We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...
We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...
Full Text Available The increased use of technology within the educational field gives rise to the need for developing valid instruments to measure key constructs associated with performance. We present some self-report instruments developed and/or validated in the Italian context that could be used to assess achievement emotions and correlates, within the theoretical framework of Pekrun’s control-value model. First, we propose some data related to the construction of two instruments developed to assess ten achievement emotions: the Brief Achievement Emotions Questionnaire, BR-AEQ, used with college students, and the Graduated Achievement Emotions Set, GR-AES, used with primary school students. Second, we describe some data concerning the validation within the Italian context of two instruments assessing achievement goals as antecedents of achievement emotions: the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised, AGQ-R, and its more recent version based on the 3 X 2 achievement goal model.
Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F
Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.
Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy–II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities and differences among the constructs embodied in these instruments. PPI Fearless Dominance and SRP-II Factor 1 were negatively related to most perso...
Chum, Antony; Skosireva, Anna; Tobon, Juliana; Hwang, Stephen
Self-reported health measures are important indicators used by clinicians and researchers for the evaluation of health interventions, outcome assessment of clinical studies, and identification of health needs to improve resource allocation. However, the application of self-reported health measures relies on developing reliable and valid instruments that are suitable across diverse populations. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the construct validity of the SF-12v.2, an instrument for measuring self-rated physical and mental health, for homeless adults with mental illness. Various interventions have been aimed at improving the health of homeless people with mental illness, and the development of valid instruments to evaluate these interventions is imperative. We measured self-rated mental and physical health from a quota sample of 575 homeless people with mental illness using the SF-12v2, EQ-5D, Colorado Symptoms Index, and physical/mental health visual analogue scales. We examined the construct validity of the SF-12v2 through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), and using ANOVA/correlation analyses to compare the SF-12v2 to the other instruments to ascertain discriminant/convergent validity. Our CFA showed that the measurement properties of the original SF-12v2 model had a mediocre fit with our empirical data (χ2 = 193.6, df = 43, p physical and mental health status for a homeless population with mental illness.
Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M
Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....
Mitchell, Amy E; Fraser, Jennifer A
Support and education for parents faced with managing a child with atopic dermatitis is crucial to the success of current treatments. Interventions aiming to improve parent management of this condition are promising. Unfortunately, evaluation is hampered by lack of precise research tools to measure change. To develop a suite of valid and reliable research instruments to appraise parents' self-efficacy for performing atopic dermatitis management tasks; outcome expectations of performing management tasks; and self-reported task performance in a community sample of parents of children with atopic dermatitis. The Parents' Eczema Management Scale (PEMS) and the Parents' Outcome Expectations of Eczema Management Scale (POEEMS) were developed from an existing self-efficacy scale, the Parental Self-Efficacy with Eczema Care Index (PASECI). Each scale was presented in a single self-administered questionnaire, to measure self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-reported task performance related to managing child atopic dermatitis. Each was tested with a community sample of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, and psychometric evaluation of the scales' reliability and validity was conducted. A community-based convenience sample of 120 parents of children with atopic dermatitis completed the self-administered questionnaire. Participants were recruited through schools across Australia. Satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability was demonstrated for all three scales. Construct validity was satisfactory, with positive relationships between self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and general perceived self-efficacy; self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and self-reported task performance; and self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and outcome expectations. Factor analyses revealed two-factor structures for PEMS and PASECI alike, with both scales containing factors related to performing routine management tasks, and managing the
Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.
Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy-II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities…
There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p
Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria
BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...
Härmä, Mikko; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika
To evaluate the validity of widely used questionnaire items on work schedule using objective registry data as reference. A cohort study of hospital employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on work schedule in 2008, 2012 and 2014 and were linked to individual-level pay-roll-based records on work shifts. For predictive validity, leisure-time fatigue was assessed. According to the survey data in 2014 (n=8896), 55% of the day workers had at least 1 year of earlier shift work experience. 8% of the night shift workers changed to day work during the follow-up. Using pay-roll data as reference, questions on 'shift work with night shifts' and 'permanent night work' showed high sensitivity (96% and 90%) and specificity (92% and 97%). Self-reported 'regular day work' showed moderate sensitivity (73%), but high specificity (99%) and 'shift work without night shifts' showed low sensitivity (62%) and moderate specificity (87%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and baseline fatigue-adjusted association between 'shift work without night shifts' and leisure-time fatigue was lower for self-reported compared with objective assessment (1.30, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.82, n=1707 vs 1.89, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.39, n=1627). In contrast, shift work with night shifts, compared with permanent day work, was similarly associated with fatigue in the two assessments (2.04, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.57, n=2311 vs 1.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.58, n=1804). The validity of self-reported assessment of shift work varies between work schedules. Exposure misclassification in self-reported data may contribute to bias towards the null in shift work without night shifts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Bot, M; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lau, H M; Sinke, M; van Nieuwenhuizen, B; Smit, J H; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H
There is a paucity of valid, brief instruments for the assessment of lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) that can be used in, for example, large-scale genomics, imaging or biomarker studies on depression. We developed the LIfetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), which assesses lifetime MDD diagnosis according to DSM criteria, and is largely based on the widely used Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Here, we tested the feasibility and determined the sensitivity and specificity for measuring lifetime MDD with this new questionnaire, with a regular CIDI as reference. Sensitivity and specificity analyses of the online lifetime MDD questionnaire were performed in adults with (n = 177) and without (n = 87) lifetime MDD according to regular index CIDIs, selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Feasibility was tested in an additional non-selective, population-based sample of NTR participants (n = 245). Of the 753 invited persons, 509 (68%) completed the LIDAS, of which 419 (82%) did this online. User-friendliness of the instrument was rated high. Median completion time was 6.2 min. Sensitivity and specificity for lifetime MDD were 85% [95% confidence interval (CI) 80-91%] and 80% (95% CI 72-89%), respectively. This LIDAS instrument gave a lifetime MDD prevalence of 20.8% in the population-based sample. Measuring lifetime MDD with an online instrument was feasible. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. The instrument gave a prevalence of lifetime MDD in line with reported population prevalences. LIDAS is a promising tool for rapid determination of lifetime MDD status in large samples, such as needed for genomics studies.
Manders, Willeke A; Cook, William L; Oud, Johan H L; Scholte, Ron H J; Janssens, Jan M A M; De Bruyn, Eric E J
This article introduces an approach to testing the level validity of family assessment instruments (i.e., whether a family instrument measures family functioning at the level of the system it purports to assess). Two parents and 2 adolescents in 69 families rated the warmth in each of their family relationships and in the family as a whole. Family members' ratings of whole-family warmth assessed family functioning not only at the family level (i.e., characteristics of the family as a whole) but also at the individual level of analysis (i.e., characteristics of family members as raters), indicating a lack of level validity. Evidence was provided for the level validity of a latent variable based on family members' ratings of whole-family warmth. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the level validity of individual ratings of whole-family functioning.
Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishihara, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro
Objective: Working long hours is a potential health hazard. Although self-reporting of working hours in various time frames has been used in epidemiologic studies, its validity is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees. Methods: The participants were 164 male employees of four large-scale companies in Japan. For validity, the Spearman correlation between self-reported working hours in th...
Background Health impairments can result in disability and changed work productivity imposing considerable costs for the employee, employer and society as a whole. A large number of instruments exist to measure health-related productivity changes; however their methodological quality remains unclear. This systematic review critically appraised the measurement properties in generic self-reported instruments that measure health-related productivity changes to recommend appropriate instruments for use in occupational and economic health practice. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, Econlit and Embase were systematically searched for studies whereof: (i) instruments measured health-related productivity changes; (ii) the aim was to evaluate instrument measurement properties; (iii) instruments were generic; (iv) ratings were self-reported; (v) full-texts were available. Next, methodological quality appraisal was based on COSMIN elements: (i) internal consistency; (ii) reliability; (iii) measurement error; (iv) content validity; (v) structural validity; (vi) hypotheses testing; (vii) cross-cultural validity; (viii) criterion validity; and (ix) responsiveness. Recommendations are based on evidence syntheses. Results This review included 25 articles assessing the reliability, validity and responsiveness of 15 different generic self-reported instruments measuring health-related productivity changes. Most studies evaluated criterion validity, none evaluated cross-cultural validity and information on measurement error is lacking. The Work Limitation Questionnaire (WLQ) was most frequently evaluated with moderate respectively strong positive evidence for content and structural validity and negative evidence for reliability, hypothesis testing and responsiveness. Less frequently evaluated, the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS) showed strong positive evidence for internal consistency and structural validity, and moderate positive evidence for hypotheses testing and criterion validity. The
In a recent study, Dussault, Frenette, and Fernet (2013) developed a 21-item self-report instrument to measure leadership based on Bass's (1985) transformational/transactional leadership paradigm. The final specification included a third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional leadership and transformational leadership), and a first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership). This note focuses on the need for assessing convergent and discriminant validity of the scale, and on ruling out the potential for common method bias.
Investigation of four self-report instruments (FABT, TSK-HC, Back-PAQ, HC-PAIRS) to measure healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs toward low back pain: Reliability, convergent validity and survey of New Zealand osteopaths and manipulative physiotherapists.
Moran, Robert W; Rushworth, Wendy M; Mason, Jesse
Healthcare practitioner beliefs influence advice and management provided to patients with back pain. Several instruments measuring practitioner beliefs have been developed but psychometric properties for some have not been investigated. To investigate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Tool (FABT), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Health Care Providers (TSK-HC), the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ), and the Health Care Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS). A secondary aim was to explore beliefs of New Zealand osteopaths and physiotherapists regarding low back pain. FABT, TSK-HC, Back-PAQ, and HC-PAIRS were administered twice, 14 days apart. Data from 91 osteopaths and 35 physiotherapists were analysed. The FABT, TSK-HC and Back-PAQ each demonstrated excellent internal consistency, (Cronbach's α = 0.92, 0.91, and 0.91 respectively), and excellent test-retest reliability (lower limit of 95% CI for intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75). Correlations between instruments (Pearson's r = 0.51 to 0.77, p 0.47) for mean differences in scores, for all instruments, between professions. This study found excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability and good convergent validity for the FABT, TSK-HC, and Back-PAQ. Previously reported internal consistency, test-retest and convergent validity of the HC-PAIRS were confirmed, and test-retest reliability was excellent. There were significant scoring differences on each instrument between professions, and while both groups demonstrated fear avoidant beliefs, physiotherapist respondent scores indicated that as a group, they held fewer fear-avoidant beliefs than osteopath respondents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lepor, Herbert; Kaci, Ledia; Xue, Xiaonan
We performed a global self-assessment of continence following radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and determined how this global self-assessment of continence correlates with commonly used definitions of continence. Between October 2000 and February 2002 all men who underwent RRP were encouraged to complete the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Beginning October 2002 a single question capturing the patient global self-assessment of continence status was added to the postoperative continence assessment. The study design was cross-sectional since only continence surveys submitted between October 2002 through February 2003 were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa coefficient was determined for the relationship between the patient global assessment of continence vs the definition of continence based on pad requirement, problem due to incontinence and frequency of incontinence. Continence progressively improved 3 to 24 months following RRP for all continence outcomes. At 24 months following RRP 97.1% of men considered themselves continent, while 97.1%, 94.1% and 97.1% were considered continent using continence definitions, including the requirement of no or 1 pad in a 24-hour interval, no or slight bother due to incontinence and total control or occasional dribbling, respectively. Our 3 definitions of continence derived from responses to the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index had excellent agreement with patient global self-assessment of continence (kappa coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83). The majority of men achieve continence without invasive intervention following RRP. Final continence status should be ascertained at 24 months. The patient global assessment of continence provides face validity for other definitions of continence based on responses to validated self-administered questionnaires.
Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi
Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…
Engel, Maike; Lincoln, Tania Marie
Validated self-report instruments could provide a time efficient screening method for negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR) which is based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). In- and outpatients (N=50) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology in schizophrenia, depression, and global functioning. The German version of the MAP-SR showed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the MAP-SR with the experience sub-scale of the CAINS and the negative symptom sub-scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The MAP-SR also exhibited discriminant validity indicated by its non-significant correlations with positive symptoms and general psychopathology, which is in line with the findings for the original version of the MAP-SR. However, the MAP-SR correlated moderately with depression. The German MAP-SR appears to be a valid and suitable diagnostic tool for the identification of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared self-reported criminal behaviour with high-quality databases of criminal offences and judicial sanctions. Self-reported problems from drug abusers are generally believed to be valid. We assessed the validity of self-reported theft, drug offences and prison sentences from a five-year follow-up of female substance abusers who were originally treated in a compulsory care unit in Lund, run by the Swedish Board of Institutional Care. Methods Data from a total of 106 of a consecutive sample of 132 women inter-viewed in a five-year follow-up. All were thoroughly assessed for somatic complaints, psychiatric and psychological problems, background factors with standardized instruments. Data over the five years were linked to official records of judicial sanctions, retrieved from The National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden. Register data have a full cover for the whole cohort. The current data base contain full data back to 1975 up to 2004. Results Agreement was assessed for each year, as well as for the total period. Statistical control was performed for other types of crimes and prison. Although statistically significant, agreement was modest, and in contrast to previous studies, patients under-reported violence charges. Conclusion The findings suggest that self-reports of criminal behaviour from women can be used with some caution, and that the validity of self-report may vary between types of criminal justice system involvement.
van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.
Aims To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Design Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Setting Ecological study with assessments at
van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet
To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Ecological study with assessments at participants' homes or in
Background: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). Method: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was com...
Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L
Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly
Introduction Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Methods and analysis Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8–12 years (grades 4–6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. PMID:26553834
Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Gasque, Pablo; Veiga, Oscar L; Martinez-Gomez, David
Stair climbing is an activity of daily living that might contribute to increase levels of physical activity (PA). To date, there is no study examining the validity of climbing stairs assessed by self-report. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine the validity of estimated stair climbing from one question included in a common questionnaire compared to a pattern-recognition activity monitor in older adults. A total of 138 older adults (94 women), aged 65-86 years (70.9 ± 4.7 years), from the IMPACT65 + study participated in this validity study. Estimates of stair climbing were obtained from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) PA questionnaire. An objective assessment of stair climbing was obtained with the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) monitor. The correlation between both methods to assess stair climbing was fair (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.008 for PA energy expenditure and ρ = 0.26, p = 0.002 for duration). Mean differences between self-report and the IDEEA were 7.96 ± 10.52 vs. 9.88 ± 3.32 METs-min/day for PA energy expenditure, and 0.99 ± 1.32 vs. 1.79 ± 2.02 min/day for duration (both Wilcoxon test p < 0.001). Results from the Bland-Altman analysis indicate that bias between both instruments were -1.91 ± 10.30 METs-min/day and -0.80 ± 1.99 min/day, and corresponding limits of agreement for the two instruments were from 18.27 to -22.10 METs-min/day and from 3.09 to -4.70 min/day, respectively. Our results indicate that self-reported stair climbing has modest validity to accurately rank old age participants, and underestimates both PAEE and its duration, as compared with an objectively measured method.
Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Eric; Fernet, Claude
The aim of this paper was to propose and test the factor structure of a new self-report questionnaire on leadership. A sample of 373 school principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada completed the initial 46-item version of the questionnaire. In order to obtain a questionnaire of minimal length, a four-step procedure was retained. First, items analysis was performed using Classical Test Theory. Second, Rasch analysis was used to identify non-fitting or overlapping items. Third, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling was performed on the 21 remaining items to verify the factor structure of the scale. Results show that the model with a single third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional and transformational leadership), and one first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership) provides a good fit to the data. Finally, invariance of factor structure was assessed with a second sample of 222 vice-principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada. This model is in agreement with the theoretical model developed by Bass (1985), upon which the questionnaire is based.
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Lai, Kelly Y. C.
Reliability and validity of Chinese Self-Report Family Inventory (C-SFI) were examined in three studies. Study 1 showed C-SFI was temporally stable and internally consistent. Study 2 indicated C-SFI could discriminate between clinical and nonclinical groups. Study 3 gave support for internal consistency, concurrent validity and construct validity.…
J. Van der Heyden
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Care Module of the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS is aimed to obtain comparable information on the use of inpatient and ambulatory care in all EU member states. In this study we assessed the validity of self-reported information on the use of health care, collected through this instrument, in the Belgian Health Interview Survey (BHIS, and explored the impact of selection and reporting bias on the validity of regional differences in health care use observed in the BHIS. Methods To assess reporting bias, self-reported BHIS 2008 data were linked with register-based data from the Belgian compulsory health insurance (BCHI. The latter were compared with similar estimates from a random sample of the BCHI to investigate the selection bias. Outcome indicators included the prevalence of a contact with a GP, specialist, dentist and a physiotherapist, as well as inpatient and day patient hospitalisation. The validity of the estimates and the regional differences were explored through measures of agreement and logistic regression analyses. Results Validity of self-reported health care use varies by type of health service and is more affected by reporting than by selection bias. Compared to health insurance estimates, self-reported results underestimate the percentage of people with a specialist contact in the past year (50.5 % versus 65.0 % and a day patient hospitalisation (7.8 % versus 13.9 %. Inversely, survey results overestimated the percentage of people having visited a dentist in the past year: 58.3 % versus 48.6 %. The best concordance was obtained for an inpatient hospitalisation (kappa 0.75. Survey data overestimate the higher prevalence of a contact with a specialist [OR 1.51 (95 % CI 1.33–1.72 for self-report and 1.08 (95 % CI 1.05–1.15 for register] and underestimate the lower prevalence of a contact with a GP [ORs 0.59 (95 % CI 0.51–0.70 and 0.41 (95 % CI 0.39–0.42 respectively] in
Hesselmark, Eva; Eriksson, Jonna M.; Westerlund, Joakim; Bejerot, Susanne
Although self-reported measures are frequently used to assess adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the validity of self-reports is under-researched in ASD. The core symptoms of ASD may negatively affect the psychometric properties of self-reported measures. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of…
Schneider, Andrea L C; Pankow, James S; Heiss, Gerardo; Selvin, Elizabeth
The objective of this study was to assess the validity of prevalent and incident self-reported diabetes compared with multiple reference definitions and to assess the reliability (repeatability) of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Data from 10,321 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended visit 4 (1996-1998) were analyzed. Prevalent self-reported diabetes was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose and medication use obtained at visit 4. Incident self-reported diabetes was assessed during annual follow-up telephone calls and was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and medication use obtained during an in-person visit attended by a subsample of participants (n = 1,738) in 2004-2005. The sensitivity of prevalent self-reported diabetes ranged from 58.5% to 70.8%, and specificity ranged from 95.6% to 96.8%, depending on the reference definition. Similarly, the sensitivity of incident self-reported diabetes ranged from 55.9% to 80.4%, and specificity ranged from 84.5% to 90.6%. Percent positive agreement of self-reported diabetes during 9 years of repeat assessments ranged from 92.7% to 95.4%. Both prevalent self-reported diabetes and incident self-reported diabetes were 84%-97% specific and 55%-80% sensitive as compared with reference definitions using glucose and medication criteria. Self-reported diabetes was >92% reliable over time.
