTAMIENTO PRO-SOCIAL Y CRECIMIENTO PERSONAL EN ESTUDIANTES UNIVERSITARIOS DESPUÉS DEL TERREMOTO DEL 15 DE AGOSTO DE 2007/ VALUES, PRO-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONAL GROWTH IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AFTER THE AUGUST 15TH, 2007 EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Espinosa*

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa presente investigación describe y analiza las relaciones entre los valores, el comportamiento pro-social y el crecimiento personal ante eventos traumáticos, tomando la experiencia del terremoto del 15 de agosto del 2007 en Lima, Perú. A partir de una muestra de estudiantes universitarios (N = 112, se analizó cómo la presencia o ausencia del comportamiento de ayuda se relacionaba con los valores de Schwartz y el crecimiento personal. Los resultados muestran que los valores de Promoción Personal y Apertura al Cambio se asocian a una menor expresión de conductas de ayuda. En contraposición, las personas que más ayudaron expresaron mayores niveles de Auto-Trascendencia, aunque este resultado no fue estadísticamentesignificativo, por lo que esta relación sólo puede ser argumentada conceptualmente. Así mismo, las personas que más ayudaron presentaron puntuaciones más altas en crecimiento personal, lo que sugiere que el fortalecer la cooperación en situaciones traumáticas puede potencialmente tener un impacto positivo en el bienestar de las personas.ABSTRACTThis paper describes and analyzes relationship among values, pro-social behavior and personal growth after a traumatic situation such as the earthquake of August 15, 2007 in Lima Peru. On a sample of university students (N = 112, we analyzed if aid behaviors toward victims were related to Schwartz values and personal growth. Results showed that values of Selfenhancementand Openness to change were related to lower expression of Pro-social behavior. On the other hand, people who have collaborated with victims scored higher on Self-transcendence values. Although this relation was not statistically significant, it could be supported theoretically. Besides, people who are prone to aid showed higher scores in personal growth. It suggests that strengthen of cooperation in traumatic situations, could improve well-being in people.

  5. Pro-Social Goals in Achievement Situations: Amity Goal Orientation Enhances the Positive Effects of Mastery Goal Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levontin, Liat; Bardi, Anat

    2018-04-01

    Research has neglected the utility of pro-social goals within achievement situations. In this article, four studies demonstrate that amity goal orientation, promoting mutual success of oneself together with others, enhances the utility of mastery goal orientation. We demonstrate this in longitudinally predicting performance (Studies 1 and 2) and in maintaining motivation after a disappointing performance (Studies 3 and 4). The studies demonstrate the same interaction effect in academic and in work achievement contexts. Specifically, whereas amity goal orientation did not predict achievement on its own, it enhanced the positive effect of mastery goal orientation. Together, these studies establish the importance of amity goal orientation while also advancing our understanding of the effects of other achievement goal orientations. We suggest future directions in examining the utility of amity goals in other contexts.

  6. National Identification and Collective Emotions as Predictors of Pro-Social Attitudes Toward Islamic Minority Groups in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashuri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the role of Indonesian Moslem majority’s national identification, collective emotions of pride and guilt in predicting their support in helping members of Islamic minority and their perceived inclusion towards this group. Data from this study (N = 182 demonstrated that, in line with our prediction, support for minority helping significantly predicted perceived inclusion. We also hypothesized and found that collective pride and collective guilt directly predicted the minority helping. Finally, national identification had significant direct effects on both collective pride and collective guilt. These findings shed light on the importance of collective emotions and national identification in giving rise to pro-social attitudes of Indonesian Moslem majority towards members of Islamic minority. Implications of the research findings were discussed with reference to theories of group-based emotion and intergroup helping, and to practical strategies Indonesian government can apply to recognize Islamic minorities.

  7. Helping the self help others: Self-affirmation increases self-compassion and pro-social behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Lindsay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-minutes of writing about an important personal value versus writing about an unimportant value increases feelings of self-compassion, and these feelings in turn mobilize more pro-social behaviors to a laboratory shelf-collapse incident. Study 2 tests and extends these effects by evaluating whether self-affirmation increases feelings of compassion toward the self (consistent with the self-compassion account or increases feelings of compassion toward others (an alternative other-directed compassion account, using a validated storytelling behavioral task. Consistent with a self-compassion account, Study 2 demonstrates the predicted self-affirmation by video condition interaction, indicating that self-affirmation participants had greater feelings of self-compassion in response to watching their own storytelling performance (self-compassion compared to watching a peer’s storytelling performance (other-directed compassion. Further, pre-existing levels of trait self-compassion moderated this effect, such that self-affirmation increased self-compassionate responses the most in participants low in trait self-compassion. This work suggests that self-compassion may be a promising mechanism for self-affirmation effects, and that self-compassionate feelings can mobilize pro-social behaviors.

  8. Helping the self help others: self-affirmation increases self-compassion and pro-social behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Emily K; Creswell, J David

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-min of writing about an important personal value vs. writing about an unimportant value) increases feelings of self-compassion, and these feelings in turn mobilize more pro-social behaviors to a laboratory shelf-collapse incident. Study 2 tests and extends these effects by evaluating whether self-affirmation increases feelings of compassion toward the self (consistent with the self-compassion account) or increases feelings of compassion toward others (an alternative other-directed compassion account), using a validated storytelling behavioral task. Consistent with a self-compassion account, Study 2 demonstrates the predicted self-affirmation by video condition interaction, indicating that self-affirmation participants had greater feelings of self-compassion in response to watching their own storytelling performance (self-compassion) compared to watching a peer's storytelling performance (other-directed compassion). Further, pre-existing levels of trait self-compassion moderated this effect, such that self-affirmation increased self-compassionate responses the most in participants low in trait self-compassion. This work suggests that self-compassion may be a promising mechanism for self-affirmation effects, and that self-compassionate feelings can mobilize pro-social behaviors.

  9. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Van Melderen; Manuel Saavedra De Bast

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial toxin?antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence,...

  10. Cellular evidence for selfish spermatogonial selection in aged human testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, G J; Goriely, A; Wilkie, A O M

    2014-05-01

    Owing to a recent trend for delayed paternity, the genomic integrity of spermatozoa of older men has become a focus of increased interest. Older fathers are at higher risk for their children to be born with several monogenic conditions collectively termed paternal age effect (PAE) disorders, which include achondroplasia, Apert syndrome and Costello syndrome. These disorders are caused by specific mutations originating almost exclusively from the male germline, in genes encoding components of the tyrosine kinase receptor/RAS/MAPK signalling pathway. These particular mutations, occurring randomly during mitotic divisions of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), are predicted to confer a selective/growth advantage on the mutant SSC. This selective advantage leads to a clonal expansion of the mutant cells over time, which generates mutant spermatozoa at levels significantly above the background mutation rate. This phenomenon, termed selfish spermatogonial selection, is likely to occur in all men. In rare cases, probably because of additional mutational events, selfish spermatogonial selection may lead to spermatocytic seminoma. The studies that initially predicted the clonal nature of selfish spermatogonial selection were based on DNA analysis, rather than the visualization of mutant clones in intact testes. In a recent study that aimed to identify these clones directly, we stained serial sections of fixed testes for expression of melanoma antigen family A4 (MAGEA4), a marker of spermatogonia. A subset of seminiferous tubules with an appearance and distribution compatible with the predicted mutant clones were identified. In these tubules, termed 'immunopositive tubules', there is an increased density of spermatogonia positive for markers related to selfish selection (FGFR3) and SSC self-renewal (phosphorylated AKT). Here we detail the properties of the immunopositive tubules and how they relate to the predicted mutant clones, as well as discussing the utility of

  11. Development of synthetic selfish elements based on modular nucleases in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Simoni, A; Siniscalchi, C; Chan, Y-S; Huen, DS; Russell, S; Windbichler, N; Crisanti, A

    2014-01-01

    Selfish genes are DNA elements that increase their rate of genetic transmission at the expense of other genes in the genome and can therefore quickly spread within a population. It has been suggested that selfish elements could be exploited to modify the genome of entire populations for medical and ecological applications. Here we report that transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) can be engineered into site-specific synthetic selfish elements (S...

  12. With a little help from my fans - extending models of pro-social behaviour to explain supporters' intentions to buy soccer club shares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, de J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework of pro-social behaviour for understanding and explaining soccer fans’ intentions to buy shares from their club in order to provide assistance in times of financial need. Based on the theory of norms, two alternative versions of the framework are empirically

  13. Prevention of school bullying: the important role of autonomy-supportive teaching and internalization of pro-social values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Guy; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Bibi, Uri

    2011-12-01

    This study examined students' perceptions of autonomy-supportive teaching (AST) and its relations to internalization of pro-social values and bullying in class. We hypothesized that: (1) teachers' AST, which involves provision of rationale and taking the student's perspective, would relate positively to students' identified internalization of considerateness towards classmates, and would relate negatively to external regulation (considerateness to obtain rewards or avoid punishments); (2) students' identified regulation would relate negatively to self-reported bullying in class, whereas external regulation would relate positively to bullying; and (3) the relation between teachers' AST and student bullying would be mediated by students' identification with the value of considerateness towards others. The sample consisted of 725 junior high school students (50% females) in Grades 7 and 8 from 27 classes in four schools serving students from lower-middle to middle-class socioeconomic backgrounds.   The participants completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest. Correlational analysis supported the hypotheses. Moreover, mediational analyses using hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) demonstrated that identified regulation mediates the negative relation between AST and self-reported bullying in class. The mediational hypothesis was supported at the between-class level and at the within-class level.   The findings suggest that school policy aimed at bullying reduction should go beyond external control that involves external rewards and sanctions and should help teachers acquire autonomy-supportive practices focusing on students' meaningful internalization. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Selfish operons: the evolutionary impact of gene clustering in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J

    1999-12-01

    The Selfish Operon Model postulates that the organization of bacterial genes into operons is beneficial to the constituent genes in that proximity allows horizontal cotransfer of all genes required for a selectable phenotype; eukaryotic operons formed for very different reasons. Horizontal transfer of selfish operons most probably promotes bacterial diversification.

  15. The Price of Selfish Stackelberg Leadership in a Network Game

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, P. W.; Polpinit, P.

    2007-01-01

    We study a class of games in which a finite number of agents each controls a quantity of flow to be routed through a network, and are able to split their own flow between multiple paths through the network. Recent work on this model has contrasted the social cost of Nash equilibria with the best possible social cost. Here we show that additional costs are incurred in situations where a selfish ``leader'' agent allocates his flow, and then commits to that choice so that other agents are compel...

  16. Selfish DNA in protein-coding genes of Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, H; Audic, S; Barbe, V; Artiguenave, F; Fournier, P E; Raoult, D; Claverie, J M

    2000-10-13

    Rickettsia conorii, the aetiological agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, is an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. Preliminary analyses of the nearly complete genome sequence of R. conorii have revealed 44 occurrences of a previously undescribed palindromic repeat (150 base pairs long) throughout the genome. Unexpectedly, this repeat was found inserted in-frame within 19 different R. conorii open reading frames likely to encode functional proteins. We found the same repeat in proteins of other Rickettsia species. The finding of a mobile element inserted in many unrelated genes suggests the potential role of selfish DNA in the creation of new protein sequences.

  17. Quantum selfish gene (biological evolution in terms of quantum mechanics)

    OpenAIRE

    Ozhigov, Yuri I.

    2013-01-01

    I propose to treat the biological evolution of genoms by means of quantum mechanical tools. We start with the concept of meta- gene, which specifies the "selfish gene" of R.Dawkins. Meta- gene encodes the abstract living unity, which can live relatively independently of the others, and can contain a few real creatures. Each population of living creatures we treat as the wave function on meta- genes, which module squared is the total number of creatures with the given meta-gene, and the phase ...

  18. Selfish prion of Rnq1 mutant in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shoichiro; Ishiwata, Masao; Nakamura, Yoshikazu

    2009-05-01

    [PIN(+)] is a prion form of Rnq1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is necessary for the de novo induction of a second prion, [PSI(+)]. We previously isolated a truncated form of Rnq1, named Rnq1Delta100, as a [PSI(+)]-eliminating factor in S. cerevisiae. Rnq1Delta100 deletes the N-terminal non-prion domain of Rnq1, and eliminates [PSI(+)] in [PIN(+)] yeast. Here we found that [PIN(+)] is transmissible to Rnq1Delta100 in the absence of full-length Rnq1, forming a novel prion variant [RNQ1Delta100(+)]. [RNQ1Delta100(+)] has similar [PIN(+)] properties as it stimulates the de novo induction of [PSI(+)] and is eliminated by the null hsp104Delta mutation, but not by Hsp104 overproduction. In contrast, [RNQ1Delta100(+)] inherits the inhibitory activity and hampers the maintenance of [PSI(+)] though less efficiently than [PIN(+)] made of Rnq1-Rnq1Delta100 co-aggregates. Interestingly, [RNQ1Delta100(+)] prion was eliminated by de novo [PSI(+)] induction. Thus, the [RNQ1Delta100(+)] prion demonstrates selfish activity to eliminate a heterologous prion in S. cerevisiae, showing the first instance of a selfish prion variant in living organisms.

  19. Endoribonuclease type II toxin-antitoxin systems: functional or selfish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetty, Bhaskar Chandra Mohan; Santhosh, Ramachandran Sarojini

    2017-07-01

    Most bacterial genomes have multiple type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) that encode two proteins which are referred to as a toxin and an antitoxin. Toxins inhibit a cellular process, while the interaction of the antitoxin with the toxin attenuates the toxin's activity. Endoribonuclease-encoding TAs cleave RNA in a sequence-dependent fashion, resulting in translational inhibition. To account for their prevalence and retention by bacterial genomes, TAs are credited with clinically significant phenomena, such as bacterial programmed cell death, persistence, biofilms and anti-addiction to plasmids. However, the programmed cell death and persistence hypotheses have been challenged because of conceptual, methodological and/or strain issues. In an alternative view, chromosomal TAs seem to be retained by virtue of addiction at two levels: via a poison-antidote combination (TA proteins) and via transcriptional reprogramming of the downstream core gene (due to integration). Any perturbation in the chromosomal TA operons could cause fitness loss due to polar effects on the downstream genes and hence be detrimental under natural conditions. The endoribonucleases encoding chromosomal TAs are most likely selfish DNA as they are retained by bacterial genomes, even though TAs do not confer a direct advantage via the TA proteins. TAs are likely used by various replicons as 'genetic arms' that allow the maintenance of themselves and associated genetic elements. TAs seem to be the 'selfish arms' that make the best use of the 'arms race' between bacterial genomes and plasmids.

  20. Selfish evolution of cytonuclear hybrid incompatibility in Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrea L; Finseth, Findley R; Barr, Camille M; Fishman, Lila

    2016-09-14

    Intraspecific coevolution between selfish elements and suppressors may promote interspecific hybrid incompatibility, but evidence of this process is rare. Here, we use genomic data to test alternative models for the evolution of cytonuclear hybrid male sterility in Mimulus In hybrids between Iron Mountain (IM) Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus nasutus, two tightly linked M. guttatus alleles (Rf1/Rf2) each restore male fertility by suppressing a local mitochondrial male-sterility gene (IM-CMS). Unlike neutral models for the evolution of hybrid incompatibility loci, selfish evolution predicts that the Rf alleles experienced strong selection in the presence of IM-CMS. Using whole-genome sequences, we compared patterns of population-genetic variation in Rf at IM to a neighbouring population that lacks IM-CMS. Consistent with local selection in the presence of IM-CMS, the Rf region shows elevated FST, high local linkage disequilibrium and a distinct haplotype structure at IM, but not at Cone Peak (CP), suggesting a recent sweep in the presence of IM-CMS. In both populations, Rf2 exhibited lower polymorphism than other regions, but the low-diversity outliers were different between CP and IM. Our results confirm theoretical predictions of ubiquitous cytonuclear conflict in plants and provide a population-genetic mechanism for the evolution of a common form of hybrid incompatibility. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Evolution of discrimination in populations at equilibrium between selfishness and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, Richard M; Curnow, Robert N

    2012-11-21

    Where there is genetically based variation in selfishness and altruism, as in man, altruists with an innate ability to recognise and thereby only help their altruistic relatives may evolve. Here we use diploid population genetic models to chart the evolution of genetically-based discrimination in populations initially in stable equilibrium between altruism and selfishness. The initial stable equilibria occur because help is assumed subject to diminishing returns. Similar results were obtained whether we used a model with two independently inherited loci, one controlling altruism the other discrimination, or a one locus model with three alleles. The latter is the opposite extreme to the first model, and can be thought of as involving complete linkage between two loci on the same chromosome. The introduction of discrimination reduced the benefits obtained by selfish individuals, more so as the number of discriminators increased, and selfishness was eventually eliminated in some cases. In others selfishness persisted and the evolutionary outcome was a stable equilibrium involving selfish individuals and both discriminating and non-discriminating altruists. Heritable variation in selfishness, altruism and discrimination is predicted to be particularly evident among full sibs. The suggested coexistence of these three genetic dispositions could explain widespread interest within human social groups as to who will and who will not help others. These predictions merit experimental and observational investigation by primatologists, anthropologists and psychologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Melderen, Laurence; Saavedra De Bast, Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxin's destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes.

  3. Selfish genetic elements, genetic conflict, and evolutionary innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werren, John H

    2011-06-28

    Genomes are vulnerable to selfish genetic elements (SGEs), which enhance their own transmission relative to the rest of an individual's genome but are neutral or harmful to the individual as a whole. As a result, genetic conflict occurs between SGEs and other genetic elements in the genome. There is growing evidence that SGEs, and the resulting genetic conflict, are an important motor for evolutionary change and innovation. In this review, the kinds of SGEs and their evolutionary consequences are described, including how these elements shape basic biological features, such as genome structure and gene regulation, evolution of new genes, origin of new species, and mechanisms of sex determination and development. The dynamics of SGEs are also considered, including possible "evolutionary functions" of SGEs.

  4. On the Social Cost of Distributed Selfish Content Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollatos, Gerasimos G.; Telelis, Orestis A.; Zissimopoulos, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    We study distributed content replication networks formed voluntarily by selfish autonomous users, seeking access to information objects that originate form distant servers. Each user caters to minimization of its individual access cost by replicating locally (up to constrained storage capacity......) a subset of objects, and accessing the rest form the nearest possible location. We show existence of stable networks by proving existence of pure strategy Nash equilibria for a game-theoretic formulation of this situation. Social (overall) cost of stable networks is measured by the average...... or by the maximum access cost experienced by any user. We study socially most and least expensive stable networks by means of tight bounds on the ratios of the Price of Anarchy and Stability respectively. Although in the worst case the ratios may coincide, we identify cases where they differ significantly. We...

  5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DSR ROUTING PROTOCOL UNDER ENERGY BASED SELFISH ATTACK IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.P.Sundararajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the cooperation of all participating nodes to provide the fundamental operations such as routing and data forwarding. However, due to the open structure and scarcely available battery-based energy, node misbehaviors may exist.[1]. One such routing misbehavior is that some selfish nodes will participate in the route discovery and maintenance processes but refuse to forward data packets. This paper pointed out Energy based selfish nodes (EBSN where these selfish nodes tend to use the network but do not cooperate, saving battery life for their own communications [2],[3]. We present a simulation study of the effects of Energy based selfish nodes (EBSN on DSR routing protocol and its impact over network performance in terms of throughput and delay of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes were misbehaving.

  6. Exponential Reliability Coefficient based Reputation Mechanism for isolating selfish nodes in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sengathir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, cooperation among active mobile nodes is considered to play a vital role in reliable transmission of data. But, the selfish mobile nodes present in an ad hoc environment refuse to forward neighbouring nodes’ packet for conserving its own energy. This intentional selfish behaviour drastically reduces the degree of cooperation maintained between the mobile nodes. Hence, a need arises for devising an effective mechanism which incorporates both energy efficiency and reputation into account for mitigating selfish behaviour in MANETs. In this paper, we propose an Exponential Reliability Coefficient based reputation Mechanism (ERCRM which isolates the selfish nodes from the routing path based on Exponential Reliability Coefficient (ExRC. This reliability coefficient manipulated through exponential failure rate based on moving average method highlights the most recent past behaviour of the mobile nodes for quantifying its genuineness. From the simulation results, it is evident that, the proposed ERCRM approach outperforms the existing Packet Conservation Monitoring Algorithm (PCMA and Spilt Half Reliability Coefficient based Mathematical Model (SHRCM in terms of performance evaluation metrics such as packet delivery ratio, throughput, total overhead and control overhead. Further, this ERCRM mechanism has a successful rate of 28% in isolating the selfish nodes from the routing path. Furthermore, it also aids in framing the exponential threshold point of detection as 0.4, where a maximum number of selfish nodes are identified when compared to the existing models available in the literature.

  7. Selfish genetic elements and the gene’s-eye view of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    During the last few decades, we have seen an explosion in the influx of details about the biology of selfish genetic elements. Ever since the early days of the field, the gene’s-eye view of Richard Dawkins, George Williams, and others, has been instrumental to make sense of new empirical observations and to the generation of new hypotheses. However, the close association between selfish genetic elements and the gene’s-eye view has not been without critics and several other conceptual frameworks have been suggested. In particular, proponents of multilevel selection models have used selfish genetic elements to criticize the gene’s-eye view. In this paper, I first trace the intertwined histories of the study of selfish genetic elements and the gene’s-eye view and then discuss how their association holds up when compared with other proposed frameworks. Next, using examples from transposable elements and the major transitions, I argue that different models highlight separate aspects of the evolution of selfish genetic elements and that the productive way forward is to maintain a plurality of perspectives. Finally, I discuss how the empirical study of selfish genetic elements has implications for other conceptual issues associated with the gene’s-eye view, such as agential thinking, adaptationism, and the role of fitness maximizing models in evolution. PMID:29491953

  8. Reproductive bribing and policing as evolutionary mechanisms for the suppression of within-group selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, H K; Keller, L

    1997-07-01

    We show that a new, simple, and robust general mechanism for the social suppression of within-group selfishness follows from Hamilton's rule applied in a multilevel selection approach to asymmetrical, two-person groups: If it pays a group member to behave selfishly (i.e., increase its share of the group's reproduction, at the expense of group productivity), then its partner will virtually always be favored to provide a reproductive "bribe" sufficient to remove the incentive for the selfish behavior. The magnitude of the bribe will vary directly with the number of offspring (or other close kin) potentially gained by the selfish individual and inversely with both the relatedness r between the interactants and the loss in group productivity because of selfishness. This bribe principle greatly extends the scope for cooperation within groups. Reproductive bribing is more likely to be favored over social policing for dominants rather than subordinates and as intragroup relatedness increases. Finally, analysis of the difference between the group optimum for an individual's behavior and the individual's inclusive fitness optimum reveals a paradoxical feedback loop by which bribing and policing, while nullifying particular selfish acts, automatically widen the separation of individual and group optima for other behaviors (i.e., resolution of one conflict intensifies others).

  9. Endogenous vasopressin, innate anxiety, and the emission of pro-social 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations during social play behavior in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Michael; Wöhr, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Although the involvement of the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) in rodent social interaction is already extensively characterized, little is known about its role in social communication. Rats communicate in the ultrasonic range by means of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV). Depending on developmental stage and affective state, rats emit various distinct types of USV, with appetitive 50-kHz USV being induced by positive social interactions, like juvenile social play, probably serving an affiliative communicative function, namely to (re)establish or induce social proximity. In rats and mice selectively bred for low (LAB) and high (HAB) anxiety-related behavior, the emission of isolation-induced distress USV during maternal deprivation as pups correlates with innate high levels of hypothalamic AVP availability. Moreover, male LAB and HAB rats express deficits in social approach towards conspecifics, together with high and/or abnormal forms of aggression when confronted with harmless opponents, possibly due to a lack of social communication skills. The aim of this study was therefore (1) to investigate and characterize social play behavior and concomitant pro-social 50-kHz USV emission in male and female, juvenile LAB and HAB rats and to compare them to non-selected Wistar (NAB) rats; and (2) to link these findings pharmacologically to the central AVP system via applying an AVP 1a receptor (V1aR) antagonist (0.75 μg; Manning compound) or synthetic AVP (1 ng) into the lateral ventricle of male juvenile NAB rats. Our results show that reduced social play behavior in highly anxious male and female, juvenile HAB rats is accompanied by low amounts of pro-social 50-kHz USV, as compared to respective LAB and NAB rats, possibly reflecting a lack of positive affective states in expectation of or following social interactions in these individuals. Secondly, although synthetic AVP did not alter social play behavior and pro-social 50-kHz USV, we demonstrated for the first

  10. The Effects of the Activation of Money and Credit Card vs. that of Activation of Spirituality - Which One Prompts Pro-Social Behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Jakub; Zawadzka, Anna Maria

    Pro-social behaviours may be prompted or inhibited depending on the situation. Numerous experiments show that, when exposed to the idea of money, people are less willing to help, devote their time or share their resources with others (Vohs et al. Science, 314, 1154-1156, 2006, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(3), 208-212, 2008). Conversely, when exposed to the idea of spirituality, they often cheat less and are more willing to help others (Mazar and Ariely Journal of Marketing Research, 45, 633-644, 2008; Randolph-Seng and Nielsen The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 17(4), 303-315, 2007). The aim of this article is to present the results of two experiments in which we activated thoughts about money, i.e. both cash and credit cards, and thoughts about spirituality in order to find out in what way these two kinds of activation may influence pro-social behaviours. In experiment 1, participants, when reminded of money, offered lower donations to others whereas those reminded of spirituality offered higher donations. In experiment 2, those participants reminded of money offered to devote less time to help others whereas those reminded of spirituality offered to devote more time to help others.

  11. Genetic addiction: selfish gene's strategy for symbiosis in the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Atsushi; Yahara, Koji; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Iwasa, Yoh

    2006-02-01

    The evolution and maintenance of the phenomenon of postsegregational host killing or genetic addiction are paradoxical. In this phenomenon, a gene complex, once established in a genome, programs death of a host cell that has eliminated it. The intact form of the gene complex would survive in other members of the host population. It is controversial as to why these genetic elements are maintained, due to the lethal effects of host killing, or perhaps some other properties are beneficial to the host. We analyzed their population dynamics by analytical methods and computer simulations. Genetic addiction turned out to be advantageous to the gene complex in the presence of a competitor genetic element. The advantage is, however, limited in a population without spatial structure, such as that in a well-mixed liquid culture. In contrast, in a structured habitat, such as the surface of a solid medium, the addiction gene complex can increase in frequency, irrespective of its initial density. Our demonstration that genomes can evolve through acquisition of addiction genes has implications for the general question of how a genome can evolve as a community of potentially selfish genes.

  12. Invasion and persistence of a selfish gene in the Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Goddard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs are superfluous, but are capable of invading populations that mix alleles by biasing their inheritance patterns through gene conversion. One model suggests that their long-term persistence is achieved through recurrent invasion. This circumvents evolutionary degeneration, but requires reasonable rates of transfer between species to maintain purifying selection. Although HEGs are found in a variety of microbes, we found the previous discovery of this type of selfish genetic element in the mitochondria of a sea anemone surprising. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We surveyed 29 species of Cnidaria for the presence of the COXI HEG. Statistical analyses provided evidence for HEG invasion. We also found that 96 individuals of Metridium senile, from five different locations in the UK, had identical HEG sequences. This lack of sequence divergence illustrates the stable nature of Anthozoan mitochondria. Our data suggests this HEG conforms to the recurrent invasion model of evolution. CONCLUSIONS: Ordinarily such low rates of HEG transfer would likely be insufficient to enable major invasion. However, the slow rate of Anthozoan mitochondrial change lengthens greatly the time to HEG degeneration: this significantly extends the periodicity of the HEG life-cycle. We suggest that a combination of very low substitution rates and rare transfers facilitated metazoan HEG invasion.

  13. Bacterial Toxin–Antitoxin Systems: More Than Selfish Entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Melderen, Laurence; Saavedra De Bast, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxin's destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes. PMID:19325885

  14. Selfish cellular networks and the evolution of complex organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourilsky, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Human gametogenesis takes years and involves many cellular divisions, particularly in males. Consequently, gametogenesis provides the opportunity to acquire multiple de novo mutations. A significant portion of these is likely to impact the cellular networks linking genes, proteins, RNA and metabolites, which constitute the functional units of cells. A wealth of literature shows that these individual cellular networks are complex, robust and evolvable. To some extent, they are able to monitor their own performance, and display sufficient autonomy to be termed "selfish". Their robustness is linked to quality control mechanisms which are embedded in and act upon the individual networks, thereby providing a basis for selection during gametogenesis. These selective processes are equally likely to affect cellular functions that are not gamete-specific, and the evolution of the most complex organisms, including man, is therefore likely to occur via two pathways: essential housekeeping functions would be regulated and evolve during gametogenesis within the parents before being transmitted to their progeny, while classical selection would operate on other traits of the organisms that shape their fitness with respect to the environment. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Invasion and persistence of a selfish gene in the Cnidaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Matthew R; Leigh, Jessica; Roger, Andrew J; Pemberton, Andrew J

    2006-12-20

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are superfluous, but are capable of invading populations that mix alleles by biasing their inheritance patterns through gene conversion. One model suggests that their long-term persistence is achieved through recurrent invasion. This circumvents evolutionary degeneration, but requires reasonable rates of transfer between species to maintain purifying selection. Although HEGs are found in a variety of microbes, we found the previous discovery of this type of selfish genetic element in the mitochondria of a sea anemone surprising. We surveyed 29 species of Cnidaria for the presence of the COXI HEG. Statistical analyses provided evidence for HEG invasion. We also found that 96 individuals of Metridium senile, from five different locations in the UK, had identical HEG sequences. This lack of sequence divergence illustrates the stable nature of Anthozoan mitochondria. Our data suggests this HEG conforms to the recurrent invasion model of evolution. Ordinarily such low rates of HEG transfer would likely be insufficient to enable major invasion. However, the slow rate of Anthozoan mitochondrial change lengthens greatly the time to HEG degeneration: this significantly extends the periodicity of the HEG life-cycle. We suggest that a combination of very low substitution rates and rare transfers facilitated metazoan HEG invasion.

  16. Outcrossed sex allows a selfish gene to invade yeast populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, M R; Greig, D; Burt, A

    2001-12-22

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) in eukaryotes are optional genes that have no obvious effect on host phenotype except for causing chromosomes not containing a copy of the gene to be cut, thus causing them to be inherited at a greater than Mendelian rate via gene conversion. These genes are therefore expected to increase in frequency in outcrossed populations, but not in obligately selfed populations. In order to test this idea, we compared the dynamics of the VDE HEG in six replicate outcrossed and inbred populations of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). VDE increased in frequency from 0.21 to 0.55 in four outcrossed generations, but showed no change in frequency in the inbred populations. The absence of change in the inbred populations indicates that any effect of VDE on mitotic replication rates is less than 1%. The data from the outcrossed populations best fit a model in which 82% of individuals are derived from outcrossing and VDE is inherited by 74% of the meiotic products from heterozygotes (as compared with 50% for Mendelian genes). These results empirically demonstrate how a host mating system plays a key role in determining the population dynamics of a selfish gene.

  17. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Van Melderen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxin's destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes.

  18. Outcrossed sex allows a selfish gene to invade yeast populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, M. R.; Greig, D.; Burt, A.

    2001-01-01

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) in eukaryotes are optional genes that have no obvious effect on host phenotype except for causing chromosomes not containing a copy of the gene to be cut, thus causing them to be inherited at a greater than Mendelian rate via gene conversion. These genes are therefore expected to increase in frequency in outcrossed populations, but not in obligately selfed populations. In order to test this idea, we compared the dynamics of the VDE HEG in six replicate outcrossed and inbred populations of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). VDE increased in frequency from 0.21 to 0.55 in four outcrossed generations, but showed no change in frequency in the inbred populations. The absence of change in the inbred populations indicates that any effect of VDE on mitotic replication rates is less than 1%. The data from the outcrossed populations best fit a model in which 82% of individuals are derived from outcrossing and VDE is inherited by 74% of the meiotic products from heterozygotes (as compared with 50% for Mendelian genes). These results empirically demonstrate how a host mating system plays a key role in determining the population dynamics of a selfish gene. PMID:11749707

  19. Statics and Dynamics of Selfish Interactions in Distributed Service Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Altarelli

    Full Text Available We study a class of games which models the competition among agents to access some service provided by distributed service units and which exhibits congestion and frustration phenomena when service units have limited capacity. We propose a technique, based on the cavity method of statistical physics, to characterize the full spectrum of Nash equilibria of the game. The analysis reveals a large variety of equilibria, with very different statistical properties. Natural selfish dynamics, such as best-response, usually tend to large-utility equilibria, even though those of smaller utility are exponentially more numerous. Interestingly, the latter actually can be reached by selecting the initial conditions of the best-response dynamics close to the saturation limit of the service unit capacities. We also study a more realistic stochastic variant of the game by means of a simple and effective approximation of the average over the random parameters, showing that the properties of the average-case Nash equilibria are qualitatively similar to the deterministic ones.

  20. The educative relationship in primary school: aggressive tendencies and pro-social behaviour La relación educativa en la escuela primaria: tendencias agresivas y comportamientos prosociales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Longobardi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The general objective of this work is to analyze how pupils’ aggressive tendencies and pro-social behaviour can influence the perception of a given educative relationship, both from the point of view of the pupil and of the teacher. This study shall focus particularly on aggressive tendencies and pro-social behaviour envisaged as indicators of social adaptation’s capability. The research has been conducted on a sample of 249 pupils and 30 teachers, belonging to 15 primary school classes in the province of Turin. Both teachers and pupils agree that children with difficulties of social adaptation appear to maintain less positive relationships: their lower pro-social behaviour matches lack of closeness in relationships and the increase of affective distance within them. Moreover, augmented aggressive tendencies have been discovered among pupils with higher levels of conflict. This research shall highlight how the social and anti-social modalities of interaction of a child may influence a teacher’s perception of their relationship, much more than the pupil’s evaluation of his or hers cognitive abilities. For what concerns the association between relationship and capability of adaptation, it shall be first shown how the pupil tends to view himself or herself as a more or less pro-social and antisocial individual; then, how such perception influences the pupil’s connection with the teacher. At the same time, it shall be given evidence of how the teacher tends to judge the bond with a pupil on the basis of the mental image he or she has created of the child and of which the child may not be entirely aware.

    Key words: Educative relationship, teacher-pupil, aggressiveness, pro-social behaviour.

    El objetivo general del trabajo es el de estudiar la influencia que la tendencia agresiva y el comportamiento prosocial del alumno, considerados como indicadores de la capacidad de adaptación social, pueden ejercitar sobre la percepci

  1. Leading Machiavellians: how to translate Machiavellians’ selfishness into pro-organizational behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belschak, F.D.; den Hartog, D.N.; Kalshoven, K.

    2015-01-01

    Machiavellians are said to be manipulative people who reduce the social capital of the organization. Yet some authors note that Machiavellians are also highly adaptive individuals who are able to contribute, cooperate, and use pro-social strategies when it is advantageous to them. Here we study

  2. The selfish Segregation Distorter gene complex of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larracuente, Amanda M; Presgraves, Daven C

    2012-09-01

    Segregation Distorter (SD) is an autosomal meiotic drive gene complex found worldwide in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. During spermatogenesis, SD induces dysfunction of SD(+) spermatids so that SD/SD(+) males sire almost exclusively SD-bearing progeny rather than the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio. SD is thus evolutionarily "selfish," enhancing its own transmission at the expense of its bearers. Here we review the molecular and evolutionary genetics of SD. Genetic analyses show that the SD is a multilocus gene complex involving two key loci--the driver, Segregation distorter (Sd), and the target of drive, Responder (Rsp)--and at least three upward modifiers of distortion. Molecular analyses show that Sd encodes a truncated duplication of the gene RanGAP, whereas Rsp is a large pericentromeric block of satellite DNA. The Sd-RanGAP protein is enzymatically wild type but mislocalized within cells and, for reasons that remain unclear, appears to disrupt the histone-to-protamine transition in drive-sensitive spermatids bearing many Rsp satellite repeats but not drive-insensitive spermatids bearing few or no Rsp satellite repeats. Evolutionary analyses show that the Sd-RanGAP duplication arose recently within the D. melanogaster lineage, exploiting the preexisting and considerably older Rsp satellite locus. Once established, the SD haplotype collected enhancers of distortion and suppressors of recombination. Further dissection of the molecular genetic and cellular basis of SD-mediated distortion seems likely to provide insights into several important areas currently understudied, including the genetic control of spermatogenesis, the maintenance and evolution of satellite DNAs, the possible roles of small interfering RNAs in the germline, and the molecular population genetics of the interaction of genetic linkage and natural selection.

  3. Old age as a privilege of the "selfish ones".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, Mladen; Sevo, Goran; Svorcan, Petar; Milosevic, Dragoslav P; Despotovic, Nebojsa; Erceg, Predrag

    2010-10-01

    In the past couple of centuries, scientists proposed great number of aging theories but neither of them appears to be fully satisfactory. In the statistical sense, we are dealing with an even greater challenge because large array of factors affects the aging process. Although at this point the most of these factors are well known, it is the very fact of their innumerability that complicates approaches to the issue at hand. Both in life and in medicine, the cause behind an effect can rarely be unequivocally determined. Thus, it appears that through out human history longevity has been primarily affected by eradication of diseases, especially by eradication of infectious diseases and introduction of the vaccines. For that reason, maybe we should not be referring to this issue as the «fountain of youth» but rather as the «vaccine of youth». The postulate that genetic instability is the precipitating factor both of aging and cancer has withstood many tests and keeps on being reaffirmed. For this reason, it is legitimate to pose a question of whether long-lived individuals may be those with «selfish» genes and more stable genetic material. They certainly cannot avoid aging, but aging in such individuals could be delayed due to steady character of their genome, which is less susceptible to mutations. On the population level, they constitute minority because stable genome would represent an obstacle to successful evolution of the species. If this was not the case, we might not be writing all these texts today.

  4. R2d2 Drives Selfish Sweeps in the House Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, John P; Morgan, Andrew P; Yadgary, Liran; Bell, Timothy A; McMullan, Rachel C; Ortiz de Solorzano, Lydia; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Bult, Carol J; Campbell, Karl J; Castiglia, Riccardo; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chunco, Amanda J; Crowley, James J; Chesler, Elissa J; Förster, Daniel W; French, John E; Gabriel, Sofia I; Gatti, Daniel M; Garland, Theodore; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B; Giménez, Mabel D; Grize, Sofia A; Gündüz, İslam; Holmes, Andrew; Hauffe, Heidi C; Herman, Jeremy S; Holt, James M; Hua, Kunjie; Jolley, Wesley J; Lindholm, Anna K; López-Fuster, María J; Mitsainas, George; da Luz Mathias, Maria; McMillan, Leonard; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça Morgado; Rehermann, Barbara; Rosshart, Stephan P; Searle, Jeremy B; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Solano, Emanuela; Svenson, Karen L; Thomas-Laemont, Patricia; Threadgill, David W; Ventura, Jacint; Weinstock, George M; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    A selective sweep is the result of strong positive selection driving newly occurring or standing genetic variants to fixation, and can dramatically alter the pattern and distribution of allelic diversity in a population. Population-level sequencing data have enabled discoveries of selective sweeps associated with genes involved in recent adaptations in many species. In contrast, much debate but little evidence addresses whether "selfish" genes are capable of fixation-thereby leaving signatures identical to classical selective sweeps-despite being neutral or deleterious to organismal fitness. We previously described R2d2, a large copy-number variant that causes nonrandom segregation of mouse Chromosome 2 in females due to meiotic drive. Here we show population-genetic data consistent with a selfish sweep driven by alleles of R2d2 with high copy number (R2d2(HC)) in natural populations. We replicate this finding in multiple closed breeding populations from six outbred backgrounds segregating for R2d2 alleles. We find that R2d2(HC) rapidly increases in frequency, and in most cases becomes fixed in significantly fewer generations than can be explained by genetic drift. R2d2(HC) is also associated with significantly reduced litter sizes in heterozygous mothers, making it a true selfish allele. Our data provide direct evidence of populations actively undergoing selfish sweeps, and demonstrate that meiotic drive can rapidly alter the genomic landscape in favor of mutations with neutral or even negative effects on overall Darwinian fitness. Further study will reveal the incidence of selfish sweeps, and will elucidate the relative contributions of selfish genes, adaptation and genetic drift to evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Hop limited epidemic-like information spreading in mobile social networks with selfish nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yahui; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2013-07-01

    Similar to epidemics, information can be transmitted directly among users in mobile social networks. Different from epidemics, we can control the spreading process by adjusting the corresponding parameters (e.g., hop count) directly. This paper proposes a theoretical model to evaluate the performance of an epidemic-like spreading algorithm, in which the maximal hop count of the information is limited. In addition, our model can be used to evaluate the impact of users’ selfish behavior. Simulations show the accuracy of our theoretical model. Numerical results show that the information hop count can have an important impact. In addition, the impact of selfish behavior is related to the information hop count.

  6. Hop limited epidemic-like information spreading in mobile social networks with selfish nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yahui; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    Similar to epidemics, information can be transmitted directly among users in mobile social networks. Different from epidemics, we can control the spreading process by adjusting the corresponding parameters (e.g., hop count) directly. This paper proposes a theoretical model to evaluate the performance of an epidemic-like spreading algorithm, in which the maximal hop count of the information is limited. In addition, our model can be used to evaluate the impact of users’ selfish behavior. Simulations show the accuracy of our theoretical model. Numerical results show that the information hop count can have an important impact. In addition, the impact of selfish behavior is related to the information hop count. (paper)

  7. A Selfish Constraint Satisfaction Genetic Algorithms for Planning a Long-Distance Transportation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoyama, Takashi; Maekawa, Takuya; Kubota, Sen; Tsuruta, Setuso; Komoda, Norihisa

    To build a cooperative logistics network covering multiple enterprises, a planning method that can build a long-distance transportation network is required. Many strict constraints are imposed on this type of problem. To solve these strict-constraint problems, a selfish constraint satisfaction genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed. In this GA, each gene of an individual satisfies only its constraint selfishly, disregarding the constraints of other genes in the same individuals. Moreover, a constraint pre-checking method is also applied to improve the GA convergence speed. The experimental result shows the proposed method can obtain an accurate solution in a practical response time.

  8. A synthetic maternal-effect selfish genetic element drives population replacement in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hong; Huang, Haixia; Ward, Catherine M; Su, Jessica T; Schaeffer, Lorian V; Guo, Ming; Hay, Bruce A

    2007-04-27

    One proposed strategy for controlling the transmission of insect-borne pathogens uses a drive mechanism to ensure the rapid spread of transgenes conferring disease refractoriness throughout wild populations. Here, we report the creation of maternal-effect selfish genetic elements in Drosophila that drive population replacement and are resistant to recombination-mediated dissociation of drive and disease refractoriness functions. These selfish elements use microRNA-mediated silencing of a maternally expressed gene essential for embryogenesis, which is coupled with early zygotic expression of a rescuing transgene.

  9. Confirmation of Maslow's Hypothesis of Synergy: Developing an Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito

    2016-04-30

    This study aimed to develop a new Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale (ASWS) and to confirm Maslow's hypothesis of synergy: if both a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace are high, workers are psychologically healthy. In a cross-sectional study with employees of three Japanese companies, 656 workers answered a self-administered questionnaire on paper completely (response rate = 66.8%). Each questionnaire was submitted to us in a sealed envelope and analyzed. The ASWS indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86). Significant (p Maslow's hypothesis of synergy was confirmed.

  10. Popular science - common ground. A literary critique of Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Helene

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to perform a literary reading of Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene from a perspective situated outside of the 'battle of the two cultures'. Chapter 1 takes Foucault's article What is an author?" as its point of departure. After discussing how Dawkins may be seen as a reader of Darwin, I will go on to discuss Foucault's concept of the author-function, before I move on to consider some different readings of and approaches to The Selfish Gene. With reference to a polemic bet...

  11. In Intergroup Conflict, Self-sacrifice is Stronger among Pro-social Individuals and Parochial Altruism Emerges specially among Cognitively Taxed Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K.W. De Dreu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma—Maximizing Differences Game (IPD-MD with ninety-five subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that decisions to contribute and self-sacrifice were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that longer decision time associated with less positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (versus pro-self individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged—in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups.

  12. Efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Program: Promoting Pro-social Behavior and Preventing Suicidality in Primary School Students. A Randomised-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Roberts

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an enhanced version of the Aussie Optimism Program (AOP was investigated in a cluster randomized controlled trial. Grade 6 students aged 10–11 years of age (N = 2288 from 63 government primary schools in Perth, Western Australia, participated in the pre, post, and follow-up study. Schools were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Aussie Optimism with teacher training, Aussie Optimism with teacher training plus coaching, or a usual care condition that received the regular Western Australian Health Education Curriculum. Students in the Aussie Optimism conditions received 20, 1-h lessons relating to social and interpersonal skills and optimistic thinking skills over the last 2 years of primary school. Parents in the active conditions received a parent information booklet each year, plus a self-directed program in Grade 7. Students and parents completed the Extended Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Students who scored in the clinical range on the Emotional Symptoms Scale were given The Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents IV, to assess suicidal ideation and behavior, and depressive and anxiety disorders. Results indicated that Aussie Optimism with teacher training plus coaching was associated with the best outcomes: a significant increase in student-reported pro-social behavior from pre-test to post-test 1 (maintained at post-test 2 and significantly lower incidence rates from suicidal ideation at post-test 2 and follow-up. No significant intervention effects on anxiety and depressive disorders, and total difficulties were reported. These findings suggest that the AOP with teacher training along with coaching may have the potential to positively impact on suicidality and pro-social behavior in the pre-adolescent years.

  13. Neo-Darwinism, the modern synthesis and selfish genes: are they of use in physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis

    2011-03-01

    This article argues that the gene-centric interpretations of evolution, and more particularly the selfish gene expression of those interpretations, form barriers to the integration of physiological science with evolutionary theory. A gene-centred approach analyses the relationships between genotypes and phenotypes in terms of differences (change the genotype and observe changes in phenotype). We now know that, most frequently, this does not correctly reveal the relationships because of extensive buffering by robust networks of interactions. By contrast, understanding biological function through physiological analysis requires an integrative approach in which the activity of the proteins and RNAs formed from each DNA template is analysed in networks of interactions. These networks also include components that are not specified by nuclear DNA. Inheritance is not through DNA sequences alone. The selfish gene idea is not useful in the physiological sciences, since selfishness cannot be defined as an intrinsic property of nucleotide sequences independently of gene frequency, i.e. the 'success' in the gene pool that is supposed to be attributable to the 'selfish' property. It is not a physiologically testable hypothesis.

  14. To Help or Not to Help? The Relation between Jewish Children's Perceptions of Their Parent Attitudes about Bullying and Pro-Social Engagement with Classmates in Bullying Instances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Penny

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to focus on the influence that children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes about bullying has on their own attitudes about bullying and defending victims, as well as their actual defending behavior and general pro-social behavior. This study utilizes data collected for a previous study of the BRAVE bully…

  15. The Impact of Prolonged Participation in a Pro-Social Cognitive Behavioral Skills Program on Elementary Age Students, with Behavior Related Disorders, Behavior Accelerative, Behavior Reductive, and Return to Regular Classroom Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Ted H.

    2012-01-01

    Overall, pretest-posttest results indicated statistically significant pretest beginning program compared to posttest ending program percentage of behavioral improvement for on task, following directions, and positive interactions outcomes improvement for individual students who completed the elementary grades pro-social cognitive behavioral skills…

  16. Selfish genetic elements favor the evolution of a distinction between soma and germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise J

    2008-08-01

    Many multicellular organisms have evolved a dedicated germline. This can benefit the whole organism, but its advantages to genetic parasites have not been explored. Here I model the evolutionary success of a selfish element, such as a transposable element or endosymbiont, which is capable of creating or strengthening a germline-soma distinction in a primitively multicellular host, and find that it will always benefit the element to do so. Genes causing germline sequestration can therefore spread in a population even if germline sequestration is maladaptive for the host organism. Costly selfish elements are expected to survive only in sexual populations, so sexual species may experience an additional push toward germline-soma distinction, and hence toward cell differentiation and multicellularity.

  17. Selfish strategies and honest signalling: reproductive conflicts in ant queen associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Social insects offer unique opportunities to test predictions regarding the evolution of cooperation, life histories and communication. Colony founding by groups of unrelated queens, some of which are later killed, may select for selfish reproductive strategies, honest signalling and punishment....... Here, we use a brood transfer experiment to test whether cofounding queens of the ant Lasius niger 'selfishly' adjust their productivity when sharing the nest with future competitors. We simultaneously analysed queen cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles to investigate whether queens honestly signal...... correlated with reproductive maturation, and to a lesser extent with productivity; the same hydrocarbons were more abundant on queens that were not killed, suggesting that workers select productive queens using these chemical cues. Our results highlight the role of honest signalling in the evolution...

  18. The 'selfish brain' is regulated by aquaporins and autophagy under nutrient deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiao; Wu, Yonghong; Gao, Yan; Li, Zhihui; Li, Weiguang; Zhang, Chenggang

    2016-05-01

    The brain maintains its mass and physiological functional capacity compared with other organs under harsh conditions such as starvation, a mechanism termed the 'selfish brain' theory. To further investigate this phenomenon, mice were examined following water and/or food deprivation. Although the body weights of the mice, the weight of the organs except the brain and blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in the absence of water and/or food, the brain weight maintained its original state. Furthermore, no significant differences in the water content of the brain or its energy balance were observed when the mice were subjected to water and/or food deprivation. To further investigate the mechanism underlying the brain maintenance of water and substance homeostasis, the expression levels of aquaporins (AQPs) and autophagy‑specific protein long‑chain protein 3 (LC3) were examined. During the process of water and food deprivation, no significant differences in the transcriptional levels of AQPs were observed. However, autophagy activity levels were initially stimulated, then suppressed in a time‑dependent manner. LC3 and AQPs have important roles for the survival of the brain under conditions of food and water deprivation, which provided further understanding of the mechanism underlying the 'selfish brain' phenomenon. Although not involved in the energy regulation of the 'selfish brain', AQPs were observed to have important roles in water and food deprivation, specifically with regards to the control of water content. Additionally, the brain exhibits an 'unselfish strategy' using autophagy during water and/or food deprivation. The present study furthered current understanding of the 'selfish brain' theory, and identified additional regulating target genes of AQPs and autophagy, with the aim of providing a basis for the prevention of nutrient shortage in humans and animals.

  19. Selfish memes: An update of Richard Dawkins’ bibliometric analysis of key papers in sociobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Aaen-Stockdale, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This is an Open Access journal available from http://www.mdpi.com/ In the second edition of The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins included a short bibliometric analysis of key papers instrumental to the sociobiological revolution, the intention of which was to support his proposal that ideas spread within a population in an epidemiological manner. In his analysis, Dawkins primarily discussed the influence of an article by British evolutionary biologist William Donald Hamilton which had introdu...

  20. A global optimization algorithm inspired in the behavior of selfish herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, Fernando; Cuevas, Erik; Valdivia, Arturo; González, Adrián

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a novel swarm optimization algorithm called the Selfish Herd Optimizer (SHO) is proposed for solving global optimization problems. SHO is based on the simulation of the widely observed selfish herd behavior manifested by individuals within a herd of animals subjected to some form of predation risk. In SHO, individuals emulate the predatory interactions between groups of prey and predators by two types of search agents: the members of a selfish herd (the prey) and a pack of hungry predators. Depending on their classification as either a prey or a predator, each individual is conducted by a set of unique evolutionary operators inspired by such prey-predator relationship. These unique traits allow SHO to improve the balance between exploration and exploitation without altering the population size. To illustrate the proficiency and robustness of the proposed method, it is compared to other well-known evolutionary optimization approaches such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Firefly Algorithm (FA), Differential Evolution (DE), Genetic Algorithms (GA), Crow Search Algorithm (CSA), Dragonfly Algorithm (DA), Moth-flame Optimization Algorithm (MOA) and Sine Cosine Algorithm (SCA). The comparison examines several standard benchmark functions, commonly considered within the literature of evolutionary algorithms. The experimental results show the remarkable performance of our proposed approach against those of the other compared methods, and as such SHO is proven to be an excellent alternative to solve global optimization problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Selfish Goal: autonomously operating motivational structures as the proximate cause of human judgment and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julie Y; Bargh, John A

    2014-04-01

    We propose the Selfish Goal model, which holds that a person's behavior is driven by psychological processes called goals that guide his or her behavior, at times in contradictory directions. Goals can operate both consciously and unconsciously, and when activated they can trigger downstream effects on a person's information processing and behavioral possibilities that promote only the attainment of goal end-states (and not necessarily the overall interests of the individual). Hence, goals influence a person as if the goals themselves were selfish and interested only in their own completion. We argue that there is an evolutionary basis to believe that conscious goals evolved from unconscious and selfish forms of pursuit. This theoretical framework predicts the existence of unconscious goal processes capable of guiding behavior in the absence of conscious awareness and control (the automaticity principle), the ability of the most motivating or active goal to constrain a person's information processing and behavior toward successful completion of that goal (the reconfiguration principle), structural similarities between conscious and unconscious goal pursuit (the similarity principle), and goal influences that produce apparent inconsistencies or counterintuitive behaviors in a person's behavior extended over time (the inconsistency principle). Thus, we argue that a person's behaviors are indirectly selected at the goal level but expressed (and comprehended) at the individual level.

  2. Development of synthetic selfish elements based on modular nucleases in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Alekos; Siniscalchi, Carla; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Huen, David S; Russell, Steven; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Selfish genes are DNA elements that increase their rate of genetic transmission at the expense of other genes in the genome and can therefore quickly spread within a population. It has been suggested that selfish elements could be exploited to modify the genome of entire populations for medical and ecological applications. Here we report that transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) can be engineered into site-specific synthetic selfish elements (SSEs) and demonstrate their transmission of up to 70% in the Drosophila germline. We show here that SSEs can spread via DNA break-induced homologous recombination, a process known as 'homing' similar to that observed for homing endonuclease genes (HEGs), despite their fundamentally different modes of DNA binding and cleavage. We observed that TALEN and ZFN have a reduced capability of secondary homing compared to HEG as their repetitive structure had a negative effect on their genetic stability. The modular architecture of ZFNs and TALENs allows for the rapid design of novel SSEs against specific genomic sequences making them potentially suitable for the genetic engineering of wild-type populations of animals and plants, in applications such as gene replacement or population suppression of pest species. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. The games economists play: Why economics students behave more selfishly than other students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gerlach

    Full Text Available Do economics students behave more selfishly than other students? Experiments involving monetary allocations suggest so. This article investigates the underlying motives for the economic students' more selfish behavior by separating three potential explanatory mechanisms: economics students are less concerned with fairness when making allocation decisions; have a different notion of what is fair in allocations; or are more skeptical about other people's allocations, which in turn makes them less willing to comply with a shared fairness norm. The three mechanisms were tested by inviting students from various disciplines to participate in a relatively novel experimental game and asking all participants to give reasons for their choices. Compared with students of other disciplines, economics students were about equally likely to mention fairness in their comments; had a similar notion of what was fair in the situation; however, they expected lower offers, made lower offers, and were less willing to enforce compliance with a fair allocation at a cost to themselves. The economics students' lower expectations mediated their allocation decisions, suggesting that economics students behaved more selfishly because they expected others not to comply with the shared fairness norm.

  4. Virus world as an evolutionary network of viruses and capsidless selfish elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V; Dolja, Valerian V

    2014-06-01

    Viruses were defined as one of the two principal types of organisms in the biosphere, namely, as capsid-encoding organisms in contrast to ribosome-encoding organisms, i.e., all cellular life forms. Structurally similar, apparently homologous capsids are present in a huge variety of icosahedral viruses that infect bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. These findings prompted the concept of the capsid as the virus "self" that defines the identity of deep, ancient viral lineages. However, several other widespread viral "hallmark genes" encode key components of the viral replication apparatus (such as polymerases and helicases) and combine with different capsid proteins, given the inherently modular character of viral evolution. Furthermore, diverse, widespread, capsidless selfish genetic elements, such as plasmids and various types of transposons, share hallmark genes with viruses. Viruses appear to have evolved from capsidless selfish elements, and vice versa, on multiple occasions during evolution. At the earliest, precellular stage of life's evolution, capsidless genetic parasites most likely emerged first and subsequently gave rise to different classes of viruses. In this review, we develop the concept of a greater virus world which forms an evolutionary network that is held together by shared conserved genes and includes both bona fide capsid-encoding viruses and different classes of capsidless replicons. Theoretical studies indicate that selfish replicons (genetic parasites) inevitably emerge in any sufficiently complex evolving ensemble of replicators. Therefore, the key signature of the greater virus world is not the presence of a capsid but rather genetic, informational parasitism itself, i.e., various degrees of reliance on the information processing systems of the host. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Dopaminergic stimulation increases selfish behavior in the absence of punishment threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroni, Andreas; Eisenegger, Christoph; Hartmann, Matthias N; Fischbacher, Urs; Knoch, Daria

    2014-01-01

    People often face decisions that pit self-interested behavior aimed at maximizing personal reward against normative behavior such as acting cooperatively, which benefits others. The threat of social sanctions for defying the fairness norm prevents people from behaving overly selfish. Thus, normative behavior is influenced by both seeking rewards and avoiding punishment. However, the neurochemical processes mediating the impact of these influences remain unknown. Several lines of evidence link the dopaminergic system to reward and punishment processing, respectively, but this evidence stems from studies in non-social contexts. The present study investigates dopaminergic drug effects on individuals' reward seeking and punishment avoidance in social interaction. Two-hundred one healthy male participants were randomly assigned to receive 300 mg of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) or a placebo before playing an economic bargaining game. This game involved two conditions, one in which unfair behavior could be punished and one in which unfair behavior could not be punished. In the absence of punishment threats, L-DOPA administration led to more selfish behavior, likely mediated through an increase in reward seeking. In contrast, L-DOPA administration had no significant effect on behavior when faced with punishment threats. The results of this study broaden the role of the dopaminergic system in reward seeking to human social interactions. We could show that even a single dose of a dopaminergic drug may bring selfish behavior to the fore, which in turn may shed new light on potential causal relationships between the dopaminergic system and norm abiding behaviors in certain clinical subpopulations.

  6. The effect of amount and tangibility of endowment and certainty of recipients on selfishness in a modified dictator game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Chuan; Lin, Li-Yun; Horng, Ruey-Yun; Wang, Yau-De

    2014-06-01

    Taiwanese college students (N = 101) participated in the study to examine the effects of the amount of an endowment, the tangibility of an endowment, and the certainty of the recipient on selfishness in a modified dictator game. Results showed that dictators were more selfish when allocating tangible (money) than less tangible (honor credits) endowments. Selfishness was higher when large amounts of money were involved. The certainty of the recipient was manipulated by whether the recipient was chosen and announced before or after the decision. Unexpectedly, participants were more self-interested in the certain-recipient condition than in the uncertain-recipient condition. In the honor condition, the amount of an endowment and the certainty of the recipient did not affect participants' allocations.

  7. Are happier people less judgmental of other people's selfish behaviors? Experimental survey evidence from trust and gift exchange games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouvelis, Michalis; Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2015-10-01

    What determines people's moral judgments of selfish behaviors? Here we study whether people's normative views in trust and gift exchange games, which underlie many situations of economic and social significance, are themselves functions of positive emotions. We use experimental survey methods to investigate the moral judgments of impartial observers empirically, and explore whether we could influence subsequent judgments by deliberately making some individuals happier. We find that moral judgments of selfish behaviors in the economic context depend strongly on the behavior of the interaction partner of the judged person, but their relationships are significantly moderated by an increase in happiness for the person making the judgment.

  8. Social class, power, and selfishness: when and why upper and lower class individuals behave unethically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, David; Rucker, Derek D; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-03-01

    Are the rich more unethical than the poor? To answer this question, the current research introduces a key conceptual distinction between selfish and unethical behavior. Based on this distinction, the current article offers 2 novel findings that illuminate the relationship between social class and unethical behavior. First, the effects of social class on unethical behavior are not invariant; rather, the effects of social class are moderated by whether unethical behavior benefits the self or others. Replicating past work, social class positively predicted unethical behavior; however, this relationship was only observed when that behavior was self-beneficial. When unethical behavior was performed to benefit others, social class negatively predicted unethical behavior; lower class individuals were more likely than upper class individuals to engage in unethical behavior. Overall, social class predicts people's tendency to behave selfishly, rather than predicting unethical behavior per se. Second, individuals' sense of power drove the effects of social class on unethical behavior. Evidence for this relationship was provided in three forms. First, income, but not education level, predicted unethical behavior. Second, feelings of power mediated the effect of social class on unethical behavior, but feelings of status did not. Third, two distinct manipulations of power produced the same moderation by self-versus-other beneficiary as was found with social class. The current theoretical framework and data both synthesize and help to explain a range of findings in the social class and power literatures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondrial depolarization in yeast zygotes inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavaeva, Iuliia E; Golyshev, Sergey A; Smirnova, Ekaterina A; Sokolov, Svyatoslav S; Severin, Fedor F; Knorre, Dmitry A

    2017-04-01

    Non-identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compete with each other within a cell and the ultimate variant of mtDNA present depends on their relative replication rates. Using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as a model, we studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors on the competition between wild-type mtDNA and mutant selfish mtDNA in heteroplasmic zygotes. We found that decreasing mitochondrial transmembrane potential by adding uncouplers or valinomycin changes the competition outcomes in favor of the wild-type mtDNA. This effect was significantly lower in cells with disrupted mitochondria fission or repression of the autophagy-related genes ATG8 , ATG32 or ATG33 , implying that heteroplasmic zygotes activate mitochondrial degradation in response to the depolarization. Moreover, the rate of mitochondrially targeted GFP turnover was higher in zygotes treated with uncoupler than in haploid cells or untreated zygotes. Finally, we showed that vacuoles of zygotes with uncoupler-activated autophagy contained DNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that mitochondrial depolarization inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA and this effect depends on mitochondrial fission and autophagy. These observations suggest an activation of mitochondria quality control mechanisms in heteroplasmic yeast zygotes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Evolutionary maintenance of selfish homing endonuclease genes in the absence of horizontal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahara, Koji; Fukuyo, Masaki; Sasaki, Akira; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2009-11-03

    Homing endonuclease genes are "selfish" mobile genetic elements whose endonuclease promotes the spread of its own gene by creating a break at a specific target site and using the host machinery to repair the break by copying and inserting the gene at this site. Horizontal transfer across the boundary of a species or population within which mating takes place has been thought to be necessary for their evolutionary persistence. This is based on the assumption that they will become fixed in a host population, where opportunities of homing will disappear, and become susceptible to degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we modeled behavior of a homing endonuclease gene that moves during meiosis through double-strand break repair. We mathematically explored conditions for persistence of the homing endonuclease gene and elucidated their parameter dependence as phase diagrams. We found that, if the cost of the pseudogene is lower than that of the homing endonuclease gene, the 2 forms can persist in a population through autonomous periodic oscillation. If the cost of the pseudogene is higher, 2 types of dynamics appear that enable evolutionary persistence: bistability dependent on initial frequency or fixation irrespective of initial frequency. The prediction of long persistence in the absence of horizontal transfer was confirmed by stochastic simulations in finite populations. The average time to extinction of the endonuclease gene was found to be thousands of meiotic generations or more based on realistic parameter values. These results provide a solid theoretical basis for an understanding of these and other extremely selfish elements.

  11. Sexual selection, genetic conflict, selfish genes, and the atypical patterns of gene expression in spermatogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleene, Kenneth C

    2005-01-01

    This review proposes that the peculiar patterns of gene expression in spermatogenic cells are the consequence of powerful evolutionary forces known as sexual selection. Sexual selection is generally characterized by intense competition of males for females, an enormous variety of the strategies to maximize male reproductive success, exaggerated male traits at all levels of biological organization, co-evolution of sexual traits in males and females, and conflict between the sexual advantage of the male trait and the reproductive fitness of females and the individual fitness of both sexes. In addition, spermatogenesis is afflicted by selfish genes that promote their transmission to progeny while causing deleterious effects. Sexual selection, selfish genes, and genetic conflict provide compelling explanations for many atypical features of gene expression in spermatogenic cells including the gross overexpression of certain mRNAs, transcripts encoding truncated proteins that cannot carry out basic functions of the proteins encoded by the same genes in somatic cells, the large number of gene families containing paralogous genes encoding spermatogenic cell-specific isoforms, the large number of testis-cancer-associated genes that are expressed only in spermatogenic cells and malignant cells, and the overbearing role of Sertoli cells in regulating the number and quality of spermatozoa.

  12. Site-specific selfish genes as tools for the control and genetic engineering of natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Austin

    2003-05-07

    Site-specific selfish genes exploit host functions to copy themselves into a defined target DNA sequence, and include homing endonuclease genes, group II introns and some LINE-like transposable elements. If such genes can be engineered to target new host sequences, then they can be used to manipulate natural populations, even if the number of individuals released is a small fraction of the entire population. For example, a genetic load sufficient to eradicate a population can be imposed in fewer than 20 generations, if the target is an essential host gene, the knockout is recessive and the selfish gene has an appropriate promoter. There will be selection for resistance, but several strategies are available for reducing the likelihood of it evolving. These genes may also be used to genetically engineer natural populations, by means of population-wide gene knockouts, gene replacements and genetic transformations. By targeting sex-linked loci just prior to meiosis one may skew the population sex ratio, and by changing the promoter one may limit the spread of the gene to neighbouring populations. The proposed constructs are evolutionarily stable in the face of the mutations most likely to arise during their spread, and strategies are also available for reversing the manipulations.

  13. Are maternal mitochondria the selfish entities that are masters of the cells of eukaryotic multicellular organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Peter W; Baldelli, E; Baluška, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    The Energide concept, as well as the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic cell organization and evolution, proposes that present-day cells of eukaryotic organisms are mosaics of specialized and cooperating units, or organelles. Some of these units were originally free-living prokaryotes, which were engulfed during evolutionary time. Mitochondria represent one of these types of previously independent organisms, the Energide, is another type. This new perspective on the organization of the cell has been further expanded to reveal the concept of a public milieu, the cytosol, in which Energides and mitochondria live, each with their own private internal milieu. The present paper discusses how the endosymbiotic theory implicates a new hypothesis about the hierarchical and communicational organization of the integrated prokaryotic components of the eukaryotic cell and provides a new angle from which to consider the theory of evolution and its bearing upon cellular complexity. Thus, it is proposed that the “selfish gene” hypothesis of Dawkins1 is not the only possible perspective for comprehending genomic and cellular evolution. Our proposal is that maternal mitochondria are the selfish “master” entities of the eukaryotic cell with respect not only to their propagation from cell-to-cell and from generation-to-generation but also to their regulation of all other cellular functions. However, it should be recognized that the concept of “master” and “servant” cell components is a metaphor; in present-day living organisms their organellar components are considered to be interdependent and inseparable. PMID:19513277

  14. Oxytocin modulates third-party sanctioning of selfish and generous behavior within and between groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Ten Velden, Femke S; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-01

    Human groups function because members trust each other and reciprocate cooperative contributions, and reward others' cooperation and punish their non-cooperation. Here we examined the possibility that such third-party punishment and reward of others' trust and reciprocation is modulated by oxytocin, a neuropeptide generally involved in social bonding and in-group (but not out-group) serving behavior. Healthy males and females (N=100) self-administered a placebo or 24 IU of oxytocin in a randomized, double-blind, between-subjects design. Participants were asked to indicate (incentivized, costly) their level of reward or punishment for in-group (outgroup) investors donating generously or fairly to in-group (outgroup) trustees, who back-transferred generously, fairly or selfishly. Punishment (reward) was higher for selfish (generous) investments and back-transfers when (i) investors were in-group rather than outgroup, and (ii) trustees were in-group rather than outgroup, especially when (iii) participants received oxytocin rather than placebo. It follows, first, that oxytocin leads individuals to ignore out-groups as long as out-group behavior is not relevant to the in-group and, second, that oxytocin contributes to creating and enforcing in-group norms of cooperation and trust. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SPRINT-SELF: Social-Based Routing and Selfish Node Detection in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ioan Ciobanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since mobile devices nowadays have become ubiquitous, several types of networks formed over such devices have been proposed. One such approach is represented by opportunistic networking, which is based on a store-carry-and-forward paradigm, where nodes store data and carry it until they reach a suitable node for forwarding. The problem in such networks is how to decide what the next hop will be, since nodes do not have a global view of the network. We propose using the social network information of a node when performing routing, since a node is more likely to encounter members of its own social community than other nodes. In addition, we approximate a node’s contact as a Poisson distribution and show that we can predict its future behavior based on the contact history. Furthermore, since opportunistic network nodes may be selfish, we improve our solution by adding a selfish node detection and avoidance mechanism, which can help reduce the number of unnecessary messages sent in the network, and thus avoid congestion and decrease battery consumption. We show that our algorithm outperforms existing solutions such as BUBBLE Rap and Epidemic in terms of delivery cost and hit rate, as well as the rate of congestion introduced in the network, by testing in various realistic scenarios.

  16. Dogs’ recognition of human selfish and generous attitudes requires little but critical experience with people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Esteban; Casanave, Emma B.