Uttl, Bob; Kibreab, Mekale
Are self-report measures of prospective memory (ProM) reliable and valid? To examine this question, 240 undergraduate student volunteers completed several widely used self-report measures of ProM including the Prospective Memory Questionnaire (PMQ), the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire, self-reports of retrospective memory (RetM), objective measures of ProM and RetM, and measures of involvement in activities and events, memory strategies and aids use, personality and verbal intelligence. The results showed that both convergent and divergent validity of ProM self-reports are poor, even though we assessed ProM using a newly developed, reliable continuous measure. Further analyses showed that a substantial proportion of variability in ProM self-report scores was due to verbal intelligence, personality (conscientiousness, neuroticism), activities and event involvement (busyness), and use of memory strategies and aids. ProM self-reports have adequate reliability, but poor validity and should not be interpreted as reflecting ProM ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Johns, Gary; Miraglia, Mariella
Because of a variety of access limitations, self-reported absenteeism from work is often employed in research concerning health, organizational behavior, and economics, and it is ubiquitous in large scale population surveys in these domains. Several well established cognitive and social-motivational biases suggest that self-reports of absence will exhibit convergent validity with records-based measures but that people will tend to underreport the behavior. We used meta-analysis to summarize the reliability, validity, and accuracy of absence self-reports. The results suggested that self-reports of absenteeism offer adequate test-retest reliability and that they exhibit reasonably good rank order convergence with organizational records. However, people have a decided tendency to underreport their absenteeism, although such underreporting has decreased over time. Also, self-reports were more accurate when sickness absence rather than absence for any reason was probed. It is concluded that self-reported absenteeism might serve as a valid measure in some correlational research designs. However, when accurate knowledge of absolute absenteeism levels is essential, the tendency to underreport could result in flawed policy decisions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Matarese, Maria; Lommi, Marzia; De Marinis, Maria Grazia
The aims of this study were as follows: to identify instruments developed to assess self-care in healthy adults; to determine the theory on which they were based; their validity and reliability properties and to synthesize the evidence on their measurement properties. Many instruments have been developed to assess self-care in many different populations and conditions. Clinicians and researchers should select the most appropriate self-care instrument based on the knowledge of their measurement properties. Systematic review of measurement instruments according to the protocol recommended by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus and CINAHL databases were searched from inception to December 2015. Studies testing measurement properties of self-report instruments assessing self-care in healthy adults, published in the English language and in peer review journals were selected. Two reviewers independently appraised the methodological quality of the studies with the COSMIN checklist and the quality of results using specific quality criteria. Twenty-six articles were included in the review testing the measurement properties of nine instruments. Seven instruments were based on Orem's Self-care theory. Not all the measurement properties were evaluated for the identified instruments. No self-care instrument showed strong evidence supporting the evaluated measurement properties. Despite the development of several instruments to assess self-care in the adult population, no instrument can be fully recommended to clinical nurses and researchers. Further studies of high methodological quality are needed to confirm the measurement properties of these instruments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cor, M Ken
Interpreting results from quantitative research can be difficult when measures of concepts are constructed poorly, something that can limit measurement validity. Social science steps for defining concepts, guidelines for limiting construct-irrelevant variance when writing self-report questions, and techniques for conducting basic item analysis are reviewed to inform the design of instruments to measure social science concepts in pharmacy education research. Based on a review of the literature, four main recommendations emerge: These include: (1) employ a systematic process of conceptualization to derive nominal definitions; (2) write exact and detailed operational definitions for each concept, (3) when creating self-report questionnaires, write statements and select scales to avoid introducing construct-irrelevant variance (CIV); and (4) use basic item analysis results to inform instrument revision. Employing recommendations that emerge from this review will strengthen arguments to support measurement validity which in turn will support the defensibility of study finding interpretations. An example from pharmacy education research is used to contextualize the concepts introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
C. C. Kee
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Methods Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. Results There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96. In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements was, for boys: weight, −2.1 kg; height, −1.6 cm; BMI, −0.44 kg/m2 and girls: weight, −1.2 kg; height, −0.9 cm; BMI, −0.3 kg/m2. However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI
Kee, C C; Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Teh, C H; Chan, Y Y; Nuur Hafizah, M I; Cheah, Y K; Tee, E O; Ahmad Faudzi, Y; Amal Nasir, M
Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB) survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96). In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements) was, for boys: weight, -2.1 kg; height, -1.6 cm; BMI, -0.44 kg/m 2 and girls: weight, -1.2 kg; height, -0.9 cm; BMI, -0.3 kg/m 2 . However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI status categorised based on self-reported weight and height
Leavy Justine E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.
Khader, Yousef; Alhabashneh, Rola; Alhersh, Fadi
The development of self-reported measures of periodontal disease would be of great benefit to facilitate epidemiological studies of periodontal disease on a larger scale, and to allow for surveillance of the periodontal condition of populations over time. To develop a culturally adapted self-reported measure of periodontal disease, test its predictive and discriminative validity and establish a cut-off value for this measure to diagnose periodontal disease. A total of 288 Jordanian adults completed the questionnaire assessing self-reported periodontal health (18 questions) and underwent periodontal examination. Of the 18 questions, six were significantly associated with at least one clinical definition of periodontitis and were used to constitute the self-reported periodontal disease measure. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power, sensitivity and specificity, and corresponding cut-off points of the self-reported periodontal disease measure. ROC analysis showed that the self-reported periodontal disease measure had an excellent performance to discriminate between those with and without periodontal disease, regardless of the clinical definition used. A score of 2, on a scale of 0 to 6, had the highest sensitivity and specificity to detect periodontal disease when defined by all study criteria. Significant associations were observed between self-reported periodontal disease measures and all clinical definitions in the regression analysis (the odds ratio ranged from 8.31 to 18.96), according to the clinical definition to be predicted. Self-reported periodontal disease measures have excellent predictive and discriminative validity when tested against clinical definitions, and severity and extent of periodontal disease. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.
Larissa Forni dos Santos
Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR, translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413 and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252. The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90-0.96 and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson's = 0.82. The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard.
Patrick, Donald L; Giuliano, François; Ho, Kai Fai; Gagnon, Dennis D; McNulty, Pauline; Rothman, Margaret
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), a self-reported outcome instrument for evaluating domains of PE and its treatment, comprised of four single-item measures, a profile, and an index score. Data were from men participating in observational studies in the USA (PE, 207 men; non-PE, 1380) and Europe (PE, 201; non-PE, 914) and from men with PE (1238) participating in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of dapoxetine. The PEP contains four measures: perceived control over ejaculation, personal distress related to ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and interpersonal difficulty related to ejaculation, each assessed on five-point response scales. Test-retest reliability, known-groups validity, and ability to detect a patient-reported global impression of change (PGI) in condition were evaluated for the individual PEP measures and a PEP index score (the mean of all four measures). Profile analysis was conducted using multivariate analysis of variance. All PEP measures showed acceptable reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.66 to 0.83) and mean scores for all measures differed significantly between PE and non-PE groups (P measures. The PEP profiles of men with and without PE differed significantly (P measure for use in monitoring outcomes of men with PE.
Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishihara, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro
Working long hours is a potential health hazard. Although self-reporting of working hours in various time frames has been used in epidemiologic studies, its validity is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees. The participants were 164 male employees of four large-scale companies in Japan. For validity, the Spearman correlation between self-reported working hours in the second survey and the working hours recorded by the company was calculated for the following four time frames: daily working hours, monthly overtime working hours in the last month, average overtime working hours in the last 3 months, and the frequency of long working months (≥45 h/month) within the last 12 months. For reproducibility, the intraclass correlation between the first (September 2013) and second surveys (December 2013) was calculated for each of the four time frames. The Spearman correlations between self-reported working hours and those based on company records were 0.74, 0.81, 0.85, and 0.89 for daily, monthly, 3-monthly, and yearly time periods, respectively. The intraclass correlations for self-reported working hours between the two questionnaire surveys were 0.63, 0.66, 0.73, and 0.87 for the respective time frames. The results of the present study among Japanese male employees suggest that the validity of self-reported working hours is high for all four time frames, whereas the reproducibility is moderate to high.
Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J
Sleep bruxism (SB), primarily involving rhythmic grinding of the teeth during sleep, has been advanced as a causal or maintenance factor for a variety of oro-facial problems, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). As laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) assessment is extremely expensive and time-consuming, most research testing this belief has relied on patient self-report of SB. The current case-control study examined the accuracy of those self-reports relative to laboratory-based PSG assessment of SB in a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) and a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46). A clinical research coordinator administered a structured questionnaire to assess self-reported SB. Participants then spent two consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Audiovisual and electromyographic data from the second night were scored to assess whether participants met criteria for the presence of 2 or more (2+) rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes accompanied by grinding sounds, moderate SB, or severe SB, using previously validated research scoring standards. Contingency tables were constructed to assess positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity, and 95% confidence intervals surrounding the point estimates. Results showed that self-report significantly predicted 2+ grinding sounds during sleep for TMD cases. However, self-reported SB failed to significantly predict the presence or absence of either moderate or severe SB as assessed by PSG, for both cases and controls. These data show that self-report of tooth grinding awareness is highly unlikely to be a valid indicator of true SB. Studies relying on self-report to assess SB must be viewed with extreme caution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hure, Alexis J; Chojenta, Catherine L; Powers, Jennifer R; Byles, Julie E; Loxton, Deborah
A high rate of stillbirth was previously observed in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Our primary objective was to test the validity and reliability of self-reported stillbirth data linked to state-based administrative datasets. Self-reported data, collected as part of the ALSWH cohort born in 1973-1978, were linked to three administrative datasets for women in New South Wales, Australia (n = 4374): the Midwives Data Collection; Admitted Patient Data Collection; and Perinatal Death Review Database. Linkages were obtained from the Centre for Health Record Linkage for the period 1996-2009. True cases of stillbirth were defined by being consistently recorded in two or more independent data sources. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, percent agreement, and kappa statistics were calculated for each dataset. Forty-nine women reported 53 stillbirths. No dataset was 100% accurate. The administrative datasets performed better than self-reported data, with high accuracy and agreement. Self-reported data showed high sensitivity (100%) but low specificity (30%), meaning women who had a stillbirth always reported it, but there was also over-reporting of stillbirths. About half of the misreported cases in the ALSWH were able to be removed by identifying inconsistencies in longitudinal data. Data linkage provides great opportunity to assess the validity and reliability of self-reported study data. Conversely, self-reported study data can help to resolve inconsistencies in administrative datasets. Quantifying the strengths and limitations of both self-reported and administrative data can improve epidemiological research, especially by guiding methods and interpretation of findings.
Good, Evan; Hopwood, Christopher; Morey, Leslie
Validation of the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale - Self-Report. Results suggest that the measure has a robust single dimension and that it correlates in a very general manner with a wide range of maladaptive personality variables, consistent with its purpose as a measure of non-specific personality pathology.
Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel
OBJECTIVE: Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. METHODS: 107
Samuelstuen, Marit S.; Braten, Ivar
Background: Self-report inventories trying to measure strategic processing at a global level have been much used in both basic and applied research. However, the validity of global strategy scores is open to question because such inventories assess strategy perceptions outside the context of specific task performance. Aims: The primary aim was to…
Johnco, Carly; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Rapee, Ronald M
Neuropsychological testing currently represents the gold standard in assessing cognitive flexibility. However, this format presents some challenges in terms of time and skills required for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility have been developed to measure aspects of cognitive flexibility in everyday settings, although neither has been validated in an older sample. In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of 2 self-report measures of cognitive flexibility, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010) and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS; Martin & Rubin, 1995), against neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility in a clinical sample of 47 older adults with comorbid anxiety and depression and a nonclinical sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults. Internal consistency was good for the CFS and CFI in all samples. The clinical sample reported poorer cognitive flexibility than did the nonclinical sample on self-report measures and performed more poorly on some neuropsychological measures. There was evidence of convergent validity between the 2 self-report measures but little relationship between the self-report and neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility, suggesting that self-report measures assess a different aspect of cognitive flexibility than does neuropsychological testing. Divergent validity was weak from measures of anxiety and depression in the combined and nonclinical samples but acceptable in the clinical sample. Results suggest that these measures are suitable for use with an older adult sample but do not assess the same aspects of cognitive flexibility as are assessed by neuropsychological assessment. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Bornstein, P H; Hamilton, S B; Miller, R K; Quevillon, R P; Spitzform, M
This study investigated the effects of reliability and validity "enhancers" on fidelity of self-report data in an analogue therapy situation. Under the guise of a Concentration Skills Training Program, 57 Ss were assigned randomly to one of the following conditions: (a) Reliability Enhancement; (b) Truth Talk; (c) No Comment Control. Results indicated significant differences among groups (p less than .05). In addition, tests of multiple comparisons revealed that Reliability Enhancement was significantly different from Truth Talk in occurrences of unreliability (p less than .05). These findings are discussed in light of the increased reliance on self-report data in behavioral intervention, and recommendations are made for future research.
Galán, Iñaki; Mayo, Elga; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Moncada, Albert; Montes, Agustín; Nebot, Manel; Fernández, Esteve
The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, phospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bech, P; Wilson, P; Wessel, T
the unidimensionality of this administration form in patients with mild-to-moderate depression. METHOD: The item response theory analysis of Mokken was used to test the unidimensionality of both the Interactive Voice Recording System (IVRS) version of the HAM-D(6) and a paper-and-pencil self-reported version (S-HAM-D(6......OBJECTIVE: The six items of the clinician-administrated Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(6)) cover the core items of depressive states reflecting the antidepressive effect of medication. In this study, the two self-reported versions of the HAM-D(6) have been psychometrically validated to ensure...
Freedman, Laurence S; Midthune, Douglas; Carroll, Raymond J; Commins, John M; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J; Moler, James E; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Neuhouser, Marian L; Prentice, Ross L; Rhodes, Donna; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F; Tinker, Lesley F; Willett, Walter; Kipnis, Victor
Most statistical methods that adjust analyses for dietary measurement error treat an individual's usual intake as a fixed quantity. However, usual intake, if defined as average intake over a few months, varies over time. We describe a model that accounts for such variation and for the proximity of biomarker measurements to self-reports within the framework of a meta-analysis, and apply it to the analysis of data on energy, protein, potassium, and sodium from a set of five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers as reference instruments. We show that this time-varying usual intake model fits the data better than the fixed usual intake assumption. Using this model, we estimated attenuation factors and correlations with true longer-term usual intake for single and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and compared them with those obtained under the "fixed" method. Compared with the fixed method, the estimates using the time-varying model showed slightly larger values of the attenuation factor and correlation coefficient for FFQs and smaller values for 24HRs. In some cases, the difference between the fixed method estimate and the new estimate for multiple 24HRs was substantial. With the new method, while four 24HRs had higher estimated correlations with truth than a single FFQ for absolute intakes of protein, potassium, and sodium, for densities the correlations were approximately equal. Accounting for the time element in dietary validation is potentially important, and points toward the need for longer-term validation studies.
Full Text Available Background: National surveys in low-income countries increasingly rely on self-reported measures of health. The ease, speed, and economy of collecting self-reports of health make such collection attractive for rapid appraisals. However, the interpretation of these measures is complicated since different cultures understand and respond to the same question in different ways. Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to develop a culturally sensitive tool to study the self-reported health (SRH of the local adult population in Burkina Faso. Design: The study was carried out in the 2009 rainy season. The sample included 27 men and 25 women aged 18 or older who live in semi-urban Nouna, Burkina Faso. Three culturally adapted instruments were tested: a SRH question, a wooden visual analogue scale (VAS, and a drawn VAS. Respondents were asked to explain their answers to each instrument. The narratives were analyzed with the content analysis technique, and the prevalence of poor SRH was estimated from the quantitative data by stratification for respondent background variables (sex, age, literacy, education, marital status, ethnicity, chronic diseases. The correlation between the instruments was tested with Spearman's correlation test. Results: The SRH question showed a 38.5% prevalence of poor SRH and 44.2% prevalence with both VAS. The correlation between the VAS was 0.89, whereas the correlation between the VAS and the SRH question was 0.60–0.64. Nevertheless, the question used as the basis of each instrument was culturally sensitive and clear to all respondents. Analysis of the narratives shows that respondents clearly differentiated between the various health statuses. Conclusion: In this pilot, we developed and tested a new version of the SRH question that may be more culturally sensitive than its non-adapted equivalents. Additional insight into this population's understanding and reporting of health was also obtained. A larger sample is needed
van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet
To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Ecological study with assessments at participants' homes or in a coffee shop. Young adult frequent cannabis users (n = 106) from the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study. The objectively measured amount of cannabis per joint (dose in grams) was compared with self-reported estimates using a prompt card and average number of joints made from 1 g of cannabis. In addition, objectively assessed THC concentration in the participant's cannabis was compared with self-reported level of intoxication, subjective estimate of cannabis potency and price per gram of cannabis. Objective estimates of doses per joint (0.07-0.88 g/joint) and cannabis potency (1.1-24.7%) varied widely. Self-reported measures of dose were imprecise, but at group level, average dose per joint was estimated accurately with the number of joints made from 1 g [limit of agreement (LOA) = -0.02 g, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.29; 0.26], whereas the prompt card resulted in serious underestimation (LOA = 0.14 g, 95% CI = -0.10; 0.37). THC concentration in cannabis was associated with subjective potency ['average' 3.77% (P = 0.002) and '(very) strong' 5.13% more THC (P cannabis] and with cannabis price (about 1% increase in THC concentration per euro spent on 1 g of cannabis, P cannabis use appear at best to be associated weakly with objective measures. Of the self-report measures, number of joints per gram, cannabis price and subjective potency have at least some validity. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Mariane de Mello Fontanelli
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate the self-reported diabetes mellitus in adults and older adults living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS We have used data of 569 subjects (284 adults and 285 older adults, participants of the population-based cross-sectional study Inquérito de Saúde do Município de São Paulo (Health Survey of São Paulo. Fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL and/or use of drugs (oral hypoglycemic and/or insulin defined the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. We have validated the self-reported diabetes mellitus by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values. We have used Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the factors associated with the sensitivity of the self-reported datum. For all analyses, we have considered the sample design of the study. RESULTS The sensitivity of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 63.8% (95%CI 49.2–76.3, specificity was 99.7% (95%CI 99.1–99.9, positive predictive value was 95.5% (95%CI 84.4–98.8, and negative predictive value was 96.9% (95%CI 94.9–98.2. The correct reporting of diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among older adults (PR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2–3.5 than among adults. CONCLUSIONS The use of the datum of self-reported diabetes mellitus is valid, especially among older adults living in the city of São Paulo. The results highlight the need to track diabetes mellitus in asymptomatic subjects who have one or more risk factors for it, mainly in the adult population of this city.
Abma, Femke I; van der Klink, Jac J L; Terwee, Caroline B; Amick, Benjamin C; Bültmann, Ute
During the past decade, common mental disorders (CMD) have emerged as a major public and occupational health problem in many countries. Several instruments have been developed to measure the influence of health on functioning at work. To select appropriate instruments for use in occupational health practice and research, the measurement properties (eg, reliability, validity, responsiveness) must be evaluated. The objective of this study is to appraise critically and compare the measurement properties of self-reported health-related work-functioning instruments among workers with CMD. A systematic review was performed searching three electronic databases. Papers were included that: (i) mainly focused on the development and/or evaluation of the measurement properties of a self-reported health-related work-functioning instrument; (ii) were conducted in a CMD population; and (iii) were fulltext original papers. Quality appraisal was performed using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Five papers evaluating measurement properties of five self-reported health-related work-functioning instruments in CMD populations were included. There is little evidence available for the measurement properties of the identified instruments in this population, mainly due to low methodological quality of the included studies. The available evidence on measurement properties is based on studies of poor-to-fair methodological quality. Information on a number of measurement properties, such as measurement error, content validity, and cross-cultural validity is still lacking. Therefore, no evidence-based decisions and recommendations can be made for the use of health-related work functioning instruments. Studies of high methodological quality are needed to properly assess the existing instruments' measurement properties.
Tang, W; Aggarwal, A; Liu, Z; Acheson, M; Rehm, C D; Moudon, A V; Drewnowski, A
To compare objective food store and eating-out receipts with self-reported household food expenditures. The Seattle Obesity Study II was based on a representative sample of King County adults, Washington, USA. Self-reported household food expenditures were modeled on the Flexible Consumer Behavior Survey (FCBS) Module from 2007 to 2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Objective food expenditure data were collected using receipts. Self-reported food expenditures for 447 participants were compared with receipts using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots and κ-statistics. Bias by sociodemographics was also examined. Self-reported expenditures closely matched with objective receipt data. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between receipts and self-reported data on total food expenditures, expenditures at food stores or eating out. However, the highest-income strata showed weaker agreement. Bland-Altman plots confirmed no significant bias across both methods-mean difference: 6.4; agreement limits: -123.5 to 143.4 for total food expenditures, mean difference 5.7 for food stores and mean difference 1.7 for eating out. The κ-statistics showed good agreement for each (κ 0.51, 0.41 and 0.49 respectively. Households with higher education and income had significantly more number of receipts and higher food expenditures. Self-reported food expenditures using NHANES questions, both for food stores and eating out, serve as a decent proxy for objective household food expenditures from receipts. This method should be used with caution among high-income populations, or with high food expenditures. This is the first validation of the FCBS food expenditures question using food store and eating-out receipts.
Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.
Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells
Baumstarck, Karine; Boyer, Laurent; Boucekine, Mohamed; Aghababian, Valérie; Parola, Nathalie; Lançon, Christophe; Auquier, Pascal
Impaired executive functions are among the most widely observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia. The use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care of these patients has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcome for use in this specific population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL) instrument, the Schizophrenia Quality of Life questionnaire (SQoL18). cross-sectional study. age over 18 years, diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria. sociodemographic (age, gender, and education level) and clinical data (duration of illness, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia); QoL (SQoL18); and executive performance (Stroop test, lexical and verbal fluency, and trail-making test). Non-impaired and impaired populations were defined for each of the three tests. For the six groups, psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population assessed in the validation study. One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients were enrolled. The factor analysis performed in the impaired groups showed that the questionnaire structure adequately matched the initial structure of the SQoL18. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the non-impaired groups and the reference population. Our study suggests that executive dysfunction did not compromise the reliability or validity of self-reported disease-specific QoL questionnaire. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shona C Fang
Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.
Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Cisneros, Alejandro; Sanchez, Miguel; Lunos, Scott; Wolff, Larry F
The objective of the present study was to assess self-reported periodontal screening questions, demographic characteristics, systemic medical conditions and tobacco use for predicting periodontal disease among individuals seeking dental therapy in a university dental clinic. In this retrospective study, a total of 4,890 randomly selected dental charts were evaluated from among patients who had attended the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry clinics for treatment. Radiographic bone loss measurements were utilized to assess the severity of periodontal disease. Demographic characteristics as well as medical history of the patients were also recorded. Five self-reported periodontal screening questions were included with the range of answers limited to Yes/No. Generalized logit models were used to assess the association between bone loss and the predictors. The sample mean age was 54.1 years and included 52.6% males and 14.9% smokers with a mean number of missing teeth of 3.5. Self-reported tooth mobility, history of "gum treatment" and the importance to keep the teeth as well as age, tobacco use and cancer were statistically significant (p brushing", gender, diabetes, anxiety and arthritis. Self-reported periodontal screening questions as well as demographic characteristics, smoking and systemic medical conditions were significant predictors of periodontal disease and they could be used as valid, economical and practical measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.
Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel
Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. 107 participants (mean age 41.4 years) in the Netherlands either downloaded the software app on their smartphone or were provided with a study smartphone for 4 weeks. The app recorded the number and duration of calls, text messages, data transfer, laterality and hands-free use. Self-reported mobile phone use was collected before using the app and after 6 months through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 95% CI) and Spearman correlations (r) of self-reported (after 6 months) versus recorded number and duration of calls were: GMR=0.65 (0.53 to 0.80), r=0.53; and GMR=1.11 (0.86 to 1.42), r=0.57 respectively. Participants held the phone on average for 86% of the total call time near the head. Self-reported right side users held the phone for 70.7% of the total call time on the right side of the head, and left side users for 66.2% on the left side of the head. The percentage of total call time that the use of hands-free devices (headset, speaker mode, Bluetooth) was recorded increased with increasing frequency of reported hands-free device usage. The observed recall errors and precision of reported laterality and hands-free use can be used to quantify and improve radiofrequency exposure models based on self-reported mobile phone use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Sander R Hilberink
Full Text Available Sander R Hilberink1, Johanna E Jacobs1, Sanne van Opstal2, Trudy van der Weijden2, Janine Keegstra1, Pascal LJ Kempers3, Jean WM Muris2, Richard PTM Grol1, Hein de Vries41IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, Research Institute CAPHRI, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Health Risk, Analysis and Toxicology, 4Department of Health Promotion and Health, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The present study reports on the biochemical validation of the self-reported smoking status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The objective is to establish the proportion of overestimation of self-reported success rates.Methods: A cross-sectional smoking-status validation study including 60 patients with COPD who reported that they had stopped smoking. In the analysis of urine samples, a cut-off point of 50 ng/mL of cotinine was used.Results: At the time of biochemical validation, 55 patients reported that they had quit smoking while five patients resumed smoking. Smoking status was biochemically confirmed for 43 patients (78% and 12 patients (22% were classified as smokers. The sensitivity of the self-report of smoking was 29% and the specificity was 100%.Conclusion: Many primary care patients with COPD do not provide valid information on their smoking status, which hamper adequate therapeutic interventions. Integration of biochemical validation in daily care could overcome this problem, but may harm the doctor–patient relationship.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking cessation, biochemical validation, general practice, outcome measurement
Mekhora, Keerin; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Jalayondeja, Chutima; Bhuanantanondh, Petcharatana; Dusadiisariyavong, Asadang; Upiriyasakul, Rujiret; Anuraktam, Khajornyod
To develop an online, self-report questionnaire on computer work-related exposure (OSCWE) and to determine the internal consistency, face and content validity of the questionnaire. The online, self-report questionnaire was developed to determine the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. It comprised five domains: personal, work-related, work environment, physical health and psychosocial factors. The questionnaire's content was validated by an occupational medical doctor and three physical therapy lecturers involved in ergonomic teaching. Twenty-five lay people examined the feasibility of computer-administered and the user-friendly language. The item correlation in each domain was analyzed by the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha; alpha). The content of the questionnaire was considered congruent with the testing purposes. Eight hundred and thirty-five computer users at the PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited registered to the online self-report questionnaire. The internal consistency of the five domains was: personal (alpha = 0.58), work-related (alpha = 0.348), work environment (alpha = 0.72), physical health (alpha = 0.68) and psychosocial factor (alpha = 0.93). The findings suggested that the OSCWE had acceptable internal consistency for work environment and psychosocial factors. The OSCWE is available to use in population-based survey research among computer office workers.
Although highly debated, the notion of the existence of an adaptive side to psychopathy is supported by some researchers. Currently, 2 instruments assessing psychopathic traits include an adaptive component, which might not cover the full spectrum of adaptive psychopathic traits. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ; Durand, 2017 ) is a 41-item self-reported instrument assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. In this study, I investigated in 2 samples (N = 263 and N = 262) the incremental validity of the DAPTQ over the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF) and the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) using multiple criterion measures. Results showed that the DAPTQ significantly increased the predictive validity over the PPI-SF on 5 factors of the HEXACO. Additionally, the DAPTQ provided incremental validity over both the PPI-SF and the TriPM on measures of communication adaptability, perceived stress, and trait anxiety. Overall, these results support the validity of the DAPTQ in community samples. Directions for future studies to further validate the DAPTQ are discussed.
This study of married couples investigated the short-term predictive validity of the partner-report and self-report scales of the Conflict Communication Inventory and compared the validity of these scales with the validity of observer ratings. A sample of 83 married couples completed two problem-solving conversations. Self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings from Conversation 1 were used to predict behavior in Conversation 2, as rated by a separate panel of observers. The short-term predictive validity of partner-report ratings was extremely high and indistinguishable from the validity of observer ratings. Self-report ratings also demonstrated good validity, albeit slightly lower than other methods. Both partner-report and self-report scores explained a substantial amount of variance in concurrent observer ratings of communication after controlling for relationship satisfaction. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Douwes, M.; Kraker, H.de; Blatter, B.M.
A long duration of computer use is known to be positively associated with Work Related Upper Extremity Disorders (WRUED). Self-report by questionnaire is commonly used to assess a worker's duration of computer use. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of self-report and computer
Ramo, Danielle E; Hall, Sharon M; Prochaska, Judith J
The Internet offers many potential benefits to conducting smoking and other health behavior research with young adults. Questions, however, remain regarding the psychometric properties of online self-reported smoking behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of self-reported smoking and smoking-related cognitions obtained from an online survey. Young adults (N = 248) age 18 to 25 who had smoked at least 1 cigarette in the past 30 days were recruited online and completed a survey of tobacco and other substance use. Measures of smoking behavior (quantity and frequency) and smoking-related expectancies demonstrated high internal consistency reliability. Measures of smoking behavior and smoking stage of change demonstrated strong concurrent criterion and divergent validity. Results for convergent validity varied by specific constructs measured. Estimates of smoking quantity, but not frequency, were comparable to those obtained from a nationally representative household interview among young adults. These findings generally support the reliability and validity of online surveys of young adult smokers. Identified limitations may reflect issues specific to the measures rather than the online data collection methodology. Strategies to maximize the psychometric properties of online surveys with young adult smokers are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.
Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy–II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities and differences among the constructs embodied in these instruments. PPI Fearless Dominance and SRP-II Factor 1 were negatively related to most personality disorder symptoms and were both predicted by high Dominance and low Neuroticism. In addition, PPI Fearless Dominance correlated positively with antisocial personality features, although SRP-II Factor 1 did not. In contrast, PPI Impulsive Antisociality, SRP-II Factor 2, and both APSD factors correlated with antisocial personality features and symptoms of nearly all personality disorders, and were predicted by low Love. Results suggest ways in which the measurement of the constructs in each instrument may be improved. PMID:16123248
Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether self-reports of reproductive history and obstetric morbidity provide an accurate basis for clinical decision-making. Setting, participants and methods: Self-reports of maternal age and reproductive history, together with clinical measurements of five medical disorders, were abstracted from the obstetric notes of 517 mothers whose children were enrolled in the Birth to Ten study. These data were compared to self-reported information collected by interview during the Birth to Ten study. Findings: The reliability of self-reported age and gravidity was high (R=0.810-0.993, yet self-reports of previous miscarriages, terminations, premature- and stillbirths were only fairly reliable (Kappa=0.48-0.50. Self-reported diabetes and high blood pressure had specificities of more than 95% for glycosuria, hypertension and pre-eclampsia. However, the specificity of self-reported oedema for hypertensive disorders and the specificity of self-reported urinary tract infection for STD seropositivity were only around 65%. Conclusions: The modest reliability and limited validity of self-reported obstetric morbidity undermines the clinical utility of this information. Recommendations: These results strengthen the case for providing mothers with “Home-based Maternal Records” to facilitate access to accurate obstetric information during subsequent clinical consultations.
Cook, Karon F; Keefe, Francis; Jensen, Mark P; Roddey, Toni S; Callahan, Leigh F; Revicki, Dennis; Bamer, Alyssa M; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Salem, Rana; Amtmann, Dagmar
Pain behaviors that are maintained beyond the acute stage after injury can contribute to subsequent psychosocial and physical disability. Critical to the study of pain behaviors is the availability of psychometrically sound pain behavior measures. In this study we developed a self-report measure of pain behaviors, the Pain Behaviors Self Report (PaB-SR). PaB-SR scores were developed using item response theory and evaluated using a rigorous, multiple-witness approach to validity testing. Participants included 661 survey participants with chronic pain and with multiple sclerosis, back pain, or arthritis; 618 survey participants who were significant others of a chronic pain participant; and 86 participants in a videotaped pain behavior observation protocol. Scores on the PaB-SR were found to be measurement invariant with respect to clinical condition. PaB-SR scores, observer reports, and the videotaped protocol yielded distinct, but convergent views of pain behavior, supporting the validity of the new measure. The PaB-SR is expected to be of substantial utility to researchers wishing to explore the relationship between pain behaviors and constructs such as pain intensity, pain interference, and disability. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C M
The validity of a Dutch self-report inventory of dyslexia was ascertained in two samples of students. Six biographical questions, 20 general language statements and 56 specific language statements were based on dyslexia as a multi-dimensional deficit. Dyslexia and non-dyslexia were assessed with two criteria: identification with test results (Sample 1) and classification using biographical information (both samples). Using discriminant analyses, these criteria were predicted with various groups of statements. All together, 11 discriminant functions were used to estimate classification accuracy of the inventory. In Sample 1, 15 statements predicted the test criterion with classification accuracy of 98%, and 18 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 97%. In Sample 2, 16 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 94%. Estimations of positive and negative predictive value were 89% and 99%. Items of various discriminant functions were factor analysed to find characteristic difficulties of students with dyslexia, resulting in a five-factor structure in Sample 1 and a four-factor structure in Sample 2. Answer bias was investigated with measures of internal consistency reliability. Less than 20 self-report items are sufficient to accurately classify students with and without dyslexia. This supports the usefulness of self-assessment of dyslexia as a valid alternative to diagnostic test batteries. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Darom, Efraim; Rich, Yisrael
To measure pupils' inconsistency in replying to a self-report questionnaire regarding attitudes toward school, 6,000 elementary and secondary school students participated in a nation-wide project to construct and validate the Israeli Quality of School Life Questionnaire (IQSL). (PN)
Christensen, Anne E.; Tobiassen, Mette; Jensen, Tina Kold
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during fetal life and infancy is closely related to the smoking habits of the parents. Estimates of exposure to ETS require valid and detailed information on changes in cigarette smoking over time. The objective was to test the validity of self......-reported smoking among parents during pregnancy and early childhood in a cohort of children at high risk for allergy development by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). The cohort comprised 117 families enrolled from the general population of pregnant women at admission to antenatal care. Data on parental...... tobacco smoking were obtained by interview and exhaled CO was measured (Micro-Smokerlyzer(R)) in parents twice during pregnancy and when the child was 6 and 18 months old. The median (range) exhaled CO levels were 3 (0-10) parts per million (ppm) for non-smokers and 15 (1-39) ppm for smokers (P
Robertson, J.B.; Bray, J.T.
Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, 11 heavy elements at concentrations that are easily detectable have been identified in smokeless tobacco products. These concentrations were found to increase in cheek epithelium samples of the user after exposure to smokeless tobacco. This feasibility study suggests that the level of strontium in the cheek epithelium could be a valid measure of recent smokeless tobacco use. It also demonstrates that strontium levels become undetectable within several days of smokeless tobacco cessation. This absence of strontium could validate a self-report of abstinence from smokeless tobacco. Finally, the X-ray spectrum of heavy metal content of cheek epithelium from smokeless tobacco users could itself provide a visual stimulus to further motivate the user to terminate the use of smokeless tobacco products
Valdiney Veloso Gouveia
Full Text Available This study aimed to adapt the Cheating Admission Self Report Scale (CASRSto the Brazilian context and collect evi-dence on factorial validity and internal consistency. 441 students participated (M=16 years, 54.6% females, randomly divided in two groups. All responded to CASRS and to demographic questions. The analysis of the main components demonstrated a bifactor structure, whose factors presented Cronbach’s alphas (α greater than .80 (G1. This structure was corroborated by means of confirmatory factor analysis (for example, CFI=.87 and RMSEA=.08. The scale was shown to be psychometrically adequate and there was evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency; the scale can be used to measure plagiarism in the academic context.
Thiago Loreto Garcia da Silva
Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic growth is one of the most commonly used concepts to evaluate positive changes after trauma. The principal scales used internationally to evaluate this phenomenon have not yet a Brazilian Portuguese version. Objectives This study aimed to translate and adapt to the Brazilian context the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI, the Core Beliefs Inventory (CBI, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI. Methods The procedures included translation, back translation, expert committee’s evaluation, and pilot testing in the target population. Results All items of all three instruments had a good content validity index after evaluation by four experts and three reformulations. The back translation of the final version also demonstrated that all Brazilian Portuguese versions convey the same meaning as the original English version. The final version was pilot tested with 30 undergraduate students, and all the items were above the cut-off point. Discussion This study was able to produce Brazilian versions of the PTGI, CBI, and ERRI. Further studies are underway to determine the reliability, factorial validity, and convergent validity of the subscales of the instruments.
Tamboer, P.; Vorst, H.C.M.; de Jong, P.F.
The Multiple Diagnostic Digital Dyslexia Test for Adults (MDDDT-A) consists of 12 newly developed tests and self-report questions in the Dutch language. Predictive validity and construct validity were investigated and compared with validity of a standard test battery of dyslexia (STB) in a sample of
Mikkelsen, S.; Vilstrup, Imogen; Lassen, C. F.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity and potential biases in self-reports of computer, mouse and keyboard usage times, compared with objective recordings. METHODS: A study population of 1211 people was asked in a questionnaire to estimate the average time they had worked with computer, mouse...... and keyboard during the past four working weeks. During the same period, a software program recorded these activities objectively. The study was part of a one-year follow-up study from 2000-1 of musculoskeletal outcomes among Danish computer workers. RESULTS: Self-reports on computer, mouse and keyboard usage...... times were positively associated with objectively measured activity, but the validity was low. Self-reports explained only between a quarter and a third of the variance of objectively measured activity, and were even lower for one measure (keyboard time). Self-reports overestimated usage times...
Lofters, Aisha; Vahabi, Mandana; Glazier, Richard H
Background Self-report may not be an accurate method of determining cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening rates due to recall, acquiescence and social desirability biases, particularly for certain sociodemographic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the validity of self-report of cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, both for people in the general population and for socially disadvantaged groups based on immigrant status, ethnicity, education, income, languag...
Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva
Full Text Available Estimate the prevalence of dental caries based on clinical examinations and self-reports and compare differences in the prevalence and effect measures between the two methods among 18-year-olds belonging to a 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil.Data on self-reported caries, socio-demographic aspects and oral health behaviour were collected using a questionnaire administered to adolescents aged 18 years (n = 4041. Clinical caries was evaluated (n = 1014 by a dentist who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Prevalence rates of clinical and self-reported caries, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratios of dental caries were estimated for each risk factor.The prevalence of clinical and self-reported caries (DMFT>1 was 66.5% (95%CI: 63.6%-69.3% and 60.3% (95%CI: 58.8%-61.8%, respectively. Self-reports underestimated the prevalence of dental caries by 9.3% in comparison to clinical evaluations. The analysis of the validity of self-reports regarding the DMFT index indicated high sensitivity (81.8%; 95%CI: 78.7%-84.7% and specificity (78.1%; 95%CI: 73.3%-82.4% in relation to the gold standard (clinical evaluation. Both the clinical and self-reported evaluations were associated with gender, schooling and self-rated oral health. Clinical dental caries was associated with visits to the dentist in the previous year. Self-reported dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing frequency.Based on the present findings, self-reported information on dental caries using the DMFT index requires further studies prior to its use in the analysis of risk factors, but is valid for population-based health surveys with the aim of planning and monitoring oral health actions directed at adolescents.
Catenaccio, E; Caccese, J; Wakschlag, N; Fleysher, R; Kim, N; Kim, M; Buckley, T A; Stewart, W F; Lipton, R B; Kaminski, T; Lipton, M L
The long-term effects of repetitive head impacts due to heading are an area of increasing concern, and exposure must be accurately measured; however, the validity of self-report of cumulative soccer heading is not known. In order to validate HeadCount, a 2-week recall questionnaire, the number of player-reported headers was compared to the number of headers observed by trained raters for a men's and a women's collegiate soccer teams during an entire season of competitive play using Spearman's correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and calibrated using a generalized estimating equation. The average Spearman's rho was 0.85 for men and 0.79 for women. The average ICC was 0.75 in men and 0.38 in women. The calibration analysis demonstrated that men tend to report heading accurately while women tend to overestimate. HeadCount is a valid instrument for tracking heading behaviour, but may have to be calibrated in women.