    2017-01-01

    There is some dispute regarding the role of experience in the development of dogs´ socio-cognitive abilities in their interaction with people. We sought to provide new evidence to this debate by comparing dogs with contrasting levels of experience with humans, in a task involving the discrimination of human generous and selfish attitudes. To this end, we compared the performance of adult family dogs against that of adult shelter dogs and puppies living in people´s homes. In training trials, the generous experimenter (G) signaled the bowl with food and allowed the dog to eat, whereas the selfish experimenter (S) also signaled the baited bowl, but she/he ate the food before the dog could have access to it. Then, subjects were allowed to freely choose between G and S in the choice test. The main finding was that adult subjects (both family and shelter dogs) developed a preference for G over S, but puppies did not. We conclude that the quality and/or quantity of everyday-contact with people did not affect the discrimination of human attitudes in the present protocol, but the amount of experience with people (in years) did matter. Finally, we discuss the relative role of domestication and ontogeny in the development of dogs´ socio-cognitive abilities. PMID:29045426

  17. Confirmation of Maslow’s Hypothesis of Synergy: Developing an Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a new Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale (ASWS and to confirm Maslow’s hypothesis of synergy: if both a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace are high, workers are psychologically healthy. In a cross-sectional study with employees of three Japanese companies, 656 workers answered a self-administered questionnaire on paper completely (response rate = 66.8%. Each questionnaire was submitted to us in a sealed envelope and analyzed. The ASWS indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86. Significant (p < 0.001 positive moderate correlations between ASWS scores and job control scores support the ASWS’s convergent and discriminant validity. Significant (p < 0.001 associations of ASWS scores with psychological distress and work engagement supported the ASWS’s criterion validity. In short, ASWS was a psychometrically satisfactory measure. Significant (p < 0.05 interactions between a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace in linear regression models showed that when those two factors are low, psychological distress becomes high. However, when a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness are high, work engagement also becomes high. Thus, Maslow’s hypothesis of synergy was confirmed.

  18. Arms race between selfishness and policing: two-trait quantitative genetic model for caste fate conflict in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobata, Shigeto

    2012-12-01

    Policing against selfishness is now regarded as the main force maintaining cooperation, by reducing costly conflict in complex social systems. Although policing has been studied extensively in social insect colonies, its coevolution against selfishness has not been fully captured by previous theories. In this study, I developed a two-trait quantitative genetic model of the conflict between selfish immature females (usually larvae) and policing workers in eusocial Hymenoptera over the immatures' propensity to develop into new queens. This model allows for the analysis of coevolution between genomes expressed in immatures and workers that collectively determine the immatures' queen caste fate. The main prediction of the model is that a higher level of polyandry leads to a smaller fraction of queens produced among new females through caste fate policing. The other main prediction of the present model is that, as a result of arms race, caste fate policing by workers coevolves with exaggerated selfishness of the immatures achieving maximum potential to develop into queens. Moreover, the model can incorporate genetic correlation between traits, which has been largely unexplored in social evolution theory. This study highlights the importance of understanding social traits as influenced by the coevolution of conflicting genomes. © 2012 The Author. Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Selfish Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    are motivated by some of the deficiencies of the traffic model defined in Chapter 2. First, net- work users can often only evaluate path latency...include edges (s, s11), (s, sk2), (t11, t), ( tk2 , t). We define latency functions on the edges of G′ as follows: (A) for edges of the form (vi, s i 2) or

  20. Selfish Little Circles: Transmission Bias and Evolution of Large Deletion-Bearing Mitochondrial DNA in Caenorhabditis briggsae Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katie A.; Howe, Dana K.; Gafner, Kristin; Kusuma, Danika; Ping, Sita; Estes, Suzanne; Denver, Dee R.

    2012-01-01

    Selfish DNA poses a significant challenge to genome stability and organismal fitness in diverse eukaryotic lineages. Although selfish mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has known associations with cytoplasmic male sterility in numerous gynodioecious plant species and is manifested as petite mutants in experimental yeast lab populations, examples of selfish mtDNA in animals are less common. We analyzed the inheritance and evolution of mitochondrial DNA bearing large heteroplasmic deletions including nad5 gene sequences (nad5Δ mtDNA), in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae. The deletion is widespread in C. briggsae natural populations and is associated with deleterious organismal effects. We studied the inheritance patterns of nad5Δ mtDNA using eight sets of C. briggsae mutation-accumulation (MA) lines, each initiated from a different natural strain progenitor and bottlenecked as single hermaphrodites across generations. We observed a consistent and strong drive toward higher levels of deletion-bearing molecules in the heteroplasmic pool of mtDNA after ten generations of bottlenecking. Our results demonstrate a uniform transmission bias whereby nad5Δ mtDNA accumulates to higher levels relative to intact mtDNA in multiple genetically diverse natural strains of C. briggsae. We calculated an average 1% per-generation transmission bias for deletion-bearing mtDNA relative to intact genomes. Our study, coupled with known deleterious phenotypes associated with high deletion levels, shows that nad5Δ mtDNA are selfish genetic elements that have evolved in natural populations of C. briggsae, offering a powerful new system to study selfish mtDNA dynamics in metazoans. PMID:22859984

  1. Selfish little circles: transmission bias and evolution of large deletion-bearing mitochondrial DNA in Caenorhabditis briggsae nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie A Clark

    Full Text Available Selfish DNA poses a significant challenge to genome stability and organismal fitness in diverse eukaryotic lineages. Although selfish mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has known associations with cytoplasmic male sterility in numerous gynodioecious plant species and is manifested as petite mutants in experimental yeast lab populations, examples of selfish mtDNA in animals are less common. We analyzed the inheritance and evolution of mitochondrial DNA bearing large heteroplasmic deletions including nad5 gene sequences (nad5Δ mtDNA, in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae. The deletion is widespread in C. briggsae natural populations and is associated with deleterious organismal effects. We studied the inheritance patterns of nad5Δ mtDNA using eight sets of C. briggsae mutation-accumulation (MA lines, each initiated from a different natural strain progenitor and bottlenecked as single hermaphrodites across generations. We observed a consistent and strong drive toward higher levels of deletion-bearing molecules in the heteroplasmic pool of mtDNA after ten generations of bottlenecking. Our results demonstrate a uniform transmission bias whereby nad5Δ mtDNA accumulates to higher levels relative to intact mtDNA in multiple genetically diverse natural strains of C. briggsae. We calculated an average 1% per-generation transmission bias for deletion-bearing mtDNA relative to intact genomes. Our study, coupled with known deleterious phenotypes associated with high deletion levels, shows that nad5Δ mtDNA are selfish genetic elements that have evolved in natural populations of C. briggsae, offering a powerful new system to study selfish mtDNA dynamics in metazoans.

  2. Are consumers guided by selfish or unselfish motives when they buy organic food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    Organic food is produced in a way that reduces harm to the environment and respects the welfare of farm animals. Hence, buying organic food seems to be an act of ethical and environmentally responsible consumer behavior. However, it is often claimed that consumers really buy organic food...... is analyzing how the purchase of organic food relates to the individual consumer's value priorities, using a comprehensive measurement instrument for values. Following this line of reasoning, the objective of the empirical part of the paper is to answer the question whether buying organic food is related...... to selfish (self-enhancement) or unselfish (self-transcendence) values? A survey study is reported based on representative samples of 1,000 respondents from each of eight European countries. It is found that the purchase of organic food is more strongly and consistently related to self-transcendence values...

  3. Selfish play increases during high-stakes NBA games and is rewarded with more lucrative contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes team competitions can present a social dilemma in which participants must choose between concentrating on their personal performance and assisting teammates as a means of achieving group objectives. We find that despite the seemingly strong group incentive to win the NBA title, cooperative play actually diminishes during playoff games, negatively affecting team performance. Thus team cooperation decreases in the very high stakes contexts in which it is most important to perform well together. Highlighting the mixed incentives that underlie selfish play, personal scoring is rewarded with more lucrative future contracts, whereas assisting teammates to score is associated with reduced pay due to lost opportunities for personal scoring. A combination of misaligned incentives and psychological biases in performance evaluation bring out the "I" in "team" when cooperation is most critical.

  4. The maternal-effect, selfish genetic element Medea is associated with a composite Tc1 transposon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Marcé D; Gnirke, Andreas; Margolis, Jonathan; Garnes, Jeffrey; Campbell, Margie; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Aggarwal, Rajat; Richards, Stephen; Park, Yoonseong; Beeman, Richard W

    2008-07-22

    Maternal-Effect Dominant Embryonic Arrest ("Medea") factors are selfish nuclear elements that combine maternal-lethal and zygotic-rescue activities to gain a postzygotic survival advantage. We show that Medea(1) activity in Tribolium castaneum is associated with a composite Tc1 transposon inserted just downstream of the neurotransmitter reuptake symporter bloated tubules (blot), whose Drosophila ortholog has both maternal and zygotic functions. The 21.5-kb insertion contains defective copies of elongation initiation factor-3, ATP synthase subunit C, and an RNaseD-related gene, as well as a potentially intact copy of a prokaryotic DUF1703 gene. Sequence comparisons suggest that the current distribution of Medea(1) reflects global emanation after a single transpositional event in recent evolutionary time. The Medea system in Tribolium represents an unusual type of intragenomic conflict and could provide a useful vehicle for driving desirable genes into populations.

  5. Homing endonuclease genes: the rise and fall and rise again of a selfish element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Austin; Koufopanou, Vassiliki

    2004-12-01

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are selfish genetic elements that spread by first cleaving chromosomes that do not contain them and then getting copied across to the broken chromosome as a byproduct of the repair process. The success of this strategy will depend on the opportunities for homing--in other words, the frequency with which HEG(+) and HEG(-) chromosomes come into contact--which varies widely among host taxa. HEGs are also unusual in that the selection pressure for endonuclease function disappears if they become fixed in a population, which makes them susceptible to degeneration and imposes a need for regular horizontal transmission between species. HEGs will be selected to reduce the harm done to the host organism, and this is expected to influence the evolution of their sequence specificity and maturase functions. HEGs may also be domesticated by their hosts, and are currently being put to human uses.

  6. Humans as Superorganisms: How Microbes, Viruses, Imprinted Genes, and Other Selfish Entities Shape Our Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Peter; Bressan, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists tend to be little aware that (a) microbes in our brains and guts are capable of altering our behavior; (b) viral DNA that was incorporated into our DNA millions of years ago is implicated in mental disorders; (c) many of us carry the cells of another human in our brains; and (d) under the regulation of viruslike elements, the paternally inherited and maternally inherited copies of some genes compete for domination in the offspring, on whom they have opposite physical and behavioral effects. This article provides a broad overview, aimed at a wide readership, of the consequences of our coexistence with these selfish entities. The overarching message is that we are not unitary individuals but superorganisms, built out of both human and nonhuman elements; it is their interaction that determines who we are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Selfish play increases during high-stakes NBA games and is rewarded with more lucrative contracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Luis Uhlmann

    Full Text Available High-stakes team competitions can present a social dilemma in which participants must choose between concentrating on their personal performance and assisting teammates as a means of achieving group objectives. We find that despite the seemingly strong group incentive to win the NBA title, cooperative play actually diminishes during playoff games, negatively affecting team performance. Thus team cooperation decreases in the very high stakes contexts in which it is most important to perform well together. Highlighting the mixed incentives that underlie selfish play, personal scoring is rewarded with more lucrative future contracts, whereas assisting teammates to score is associated with reduced pay due to lost opportunities for personal scoring. A combination of misaligned incentives and psychological biases in performance evaluation bring out the "I" in "team" when cooperation is most critical.

  8. A selfish genetic element confers non-Mendelian inheritance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Zhigang; Zheng, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jiawu; Kong, Weiyi; Wang, Peiran; Bai, Wenting; Zheng, Hai; Zhang, Huan; Li, Jing; Liu, Jiafan; Wang, Qiming; Zhang, Long; Liu, Kai; Yu, Yang; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Lin, Qibing; Wu, Fuqing; Ren, Yulong; Zhu, Shanshan; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Zhijun; Lei, Cailin; Liu, Shijia; Liu, Xi; Tian, Yunlu; Jiang, Ling; Ge, Song; Wu, Chuanyin; Tao, Dayun; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2018-06-08

    Selfish genetic elements are pervasive in eukaryote genomes, but their role remains controversial. We show that qHMS7 , a major quantitative genetic locus for hybrid male sterility between wild rice ( Oryza meridionalis ) and Asian cultivated rice ( O. sativa ), contains two tightly linked genes [ Open Reading Frame 2 ( ORF2 ) and ORF3 ]. ORF2 encodes a toxic genetic element that aborts pollen in a sporophytic manner, whereas ORF3 encodes an antidote that protects pollen in a gametophytic manner. Pollens lacking ORF3 are selectively eliminated, leading to segregation distortion in the progeny. Analysis of the genetic sequence suggests that ORF3 arose first, followed by gradual functionalization of ORF2 Furthermore, this toxin-antidote system may have promoted the differentiation and/or maintained the genome stability of wild and cultivated rice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. Incentive Compatible and Globally Efficient Position Based Routing for Selfish Reverse Multicast in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Varatharajan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of all-to-one selfish routing in the absence of a payment scheme in wireless sensor networks, where a natural model for cost is the power required to forward, referring to the resulting game as a Locally Minimum Cost Forwarding (LMCF. Our objective is to characterize equilibria and their global costs in terms of stretch and diameter, in particular finding incentive compatible algorithms that are also close to globally optimal. We find that although social costs for equilibria of LMCF exhibit arbitrarily bad worst-case bounds and computational infeasibility of reaching optimal equilibria, there exist greedy and local incentive compatible heuristics achieving near-optimal global costs.

  10. Selfish spermatogonial selection: evidence from an immunohistochemical screen in testes of elderly men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Lim

    Full Text Available The dominant congenital disorders Apert syndrome, achondroplasia and multiple endocrine neoplasia-caused by specific missense mutations in the FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET proteins respectively-represent classical examples of paternal age-effect mutation, a class that arises at particularly high frequencies in the sperm of older men. Previous analyses of DNA from randomly selected cadaveric testes showed that the levels of the corresponding FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET mutations exhibit very uneven spatial distributions, with localised hotspots surrounded by large mutation-negative areas. These studies imply that normal testes are mosaic for clusters of mutant cells: these clusters are predicted to have altered growth and signalling properties leading to their clonal expansion (selfish spermatogonial selection, but DNA extraction eliminates the possibility to study such processes at a tissue level. Using a panel of antibodies optimised for the detection of spermatocytic seminoma, a rare tumour of spermatogonial origin, we demonstrate that putative clonal events are frequent within normal testes of elderly men (mean age: 73.3 yrs and can be classed into two broad categories. We found numerous small (less than 200 cells cellular aggregations with distinct immunohistochemical characteristics, localised to a portion of the seminiferous tubule, which are of uncertain significance. However more infrequently we identified additional regions where entire seminiferous tubules had a circumferentially altered immunohistochemical appearance that extended through multiple serial sections that were physically contiguous (up to 1 mm in length, and exhibited enhanced staining for antibodies both to FGFR3 and a marker of downstream signal activation, pAKT. These findings support the concept that populations of spermatogonia in individual seminiferous tubules in the testes of older men are clonal mosaics with regard to their signalling properties and activation, thus fulfilling

  11. Behavior of restriction–modification systems as selfish mobile elements and their impact on genome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2001-01-01

    Restriction–modification (RM) systems are composed of genes that encode a restriction enzyme and a modification methylase. RM systems sometimes behave as discrete units of life, like viruses and transposons. RM complexes attack invading DNA that has not been properly modified and thus may serve as a tool of defense for bacterial cells. However, any threat to their maintenance, such as a challenge by a competing genetic element (an incompatible plasmid or an allelic homologous stretch of DNA, for example) can lead to cell death through restriction breakage in the genome. This post-segregational or post-disturbance cell killing may provide the RM complexes (and any DNA linked with them) with a competitive advantage. There is evidence that they have undergone extensive horizontal transfer between genomes, as inferred from their sequence homology, codon usage bias and GC content difference. They are often linked with mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, viruses, transposons and integrons. The comparison of closely related bacterial genomes also suggests that, at times, RM genes themselves behave as mobile elements and cause genome rearrangements. Indeed some bacterial genomes that survived post-disturbance attack by an RM gene complex in the laboratory have experienced genome rearrangements. The avoidance of some restriction sites by bacterial genomes may result from selection by past restriction attacks. Both bacteriophages and bacteria also appear to use homologous recombination to cope with the selfish behavior of RM systems. RM systems compete with each other in several ways. One is competition for recognition sequences in post-segregational killing. Another is super-infection exclusion, that is, the killing of the cell carrying an RM system when it is infected with another RM system of the same regulatory specificity but of a different sequence specificity. The capacity of RM systems to act as selfish, mobile genetic elements may underlie the structure and

  12. Behavior of restriction-modification systems as selfish mobile elements and their impact on genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, I

    2001-09-15

    Restriction-modification (RM) systems are composed of genes that encode a restriction enzyme and a modification methylase. RM systems sometimes behave as discrete units of life, like viruses and transposons. RM complexes attack invading DNA that has not been properly modified and thus may serve as a tool of defense for bacterial cells. However, any threat to their maintenance, such as a challenge by a competing genetic element (an incompatible plasmid or an allelic homologous stretch of DNA, for example) can lead to cell death through restriction breakage in the genome. This post-segregational or post-disturbance cell killing may provide the RM complexes (and any DNA linked with them) with a competitive advantage. There is evidence that they have undergone extensive horizontal transfer between genomes, as inferred from their sequence homology, codon usage bias and GC content difference. They are often linked with mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, viruses, transposons and integrons. The comparison of closely related bacterial genomes also suggests that, at times, RM genes themselves behave as mobile elements and cause genome rearrangements. Indeed some bacterial genomes that survived post-disturbance attack by an RM gene complex in the laboratory have experienced genome rearrangements. The avoidance of some restriction sites by bacterial genomes may result from selection by past restriction attacks. Both bacteriophages and bacteria also appear to use homologous recombination to cope with the selfish behavior of RM systems. RM systems compete with each other in several ways. One is competition for recognition sequences in post-segregational killing. Another is super-infection exclusion, that is, the killing of the cell carrying an RM system when it is infected with another RM system of the same regulatory specificity but of a different sequence specificity. The capacity of RM systems to act as selfish, mobile genetic elements may underlie the structure and

  13. Selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate both first-order and second-order social dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pengbi; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-11-21

    Punishment, especially selfish punishment, has recently been identified as a potent promoter in sustaining or even enhancing the cooperation among unrelated individuals. However, without other key mechanisms, the first-order social dilemma and second-order social dilemma are still two enduring conundrums in biology and the social sciences even with the presence of punishment. In the present study, we investigate a spatial evolutionary four-strategy prisoner׳s dilemma game model with avoiding mechanism, where the four strategies are cooperation, defection, altruistic and selfish punishment. By introducing the low level of random mutation of strategies, we demonstrate that the presence of selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate the two kinds of social dilemmas for various parametrizations. In addition, we propose an extended pair approximation method, whose solutions can essentially estimate the dynamical behaviors and final evolutionary frequencies of the four strategies. At last, considering the analogy between our model and the classical Lotka-Volterra system, we introduce interaction webs based on the spatial replicator dynamics and the transformed payoff matrix to qualitatively characterize the emergent co-exist strategy phases, and its validity are supported by extensive simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A selfish gene chastened: Tribolium castaneum Medea M4 is silenced by a complementary gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M Scott

    2014-04-01

    Maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest (Medea) of Tribolium castaneum are autosomal factors that act maternally to cause the death of any progeny that do not inherit them. This selfish behavior is thought to result from a maternally expressed poison and zygotically expressed antidote. Medea factors and the hybrid incompatibility factor, H, have a negative interaction consistent with complementary genes of the Dobzhansky-Muller model for post-zygotic isolation. This negative interaction may result from H suppression of Medea zygotic antidote, leaving zygotes incompletely protected from maternal poison. I report here a test of the hypothesis that H also suppresses the Medea maternal poison. Viable F1 females were generated from a cross of Medea M4 strain males to H strain females. These females, heterozygous for both M4 and H, failed to express M4 maternal lethal activity when crossed to their male sibs. Transmission of non-M4 homologues from these females was confirmed using a dominant transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein eye color marker, tightly linked in cis to M4. M4 beetles, lacking H, were selected from the F2 population. Female descendants of these clearly expressed M4 maternal lethal activity, indicating restoration of this activity after H was segregated away. I conclude that H, or a factor tightly linked to H, suppresses Medea M4 maternal poison.

  15. Visualizing the origins of selfish de novo mutations in individual seminiferous tubules of human testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Geoffrey J; McGowan, Simon J; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Verrill, Clare; Goriely, Anne; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2016-03-01

    De novo point mutations arise predominantly in the male germline and increase in frequency with age, but it has not previously been possible to locate specific, identifiable mutations directly within the seminiferous tubules of human testes. Using microdissection of tubules exhibiting altered expression of the spermatogonial markers MAGEA4, FGFR3, and phospho-AKT, whole genome amplification, and DNA sequencing, we establish an in situ strategy for discovery and analysis of pathogenic de novo mutations. In 14 testes from men aged 39-90 y, we identified 11 distinct gain-of-function mutations in five genes (fibroblast growth factor receptors FGFR2 and FGFR3, tyrosine phosphatase PTPN11, and RAS oncogene homologs HRAS and KRAS) from 16 of 22 tubules analyzed; all mutations have known associations with severe diseases, ranging from congenital or perinatal lethal disorders to somatically acquired cancers. These results support proposed selfish selection of spermatogonial mutations affecting growth factor receptor-RAS signaling, highlight its prevalence in older men, and enable direct visualization of the microscopic anatomy of elongated mutant clones.

  16. Fitness effects of a selfish gene (the Mus t complex) are revealed in an ecological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lara S; Meagher, Shawn; Morrison, Linda; Penn, Dustin J; Potts, Wayne K

    2004-06-01

    In wild house mice, genes linked to the t transmission distortion complex cause meiotic drive by sabotaging wild-type gametes. The t complex is consequently inherited at frequencies higher than 90%. Yet, for unclear reasons, in wild mouse populations this selfish DNA is found at frequencies much lower than expected. Here, we examine selection on the t complex in 10 seminatural populations of wild mice based on data from 234 founders and nearly 2000 progeny. Eight of the 10 populations decreased in t frequency over one generation, and the overall frequency of t haplotypes across all 10 populations was 48.5% below expectations based on transmission distortion and 34.3% below Mendelian (or Hardy-Weinberg) expectations. Behavioral and reproductive data were collected for 10 months for each population, and microsatellite genotyping was performed on seven of the populations to determine parentage. These combined data show t-associated fitness declines in both males and females. This is the first study to show evidence for a reduction in the ability of +/t males to maintain territories. Because females tend to mate with dominant males, impairment of territorial success can explain much of the selection against t observed in our populations. In nature, selection against heterozygote carriers of the t complex helps solve the puzzlingly low t frequencies found in wild populations. This ecological approach for determining fitness consequences of genetic variants has broad application for the discovery of gene function in general.

  17. Selfish supernumerary chromosome reveals its origin as a mosaic of host genome and organellar sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Mihaela Maria; Klemme, Sonja; Banaei-Moghaddam, Ali Mohammad; Blattner, Frank R; Macas, Jiří; Schmutzer, Thomas; Scholz, Uwe; Gundlach, Heidrun; Wicker, Thomas; Šimková, Hana; Novák, Petr; Neumann, Pavel; Kubaláková, Marie; Bauer, Eva; Haseneyer, Grit; Fuchs, Jörg; Doležel, Jaroslav; Stein, Nils; Mayer, Klaus F X; Houben, Andreas

    2012-08-14

    Supernumerary B chromosomes are optional additions to the basic set of A chromosomes, and occur in all eukaryotic groups. They differ from the basic complement in morphology, pairing behavior, and inheritance and are not required for normal growth and development. The current view is that B chromosomes are parasitic elements comparable to selfish DNA, like transposons. In contrast to transposons, they are autonomously inherited independent of the host genome and have their own mechanisms of mitotic or meiotic drive. Although B chromosomes were first described a century ago, little is known about their origin and molecular makeup. The widely accepted view is that they are derived from fragments of A chromosomes and/or generated in response to interspecific hybridization. Through next-generation sequencing of sorted A and B chromosomes, we show that B chromosomes of rye are rich in gene-derived sequences, allowing us to trace their origin to fragments of A chromosomes, with the largest parts corresponding to rye chromosomes 3R and 7R. Compared with A chromosomes, B chromosomes were also found to accumulate large amounts of specific repeats and insertions of organellar DNA. The origin of rye B chromosomes occurred an estimated ∼1.1-1.3 Mya, overlapping in time with the onset of the genus Secale (1.7 Mya). We propose a comprehensive model of B chromosome evolution, including its origin by recombination of several A chromosomes followed by capturing of additional A-derived and organellar sequences and amplification of B-specific repeats.

  18. Chimpanzee social intelligence: selfishness, altruism, and the mother-infant bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the human mind from an evolutionary perspective, a great deal of research has focused on the closest living relative of humans, the chimpanzee, using various approaches, including studies of social intelligence. Here, I review recent research related to several aspects of social intelligence, including deception, understanding of perception and intention, social learning, trading, cooperation, and regard for others. Many studies have demonstrated that chimpanzees are proficient in using their social intelligence for selfish motives to benefit from their interactions with others. In contrast, it is not yet clear whether chimpanzees engage in prosocial behaviors that benefit others; however, chimpanzee mother-infant interactions indicate the possibility of such behaviors. Therefore, I propose that chimpanzees possess rudimentary traits of human mental competence not only in terms of theory of mind in a broader sense but also in terms of prosociality involving regard for others. Mother-infant interactions appear to be particularly important to understanding the manifestation of social intelligence from an evolutionary perspective.

  19. A family of selfish minicircular chromosomes with jumbled chloroplast gene fragments from a dinoflagellate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Cavalier-Smith, T; Green, B R

    2001-08-01

    Chloroplast genes of several dinoflagellate species are located on unigenic DNA minicircular chromosomes. We have now completely sequenced five aberrant minicircular chromosomes from the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra. These probably nonfunctional DNA circles lack complete genes, with each being composed of several short fragments of two or three different chloroplast genes and a common conserved region with a tripartite 9G-9A-9G core like the putative replicon origin of functional single-gene circular chloroplast chromosomes. Their sequences imply that all five circles evolved by differential deletions and duplications from common ancestral circles bearing fragments of four genes: psbA, psbC, 16S rRNA, and 23S rRNA. It appears that recombination between separate unigenic chromosomes initially gave intermediate heterodimers, which were subsequently stabilized by deletions that included part or all of one putative replicon origin. We suggest that homologous recombination at the 9G-9A-9G core regions produced a psbA/psbC heterodimer which generated two distinct chimeric circles by differential deletions and duplications. A 23S/16S rRNA heterodimer more likely formed by illegitimate recombination between 16S and 23S rRNA genes. Homologous recombination between the 9G-9A-9G core regions of both heterodimers and additional differential deletions and duplications could then have yielded the other three circles. Near identity of the gene fragments and 9G-9A-9G cores, despite diverging adjacent regions, may be maintained by gene conversion. The conserved organization of the 9G-9A-9G cores alone favors the idea that they are replicon origins and suggests that they may enable the aberrant minicircles to parasitize the chloroplast's replication machinery as selfish circles.

  20. Dog's discrimination of human selfish and generous attitudes: the role of individual recognition, experience, and experimenters' gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Fabricio; Freidin, Esteban; Putrino, Natalia; Shimabukuro, Carolina; Casanave, Emma; Bentosela, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination of and memory for others' generous and selfish behaviors could be adaptive abilities in social animals. Dogs have seemingly expressed such skills in both direct and indirect interactions with humans. However, recent studies suggest that their capacity may rely on cues other than people's individual characteristics, such as the place where the person stands. Thus, the conditions under which dogs recognize individual humans when solving cooperative tasks still remains unclear. With the aim of contributing to this problem, we made dogs interact with two human experimenters, one generous (pointed towards the food, gave ostensive cues, and allowed the dog to eat it) and the other selfish (pointed towards the food, but ate it before the dog could have it). Then subjects could choose between them (studies 1-3). In study 1, dogs took several training trials to learn the discrimination between the generous and the selfish experimenters when both were of the same gender. In study 2, the discrimination was learned faster when the experimenters were of different gender as evidenced both by dogs' latencies to approach the bowl in training trials as well as by their choices in preference tests. Nevertheless, dogs did not get confused by gender when the experimenters were changed in between the training and the choice phase in study 3. We conclude that dogs spontaneously used human gender as a cue to discriminate between more and less cooperative experimenters. They also relied on some other personal feature which let them avoid being confused by gender when demonstrators were changed. We discuss these results in terms of dogs' ability to recognize individuals and the potential advantage of this skill for their lives in human environments.

  1. Dog's discrimination of human selfish and generous attitudes: the role of individual recognition, experience, and experimenters' gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Carballo

    Full Text Available Discrimination of and memory for others' generous and selfish behaviors could be adaptive abilities in social animals. Dogs have seemingly expressed such skills in both direct and indirect interactions with humans. However, recent studies suggest that their capacity may rely on cues other than people's individual characteristics, such as the place where the person stands. Thus, the conditions under which dogs recognize individual humans when solving cooperative tasks still remains unclear. With the aim of contributing to this problem, we made dogs interact with two human experimenters, one generous (pointed towards the food, gave ostensive cues, and allowed the dog to eat it and the other selfish (pointed towards the food, but ate it before the dog could have it. Then subjects could choose between them (studies 1-3. In study 1, dogs took several training trials to learn the discrimination between the generous and the selfish experimenters when both were of the same gender. In study 2, the discrimination was learned faster when the experimenters were of different gender as evidenced both by dogs' latencies to approach the bowl in training trials as well as by their choices in preference tests. Nevertheless, dogs did not get confused by gender when the experimenters were changed in between the training and the choice phase in study 3. We conclude that dogs spontaneously used human gender as a cue to discriminate between more and less cooperative experimenters. They also relied on some other personal feature which let them avoid being confused by gender when demonstrators were changed. We discuss these results in terms of dogs' ability to recognize individuals and the potential advantage of this skill for their lives in human environments.

  2. Origin, evolution, and population genetics of the selfish Segregation Distorter gene duplication in European and African populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Cara L; Larracuente, Amanda M; Presgraves, Daven C

    2015-05-01

    Meiotic drive elements are a special class of evolutionarily "selfish genes" that subvert Mendelian segregation to gain preferential transmission at the expense of homologous loci. Many drive elements appear to be maintained in populations as stable polymorphisms, their equilibrium frequencies determined by the balance between drive (increasing frequency) and selection (decreasing frequency). Here we show that a classic, seemingly balanced, drive system is instead characterized by frequent evolutionary turnover giving rise to dynamic, rather than stable, equilibrium frequencies. The autosomal Segregation Distorter (SD) system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a selfish coadapted meiotic drive gene complex in which the major driver corresponds to a partial duplication of the gene Ran-GTPase activating protein (RanGAP). SD chromosomes segregate at similar, low frequencies of 1-5% in natural populations worldwide, consistent with a balanced polymorphism. Surprisingly, our population genetic analyses reveal evidence for parallel, independent selective sweeps of different SD chromosomes in populations on different continents. These findings suggest that, rather than persisting at a single stable equilibrium, SD chromosomes turn over frequently within populations. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Pro-social 50-kHz ultrasonic communication in rats: post-weaning but not post-adolescent social isolation leads to social impairments—phenotypic rescue by re-socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffer, Dominik; Rippberger, Henrike; Schwarting, Rainer K. W.; Wöhr, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Rats are highly social animals and social play during adolescence has an important role for social development, hence post-weaning social isolation is widely used to study the adverse effects of juvenile social deprivation and to induce behavioral phenotypes relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia. Communication is an important component of the rat's social behavior repertoire, with ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) serving as situation-dependent affective signals. High-frequency 50-kHz USV occur in appetitive situations and induce approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls; however, post-weaning isolation effects on the behavioral changes displayed by the receiver in response to USV have yet to be studied. We therefore investigated the impact of post-weaning isolation on socio-affective information processing as assessed by means of our established 50-kHz USV radial maze playback paradigm. We showed that post-weaning social isolation specifically affected the behavioral response to playback of pro-social 50-kHz but not alarm 22-kHz USV. While group-housed rats showed the expected preference, i.e., approach, toward 50-kHz USV, the response was even stronger in short-term isolated rats (i.e., 1 day), possibly due to a higher level of social motivation. In contrast, no approach was observed in long-term isolated rats (i.e., 4 weeks). Importantly, deficits in approach were reversed by peer-mediated re-socialization and could not be observed after post-adolescent social isolation, indicating a critical period for social development during adolescence. Together, these results highlight the importance of social experience for affiliative behavior, suggesting a critical involvement of play behavior on socio-affective information processing in rats. PMID:25983681

  4. Pro-social 50-kHz ultrasonic communication in rats: Post-weaning but not post-adolescent social isolation leads to social impairments – phenotypic rescue by re-socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik eSeffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rats are highly social animals and social play during adolescence has an important role for social development, hence post-weaning social isolation is widely used to study the adverse effects of juvenile social deprivation and to induce behavioral phenotypes relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia. Communication is an important component of the rat’s social behavior repertoire, with ultrasonic vocalizations (USV serving as situation-dependent affective signals. High-frequency 50-kHz USV occur in appetitive situations and induce approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls; however, post-weaning isolation effects on the behavioral changes displayed by the receiver in response to USV have yet to be studied. We therefore investigated the impact of post-weaning isolation on socio-affective information processing as assessed by means of our established 50-kHz USV radial maze playback paradigm. We showed that post-weaning social isolation specifically affected the behavioral response to playback of pro-social 50-kHz but not alarm 22-kHz USV. While group-housed rats showed the expected preference, i.e. approach, towards 50-kHz USV, the response was even stronger in short-term isolated rats (i.e. 1 day, possibly due to a higher level of social motivation. In contrast, no approach was observed in long-term isolated rats (i.e. 4 weeks. Importantly, deficits in approach were reversed by peer-mediated re-socialization and could not be observed after post-adolescent social isolation, indicating a critical period for social development during adolescence. Together, these results highlight the importance of social experience for affiliative behavior, suggesting a critical involvement of play behavior on socio-affective information processing in rats.

  5. Virophages, polintons, and transpovirons: a complex evolutionary network of diverse selfish genetic elements with different reproduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutin, Natalya; Raoult, Didier; Koonin, Eugene V

    2013-05-23

    Recent advances of genomics and metagenomics reveal remarkable diversity of viruses and other selfish genetic elements. In particular, giant viruses have been shown to possess their own mobilomes that include virophages, small viruses that parasitize on giant viruses of the Mimiviridae family, and transpovirons, distinct linear plasmids. One of the virophages known as the Mavirus, a parasite of the giant Cafeteria roenbergensis virus, shares several genes with large eukaryotic self-replicating transposon of the Polinton (Maverick) family, and it has been proposed that the polintons evolved from a Mavirus-like ancestor. We performed a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the available genomes of virophages and traced the evolutionary connections between the virophages and other selfish genetic elements. The comparison of the gene composition and genome organization of the virophages reveals 6 conserved, core genes that are organized in partially conserved arrays. Phylogenetic analysis of those core virophage genes, for which a sufficient diversity of homologs outside the virophages was detected, including the maturation protease and the packaging ATPase, supports the monophyly of the virophages. The results of this analysis appear incompatible with the origin of polintons from a Mavirus-like agent but rather suggest that Mavirus evolved through recombination between a polinton and an unknown virus. Altogether, virophages, polintons, a distinct Tetrahymena transposable element Tlr1, transpovirons, adenoviruses, and some bacteriophages form a network of evolutionary relationships that is held together by overlapping sets of shared genes and appears to represent a distinct module in the vast total network of viruses and mobile elements. The results of the phylogenomic analysis of the virophages and related genetic elements are compatible with the concept of network-like evolution of the virus world and emphasize multiple evolutionary connections between bona fide

  6. Experience of research of valued-normative sphere of persons that accomplish felonious homicides from selfish motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. О. Оберемко

    2015-11-01

    advantage in physical force and by spontaneity of attack, they satisfy with the mercenary motives a violent way. Conclusions of the research. Investigating the valued-normative sphere of persons that accomplished felonious homicides from selfish motives, it is possible to come to the next conclusions. On the basis of empiric researches we are set reliable differences in the psychological lines of persons that accomplish felonious homicides from selfish motives and thieves. The educed deformations of valued-normative and emotionally-volitional spheres of mercenary killers predetermine the choice of violent method of laying hands on property. Low level of such volitional qualities as independence, self-control and attentiveness in a great deal explain aspiration of criminals to unite in criminal groups for the achievement of general mercenary aim.