Full Text Available Reflective functioning or mentalizing is the capacity to interpret both the self and others in terms of internal mental states such as feelings, wishes, goals, desires, and attitudes. This paper is part of a series of papers outlining the development and psychometric features of a new self-report measure, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ, designed to provide an easy to administer self-report measure of mentalizing. We describe the development and initial validation of the RFQ in three studies. Study 1 focuses on the development of the RFQ, its factor structure and construct validity in a sample of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and Eating Disorder (ED (n = 108 and normal controls (n = 295. Study 2 aims to replicate these findings in a fresh sample of 129 patients with personality disorder and 281 normal controls. Study 3 addresses the relationship between the RFQ, parental reflective functioning and infant attachment status as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. In both Study 1 and 2, confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors assessing Certainty (RFQ_C and Uncertainty (RFQ_U about the mental states of self and others. These two factors were relatively distinct, invariant across clinical and non-clinical samples, had satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest stability, and were largely unrelated to demographic features. The scales discriminated between patients and controls, and were significantly and in theoretically predicted ways correlated with measures of empathy, mindfulness and perspective-taking, and with both self-reported and clinician-reported measures of borderline personality features and other indices of maladaptive personality functioning. Furthermore, the RFQ scales were associated with levels of parental reflective functioning, which in turn predicted infant attachment status in the SSP. Overall, this study lends
Sarkar, Urmimala; Schillinger, Dean; López, Andrea; Sudore, Rebecca
Limited health literacy (HL) contributes to poor health outcomes and disparities, and direct measurement is often time-intensive. Self-reported HL questions have not been validated among Spanish-speaking and diverse English-speaking populations. To evaluate three self-reported questions: 1 "How confident are you filling out medical forms?"; 2 "How often do you have problems learning about your medical condition because of difficulty understanding written information?"; and 3 "How often do you have someone help you read hospital materials?" Answers were based on a 5-point Likert scale. This was a validation study nested within a trial of diabetes self-management support in the San Francisco Department of Public Health. English and Spanish-speaking adults with type 2 diabetes receiving primary care. Using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA) in English and Spanish as the reference, we classified HL as inadequate, marginal, or adequate. We calculated the C-index and test characteristics of the three questions and summative scale compared to the s-TOFHLA and assessed variations in performance by language, race/ethnicity, age, and education. Of 296 participants, 48% were Spanish-speaking; 9% were White, non-Hispanic; 47% had inadequate HL and 12% had marginal HL. Overall, 57% reported being confident with forms "somewhat" or less. The "confident with forms" question performed best for detecting inadequate (C-index = 0.82, (0.77-0.87)) and inadequate plus marginal HL (C index = 0.81, (0.76-0.86); pSpanish and English speakers with adequate HL and those with inadequate and/or inadequate plus marginal HL. The "confident with forms" question or the summative scale may be useful for estimating HL in clinical research involving Spanish-speaking and English-speaking, chronically-ill, diverse populations.
BACKGROUND In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anth...
Nualnong Wongtongkam; Paul Russell Ward; Andrew Day; Anthony Harold Winefield
In Thailand physical violence among male adolescents is considered a significant public health issue, although there has been little published research into the aetiology and functions of violence in Thai youth. Research in this area has been hampered by a lack of psychometrically sound tools that have been validated to assess problem behaviours in Asian youth. The purpose of this paper is to provide validity and reliability data on an instrument to measure violence in Thai youth. In this stu...
Morbitzer, Petra; Spröber, Nina; Hautzinger, Martin
In this study we examine the reliability and validity of students' self-reports about bullying and victimization in schools. 208 5th class students of four "middle schools" in Southern Germany filled in the Bully-Victim-Questionnaire (Olweus, 1989, adapted by Lösel, Bliesener, Averbeck, 1997) and the School Climate Survey (Brockenborough, 2001) to assess the prevalence of bullying/victimization, and to evaluate attitudes towards aggression and support for victims. By using reliability and validity criteria, one third (31%) of the questionnaires was classified as "unreliable/invalid". Mean comparisons of the "unreliable/invalid" group and the "valid" group of the subscales concerning bullying/victimization found significant differences. The "unreliable/invalid" group stated higher values of bullying and victimization. Based on the "unreliable/invalid" questionnaires more students could be identified as bullies/victims or bully-victims. The prevalence of bullying/victimization in the whole sample was reduced if "unreliable/invalid" questionnaires were excluded. The results are discussed in the framework of theories about the presentation of the self ("impression management', "social desirability") and systematic response patterns ("extreme response bias").
Nguyen, Thi-My-Uyen; La Caze, Adam; Cottrell, Neil
Medication non-adherence is a significant health problem. There are numerous methods for measuring adherence, but no single method performs well on all criteria. The purpose of this systematic review is to (i) identify self-report medication adherence scales that have been correlated with comparison measures of medication-taking behaviour, (ii) assess how these scales measure adherence and (iii) explore how these adherence scales have been validated. Cinahl and PubMed databases were used to search articles written in English on the development or validation of medication adherence scales dating to August 2012. The search terms used were medication adherence, medication non-adherence, medication compliance and names of each scale. Data such as barriers identified and validation comparison measures were extracted and compared. Sixty articles were included in the review, which consisted of 43 adherence scales. Adherence scales include items that either elicit information regarding the patient's medication-taking behaviour and/or attempts to identify barriers to good medication-taking behaviour or beliefs associated with adherence. The validation strategies employed depended on whether the focus of the scale was to measure medication-taking behaviour or identify barriers or beliefs. Supporting patients to be adherent requires information on their medication-taking behaviour, barriers to adherence and beliefs about medicines. Adherence scales have the potential to explore these aspects of adherence, but currently there has been a greater focus on measuring medication-taking behaviour. Selecting the 'right' adherence scale(s) requires consideration of what needs to be measured and how (and in whom) the scale has been validated. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.
Bölenius, Karin; Brulin, Christine; Grankvist, Kjell; Lindkvist, Marie; Söderberg, Johan
Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. Findings We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. Conclusions The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.
Chiga, Sakura; Ohba, Takashi; Tanoue, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromi; Katoh, Takahiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka
As part of the Kumamoto RAINBOW Project, a multifaceted implementation of the prevention of premature labor, we investigated pregnant women's oral health status and assessed the validity of a self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire. We examined the oral health status of pregnant women and asked them for subjective descriptions of symptoms of periodontitis both in the first and the second half of their pregnancy in Kumamoto Prefecture from August 2012 to January 2014. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal condition, and women having periodontal pockets with depths of ≥4 mm were catecogorized as having periodontitis. The results were the scores of the self-questionnaire for periodontal disease prepared by the Japan Dental Association. Of the 9,527 pregnant women who received periodontal check- ups during the first half of pregnancy, 32 percent were diagnosed as having periodontitis. The self-questionnaire had a sensitivity of 51.2% and a specificity of 62.9% for pregnant women to predict their periodontal disease. Then, we evaluated the importance of each question by logistic regression analysis and extracted the useful items. An increased sensitivity (79.9%) was obtained with the best of the modified questionnaire. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the evaluation of the usefulness of the self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire for pregnant women. The current self-questonnaire used for the general adult population was less sensitive for pregnant women. Our modified questionnaire showed an improved sensitivity for diagnosing periodontitis, but its specificity remained low. A specialized self-questionnaire for periodontal disease in pregnant women should be designed.
Winckers, Annemarie N. E.; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Compernolle, Sofie; Nicolaou, Mary; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen
The assessment of physical activity for surveillance or population based studies is usually done with self-report questionnaires. However, bias in self-reported physical activity may be greater in lower educated than in higher educated populations. The aim of the present study is to describe
Winckers, A.N.; Mackenbach, J.D.; Compernolle, S.; Nicolaou, M.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.
Background: The assessment of physical activity for surveillance or population based studies is usually done with self-report questionnaires. However, bias in self-reported physical activity may be greater in lower educated than in higher educated populations. The aim of the present study is to
Høyer, G; Nilssen, O; Brenn, T; Schirmer, H
The Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reported alcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making complete registration of all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol on Svalbard over a 2-month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbard were invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire on alcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted for approximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, the estimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume to validate self-reports.
Kratz, Anna L; Schilling, Stephen G; Goesling, Jenna; Williams, David A
Pain is often the focus of research and clinical care in fibromyalgia (FM); however, cognitive dysfunction is also a common, distressing, and disabling symptom in FM. Current efforts to address this problem are limited by the lack of a comprehensive, valid measure of subjective cognitive dysfunction in FM that is easily interpretable, accessible, and brief. The purpose of this study was to leverage cognitive functioning item banks that were developed as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) to devise a 10-item short form measure of cognitive functioning for use in FM. In study 1, a nationwide (U.S.) sample of 1,035 adults with FM (age range = 18-82, 95.2% female) completed 2 cognitive item pools. Factor analyses and item response theory analyses were used to identify dimensionality and optimally performing items. A recommended 10-item measure, called the Multidimensional Inventory of Subjective Cognitive Impairment (MISCI) was created. In study 2, 232 adults with FM completed the MISCI and a legacy measure of cognitive functioning that is used in FM clinical trials, the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ). The MISCI showed excellent internal reliability, low ceiling/floor effects, and good convergent validity with the MASQ (r = -.82). This paper presents the MISCI, a 10-item measure of cognitive dysfunction in FM, developed through classical test theory and item response theory. This brief but comprehensive measure shows evidence of excellent construct validity through large correlations with a lengthy legacy measure of cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Short instruments measuring frequency of specific foods, such as fruit and vegetable (FV, are increasingly used in interventions. The objective of the study was to verify the validity and test-retest reliability of such an instrument among pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women from the region of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, were recruited through e-mails sent to female students and employees of the local university from October 2014 to April 2015. To assess the validity of the fruit and vegetable questionnaire (FVQ developed by Godin et al. (Can J Public Health 99: 494-498, 2008, pregnant women were asked in a first mailing to complete the FVQ assessing FV intake over the past 7 days and a 3-day estimated food record. A subsample (n = 33 also gave a fasting blood sample and completed a validated semi-quantitative FFQ administered by a trained registered dietitian during a visit at the research center. FV intakes for all instruments were calculated in terms of servings of FV based on Canada’s Food Guide definition of a serving of fruit or vegetable. In order to assess its test-retest reliability, respondents were asked to complete the FVQ 14 days later in a second mailing. Results Forty-eight pregnant women from all three trimesters completed the questionnaires in the first mailing. FV intake assessed using the FVQ was correlated to FV consumption measured using the food record (r = 0.34, p = 0.0180 and the FFQ (r = 0.61, p = 0.0002. Results were similar when controlling for energy intake and the experience of nausea in the past month. Only β-cryptoxanthin was significantly correlated to FV intake assessed by the FFQ when adjusted for the presence of nausea (r = 0.35, p = 0.0471. Data on the test-retest reliability was available for 44 women and the intra-class coefficient for the FVQ was 0.72 at a mean 28-day interval. Conclusions The FVQ has acceptable validity and test-retest reliability
Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Godin, Gaston; Couillard, Charles; Perron, Julie; Lemieux, Simone; Robitaille, Julie
Short instruments measuring frequency of specific foods, such as fruit and vegetable (FV), are increasingly used in interventions. The objective of the study was to verify the validity and test-retest reliability of such an instrument among pregnant women. Pregnant women from the region of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, were recruited through e-mails sent to female students and employees of the local university from October 2014 to April 2015. To assess the validity of the fruit and vegetable questionnaire (FVQ) developed by Godin et al. (Can J Public Health 99: 494-498, 2008), pregnant women were asked in a first mailing to complete the FVQ assessing FV intake over the past 7 days and a 3-day estimated food record. A subsample (n = 33) also gave a fasting blood sample and completed a validated semi-quantitative FFQ administered by a trained registered dietitian during a visit at the research center. FV intakes for all instruments were calculated in terms of servings of FV based on Canada's Food Guide definition of a serving of fruit or vegetable. In order to assess its test-retest reliability, respondents were asked to complete the FVQ 14 days later in a second mailing. Forty-eight pregnant women from all three trimesters completed the questionnaires in the first mailing. FV intake assessed using the FVQ was correlated to FV consumption measured using the food record (r = 0.34, p = 0.0180) and the FFQ (r = 0.61, p = 0.0002). Results were similar when controlling for energy intake and the experience of nausea in the past month. Only β-cryptoxanthin was significantly correlated to FV intake assessed by the FFQ when adjusted for the presence of nausea (r = 0.35, p = 0.0471). Data on the test-retest reliability was available for 44 women and the intra-class coefficient for the FVQ was 0.72 at a mean 28-day interval. The FVQ has acceptable validity and test-retest reliability values, but seems to underestimate FV servings in pregnant women
Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of physical activity is an essential part of understanding patterns and influences of behaviour, designing interventions, and undertaking population surveillance and monitoring, but it is particularly problematic when using self-report instruments with young people. This study reviewed available self-report physical activity instruments developed for use with children and adolescents to assess their suitability and feasibility for use in population surveillance systems, particularly in Europe. Methods Systematic searches and review, supplemented by expert panel assessment. Results Papers (n = 437 were assessed as potentially relevant; 89 physical activity measures were identified with 20 activity-based measures receiving detailed assessment. Three received support from the majority of the expert group: Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children/Adolescents (PAQ-C/PAQ-A, Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance Survey (YRBS, and the Teen Health Survey. Conclusions Population surveillance of youth physical activity is strongly recommended and those involved in developing and undertaking this task should consider the three identified shortlisted instruments and evaluate their appropriateness for application within their national context. Further development and testing of measures suitable for population surveillance with young people is required.
Erhart, Michael; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Several instruments are available to assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) based on self reports as well as proxy reports from parents. Previous studies have found only low-to-moderate agreement between self and proxy reports, but few studies have explicitly compared the psychometric qualities of both. This study compares the reliability, factorial validity and convergent and known group validity of the self-report and parent-report versions of the HRQoL KINDL-R questionnaire for children and adolescents. Within the nationally representative cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), 6,813 children and adolescents aged 11 to 17 years completed the KINDL-R generic HRQoL instrument while their parents answered the KINDL proxy version (both in paper-and-pencil versions). Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor-analysis models (linear structural equation model) were obtained. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Known-groups differences were examined (ANOVA) for obese children and children with a lower familial socio-economic status. The parent reports achieved slightly higher Cronbach's alpha values for the total score (0.86 vs. 0.83) and most sub-scores. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable fit of the six-dimensional measurement model of the KINDL for the parent (RMSEA=0.07) and child reports (RMSEA=0.06). Factorial invariance across the two versions did not hold with regards to the pattern of loadings, the item errors and the covariation between latent concepts. However the magnitude of the differences was rather small. The parent report version achieved slightly higher convergent validity (r=0.44-0.63 vs. r=0.33-0.59) in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. No clear differences were observed for known-groups validity. Our study showed that parent
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several instruments are available to assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL based on self reports as well as proxy reports from parents. Previous studies have found only low-to-moderate agreement between self and proxy reports, but few studies have explicitly compared the psychometric qualities of both. This study compares the reliability, factorial validity and convergent and known group validity of the self-report and parent-report versions of the HRQoL KINDL-R questionnaire for children and adolescents. Methods Within the nationally representative cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, 6,813 children and adolescents aged 11 to 17 years completed the KINDL-R generic HRQoL instrument while their parents answered the KINDL proxy version (both in paper-and-pencil versions. Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor-analysis models (linear structural equation model were obtained. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Known-groups differences were examined (ANOVA for obese children and children with a lower familial socio-economic status. Results The parent reports achieved slightly higher Cronbach's alpha values for the total score (0.86 vs. 0.83 and most sub-scores. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable fit of the six-dimensional measurement model of the KINDL for the parent (RMSEA = 0.07 and child reports (RMSEA = 0.06. Factorial invariance across the two versions did not hold with regards to the pattern of loadings, the item errors and the covariation between latent concepts. However the magnitude of the differences was rather small. The parent report version achieved slightly higher convergent validity (r = 0.44 – 0.63 vs. r = 0.33 – 0.59 in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. No clear differences were
Dubray, Samantha; Gérard, Marina; Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic; Courtois, Frédérique
Despite a plethora of research on sexual functioning during the past decades, the field is still lacking standardized measurements specifically characterizing orgasm. Although several validated tools are available to assess sexual function in healthy and clinical populations, items on orgasm are limited to frequency or dichotomous responses. A neurophysiologic model of orgasm developed from previous research in able-bodied and spinally injured populations offers a promising framework for the construction of a new questionnaire. To develop and validate a brief self-report measurement of orgasm by the assessment of bodily and physiologic sensations perceived during climax by able-bodied individuals. Although the currently available tool focuses on the phenomenological sensations associated with climax, the goal of this questionnaire was to capture the more specific genital and extragenital sensations associated with orgasm. The current Bodily Sensations of Orgasm questionnaire and the Orgasm Rating Scale. Data from previous research conducted on individuals with spinal cord injury and the available empirical literature provided a pool of 45 items organized into four categories, which were reviewed by an expert panel. Upon review, a 28-item questionnaire was created and administered to a community sample of 227 participants, including men and women, 18 to 73 years old. Exploratory factor analyses supported the four-factor model, in which orgasm is comprised of extragenital sensations, genital sensations and spasms, nociceptive sensations, and sweating responses. Overall, a high degree of internal consistency was found for the final 22-item questionnaire (Cronbach α = 0.87), with individual reliability coefficients showing moderate to high internal consistency (r = 0.65-0.79) for each dimension. Overall temporal stability of the measurement was acceptable (r = 0.74). Using the Orgasm Rating Scale, satisfying convergent validity was confirmed, thereby indicating
Costa, Paul T; Bagby, R Michael; Herbst, Jeffrey H; McCrae, Robert R
It is alleged that depression distorts the assessment of general personality traits. To test that hypothesis, we examined scores on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) administered to acutely depressed patients at baseline and 14 to 26 weeks after treatment with antidepressant medication. Two hundred and fifty patients completed the NEO-PI-R at baseline, 109 patients after 14 to 26 weeks of antidepressant pharmacotherapy. 48 patients (49.5%) were identified as responders while 49 (50.5%) were identified as non-responders. The remaining 12 patients were excluded because they met HRSD response criteria but not the SCID-I MDD criteria at treatment completion. At baseline, NEO-PI-R scales showed high internal consistency and replicated the normative factor structure, suggesting that psychometric properties were preserved. Among non-responders, retest correlations were uniformly high (rs=.50 to .88) and mean levels showed little change, providing evidence for the consistency of personality self-reports during an acute depressive episode. NEO-PI-R scales showed construct validity in the concurrent prediction of a number of clinical criteria. Effective treatment had significant effects on the mean levels of neuroticism, which decreased, and extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness, which increased. The participants were from a clinical database and were not randomly assigned for the treatment. The results suggest that the effect of acute depression is to amplify somewhat the personality profile of people prone to depression. Rather than regard these depression-caused changes in assessed personality trait levels as a distortion, we interpret them as accurate reflections of the current condition of the individual. Personality traits have biological bases, and when they are changed (by disease or therapeutic interventions) trait levels change.
Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
Background: Different dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) have been found as valid predictors of further mental health problems and antisocial behaviors in youth. The present study aimed at testing the construct, concurrent, and predictive validity of ODD dimensions derived from parent- and self-report measures. Method: Confirmatory…
Gold, Judith E; Rauscher, Kimberly J; Zhu, Motao
Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientation (e.g., horizontal) and hands holding the phone while texting. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and observation of a texting task among college students ages 18 to 24. To gauge agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived categorical number of daily text messages sent, we calculated percent of agreement, Spearman correlation coefficient, and a linear weighted kappa statistic. For agreement between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles we calculated percentages of agreement. We used chi-square tests to detect significant differences (α = 0.05) by gender and study protocol. There were 106 participants; 87 of which had complete data for texting frequency analyses. Among these 87, there was 26% (95% CI: 21-31) agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived number of daily text messages sent with a Spearman's rho of 0.48 and a weighted kappa of 0.17 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Among those who did not accurately report the number of daily texts sent, 81% overestimated this number. Among the full sample (n = 106), there was high agreement between self-reported and observed texting input device (96%, 95% CI: 91-99), key configuration (89%, 95% CI: 81-94), and phone orientation while texting (93%, 95% CI: 86-97). No differences were found by gender or study protocol among any items. While young adults correctly reported their cell phone's characteristics and phone orientation while texting, most incorrectly
Lilienfeld, S O; Andrews, B P
Research on psychopathology has been hindered by persisting difficulties and controversies regarding its assessment. The primary goals of this set of studies were to (a) develop, and initiate the construct validation of, a self-report measure that assesses the major personality traits of psychopathy in noncriminal populations and (b) clarify the nature of these traits via an exploratory approach to test construction. This measure, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), was developed by writing items to assess a large number of personality domains relevant to psychopathy and performing successive item-level factor analyses and revisions on three undergraduate samples. The PPI total score and its eight subscales were found to possess satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In four studies with undergraduates, the PPI and its subscales exhibited a promising pattern of convergent and discriminant validity with self-report, psychiatric interview, observer rating, and family history data. In addition, the PPI total score demonstrated incremental validity relative to several commonly used self-report psychopathy-related measures. Future construct validation studies, unresolved conceptual issues regarding the assessment of psychopathy, and potential research uses of the PPI are outlined.