  7. A selfish genetic element influencing longevity correlates with reactive behavioural traits in female house mice (Mus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Auclair

    Full Text Available According to theory in life-history and animal personality, individuals with high fitness expectations should be risk-averse, while individuals with low fitness expectations should be more bold. In female house mice, a selfish genetic element, the t haplotype, is associated with increased longevity under natural conditions, representing an appropriate case study to investigate this recent theory empirically. Following theory, females heterozygous for the t haplotype (+/t are hypothesised to express more reactive personality traits and be more shy, less explorative and less active compared to the shorter-lived homozygous wildtype females (+/+. As males of different haplotype do not differ in survival, no similar pattern is expected. We tested these predictions by quantifying boldness, exploration, activity, and energetic intake in both +/t and +/+ mice. +/t females, unlike +/+ ones, expressed some reactive-like personality traits: +/t females were less active, less prone to form an exploratory routine and tended to ingest less food. Taken together these results suggest that differences in animal personality may contribute to the survival advantage observed in +/t females but fail to provide full empirical support for recent theory.

  8. Properties and natural occurrence of maternal-effect selfish genes ('Medea' factors) in the red flour beetle, tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman; Friesen

    1999-05-01

    Maternally acting selfish genes, termed 'Medea' factors, were found to be widespread in wild populations of Tribolium castaneum collected in Europe, North and South America, Africa and south-east Asia, but were rare or absent in populations from Australia and the Indian subcontinent. We detected at least four distinct genetic loci in at least two different linkage groups that exhibit the Medea pattern of differential mortality of genotypes within maternal families. Although each M factor tested had similar properties of maternal lethality to larvae and zygotic self-rescue, M factors representing distinct loci did not show cross-rescue. Alleles at two of these loci, M1 and M4, were by far the most prevalent, M4 being the predominant type. M2 and M3 were each found only once, in Pakistan and Japan, respectively. Although M1 could be genetically segregated from M4 and maintained as a purified stock, the M1 factor invariably co-occurred with M4 in field populations, whereas M4 usually occurred in the absence of other Medea factors. The dominant maternal lethal action of M1 could be selectively inactivated (reverted) by gene-knockout gamma irradiation with retention of zygotic rescue activity.

  9. Novel synthetic Medea selfish genetic elements drive population replacement in Drosophila; a theoretical exploration of Medea-dependent population suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Omar S; Chen, Chun-Hong; Marshall, John M; Huang, Haixia; Antoshechkin, Igor; Hay, Bruce A

    2014-12-19

    Insects act as vectors for diseases of plants, animals, and humans. Replacement of wild insect populations with genetically modified individuals unable to transmit disease provides a potentially self-perpetuating method of disease prevention. Population replacement requires a gene drive mechanism in order to spread linked genes mediating disease refractoriness through wild populations. We previously reported the creation of synthetic Medea selfish genetic elements able to drive population replacement in Drosophila. These elements use microRNA-mediated silencing of myd88, a maternally expressed gene required for embryonic dorso-ventral pattern formation, coupled with early zygotic expression of a rescuing transgene, to bring about gene drive. Medea elements that work through additional mechanisms are needed in order to be able to carry out cycles of population replacement and/or remove existing transgenes from the population, using second-generation elements that spread while driving first-generation elements out of the population. Here we report the synthesis and population genetic behavior of two new synthetic Medea elements that drive population replacement through manipulation of signaling pathways involved in cellular blastoderm formation or Notch signaling, demonstrating that in Drosophila Medea elements can be generated through manipulation of diverse signaling pathways. We also describe the mRNA and small RNA changes in ovaries and early embryos associated from Medea-bearing females. Finally, we use modeling to illustrate how Medea elements carrying genes that result in diapause-dependent female lethality could be used to bring about population suppression.

  10. Cutting the canopy to defeat the "selfish gene"; conflicting selection pressures for the integration of phototrophy in mixotrophic protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin J; Hansen, Per Juel

    2013-11-01

    In strict photoautotrophs, and in many mixotrophic protists, growth at low light stimulates the increased content of photopigment. This photoacclimation further elevates cellular Chl:C content through positive feedback (self-shading), until cellular Chl:C attains a maximum (ChlC(max)). This process, driven by the "selfish gene", enhances the fitness of the individual but decreases total population growth potential through community self-shading. However, some mixotrophic protists (generalist non-constitutives; GNC-mixotrophs) acquire their photosystems ready-made from phototrophic prey but they have no regulatory control on the acquired photosystems. When light is limiting, such organisms cannot photoacclimate; their total Chl:C ratio falls as their acquired photosystems are divided amongst daughter cells and also as the photosystems fail. We show that during that process, and with the removal (consumption) of their individually more efficient phototrophic prey, there is potential for populations of GNC-mixotrophs to become more efficient at light harvesting. Through this process these organisms may retain a critical additional period of photosynthetic capacity. Together with the fact that the acquired photosystem biomass can be potentially almost entirely converted into mixotroph biomass (while chloroplasts must remain an important component of biomass in constitutive mixotrophs, with an associated investment), this may help explain the success of GNC-mixotrophs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The Underdog Disciplines: Comics Studies and Composition and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This report discusses the answer to the question: What might comic studies learn from the slightly older field of composition and rhetoric? The author asks the question as a member of both fields. It is clear that both disciplines struggle for legitimacy within the academy. While comics studies strives for respectability given the popular nature…

  12. Underdog or bulldog: introducing biogas technologies in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti; Reinsoo, Kadri [University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Tartu (Estonia); Oja, Ahto [Monus Minek Ltd, Aeaesmaee (Estonia); Varzinskas, Visvaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    The production and use of biogas, along with corresponding sector-specific activities and technologies, is a relatively new subject in Estonia. This paper gives an instructive overview of main barriers behind the development incentives, policy support and technological innovation in terms of emerging market for biogas. The article examines the complexity of market-related, political, technological and social obstacles for introduction biogas technologies. There is a major gap between resource potential, technological capacity and practice in Estonia. About 2 % of the theoretical potential of biogas is being used, totalling around 11 million Nm{sup 3}, based primarily on landfill biogas. First, political setting for biogas innovation is still vague, however, consolidated and enhanced since 2010 to compete with other renewables and mainstream energy technologies. The article underlines the statement that the reason why Estonian biogas production has not followed the path of growth and technology transfer is the low renewable electricity feed-in tariff. However, there are many other legal and engineering factors that have held back biogas applications and sector development in general. Stakeholders have established the Estonian Biogas Association, increasing sector's visibility, targeted lobby to support policy-making, technological and social innovation and professional networking. Though getting the biogas sector to succeed demands a comprehensive approach and involvement of more actors in demand side including local leaders and consumers, both enthusiasm and scepticism should be informed by a sound understanding of framework conditions and complexities for path-breaking transformations in energy systems. To promote biogas production, profitable and technologically feasible showcases should demonstrate benefits and issues to the target group and stakeholders. Instead agricultural and CHP development mode, the priority of using biogas in Estonia could be seen as green vehicle fuel for transport. (orig.)

  13. Transcriptome profiling of Nasonia vitripennis testis reveals novel transcripts expressed from the selfish B chromosome, paternal sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Omar S; Antoshechkin, Igor; Hay, Bruce A; Ferree, Patrick M

    2013-09-04

    A widespread phenomenon in nature is sex ratio distortion of arthropod populations caused by microbial and genetic parasites. Currently little is known about how these agents alter host developmental processes to favor one sex or the other. The paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is a nonessential, paternally transmitted centric fragment that segregates in natural populations of the jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis. To persist, PSR is thought to modify the hereditary material of the developing sperm, with the result that all nuclear DNA other than the PSR chromosome is destroyed shortly after fertilization. This results in the conversion of a fertilized embryo--normally a female--into a male, thereby insuring transmission of the "selfish" PSR chromosome, and simultaneously leading to wasp populations that are male-biased. To begin to understand this system at the mechanistic level, we carried out transcriptional profiling of testis from WT and PSR-carrying males. We identified a number of transcripts that are differentially expressed between these conditions. We also discovered nine transcripts that are uniquely expressed from the PSR chromosome. Four of these PSR-specific transcripts encode putative proteins, whereas the others have very short open reading frames and no homology to known proteins, suggesting that they are long noncoding RNAs. We propose several different models for how these transcripts could facilitate PSR-dependent effects. Our analyses also revealed 15.71 MB of novel transcribed regions in the N. vitripennis genome, thus increasing the current annotation of total transcribed regions by 53.4%. Finally, we detected expression of multiple meiosis-related genes in the wasp testis, despite the lack of conventional meiosis in the male sex.

  14. Selfish spermatogonial selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Jasmine; Maher, Geoffrey J; Turner, Gareth D H

    2012-01-01

    The dominant congenital disorders Apert syndrome, achondroplasia and multiple endocrine neoplasia-caused by specific missense mutations in the FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET proteins respectively-represent classical examples of paternal age-effect mutation, a class that arises at particularly high frequenc......The dominant congenital disorders Apert syndrome, achondroplasia and multiple endocrine neoplasia-caused by specific missense mutations in the FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET proteins respectively-represent classical examples of paternal age-effect mutation, a class that arises at particularly high...

  15. The restriction-modification genes of Escherichia coli K-12 may not be selfish: they do not resist loss and are readily replaced by alleles conferring different specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, M; Chen, A; Murray, N E

    1997-12-23

    Type II restriction and modification (R-M) genes have been described as selfish because they have been shown to impose selection for the maintenance of the plasmid that encodes them. In our experiments, the type I R-M system EcoKI does not behave in the same way. The genes specifying EcoKI are, however, normally residents of the chromosome and therefore our analyses were extended to monitor the deletion of chromosomal genes rather than loss of plasmid vector. If EcoKI were to behave in the same way as the plasmid-encoded type II R-M systems, the loss of the relevant chromosomal genes by mutation or recombination should lead to cell death because the cell would become deficient in modification enzyme and the bacterial chromosome would be vulnerable to the restriction endonuclease. Our data contradict this prediction; they reveal that functional type I R-M genes in the chromosome are readily replaced by mutant alleles and by alleles encoding a type I R-M system of different specificity. The acquisition of allelic genes conferring a new sequence specificity, but not the loss of the resident genes, is dependent on the product of an unlinked gene, one predicted [Prakash-Cheng, A., Chung, S. S. & Ryu, J. (1993) Mol. Gen. Genet. 241, 491-496] to be relevant to control of expression of the genes that encode EcoKI. Our evidence suggests that not all R-M systems are evolving as "selfish" units; rather, the diversity and distribution of the family of type I enzymes we have investigated require an alternative selective pressure.

  16. Organizational architecture and pro-social behavior : Three essays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, H.

    2014-01-01

    Social motivations and double-sided information asymmetry are present in many accounting contexts. This thesis recognizes that managers can have social motivations and there can be double-sided information asymmetry between managers and employees, and will illustrate that accounting choices and

  17. Properties and natural occurrence of maternal-effect selfish genes ('Medea' factors) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeman, R.W.; Friesen, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Maternally acting selfish genes, termed 'Medea' factors, were found to be widespread in wild populations of Tribolium castaneum collected in Europe, North and South America, Africa and south-east Asia, but were rare or absent in populations from Australia and the Indian subcontinent. We detected at least four distinct genetic loci in at least two different linkage groups that exhibit the Medea pattern of differential mortality of genotypes within maternal families. Although each M factor tested had similar properties of maternal lethality to larvae and zygotic self-rescue, M factors representing distinct loci did not show cross-rescue. Alleles at two of these loci, M 1 and M 4 , were by far the most prevalent, M 4 being the predominant type. M 2 and M 3 were each found only once, in Pakistan and Japan, respectively. Although M 1 could be genetically segregated from M 4 and maintained as a purified stock, the M 1 factor invariably co-occurred with M 4 in field populations, whereas M 4 usually occurred in the absence of other Medea factors. The dominant maternal lethal action of M 1 could be selectively inactivated (reverted) by gene-knockout gamma irradiation with retention of zygotic rescue activity. (author)

  18. Novel Synthetic Medea selfish genetic elements drive population replacement in Drosophila, and a theoretical exploration of Medea-dependent population suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Omar S.; Chen, Chun-Hong; Marshall, John M.; Huang, Haixia; Antoshechkin, Igor; Hay, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Insects act as vectors for diseases of plants, animals and humans. Replacement of wild insect populations with genetically modified individuals unable to transmit disease provides a potentially self-perpetuating method of disease prevention. Population replacement requires a gene drive mechanism in order to spread linked genes mediating disease refractoriness through wild populations. We previously reported the creation of synthetic Medea selfish genetic elements able to drive population replacement in Drosophila. These elements use microRNA-mediated silencing of myd88, a maternally expressed gene required for embryonic dorso-ventral pattern formation, coupled with early zygotic expression of a rescuing transgene, to bring about gene drive. Medea elements that work through additional mechanisms are needed in order to be able to carry out cycles of population replacement and/or remove existing transgenes from the population, using second-generation elements that spread while driving first-generation elements out of the population. Here we report the synthesis and population genetic behavior of two new synthetic Medea elements that drive population replacement through manipulation of signaling pathways involved in cellular blastoderm formation or Notch signaling, demonstrating that in Drosophila Medea elements can be generated through manipulation of diverse signaling pathways. We also describe the mRNA and small RNA changes in ovaries and early embryos associated from Medea-bearing females. Finally, we use modeling to illustrate how Medea elements carrying genes that result in diapause-dependent female lethality could be used to bring about population suppression. PMID:23654248

  19. The partitioning and copy number control systems of the selfish yeast plasmid: an optimized molecular design for stable persistence in host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen-Ting-Liu; Sau, Saumitra; Ma, Chien-Hui; Kachroo, Aashiq H; Rowley, Paul A; Chang, Keng-Ming; Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2014-10-01

    The multi-copy 2 micron plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a resident of the nucleus, is remarkable for its high chromosome-like stability. The plasmid does not appear to contribute to the fitness of the host, nor does it impose a significant metabolic burden on the host at its steady state copy number. The plasmid may be viewed as a highly optimized selfish DNA element whose genome design is devoted entirely towards efficient replication, equal segregation and copy number maintenance. A partitioning system comprised of two plasmid coded proteins, Rep1 and Rep2, and a partitioning locus STB is responsible for equal or nearly equal segregation of plasmid molecules to mother and daughter cells. Current evidence supports a model in which the Rep-STB system promotes the physical association of the plasmid with chromosomes and thus plasmid segregation by a hitchhiking mechanism. The Flp site-specific recombination system housed by the plasmid plays a critical role in maintaining steady state plasmid copy number. A decrease in plasmid population due to rare missegregation events is rectified by plasmid amplification via a recombination induced rolling circle replication mechanism. Appropriate plasmid amplification, without runaway increase in copy number, is ensured by positive and negative regulation of FLP gene expression by plasmid coded proteins and by the control of Flp level/activity through host mediated post-translational modification(s) of Flp. The Flp system has been successfully utilized to understand mechanisms of site-specific recombination, to bring about directed genetic alterations for addressing fundamental problems in biology, and as a tool in biotechnological applications.

  20. Prensa local e infraestructuras. La interesada marginación del periodismo medioambiental. Local press and infrastructures. Environmental journalism selfishly marginalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Toledano Buendía

    Full Text Available ResumenConscientes de la dificultad para encuadrar muchas informaciones dentro de un área especializada del periodismo, este artículo analiza cómo la polémica construcción de un puerto industrial en Tenerife es abordada por el periódico de mayor difusión de la isla. A la vista de los elementos políticos, económicos, sociales y medioambientales que confluyen en el proyecto, se opta por hacer un análisis crítico del discurso, como método más adecuado para detallar los recursos del medio para trasladar al lector una realidad afín a los sectores políticos y económicos que defienden esta construcción. Se evidencia que la premeditada decisión de marginar la perspectiva medioambiental garantiza el marco idóneo para ocultar todas las manipulaciones orientadas a que la opinión pública apruebe el puerto.Palabras clavePrensa, periodismo, desarrollo, EspañaAbstractGiven that the difficulty to classify many informations in a journalism specialized area, this article analyses how a controversial industrial port project in Tenerife is covered by the island biggest selling newspaper. Considering the political, economical, social and environmental factors involved in this project, we choose a critical discourse analysis as the best methodological way to show the media resources for showing the reader a reality wanted by the political and economical sectors which support this public work. It is proved that the selfishly marginalization of the environmental perspective guaranteed the best context to hide all the manipulations created to gain the public opinion support to the port.

  1. Sex, spite, and selfish genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nature's oracle: the life and work of W. D. Hamilton. Ullica Segerstrale .... Stemming partly from his study of sex ratios, Hamilton later began moving on to .... any scientific biography, has to strike a balance between sci- ence and the personal ...

  2. Social insects and selfish genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, A F

    2001-10-01

    Sometimes science advances because of a new idea. Sometimes, it's because of a new technique. When both occur together, exciting times result. In the study of social insects, DNA-based methods for measuring relatedness now allow increasingly detailed tests of Hamilton's theory of kin selection.

  3. The embeddedness of selfish Routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2001-01-01

    Routines have traditionally been seen as an organisational feature. However, like genes, routines may be carriers and initiators of organisations as well......Routines have traditionally been seen as an organisational feature. However, like genes, routines may be carriers and initiators of organisations as well...

  4. Selfish DNA: a pharmaceutical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, T

    2013-07-01

    Almost 25 years ago, Theo Dingermann published the discovery of a new mobile genetic element in the unicellular microbe Dictyostelium discoideum in the journal Science. An interesting property of this new molecular parasite, the Dictyostelium Repetitive Element (DRE), was that all integrations were found approximately 50 base pairs (bp) upstream of transfer RNA (tRNA) genes in the D. discoideum genome, thus implying an active targeting mechanism to avoid the disruption of host cell genes by the retrotransposition process. Since then, the facultative multicellular "social amoeba" D. discoideum has become a popular model for analyzing complex cellular functions such as cell movement, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cell differentiation, important areas of biomedical research that are often hard to investigate in cells from "higher organisms" including humans. Therefore, progress in the development of methods to study Dictyostelium biology has also provoked research on transposable elements in this organism. Early work on the DRE element suggested that studying its molecular mechanism of site-specific integration might promote human gene therapy technology through the design of integrating gene transfer vectors with low intrinsic genotoxic potential. In this review article, I will briefly review the original research performed on the DRE transposable element in the Dingermann lab and report on how the emergence of genomics technologies and the development of tools to analyze de novo retrotransposition events in D. discoideum cells will expand our knowledge of DRE biology in the future.

  5. Appetite for the Selfish Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iztok Ostan, I.; Borut Poljsak, B.; Simcic, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developed countries, where the majority of the population has enough income to afford healthy diets, a large number of the inhabitants nevertheless choose unhealthy nutrition. WHO and FAO strategies to overcome this problem are mostly based on educational means. Implicitly, this approach is based

  6. Nutrition for the selfish gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iztok Ostan, I.; Borut Poljsak, B.; Simcic, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In ethology, the science of animal behaviour, the so-called “central theorem” states that organisms are expected to behave in a way that benefits their own “inclusive fitness.” Critics of this theorem claim that there is a dichotomy or even a contradiction in each organism, involving the tendency of

  7. Selfish X chromosomes and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Manus M

    2017-12-27

    In two papers published at about the same time almost thirty years ago, Frank (Evolution, 45, 1991a, 262) and Hurst and Pomiankowski (Genetics, 128, 1991, 841) independently suggested that divergence of meiotic drive systems-comprising genes that cheat meiosis and genes that suppress this cheating-might provide a general explanation for Haldane's rule and the large X-effect in interspecific hybrids. Although at the time, the idea was met with skepticism and a conspicuous absence of empirical support, the tide has since turned. Some of the clearest mechanistic explanations we have for hybrid male sterility involve meiotic drive systems, and several other cases of hybrid sterility are suggestive of a role for meiotic drive. In this article, I review these ideas and their descendants and catalog the current evidence for the meiotic drive model of speciation. In addition, I suggest that meiotic drive is not the only intragenomic conflict to involve the X chromosome and contribute to hybrid incompatibility. Sexually and parentally antagonistic selection pressures can also pit the X chromosome and autosomes against each other. The resulting intragenomic conflicts should lead to co-evolution within populations and divergence between them, thus increasing the likelihood of incompatibilities in hybrids. I provide a sketch of these ideas and interpret some empirical patterns in the light of these additional X-autosome conflicts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Agresividad, prosocialidad y estatus social: identificando perfiles admirados entre preadolescentes chilenos (Aggressiveness, pro-Sociality and Social Status: Identifying Admired Profiles among Preadolescents in Chile (Agressivité, prosocialité et statut social: Identifiant les profiles admirés parmi les préadolescents chiliens (Agressividade, pró-socialidade e status social: Identificando perfis admirados entre pré-adolescentes chilenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Berger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon base en la creciente evidencia de la asociación entre la agresividad y la proso- cialidad con indicadores de estatus social, el presente estudio aborda la admiración entre pares adolescentes como una manera de operacionalizar el estatus y evalúa el potencial carácter funcional de estas conductas sociales. La hipótesis que guía este estudio es que en la medida en que la agresividad y la prosocialidad son caracterís- ticas valoradas en el contexto de pares (con base en su asociación con el estatus, los adolescentes admirados, que pueden ejercer gran influencia sobre sus pares, serán aquellos que presenten este perfil. 274 estudiantes de 5o y 6o grado participaron del estudio. Los resultados muestran que la característica con mayor presencia entre los adolescentes admirados es la prosocialidad y luego la prominencia social. Sin embargo, se identifican dos perfiles de adolescentes admirados, que se distinguen principalmente por la agresividad: el perfil “fuerte” incluye además de la prosocia- lidad y la prominencia social altos puntajes en agresividad y popularidad, mientras que el perfil denominado “modelo” integra además de la prosocialidad y la promi- nencia social niveles muy bajos de agresividad y puntajes promedio en popularidad. Se identifican además diferencias de género en estos perfiles. Estos resultados son discutidos desde la perspectiva de las relaciones de pares y las posibles implicancias para el desarrollo tanto individual como grupal de los y las adolescentes.Abstractthis study, based on the growing evidence of the relation between aggressiveness and pro- sociality as indicators of social status, addresses admiration among adolescents as a way to make status operational and evaluates the possible function of this social behavior. the hypothesis that guide the study is that, as aggressiveness and pro-sociality are valued features as they are linked to status, the admired adolescents, who are able to

  9. Digital self-promotion for the underdog author: creative opportunities and experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Flahive, G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses a lack of originality in the online self-promotion of many mid-list, indie and self-published authors, investigating the strategies of authors who are making more creative use of digital technologies for their self-promotion. This research provides a practical point of guidance to other authors of fiction wishing to innovate in this way. The literature review provides an overview of changes in global media consumption following the digital revolution. Th...

  10. The Methodological Underdog: A Review of Quantitative Research in the Key Adult Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeren, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    An examination of articles published in leading adult education journals demonstrates that qualitative research dominates. To better understand this situation, a review of journal articles reporting on quantitative research has been undertaken by the author of this article. Differences in methodological strengths and weaknesses between…

  11. Empathy for the psychological underdog: A positive psychological approach to Luke’s Gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Scheffler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Wisdom of Solomon 7:20, which clearly indicates that ancient authors did engage in the specialised ‘scientific’ (although contemporary study of mental processes (διαλογισμοὺς ἀνθρώπων, it is argued that the author of Luke’s Gospel paid special attention to the alleviation of human psychological suffering. Employing an approach recently being labelled as ‘positive psychology’, attention will be paid to general affliction (e.g. Lk 4:18; 6:21, 25, old age (Lk 1:5−80; 2:25−38, grief (e.g. Lk 7:11−17 and the emphasis on mental processes in Luke’s portrayal of Jesus’ exorcisms (e.g. Lk 4:35; 6:18−19; 9:38, as well as the psychological dimension involved in other types of suffering (e.g. poverty, sickness, enmity and social ostracism. The ‘mental process’, ‘feelings’ or ‘empathy’ that motivate the alleviation of suffering (in the behaviour of Jesus and his followers will also come into focus in the discussion of the Lucan use of the terms οἰκτίρμων (Lk 6:36, ἔλεος and σπλαγχνίζομαι (e.g. Lk 10:33, 37.

  12. The dynamics of behavior in modified dictator games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Brosig-Koch

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamics of individual pro-social behavior over time. The dynamics are tested by running the same experiment with the same subjects at several points in time. To exclude learning and reputation building, we employ non-strategic decision tasks and a sequential prisoners-dilemma as a control treatment. In the first wave, pro-social concerns explain a high share of individual decisions. Pro-social decisions decrease over time, however. In the final wave, most decisions can be accounted for by assuming pure selfishness. Stable behavior in the sense that subjects stick to their decisions over time is observed predominantly for purely selfish subjects. We offer two explanation for our results: diminishing experimenter demand effects and moral self-licensing.

  13. Does It Pay to be Good? Competing Evolutionary Explanations of Pro-Social Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, M.; Verplaetse, J.; Schrijver, J.; Vanneste, S.; Braeckman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Our brain makes us behave. If we want to understand why we have the brains that we have, we need to figure out how we benefit from the behaviour it induces. Insofar as our brain is moral, the natural evolutionary question is then how behaving morally promotes our survival and procreation. Does it

  14. No margin, no mission? A Field Experiment on Incentives for Pro-Social Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Nava; Bandiera, Oriana; Jack, Kelsey

    2012-01-01

    A substantial body of research investigates the design of incentives in firms, yet less is known about incentives in organizations that hire individuals to perform tasks with positive social spillovers. We conduct a field experiment in which agents hired by a public health organization are randomly allocated to four groups. Agents in the control group receive a standard volunteer contract often offered for this type of task, whereas agents in the three treatment groups receive small financial...

  15. The philanthropy scale : a sociological perspective in measuring new forms of pro social behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuyt, T.N.M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Smit, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Philanthropy re-appears on the public stage. It has become part again of daily life in most industrialized countries. Growing wealth, uneven distributed, evokes the philanthropic response. The media attention for donors as Gates and Buffet may proof this. But also the plea for a “civil society” in

  16. The philanthropy scale: a sociological perspective in measuring new forms of pro social behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuyt, T.N.M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Smit, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    In wealthy countries, philanthropy is conspicuous back on stage. It appears in new forms, worldwide. As a result, scholarly attention for philanthropy is growing. Philanthropic goals refer to persons, groups and communities who, in most cases, are not personally known to the giver. In research,

  17. Culture sometimes matters: intra-cultural variation in pro-social behavior among Tsimane Amerindians

    OpenAIRE

    Gurven, Michael; Zanolini, Arianna; Schniter, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Agent-centered models usually consider only individual-level variables in calculations of economic costs and benefits. There has been little consideration of social or cultural history on shaping payoffs in ways that impact decisions. To examine the role of local expectations on economic behavior, we explore whether village affiliation accounts for the variation in Dictator Game offers among the Tsimane of the Bolivian Amazon independently of other factors that could confound such an effect. ...

  18. Improving the Pro-Social Skills of Transitioning Urban Youth: A Summer Camp Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Korrie; Akinyanju, Kim; Milliken, Tammi; Lorek, Edward; Walker, Tamu Thomas

    2011-01-01

    School systems often implement character education initiatives in reaction to a violent event. Following the school shootings that occurred in the 1990s, many school systems started to implement character education and violence prevention programs. Unfortunately, because the efforts were reactive, little thought was given to sustainability…

  19. The eye of the camera: effects of security cameras on pro-social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, T.J.L.; Vonk, D.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of security cameras on prosocial behavior. Results from previous studies indicate that the presence of others can trigger helping behavior, arising from the need for approval of others. Extending these findings, the authors propose that security cameras can likewise

  20. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  1. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  2. Mechanisms for scheduling games with selfish players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Many challenges in operations research involve optimization. In particular, scheduling treats the optimal planning of tasks. This thesis focuses on machine scheduling models, where a number of tasks, called jobs, need to be scheduled on one or more machines. The outcome is determined by which job is

  3. Millionaire underdogs: The Independent Petroleum Association of American and the politics of imported oil, 1921-1941

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staggs, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Smaller, usually non-integrated producers, or independents, demanded a protective tariff on imported petroleum, the one policy that would make the majors bear all the burdens of curtailment. In 1929 they created a national organization, the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPPA), and after 1929 spent the next 12 years lobbying Congress and the Executive for some form of protective legislation. The independents argued that protectionism was necessary in order to maintain a competitive balance in the industry, and that if the majors were allowed to buy them out, the country would face high monopolistic prices for petroleum products. This study explains why the independent oil producers wanted protectionist legislation in the 1920s and 1930s, how they influenced oil policy, and what the short-term and long-run effects of the compromise over import controls were for America. It focuses particularly on the IPAA and makes use of its publications and of archival and manuscript collections, government documents, and trade journals that illuminate its thinking and its political activities

  4. Supporting the underdog: feminism, animal rights and citizenship in the work of Alice Morgan Wright and Edith Goode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, L

    2000-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the overlap between feminism and animal causes, particularly through the lives of two women, the sculptor, Alice Morgan Wright (1881-1975), and her friend, Edith Goode (1882-1970). Feminism and animal causes had connections in the late nineteenth century, particularly in campaigns to abolish vivisection. Wright and Goode held to these politics throughout their lives, and were "precursors of a generation yet to come" who would argue the connections - as many ecofeminists do today. Both women were involved in suffrage campaigns, and continued to be involved in women's organisations such as the National Woman's Party. They were, however, opposed to all injustice, including human mistreatment of animals. Feminism was, to Wright and Goode, part of a wider set of problems; animal cruelty reflected a greater barbarism leading to mistreatment of humans. Accordingly, they actively campaigned for legislation to protect animals and the environment, and lobbied the fledgling United Nations to include such measures. That challenge to the United Nations represented a unique attempt to bring animals into citizenship' a move being made again today, through initiatives such as the Great Ape Project.

  5. On the Interaction of Deterrence and Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Menusch Khadjavi

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes deterrence schemes and their impact on stealing. The results confirm Becker’s deterrence hypothesis. Moreover, crowding out of pro-social behavior occurs due to deterrence incentives: when deterrence incentives first exist and are removed later on, subsequent behavior is more selfish than without this deterrence history. This study offers evidence that (part of this) crowding out takes place via change of emotions. Without deterrence incentives in place, in a variant of th...

  6. From the selfish gene to selfish metabolism: revisiting the central dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2014-03-01

    The standard representation of the Central Dogma (CD) of Molecular Biology conspicuously ignores metabolism. However, both the metabolites and the biochemical fluxes behind any biological phenomenon are encrypted in the DNA sequence. Metabolism constrains and even changes the information flow when the DNA-encoded instructions conflict with the homeostasis of the biochemical network. Inspection of adaptive virulence programs and emergence of xenobiotic-biodegradation pathways in environmental bacteria suggest that their main evolutionary drive is the expansion of their metabolic networks towards new chemical landscapes rather than perpetuation and spreading of their DNA sequences. Faulty enzymatic reactions on suboptimal substrates often produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), a process that fosters DNA diversification and ultimately couples catabolism of the new chemicals to growth. All this calls for a revision of the CD in which metabolism (rather than DNA) has the leading role. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The "selfish brain" hypothesis for metabolic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia A hipótese do "cérebro egoísta" para alterações metabólicas no transtorno bipolar e na esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbachan Mansur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic abnormalities are frequent in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD, leading to a high prevalence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in this population. Moreover, mortality rates among patients are higher than in the general population, especially due to cardiovascular diseases. Several neurobiological systems involved in energy metabolism have been shown to be altered in both illnesses; however, the cause of metabolic abnormalities and how they relate to schizophrenia and BD pathophysiology are still largely unknown. The "selfish brain" theory is a recent paradigm postulating that, in order to maintain its own energy supply stable, the brain modulates energy metabolism in the periphery by regulation of both allocation and intake of nutrients. We hypothesize that the metabolic alterations observed in these disorders are a result of an inefficient regulation of the brain energy supply and its compensatory mechanisms. The selfish brain theory can also expand our understanding of stress adaptation and neuroprogression in schizophrenia and BD, and, overall, can have important clinical implications for both illnesses.Alterações metabólicas são frequentes em pacientes com esquizofrenia e transtorno bipolar (TB, levando a uma alta prevalência de diabetes e síndrome metabólica nessa população. Além disso, as taxas de mortalidade entre pacientes são mais altas do que na população geral, especialmente em decorrência de doenças cardiovasculares. Vários sistemas neurobiológicos envolvidos no metabolismo energético têm demonstrado alterações nas duas doenças; no entanto, a causa das alterações metabólicas e a forma como elas se relacionam com a fisiopatologia da esquizofrenia e do TB ainda são arenas em grande parte desconhecidas. A teoria do "cérebro egoísta" é um paradigma recente que postula que, para manter estável seu próprio fornecimento de energia, o cérebro modula o metabolismo da energia na

  8. How Community and Peer Perceptions Promote College Students' Pro-Social Bystander Actions to Prevent Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L; Rizzo, Andrew J; Bencosme, Yamilex; Cares, Alison C; Moynihan, Mary M

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence of sexual violence crimes on U.S. college campuses is prompting institutions of higher education to increasingly invest in centers to support survivors and programs to prevent the violence before it happens. Understanding bystanders to sexual violence and what may motivate them to step in and help is a promising prevention strategy. The purpose of this study was to understand how potential active bystanders' (first-year college students) perceptions of community (including a sense of one's influence in the community and positive peer norms for helping) and individual beliefs about self (including sense of responsibility and self-efficacy) affect their self-reports of performing bystander behavior to address sexual violence risks. Participants were 948 students at two different universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, mostly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. Regression and path analysis quantitative results suggest that individual-level characteristics may mediate some of the impact that community-level norms and perceptions have on bystander outcomes, explaining some of the mixed findings in previous research. Prevention strategies should work to change community norms and perceptions of mattering and perceptions of community influence in addition to the more traditional focus on individual-level violence specific attitudes.

  9. Parent observed neuro-behavioral and pro-social improvements with oxytocin following surgical resection of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Naomi; Miller, Jennifer; Hart, John

    2016-08-01

    Social and emotional impairment, school dysfunction, and neurobehavioral impairment are highly prevalent in survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma and negatively affect quality of life. As surgical resection of craniopharyngioma typically impairs hypothalamic/pituitary function, it has been postulated that perhaps post-operative deficiency of the hormone oxytocin may be the etiology of social/emotional impairment. Research on the benefits of oxytocin treatment as a hormone facilitating social interaction is well established. However, no research has yet been conducted on patients with known pituitary/hypothalamic dysfunction due to structural lesions or surgery. This case report investigates the effects of oxytocin therapy on a youngster with pituitary/hypothalamic dysfunction after craniopharyngioma removal. In this individual, treatment with low dose intranasal oxytocin resulted in increased desire for socialization and improvement in affection towards family. In light of these findings, the authors believe that further research into the potential benefits of intranasal oxytocin therapy for patients with panhypopituitarism is necessary to determine whether a broader population may also benefit from intranasal oxytocin therapy.

  10. A Study of the Efficacy of Computerized Skill Building for Adolescents: Reducing Aggression and Increasing Pro-Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin; Repa, J. Theodore

    This article describes a pilot study that evaluated the efficacy of a computer-based, behavioral skill-building program in reducing aggression and improving academic performance among middle school students. The program is Ripple Effects'"Relate for Teens," a media rich, interactive application based on combining a proprietary learning…

  11. Modelling and Bibliotherapy as Tools to Enhance Pro-Social Interactions during English Language Arts Lessons with First Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Neal; Lyons, Catherine; Gelfer, Jeff; Leytham, Patrick; Nelson, Leslie; Krasch, Delilah; O'Hara, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Play is one of the essential components in proper development of first-grade students. Since the adoption by various states of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), two outcomes have developed: (a) increased instructional time and (b) decreased public school recess periods across school districts. Given the complex nature of daily instructional…

  12. National identification and collective emotions as predictors of pro-social attitudes toward Islamic minority groups in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashuri, A.; Zaduqisti, Esti

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the role of Indonesian Moslem majority’s national identification, collective emotions of pride and guilt in predicting their support in helping members of Islamic minority and their perceived inclusion towards this group. Data from this study ( N = 182) demonstrated that,

  13. Sustainable Decision-Making: Non-Monetary Incentives for Pro-Social Behavior in the Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rosenkranz; K.S. Muehlfeld; G. van der Laan; G.U. Weitzel; J. van der Donk; H. Ivanova; E.J. van Kesteren; M. Ottink; H. van der Spek

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account insights into the reality of human decision-making, is an important challenge for today’s policymakers. Are there `cheaper´, more efficient and possibly as well more effective, non-financial ways of influencing the behaviour of private and corporate citizens, nudging them towards socially desired choices, for example, in the domain of energy consumption? Can such mechanisms complement or substitute for monetary incentives in fostering sustainable decision-making in poli...

  14. Interest (mis)alignments in representative negotiations: Do pro-social agents fuel or reduce inter-group conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, H.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    In representative negotiations, interests of the representative and the represented constituency are not always aligned. We investigated how interest (mis)alignment and representative’s social value orientation influence representative negotiations. Past theory and research on the principal-agent

  15. Toward the Development of a Self-Management Intervention to Promote Pro-Social Behaviors for Students with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Lather, Amanda B.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Wehby, Joseph H.

    2016-01-01

    Students with visual impairment (VI) lack access to the same models and reinforcers as students with sight. Consequentially, behaviors that children with sight acquire through observation must be explicitly taught to children with VI. In addition, children with VI have difficulty maintaining such behaviors. Therefore, interventions that promote…

  16. Selfish or selfless? The role of empathy in economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, Alan; Teschl, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Empathy is a longstanding issue in economics, especially for welfare economics, but one which has faded from the scene in recent years. However, with the rise of neuroeconomics, there is now a renewed interest in this subject. Some economists have even gone so far as to suggest that neuroscientific experiments reveal heterogeneous empathy levels across individuals. If this were the case, this would be in line with economists' usual assumption of stable and given preferences and would greatly facilitate the study of prosocial behaviour with which empathy is often associated. After reviewing some neuroscientific psychological and neuroeconomic evidence on empathy, we will, however, criticize the notion of a given empathy distribution in the population by referring to recent experiments on a public goods game that suggest that, on the contrary, the degree of empathy that individuals exhibit is very much dependent on context and social interaction. PMID:20026468

  17. Preventing the impact of selfish behavior under MANET using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Rama Abirami

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol and an extensive analysis on the performance of the proposed .... flexible or adaptable to network dynamics. A secure ... change credit value, (v) did not pay attention to the fairness issue in .... the simulation, the wireless channel capacity of mobile.

  18. Selfish or selfless? The role of empathy in economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, Alan; Teschl, Miriam

    2010-01-27

    Empathy is a longstanding issue in economics, especially for welfare economics, but one which has faded from the scene in recent years. However, with the rise of neuroeconomics, there is now a renewed interest in this subject. Some economists have even gone so far as to suggest that neuroscientific experiments reveal heterogeneous empathy levels across individuals. If this were the case, this would be in line with economists' usual assumption of stable and given preferences and would greatly facilitate the study of prosocial behaviour with which empathy is often associated. After reviewing some neuroscientific psychological and neuroeconomic evidence on empathy, we will, however, criticize the notion of a given empathy distribution in the population by referring to recent experiments on a public goods game that suggest that, on the contrary, the degree of empathy that individuals exhibit is very much dependent on context and social interaction.

  19. Recurrent invasion and extinction of a selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, M R; Burt, A

    1999-11-23

    Homing endonuclease genes show super-Mendelian inheritance, which allows them to spread in populations even when they are of no benefit to the host organism. To test the idea that regular horizontal transmission is necessary for the long-term persistence of these genes, we surveyed 20 species of yeasts for the omega-homing endonuclease gene and associated group I intron. The status of omega could be categorized into three states (functional, nonfunctional, or absent), and status was not clustered on the host phylogeny. Moreover, the phylogeny of omega differed significantly from that of the host, strong evidence of horizontal transmission. Further analyses indicate that horizontal transmission is more common than transposition, and that it occurs preferentially between closely related species. Parsimony analysis and coalescent theory suggest that there have been 15 horizontal transmission events in the ancestry of our yeast species, through simulations indicate that this value is probably an underestimate. Overall, the data support a cyclical model of invasion, degeneration, and loss, followed by reinvasion, and each of these transitions is estimated to occur about once every 2 million years. The data are thus consistent with the idea that frequent horizontal transmission is necessary for the long-term persistence of homing endonuclease genes, and further, that this requirement limits these genes to organisms with easily accessible germ lines. The data also show that mitochondrial DNA sequences are transferred intact between yeast species; if other genes do not show such high levels of horizontal transmission, it would be due to lack of selection, rather than lack of opportunity.

  20. Altered nuclear transport and the most selfish of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R S

    2001-09-01

    The Segregation Distorter System in Drosophila is one of the best-known and genetically characterized systems of meiotic drive. A recent paper by Kusano et al. (2001) provides a key molecular insight into the molecular mechanism by which one chromosome can ensure the destruction of its partner.

  1. Selfishness, warfare and economics; or integration, cooperation and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Jesus Salvucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. The darwinian paradigm had its origin in the free market theories and concepts of Malthus and Spencer. Nature was explained on the basis of market theories moving away from an accurate explanation of natural phenomena. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. Modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New holistic interpretations are emerging related with the Net of Life, in which the interconnection of ecosystems constitutes a dynamic and self-regulating biosphere: Viruses are recognized as a macroorganism with a huge collection of genes, most unknown, that constitute the major planet's gene pool with a fundamental role in evolution. The hologenome theory considers an organism and all of its associated symbiotic microbes as a result of symbiopoiesis. Microbes, helmints, that normally are understood as parasites, are cohabitants and they have cohabited with their host and drives the evolution and existence of the partners. Each organism is a result of integration of complex systems. The eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of bacterial, virus and eukaryotic DNA and the interaction of its own genome with the genome of its microbiota resulting in an intertwined metabolism (a superorganism along evolution. These new interpretations are remarkable points to be considered in order to construct a solid theory adjusted to the facts and with less speculations and tortuous semantic traps.

  2. Hobbes and Selfish Morality in the State of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Martínez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the controversial claim that morality exists in the Hobbesian state of nature (represented in the rationality and prudence of natural laws, and how this moral is a necessary condition to achieve civil state. In order to accomplish this objective, I examine the work of G. Kavka on this topic, while analizing Hobbes's “reply to the fool”, using game theory. I propose, at the end of this paper, the necessity and justification of going from one state to another, emphasizing on the precariety of morality in the state of nature to guarantee the fulfilment of the natural laws.

  3. Food environments select microorganisms based on selfish energetic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eMora

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient richness, and specifically the abundance of mono- and disaccharides that characterize several food matrixes, such as milk and grape juice, has allowed the speciation of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts with a high fermentation capacity instead of energetically favorable respiratory metabolism. In these environmental contexts, rapid sugar consumption and lactic acid or ethanol production, accumulation and tolerance, together with the ability to propagate in the absence of oxygen, are several of the ‘winning’ traits that have apparently evolved and become specialized to perfection in these fermenting microorganisms. Here, we summarize and discuss the evolutionary context that has driven energetic metabolism in food-associated microorganisms, using the dairy species Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus among prokaryotes and the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among eukaryotes as model organisms.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of division of labor games with selfish agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Li, Qiaoyu; Zhang, Chunyan

    2017-11-01

    The division of labor is one of the most basic and widely studied aspects of collective behavior in natural systems. Studies of division of labor are concerned with the integration of the individual worker behavior into a colony level task organization and with the question of how the regulation of the division of labor may contribute to the colony efficiency. This paper investigates the evolution of the division of labor with three strategies by employing the evolutionary game theory. Thus, these available strategies are, respectively, strategy A (performing task A), strategy B (performing task B), and strategy D (not performing any task but only free riding others' contributions). And, two typical networks (i.e., BA scale-free network and lattice network) are employed here for describing the interaction structure among agents. The theoretical analysis together with simulation results reveal that the division of labor can evolve and leads to players that differ in their tendency to take on a given task. The conditions under which the division of labor evolves depend on the costs for performing the task, the benefits led by performing the task, and the interaction structures among the players who are involved with division of labor games.

  5. Focus on the success of others leads to selfish behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Molleman, Lucas; Weissing, Franz J.

    2015-01-01

    It has often been argued that the spectacular cognitive capacities of humans are the result of selection for the ability to gather, process, and use information about other people. Recent studies show that humans strongly and consistently differ in what type of social information they are interested

  6. How does selfing affect the dynamics of selfish transposable elements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutin Thibaud S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many theoretical models predicting the dynamics of transposable elements (TEs in genomes, populations, and species have already been proposed. However, most of them only focus on populations of sexual diploid individuals, and TE dynamics in populations partly composed by autogamous individuals remains poorly investigated. To estimate the impact of selfing on TE dynamics, the short- and long-term evolution of TEs was simulated in outcrossing populations with various proportions of selfing individuals. Results Selfing has a deep impact on TE dynamics: the higher the selfing rate, the lower the probability of invasion. Already known non-equilibrium dynamics (complete loss, domestication, cyclical invasion of TEs can all be described whatever the mating system. However, their pattern and their respective frequencies greatly depend on the selfing rate. For instance, in cyclical dynamics resulting from interactions between autonomous and non-autonomous copies, cycles are faster when the selfing rate increases. Interestingly, an abrupt change in the mating system from sexuality to complete asexuality leads to the loss of all the elements over a few hundred generations. In general, for intermediate selfing rates, the transposition activity remains maintained. Conclusions Our theoretical results evidence that a clear and systematic contrast in TE content according to the mating system is expected, with a smooth transition for intermediate selfing rates. Several parameters impact the TE copy number, and all dynamics described in allogamous populations can be also observed in partly autogamous species. This study thus provides new insights to understand the complex signal from empirical comparison of closely related species with different mating systems.

  7. The struggle for life of the genome's selfish architects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filée Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposable elements (TEs were first discovered more than 50 years ago, but were totally ignored for a long time. Over the last few decades they have gradually attracted increasing interest from research scientists. Initially they were viewed as totally marginal and anecdotic, but TEs have been revealed as potentially harmful parasitic entities, ubiquitous in genomes, and finally as unavoidable actors in the diversity, structure, and evolution of the genome. Since Darwin's theory of evolution, and the progress of molecular biology, transposable elements may be the discovery that has most influenced our vision of (genome evolution. In this review, we provide a synopsis of what is known about the complex interactions that exist between transposable elements and the host genome. Numerous examples of these interactions are provided, first from the standpoint of the genome, and then from that of the transposable elements. We also explore the evolutionary aspects of TEs in the light of post-Darwinian theories of evolution. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka, Jürgen Brosius and I. King Jordan. For complete reports, see the Reviewers' reports section.

  8. How the selfish brain organizes its supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitze, Britta; Hubold, Christian; van Dyken, Regina; Schlichting, Kristin; Lehnert, Hendrik; Entringer, Sonja; Peters, Achim

    2010-01-01

    During acute mental stress, the energy supply to the human brain increases by 12%. To determine how the brain controls this demand for energy, 40 healthy young men participated in two sessions (stress induced by the Trier Social Stress Test and non-stress intervention). Subjects were randomly assigned to four different experimental groups according to the energy provided during or after stress intervention (rich buffet, meager salad, dextrose-infusion and lactate-infusion). Blood samples were frequently taken and subjects rated their autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms by standard questionnaires. We found that stress increased carbohydrate intake from a rich buffet by 34 g (from 149 +/- 13 g in the non-stress session to 183 +/- 16 g in the stress session; P 4.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 39.8 +/- 7.7 pmol/l; P supply (regardless of its character, i.e., rich buffet or energy infusions) was shown to counteract a neuroglycopenic state that developed during stress. Exogenous energy did not dampen the sympatho-adrenal stress-responses. We conclude that the brain under stressful conditions demands for energy from the body by using a mechanism, which we refer to as "cerebral insulin suppression" and in so doing it can satisfy its excessive needs.

  9. Why are economics students more selfish than the rest?

    OpenAIRE

    Bauman, Yoram; Rose, Elaina

    2009-01-01

    A substantial body of research suggests that economists are less generous than other professionals and that economics students are less generous than other students. We address this question using administrative data on donations to social programs by students at the University of Washington. Our data set allows us to track student donations and economics training over time in order to distinguish selection effects from indoctrination effects. We find that economics majors are less likely to ...

  10. The Power of Shame and the Rationality of Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Tadelis, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Experimental evidence and a host of recent theoretical ideas take aim at the common economic assumption that individuals are selfish. The arguments made suggest that intrinsic “social preferences” of one kind or another are at the heart of unselfish, pro-social behavior that is often observed. I suggest an alternative motive based on “shame” that is imposed by the extrinsic beliefs of others, which is distinct from the more common approaches to social preferences such as altruism, a taste for...

  11. Problem and pro-social behavior among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: the implication for developing policy for school based mental health programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44 children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7% of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63. Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate screening measure in this environment. These would afford early identification of intellectually disabled children with behavioral problems and appropriate referral for clinical evaluation and interventions. The need to focus policy making attention on hidden burden of intellectual disability in sub-Saharan African children is essential.

  12. Adolescent Motivations to Engage in Pro-Social Behaviors and Abstain From Health-Risk Behaviors: A Self-Determination Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A; Dollahite, David C; Johnson, Natalie; Christensen, Justin B

    2015-10-01

    The present study used self-determination theory to examine adolescents' motivations to engage in charitable donating and community volunteering and to abstain from sexual intercourse and marijuana use. The sample consisted of 419 late adolescents recruited from across the country through an online survey panel. Participants completed online measures of motivations to engage in donating and volunteering, motivations to abstain from sex and marijuana, and single-item indexes of the four behaviors. Variable-centered analyses (correlation and regression) found evidence for a general motivational factor, motivational specificity by behavioral domain (positive and negative behaviors), motivational specificity by particular behavior (charitable donating, volunteering, sexual risk-taking, and marijuana use), and a stronger relative role for autonomous motivations than controlled motivations. Person-centered analyses (cluster analysis) found four motivation profiles (low motivation, medium motivation, high motivation, and mixed motivation) for all four behaviors and suggested that level of autonomous motivation was a key factor differentiating the groups on levels of behavior. The findings suggest different levels of motivational specificity and highlight the importance of autonomous motivations in predicting behaviors as compared to controlled motivations. Further, similar patterns were found for motivations to engage and to abstain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  14. Problem and pro-social behavior among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: the implication for developing policy for school based mental health programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44) children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7%) of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63). Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate screening measure in this environment. These would afford early identification of intellectually disabled children with behavioral problems and appropriate referral for clinical evaluation and interventions. The need to focus policy making attention on hidden burden of intellectual disability in sub-Saharan African children is essential. PMID:20465841

  15. The Effects of a Social Story™ Intervention on the Pro-Social Behaviors of a Young Adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayazi, Seda; Kohler Evans, Patty; Filer, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The use of social stories™ with a young adult with autism spectrum disorder was examined. The young woman in the study was completing her high school education in a clinical room on a university campus in the South. The primary goal of her program was to develop and expand her functional independence. The social stories™ were effective in…

  16. The presence of aggression cues inverts the relation between digit ratio (2D:4D) and pro-social behaviour in a dictator game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millet, K.; Dewitte, S.

    2009-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have relatively shorter index (2D) compared to ring (4D) fingers than women. More masculine ratios are thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone levels. In the present paper, we aim to show the context-dependency of the relation

  17. Feeling Better When Someone Is Alike: Poor Emotion Regulators Profit From Pro-Social Values and Priming for Similarities With Close Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Monischa B; Baumann, Nicola; Koole, Sander L

    2017-12-01

    The dispositional inability to self-regulate one's own emotions intuitively is described as state orientation and has been associated with numerous psychological impairments. The necessity to search for buffering effects against negative outcomes of state orientation is evident. Research suggests that state-oriented individuals can benefit from feeling close to others. Yet, there are individual differences in the extent to which supportive relationships are valued. The objective of the present article was to examine whether high importance of relatedness increases the utilization of its situational activation among state-oriented individuals. In two studies, we examined whether situational activation of relatedness (by priming for similarities with a close other) is particularly advantageous for state-oriented individuals who attach high importance to relatedness (i.e., benevolence values). The sample consisted of 170 psychology undergraduates in Study 1 and 177 in Study 2. In both studies, state-oriented participants high in benevolence had reduced negative mood after thinking about similarities (vs. differences). State-oriented participants low in benevolence did not benefit from priming for similarities. In Study 2, physical presence of a close other did not boost priming effects for state-oriented participants but stimulated action-oriented participants to attune their self-regulatory efforts to the context. The results show that state-oriented individuals who value benevolence do benefit from a situational activation of relatedness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Teacher Work Motivation in the Era of Extrinsic Incentives: Performance Goals and Pro-Social Commitments in the Service of Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintrop, Rick; Ordenes, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Mindful of the withering of high-stakes accountability and disappointing data from pay for performance evaluations in the US, we ask why management by extrinsic incentives and organizational goal setting may have been far less powerful than designers of accountability and extrinsic incentive systems had expected. We explore how…

  19. Numeracy as a precursor to pro-social behavior: The impact of numeracy and presentation format on the cognitive mechanisms underlying donation decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Dickert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Donation requests often convey numerical information about the people in need. In two studies we investigated the effects of numeracy and presentation format on the underlying affective and cognitive mechanisms of donation decisions. In Study 1, participants were presented with information about a victim in need, either in a frequency format or in a percentage format. In Study 2, we manipulated the identifiability and number of target victims. Our results demonstrate that donations of individuals lower in numeracy were more susceptible to changes in numeric presentation format than those higher in numeracy. Importantly, the underlying mechanisms for donations differed by numeracy. Whereas the mental image of the victim influenced donation decisions of less numerate people only, the estimated impact of a donation was positively correlated with donation amounts for both more and less numerate individuals.

  20. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Dussel, D.B.; ten Velden, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict

  1. An Empathetic Beginning in Education: Exploring the Prospects of Self-Regulation Skills on Pro-Social Behaviour in the Early Childhood Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    One avenue substantially researched and supported in early childhood research is the importance and the cultivation of self-regulation skills in the classroom. Most educational research on self-regulation skills has illustrated the importance between the enhancement of these skills and long-term academic success. Notwithstanding, there is little…

  2. Effects of parental perception of neighbourhood deprivation and family environment characteristics on pro-social behaviours among 4-12 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Karantzas, Gery

    2010-08-01

    To assess the effect family environment stressors (e.g. poor family functioning and parental psychological distress) and neighbourhood environment on child prosocial behaviour (CPB) and child difficulty behaviour (CDB) among 4-to-12 year old children. Analysis of the 2006 Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing Survey (VCHWS) dataset derived from a statewide cross-sectional telephone survey, with a final total sample of 3,370 children. Only family functioning, parental psychological distress, child gender, and age were associated with CPB, explaining a total of 8% of the variance. Children from healthily functioning families and of parents without any psychological distress exhibited greater prosocial behaviours than those from poorly functioning families and of parents with mental health problems. Neighbourhood environment was not found to contribute to CPB. A total of eight variables were found to predict CDB, explaining a total of 16% of the variance. Poor family and parental psychological functioning as well as poor access to public facilities in the neighbourhood were associated with conduct problems in children. Our results point to the importance of the family environment in providing a context that fosters the development of empathic, caring and responsible children; and in buffering children in exhibiting behaviour difficulties during the formative years of life. Programs aimed at promoting prosocial behaviours in children need to target stressors on the family environment.

  3. The Influence of Motivation of Public Officials on their Corrupt Behavior in the System of Public Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлий Анатольевич Нисневич

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of motivation of public officials on their corrupt behavior. In the framework of normative-value conceptualization corruption is considered as anti-social, auto-destructive deviant behavior. The represented two-dimensional curve of motivation consists of two segments. The first, “thirst for recognition” segment consists of pro-social, positive and altruistic motives, and the second, “greed” segment consists of negative and selfish motives. This article shows that motivation, especially with external locus of control has a decisive influence on corrupt behavior as means of the goals achievement. Particularly, it directly allows public officials to use “aim justifies the means” principle, or indirectly predetermine the very aim of their actions.

  4. Harvesting heterogeneous renewable resources: uncoordinated, selfish, team-, and community-oriented strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brede, M.; de Vries, H.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068361599

    2009-01-01

    Using the example of a fishing fleet harvesting in different fishing zones with different carrying capacities and growth rates, we investigate strategies for the exploitation of distributed renewable resources by a crowd of agents without centralized coordination. In agent-based simulations we

  5. Between the Social and the Selfish: Learner Autonomy in Online Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores what it means to be an autonomous learner in an online social context. Using distinctions originally drawn by Jürgen Habermas, it argues that classic accounts of learner autonomy as teleological action are inadequate to explain learner activity in group settings. It points out that learners in such settings display attitudes…

  6. No evidence for female discrimination against male house mice carrying a selfish genetic element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Andreas; Lindholm, Anna K

    2016-12-01

    Meiotic drivers distort transmission to the next generation in their favor, with detrimental effects on the fitness of their homologues and the rest of the genome. Male carriers of meiotic drivers commonly inflict costs on their mates through genetic incompatibility, reduced fecundity, or biased brood sex ratios. Given these costs, evidence for female discrimination against male carriers is surprisingly rare. One of few examples is the t haplotype in house mice, a meiotic driver that shows strong transmission distortion in males and is typically homozygote lethal. As a consequence, mating between 2 t heterozygous (+/ t ) mice leads to high embryo mortality. Previous experiments showing that +/ t females avoid this incompatibility cost by preferring +/+ versus +/ t males have inferred preference based on olfactory cues or brief social interactions. Evidence from mating contexts in laboratory settings and semi-natural populations has been inconclusive. Here, we investigated female choice from a large number of no-choice mating trials. We found no evidence for discrimination against +/ t males based on mating, remating, and copulatory behavior. Further, we found no evidence for avoidance of incompatibility through selective interactions between gametes. The likelihood of mating showed significant effects of female weight and genotype, suggesting that our test paradigm enabled females to exhibit mate choice. We discuss the strengths and limitations of our approach. By explicitly considering selection at both the individual and gene level, we argue why precopulatory female discrimination by +/ t females may be less evolutionarily stable than discrimination by all females based on postcopulatory mechanisms.

  7. Selfish supernumerary chromosome reveals its origin as a mosaic of host genome and organellar sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martis, M.M.; Klemme, S.; Banaei-Moghaddam, A.M.; Blattner, F.R.; Macas, Jiří; Schmutzer, T.; Scholz, U.; Gundlach, H.; Wicker, T.; Šimková, Hana; Novák, Petr; Neumann, Pavel; Kubaláková, Marie; Bauer, E.; Haseneyer, G.; Fuchs, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Stein, N.; Mayer, K.F.X.; Houben, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 33 (2012), s. 13343-13346 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : FULL-LENGTH CDNAS * SECALE-CEREALE L. * B-CHROMOSOMES * REPETITIVE SEQUENCES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012

  8. Human gut Bacteroidetes can utilize yeast mannan through a selfish mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    The architecture of the human distal gut microbiota (microbiota) is sculpted by the complex carbohydrates delivered in the diet. Yeasts, which are among the earliest domesticated microorganisms and have been a component of the human diet for at least 7000 years, possess an elaborate cell wall alpha-...

  9. Post-conflict affiliation by chimpanzees with aggressors: other-oriented versus selfish political strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Romero

    Full Text Available Consolation, i.e., post-conflict affiliation directed from bystanders to recent victims of aggression, has recently acquired an important role in the debate about empathy in great apes. Although similar contacts have been also described for aggressors, i.e., appeasement, they have received far less attention and their function and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. An exceptionally large database of spontaneous conflict and post-conflict interactions in two outdoor-housed groups of chimpanzees lends support to the notion that affiliation toward aggressors reduces the latter's aggressive tendencies in that further aggression was less frequent after the occurrence of the affiliation. However, bystander affiliation toward aggressors occurred disproportionally between individuals that were socially close (i.e., affiliation partners which suggest that it did not function to protect the actor itself against redirected aggression. Contrary to consolation behavior, it was provided most often by adult males and directed toward high ranking males, whereas females engaged less often in this behavior both as actors and recipients, suggesting that affiliation with aggressors is unlikely to be a reaction to the distress of others. We propose that bystander affiliation toward aggressors may function to strengthen bonds between valuable partners, probably as part of political strategies. Our findings also suggest that this post-conflict behavior may act as an alternative to reconciliation, i.e., post-conflict affiliation between opponents, in that it is more common when opponents fail to reconcile.

  10. Selfish mothers? An empirical test of parent-offspring conflict over extended parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Bhadra, Anindita

    2014-03-01

    Parent-offspring conflict (POC) theory is an interesting conceptual framework for understanding the dynamics of parental care. However, this theory is not easy to test empirically, as exact measures of parental investment in an experimental set-up are difficult to obtain. We have used free-ranging dogs Canis familiaris in India, to study POC in the context of extended parental care. We observed females and their pups in their natural habitat for the mother's tendency to share food given by humans with her pups in the weaning and post-weaning stages. Since these dogs are scavengers, and depend largely on human provided food for their sustenance, voluntary sharing of food by the mother with her pups is a good surrogate for extended parental care. Our behavioural observations convincingly demonstrate an increase of conflict and decrease of cooperation by the mother with her offspring over given food within a span of 4-6 weeks. We also demonstrate that the competition among the pups in a litter scales with litter size, an indicator of sib-sib competition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prdm9 incompatibility controls oligospermia and delayed fertility but no selfish transmission in mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachs, Petr; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondřej; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    PR-domain 9 (Prdm9) is the first hybrid sterility gene identified in mammals. The incompatibility between Prdm9 from Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd; the B6 strain) and the Hstx2 region of chromosome (Chr) X from M. m. musculus (Mmm; the PWD strain) participates in the complete meiotic arrest of mouse intersubspecific (PWD×B6)F1 hybrid males. Other studies suggest that also semisterile intersubspecific hybrids are relevant for mouse speciation, but the genes responsible remain unknown. To investigate the causes of this semisterility, we analyzed the role of Prdm9 and Chr X in hybrids resulting from the crosses of PWK, another Mmm-derived inbred strain. We demonstrate that Prdm9 and Chr X control the partial meiotic arrest and reduced sperm count in (PWK×B6)F1 males. Asynapsis of heterosubspecific chromosomes and semisterility were partially suppressed by removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9. Polymorphisms between PWK and PWD on Chr X but not in the Prdm9 region were responsible for the modification of the outcome of Prdm9-Chr X F1 hybrid incompatibility. Furthermore, (PWK×B6)F1 hybrid males displayed delayed fertility dependent on the Prdm9 incompatibility. While the Drosophila hybrid sterility gene Overdrive causes both delayed fertility and increased transmission of its own chromosome to the offspring, the segregation of Chr X and the Prdm9 region from the mouse (PWK×B6)F1 males was normal. Our results indicate extended functional consequences of Prdm9-Chr X intersubspecific incompatibility on the fertility of hybrids and should influence the design of fertility analyses in hybrid zones and of laboratory crosses between Mmm and Mmd strains.

  12. Selfish element maintains sex in natural populations of a parasitoid wasp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, R.; Tilborg, van M.; Jong, de J.H.; Nunney, L.; Luck, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    Genomic conflicts between heritable elements with different modes of inheritance are important in the maintenance of sex and in the evolution of sex ratio. Generally, we expect sexual populations to exhibit a 1:1 sex ratio. However, because of their biology, parasitoid wasps often exhibit a

  13. Prdm9 incompatibility controls oligospermia and delayed fertility but no selfish transmission in mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Flachs

    Full Text Available PR-domain 9 (Prdm9 is the first hybrid sterility gene identified in mammals. The incompatibility between Prdm9 from Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd; the B6 strain and the Hstx2 region of chromosome (Chr X from M. m. musculus (Mmm; the PWD strain participates in the complete meiotic arrest of mouse intersubspecific (PWD×B6F1 hybrid males. Other studies suggest that also semisterile intersubspecific hybrids are relevant for mouse speciation, but the genes responsible remain unknown. To investigate the causes of this semisterility, we analyzed the role of Prdm9 and Chr X in hybrids resulting from the crosses of PWK, another Mmm-derived inbred strain. We demonstrate that Prdm9 and Chr X control the partial meiotic arrest and reduced sperm count in (PWK×B6F1 males. Asynapsis of heterosubspecific chromosomes and semisterility were partially suppressed by removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9. Polymorphisms between PWK and PWD on Chr X but not in the Prdm9 region were responsible for the modification of the outcome of Prdm9-Chr X F1 hybrid incompatibility. Furthermore, (PWK×B6F1 hybrid males displayed delayed fertility dependent on the Prdm9 incompatibility. While the Drosophila hybrid sterility gene Overdrive causes both delayed fertility and increased transmission of its own chromosome to the offspring, the segregation of Chr X and the Prdm9 region from the mouse (PWK×B6F1 males was normal. Our results indicate extended functional consequences of Prdm9-Chr X intersubspecific incompatibility on the fertility of hybrids and should influence the design of fertility analyses in hybrid zones and of laboratory crosses between Mmm and Mmd strains.

  14. Degeneration and domestication of a selfish gene in yeast: molecular evolution versus site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufopanou, Vassiliki; Burt, Austin

    2005-07-01

    VDE is a homing endonuclease gene in yeasts with an unusual evolutionary history including horizontal transmission, degeneration, and domestication into the mating-type switching locus HO. We investigate here the effects of these features on its molecular evolution. In addition, we correlate rates of evolution with results from site-directed mutagenesis studies. Functional elements have lower rates of evolution than degenerate ones and higher conservation at functionally important sites. However, functionally important and unimportant sites are equally likely to have been involved in the evolution of new function during the domestication of VDE into HO. The domestication event also indicates that VDE has been lost in some species and that VDE has been present in yeasts for more than 50 Myr.

  15. Prdm9 incompatibility controls oligospermia and delayed fertility but no selfish transmission in mouse intersubspecific hybrids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flachs, Petr; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondřej; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2014), e95806 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/1931; GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR(CZ) GPP305/11/P630 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : hybrid sterility * meiosis * segregation distortion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  16. A selfish gene governing pollen-pistil compatibility confers reproductive isolation between maize relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermicle, Jerry L

    2006-01-01

    Some populations of maize's closest relatives, the annual teosintes of Mexico, are unreceptive to maize pollen. When present in the pistil (silk and ovary) a number of maize genes discriminate against or exclude pollen not carrying the same allele. An analogous gene Tcb1-s was found in some teosinte populations but not in sympatric or parapatric maize. It was polymorphic among populations of teosinte growing wild, but regularly present in populations growing in intimate association with maize as a weed. Introduction of Tcb1-s into maize substantially to fully restored compatibility with Tcb1-s carrying teosintes. Although Tcb1-s pollen can fertilize tcb1 tcb1 maize, it is at a competitive disadvantage relative to tcb1 pollen. Hence, the influence of Tcb1-s on crossability is bidirectional. In the absence of maize, Tcb1-s can increase in teosinte populations without improving their fitness. In the presence of maize, Tcb1-s appears to have been co-opted to provide reproductive isolation for adaptation to a cultivated habitat.

  17. Alternative splicing of a single transcription factor drives selfish reproductive behavior in honeybee workers (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, Antje; Stolle, Eckart; Crewe, Robin M; Moritz, Robin F A

    2011-09-13

    In eusocial insects the production of daughters is generally restricted to mated queens, and unmated workers are functionally sterile. The evolution of this worker sterility has been plausibly explained by kin selection theory [Hamilton W (1964) J Theor Biol 7:1-52], and many traits have evolved to prevent conflict over reproduction among the females in an insect colony. In honeybees (Apis mellifera), worker reproduction is regulated by the queen, brood pheromones, and worker policing. However, workers of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, can evade this control and establish themselves as social parasites by activating their ovaries, parthenogenetically producing diploid female offspring (thelytoky) and producing queen-like amounts of queen pheromones. All these traits have been shown to be strongly influenced by a single locus on chromosome 13 [Lattorff HMG, et al. (2007) Biol Lett 3:292-295]. We screened this region for candidate genes and found that alternative splicing of a gene homologous to the gemini transcription factor of Drosophila controls worker sterility. Knocking out the critical exon in a series of RNAi experiments resulted in rapid worker ovary activation-one of the traits characteristic of the social parasites. This genetic switch may be controlled by a short intronic splice enhancer motif of nine nucleotides attached to the alternative splice site. The lack of this motif in parasitic Cape honeybee clones suggests that the removal of nine nucleotides from the altruistic worker genome may be sufficient to turn a honeybee from an altruistic worker into a parasite.

  18. On the Tradeoff Between Altruism and Selfishness in MANET Trust Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    network deployment, we assume that there is no predefined trust . Without prior interactions, the initial bootstrapping will establish a shallow level of...a challenge/response process (e.g., public key authentication). Over time, partic- ipating nodes will establish a stronger trust level with more...periodically. This will enable each node to compute trust values of other nodes considering the original recommen- dations from the 1-hop neighbors of

  19. Selfish or selfless? On the signal value of emotion in altruistic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasch, Alixandra; Levine, Emma E; Berman, Jonathan Z; Small, Deborah A

    2014-09-01

    Theories that reject the existence of altruism presume that emotional benefits serve as ulterior motives for doing good deeds. These theories argue that even in the absence of material and reputational benefits, individuals reap utility from the feelings associated with doing good. In response to this normative view of altruism, this article examines the descriptive question of whether laypeople penalize emotional prosocial actors. Six studies find that emotion serves as a positive signal of moral character, despite the intrapsychic benefits associated with it. This is true when emotion motivates prosocial behavior (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 5) and when emotion is a positive outcome of prosocial behavior (i.e., "warm glow"; Studies 4, 5, and 6). Emotional actors are considered to be moral because people believe emotion provides an honest and direct signal that the actor feels a genuine concern for others. Consequently, prosocial actors who are motivated by the expectation of emotional rewards are judged differently than prosocial actors who are motivated by other benefits, such as reputational or material rewards (Study 6). These results suggest that laypeople do not view altruism as incompatible with all benefits to the self. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Selfish third parties act as peacemakers by transforming conflicts and promoting cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran

    2015-06-02

    The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants' choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone's benefit; and (iii) disputants' cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties' intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution.