Jeemon, P; Agarwal, S; Ramakrishnan, L; Gupta, R; Snehi, U; Chaturvedi, V; Reddy, K S; Prabhakaran, D
Serum cotinine levels are a reliable marker of tobacco use. Few studies have validated questionnaires assessing smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) against serum levels. We undertook such a study in industrial workers in India. We chose 426 individuals by stratified random sampling from a database of 3397 individuals surveyed at New Delhi for the cardiovascular disease surveillance programme in a large industrial setting. Questionnaires assessing details of smoking practices and duration of exposure to ETS (if any) were administered. Cotinine levels were measured in the blood samples of these individuals. The study population comprised 142 nonsmokers not exposed to ETS, 142 non-smokers exposed to ETS and 142 active smokers. Cotinine levels among nonsmokers not exposed to ETS were non-detectable; and for non-smokers exposed to ETS and active smokers, the median (interquartile range) levels were non-detectable (non-detectable to 46.1 ng/ml) and 336 ng/ml (204-500 ng/ml), respectively. The best combined sensitivity (91%) and specificity (87.2%) yielded a cotinine cut-off level of 40.35 ng/ml to differentiate active smokers from non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS (area under the curve 0.902). The cut-off cotinine level was estimated at 10.95 ng/ml using a similar analysis (sensitivity 43%, specificity 82%; area under the curve 0.64) to distinguish non-smokers not exposed to ETS from those exposed to ETS. The misclassification rate was estimated at 19% and 57.1% among self-reported non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS, respectively. Obtaining a history of tobacco use is an accurate method of detecting smokers in epidemiological studies whereas serum cotinine levels accurately differentiate smokers from non-smokers. However, a brief questionnaire assessing passive exposure to smoke has poor sensitivity in distinguishing non-smokers exposed to ETS from those not exposed to ETS.
Gong, Xiaopeng; Paulson, Sharon E.
The current study examined the factor structure of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale with an American college sample (n = 404, 322 females, 88.9% Whites). Data were collected through an online survey, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test several proposed factor models from previous studies. The results…
Kuis, E.; Goossensen, M.A.; van Dijke, J.; Baart, A.J.
Background: The concept of ‘presence’ appears frequently in the literature and seems to be a highly relevant concept in discussing and evaluating quality of relations in healthcare practices. However, no existing self-report measure of presence for health professionals was found. Purpose: The
McEachern, Amber D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances
The measurement of parenting behaviors is important to the field of psychology and the goal of remediating problematic parenting as a means of reducing child problem behaviors. The Parenting Young Children (PARYC) is a self-report measure designed to address parenting behaviors relevant for the caregivers of young children, and was assessed in…
Gilbert, Gregg H.; Rose, John S.; Shelton, Brent J.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the validity of self-reported receipt of dental services in 10 categories, using information from dental charts as the "gold standard." METHODS: The Florida Dental Care Study was a prospective cohort study of a diverse sample of adults. In-person interviews were conducted at baseline and at 24 and 48 months following baseline, with telephone interviews at six-month intervals in between. Participants reported new dental visits, reason(s) for...
Arbab, Dariusch; Kuhlmann, Katharina; Schnurr, Christoph; Bouillon, Bertil; Lüring, Christian; König, Dietmar
Patient-reported outcome measures are a critical tool in evaluating the efficacy of orthopedic procedures and are increasingly used in clinical trials to assess outcomes of health care. The intention of this study was to develop and culturally adapt a German version of the Self-reported Foot and Ankle Score (SEFAS) and to evaluate reliability, validity and responsiveness. According to Cross Cultural Adaptation of Self-Reported Measure guidelines forward and backward translation has been performed. The German SEFAS was investigated in 177 consecutive patients. 177 Patients completed the German SEFAS, Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), Short-Form 36 and numeric scales for pain and disability (NRS) before and 118 patients 6 months after foot or ankle surgery. Test-Retest reliability, internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, construct validity and minimal important change were analyzed. The German SEFAS demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability with ICC values of 0.97. Cronbach's alpha (α) value of 0.89 demonstrated strong internal consistency. No floor or ceiling effects were observed for the German version of the SEFAS. As hypothesized SEFAS correlated strongly with FAOS and SF-36 domains. It showed moderate (ES/SRM > 0.5) responsiveness between preoperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. The German version of the SEFAS demonstrated good psychometric properties. It proofed to be a valid and reliable instrument for use in foot and ankle patients. DRKS00007585.
Sjöberg, Lennart; Engelberg, Elisabeth
This is a study of emotional intelligence (EI). EI was measured by performance and self-report tasks. Data were also obtained on basic values, some standard personality dimensions such as those specified in the five-factor model, social adjustment and several scales of impression management. Criteria were loneliness, work-family life balance and Internet addiction, and also measures of emotional and value deviance. Participants were college students in a business education program who partici...
Hoff, M.; Meyer, H. E.; Skurtveit, S.
for the youngest and oldest men. Self-reported fall was an independent risk factor for fracture in women. Introduction: The primary aim was to validate FRAX without BMD for hip fracture prediction in a Norwegian population of men and women 50–90 years. Secondary, to study whether information of falls could improve......Summary: Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) without bone mineral density (BMD) for hip fracture prediction was validated in a Norwegian population 50–90 years. Fracture risk increased with higher FRAX score, and the observed number of hip fractures agreed well with the predicted number, except...
Skinner, T. C.; Blick, J.; Dudgeon, P.
Introduction:This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude.Method:Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized...... order.The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head...... correlated with the IAT,(r=.314;pattitudes towards Aboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure....
Lofters, Aisha; Vahabi, Mandana; Glazier, Richard H
Self-report may not be an accurate method of determining cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening rates due to recall, acquiescence and social desirability biases, particularly for certain sociodemographic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the validity of self-report of cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, both for people in the general population and for socially disadvantaged groups based on immigrant status, ethnicity, education, income, language ability, self-rated health, employment status, age category (for cervical cancer screening), and gender (for fecal occult blood testing). We linked multiple data sources for this study, including the Canadian Community Health Survey and provincial-level health databases. Using administrative data as our gold standard, we calculated validity measures for self-report (i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, positive and negative predictive values), calculated report-to-record ratios, and conducted a multivariable regression analysis to determine which characteristics were independently associated with over-reporting of screening. Specificity was less than 70% overall and for all subgroups for cervical and breast cancer screening, and sensitivity was lower than 80% overall and for all subgroups for fecal occult blood testing FOBT. Report-to-record ratios were persistently significantly greater than 1 across all cancer screening types, highest for the FOBT group: 1.246 [1.189-1.306]. Regression analyses showed no consistent patterns, but sociodemographic characteristics were associated with over-reporting for each screening type. We have found that in Ontario, as in other jurisdictions, there is a pervasive tendency for people to over-report their cancer screening histories. Sociodemographic status also appears to influence over-reporting. Public health practitioners and policymakers need to be aware of the limitations of self-report and adjust their methods
Murphy, Kelly R; McManigle, John E; Wildman-Tobriner, Benjamin M; Little Jones, Amy; Dekker, Travis J; Little, Barrett A; Doty, Joseph P; Taylor, Dean C
The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL]) to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness ( P =0.016). When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the survey is refined and further administered, HEAL will be used not only as a self-assessment tool but also in "360" evaluation formats.
Livanis, Andrew; Mouzakitis, Angela
Treatment validity is a frequently neglected topic of screening instruments used to identify autism spectrum disorders. Treatment validity, however, should represent an important aspect of these instruments to link the resulting data to the selection of interventions as well as make decisions about treatment length and intensity. Research…
Kathleen W. Wyrwich PhD
Full Text Available The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV; parent report and Adult ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS; self-report are validated instruments for measuring symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objectives of this study were to elicit descriptions of phenylketonuria (PKU symptoms and assess content validity of these instruments in PKU. Parents (N = 15 of children with PKU (≥8 years old and adults with PKU (N=13 described PKU-related symptoms and commented on the scale’s clarity, comprehensiveness, and relevance to their experience with PKU. Most of the adults (84.6% and all of the children were on a phenylalanine-restricted diet, according to respondent report. The inattentiveness symptoms reported by participants mapped to the inattentive items of the questionnaires. Most participants felt the inattentive items were clear and relevant to their experience. Despite study design limitations, these results demonstrate the relevance of assessing inattentiveness in PKU, and both instruments achieved content validity for inattentive subscale items.
Full Text Available Kelly R Murphy, John E McManigle, Benjamin M Wildman-Tobriner, Amy Little Jones, Travis J Dekker, Barrett A Little, Joseph P Doty, Dean C Taylor Duke Healthcare Leadership Program, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL] to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness (P=0.016. When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the
Burkhart, B R; Green, S B; Harrison, W H
Examined the predictive validity and construct equivalence of the three major procedures used to measure assertive behavior: Self-report, behavioral role-playing, and in-vivo assessment. Seventy-five Ss, who spanned the range of assertiveness, completed two self-report measures of assertiveness, the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) and the College Self-Expression Scale (CSES); two scales from the Endler S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness, the interpersonal and general anxiety scales; eight role-playing situations that involved the expression of positive and negative assertiveness; and a telephone in-vivo task. In general, the study revealed the following: (1) assertiveness measures are task-dependent in that there was more overlap within task than between tasks; (2) there is a moderate degree of correspondence between self-report and role-playing measures, although this was true only for negative assertion; (3) positive and negative assertion do not appear to have the same topography of responding; and (4) there appears to be no consistent relationship between the in-vivo measure and any other type of assertiveness measure.
Skinner, Timothy C; Blick, Julie; Coffin, Juli; Dudgeon, Pat; Forrest, Simon; Morrison, David
This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude. Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized order. The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head-and-shoulder images of Aboriginal Australians and White Australians as the stimuli. Both explicit measures and implicit measure varied in the extent to which negative prejudicial attitudes were held by participants, and the corresponding construct validities were unimpressive. The MRS was significantly correlated with the IAT, (r =.314;pAboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure.
Sizoo, B.B.; Horwitz, E.H.; Teunisse, J.P; Kan, C.C.; Vissers, C.; Forceville, E.J.M.; Voorst, A.J.P. Van; Geurts, H.M.
While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger
Sizoo, Bram B.; Horwitz, E. H.; Teunisse, J. P.; Kan, C. C.; Vissers, C. T. W. M.; Forceville, E. J. M.; Van Voorst, A. J. P.; Geurts, H. M.
While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised and two short versions of the…
Rasmussen, Andrew; Ventevogel, Peter; Sancilio, Amelia; Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine
The relative performance of local and international assessment instruments is subject to ongoing discussion in transcultural research on mental health and psychosocial support. We examined the construct and external validity of two instruments, one developed for use in Afghanistan, the other developed by the World Health Organization for use in resource-poor settings. We used data collected on 1003 Afghan adults (500 men, 503 women) randomly sampled at three sites in Afghanistan. We compared the 22-item Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL), a culturally-grounded assessment of psychosocial wellbeing, with Pashto and Dari versions of the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). We derived subscales using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) and tested total and subscale scores for external validity with respect to lifetime trauma and household wealth using block model regressions. EFA suggested a three-factor structure for SRQ-20--somatic complaints, negative affect, and emotional numbing--and a two-factor structure for ASCL--jigar khun (dysphoria) and aggression. Both factor models were supported by CFA in separate subsamples. Women had higher scores for each of the five subscales than men (p khun subscale were equally associated with variance in trauma exposures. However, interactions between gender and jigar khun suggested that, relative to SRQ-20, the jigar khun subscale was more strongly associated with household wealth for women; similarly, gender interactions with aggression indicated that the aggression subscale was more strongly associated with trauma and wealth. Two central elements of Afghan conceptualizations of mental distress--aggression and the syndrome jigar khun--were captured by the ASCL and not by the SRQ-20. The appropriateness of the culturally-grounded instrument was more salient for women, indicating that the validity of instruments may be gender-differentiated. Transcultural validation processes for tools measuring
Brodey, Benjamin; Purcell, Susan E; Rhea, Karen; Maier, Philip; First, Michael; Zweede, Lisa; Sinisterra, Manuela; Nunn, M Brad; Austin, Marie-Paule; Brodey, Inger S
The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) is considered the gold standard assessment for accurate, reliable psychiatric diagnoses; however, because of its length, complexity, and training required, the SCID is rarely used outside of research. This paper aims to describe the development and initial validation of a Web-based, self-report screening instrument (the Screening Assessment for Guiding Evaluation-Self-Report, SAGE-SR) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the SCID-5-Clinician Version (CV) intended to make accurate, broad-based behavioral health diagnostic screening more accessible within clinical care. First, study staff drafted approximately 1200 self-report items representing individual granular symptoms in the diagnostic criteria for the 8 primary SCID-CV modules. An expert panel iteratively reviewed, critiqued, and revised items. The resulting items were iteratively administered and revised through 3 rounds of cognitive interviewing with community mental health center participants. In the first 2 rounds, the SCID was also administered to participants to directly compare their Likert self-report and SCID responses. A second expert panel evaluated the final pool of items from cognitive interviewing and criteria in the DSM-5 to construct the SAGE-SR, a computerized adaptive instrument that uses branching logic from a screener section to administer appropriate follow-up questions to refine the differential diagnoses. The SAGE-SR was administered to healthy controls and outpatient mental health clinic clients to assess test duration and test-retest reliability. Cutoff scores for screening into follow-up diagnostic sections and criteria for inclusion of diagnoses in the differential diagnosis were evaluated. The expert panel reduced the initial 1200 test items to 664 items that panel members agreed collectively represented the SCID items from the 8 targeted modules and DSM criteria for the covered
Carvalho, Flávia A; Morelhão, Priscila K; Franco, Marcia R; Maher, Chris G; Smeets, Rob J E M; Oliveira, Crystian B; Freitas Júnior, Ismael F; Pinto, Rafael Z
Although there is some evidence for reliability and validity of self-report physical activity (PA) questionnaires in the general adult population, it is unclear whether we can assume similar measurement properties in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). To determine the test-retest reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long-version and the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire (BPAQ) and their criterion-related validity against data derived from accelerometers in patients with chronic LBP. Cross-sectional study. Patients with non-specific chronic LBP were recruited. Each participant attended the clinic twice (one week interval) and completed self-report PA. Accelerometer measures >7 days included time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity, steps/day, counts/minute, and vector magnitude counts/minute. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and Bland and Altman method were used to determine reliability and spearman rho correlation were used for criterion-related validity. A total of 73 patients were included in our analyses. The reliability analyses revealed that the BPAQ and its subscales have moderate to excellent reliability (ICC 2,1 : 0.61 to 0.81), whereas IPAQ and most IPAQ domains (except walking) showed poor reliability (ICC 2,1 : 0.20 to 0.40). The Bland and Altman method revealed larger discrepancies for the IPAQ. For the validity analysis, questionnaire and accelerometer measures showed at best fair correlation (rho reliability than the IPAQ long-version, both questionnaires did not demonstrate acceptable validity against accelerometer data. These findings suggest that questionnaire and accelerometer PA measures should not be used interchangeably in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dür, Mona; Steiner, Günter; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Dejaco, Clemens; Prodinger, Birgit; Stoffer, Michaela Alexandra; Binder, Alexa; Smolen, Josef; Stamm, Tanja Alexandra
Self-reported outcome instruments in health research have become increasingly important over the last decades. Occupational therapy interventions often focus on occupational balance. However, instruments to measure occupational balance are scarce. The aim of the study was therefore to develop a generic self-reported outcome instrument to assess occupational balance based on the experiences of patients and healthy people including an examination of its psychometric properties. We conducted a qualitative analysis of the life stories of 90 people with and without chronic autoimmune diseases to identify components of occupational balance. Based on these components, the Occupational Balance-Questionnaire (OB-Quest) was developed. Construct validity and internal consistency of the OB-Quest were examined in quantitative data. We used Rasch analyses to determine overall fit of the items to the Rasch model, person separation index and potential differential item functioning. Dimensionality testing was conducted by the use of t-tests and Cronbach's alpha. The following components emerged from the qualitative analyses: challenging and relaxing activities, activities with acknowledgement by the individual and by the sociocultural context, impact of health condition on activities, involvement in stressful activities and fewer stressing activities, rest and sleep, variety of activities, adaptation of activities according to changed living conditions and activities intended to care for oneself and for others. Based on these, the seven items of the questionnaire (OB-Quest) were developed. 251 people (132 with rheumatoid arthritis, 43 with systematic lupus erythematous and 76 healthy) filled in the OB-Quest. Dimensionality testing indicated multidimensionality of the questionnaire (t = 0.58, and 1.66 after item reduction, non-significant). The item on the component rest and sleep showed differential item functioning (health condition and age). Person separation index was 0
Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A; Katz, Andrea C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Shankman, Stewart A
Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals' personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant-reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding, PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual's emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A.; Katz, Andrea C.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Shankman, Stewart A.
Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant-reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant-reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals’ personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding; PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant-reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual’s emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. PMID:27273802
Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Sidney, Stephen; Jacobs, David R; Quesenberry, Charles P; Reis, Jared P; Jiang, Sheng-Fang; Sternfeld, Barbara
The objective of this study is to determine whether summary estimates of a self-report physical activity questionnaire that does not specifically assess frequency or duration (the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) physical activity history (PAH)) differs from the summary estimates of one that does (CARDIA Supplemental Questionnaire). After the year 25 examination (2010-2011), 203 CARDIA black and white men and women (age 50.3 ± 3.6 yr) at the Oakland, CA, site participated in this comparison study. The between-questionnaire association and agreement were determined for continuous and categorical estimates on the basis of 1) quartiles and 2) meeting 2008 physical activity guidelines. Differences in participant characteristics by concordance/discordance status were also examined. Finally, receiver operating characteristic curves were computed to determine the accuracy of the PAH compared with the supplemental questionnaire. Reported physical activity levels were high and varied significantly by race and sex (all P women than men were classified as concordant by quartile of vigorous intensity (P = 0.001), but no other participant characteristics were associated with concordant/discordant quartile ranking. Participants classified as concordant on the basis of physical activity guidelines had lower body mass index than those classified as discordant (both P physical activity guidelines. Although it is inconvenient that the PAH is not expressed in more standard units, these findings support the practice of not directly assessing frequency and duration, which are frequent sources of reporting error.
Crosby, Richard; Salazar, Laura F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Yarber, William L; Caliendo, Angela M; Staples-Horne, Michelle
To determine whether a measure of unprotected vaginal sex that is adjusted for condom failures would produce improved accuracy in predicting biologically confirmed STDs (chlamydia and gonorrhea) among female teens. Self-reported measures were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. DNA amplification for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was conducted. The unadjusted measure of unprotected vaginal sex was not significantly associated with biologically confirmed prevalence of STDs (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.51; 95% CI = 0.71-3.21; P = 0.28). Alternatively, the adjusted measure achieved significance (PR = 3.59; 95% CI = 1.13-11.38; P = 0.014). More than one quarter (25.6%) of teens using condoms inconsistently and/or incorrectly tested positive for an STD compared to 7.1% among those reporting the consistent and correct use of condoms. Findings demonstrate that studies of condom effectiveness should use an adjusted measure of condom use to achieve precision and rigor.