  1. Self-interest without selfishness: the hedonic benefit of imposed self-interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jonathan Z; Small, Deborah A

    2012-10-01

    Despite commonsense appeal, the link between self-interest and happiness remains elusive. One reason why individuals may not feel satisfied with self-interest is that they feel uneasy about sacrificing the needs of others for their own gain. We propose that externally imposing self-interest allows individuals to enjoy self-benefiting outcomes that are untainted by self-reproach for failing to help others. Study 1 demonstrated that an imposed self-interested option (a reward) leads to greater happiness than does choosing between a self-interested option and a prosocial option (a charity donation). Study 2 demonstrated that this effect is not driven by choice in general; rather, it is the specific trade-off between benefiting the self and benefiting others that inhibits happiness gained from self-interest. We theorize that the agency inherent in choice reduces the hedonic value of self-interest. Results of Study 3 find support for this mechanism.

  2. Oxytocin modulates third-party sanctioning of selfish and generous behavior within and between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daughters, K.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Ten Velden, F.S.; De Dreu, C.K.W.

    Human groups function because members trust each other and reciprocate cooperative contributions, and reward others’ cooperation and punish their non-cooperation. Here we examined the possibility that such third-party punishment and reward of others’ trust and reciprocation is modulated by oxytocin,

  3. Global adaptation in networks of selfish components: emergent associative memory at the system scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard A; Mills, Rob; Buckley, C L

    2011-01-01

    In some circumstances complex adaptive systems composed of numerous self-interested agents can self-organize into structures that enhance global adaptation, efficiency, or function. However, the general conditions for such an outcome are poorly understood and present a fundamental open question for domains as varied as ecology, sociology, economics, organismic biology, and technological infrastructure design. In contrast, sufficient conditions for artificial neural networks to form structures that perform collective computational processes such as associative memory/recall, classification, generalization, and optimization are well understood. Such global functions within a single agent or organism are not wholly surprising, since the mechanisms (e.g., Hebbian learning) that create these neural organizations may be selected for this purpose; but agents in a multi-agent system have no obvious reason to adhere to such a structuring protocol or produce such global behaviors when acting from individual self-interest. However, Hebbian learning is actually a very simple and fully distributed habituation or positive feedback principle. Here we show that when self-interested agents can modify how they are affected by other agents (e.g., when they can influence which other agents they interact with), then, in adapting these inter-agent relationships to maximize their own utility, they will necessarily alter them in a manner homologous with Hebbian learning. Multi-agent systems with adaptable relationships will thereby exhibit the same system-level behaviors as neural networks under Hebbian learning. For example, improved global efficiency in multi-agent systems can be explained by the inherent ability of associative memory to generalize by idealizing stored patterns and/or creating new combinations of subpatterns. Thus distributed multi-agent systems can spontaneously exhibit adaptive global behaviors in the same sense, and by the same mechanism, as with the organizational principles familiar in connectionist models of organismic learning.

  4. Publishing and the advancement of science from selfish genes to Galileo's finger

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Popular science books, selling in their thousands - even millions - help us appreciate breakthroughs in understanding the natural world, while highlighting the cultural importance of scientific knowledge. Textbooks bring these same advances to students; the scientists of tomorrow. But how do these books come about? And why are some of them so spectacularly successful? This is the first ever insider's account of science publishing, written by an editor intimately involved in the publication of some of the most famous bestsellers in the field. Michael Rodgers reveals the stories behind these extraordinary books, providing a behind-the-scenes view of the world of books, authors and ideas. These vivid and engaging narratives illuminate not only the challenges of writing about science, but also how publishing itself works and the creative collaboration between authors and editors that lies at its heart. The book (like many of those it describes) is intended for a wide readership. It will interest people in publish...

  5. Selfish or servant leadership? Leadership and followership personalities in coordination games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillet, J.; Cartwright, E.; van Vugt, M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the personalities of emergent leaders in two coordination games in groups of four players each with monetary incentives. Our results support the evolutionary hypothesis that leadership is a social good for the group: leadership benefits followers but is potentially costly for the individual

  6. Selfish Pups: Weaning Conflict and Milk Theft in Free-Ranging Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabi Paul

    Full Text Available Parent-offspring conflict theory predicts the emergence of weaning conflict between a mother and her offspring arising from skewed relatedness benefits. Empirical observations of weaning conflict have not been carried out in canids. In a field-based study on free-ranging dogs we observed that nursing/suckling bout durations decrease, proportion of mother-initiated nursing bouts decrease and mother-initiated nursing/suckling terminations increase with pup age. We identified the 7th - 13th week period of pup age as the zone of conflict between the mother and her pups, beyond which suckling solicitations cease, and before which suckling refusals are few. We also report for the first time milk theft by pups who take advantage of the presence of multiple lactating females, due to the promiscuous mating system of the dogs. This behaviour, though apparently disadvantageous for the mothers, is perhaps adaptive for the dogs in the face of high mortality and competition for resources.

  7. Overcoming selfishness: reciprocity, inhibition, and cardiac-autonomic control in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Herbert, Cornelia; Schmitt, Michael; Kübler, Andrea; Vögele, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG) have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been suggested that behavior following norm-oriented, internalized expectations of reciprocity requires overcoming economic self-interest. In this study we investigated both, behavioral and peripheral-physiological indicators of inhibitory capacity related to neuronal networks that are likely to be involved in the behavioral response to unfair offers. Both heart-rate variability as an index of inhibitory capacity, and performance in a motor response inhibition task predicted rejection of unfair offers in an UG, suggesting an important role of inhibitory processes in overcoming economic temptations and regulating behavior conforming to social norms of reciprocity and fairness. The role of parasympathetic activity as a physiological trait-marker predicting inter-individual differences in the rejection of unfair offers is discussed.

  8. Overcoming selfishness: reciprocity, inhibition, and cardiac autonomic control in the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eSütterlin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been suggested that behavior following norm-oriented, internalized expectations of reciprocity requires overcoming economic self-interest. In this study we investigated both, behavioral and peripheral-physiological indicators of inhibitory capacity related to neuronal networks that are likely to be involved in the behavioral response to unfair offers. Both heart-rate variability as an index of inhibitory capacity, and performance in a motor response inhibition task predicted rejection of unfair offers in an ultimatum game, suggesting an important role of inhibitory processes in overcoming economic temptations and regulating behavior conforming to social norms of reciprocity and fairness. The role of parasympathetic activity as a physiological trait-marker predicting inter-individual differences in the rejection of unfair offers is discussed.

  9. The Enforcer Aircraft Program: A Lower-Cost Alternative Weapon System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    armoured striking forces. NATO’s air forces then, sns 1.select the optimum aircraft(s) to maximize the damage to the enemy while minimizing the cost to...the reascns Congress kept the Enforcer program alive was their inclination to support the underdog , an underdog with persuasiveness and tenacity. To

  10. The origin of a selfish B chromosome triggering paternal sex ratio in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Stouthamer, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses molecular and cytogenetic methods to determine the origin of a B chromosome in some males of the wasp Trichogramma kaykai. This so-called paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome transmits only through sperm and shortly after fertilization triggers degeneration of the paternal genome,

  11. The cost of copy number in a selfish genetic element: the 2-μm plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ellie; Koufopanou, V; Burt, A; MacLean, R C

    2012-11-01

    Many autonomously replicating genetic elements exist as multiple copies within the cell. The copy number of these elements is often assumed to have important fitness consequences for both element and host, yet the forces shaping its evolution are not well understood. The 2 μm is a multicopy plasmid of Saccharomyces yeasts, encoding just four genes that are solely involved in plasmid replication. One simple model for the fitness relationship between yeasts and 2 μm is that plasmid copy number evolves as a trade-off between selection for increased vertical transmission, favouring high copy number, and selection for decreased virulence, favouring low copy number. To test this model, we experimentally manipulated the copy number of the plasmid and directly measured the fitness cost, in terms of growth rate reduction, associated with high plasmid copy number. We find that the fitness burden imposed by the 2 μm increases with plasmid copy number, such that each copy imposes a fitness burden of 0.17% (± 0.008%), greatly exceeding the cost expected for it to be stably maintained in yeast populations. Our results demonstrate the crucial importance of copy number in the evolution of yeast per 2 μm associations and pave the way for future studies examining how selection can shape the cost of multicopy elements. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. What other's disappointment may do to selfish people: Emotion and social value orientation in a negotiation context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined whether individual differences in social value orientation moderate responses to other’s expressions of disappointment in negotiation. The literature suggested competing hypotheses: First, prosocials are more responsive to other’s disappointment because they have a greater

  13. An Analysis of the Objectivist Ethics in Educational Leadership through Ayn Rand's "The Virtues of Selfishness" (1964)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Educational leadership is vital to sustain quality educational institutions. It is the role of the school leader to indoctrinate stakeholders with the objectivist ethics-embracing egoism and relinquishing altruistic ideals when it comes to invigorating the system with sustainable change. Ayn Rand's timeless piece of literature "The Virtue of…

  14. Contributions of intrinsic mutation rate and selfish selection to levels of de novo HRAS mutations in the paternal germline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannoulatou, Eleni; McVean, Gilean; Taylor, Indira B

    2013-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS), a congenital disorder associated with predisposition to malignancy. Based on the epidemiology of CS and the occurrence of HRAS mutations in spermatocytic seminoma, we proposed that activating HRAS mutations become enriched in sperm through a process akin to tumorigenesis, termed...

  15. The Neuropeptide Oxytocin Induces a Social Altruism Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Nina; Scheele, Dirk; Gerhardt, Holger; Strang, Sabrina; Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2015-11-25

    Current psychological concepts of social and ecological responsibility emphasize the relevance of altruism, suggesting that more altruistic individuals are more likely to engage in sustainable behaviors. Emerging evidence indicates a central role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in promoting altruism. Whether this influence extends to ecological responsibility or is limited to the social domain remains unknown. In two independent experiments involving 172 human participants, we addressed this question by exposing subjects to a sustainability-related monetary donation task, with the option to support either socially or ecologically framed charities. We found that oxytocin induced a context-dependent change in altruistic behavior away from pro-environmental toward pro-social donations, while keeping constant the overall proportion of donated money. This pro-social bias transcended to the domain of sustainable consumption. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that altruistic priorities vary as a function of oxytocin system activity, which has implications for the promotion of pro-environmental attitudes and eco-friendly behaviors. Individual responses to ecological and social sustainability require a shift in personal priorities away from selfish to more altruistic behaviors. Emerging evidence indicates a central role of the hypothalamic peptide oxytocin in promoting altruism, but whether the influence of oxytocin benefits altruistic decision-making in the context of ecological and social sustainability is unclear. In two independent behavioral experiments involving 172 human subjects, we show that heightened oxytocin system activity induces a social altruism bias at the cost of ecological responsibility. Our results have fundamental implications for policy interventions and business strategies designed to sustain ecological resources by suggesting that a social framing may attract more individuals to engage in pro-environmental and eco-friendly behaviors. Copyright

  16. Kleveta jako prostředek sociální kontroly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Soukalová

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents gossip as a meansof social control. It shows that gossip as informalsocial control is used mainly to maintain a group’snorms and values. It highlights the importanceof the preventive character of gossip, because thepossible existence of gossip affects an individual’sperception of their reputation. The mere fact thatan individual can be an object of gossip or public opinion and thereby be identified as a violator ofstandards, values or norms, has a great influenceon their future social participation and reputationin that group. Within the context of social control,the manuscript presents several theories regardinggossip – the theory of the evolutionary originof gossip, the theory of gossip as a factor whichreinforces social values and norms, the theory ofgossip as a means for purely selfish personal gain,and finally the theory of pro-social gossip and gossipas a form of punishment. It also describes thefundamental functions of gossip and the reasonsfor its spread, and thereby highlights its societalimportance.

  17. Moral (or ethical education in Slovakia and its theoretical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluchman Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements to more psychologically based educational program which is resulting from the problematic division of a social and moral experience into egoistic and prosocial. Egoism is presented in a distorted form and is characterized as the cause of all moral evil. However, there are several different types of understanding of the term egoism in philosophy and ethics as for example psychological and ethical egoism, or self-interest. Ethical egoism or self-interest cannot be identified with selfishness. The main aim of moral education should not be only to form the desired children and youth moral orientation but on the other hand, to form morally self-confident individuals who are able to solve the moral problems, to help the others to solve them as well and to be able to bear moral responsibility for their own deeds.

  18. Moral license in video games: when being right can mean doing wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Cruz, Carlos; Velez, John A; Ewoldsen, David R; Bogert, Adam K

    2015-04-01

    Research on video game violence has found largely consistent evidence that violence in video games tends to be associated with an increase in antisocial behavior. However, this body of work has mostly ignored one prominent feature of many violent games: moral decision making. It is possible that the influence of video game violence could change when moral decisions are brought into the context. One way video games change behavior is through changes in players' self-perceptions, a process called identity simulation. In addition, a perspective called moral license predicts that these effects should not necessarily be consistent across behaviors, in that people should try to balance selfishness with keeping the moral high ground across many behaviors. Therefore, moral choices (or immoral choices) in a video game may predict less moral (or more moral) behaviors right after the game. However, later behavior may revert yet again, creating a cycle of pro- and antisocial behaviors. The present experiment asks participants to make moral choices in a video game, and then measures their behavior on two subsequent tasks. Results indicate that taking what participants perceive to be the more moral mind-set in the video game predicts more antisocial behavior on the first task, but more pro-social behavior on the next task. These results support identity simulation and moral license processes in a video game and moral behavior context, and indicate that there may be greater complexity in video game violence effects than previously understood.

  19. The Power of Small

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine. Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 ...

  20. Women in the Looking-Glass: Post-Colonial and Psychoanalytical Techniques in Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Despain, Martha

    2004-01-01

    When Jean Rhys takes on the underdog tale of Charlotte Bronte's Bertha Mason, she both moves beyond license by appropriating a popular, Victorian text and imposes limits by choosing a story with an unchangeable ending...

  1. Essays on Leadership,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    34 underdog conflicts." The concept highlights the imbalance in the international community’s intense concern for a conflict in one place (usually in the de...morally indefensible and detrimental to efforts by many leaders to reduce the level and frequency of conflict worldwide. The concept of underdog ... branded as oppressive, dishonest, or even guilty of launching wars of aggression. LESSONS OF ETHIOPIA-DEALING WITH PARIAHS A typical but troubling

  2. Translations on Western Europe, Number 1082

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-13

    make political underdogs . It is not good to make /Minister of Justice and leading CDA candidate/ Van Agt an underdog now. He will get votes through...taboo with VARA members of the old brand , Brugsma says: "DE TELEGRAAF is completely indispensable to me." Besides: "I always wanted to become...channels and brands retained." This will probably only be the case during a transition stage, until it has been possible to coordinate research and

  3. Intelligence. Indochina Monographs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    create a balance of forces which would increasingly favor the underdog . Oriental philosophy is at the source of this concept of time. Whereas the...with electricity and running water, and was even adorned with a public transportation system of some 30 brand new buses. The first aerial photo...inferiority complex that obsessed the GVN was apparently its feeling of being the underdog in political struggle and propaganda effectiveness vis-a-vis

  4. Airpower versus Terrorism: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Equipment includes 45 armoured personnel carriers (APC) one Lockheed Jetstar, two Mi-8s, two Mi-17s, and roughly 40,000 small arms. These include automatic...President George Bush is acting against terrorism. We will act the same way.”127 Sensing his ability to play the underdog , Arafat claimed early...tinians as the weak and downtrodden underdog . Thus, the image of the powerful IDF being used against poorly armed Palestinians is a powerful

  5. From user equilibrium to system optimum : a literature review on the role of travel information, bounded rationality and non-selfish behaviour at the network and individual levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, Mariska; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric; Chorus, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Travel information continues to receive significant attention in the field of travel behaviour research, as it is expected to help reduce congestion by directing the network state from a user equilibrium towards a more efficient system optimum. This literature review contributes to the existing

  6. From user equilibrium to system optimum: a literature review on the role of travel information, bounded rationality and non-selfish behaviour at the network and individual levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, Mariska Alice; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; Chorus, C.

    2016-01-01

    Travel information continues to receive significant attention in the field of travel behaviour research, as it is expected to help reduce congestion by directing the network state from a user equilibrium towards a more efficient system optimum. This literature review contributes to the existing

  7. « To see beyond the horizon of mere selfishness » : l’horizon moral dans les romans de George Eliot

    OpenAIRE

    Toussaint, Benjamine

    2015-01-01

    In spite of her apostasy, George Eliot still believed in the moral and spiritual values of Christianity and it is hardly surprising she should have used the metaphor of the horizon to refer to this ideal notion of the essence of Christianity since the horizon is both unreachable and yet always visible, showing the direction one ought to follow. Her characters’ moral odyssey is about learning to see beyond the limits of their own self-centered experience; however, as Lydgate underlines in Midd...

  8. Selfish restriction modification genes: resistance of a resident R/M plasmid to displacement by an incompatible plasmid mediated by host killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Y; Naito, T; Kobayashi, I

    1998-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that plasmids carrying a type II restriction-modification gene complex are not easily lost from their bacterial host because plasmid-free segregant cells are killed through chromosome cleavage. Here, we have followed the course of events that takes place when an Escherichia coli rec BC sbcA strain carrying a plasmid coding for the PaeR7I restriction-modification (R/M) gene complex is transformed by a plasmid with an identical origin of replication. The number of transformants that appeared was far fewer than with the restriction-minus (r-) control. Most of the transformants were very small. After prolonged incubation, the number and the size of the colonies increased, but this increase never attained the level of the r- control. Most of the transformed colonies retained the drug-resistance of the resident, r+ m+ plasmid. These results indicate that post-segregational host killing occurs when a plasmid bearing an R/M gene complex is displaced by an incompatible plasmid. Such cell killing eliminates the competitor plasmid along with the host and, thus, would allow persistence of the R/M plasmid in the neighboring, clonal host cells in nature. This phenomenon is reminiscent of mammalian apoptosis and other forms of altruistic cell death strategy against infection. This type of resistance to displacement was also studied in a wild type Escherichia coli strain that was normal for homologous recombination (rec+). A number of differences between the recBC sbcA strain and the rec+ strain were observed and these will be discussed.

  9. [Female age - related fertility decline: Far from the myth of the "selfish working-girl" and the "right to have a child"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, M; Perrin, J; Amar-Hoffet, A; Boyer, P; Courbiere, B

    2016-04-01

    To study the social dimension of age-related female infertility through an analysis of three key themes: the personal life histories of infertile women over 40 years of age; representations of age and the desire to become pregnant after age 40; opinions of French legislations framing Assisted Reproductive Technologies, age limits, egg donation, and egg freezing for non-medical reasons. This qualitative sociological study was based on semi-structured interviews with infertile women over age 40 going through fertility treatments. The interviews contained three parts: personal and relationship histories; experiences related to age; opinions related to French legislation. Twenty-three interviews were conducted; each lasting between 90 to 120minutes. Far from having similar life histories, the women interviewed had very different backgrounds leading to their desire for a pregnancy after 40 years of age. From the beginning of their fertility treatments, they perceived a "race against the clock". This feeling of urgency accompanied their experiences and was related to the desire to not be too old for their future child. The women interviewed were mainly in favor of loosening French bioethical laws in order to avoid the need to travel abroad to pursue fertility treatments. The profiles studied attest to a growing gap between biological and biographical temporalities, as well as an inability of women to reduce their desire for a child. Faced with this disparity, egg donation and egg freezing were seen as practical solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Balancing selfishness and norm conformity can explain human behavior in large-scale prisoner's dilemma games and can poise human groups near criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Andrighetto, Giulia; Nardin, Luis Gustavo; Montoya, Javier Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Cooperation is central to the success of human societies as it is crucial for overcoming some of the most pressing social challenges of our time; still, how human cooperation is achieved and may persist is a main puzzle in the social and biological sciences. Recently, scholars have recognized the importance of social norms as solutions to major local and large-scale collective action problems, from the management of water resources to the reduction of smoking in public places to the change in fertility practices. Yet a well-founded model of the effect of social norms on human cooperation is still lacking. Using statistical-physics techniques and integrating findings from cognitive and behavioral sciences, we present an analytically tractable model in which individuals base their decisions to cooperate both on the economic rewards they obtain and on the degree to which their action complies with social norms. Results from this parsimonious model are in agreement with observations in recent large-scale experiments with humans. We also find the phase diagram of the model and show that the experimental human group is poised near a critical point, a regime where recent work suggests living systems respond to changing external conditions in an efficient and coordinated manner.

  11. Targeting the Young, the Poor, the Less Educated: Thinking beyond Traditional Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Erik L.; Zoch, Lynn M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines ways to communicate pro-social messages to overlooked and underserved societal subgroups--specifically encouraging low-income persons to enroll in adult education programs. Finds that this audience does not use the mass media to acquire pro-social information--their main source of pro-social information is information from interpersonal…

  12. How are Voters Influenced by Opinion Polls? The Effect of Polls on Voting Behavior and Party Sympathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2016-01-01

    Similar to all other types of information, public opinion polls can influence public opinion. We present two hypotheses to understand how polls affect public opinion: the bandwagon and the underdog effect. The bandwagon effect claims that voters "jump on the bandwagon," which means that if a party...... hypotheses. We find evidence of the bandwagon effect, and the effect is strongest in the positive direction. When voters learn that a party is gaining in the polls, voters will be more likely to vote for it. There is also some evidence for the negative bandwagon effect. We find no evidence for the underdog...... is gaining in the polls, the party will gain additional support from the voters, and vice versa if the party is losing in the polls. The underdog effect suggests that if a party is losing in the polls, the party will gain some sympathy votes to offset this loss. We use a survey experiment to test the two...

  13. Competition as an Acquisition Strategy: Impact of Competitive Research and Development on Procurement Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    try hard themselves. There is nothing wrong with having an underdog so long as it has a credible 1 chance of winning, but if one of the contractors...knew it was an underdog and Bell had reason to be overconfident. c. Importance of Cost among Program Objectives It was clear from the start that unit...the Army that they would be able to meet the demanding DIVAD production schedule.2 GDP invested $40-50 million and had a brand new building in place

  14. Da compaixão à inocência: Nietzsche e Schopenhauer em torno da questão do egoísmo = From compassion to innocence: Nietzsche and Schopenhauer around the issue of selfishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Jelson Roberto de

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se demonstrar nesse trabalho como Nietzsche formula, nos escritos que formam o segundo período de sua produção filosófica, uma crítica à moral da compaixão proposta por Schopenhauer. Para isso, far-se-á uma revisão das teses schopenhaurianas segundo as quais o egoísmo é o motivo antimoral por excelência e, contrariamente, o altruísmo é a base legítima da moralidade. Analisar-se-á, também, o procedimento usado por Nietzsche para, de um lado, criticar esse ideal e, de outro, chegar à inocência como principal resultado de seu programa filosófico

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-05

    outlook Draconian law forbidding aid to a nuclear- branded Paki- remains grim and not so grim, dark and not so dark stan. depending on how one might like to... underdog . And subservient to the First dreams are not allowed to come true. Martin Luther World, otherwise.... Such are the ground rules of the New

  16. The Prolonged Downfall of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    loosely aligned group of opposition fighters captured the world’s imagination as the underdog resisting the communist superpower. Lester W. Grau co... branded the AIG as an ISI puppet.80 Militarily the attack on Jalalabad proved that the DRA was capable of defeating the mujahedeen without direct Soviet

  17. The Darleen Druyun Debacle: Procurement, Power, and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    behavior is a function of leadership, and that DoD lags behind the “best in class” in demonstrating the brand of leadership required to push ethics to the...testament to our societal penchant for blaming institutions or systems over individuals. Perhaps it is our love of the underdog , our belief in the innate

  18. Striking the Balance: Strategy, Objectives, and the Use of Force in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    evacuation agreement and further estranged the Japanese. The Japanese were in the favorable position of being the underdog in the struggle over Korea. In the...Normally, a nation that attacks first and without a declaration of war is branded as the aggressor nation. This was not so with the Japanese at Port

  19. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-19

    not raising its voice? And why should the Congress appear to take a pro-U.S. line when it had consistently sided with the underdog ? It has not been...the issue of branding China as the aggressor brought about a complete break in the fraternal relations between the CPI and CPC. For over two decades

  20. Japanese Aggression in Asia (1895-1930). Japan’s Dream of ’Hakko Ichuo’ (Eight Corners of the World under Japanese Rule).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    In the United States, President Roosevelt viewed the Japanese challenge to the Russian goliath with his characteristic sympathy for the underdog ...Door were worthless.1 98 Knox’s Far Eastern policy has been branded as one of "bluff and back down." His naive, lone-hand tactics were fore- doomed to

  1. Volume 3. Information Age Anthology: The Information Age Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Mexico’s Zapatista wars or other such insurgencies, the underdog may have access to global information sources that mitigate his inferiority. Thus he...capabilities are nowhere near capable enough to measure the massed effects of NCW’s souped-up brand of 495Chapter 15 information warfare. Some assume that the

  2. West Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-10

    as an underdog , and not as a glamor boy who has everything lavished upon him. Or Paul Staes and his Greens? In a debate, they are shown up for what...discovered new products and therefore new markets: technical belting and banding products. And he found brand new machines which could run without

  3. The Chinese Intervention in Korea: An Analysis of Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-19

    elections. 4 This was simple diplomatic bargaining from the underdog position; the US revelled in it. Plans were Deing arawn ror the redeployment of troops...components that formed the foundations of Peking’s particular brand of Communism contributed to this fact. Also, Communist China’s immaturity as a nation

  4. Military Review. Volume 83, Number 3, May-June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    history leads many to consider The Art of War to be a text for the underdog . In light of the cur- rent discussion about asymmetrical warfare, this is...the Taliban had the initial support of the Afghans. Once in power, they knew only fighting and an extremist brand of Deobndi- Wahabi Islam. Not

  5. Strategic Studies Quarterly: An Air Force-Sponsored Strategic Forum for Military, Government, and Academic Professionals. Volume 2, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Our involvement in a new kind of war with an implacable enemy who invokes an extremist brand of Islam against America’s way of life, as well as that of...States, in particular, as a bully of the small, the weak, the defenseless, or the underdog has been strongly reinforced by the US invasion of Iraq

  6. Mission Emphasis and the Determination of Needs for New Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Pounds The Thyng Study recommended an air superiority fighter that could maneuver. While the study employed minimal use of the brand new EM...unpopularity of the project throughout the Air Force. Playing the role of underdog was part of Boyd‘s motivation, without which he may not have pushed

  7. JPRS Report Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-19

    initiative, an attitude of not caring, reactions of an underdog . Eventually, power goes to the head of such a leader and he becomes a commander. A...is too reminiscent of the sad days when those who "did not care about the interests of the people" were unhesitatingly branded enemies of the

  8. The Leadership Development of Dwight D. Eisenhower and George S. Patton Jr

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    reason, the Army‘s challenges rest in developing and preparing its officers to overcome the demands of this new brand of conflict--21st Century...appeared to be an underdog who was neglected by his government, 14 generally fighting a more powerful enemy, and mostly in his own territory. Eisenhower

  9. Pyramids, Balloons, and Squishy Spheres: The Dynamic Context of Military Grade Creep. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-20

    the underdog . Certain observers have, of course, constructed intermediate prototypes; and all prototypes contain a number of...the legal assistant is a brand -new career opportunity, truly born at the start of the 1970s with the establishment of the two-year associate degree

  10. Coping with the Bounds: Speculations on Nonlinearity in Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    usefulness may be the same as it was for Clausewitz. The Germans were underdogs to the French, and Clausewitz wanted to understand and use against the...at the pumps and in the bays. Customers have choices between different grades of fuel, viscosities of oil and brand names on repair parts. Backlogs

  11. All Glory Is Fleeting: Insights from the Second Lebanon War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    longer has claim to underdog status as it did in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973. The reasons are several and not particularly rel- evant to the discussion...Israel Probes Use of Cluster Munitions in Lebanon,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, December 6, 2006f. ———, “Debriefing Teams Brand IDF Doctrine ‘Completely

  12. Terrorist Approach to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    its fold; they also represent an understanding of the value of the information medium by setting the group up as the underdog against the large...up and organized street demonstrations to lobby for civil rights. The Stormont (Irish) government branded the movement a front for the IRA and

  13. Glasnost and Secrecy in the Soviet Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-21

    the most vicious and xenophobic brand of Russian chauvinism, complete with witch-hunts and spymania. Secrecy was also important for enhancing the...the Soviet Armed Forces, a significant factor tor a military establishment historically used to ’ie position of the underdog because of the Soviet

  14. To Tame a Chechen Wolf: Shedding the Failing Frame of Salafism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Palestinians because they were perceived as the ‘ underdog .’ Using the tool of emotions, Palestinians were able to gain and mobilize significant...Maskhadov couldn’t control him. Basayev accused the president of pretending to be a Muslim. Maskhadov did not like the Salafi brand of religious fanaticism

  15. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Anirban Mitra. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 General Article. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine · Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra.

  16. J B S Haldanel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time to the popularization of science, believing that to be at least ... fondness for underdogs, were also long-lasting traits. ... memory. In later years his powers of recollection were such that he had no need to go to a library to .... 'short gene'.

  17. Identity Formation: Professional Development in Practice Strengthens a Sense of Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how practitioners in a hostile context make sense of continuing professional development (CPD). Critics worldwide question the professional status of human resources seeing the function as an underdog to well-established professions. The study uses an interpretivist approach to examine the conceptual interweaving of learning…

  18. Market efficiency and the favorite-longshot bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to the presence of favourite-longshot boas in sports betting markets where favourites are ‘under-bet’ with odds that are superior to those predicted under fully efficient markets. Underdogs are ‘under-bet’ with odds that are even more unfair than those...

  19. How Creativity Came to Reside in the Land of the Gifted (And How to Move It into a New Neighborhood)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Author Lori Flint, has a PhD in educational psychology/ gifted and creative education and is a board member for the North Carolina Association for the Gifted and Talented. She advocates for students of all ages and abilities, especially the underdogs. She begins this article with a discussion of the origins of creativity in the world of education…

  20. Gaming the Law of Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Thomas R.; Snapp, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Many view mathematics as a rich and wonderfully elaborate game. In turn, games can be used to illustrate mathematical ideas. Fibber's Dice, an adaptation of the game Liar's Dice, is a fast-paced game that rewards gutsy moves and favors the underdog. It also brings to life concepts arising in the study of probability. In particular, Fibber's Dice…

  1. U.S. Post-Conflict Integration Policy of Militias in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    many of his followers, largely the young, unemployed, and dispossessed, he is viewed as a leader who has stood up for the underdog . Lack of an...occupation of Palestine had required a static force that ranged from 60,000 to 100,000 soldiers, “two divisions, an armoured brigade and air force

  2. Parameters, Volume 23, Number 4, Winter 1993-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    international groups, the failure of the US-supported ESAF to defeat the underdog FMLN made the guerrilla movement the undeclared winner of this bout...to Win: Special Forces at War. London, Eng.: Arms and Armour (Dist. in US by Sterling Publishing Co.), 1993. 214 pp. $27.50. 128 Parameters 1M n Fuller

  3. Churchill: The Making of a Grand Strategist

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    training and squeezed to the last drop by relentless war propaganda, the military instruments of that will were as useless as empty suits of armour ...product, Churchill had always had an instinctive sympathy for the underdog . Consequently. he never painted the enemies in his Imperial conflicts in stark

  4. Preemption and Retribution: Precision-Guided Munitions to Counter Terrorist Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    story are told. Terrorists have become skilled at cultivating 18 the " underdog " image and portraying their adversaries as ruthless aggressors...Frontiers, Israel’s War Against Terrorism, London: Arms and Armour Publications, 1990. Schmemann, Serge. " Netanyahu Defiantly Defending Botched

  5. The Committee of the Chiefs of Military Medical Services in NATO (COMEDS) and Its Relation to RTO/HFM Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    technically in the underdog situation. It obviously has made it crucial to “win the media war”. Media coverage now has a dramatic effect on public opinion...Ever more effective body armour reduces fatal casualty numbers but increases significantly the medical challenge to save the survivor’s limbs. As a

  6. Adolescent Leadership Development: Building a Case for an Authenticity Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on adolescent leadership development and connects the concept of leadership authenticity as a way to influence anti-social adolescent behavior for pro-social outcomes. Because adolescent leaders develop from both pro-social and anti-social constructs, educators must recognize the unique power of both leadership…

  7. Effects of material and non-material rewards on remembering to do things for others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Brandimonte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that pro-social prospective memory, i.e., remembering to do something for others, is negatively affected by the presence of small material rewards. While this competition between pro-social and self-gain motives leads to poor memory for the intention, people do not seem to be aware of the possible collision effects of competing motives (Brandimonte, Ferrante, Bianco, & Villani, 2010. Extending research on this general topic, in two activity-based prospective memory experiments, we explored the effects of different types and amount of rewards on pro-social prospective remembering. In Experiment 1, participants could receive no reward, a low material reward (1 euro, or a high material reward (20 euro for their pro-social prospective memory action. In Experiment 2, their pro-social prospective memory performance could be rewarded or not with an image reward (publicity of their altruistic behavior. Results revealed that introducing a small material reward (Experiment 1 or a non-material reward (Experiment 2 impaired pro-social prospective memory. However, introducing a high material reward eliminated the impairment (Experiment 1. Importantly, in Experiment 1, ongoing task performance in the pro-social condition was faster than in the No PM condition. However, in Experiment 2, ongoing task costs emerged in the presence of a non-material reward, as compared to the pro-social condition. Also, results from two independent ratings showed that people’s predictions on their future pro-social actions were at odds (Experiment 1 or in line (Experiment 2 with actual PM performance. It is suggested that, according to the nature and amount of rewards, memory for a pro-social future action may be modulated by conscious or unconscious motivational mechanisms.

  8. Sensors for Detection of Misbehaving Nodes in MANETs

    OpenAIRE

    Klenk, Andreas; Kragl, Frank; Schlott, Stefan; Weber, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The fact that security is a critical problem when implementing mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is widely acknowledged. One of the different kinds of misbehavior a node may exhibit is selfishness. A selfish node wants to preserve its resources while using the services of others and consuming their resources. One way of preventing selfishness in a MANET is a detection and exclusion mechanism. In this paper, we focus on the detection and present different kinds of sensors that wil...