Snowling, Margaret; Dawes, Piers; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles
Background There is an increased prevalence of reading and related difficulties in children of dyslexic parents. In order to understand the causes of these difficulties, it is important to quantify the risk factors passed from parents to their offspring. Method 417 adults completed a protocol comprising a 15-item questionnaire rating reading and related skills and a scale assessing ADHD symptoms; 344 completed reading, nonword reading and spelling tests. Results A confirmatory factor analysis with four factors (Reading, Word Finding, Attention and Hyperactivity) provided a reasonable fit to the data. The Reading Factor showed robust correlations with measured literacy skills. Adults who reported as dyslexic, or rated their reading difficulties as more severe, gained lower scores on objective measures of literacy skills. Although the sensitivity of the new scale was acceptable, it tended to miss some cases of low literacy. Conclusions Self-report scales of reading and of attention difficulties are useful for identifying adults with reading and attention difficulties which may confer risks on their children of related problems. It is important for research following children at family risk of dyslexia to be aware of these effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271419
Wilhelm, Sabine; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Kasarskis, Irina; Blashill, Aaron J
The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale (BDD-SS) is a new self-report measure used to examine the severity of a wide variety of symptoms associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The BDD-SS was designed to differentiate, for each group of symptoms, the number of symptoms endorsed and their severity. This report evaluates and compares the psychometric characteristics of the BDD-SS in relation to other measures of BDD, body image, and depression in 99 adult participants diagnosed with BDD. Total scores of the BDD-SS showed good reliability and convergent validity and moderate discriminant validity. Analyses of the individual BDD-SS symptom groups confirmed the reliability of the checking, grooming, weight/shape, and cognition groups. The current findings indicate that the BDD-SS can be quickly administered and used to examine the severity of heterogeneous BDD symptoms for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Martínez-Sánchez, José M; González-Marrón, Adrián; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Galán, Iñaki; Pascual, José Antonio; Fernández, Esteve
The objective of this study was to assess the validity of two questions about the perception of intensity of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home using as a reference environmental markers (airborne nicotine and benzene) and biomarkers of exposure (cotinine in saliva and urine). This was a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of 49 non-smoking volunteers. We found a high correlation between self-reported SHS exposure and airborne nicotine (r sp =0.806, p0.05). In conclusion, the significant correlation of the two questions proposed with environmental markers and personal markers indicates their potential validity to assess exposure to SHS at home. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Abramovitch, Amitai; Reese, Hannah; Woods, Douglas W; Peterson, Alan; Deckersbach, Thilo; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Wilhelm, Sabine
The gold-standard measure of tic severity in tic disorders (TD), the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), is a semistructured clinician-administered interview that can be time consuming and requires highly trained interviewers. Moreover, the YGTSS does not provide information regarding frequency and intensity of specific tics because all motor and all vocal tics are rated as a group. The aim of the present study is to describe and test the Adult Tic Questionnaire (ATQ), a measure for the assessment of tic severity in adults, and to report its preliminary psychometric properties. The ATQ is a brief self-report questionnaire that provides information regarding frequency, intensity, and severity of 27 specific tics. In addition, the ATQ produces total frequency, intensity, and severity scores for vocal and motor tics, as well as a global total tic severity score. Results showed that the ATQ demonstrated very good internal consistency and temporal stability. The total, vocal, and motor tic severity scales of the ATQ showed strong correlation with corresponding subscales of the YGTSS, indicating strong convergent validity. Weak correlations with measures of severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, indicated strong discriminant validity. The ATQ, a promising measure for the assessment of tic severity in adults with TD, may be a valuable supplement to the current recommended assessment battery for TD. Furthermore, the ATQ enables clinicians and researchers to track changes in the frequency and intensity of specific tics, which is important given their complex and dynamic nature. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dowdy, Erin; Harrell-Williams, Leigh; Dever, Bridget V.; Furlong, Michael J.; Moore, Stephanie; Raines, Tara; Kamphaus, Randy W.
Increasingly, schools are implementing school-based screening for risk of behavioral and emotional problems; hence, foundational evidence supporting the predictive validity of screening instruments is important to assess. This study examined the predictive validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening…
Hebert, J R; Clemow, L; Pbert, L; Ockene, I S; Ockene, J K
Self-report of dietary intake could be biased by social desirability or social approval thus affecting risk estimates in epidemiological studies. These constructs produce response set biases, which are evident when testing in domains characterized by easily recognizable correct or desirable responses. Given the social and psychological value ascribed to diet, assessment methodologies used most commonly in epidemiological studies are particularly vulnerable to these biases. Social desirability and social approval biases were tested by comparing nutrient scores derived from multiple 24-hour diet recalls (24HR) on seven randomly assigned days with those from two 7-day diet recalls (7DDR) (similar in some respects to commonly used food frequency questionnaires), one administered at the beginning of the test period (pre) and one at the end (post). Statistical analysis included correlation and multiple linear regression. Cross-sectionally, no relationships between social approval score and the nutritional variables existed. Social desirability score was negatively correlated with most nutritional variables. In linear regression analysis, social desirability score produced a large downward bias in nutrient estimation in the 7DDR relative to the 24HR. For total energy, this bias equalled about 50 kcal/point on the social desirability scale or about 450 kcal over its interquartile range. The bias was approximately twice as large for women as for men and only about half as large in the post measures. Individuals having the highest 24HR-derived fat and total energy intake scores had the largest downward bias due to social desirability. We observed a large downward bias in reporting food intake related to social desirability score. These results are consistent with the theoretical constructs on which the hypothesis is based. The effect of social desirability bias is discussed in terms of its influence on epidemiological estimates of effect. Suggestions are made for future work
Groot, M.; Prins, P.J.M.
Assessed the psychometric qualities of R. H. Deluty"s (see record 1980-02381-001) Children"s Action Tendency Scale (CATS) and L. Michelson and R. Wood"s (1982) Children"s Assertive Behavior Scale (CABS) with 157 Dutch children (aged 8 yrs 9 mo-13 yrs 3 mo). Both instruments were designed to assess
The validity of self-reported leisure time physical activity, and its relationship to serum cholesterol, blood pressure and body mass index. A population based study of 332,182 men and women aged 40-42 years.
Aires, Nibia; Selmer, Randi; Thelle, Dag
The importance of leisure time physical activity as a health indicator became more obvious after the results of large prospective studies were published. The validity of these results depends upon both the selection of the active individuals and to what extent self-reported physical activity reflects the individual's true activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the changes in self-reported physical activity, and to assess the relation between this variable and other biological risk factors such as blood lipids, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). This report also aims at corroborating the validity of self-reported physical activity by assessing the consistency of the associations between these biological risk factors and physical activity during a 25-years period. The basis for this analysis is a long lasting observational study with a questionnaire as the most important research instrument, in addition to physiological and biological factors such as BMI, blood pressure and blood lipids. The study population consists of 332,182 individuals, aged 40-42 from different counties in Norway who were invited to participate in health survey during 1974-1999. The objectives of this study are (1) to describe changes in self-reported physical activity from 1974 to 1999; (2) to assess the relation between physical activity and the biological variables; and (3) to corroborate the validity of the variable physical activity by assessing the consistency of the above analysis. The results of the analyses of association between decade of birth and self-reported physical activity show that physical activity among 40-aged individuals decreased during 1974-1999. This trend is stronger among the men. Multivariate analyses revealed differences in BMI and serum cholesterol between levels of self-reported physical activity, gender, smoking habits and decade of birth. The explained percentage of the total variance ranged from 6% for BMI to 7% for serum cholesterol. The
Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Bugrul, Necati; Sarı, Ahu Ozturk; Metintas, Selma
The objective was to assess the validity of self-reported body weight and height and the possible influence of self-perception of body mass index (BMI) status on the actual BMI during the adolescent period. This cross sectional study was conducted on 3918 high school students. Accurate BMI perception occurred when the student's self-perception of their BMI status did not differ from their actual BMI based on measured height and weight. Agreement between the measured and self-reported body height and weight and BMI values was determined using the Bland-Altman metod. To determine the effects of "a good level of agreement", hierarchical logistic regression models were used. Among male students who reported their BMI in the normal region, 2.8% were measured as overweight while 0.6% of them were measured as obese. For females in the same group, these percentages were 1.3% and 0.4% respectively. Among male students who perceived their BMI in the normal region, 8.5% were measured as overweight while 0.4% of them were measured as obese. For females these percentages were 25.6% and 1.8% respectively. According to logistic regression analysis, residence and accurate BMI perception were significantly associated with "good agreement" ( p ≤ 0.001). The results of this study demonstrated that in determining obesity and overweight statuses, non-accurate weight perception is a potential risk for students.
This paper describes the Instrument Validation System (IVS) as a software system which has the capability of evaluating the performance of a set of functionally related instrument channels to identify failed instruments and to quantify instrument drift. Under funding from Combustion Engineering (C-E), the IVS has been developed to the extent that a computer program exists whose use has been demonstrated. The initial development work shows promise for success and for wide application, not only to power plants, but also to industrial manufacturing and process control. Applications in the aerospace and military sector are also likely
Full Text Available Patrick O Monahan,1 Catherine A Alder,2–4 Babar A Khan,1–3 Timothy Stump,1 Malaz A Boustani1–4 1Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Regenstrief Institute Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Eskenazi Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: Primary care providers need an inexpensive, simple, user-friendly, easily standardized, sensitive to change, and widely available multidomain instrument to measure the cognitive, functional, and psychological symptoms of patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions. We previously validated the Caregiver Report Version of the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor (HABC Monitor for measuring and monitoring the severity of symptoms through caregiver reports. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Patient Self-Report Version of the HABC Monitor (Self-Report HABC Monitor.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Primary care clinics affiliated with a safety net urban health care system in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.Subjects: A total of 291 subjects aged ≥65 years with a mean age of 72.7 (standard deviation 6.2 years, 76% female, and 56% African Americans.Analysis: Psychometric validity and reliability of the Self-Report HABC Monitor.Results: Among 291 patients analyzed, the Self-Report HABC Monitor demonstrated excellent fit for the confirmatory factor analysis model (root mean square error of approximation =0.030, comparative fit index =0.974, weighted root mean square residual =0.837 and good internal consistency (0.78–0.92. Adequate convergent–divergent validity (differences between the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status test-based cognitive function impairment versus nonimpairment groups was demonstrated only when patients were removed from analysis if they had both cognitive function test impairment and suspiciously perfect self-report HABC Monitor cognitive floor
While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures. © The Author(s) 2014.
Holden, Ronald R.; Fekken, G. Cynthia
The processing of incoming psychological information along the network, or schemata, of self-knowledge was studied to determine the convergent and discriminant validity of the patterns of schemata-specific response latencies. Fifty-three female and 52 male university students completed the Basic Personality Inventory (BPI). BPI scales assess…
Scanlon, Elizabeth M.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
The internal consistency and validity of three new scales for measuring assertiveness in children were tested. Two of the scales were able to "unbind" aggressive from assertive behavior, while the third was able to "unbind" submissive from assertive behavior. At present, a combination of the three scales is recommended. (KH)
Joseph, Dana L.; Newman, Daniel A.
A major stumbling block for emotional intelligence (EI) research has been the lack of adequate evidence for discriminant validity. In a sample of 280 dyads, self- and peer-reports of EI and Big Five personality traits were used to confirm an a priori four-factor model for the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) and a five-factor…
Latorre-Marco, I; Acevedo-Nuevo, M; Solís-Muñoz, M; Hernández-Sánchez, L; López-López, C; Sánchez-Sánchez, M M; Wojtysiak-Wojcicka, M; de Las Pozas-Abril, J; Robleda-Font, G; Frade-Mera, M J; De Blas-García, R; Górgolas-Ortiz, C; De la Figuera-Bayón, J; Cavia-García, C
To assess the psychometric properties of the behavioral indicators of pain scale (ESCID) when applied to a wide range of medical and surgical critical patients. A multicentre, prospective observational study was designed to validate a scale measuring instrument. Twenty Intensive Care Units of 14 hospitals belonging to the Spanish National Health System. A total of 286 mechanically ventilated, unable to self-report critically ill medical and surgical adult patients. Pain levels were measured by two independent evaluators simultaneously, using two scales: ESCID and the behavioral pain scale (BPS). Pain was observed before, during, and after two painful procedures (turning, tracheal suctioning) and one non-painful procedure. ESCID reliability was measured on the basis of internal consistency using the Cronbach-α coefficient. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement were measured. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between ESCID and BPS. A total of 4386 observations were made in 286 patients (62% medical and 38% surgical). High correlation was found between ESCID and BPS (r=0.94-0.99; p<0.001), together with high intra-rater and inter-rater concordance. ESCID was internally reliable, with a Cronbach-α value of 0.85 (95%CI 0.81-0.88). Cronbach-α coefficients for ESCID domains were high: facial expression 0.87 (95%CI 0.84-0.89), calmness 0.84 (95%CI 0.81-0.87), muscle tone 0.80 (95%CI 0.75-0.84), compliance with mechanical ventilation 0.70 (95%CI 0.63-0.75) and consolability 0.85 (95%CI 0.81-0.88). ESCID is valid and reliable for measuring pain in mechanically ventilated unable to self-report medical and surgical critical care patients. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01744717. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Toledano, Mireille B; Auvinen, Anssi; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Cao, Yang; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Fremling, Karin; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Kojo, Katja; Knowles, Gemma; Smith, Rachel B; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Deltour, Isabelle; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Elliott, Paul; Hillert, Lena
This study investigates validity of self-reported mobile phone use in a subset of 75 993 adults from the COSMOS cohort study. Agreement between self-reported and operator-derived mobile call frequency and duration for a 3-month period was assessed using Cohen's weighted Kappa (κ). Sensitivity and specificity of both self-reported high (≥10 calls/day or ≥4h/week) and low (≤6 calls/week or phone use were calculated, as compared to operator data. For users of one mobile phone, agreement was fair for call frequency (κ=0.35, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.36) and moderate for call duration (κ=0.50, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.50). Self-reported low call frequency and duration demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and 76% respectively), but for high call frequency and duration sensitivity was lower (38% and 56% respectively), reflecting a tendency for greater underestimation than overestimation. Validity of self-reported mobile phone use was lower in women, younger age groups and those reporting symptoms during/shortly after using a mobile phone. This study highlights the ongoing value of using self-report data to measure mobile phone use. Furthermore, compared to continuous scale estimates used by previous studies, categorical response options used in COSMOS appear to improve validity considerably, most likely by preventing unrealistically high estimates from being reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cesarean section is the only surgery for which we have nearly global population-based data. However, few surveys provide additional data related to cesarean sections. Given weaknesses in many health information systems, health planners in developing countries will likely rely on nationally representative surveys for the foreseeable future. The objective is to validate self-reported data on the emergency status of cesarean sections among women delivering in teaching hospitals in the capitals of two contrasting countries: Accra, Ghana and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (DR. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study compares hospital-based data, considered the reference standard, against women's self-report for two definitions of emergency cesarean section based on the timing of the decision to operate and the timing of the cesarean section relative to onset of labor. Hospital data were abstracted from individual medical records, and hospital discharge interviews were conducted with women who had undergone cesarean section in two hospitals. The study assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of responses to questions regarding emergency versus non-emergency cesarean section and estimated the percent of emergency cesarean sections that would be obtained from a survey, given the observed prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity from this study. Hospital data were matched with exit interviews for 659 women delivered via cesarean section for Ghana and 1,531 for the Dominican Republic. In Ghana and the Dominican Republic, sensitivity and specificity for emergency cesarean section defined by decision time were 79% and 82%, and 50% and 80%, respectively. The validity of emergency cesarean defined by operation time showed less favorable results than decision time in Ghana and slightly more favorable results in the Dominican Republic. CONCLUSIONS: Questions used in this study to identify emergency cesarean section are promising
Wang, Yifan; Wu, Lingdan; Zhou, Hongli; Xu, Jiaojing; Dong, Guangheng
Internet search has become the most common way that people deal with issues and problems in everyday life. The wide use of Internet search has largely changed the way people search for and store information. There is a growing interest in the impact of Internet search on users' affect, cognition, and behavior. Thus, it is essential to develop a tool to measure the changes in psychological characteristics as a result of long-term use of Internet search. The aim of this study is to develop a Questionnaire on Internet Search Dependence (QISD) and test its reliability and validity. We first proposed a preliminary structure and items of the QISD based on literature review, supplemental investigations, and interviews. And then, we assessed the psychometric properties and explored the factor structure of the initial version via exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The EFA results indicated that four dimensions of the QISD were very reliable, i.e., habitual use of Internet search, withdrawal reaction, Internet search trust, and external storage under Internet search. Finally, we tested the factor solution obtained from EFA through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of CFA confirmed that the four dimensions model fits the data well. In all, this study suggests that the 12-item QISD is of high reliability and validity and can serve as a preliminary tool to measure the features of Internet search dependence.
Full Text Available Internet search has become the most common way that people deal with issues and problems in everyday life. The wide use of Internet search has largely changed the way people search for and store information. There is a growing interest in the impact of Internet search on users’ affect, cognition and behavior. Thus, it is essential to develop a tool to measure the changes in psychological characteristics as a result of long-term use of Internet search. The present study aimed to develop a Questionnaire on Internet Search Dependence (QISD, and test its reliability and validity. We first proposed a preliminary structure and items of the QISD based on literature review, supplemental investigations, and interviews. And then, we assessed the psychometric properties and explored the factor structure of the initial version via exploratory factor analysis (EFA. The EFA results indicated that four dimensions of the QISD were very reliable, i.e., habitual use of Internet search, withdrawal reaction, Internet search trust and external storage under Internet search. Lastly, we tested the factor solution obtained from EFA through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The results of CFA confirmed that the four dimensions model fits the data well. In all, the present study suggests that the 12-item QISD is of high reliability and validity, and can serve as a preliminary tool to measure the features of Internet search dependence.
Bucciardini, Raffaella; Pugliese, Katherina; Francisci, Daniela; Costantini, Andrea; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Cognigni, Miriam; Tontini, Chiara; Lucattini, Stefano; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Fragola, Vincenzo; Pompili, Sara; Murri, Rita; Vella, Stefano
To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items). The internal consistence reliability was for all factors within the minimum accepted standard of 0.70. The results of this study provide a preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ISS-HIV symptoms scale. In the new era where HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic diseases and patients are experiencing a complex range of symptoms, the ISS-HIV symptoms scale may represent an useful tool for a comprehensive symptom assessment with the advantage of being easy to fill out by patients and potentially attractive to physicians mainly because it is easy to understand and requires short time to interpret the results.
Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Brewer, Steve T
One third of all people will experience spinal pain in their lifetime and half of these will experience chronic pain. Pain often occurs in the context of a legally compensable event with back pain being the most common reason for filing a Workers Compensation claim in the United States. When financial incentives to appear disabled exist, malingered pain-related disability is a potential problem. Malingering may take the form of exaggerated physical, emotional, or cognitive symptoms and/or under-performance on measures of cognitive and physical capacity. Essential to the accurate detection of Malingered Pain-related Disability is the understanding that malingering is an act of will, the goal of which is to increase the appearance of disability beyond that which would naturally arise from the injury in question. This paper will review a number of Symptom Validity Tests (SVTs) that have been developed to detect malingering in patients claiming pain-related disability and will conclude with a review of studies showing the diagnostic benefit of combining SVT findings from a comprehensive malingering assessment. The utilization of a variety of tools sensitive to the multiple manifestations of malingering increases the odds of detecting invalid claims while reducing the risk of rejecting a valid claim.