  9. What tangled web: barriers to rampant horizontal gene transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Kurland, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Dawkins in his The Selfish Gene(1) quite aptly applies the term "selfish" to parasitic repetitive DNA sequences endemic to eukaryotic genomes, especially vertebrates. Doolittle and Sapienza (2) as well as Orgel and Crick (3) enlivened this notion of selfish DNA with the identification of such repetitive sequences as remnants of mobile elements such as transposons. In addition, Orgel and Crick (3) associated parasitic DNA with a potential to outgrow their host genomes by propagating ...

  10. A Model of Social Selection and Successful Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-07

    D., The evolution of social behavior. Annual Reviews of Ecological Systems, 5:325-383 (1974). 2. Dawkins , R., The selfish gene . Oxford: Oxford...alive and well. it will be important to re- examine this striking historical experience,-not in terms o, oversimplified models of the " selfish gene ," but...Darwinian Analysis The acceptance by many modern geneticists of the axiom that the basic unit of selection Is the " selfish gene " quickly led to the

  11. Latin America Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-23

    brand of government Minister Pindling, which has opposition. and the FNM alternative. repeatedly said that the country "You have changed our "Call an...He reminded his audience of the treatment of the Dissident Eight, who were branded as traitors after they staged a no-confidence vote against Sir...US are aware of the awesome power their country wields for good or for evil in the world, pull for the underdogs in the world and realize that if

  12. Fourth Generation Warfare and the Cultural Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    her own socio-political agenda. While the West exports its brand of democracy, Islamists concurrently export their incompatible ideology to the West...who espouse “progressive” ideas feel that America is a victim of her own socio-political agenda. While the West exports its brand of democracy...culture relationships. In newspapers and on television around the globe, an emotionally explosive war rages: the underdog status quo of civility, mutual

  13. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army. Volume 82, Number 5, September-October 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    the disastrous defeat of the Prussians at Jena and Auerstedt. Napoleon’s modern brand of warfare exposed Prussian deficiencies and 4 September-October...great power. The choice for the underdog is literally victory or death. After the Continental Army unsuccessfully defended New York in 1776 and...best mete out their own Caucasian brand of punishment on the perpe- trators. Call it a blood feud, a vendet- ta, or just a plain old grudge, in the

  14. The Spy in Early America: The Emergence of a Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-29

    defensive posture which makes the United States’ brand of imperialism so difficult to pin down, and which ties American colonialism to its earliest...America as the underdog nation which could overcome tremendous obstacles with pluck and resilience required some examples of obstacles. The 1807...early brand of proto-feminism of the "Vision of the New Woman" of nineteenth century America, to peace movements and assert that there is a special

  15. Modeling and Simulating Transitions from Authoritarian Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    perceived to be the underdog . Another example is the Christian Democrats. None of those interviewed was a Roman Catholic, the main interest group...is because of their extreme brand of nationalism. At the time of their departure, you were glad to see them go. Their leaders have talked of the need...reason they spun-off is because of their extreme brand of nationalism. At the time of their departure, the HDF was glad to see them go. Their leaders have

  16. Al Jazeera and the DoD: The Need for Greater Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    noble underdog and America as the vengeful, colonial aggressor. A general cynicism about Arab regimes allied to America is detectable, and though Al...political and public opposition to its coverage. Al Jazeera is also exceeding its nearest competitors in global influence in brand name alone. In a 2006...according to Josh Rushing make Al Jazeera “arguably the most influential news brand across the world.”201 It is a reasonable assumption Al Jazeera’s brand

  17. A Business Case Study of Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    include cost or price, availability or multiple distribution sources, and popularity or brand /reputation. While both the commercial and government...availability, quality, security, management, scalability, brand /reputation, and service and support. 1 2 3 4 5 Pr ice Re lia bil ity Pe rfo rm an ce Av ail...source community. Open source, and Linux in particular, is often regarded as the heroic underdog . Linux has been touted as a “Windows killer.”44 Over

  18. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-23

    projecting outside! Inured to its own peculiar brand of democracy, elections, political activities, etc., the Government of India and its Organization...heroes, own brand of democracy among its assumed proteges in the LTTE, whom they went to help and the abominable Sri Lanka. lack of military...population is constituted by people of Going to the polls as underdog , the two parties have Nepalese origin. deliberately kept a low profile even as

  19. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-06

    present troubles, the things that were allowed to happen in Karachi brand with infamy not only the MQM but a large part of the country’s leadership...native Sindhis (who were them- selves something of an underdog until Bhutto came on the scene) but with the migrant labour from the North. However, at...Karachi and Hyderabad. It is convenient to brand them traitors. No government has bothered to address the root cause of why a Pakistani community no

  20. Design and Implementation of Image Research for the Columbia Mets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    the other hand, developed an unusual camaraderie through identifying with their underdog Mets." (7) Teams are finding good public relations programs do...supports the club. Question 24 was designed to measure brand loyalty by respondents to Mets sponsors versus non-Mets sponsors. Finally, question 27...be done to attract crowds. Especially with a brand new stadium. The Carolinas, in my opinion, are big minor league baseball states. Let’s get people

  1. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 85, Number 4, July-August 1942

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-08-01

    one of the popular brands with a portable movie pro- jector showing selected short subjects to groups of twenty to twenty-five men, and forever...same com- pany sent its goodwill ambassador around to all of the posts to exhibit himself and give that famous call for the brand of cigarette he...is now in progress with the officers as the underdogs . Some of the officers found volley ball not strenuous enough so they started to promote the

  2. Parameters, U.S. Army War College Quarterly. Volume 17, Number 3, September 1987,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    intelligent, then why is it that the Pollyannas are not so branded ? Perhaps Walter Lippmann had the best answer for that question thirty years ago...owkn attitudes.- .Jourtialists perceix e a \\w rld that is "peopled h\\ brutal soldiers, orutbusitiessnien. and Struggling underdogs .’ While these views...state of credulity, which is an incident to the victim hunting mania, accepted everything as true."’ McClellan’s admirers were later to brand the joint

  3. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-17

    brand , which symbolizes feudal autocracy, in that the new form has been posited in the hopes that reform can forcefully be implemented so as to...ucts; name- brand and high-quality products; products of energy, communications, transportation, and raw mate- rial industries; aid agriculture...1986 election. Chen Weiye fought a skillful battle although he had been seen as an underdog . The smashing victory of Chen Weiye and Huang Wentai plus

  4. Prospects for Russian Military R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    conflicts with a self-defeating desire to close the West out, fueled by nationalistic re- sentment of Russia’s underdog position and a distinctly Cold War...increasingly inte- grated. Until Russia succeeds in creating its brand of market econ- omy and achieves widespread economic prosperity, a process that could...defense spending in 1996 would focus on " brand new weapons and equipment" and that spending for defense R&D programs would remain at this year’s

  5. Group 3 Unmanned Aircraft Systems Maintenance Challenges Within The Naval Aviation Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    University, 2017). 7 Moneyball, is the true story of how the underdog Oakland A’s, the poorest team in baseball, changed the game by using statistics to...1% value at risk of accomplishing the 1,000 annual sorties. Value at risk is a way of statistically measuring the probability of success or failure...Licensing Program governs the licensing of individuals to use the equipment. An individual is required to attend an introductory course for each

  6. Feedback and Incentives:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedba...... of positive peer effects since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly behind, and frontrunners do not slack off. Moreover, in both pay schemes information feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work....

  7. The History of MIS-Y: U.S. Strategic Interrogation During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    27Ian Dear, Escape and Evasion, (London, UK: Arms and Armour Press, 1997), 11. 28Lloyd R. Shoemaker, The Escape Factory (New York: St. Martin’s...soldiers are beginning to understand that they are the underdogs carrying the weight of the bureaucracy. 11. Building up the Nazi Gangster Ideal. In...and Evasion: Prisoner of War Breakouts and the Routes to Safety in World War Two. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1997. DeForest, Orrin, and David

  8. Thumping the Hive: Russian Neocortical Warfare in Chechnya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    an act of aggression and the press described it as such. Any attempt to describe the average Chechen insurgent as an underdog who wanted to finish... armoured vehicles. Work among the population included the development of several factors: a base of social-political support for the [Chechen] armed...sets did not completely satisfy troop needs, as they lacked light, mobile, armour -protected stations. The satellites were also a problem due to

  9. Picking the Right Horse? Dominant Maneuver in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    York: Ballentine Books, Inc., 1973), passim. 81Heinz Guderian, Achtung-Panzer!, trans. Christopher Duffy (London: Arms & Armour Press, 1992), 140...past has been shock and horror at the ability of the underdog to completely defeat the supposedly "advantaged" force. America’s first battles... Armour Press, 1992. 159 Herzog, Chaim, and Mordechai Gichon. Battles of the Bible. London: Greenhill Books, 1997. Jomini, Antoine-Henri. Summary of

  10. Warmth in affective mediated interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Christian Jacob Arendt Maria; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    Recent research suggests that physical warmth activates perceptions of metaphorical interpersonal warmth and closeness, and increases pro-social behavior. These effects are grounded in our earliest intimate experiences: being held by our loving caregivers. These findings provide reasons to

  11. Choosing a public-spirited leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-robert

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, voters select a leader who can either act in the public interest, i.e. make efficient and equitable policy choices, or act in a corrupt way, i.e. use public funds for private gain. Voters can observe candidates⿿ pro-social behavior and their score in a cognitive ability test...... prior to the election, and this fact is known to candidates. Therefore, self-interested candidates have incentives to act in a pro-social manner, i.e. to pretend to be public-spirited leaders. We find that both truly pro-social and egoistic leaders co-exist, but that political selection is ineffective...... in choosing public-spirited leaders. The main reason is that egoistic candidates strategically pretend to be pro-social to increase their chances of winning the election....

  12. Choosing a Public-Spirited Leader. An experimental investigation of political selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, voters select a leader who can either act in the public interest, i.e. make efficient and equitable policy choices, or act in a corrupt way, i.e. use public funds for private gain. Voters can observe candidates’ pro-social behavior and their score in a cognitive ability test...... prior to the election, and this fact is known to candidates. Therefore, self-interested candidates have incentives to act in a pro-social manner, i.e. to pretend to be public-spirited leaders. We find that both truly pro-social and egoistic leaders co-exist, but that political selection is ineffective...... in choosing public-spirited leaders. The main reason is that egoistic candidates strategically pretend to be pro-social to increase their chances of winning the election....

  13. The Family of Ideal Values for Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Wenna; Sun, Hao; van den Brink, René; Xu, Genjiu

    2018-01-01

    In view of the nature of pursuing profit, a selfish coefficient function is employed to describe the degrees of selfishness of players in different coalitions, which is the desired rate of return to the worth of coalitions. This function brings in the concept of individual expected reward to every

  14. Does Asking Make a Difference? Effects of Initiator, Possible Gain, and Risk on Attributed Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Barbara; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates three variables related to attributed altruism: (1) the effects of initiating prosocial behavior; (2) the potential gain or loss for the prosocial actor; and (3) the possible risk for the prosocial actor. Determines that any evidence of selfish motivation detracts from perceived altruism, and that no evidence of selfish motivation…

  15. Genomic conflicts in Podospora anserina = Genomische conflicten in Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with genomic conflicts raised by selfish elements in the ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina .Genomic conflicts arise when the effects of the selfish elements are opposite to the interests of the other parts of the

  16. Mode of action, origin and structure of the Paternal Sex Ratio chromosome in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Selfish genetic elements are defined as genetic elements that have a replication advantage relative to the rest of the genome. They are ubiquitous in nature and were extensively reported for almost all species studied so far. A special type of selfish genetic element, the sex ratio distorter, is

  17. The paternal-sex-ratio (PSR) chromosome in natural populations of Nasonia (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, L.W.; Werren, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Selfish genetic elements may be important in promoting evolutionary change. Paternal sex ratio (PSR) is a selfish B chromosome that causes all-male families in the haplodiploid parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis, by inducing paternal genome loss in fertilized eggs. The natural distribution and

  18. The social cost of congestion games by imposing variable delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Díaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe a new coordination mechanism for non-atomic congestion games that leads to a (selfish social cost which is arbitrarily close to the non-selfish optimal. This mechanism incurs no additional cost, in contrast to tolls that typically differ from the social cost as expressed in terms of delays.

  19. Pengaruh teknik sosiodrama dalam bimbingan kelompok terhadap peningkatan perilaku prososial Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurhidaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research are to discover (1 the description of the implementation of socio-drama , (2 the description of the students’ pro-social behaviors before and after the implementation of socio-drama technique in group guidance, (3 wether there is influence of socio-drama technique in group guidance toward the improvementof pro-social behaviors of the students. The research employed quantitative approach by using true experimental desugn in form of pretest posttest control group design. The subjects of the research were 30 students of class XI who were identified had low pro-social behaviors divided into 15 students in the experiment group and 15 students in the control group. The data collection techniques employed pro-social scale and observation. The results of the reaseacrh reveal that (1 Socio-drama technique in group guidance was implemented in four sessions; first session builds the sense of helping each other, second session builds cooperation attitude, third session builds the senseof honesty, and fourth sessions builds students’ emphaty, (2 the level of pro-social behaviors of the students at before treatment was given to the experiment and control group in this case socio-drama training in group guidance is in low category, but after treatment was given, the level of students’ pro-social behaviors in experiment group improve or in high category; whereas, students in control group are still in low category, (3 the implementation of socio-drama technique in group guidance gives positive influence significantly towards the improvement of the students pro-social behaviors, meaning that when socio-drama technique in group guidance is implemented, it helps improving pro-social behaviors of the students.

  20. Positive Child Rearing Practices: Parents training for reduce bullying

    OpenAIRE

    González, Brenda; Cabrera, Francisco; Martínez, Kalina

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a positive child rearing program with parents for reducing bullying and incrementing pro-social behavior of their children. Participants were eight couples and two single parents of 10 children identified as bullies. Half of the parents were assigned to a control group and the other half were trained to identify aggressive and pro-social behaviors of their children, as well as their antecedents and consequences. During eight weekly sessions pa...

  1. Atomic routing in a deterministic queuing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Werth

    2014-03-01

    We also consider the makespan objective (arrival time of the last user and show that optimal solutions and Nash equilibria in these games, where every user selfishly tries to minimize her travel time, can be found efficiently.

  2. Node-Dependence-Based Dynamic Incentive Algorithm in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks lack end-to-end paths between source nodes and destination nodes, so the communications are mainly carried out by the “store-carry-forward” strategy. Selfish behaviors of rejecting packet relay requests will severely worsen the network performance. Incentive is an efficient way to reduce selfish behaviors and hence improves the reliability and robustness of the networks. In this paper, we propose the node-dependence-based dynamic gaming incentive (NDI algorithm, which exploits the dynamic repeated gaming to motivate nodes relaying packets for other nodes. The NDI algorithm presents a mechanism of tolerating selfish behaviors of nodes. Reward and punishment methods are also designed based on the node dependence degree. Simulation results show that the NDI algorithm is effective in increasing the delivery ratio and decreasing average latency when there are a lot of selfish nodes in the opportunistic networks.

  3. Darwinian Evolution of Mutualistic RNA Replicators with Different Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuuchi, R.; Ichihashi, N.

    2017-07-01

    We report a sustainable long-term replication and evolution of two distinct cooperative RNA replicators encoding different genes. One of the RNAs evolved to maintain or increase the cooperativity, despite selective advantage of selfish mutations.

  4. Ha-Mah-Tsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the values and moral orientations associated with the Cannibal Dance Ceremony, this article emphasizes the Kwahiutl's belief in the free will to choose between good or selflessness and evil or selfishness. (JC)

  5. the unsung earth: man's regeneration and rediscovery of the earth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    position of comfortable apathy with a topic that has much relevance in ... towards man's selfishness and reckless defiance of nature that Corona channels and .... tap into their technological appliances, turn to their forgotten God more in anger ...

  6. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of binder type and content on physical and mechanical properties of geopolymers .... Preventing the impact of selfish behavior under MANET using Neighbor .... Investigation of transient conduction–radiation heat transfer in a square ...

  7. Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And Private ... private businesses are very clear to the actors of industrial relations; those of their ... selfish interests; unions in the public sector ought to function as uplift unions, ...

  8. The Economics of Fair Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Karl; Fehr, Ernst; Nowak, Martin A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the field of experimental economics and speculates about why we value fairness and cooperation over the seemingly more rational selfishness. Illustrates a typical decision making situation using the Ultimatum game. (DDR)

  9. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preventing the impact of selfish behavior under MANET using Neighbor Credit Value ... Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) nodes exchange information using the ... Routing protocol plays a crucial role in an effective communication between ...

  10. The nature of human altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher

    2004-01-01

    Some of the most fundamental questions concerning our evolutionary origins, our social relations, and the organization of society are centred around issues of altruism and selfishness. Experimental evidence indicates that human altruism is a powerful force and is unique in the animal world. However, there is much individual heterogeneity and the interaction between altruists and selfish individuals is vital to human cooperation. Depending on the environment, a minority of altruists can force ...

  11. The Human L1 Element Causes DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    cancer is complex. However, defects in DNA repair genes in the double-strand break repair pathway are cancer predisposing. My lab has characterized...a new potentially important source of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells and are interested in characterizing which DNA repair genes act on...this particular source of DNA damage. Selfish DNA accounts for 45% of the human genome. We have recently demonstrated that one particular selfish

  12. A maternal-effect genetic incompatibility in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Burga, Alejandro; Ben-David, Eyal; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Selfish genetic elements spread in natural populations and have an important role in genome evolution. We discovered a selfish element causing a genetic incompatibility between strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . The element is made up of sup-35 , a maternal-effect toxin that kills developing embryos, and pha-1 , its zygotically expressed antidote. pha-1 has long been considered essential for pharynx development based on its mutant phenotype, but this phenotype in fact arises fro...

  13. Military Representation: The Theoretical and Practical Implications of Population Representation in the American Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    writings of Jeremy Bentham and by his father, James Mill, who helped to make Benthamism an effective political force of the period. Bentham , James Mill...34the greatest happiness of the greatest number." 1 This balance of selfish interests is central to the thinking of Bentham , John Stuart Mill, and...interests. For Bentham and the later Utilitarians, "the selfish and separate interests of mankind" could be brought together to assure the "maximization

  14. Women in Combat: The Case for Combat Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-03

    Bass, 1978), p. 186. Quoting R. Lewontin. 8. See Richard Dawkins , The Selfish Gene (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), Chapter 9. 9. Mauck, p...Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976. Dawkins , Richard. The Selfish Gene . New York: The Oxford University Press...aggression in men to a biological predisposition" and note that male visual-spatial ability may be linked to a "recessive sex linked gene .൵ Though their

  15. Society, Land, Love or Money (A Strategic Model of How to Glue the Generations Together),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    carrying of extra capital stock. 33 REFERENCES Dawkins , R. (1976), The Selfish Gene . New York: Oxford University Press. Dubey, P. and N. Shubik (1981...a gene would rapidly disappear. The care for offspring needs to be forthcoming until the last of the new generation is selfsufficient and able to...payoff than the firs:. it is more complicated. 20 4.3. Selfish Individuals and Threat Strategies (Model 1) In this section an example is fully

  16. An experiment on individual 'parochial altruism' revealing no connection between individual 'altruism' and individual 'parochialism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P; Seger, Charles R; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism.

  17. An experiment on individual ‘parochial altruism’ revealing no connection between individual ‘altruism’ and individual ‘parochialism’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J.; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P.; Seger, Charles R.; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism. PMID:26347703

  18. In Others' Shoes: Do Individual Differences in Empathy and Theory of Mind Shape Social Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

  19. Public Service Motivation, User Orientation and Job Satisfaction: A Question of Employment Sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    not differ significantly between the private and public sector, while the user orientation/job satisfaction association is strongest for private employees. This suggests that to understand the relationships between pro-social motivation, employment sector and job satisfaction, future studies could fruitfully...... satisfaction. Second, the relationship between job satisfaction and these two types of pro-social motivation, PSM and user orientation, may also be found in the private sector. This study tests whether job satisfaction is associated with PSM and user orientation, and whether these associations differ between......Public service motivation (PSM) has been shown to be positively related to job satisfaction in the public sector, but there are two gaps in the literature. First, not only PSM but also pro-social motivation directed towards helping specific others (called user orientation) may affect job...

  20. In others' shoes: do individual differences in empathy and theory of mind shape social preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person.

  1. Regional Implications of Shi’a Revival in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    From the marshes of southern Iraq to the ghettoes of Karachi, the Shi‘a have been the underdogs —oppressed and marginalized by Sunni ruling regimes and...former with “true” Is- lam—and their governments as its defenders—and branding the latter as obscurantist extremism. They dismissed Khomeini as Shi‘a... branding his vitriol against the House of Saud in the 1980s as fitna (illegitimate rebellion and sowing of disunity) against the Muslim community.7

  2. Central Asia After 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    arms technology and resell this on markets where Russia will be a competitor.9 Finally, in economic terms, Russia remains the underdog . China has the...with the ultimate aim of reducing the attraction of the West. Brand marks like “multipolarity,” a “changing world order,” “shifting power...specific brand of energy bal- ancing—i.e., not a traditional power-balancer game but a game designed to pit bidders up against one another and thus

  3. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-26

    parties it tried to woo into a coalition last Kohen didn’t care about the brand name. She had just year. In the end, the Likud’s offers won the day, so...is actually being Therefore, his depiction as a martyr, a victim, and an conducted among the Arabs themselves, and its peak underdog is nonsense...the army and The group was housed in buildings in an abandoned one of them was a combat officer in the Armoured military camp from the period of the

  4. Duelling idiots and other probability puzzlers

    CERN Document Server

    Nahin, Paul J

    2002-01-01

    What are your chances of dying on your next flight, being called for jury duty, or winning the lottery? We all encounter probability problems in our everyday lives. In this collection of twenty-one puzzles, Paul Nahin challenges us to think creatively about the laws of probability as they apply in playful, sometimes deceptive, ways to a fascinating array of speculative situations. Games of Russian roulette, problems involving the accumulation of insects on flypaper, and strategies for determining the odds of the underdog winning the World Series all reveal intriguing dimensions to the worki

  5. Parameters. US Army War College Quarterly. Volume 24, Number 2, Summer 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Azuela’s out-of-print novel, The Underdogs , which provides remarkable insights into how Mexico’s revolutionary warriors degenerated. 7. RicardalHuch, Der...Department of the Army, FM 100-15, Corps Operations, September 1989, p. 3-7. 40. Christopher F. Foss, Janes Armour andArtillery 1991-92 (12th ed.; Surrey...Photohistory of World War One. London: Arms and Armour (Dist. in US by Sterling Publishing Co.), 1994. 240 pp. $19.95. Henig, Ruth. The Origins of the

  6. Strategic Motives Drive Proposers to Offer Fairly in Ultimatum Games: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Hua; Chen, Ying-Chun; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Kan, Kamhon; Yang, C C; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2017-04-03

    The hypothesis of strategic motives postulates that offering fairly in the Ultimatum Game (UG) is to avoid rejection and receive money. In this fMRI study, we used a modified UG to elucidate how proposers reached decisions of offering fairly and to what extent they considered offering selfishly with different stakes. We had proposers choose between a fair and a selfish offer with different degrees of selfishness and stake sizes. Proposers were less likely and spent more time choosing the fair offer over a slightly-selfish offer than a very selfish offer independent of stakes. Such choices evoked greater activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortices that typically involve in allocation of cognitive control for cost/benefit decision making. Choosing a fair offer in higher stakes evoked greater activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACCg) and the areas that previously have been implicated in reward and theory of mind. Furthermore, choosing a slightly selfish offer over a fair offer evoked greater activation in the anterior cingulate sulcus, ACCg, ventral tegmental area (or substantia nigra) and anterior insular cortex signalling the higher gain and implying higher rejection risk. In conclusion, our findings favoured the hypothesis that proposers offer fairly based on the strategic motives.

  7. Evolution of Swarming Behavior Is Shaped by How Predators Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Randal S; Knoester, David B; Adami, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Animal grouping behaviors have been widely studied due to their implications for understanding social intelligence, collective cognition, and potential applications in engineering, artificial intelligence, and robotics. An important biological aspect of these studies is discerning which selection pressures favor the evolution of grouping behavior. In the past decade, researchers have begun using evolutionary computation to study the evolutionary effects of these selection pressures in predator-prey models. The selfish herd hypothesis states that concentrated groups arise because prey selfishly attempt to place their conspecifics between themselves and the predator, thus causing an endless cycle of movement toward the center of the group. Using an evolutionary model of a predator-prey system, we show that how predators attack is critical to the evolution of the selfish herd. Following this discovery, we show that density-dependent predation provides an abstraction of Hamilton's original formulation of domains of danger. Finally, we verify that density-dependent predation provides a sufficient selective advantage for prey to evolve the selfish herd in response to predation by coevolving predators. Thus, our work corroborates Hamilton's selfish herd hypothesis in a digital evolutionary model, refines the assumptions of the selfish herd hypothesis, and generalizes the domain of danger concept to density-dependent predation.

  8. Prácticas de Crianza Positiva: Entrenamiento a padres para reducir Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza González, Brenda; Pedroza Cabrera, Francisco Javier; Martínez Martínez, Kalina Isela

    2014-01-01

    El estudio buscó evaluar la eficacia de un programa de prácticas de crianza positiva dirigido a padres para reducir el bullying y aumentar la conducta pro-social de sus hijos. Participaron ocho parejas y dos padres solteros de 10 niños identificados como bullies. La mitad de los padres conformó el grupo control y se entrenó a la otra mitad para identificar la conducta agresiva y pro-social de sus hijos, sus antecedentes y consecuentes. Durante ocho sesiones semanales se entrenó a los padres a...

  9. Cross-cultural evidence for the two-facet structure of pride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.; Chung, J.M.H.; Cheng, J.T.; Tracy, J.L.; Robins, R.W.; Chen, X.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Across six studies conducted in Mainland China and South Korea, the present research extended prior findings showing that pride is comprised of two distinct conceptual and experiential facets in the U.S.: a pro-social, achievement-oriented “authentic pride”, and an arrogant, self-aggrandizing

  10. Diferencias en comportamientos prosociales entre adolescentes colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Redondo Pacheco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, se evidencia la influencia de variables socio-ambientales, como la cultura, el sexo, la edad o la nacionalidad, en la adquisición, desarrollo y mantenimiento de las conductas prosociales. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las diferencias en conductas prosociales entre estudiantes de educación secundaria de las ciudades de Pasto y Bucaramanga (Colombia, a quienes se administró la escala de Conducta Prosocial del TeenageInventory of Social Skills (TISS.Participaron 2.694 estudiantes con edades comprendidas entre 11 y 17 años (1878 de Pasto y 816 de Bucaramanga. De acuerdo con los resultados,los adolescentes de la ciudad de Pasto presentaron niveles significativamente más altos de conducta prosocial que los adolescentes de Bucaramanga. Este patrón de resultados fue similar por género y edad. Abstract This paper focuses on the analysis of pro-social behavior in high school students from Pasto and Bucaramanga (Colombia. 2,694 students between 11 and 17 years old (1878 from Pasto y 816 from Bucaramanga were sampled and a Pro-social Behavior Scale of Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS was administered. As a result, this research shows teenagers from Pasto showed higher levels of pro-social behavior than those from Bucaramanga. Socio-environmental variables, such as culture, sex, age or nationality influence students´ pro-social behavior development and maintenance.

  11. What Would You Do? Strategies for Bystander Intervention to Prevent Sexual Violence by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Hoffman, Melanie Lowe; McMahon, Sheila M.; Zucker, Sharon; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2013-01-01

    Bystander education is an increasingly utilized strategy for addressing sexual assault prevention and intervention on U.S. college campuses. Given the paramount importance of peers among college students, what types of pro-social bystander interventions do students themselves deem feasible in the campus context? Drawing on self-reports from…

  12. Appropriate Social Behavior: Teaching Expectations to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Deborah Russell; Pool, Juli Lull

    2012-01-01

    Young children's challenging behavior can impact all aspects of the classroom environment, including relationships (peer-peer, student-teacher), learning, and safety. Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a program that focuses on supporting pro-social behaviors and preventing challenging behavior. PBIS begins with building a…

  13. Breaks Are Better: A Tier II Social Behavior Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…

  14. Evaluation of Graduated vs All-or-None Contingencies on Rate Tasks for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassardjian, Alyne; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Leaf, Justin B.; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Alcalay, Aditt; Milne, Christine; Dale, Stephanie; Tsuji, Kathleen; Leaf, Ronald; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John

    2016-01-01

    The graduated reinforcement procedure (also known as differential reinforcement) is an often-used procedure in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis to teach new skills and increase pro-social behaviors. In this study, the researchers used a multi-element design to evaluated the graduated reinforcement procedure for six children with a diagnosis…

  15. Antecedent Social Skills Interventions for Individuals with ASD: What Works, for Whom, and under What Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; King, Seth; Harbin, Emilee R.; Zimmerman, Kathleen N.

    2018-01-01

    Social skills interventions designed to increase pro-social interactions for individuals with autism spectrum disorders are critical, but the relative effectiveness of these interventions is not well understood. More than 250 single-case design studies in 113 articles were reviewed and described in terms of participants, settings, arrangements,…

  16. Exploring Volunteering of Committed Young Catholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study of volunteer levels of Catholics from various World regions who attended an international youth Catholic festival. Volunteering levels, types of volunteering, reason for volunteering, Catholic group membership and pro-social values are analysed. An online survey was administered five months after the Festival to…

  17. What Works in Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Marvin W.

    2011-01-01

    Values education (alternatively, moral education, character education) is the attempt, within schools, to craft pedagogies and supportive structures to foster the development of positive, ethical, pro-social inclinations and competencies in youth, including around strengthening their academic focus and achievement. Recent research has uncovered…

  18. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  19. The Quality of Social Networks: Its Determinants and Impacts on Helping and Volunteering in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Kwok Kit; Hung, Eva P. W.; Yuen, Sze Man

    2011-01-01

    Pro-social behaviors serve essential societal functions. This study examines the factors affecting the quality of social networks, in terms of network size and perceived respect. It further explores the role of social networks in enhancing helping intention and helping behaviors. Eight hundred and eighty people were randomly interviewed by phone.…

  20. "The Very Unrecognizability of the Other": Edith Stein, Judith Butler, and the Pedagogical Challenge of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukar, Polina

    2016-01-01

    There is no standard definition of empathy, but the concept is assumed to be innately pro-social and teachable regardless of factors such as power dynamics or other manifestations of social injustice within a society. Such assumptions in discursive practices, whether academic, popular, or pedagogical, obscure the emergence of two important…

  1. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  2. The Paradox of Gratitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2015-01-01

    Since gratitude is a significant pro-social quality or virtue, it might be (and has been) considered of some educational concern. However, while it clearly needs to be understood as a response that is in some sense required or owed towards benefactors, gratitude would hardly seem genuine unless it is freely and perhaps joyfully given--perhaps on…

  3. Learning and Teaching Virtuous Gratitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David; Morgan, Blaire; Gulliford, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Gratitude has been widely regarded by philosophers, psychologists and educational theorists as a personal and/or pro-social response of some moral significance. Indeed, beyond its more obvious value as a basic form of social association and reciprocation, gratitude has also been conceived as a moral virtue--if not, more grandly, as a "parent…

  4. An Observational Study for Evaluating the Effects of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills Training on Behavioural Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliak, Sakire; Sahin, Derya

    2010-01-01

    The present observational study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) programme on behavioural change from aggression to pro-social behaviours by using the DECB rating scale. Non-participant observation method was used to collect data in pretest-training-posttest design. It was hypothesised that the ICPS…

  5. kidnapping in the southeastern states of contemporary nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    meaning. Some terminological differences between kidnapping, hostage .... achieving it, there is a goal blockage; the aspiration is frustrated and may lead .... presumably said to lack pro-social and psychological bond that could guide .... physically and psychologically to adhere to any societal demands of orderly behaviour;.

  6. Educating through the Physical--Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldar, Eitan; Ayvazo, Shiri

    2009-01-01

    Social competence is essential for successful performance in school and life. Siedentop (1980) suggested that physical education settings and related activities may serve as useful vehicles for improving pro-social skills and values. Physical education literature draws a clear distinction between educating about, in, and through movement (Arnold,…

  7. Rethinking Education--Emerging Roles for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Fatima Rehan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out how teachers role modeled and taught empathetic and pro-social skills at the primary level. The study was qualitative in nature and followed a case study approach. Observations of regular English language classes were done from Grades 1-5 to see if class lessons incorporated the said themes and whether…

  8. Prosocial involvement as a positive youth development construct: conceptual bases and implications for curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Howard C H; Siu, Andrew M H; Leung, Mana C M

    2006-01-01

    Pro-social involvement programmes are significant and important for the healthy growth of adolescents as well as for the development of society. Pro-social involvement of adolescence refers to paid-job, volunteer works, sport and games. It serves the functions of making adolescents aware of and to accept the social norms and moral standard of the society, which would bring positive changes to the adolescents and consequently benefit the society as a whole. Past studies showed that adolescents who participated in pro-social involvement programmes tended to have positive self-perception, more social skills, and less anti-social behaviors. In Hong Kong, professionals in education and social services have fully recognized the benefits of pro-involvement programmes. They have organized multi-level and diverse pro-social involvement programmes and encouraged adolescents to participate. Through participation, adolescents could be helped to redefine their relationship with the society, and maximize their potentials for growth. The current programme described in this article is designed in the P.A.T.H.S. Project, support by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  9. The Individual-Practice Framework as a design tool to understand consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscicelli, L.; Moreno, Mariale; Cooper, Tim; Fisher, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Design for behaviour change is a growing research field which aims at providing methods and tools to foster pro-environmental and pro-social action through the application of diverse theories, models and approaches from the social sciences. This chapter presents the Individual-Practice Framework,

  10. Sustainable safety volunteerism in the Strand, Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    contributed to national campaigns, such as the 16 Days of Activism Against Women and Child ... volunteers in the provision of community safety services. ... multiplicity of attributes, experiences, emotions, motivations and behaviours that one may ... Carpenter and Knowles Myers (2010) suggest that pro-social behaviour is ...

  11. Social Capital, Economic Development, and Homicide: A Cross-National Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Blaine; Pettinicchio, David

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from an ongoing debate over explanations of homicide. Within this debate, we investigate the pro-social effects of civil society and social capital. Few cross-national studies explore whether elements of social capital either increase or decrease homicide. The cross-national work that does is often characterized by small,…

  12. Desenvolvimento moral pró-social: Semelhanças e diferenças entre os modelos teóricos de Eisenberg e Kohlberg Prosocial moral development: similarities and differences between Eisenberg's and Kohlberg's theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Helena Koller

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo consiste em uma revisão crítica da literatura na área do desenvolvimento moral pró-social. O modelo teórico do desenvolvimento pró-social de Eisenberg é apresentado e discutido em comparação com o modelo teórico de julgamento moral de Kohlberg. Esses modelos apresentam enfoques complementares no estudo da moralidade. Enquanto Kohlberg estudava o julgamento moral a partir de transgressão, Eisenberg investiga a moralidade em funções de ações pró-sociais como comportamentos de ajuda. Os fatores psicológicos que podem ser concebidos como determinantes da pró-sociabilidade são também apresentados e discutidos. Finalmente, a pesquisa recente crítica ou corroboradora de ambos os modelos é sumarizada.This paper presents a critical review of the literature on pro-social moral development. Eisenberg's pro-social development model is presented and discussed in contrast to Kohlberg's theory. These models focus on complementary views in the study of morality. Whereas Kohlberg studied moral judgment using dilemmas involving transgressions, Eisenberg looks at pro-social actions, such as helping behavior. Psychological factors that might determine pro-social reasoning are also presented and discussed. Finally, recent research criticizing or corroborating either model is summarized.