Kaartina, Sanker; Chin, Yit Siew; Fara Wahida, Rezali; Woon, Fui Chee; Hiew, Chu Chien; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib
The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scales (PedsQL) 4.0 is a generalized assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) based on adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report. This study aims to determine the construct validity and reliability of PedsQL 4.0 among a sample of Malaysian adolescents and parents. A cross-sectional study was carried out at three selected public schools in the state of Selangor. A total of 379 Malaysian adolescents completed the PedsQL 4.0 adolescent self-report and 218 (55.9%) parents completed the PedsQL 4.0 parent proxy-report. Weight and height of adolescents were measured and BMI-for-age by sex was used to determine their body weight status. There were 50.8% male and 49.2% female adolescents who participated in this study (14.25 ± 1.23 years). The prevalence of overweight and obesity (25.8%) was four times higher than the prevalence of severe thinness and thinness (6.1%). Construct validity was analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Based on CFA, adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report met the criteria of convergent validity (factor loading > 0.5, Average Variance Extracted (AVE) > 0.5, Construct Reliability > 0.7) and showed good fit to the data. The adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report exhibited discriminant validity as the AVE values were larger than the R(2) values. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the adolescent self-report (α = 0.862) and parent proxy-report (α = 0.922) showed these instruments are reliable. Parents perceived the HRQoL of adolescents was poorer compared to the perception of the adolescent themselves (t = 5.92, p 0.05). Parent proxy-report was negatively associated with the adolescents' BMI-for-age (r = -0.152, p 0.05). Adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report of the PedsQL 4.0 are valid and reliable to assess HRQoL of Malaysian adolescents. Future studies are recommended to use both adolescent self-report and parent-proxy report of HRQoL as
Rim, Hwayoung; Lee, Kunsei; Chang, Sounghoon; Hovell, Melbourne F; Kim, Young-Taek; Kim, Yuna; Kang, Gilwon; Tak, Yangju; Im, Jeehye
To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Community Health Survey (CHS), we analyzed data from 11,217 participants aged ≥ 19 yr, in 13 cities and counties in 2008. Three healthcare utilization indices (admission, outpatient visits, dental visits) as comparative variables and the insurance benefit claim data of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service as the gold-standard were used. The sensitivities of admission, outpatient visits, and dental visits in CHS were 54.8%, 52.1%, and 61.0%, respectively. The specificities were 96.4%, 85.6%, and 82.7%, respectively. This is the first study to evaluate the validity of nationwide health statistics resulting from questionnaire surveys and shows that CHS needs a lot of efforts to reflect the true health status, health behavior, and healthcare utilization of the population. PMID:22065895
Denis, A; Séjourné, N; Callahan, S
Self-esteem is defined as the opinion of one's self that one establishes and maintains during the lifetime. Self-esteem is considered to be based on general as well as specific elements that define the individual's identity. Whereas overall self-esteem evolves over the lifespan, specific elements change regularly and thus have an impact on these specific types of self-esteem. Maternity is a central defining element of a woman's life, and it is believed that a woman can develop a specific self-esteem based on her experience of motherhood. Many studies have shown how overall self-esteem is affected during the perinatal period, and the relationship between self-esteem and other variables, notably post-partum depression. The objective of this study was to translate, evaluate, and validate the short version of the Maternal Self-Esteem Inventory (MSI, Shea & Tronick in 1988) for use in French populations. The MSI short form is a 26-item questionnaire using a Likert response format in five points. The sample was composed of 251 French female participants (mean age 30; SD=4.52) who had given birth two days earlier. Participants completed the MSI and the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale (EDPS). The results of a factorial analysis showed five factors which partially correspond to the original English version of the MSI short form. These five factors were negatively correlated to the EPDS. The five factors showed good to excellent internal consistency. The current study provides a translated and validated version of the MSI short form in French. It provides a specific indicator of self-esteem with regards to motherhood and the experience of maternity. The MSI can provide useful data that can help identify women at risk for negative feelings about themselves, which can lead later to manifestations of perinatal psychopathology (e.g, post-partum depression). Copyright © 2012 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie
This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Lim, Lynette Ly; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian
Large-scale epidemiological studies commonly use self-reported weights and heights to determine weight status. Validity of such self-reported data has been assessed primarily in Western populations in developed countries, although its use is widespread in developing countries. We examine the validity of obesity based on self-reported data in an Asian developing country, and derive improved obesity prevalence estimates using the "reduced BMI threshold" method. Self-reported and measured heights and weights were obtained from 741 students attending an open university in Thailand (mean age 34 years). Receiver operator characteristic techniques were applied to derive "reduced BMI thresholds." Height was over-reported by a mean of 1.54 cm (SD 2.23) in men and 1.33 cm (1.84) in women. Weight was under-reported by 0.93 kg (3.47) in men and 0.62 kg (2.14) in women. Sensitivity and specificity for determining obesity (Thai BMI threshold 25 kg/m2) using self-reported data were 74.2% and 97.3%, respectively, for men and 71.9% and 100% for women. For men, reducing the BMI threshold to 24.5 kg/m2 increased the estimated obesity prevalence based on self-reports from 29.1% to 33.8% (true prevalence was 36.9%). For women, using a BMI threshold of 24.4 kg/m2, the improvement was from 12.0% to 15.9% (true prevalence 16.7%). Young educated Thais under-report weight and over-report height in ways similar to their counterparts in developed countries. Simple adjustments to BMI thresholds will overcome these reporting biases for estimation of obesity prevalence. Our study suggests that self-reported weights and heights can provide economical and valid measures of weight status in high school-educated populations in developing countries.
Full Text Available Thanita Hiranyatheb,1 Ratana Saipanish,1 Manote Lotrakul,1 Rungthip Prasertchai,1 Wanwisa Ketkaew,1 Sudawan Jullagate,1 Umaporn Udomsubpayakul,2 Pichaya Kusalaruk1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Section for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: The self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS has been developed to overcome the limitations of the clinician-administered version, which needs to be executed by trained personnel and is time consuming. The second edition of the Y-BOCS (Y-BOCS-II was developed to address some limitations of the original version. However, there is no self-report version of the Y-BOCS-II at the moment. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the developed Thai self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-SR-T. Patients and methods: Y-BOCS-II-SR-T was developed from the Thai version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-T. The Y-BOCS-II-SR-T, the Y-BOCS-II-T, the Thai version of the Florida Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory (FOCI-T, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, and the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL instrument were administered to 52 obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD patients. Internal consistency for the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T was calculated with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α, and the factor analyses were completed. Pearson’s correlation was used in determining convergent and divergent validity among the other measures. Results: The mean score of the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total score was 20.71±11.16. The internal consistencies of the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total scores, the obsession subscale, and the compulsion subscale scores were excellent (α=0
Lind, Ragna; Berstad, Arnold; Hatlebakk, Jan; Valeur, Jørgen
Patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) suffer from several health complaints, including fatigue. The aim of the present study was to validate a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), and to assess the impact of fatigue in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, as compared with healthy controls. Thirty-eight patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, who participated in the validation of the FIS completed the following additional questionnaires: the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index for assessment of quality of life, the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory, and questionnaires for diagnosis and severity of IBS. Impact of fatigue was studied in 43 patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity, 70% diagnosed with IBS, and 42 healthy controls. Cronbach's α for the FIS was 0.98, indicating excellent agreement between individual items. Scores on the FIS correlated with scores on the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index (r = 0.50, P = 0.001), indicating good convergent validity, and were higher in patients (median 85.0, interquartile range 36.8-105.3) than in controls (median 14.0, interquartile range 3.0-29.0, P ≤ 0.0001). The Norwegian translation of the FIS performed excellently in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, with patients reporting significantly more impact of chronic fatigue than healthy controls.
Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Felipe; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Epstein, Jonathan; Novaes, Priscila
To provide a reliable, validated, and culturally adapted instrument that may be used in monitoring dry eye in Brazilian patients and to discuss the strategies for the enhancement of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of a self-report measure for dry eye. The cross-cultural adaptation process (CCAP) of the original Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) into Brazilian-Portuguese was conducted using a 9-step guideline. The synthesis of translations was tested twice, for face and content validity, by different subjects (focus groups and cognitive interviews). The expert committee contributed on several steps, and back translations were based on the final rather than the prefinal version. For validation, the adapted version was applied in a prospective longitudinal study to 101 patients from the Dry Eye Clinic at the General Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Simultaneously to the OSDI, patients answered the short form-36 health survey (SF-36) and the 25-item visual function questionnaire (VFQ-25) and underwent clinical evaluation. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and measure validity were assessed. Cronbach's alpha value of the cross-culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI was 0.905, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.801. There was a statistically significant difference between OSDI scores in patients with dry eye (41.15 ± 27.40) and without dry eye (17.88 ± 17.09). There was a negative association between OSDI and VFQ-25 total score (P adaptation process requires skill, knowledge, experience, and a considerable investment of time to maximize the attainment of semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence between the source and target questionnaires. A well-established guideline resulted in a culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI, tested and validated on a sample of Brazilian population, and proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis
Self-report surveys are widely used to measure adolescent risk behavior and academic adjustment, with results having an impact on national policy, assessment of school quality, and evaluation of school interventions. However, data obtained from self-reports can be distorted when adolescents intentionally provide inaccurate or careless responses.…
Newman, Michelle G.; Holmes, Marilyn; Zuellig, Andrea R.; Kachin, Kevin E.; Behar, Evelyn
This study examined the Panic Disorder Self-Report (PDSR), a new self-report diagnostic measure of panic disorder based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). PDSR diagnoses were compared with structured interview diagnoses of individuals with generalized anxiety…
Kiatrungrit, Komsan; Putthisri, Suwannee; Hongsanguansri, Sirichai; Wisajan, Pattaraporn; Jullagate, Sudawan
The adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Thai version (ASRS-V1.1) (18 items) is a questionnaire for screening adult ADHD. To test the validity and reliability of the 18-question ASRS-V1.1 Thai version (ASRS-V1.1 TH) as a screening tool for adult ADHD. The original 18-question ASRS-V1.1 version was translated into Thai. The process was composed of forward-translation, synthesis of the translation, and back translation. Cross cultural adaptation, field testing, and final adjustment were completed consecutively. The 18-question ASRS-V1.1 TH were sent to 1,500 parents of kindergarten and elementary school students in Bangkok, Thailand. The diagnostic interview was randomly selected for 50 parents from the positive result group and 50 parents from the negative result group. The clinical interview for confirming diagnosis was run by 3 psychiatrists who were blinded to the results and used DSM-5 ADHD criteria for diagnosis. The 18-question ASRS-V1.1 TH had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92: Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 for inattentive scale, Cronbach's alpha = 0.84 for hyperactive / impulsive scale). For testing the criteria validity, the questionnaire has an adequate. The AUC from the first 6 questions was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-0.92) while from the 18 questions was 0.71(95% CI: 0.55-0.86). The 18-question ASRS-V1.1TH is a psychometrically reliable and valid measure for screening adult ADHD in Thai clinical samples, especially the first 6 questions of the questionnaire.
Shin, Hyunsook; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Hyojin
The lack of reliable and valid evaluation tools targeting Korean nursing students' critical thinking (CT) abilities has been reported as one of the barriers to instructing and evaluating students in undergraduate programs. Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition (YCTD) instrument was developed for Korean nursing students, but few studies have assessed its validity. This study aimed to validate the YCTD. Specifically, the YCTD was assessed to identify its cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement invariance. This was a validation study in which a cross-sectional and longitudinal (prenursing and postnursing practicum) survey was used to validate the YCTD using 345 nursing students at three universities in Seoul, Korea. The participants' CT abilities were assessed using the YCTD before and after completing an established pediatric nursing practicum. The validity of the YCTD was estimated and then group invariance test using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to confirm the measurement compatibility of multigroups. A test of the seven-factor model showed that the YCTD demonstrated good construct validity. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis findings for the measurement invariance suggested that this model structure demonstrated strong invariance between groups (i.e., configural, factor loading, and intercept combined) but weak invariance within a group (i.e., configural and factor loading combined). In general, traditional methods for assessing instrument validity have been less than thorough. In this study, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis using cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement data allowed validation of the YCTD. This study concluded that the YCTD can be used for evaluating Korean nursing students' CT abilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Heritage, Brody; Pollock, Clare; Roberts, Lynne
Organizational culture is a commonly studied area in industrial/organizational psychology due to its important role in workplace behaviour, cognitions, and outcomes. Jung et al.'s  review of the psychometric properties of organizational culture measurement instruments noted many instruments have limited validation data despite frequent use in both theoretical and applied situations. The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) has had conflicting data regarding its psychometric properties, particularly regarding its factor structure. Our study examined the factor structure and criterion validity of the OCAI using robust analysis methods on data gathered from 328 (females = 226, males = 102) Australian employees. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four factor structure of the OCAI for both ideal and current organizational culture perspectives. Current organizational culture data demonstrated expected reciprocally-opposed relationships between three of the four OCAI factors and the outcome variable of job satisfaction but ideal culture data did not, thus indicating possible weak criterion validity when the OCAI is used to assess ideal culture. Based on the mixed evidence regarding the measure's properties, further examination of the factor structure and broad validity of the measure is encouraged. PMID:24667839
Full Text Available Organizational culture is a commonly studied area in industrial/organizational psychology due to its important role in workplace behaviour, cognitions, and outcomes. Jung et al.'s  review of the psychometric properties of organizational culture measurement instruments noted many instruments have limited validation data despite frequent use in both theoretical and applied situations. The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI has had conflicting data regarding its psychometric properties, particularly regarding its factor structure. Our study examined the factor structure and criterion validity of the OCAI using robust analysis methods on data gathered from 328 (females = 226, males = 102 Australian employees. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four factor structure of the OCAI for both ideal and current organizational culture perspectives. Current organizational culture data demonstrated expected reciprocally-opposed relationships between three of the four OCAI factors and the outcome variable of job satisfaction but ideal culture data did not, thus indicating possible weak criterion validity when the OCAI is used to assess ideal culture. Based on the mixed evidence regarding the measure's properties, further examination of the factor structure and broad validity of the measure is encouraged.
Hernández-Garbanzo, Yenory; Brosh, Joanne; Serrano, Elena L; Cason, Katherine L; Bhattarai, Ranju
To identify the psychometric properties of evaluation instruments that measure mediators of dietary behaviors in school-aged children. Systematic search of scientific databases limited to 1999-2010. Psychometric properties related to development and testing of self-report instruments for children 8-12 years old. Systematic search of 189 articles and review of 15 instruments (20 associated articles) meeting the inclusion criteria. Search terms used included children, school, nutrition, diet, nutrition education, and evaluation. Fourteen studies used a theoretical framework to guide the instrument's development. Knowledge and self-efficacy were the most commonly used psychosocial measures. Twelve instruments focused on specific nutrition-related behaviors. Eight instruments included over 40 items and used age-appropriate response formats. Acceptable reliability properties were most commonly reported for attitude and self-efficacy measures. Although most of the instruments were reviewed by experts (n = 8) and/or pilot-tested (n = 9), only 7 were tested using both rigorous types of validity and with low-income youth. Results from this review suggest that additional research is needed to develop more robust psychosocial measures for dietary behaviors, for low-income youth audiences. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Bosnian version of the international self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, is reliable and valid in a variety of different adult samples affected by war
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess the internal consistency and discriminant and convergent validity of the Bosnian version of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PTDS. The PTDS yields both a PTSD diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV and a measure of symptom severity. Methods 812 people living in Sarajevo or in Banja Luka in Bosnia-Herzegovina, of whom the majority had experienced a high number of traumatic war events, were administered the PTDS and other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and principal components analysis, and its construct validity was assessed via Spearman correlation coefficients with the other instruments. Results The PTDS and its subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. The principal components revealed by an exploratory analysis are broadly consistent with the DSM-IV subscales except that they reproduce some previously reported difficulties with the "numbing" items from the avoidance subscale. The construct validity of the PTDS was supported by appropriate correlations with other relevant measures of trauma related psychopathology. Conclusion The Bosnian version of the PTDS thus appears to be a time-economic and psychometrically sound measure for screening and assessing current PTSD. This self-report measure awaits further validation by interview methods.
Terluin, B.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Ader, H.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hermens, M.L.M.; van Boeijen, C.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Stalman, W.A.B.
Background: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity.
Kelly, Glenn; Simpson, Grahame K; Brown, Suzanne; Kremer, Peter; Gillett, Lauren
The objectives were to test the properties, via a psychometric study, of the Overt Behaviour Scale-Self-Report (OBS-SR), a version of the OBS-Adult Scale developed to provide a client perspective on challenging behaviours after acquired brain injury. Study sample 1 consisted of 37 patients with primary brain tumour (PBT) and a family-member informant. Sample 2 consisted of 34 clients with other acquired brain injury (mixed brain injury, MBI) and a service-provider informant. Participants completed the OBS-SR (at two time points), and the Awareness Questionnaire (AQ) and Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-III (MPAI-III) once; informants completed the OBS-Adult and AQ once only. PBT-informant dyads displayed "good" levels of agreement (ICC 2,k = .74; OBS-SR global index). Although MBI-informant dyads displayed no agreement (ICC 2,k = .22; OBS-SR global index), the sub-group (17/29) rated by clinicians as having moderate to good levels of awareness displayed "fair" agreement (ICC 2,k = .58; OBS-SR global index). Convergent/divergent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between OBS-SR subscales and MPAI-III subscales with behavioural content (coefficients in the range .36 -.61). Scores had good reliability across one week (ICC 2,k = .69). The OBS-SR took approximately 15 minutes to complete. It was concluded that the OBS-SR demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity, providing a useful resource in understanding clients' perspectives about their behaviour.
Duncan Mitch J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial configurations of office environments assessed by Space Syntax methodologies are related to employee movement patterns. These methods require analysis of floors plans which are not readily available in large population-based studies or otherwise unavailable. Therefore a self-report instrument to assess spatial configurations of office environments using four scales was developed. Methods The scales are: local connectivity (16 items, overall connectivity (11 items, visibility of co-workers (10 items, and proximity of co-workers (5 items. A panel cohort (N = 1154 completed an online survey, only data from individuals employed in office-based occupations (n = 307 were used to assess scale measurement properties. To assess test-retest reliability a separate sample of 37 office-based workers completed the survey on two occasions 7.7 (±3.2 days apart. Redundant scale items were eliminated using factor analysis; Chronbach’s α was used to evaluate internal consistency and test re-test reliability (retest-ICC. ANOVA was employed to examine differences between office types (Private, Shared, Open as a measure of construct validity. Generalized Linear Models were used to examine relationships between spatial configuration scales and the duration of and frequency of breaks in occupational sitting. Results The number of items on all scales were reduced, Chronbach’s α and ICCs indicated good scale internal consistency and test re-test reliability: local connectivity (5 items; α = 0.70; retest-ICC = 0.84, overall connectivity (6 items; α = 0.86; retest-ICC = 0.87, visibility of co-workers (4 items; α = 0.78; retest-ICC = 0.86, and proximity of co-workers (3 items; α = 0.85; retest-ICC = 0.70. Significant (p ≤ 0.001 differences, in theoretically expected directions, were observed for all scales between office types, except overall connectivity. Significant associations were
Jensen, M P; Widerström-Noga, E; Richards, J S
To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials....
Hunsberger, Monica; Pena, Pablo; Lissner, Lauren; Grafström, Lisen; Vanaelst, Barbara; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Eiben, Gabriele
Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day's school lunch reported by 6-8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child's intake of the previous day's lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children's recalls and teachers' records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6-8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson's correlations r=0.92, pteacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Children 6-8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake
Roberta Gabriela Pimenta da Silva Araújo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of information on pre-gestational weight, height, pre-gestational body mass index, and weight at the last prenatal appointment, according to maternal characteristics and sociodemographic and prenatal variables. METHODS The study was developed using data from the face-to-face questionnaire and prenatal card (gold standard of the study “Birth in Brazil, 2011–2012”. To evaluate the differences between the measured and self-reported anthropometric variables, we used the the Kruskal-Wallis test for the variables divided into quartiles. For the continuous variables, we used the Wilcoxon test, Bland-Altman plot, and average difference between the information measured and reported by the women. We estimated sensitivity and the intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS In the study, 17,093 women had the prenatal card. There was an underestimation of pre-gestational weight of 1.51 kg (SD = 3.44 and body mass index of 0.79 kg/m2 (SD = 1.72 and overestimation of height of 0.75 cm (SD = 3.03 and weight at the last appointment of 0.22 kg (SD = 2.09. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC obtained for the anthropometric variables were: height (ICC = 0.89, pre-gestational weight (ICC = 0.96, pre-gestational body mass index (ICC = 0.92, and weight at the last appointment (ICC = 0.98. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that the mentioned anthropometric variables were valid for the study population, and they may be used in studies of populations with similar characteristics.