  13. News Media Literacy and Political Engagement: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Seth; Maksl, Adam; Craft, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Scholars and educators have long hoped that media education is positively related to pro-social goals such as political and civic engagement. With a focus on measuring news media literacy with emphasis on media knowledge, need for cognition and media locus of control, this study surveyed 537 college students and found positive relationships…

  14. When Parenting Does Not "Come Naturally": Providers' Perspectives on Parenting Education for Incarcerated Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Cathrine; Dawson, Angela; Rossiter, Chris; Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Roche, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Learning to parent sensitively and safely can be challenging for adults with childhood abuse and neglect experiences. Such childhood experiences are prevalent among incarcerated parents whose ability to parent their own children is also limited by separation from them. Several prisons have developed programs to foster pro-social parenting skills…

  15. The Interpersonal Adaptiveness of Dispositional Guilt and Shame: A Meta-Analytic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignor, Stefanie M; Colvin, C Randall

    2017-06-01

    Despite decades of empirical research, conclusions regarding the adaptiveness of dispositional guilt and shame are mixed. We use meta-analysis to summarize the empirical literature and clarify these ambiguities. Specifically, we evaluate how guilt and shame are uniquely related to pro-social orientation and, in doing so, highlight the substantial yet under-acknowledged impact of researchers' methodological choices. A series of meta-analyses was conducted investigating the relationship between dispositional guilt (or shame) and pro-social orientation. Two main methodological moderators of interest were tested: test format (scenario vs. checklist) and statistical analysis (semi-partial vs. zero-order correlations). Among studies employing zero-order correlations, dispositional guilt was positively correlated with pro-social orientation (k = 63, Mr = .13, p guilt studies only, with scenario measures producing significantly stronger effects. Semi-partial correlations resulted in significantly stronger effects among guilt and shame studies. Although dispositional guilt and shame are differentially related to pro-social orientation, such relationships depend largely on the methodological choices of the researcher, particularly in the case of guilt. Implications for the study of these traits are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Principles of Classroom Management: A Professional Decision-Making Model, 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, James; Nolan, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This text takes a decision-making model approach to classroom management. It provides teachers with a very practical system to influence students to choose to behave productively and to strive for academic success. This widely used text presents an array of decision-making options that guide teachers in developing positive, pro-social classroom…

  17. Friend versus foe: Neural correlates of prosocial decisions for liked and disliked peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuders, Elisabeth; Klapwijk, Eduard T; Will, Geert-Jan; Güroğlu, Berna

    2018-02-01

    Although the majority of our social interactions are with people we know, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of sharing valuable resources with familiar others. Using an ecologically valid research paradigm, this functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of prosocial and selfish behavior in interactions with real-life friends and disliked peers in young adults. Participants (N = 27) distributed coins between themselves and another person, where they could make selfish choices that maximized their own gains or prosocial choices that maximized outcomes of the other. Participants were more prosocial toward friends and more selfish toward disliked peers. Individual prosociality levels toward friends were associated negatively with supplementary motor area and anterior insula activity. Further preliminary analyses showed that prosocial decisions involving friends were associated with heightened activity in the bilateral posterior temporoparietal junction, and selfish decisions involving disliked peers were associated with heightened superior temporal sulcus activity, which are brain regions consistently shown to be involved in mentalizing and perspective taking in prior studies. Further, activation of the putamen was observed during prosocial choices involving friends and selfish choices involving disliked peers. These findings provide insights into the modulation of neural processes that underlie prosocial behavior as a function of a positive or negative relationship with the interaction partner.

  18. GTRF: a game theory approach for regulating node behavior in real-time wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi; Wu, Guowei; Pirozmand, Poria

    2015-06-04

    The selfish behaviors of nodes (or selfish nodes) cause packet loss, network congestion or even void regions in real-time wireless sensor networks, which greatly decrease the network performance. Previous methods have focused on detecting selfish nodes or avoiding selfish behavior, but little attention has been paid to regulating selfish behavior. In this paper, a Game Theory-based Real-time & Fault-tolerant (GTRF) routing protocol is proposed. GTRF is composed of two stages. In the first stage, a game theory model named VA is developed to regulate nodes' behaviors and meanwhile balance energy cost. In the second stage, a jumping transmission method is adopted, which ensures that real-time packets can be successfully delivered to the sink before a specific deadline. We prove that GTRF theoretically meets real-time requirements with low energy cost. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance of our scheme. Simulation results show that GTRF not only balances the energy cost of the network, but also prolongs network lifetime.

  19. Constant Price of Anarchy in Network Creation Games via Public Service Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaine, Erik D.; Zadimoghaddam, Morteza

    Network creation games have been studied in many different settings recently. These games are motivated by social networks in which selfish agents want to construct a connection graph among themselves. Each node wants to minimize its average or maximum distance to the others, without paying much to construct the network. Many generalizations have been considered, including non-uniform interests between nodes, general graphs of allowable edges, bounded budget agents, etc. In all of these settings, there is no known constant bound on the price of anarchy. In fact, in many cases, the price of anarchy can be very large, namely, a constant power of the number of agents. This means that we have no control on the behavior of network when agents act selfishly. On the other hand, the price of stability in all these models is constant, which means that there is chance that agents act selfishly and we end up with a reasonable social cost.

  20. Private and public decisions in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houser, Daniel; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco

    2012-01-01

    impulse for several minutes in order to benefit others. In Public Condition children make decisions in public view of the group of other participants, while in Private Condition they have the possibility to decide privately. We find that children aged 9 and higher are better able to resist selfish......Are selfish impulses less likely to be pursued when decisions are publicly observable? Is the presence of peers a potential solution to social dilemmas? In this paper we report data on the self-control decisions of children aged 6 to 11 who participated in games that require one to resist a selfish...... impulses in public environments. Younger children, however, display no such effect. Further, we find self-control substantially impacted by group size. When decisions are public, self-control is better in larger groups, while in private condition the opposite holds....

  1. Reflexiones sobre el egoísmo psicológico (Ensayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Trejo Vega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will present some criticisms of the theory of psychological egoism, which states that all the motives that cause us to act ultimately were response to personal interests. The criticism begins by noting that only the motives are not enough to be consider, but the intentions and the responsibility that the agent states to prosecute an act as selfish must also be taken into account. On the other hand, an act that meets one's own interests is not considered sufficient to call it selfish: egoism, while referring to moral condemnation, self-interest does not suffer from this assessment; therefore, it is necessary to distinguish these terms. With intent to oppose this theory, that each of our actions express selfish motives and denies the possibility of an altruistic act, I present the following lines.

  2. Strategy intervention for the evolution of fairness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Zhang

    Full Text Available The 'irrational' preference for fairness has attracted increasing attention. Although previous studies have focused on the effects of spitefulness on the evolution of fairness, they did not consider non-monotonic rejections shown in behavioral experiments. In this paper, we introduce a non-monotonic rejection in an evolutionary model of the Ultimatum Game. We propose strategy intervention to study the evolution of fairness in general structured populations. By sequentially adding five strategies into the competition between a fair strategy and a selfish strategy, we arrive at the following conclusions. First, the evolution of fairness is inhibited by altruism, but it is promoted by spitefulness. Second, the non-monotonic rejection helps fairness overcome selfishness. Particularly for group-structured populations, we analytically investigate how fairness, selfishness, altruism, and spitefulness are affected by population size, mutation, and migration in the competition among seven strategies. Our results may provide important insights into understanding the evolutionary origin of fairness.

  3. Parochial Altruists or Ideologues? An Agent Based Model of Commitment to Self Sacrifice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Zahedzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'What motivates suicide attackers remains an open question. From an evolutionary perspective, commitment to suicide missions is puzzling since such behavior is fitness reducing. We model suicide terrorism by drawing on two fundamental human motivations: altruism and selfishness. Martyrdom can be viewed as altruistic- benefiting group members at a cost to oneself, as well as selfish- ideological belief in a profitable afterlife. Our simulations identify that some degree of both behaviors are essential in order to facilitate a commitment to sacrifice. Thus, manipulations of ideology and altruism can tip the threshold and set the agents on the path of martyrdom. '

  4. Fairness and Reciprocity in the Hawk-Dove Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders; Neugebauer, Tibor; Schram, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field.......We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field....

  5. ECONOMIC EQUALITY OR JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Tufan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of economic life, equality has been a matter for human. Intrinsically human has two legs: Selfish and Groupish. Our selfish side does not care equality while Groupish side cares. What about the justice? Does human wants justice more than equalities in economic life? In this research, we have applied a questionnaire to find these two questions answer. As a result we can report that respondents prefer equality rather than justice in negative outcomes. On the other hand, they tend to prefer justice if there is possibility for positive outcomes. We cannot give evidence about gender, education and age differences effect on equality and justice preference.

  6. The Latvian Legion (1943-1945) and Its Role in Latvia’s History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Latvian nation “encoded” into its genes a hatred for communism. During the years of independence a whole new generation was raised,37 a generation that...hands of a bigger occupational force but also as a tool of one’s selfish desire for glory and satisfaction. Consequent analysis of the LL’s...military leaders of being selfish and only willing to earn more “iron crosses,” therefore sending the soldiers to the “craziest” tasks.20 The author of

  7. Making good cider out of bad apples – Signaling expectations boosts cooperation among would-be free riders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagatsu, Michiru; Larsen, Karen; Karabegovic, Mia

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates how group-cooperation heuristics boost voluntary contributions in a repeated public goods game. We manipulate two separate factors in a two-person public goods game: i) group composition (Selfish Subjects vs. Conditional Cooperators) and ii) common knowledge about...... group composition (Information vs. No Information). In addition, we let the subjects signal expectations of the other’s contributions in the experiment’s second phase. Common knowledge of Selfish type alone slightly dampens contributions but dramatically increases contributions when signaling...

  8. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  9. Game Theory (2/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    This lecture series will present the main directions of Algorithmic Game Theory, a new field that has emerged in the last two decades at the interface of Game Theory and Computer Science, because of the unprecedented growth in size, complexity, and impact of the Internet and the Web. These include the price of anarchy (what is the impact of selfishness on a system of competing entities), computational complexity (can the market find a reasonable solution), mechanisms and auctions (what incentives to give to selfish individuals).

  10. Game Theory (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    This lecture series will present the main directions of Algorithmic Game Theory, a new field that has emerged in the last two decades at the interface of Game Theory and Computer Science, because of the unprecedented growth in size, complexity, and impact of the Internet and the Web. These include the price of anarchy (what is the impact of selfishness on a system of competing entities), computational complexity (can the market find a reasonable solution), mechanisms and auctions (what incentives to give to selfish individuals).

  11. Product and process innovation of grey cast iron brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorn, M. [Brembo S.P.A. (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The brake disc out of grey cast iron often seems to be playing the role of the ''underdog'' in the technical examinations of the entire brake system. This is also reflected by the 25 year history of the {mu}-club. In a total of 93 presentations in those 25 years, only 3 were related to the topic of grey cast iron discs. This is not a correct relation to the importance of this component within the brake system. The disc, although per definition with a lower specific load than the pad, has the major task to store and dissipate the heat in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is transformed. The disc also has a significant effect on NVH behaviour, particularly in the low frequency range. It also has a permanent fight with its weight as an unsprung mass. (orig.)

  12. Los Estudios de Opinión y su Influencia en las Preferencias de las Personas The Influence of Opinion Polls on People's Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Uribe

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa la evidencia existente sobre la influencia que las encuestas tienen en la manifestación de preferencias tanto en términos de asumir una posición (de mayoría -bandwagon- o de minoría -underdog como de las variables que mediatizan este efecto. A continuación se presenta un estudio experimental que analiza este último punto en relación a dos variables de las encuestas (dirección y fuerza de los resultados y tres elementos individuales (personalidad, estilo cognitivo y género. Los resultados señalan que la fuerza de la encuesta así como un mayor puntaje en la escala de extroversion y neuroticismo (medido a través del EPI y el género (masculino efectivamente están asociados a la presencia del efecto bandwagon.This article develops a literature review of the evidence concerning the effects of opinion polls on people's preferences (in the direction of the majority - bandwagon- or minority of people -underdog as well as the variables that moderate the presence of this effect. Secondly, an experimental study is reported. It analyzes two variables related to the nature of opinion polls (direction and strength of poll results in terms of their effect on preferences change. Finally, it analizes the role of three individual factors (personality, cognitive style, and gender, which are correlated with the presence of this effect. Results show that strength of poll results, as well as gender (male and a higher score on extroversion and neuroticism (measured with tuhe EPI, are actually associated with the bandwagon effect

  13. An experiment on individual ‘parochial altruism’ revealing no connection between individual ‘altruism’ and individual ‘parochialism’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eHargreaves Heap

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behaviour? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group. We find that it is not. An examination of the Big 5 personality predictors of each behaviour reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how ‘nice’ individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism.

  14. "I'm attached, and I'm a good guy/gal!": how character attachment influences pro- and anti-social motivations to play massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas David; Schultheiss, Daniel; Schumann, Christina

    2012-03-01

    One's feelings of intimacy and connectedness with distal, fictional media characters are referred to as parasocial interactions. Video games have challenged this concept, as the distance between game players and characters is greatly reduced, if not completely removed, in virtual environments. Games encourage the internalization and psychological merging of a player's and a character's mind, a multidimensional concept known as character attachment (CA). Data from our study suggest that dimensions of CA are useful in understanding both pro- and anti-social gaming motivations. Pro-social gamers feel a greater sense of control over their characters, while anti-social gamers are more likely to suspend their disbelief of the game environment and not take responsibility for their virtual actions. Pro-social gaming was more prevalent in older gamers, and younger male game characters were motivated by anti-social reasons.

  15. The Luxury of Igniting Change by Giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Rosa; Uth Thomsen, Thyra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the phenomenon of luxury from a consumer perspective, by means of multisited phenomenological inquiry. The findings expand the pervasive view of luxury as accumulation of highly valued goods by offering a transformative perspective of luxury as transforming the life...... the giver with a sense of luxury in terms of pleasure, purpose, and connection with humankind. Thus, the findings not only extend the traditional conceptualization of luxury from having to giving, but also challenge current conceptualizations of sharing out as a non-reciprocal pro-social behavior...... by illustrating how ‘the luxury of giving’ relies on both pro-social and pro-ego consumption rationales, which implicitly include circular reciprocation....

  16. How do leaders react when treated unfairly? Leader narcissism and self-interested behavior in response to unfair treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyang; Chiang, Jack Ting-Ju; Fehr, Ryan; Xu, Minya; Wang, Siting

    2017-11-01

    In this article we employ a trait activation framework to examine how unfairness perceptions influence narcissistic leaders' self-interested behavior, and the downstream implications of these effects for employees' pro-social and voice behaviors. Specifically, we propose that narcissistic leaders are particularly likely to engage in self-interested behavior when they perceive that their organizations treat them unfairly, and that this self-interested behavior in turn decreases followers' pro-social behavior and voice. Data from a multisource, time-lagged survey of 211 team leaders and 1,205 subordinates provided support for the hypothesized model. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Towards an animal model of callousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-12-28

    Callous-unemotional traits - the insensitivity to other's welfare and well-being - are characterized by a lack of empathy. They are characteristic of psychopathy and can be found in other anti-social disorders, such as conduct disorder. Because of the increasing prevalence of anti-social disorders and the rising societal costs of violence and aggression, it is of great importance to elucidate the psychological and physiological mechanisms underlying callousness in the search for pharmacological treatments. One promising avenue is to create a relevant animal model to explore the neural bases of callousness. Here, we review recent advances in rodent models of pro-social choice that could be applied to probe the absence of pro-sociality as a proxy of callous behavior, and provide future directions for the exploration of the neural substrates of callousness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond dichotomies-(m)others' structuring and the development of toddlers' prosocial behavior across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärtner, Joscha

    2018-04-01

    Basic elements of prosociality-(pro)social cognition, motivation, and prosocial behavior-emerge during the first and second year of life. These elements are rooted in biological predispositions and the developmental system is complemented by caregivers' structuring. By structuring, (m)others integrate toddlers' unrefined (pro)social sentiments and behavioral inclinations into coherent patterns and align toddlers' experience and behavior with the population's cultural model. These cultural models specify target states for appropriate affective, motivational and behavioral responses regarding toddlers' prosociality and these target states, in turn, inform (m)others' appraisal and guide their structuring. The experiences that toddlers make in these social interactions have important implications for how the basic elements of prosociality are refined and further develop. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Implementation Strategy Cooperative Learning Type of Student Achievement Division Team (STAD) to Improve Social Skills Students on Learning Morals in Man 2 Pontianak Learning the Year 2016/2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianawati

    2017-01-01

    Background doing the research is Social skills is an individual's ability to communicate effectively with others, both verbally and nonverbally. Facts social attitudes such selfishness, individualism, indifferent, no responsible attitude, miss communication and interaction with others. One Cooperative-learning strategy to develop cooperation…

  20. IDENTIFYING TOXIC LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS AND TOOLS TO FACILITATE THEIR DISCOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-31

    generic traits that describe toxic leadership. Broad characteristics of narcissism and cynicism are further reduced to descriptors of selfishness...abuse and tyranny. The persistent abusiveness, authoritarianism, narcissism and unpredictability can be displayed in two categories of toxicity...retention failure to the toxic leadership climate. These leaders are maladjusted, emphasizing narcissism and authoritarianism.25 The primary indicators of

  1. Suicide Terrorism: Deadly Tactic or Operational Art at Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    clerical leader, opined in a 1996 interview printed in an Egyptian newspaper that “suicide puts an end to his life out of selfish considerations...attacks in support of their strategic objectives. Following the February 1994 massacre in the Tomb of the Patriarchs-Khalili Mosque perpetrated by

  2. Collective intelligent wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaylov, M.; Nowe, A.; Tuyls, K.P.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we apply the COllective INtelligence (COIN) framework ofWolpert et al. toWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) with the aim to increase the autonomous lifetime of the network in a decentralized manner. COIN describes how selfish agents can learn to optimize their own performance, so that the

  3. Explaining cooperation in the finitely repeated simultaneous and sequential prisoner's dilemma game under incomplete and complete information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in social dilemmas is a central issue in behavioral science, and the prisoner's dilemma (PD) is the most frequently employed model. Theories assuming rationality and selfishness predict no cooperation in PDs of finite duration, but cooperation is frequently observed. We

  4. Explaining cooperation in the finitely repeated simultaneous and sequential prisoner’s dilemma game under incomplete and complete information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in social dilemmas is a central issue in behavioral science, and the prisoner’s dilemma (PD) is the most frequently employed model. Theories assuming rationality and selfishness predict no cooperation in PDs of finite duration, but cooperation is frequently observed. We

  5. Explaining cooperation in the finitely repeated simultaneous and sequential prisoner’s dilemma game under incomplete and complete information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2016-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in social dilemmas is a central issue in behavioral science, and the prisoner’s dilemma (PD) is the most frequently employed model. Theories assuming rationality and selfishness predict no cooperation in PDs of finite duration, but cooperation is frequently observed. We

  6. Molecular biology. A Swiss army knife of immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, S.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Selfish genetic elements are more than a daily nuisance in the life of prokaryotes. Whereas viruses can multiply by reprogramming host cells, or integrate in the host genome as “stowaways,” conjugative plasmids (transferrable extrachromosomal DNA) make cells addicted to plasmid-encoded antitoxin

  7. Individual versus group behavior and the role of the decision making process in gift-exchange experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We test for behavioral differences between groups and individuals in gift-exchange experiments. Related studies in economics establish group behavior as often closer to the standard game-theoretic equilibrium under the assumptions of rationality and selfishness. We show that this result may depend

  8. Responding to Robert Wolff's In Defense of Anarchism Emmanuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANDCORPgh changing the world

    issues the “command” functions merely as the occasion for my ... Wolff begins with the fundamental assumption in moral philosophy that ..... by selfish political leaders (cited by Reiman himself) that the business of politics is power. .... Wolff after Reiman), William Edmundson (1998) considers the anarchist objection to.

  9. Too tired to tell the truth : Self-control resource depletion and dishonesty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mead, N.L.; Baumeister, R.F.; Gino, F.; Schweitzer, M.E.; Ariely, D.

    2009-01-01

    The opportunity to profit from dishonesty evokes a motivational conflict between the temptation to cheat for selfish gain and the desire to act in a socially appropriate manner. Honesty may depend on self-control given that self-control is the capacity that enables people to override antisocial

  10. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies. PMID:15504003

  11. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees

    OpenAIRE

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies.

  12. Retributive Justice in Fiction: An Analysis of May Nwoye's ENDLESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essay explores the painful life of the protagonist, Nkoli, from the United States of America to her home country, Nigeria. In the course of the study, Nkoli's naivety and lack of foresight, her husband's gross selfishness and heartlessness and the country's attitudes towards women are projected as the major causes of her ...

  13. Hegelians Axel Honneth and Robert Williams on the Development of Human Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    An individual is in the lowest phase of moral development if he thinks only of his own personal interest and has only his own selfish agenda in his mind as he encounters other humans. This lowest phase corresponds well with sixteenth century British moral egoism which reflects the rise of the new economic order. Adam Smith (1723-1790) wanted to…

  14. Design of Availability-Dependent Distributed Services in Large-Scale Uncooperative Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ramses Victor

    2009-01-01

    Thesis Statement: "Availability-dependent global predicates can be efficiently and scalably realized for a class of distributed services, in spite of specific selfish and colluding behaviors, using local and decentralized protocols". Several types of large-scale distributed systems spanning the Internet have to deal with availability variations…

  15. Why Not Charter School Boards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Cole, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Claiming that individual school board members act in selfish ways, proposes electing entire school board as a slate. Board would collectively be held responsible for performance of the school system and all of its employees. State legislation would be required to specify how interested groups would select a slate and create a charter, which is the…

  16. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. M G SUMITHRA. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 43 Issue 4 April 2018 pp 60. Preventing the impact of selfish behavior under MANET using Neighbor Credit Value based AODV routing algorithm · K RAMA ABIRAMI M G SUMITHRA · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Mobile Ad hoc Network ...

  17. On the Applicability of Resources Optimization Model for Mitigating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survival of peer-to-peer systems depends on the contribution of resources by all the participating peers. Selfish behavior of some peers that do not contribute resources inhibits the expected level of service delivery. Free riding has been found to seriously affect the performance and negates the sharing principle of ...

  18. Failure to End the Kivu Conflict: Is Rwanda’s Security and Stability at Stake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    faculty: Mr. Dave Seigel, Mr. Bill Latham, Mr. Gene King, Dr. Randy Mullis, and Lt Col White. My thanks also go out to my colleagues of Staff Group 2A who...ruled by the “Mafia- 17 type” organizations serving the selfish interests of Mobutu and his entourage, he continues to say. The same view is

  19. Transposable Elements Direct The Coevolution between Plants and Microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, Michael F.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements are powerful drivers of genome evolution in many eukaryotes. Although they are mostly considered as 'selfish' genetic elements, increasing evidence suggests that they contribute to genetic variability; particularly under stress conditions. Over the past few years, the role of

  20. Eliminating Space Debris: Applied Technology and Policy Prescriptions, Fall 2007 - Project 07-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Selfish maximization of the profit from property rights will lead to a socially efficient outcome. The negative externalities will be eliminated.52...Experiment (MSX)” MSX Celestial Backgrounds. 27 Dec. 2007 <http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/ipac/msx/msx.html> 155 Heyler, Gene “MSX Midcourse Space Experiment

  1. Russia, America, and Security in the Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    selfish pursuit of national interest. The accusation of unilateralism, however, is not completely correct; rather, US foreign policy could be labeled...It is theoretically possible to create virus species that selectively kill people with specific genes , while being totally harmless to others (so

  2. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01


    Introduction

    This manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces

  3. Learning to read and write in evolution : From static pseudoenzymes and pseudosignalers to dynamic gear shifters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abudukelimu, Abulikemu; Mondeel, Thierry D.G.A.; Barberis, Matteo; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systems biology view on pseudoenzymes that acknowledges that genes are not selfish: the genome is. With network function as the selectable unit, there has been an evolutionary bonus for recombination of functions of and within proteins. Many proteins house a functionality by which they

  4. Learning to read and write in evolution: from static pseudoenzymes and pseudosignalers to dynamic gear shifters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abudukelimu, A.; Mondeel, T.D.G.A.; Barberis, M.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systems biology view on pseudoenzymes that acknowledges that genes are not selfish: the genome is. With network function as the selectable unit, there has been an evolutionary bonus for recombination of functions of and within proteins. Many proteins house a functionality by which they

  5. A Glimpse into the Cultural Foundations of Open Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Piero

    2018-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, greater togetherness is the prerequisite for innovating and having more: selflessness extends scope while selfishness increases limitations. But human beings are not automatically attracted to innovation: between the two lies culture, and cultural values vary widely, with the egoistic accent or the altruistic intonation…

  6. Adolescent Psychopathy and the Big Five: Results from Two Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness,…

  7. The Picture of Dorian Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil

  8. Parental background and other-regarding preferences in children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, J.; Pertold-Gebicka, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2014), s. 24-46 ISSN 1386-4157 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : other-regarding preferences * altruism * selfishness Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.397, year: 2014

  9. Specialization in policing behaviour among workers of the ant Pachycondyla inversa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Fürst, Matthias Alois; Heinze, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    of the policing workers had active ovaries, so that policing did not incur a direct selfish benefit to the policer. This suggests that policing is subject to polyethism, just like other tasks in the colony. We discuss several hypotheses on the possible causes of this skew in policing tasks. This is the first non...

  10. Evolution of altruistic punishment in heterogeneous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Harmen; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary models for altruistic behavior typically make the assumption of homogeneity: each individual has the same costs and benefits associated with cooperating with each other and punishing for selfish behavior. In this paper, we relax this assumption by separating the population into

  11. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  12. Applying Value Sensitive Design (VSD) to Wind Turbines and Wind Parks : An Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterlaken, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Community acceptance still remains a challenge for wind energy projects. The most popular explanation for local opposition, the Not in My Backyard effect, has received fierce criticism in the past decade. Critics argue that opposition is not merely a matter of selfishness or ignorance, but that

  13. Critically Evaluating Competing Theories: An Exercise Based on the Kitty Genovese Murder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarin, Brad J.; Lawler-Sagarin, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe an exercise based on the 1964 murder of Catherine Genovese--a murder observed by 38 witnesses, none of whom called the police. Students read a summary of the murder and worked in small groups to design an experiment to test the competing theories for the inaction of the witnesses (Americans' selfishness and insensitivity vs. diffusion…

  14. Persistence Mechanisms of Conjugative Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Are plasmids selfish parasitic DNA molecules or an integrated part of the bacterial genome? This chapter reviews the current understanding of the persistence mechanisms of conjugative plasmids harbored by bacterial cells and populations. The diversity and intricacy of mechanisms affecting the suc...

  15. The Importance of Cognitive Factors that Guide Escalation of Force Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    afghanistan.blogs.cnn.com/2010/05/13/military-proposes-medal-for-troops- showing-restraint/ Dawkins , R. E. (1976). The Selfish Gene . New York: Oxford...evolve, each counterpart jockeys to decrease/increase visual detection ( Dawkins , 1976; see also Buss, 2005). Some have argued that human beings are

  16. What Does it Take to Produce Interpretation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren; Joslyn, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    , and to go beyond the complex systems, emergence, self-organization, and informational paradigms, and also the selfish gene theory of Dawkins and the Peircean pragmaticist semiotic theory built on the simultaneous types of evolution. As such it is a new and bold attempt to use semiotics to solve the problems...

  17. Relatedness facilitates cooperation in the subsocial spider, Stegodyphus tentoriicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruch, Jasmin; Heinrich, Lisa; Bilde, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cooperative hunting and foraging in spiders is rare and prone to cheating such that the actions of selfish individuals negatively affect the whole group. The resulting social dilemma may be mitigated by kin selection since related individuals lose indirect fitness benefits by acting...

  18. On Tradeoffs between Trust Accuracy and Resource Consumption in Communications and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    length, the use of indirect information to establish trust values, and the impact of misbehaving nodes on both communication overhead and the...evaluated). We consider the impact of misbehaving (selfish or malicious) nodes on the evaluation of trust. We also consider the interaction between

  19. Development of the Tailored Adaptive Personality Assessment System (TAPAS) to Support Army Personnel Selection and Classification Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    cordial, and amiable vs. antagonistic, rough, and combative. The Generosity facet was marked by adjectives such as charitable , helpful, and...compassionate, sensitive, and caring. Selflessness charitable , helpful, generous, stingy, selfish High scoring individuals are generous with their... Organisational Psychology, 68, 219-236. 6 Black, J. (2000). Personality testing and police selection: Utility of the Big Five. New Zealand Journal of

  20. Why be nice? Better not think about it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Are people more likely to be cooperative if they must act quickly or if they have more time to mull it over? The results of a recent series of studies suggest that peoples' initial impulse is to cooperate, but that with more time and reflection they become more selfish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The European Union’s Human Security Doctrine: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Symbolism: Europe Takes on Human Security,” 92. 91 Ayn Rand, The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism (New York: Signet Press, 1964). 92 Bailes...New Concept of Egoism . New York: Signet Press, 1964. Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. The Responsibility

  2. Evolutionary origin and consequences of uniparental mitochondrial inheritance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    In the great majority of sexual organisms, cytoplasmic genomes such as the mitochondrial genome are inherited (almost) exclusively through only one, usually the maternal, parent. This rule probably evolved to minimize the potential spread of selfish cytoplasmic genomic mutations through a species.

  3. Purposes and Effects of Lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    Three exploratory studies were aimed at describing the purposes of lies and the consequences of lying. Data were collected through a partly open-ended questionnaire, a content analysis of several tape-recorded interviews, and a large-scale survey. The results showed that two of every three lies were told for selfish reasons, while three of every…

  4. The Good, the Bad, and the Talented: Entrepreneurial Talent and Other-Regarding Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276323394; Urbig, D.; Desai, S.; Acs, Z.; Sanders, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/175620059

    Talent allocation models assume that entrepreneurial talent is selfish and thus allocates into unproductive or even destructive activities if these offer the highest private returns. This paper experimentally analyzes other-regarding preferences of entrepreneurial talent. We find that making a

  5. A Two-Phenotype Model of Immune Evasion by Cancer Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, Péter; Brown, Joel; Stankova, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    We propose a model with two types of cancer cells differentiated by their defense mechanisms against the immune system. ``Selfish'' cancer cells develop defense mechanisms that benefit the individual cell, whereas ``cooperative'' cells deploy countermeasures that increase the chance of survival of

  6. Resource Curse: Micro and Macro Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 9(4), Serial No. .... license to exploit the resources is automatically in a lucrative business. In such cases, ... seek rent or give or take bribe for themselves, they place priority on their selfish needs at the ... financial transactions concerning resource curse. • Individuals ...

  7. Multi-attribute bilateral bargaining in a one-to-many setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. Gerding (Enrico); D.J.A. Somefun (Koye); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractNegotiations are an important way of reaching agreements between selfish autonomous agents. In this paper we focus on one-to-many bargaining within the context of agent-mediated electronic commerce. We consider an approach where a seller negotiates over multiple interdependent attributes

  8. Giving Education a Bad Name: Bookish Boys in Contemporary American School Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, David

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary American school stories that appear to advocate learning and literacy as a democratic good, but actually undermine democratic possibilities by teaching young readers to think of academic inquiry as a means to selfish, petty ends. Since "learning" and "literacy" are catchwords for educators…

  9. Leniency Bias in Long-Term Workplace Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tichem (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper studies how firms can efficiently incentivize supervisors to truthfully report employee performance. To this end, I develop a dynamic principal-supervisor-agent model. The supervisor is either selfish or altruistic towards the agent, which is observable to

  10. Path trading : fast algorithms, smoothed analysis, and hardness results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, A.; Röglin, H.; Zwaan, van der G.R.J.; Pardalos, P.M.; Rebennack, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) serves as the main routing protocol of the Internet and ensures network reachability among autonomous systems (ASes). When traffic is forwarded between the many ASes on the Internet according to that protocol, each AS selfishly routes the traffic inside its own

  11. Relational utility as a moderator of guilt in social interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to experience guilt is assumed to benefit individuals, as the rewards of repeated, cooperative interactions are likely to exceed the rewards of acting selfishly. If that assumption is true, the extent to which people experience guilt over interpersonal transgressions should at least

  12. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation: In-group Favoritism among Republicans and Democrats during a US National Election

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict

  13. Inequality and Procedural Justice in Social Dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksoy, Ozan; Weesie, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of resource inequality and the fairness of the allocation procedure of unequal resources on cooperative behavior in social dilemmas. We propose a simple formal behavioral model that incorporates conflicting selfish and social motivations. This model allows us to

  14. Suggestions for Improving the Recruitment of Al-Qaeda Sources: Lessons Derived from Counter-Ideological Programs and the Targeting of Type B Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    others” (Victoroff, 2005, p. 10.) The difference between the insane and a sociopath , according to Victoroff, is that “a psychotic or ‘insane’ person is...so mentally disordered as to not know right from wrong, while a sociopath knows right from wrong and chooses wrong for selfish reasons without pangs

  15. Autonomija kaip studentų profesinės gerovės asmeninis išteklius

    OpenAIRE

    Paradnikė, Kristina; Bandzevičienė, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Background. The awareness of resources that help to overcome life challenges and flourish even in the conditions of uncertainty is critically important for young individuals transitioning from school to labor market. Autonomy, as self-governance, based on the basis of personal interests, integrated goals and values, is linked with a number of positive constructs. Those include performance, creativity, greater sense of personal reward and energy, engagement in pro-social activities and etc. Th...

  16. Consumers’ Motivations Driving Organic Demand: Between Selfinterest and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Monier-Dilhan, Sylvette; Berges, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    We study consumers’ motivations for buying organic food by analyzing their shopping baskets. Buying organic can be motivated by concern about sustainable development and/or self-interest (considerations related to health or product quality). Pro-social motivation is inferred from the presence of fair trade products in the consumer's basket; consumer self-interest is deduced from the presence of healthy and higher-quality products bearing special quality labels or certifications. Our results i...

  17. Etická výchova

    OpenAIRE

    Krampotová, Milada

    2012-01-01

    Ethic education This diploma work deals with newly implemented school subject "Ethic education" at the school system in the Czech Republic. "Ethic education" has been defined as a project, where main topic is to develop pro-social behaviour. This diploma work specifies elementary educational aims of this project and analyses its particular educational components: contain, methods, style, topics. It also deals with the process of implementation into the Czech school system, in what social cont...

  18. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers' purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J J; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products - even when presented product information contradicts the label's image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels' potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers' motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers' ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants' pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  19. The Effects of Activating the Money Concept on Perseverance and the Preference for Delayed Gratification in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Trzcińska, Agata; Sekścińska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behavior and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investi...

  20. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J. J.; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1–3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information. PMID:26441767