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a method of classifying comorbid conditions that accounts for both the severity and joint effects of the diseases. The Tromsø Study is a cohort study with a longitudinal design utilizing a survey approach with physical examinations in the Tromsø municipality from 1974 to 2008, where in total 40051 subjects participated. We used Tromsø 4 as reference population and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (FHI panel as validation population. Ordinal regression was used to assess the effect of comorbid disease on Self-Reported Health (SRH. The model is controlled for interaction between diseases, mental health, age, and gender. The health impact index estimated levels of SRH. The comparison of predicted and observed SRH showed no significant differences. Spearman's correlation showed that increasing levels of comorbidity were related to lower levels of SRH (RS = -0.36, p <.001. The Charlson Comorbidity Index(CCI was also associated with SRH (r = -.25, p <.001. When focusing on only individuals with a comorbid disease, the relation between SRH and the Health Impact Index (HII was strengthened (r = -.42, p <.001, while the association between SRH and CCI was attenuated (r = -.14, p <.001. CCI was designed to control for comorbid conditions when survival/mortality is the outcome of interest but is inaccurate when the outcome is SRH. We conclude that HII should be used when SRH is not available, and well-being or quality of survival/life is the outcome of interest.
Bond, Jason C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Patterson, Deidre; Kerr, William C
Prior studies adjusting self-reported measures of alcohol intake for drink size and ethanol (EtOH) content have relied on single-point assessments. A prospective 28-day diary study investigated magnitudes of drink-EtOH adjustments and factors associated with these adjustments. Transdermal alcohol sensor (TAS) readings and prediction of alcohol-related problems by number of drinks versus EtOH-adjusted intake were used to validate drink-EtOH adjustments. Self-completed event diaries listed up to 4 beverage types and 4 drinking events/d. Eligible volunteers had ≥ weekly drinking and ≥3+ drinks per occasion with ≥26 reported days and pre- and postsummary measures (n = 220). Event reports included drink types, sizes, brands or spirits contents, venues, drinks consumed, and drinking duration. Wine drinks averaged 1.19, beer 1.09, and spirits 1.54 U.S. standard drinks (14 g EtOH). Mean-adjusted alcohol intake was 22% larger using drink size and strength (brand/EtOH concentration) data. Adjusted drink levels were larger than "raw" drinks in all quantity ranges. Individual-level drink-EtOH adjustment ratios (EtOH adjusted/unadjusted amounts) averaged across all days drinking ranged from 0.73 to 3.33 (mean 1.22). Adjustment ratio was only marginally (and not significantly) positively related to usual quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking (all ps alcohol dependence symptoms (p Alcoholism.
Mireku, Michael O; Mueller, William; Fleming, Charlotte; Chang, Irene; Dumontheil, Iroise; Thomas, Michael S C; Eeftens, Marloes; Elliott, Paul; Röösli, Martin; Toledano, Mireille B
Mobile phone use, predominantly smartphones, is almost ubiquitous amongst both adults and children. However adults and children have different usage patterns. A major challenge with research on mobile phone use is the reliability of self-reported phone activity for accurate exposure assessment. We investigated the agreement between self-reported mobile phone use data and objective mobile operator traffic data in a subset of adolescents aged 11-12 years participating in the Study of Cognition, Adolescents and Mobile Phones (SCAMP) cohort. We examined self-reported mobile phone use, including call frequency, cumulative call time duration and text messages sent among adolescents from SCAMP and matched these data with records provided by mobile network operators (n = 350). The extent of agreement between self-reported mobile phone use and mobile operator traffic data use was evaluated using Cohen's weighted Kappa (ĸ) statistics. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported low ( 30min of call/day or ≥ 11 text messages sent /day) use were estimated. Agreement between self-reported mobile phone use and mobile operator traffic data was highest for the duration spent talking on mobile phones per day on weekdays (38.9%) and weekends (29.4%) compared to frequency of calls and number of text messages sent. Adolescents overestimated their mobile phone use during weekends compared to weekdays. Analysis of agreement showed little difference overall between the sexes and socio-economic groups. Weighted kappa between self-reported and mobile operator traffic data for call frequency during weekdays was κ = 0.12, 95% CI 0.06-0.18. Of the three modes of mobile phone use measured in the questionnaire, call frequency was the most sensitive for low mobile phone users on weekdays and weekends (77.1, 95% CI: 69.3-83.7 and 72.0, 95% CI: 65.0-78.4, respectively). Specificity was moderate to high for high users with the highest for call frequency during weekdays (98.4, 95% CI: 96
Full Text Available Ragna Lind,1 Arnold Berstad,2 Jan Hatlebakk,1,3 Jørgen Valeur21Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, 2Unger-Vetlesen Institute, Department of Medicine, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, NorwayBackground: Patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS suffer from several health complaints, including fatigue. The aim of the present study was to validate a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS, and to assess the impact of fatigue in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, as compared with healthy controls.Methods: Thirty-eight patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, who participated in the validation of the FIS completed the following additional questionnaires: the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index for assessment of quality of life, the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory, and questionnaires for diagnosis and severity of IBS. Impact of fatigue was studied in 43 patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity, 70% diagnosed with IBS, and 42 healthy controls.Results: Cronbach's α for the FIS was 0.98, indicating excellent agreement between individual items. Scores on the FIS correlated with scores on the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index (r = 0.50, P = 0.001, indicating good convergent validity, and were higher in patients (median 85.0, interquartile range 36.8–105.3 than in controls (median 14.0, interquartile range 3.0–29.0, P ≤0.0001.Conclusion: The Norwegian translation of the FIS performed excellently in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, with patients reporting significantly more impact of chronic fatigue than healthy controls.Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, fatigue, food hypersensitivity, quality of life
Stice, E; Telch, C F; Rizvi, S L
This article describes the development and validation of a brief self-report scale for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Study 1 used a panel of eating-disorder experts and provided evidence for the content validity of this scale. Study 2 used data from female participants with and without eating disorders (N = 367) and suggested that the diagnoses from this scale possessed temporal reliability (mean kappa = .80) and criterion validity (with interview diagnoses; mean kappa = .83). In support of convergent validity, individuals with eating disorders identified by this scale showed elevations on validated measures of eating disturbances. The overall symptom composite also showed test-retest reliability (r = .87), internal consistency (mean alpha = .89), and convergent validity with extant eating-pathology scales. Results implied that this scale was reliable and valid in this investigation and that it may be useful for clinical and research applications.
Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.
Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…
Burkhart, Barry R.
Seventy-five subjects, who spanned the range of assertiveness, completed two self-report measures of assertiveness, eight role-playing situations involving positive and negative assertiveness, and a telephone in-vivo task. Correlations between the three measurement methods were examined. (Author/SJL)
QUIROZ, Viviana; REINERO, Daniela; HERNÁNDEZ, Patricia; CONTRERAS, Johanna; VERNAL, Rolando; CARVAJAL, Paola
Abstract The major infectious diseases in Chile encompass the periodontal diseases, with a combined prevalence that rises up to 90% of the population. Thus, the population-based surveillance of periodontal diseases plays a central role for assessing their prevalence and for planning, implementing, and evaluating preventive and control programs. Self-report questionnaires have been proposed for the surveillance of periodontal diseases in adult populations world-wide. Objective This study aimed to develop and assess the content validity and reliability of a cognitively adapted self-report questionnaire designed for surveillance of gingivitis in adolescents. Material and Methods Ten predetermined self-report questions evaluating early signs and symptoms of gingivitis were preliminary assessed by a panel of clinical experts. Eight questions were selected and cognitively tested in 20 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from Santiago de Chile. The questionnaire was then conducted and answered by 178 Chilean adolescents. Internal consistency was measured using the Cronbach’s alpha and temporal stability was calculated using the Kappa-index. Results A reliable final self-report questionnaire consisting of 5 questions was obtained, with a total Cronbach’s alpha of 0.73 and a Kappa-index ranging from 0.41 to 0.77 between the different questions. Conclusions The proposed questionnaire is reliable, with an acceptable internal consistency and a temporal stability from moderate to substantial, and it is promising for estimating the prevalence of gingivitis in adolescents. PMID:28877279
Full Text Available Abstract The major infectious diseases in Chile encompass the periodontal diseases, with a combined prevalence that rises up to 90% of the population. Thus, the population-based surveillance of periodontal diseases plays a central role for assessing their prevalence and for planning, implementing, and evaluating preventive and control programs. Self-report questionnaires have been proposed for the surveillance of periodontal diseases in adult populations world-wide. Objective This study aimed to develop and assess the content validity and reliability of a cognitively adapted self-report questionnaire designed for surveillance of gingivitis in adolescents. Material and Methods Ten predetermined self-report questions evaluating early signs and symptoms of gingivitis were preliminary assessed by a panel of clinical experts. Eight questions were selected and cognitively tested in 20 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from Santiago de Chile. The questionnaire was then conducted and answered by 178 Chilean adolescents. Internal consistency was measured using the Cronbach’s alpha and temporal stability was calculated using the Kappa-index. Results A reliable final self-report questionnaire consisting of 5 questions was obtained, with a total Cronbach’s alpha of 0.73 and a Kappa-index ranging from 0.41 to 0.77 between the different questions. Conclusions The proposed questionnaire is reliable, with an acceptable internal consistency and a temporal stability from moderate to substantial, and it is promising for estimating the prevalence of gingivitis in adolescents.
Makama Andries Monyeki
Full Text Available Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of chronic lifestyle-related diseases. The development of valid instruments for the assessment of physical activity remains a challenge in field studies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the level of agreement between physical activity objectively measured by the ActiHeart® (Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd, Cambridge, UK device and subjectively reported physical activity by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF among adolescents attending schools in the Tlokwe Local Municipality, South Africa. A cross-sectional study design was used with a total of 63 boys and 45 girls aged 15 years who took part in the Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PHALS. Stature and weight were measured according to standard International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK protocols. Objective physical activity (PA was measured by a combined heart rate and accelerometer device (ActiHeart® for seven consecutive days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA was assessed. Subjective physical activity was assessed with the self-reported IPAQ-SF. Objective PA indicated that 93% of the participants were inactive and only 6% were highly active. The IPAQ-SF showed that 24% were inactive, with 57% active. A non-significant correlation (r = 0.11; p = 0.29 between the ActiHeart® measure of activity energy expenditure (AEE and total physical activity (IPAQ-SF was observed. The Bland–Altman plot showed no agreement between the two measurement instruments and also a variation in the level of equivalence. When Cohen’s kappa (κ was run to determine the agreement between the two measurement instruments for estimated physical activity, a poor agreement (κ = 0.011, p < 0.005 between the two was found. The poor level of agreement between the objective measure of physical activity (ActiHeart® and
Rassenhofer, Miriam; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Plener, Paul L; Witt, Andreas
The German care system faces a growing number of unaccompanied refugee minors (URM). URM show high levels of traumatization, a variety of psychological symptoms and lack important resilience factors. Therefore an early and valid psychological assessment is important for intervention and service planning. Yet, no systematic review on validated instruments for the assessment of this group exists. Literature search revealed one study about translators in the assessment of URM and five validated instruments for proxy and self-report. These instruments are available in several languages and showed good psychometric properties. It has to be critically stated that all instruments have been validated by a single work group within a single population. Especially with regards to changing definitions of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder within the new (and upcoming) classification systems ICD-11 and DSM-5, increased awareness for diagnostic procedures is necessary. Additionally, more validated instruments for specific psychological disorders in multiple languages are needed. Under an economic perspective the use of open access questionnaires that are available in different languages seems useful, even if they are not especially validated for URM.
Hawley, Rachael; Madden, Rosamond H; Brentnall, Jennie; Serratore, Deborah; Grant, Samantha; Luft, Inbal; Bundy, Anita
To examine the usability of the self-report instrument, Your Ideas about Participation and Environment (YIPE), among adults with a brain injury by exploring the value and acceptability of the instrument. A qualitative descriptive research design was used for the purpose of testing and developing the YIPE for use among adults with a brain injury. The study involved administering the YIPE followed by in-depth interviewing about the experience of taking the instrument with seven adults with a brain injury, recruited through a community-based support service organization. A descriptive thematic approach was used to analyse the content of the interview data, categorize common ideas and identify areas for improvement within the instrument. Participants were generally positive about the importance of the participation and environment topics and willing to engage in self report. The YIPE (2012), resulting from changes made to the language and structure, was found to be more useable, valued and accepted by these participants than the previous version, YIPE (2011). The YIPE was found to be a useful tool among study participants. The YIPE topics were found to have importance and relevance when considering participants' satisfaction with areas of life and aspects of environment requiring change. More development of the tool is required in terms of the wording, format and method of administration to improve the overall usability of the instrument. Implications for Rehabilitation The preliminary results from this small sample study illustrated that people with brain injury were able to use an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-based tool, and confirmed the importance of considering both participation and the environment together. People with cognitive impairments associated with brain injury reported on areas of everyday life where they were satisfied or dissatisfied. They related their satisfaction to environmental factors that were facilitators
Kluemper, Donald H; McLarty, Benjamin D; Bing, Mark N
It is widely established that the Big Five personality traits of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability are antecedents to workplace deviance (Berry, Ones, & Sackett, 2007). However, these meta-analytic findings are based on self-reported personality traits. A recent meta-analysis by Oh, Wang, and Mount (2011) identified the value of acquaintance-reported personality in the prediction of job performance. The current investigation extends prior work by comparing the validities of self- and acquaintance-reported personality in the prediction of workplace deviance across 2 studies. We also hypothesized and tested an interactive, value-added integration of self- with acquaintance-reported personality using socioanalytic personality theory (R. T. Hogan, 1991). Both studies assessed self- and acquaintance-rated Big Five traits, along with supervisor-rated workplace deviance. However, the studies varied the measures of workplace deviance, and the 2nd study also included a self-rated workplace deviance criterion for additional comparison. Across both studies, the traits of conscientiousness and agreeableness were strong predictors of workplace deviance, and acquaintance-reported personality provided incremental validity beyond self-reports. Additionally, acquaintance-reported conscientiousness and agreeableness moderated the prediction of workplace deviance by interacting with the corresponding self-reported traits. Implications for personality theory and measurement are discussed along with applications for practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Smith, Chris; Edwards, Phil; Free, Caroline
A variety of different approaches to measuring contraceptive use have been used or proposed, either to assess current use or adherence over time, using subjective or objective measures. This paper reports an overview of approaches to measuring adherence to the oral contraceptive, intra-uterine device, sub-dermal implant, and injectable and describes how we assessed contraception use in the MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) trial in Cambodia. We summarise and discuss advantages and disadvantages of different subjective and objective approaches to measuring adherence to the oral contraceptive, intra-uterine device, sub-dermal implant, and injectable such as self-reports, clinic records, electronic monitoring devices, clinical examination and biomarkers. For the MOTIF trial, we did not consider it feasible to measure objective contraception use as many participants lived a long distance from the clinic and we were concerned whether it was appropriate to ask women to return to clinic for a physical examination simply to verify self-report information already provided. We aimed to assess the validity of the four-month data with 50 participants, calculating the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported data compared with objective measurement. For the 46 valid measurements obtained, the sensitivity and specificity was 100% for self-reported contraception use compared to objective measurement but this study had some limitations. To assess reliability of self-report data we compared calendar data collected on effective contraception use at months 1-4 post-abortion, collected separately at four and 12 months. Agreement ranged from 80 to 84% with a kappa statistic ranging from 0·59 to 0·67 indicating fair to good agreement. There is no perfect method of assessing contraception use and researchers designing future studies should give consideration of what to measure, for example current use or detailed patterns of use over time, and remain mindful
Myrtveit Solbjørg Makalani
Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of disability pensions, sickness certification and long-term health related benefits are often self-reported in epidemiological studies. Few studies have examined these measures, and the validity is yet to be established. We aimed to estimate the validity of self-reported disability pension, rehabilitation benefit and retirement pension and to explore the benefit status and basic characteristics of those not responding to these items. A large health survey (HUNT2 containing self-reported questionnaire data on sickness benefits and pensions was linked to a national registry of pensions and benefits, used as “gold standard” for the analysis. We investigated two main sources of bias in self-reported data; misclassification - due to participants answering questions incorrectly, and systematic missing/selection bias - when participants do not respond to the questions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative (NPV predicative value, agreement and Cohen’s Kappa were calculated for each benefit. Co-variables were compared between non-responders and responders. Results In the study-population of 40,633, 9.2% reported receiving disability pension, 1.4% rehabilitation benefits and 6.1% retirement pension. According to the registry, the corresponding numbers were 9.0%, 1.7% and 5.4%. Excluding non-responders, specificity, NPV and agreement were above 98% for all benefits. Sensitivity and PPV were lower. When including non-responders as non-receivers, specificity got higher, sensitivity dropped while the other measures changed less. Between 17.7% and 24.1% did not answer the questions on benefits. Non-responders were older and more likely to be female. They reported more anxiety, more depression, a higher number of somatic diagnoses, less physical activity and lower consumption of alcohol (p Conclusions The validity of self-reported data on disability pension, rehabilitation benefits and retirement pension is
Full Text Available Ji-Sun Kim,1 Seon-Kyeong Jang,1 Seon-Cheol Park,2 Jung-Seo Yi,3 Joong-Kyu Park,4 Jung Suk Lee,5 Kee-Hong Choi,6 Seung-Hwan Lee1,7 1Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, 6Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, 7Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea Background: The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR.Methods: A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function.Results: The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure.Conclusion: The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Keywords: Korean
Pettersson, David; Bottai, Matteo; Mathiesen, Tiit; Prochazka, Michaela; Feychting, Maria
The possible effect of radiofrequency exposure from mobile phones on tumor risk has been studied since the late 1990s. Yet, empirical information about recall of the start of mobile phone use among adult cases and controls has never been reported. Limited knowledge about recall errors hampers interpretations of the epidemiological evidence. We used network operator data to validate the self-reported start year of mobile phone use in a case-control study of mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma risk. The answers of 96 (29%) cases and 111 (22%) controls could be included in the validation. The larger proportion of cases reflects a more complete and detailed reporting of subscription history. Misclassification was substantial, with large random errors, small systematic errors, and no significant differences between cases and controls. The average difference between self-reported and operator start year was -0.62 (95% confidence interval: -1.42, 0.17) years for cases and -0.71 (-1.50, 0.07) years for controls, standard deviations were 3.92 and 4.17 years, respectively. Agreement between self-reported and operator-recorded data categorized into short, intermediate and long-term use was moderate (kappa statistic: 0.42). Should an association exist, dilution of risk estimates and distortion of exposure-response patterns for time since first mobile phone use could result from the large random errors in self-reported start year. Retrospective collection of operator data likely leads to a selection of "good reporters", with a higher proportion of cases. Thus, differential recall cannot be entirely excluded.
McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M; Rasch, Elizabeth K
To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. In-person and semistructured interviews and Internet and telephone surveys. Sample of SSA claimants (n=1017) and a normative sample of adults from the U.S. general population (n=999). Not applicable. Model fit statistics. The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample, 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were women; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution, which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole body mobility, (3) upper body function, and (4) upper extremity fine motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples, respectively, were: Comparative Fit Index=.93 and .98; Tucker-Lewis Index=.92 and .98; and root mean square error approximation=.05 and .04. The factor structure of the physical function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The 4 scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gaytan G, E.; Salgado G, J. R.; De Andrade O, E.; Ramirez G, A.
In this work is presented a Verification Methodology and Software Validation, to be applied in instruments of nuclear use with associate software. This methodology was developed under the auspices of IAEA, through the regional projects RLA4022 (ARCAL XCIX) and RLA1011 (RLA CXXIII), led by Mexico. In the first project three plans and three procedures were elaborated taking into consideration IEEE standards, and in the second project these documents were updated considering ISO and IEC standards. The developed methodology has been distributed to the participant countries of Latin America in the ARCAL projects and two related courses have been imparted with the participation of several countries, and participating institutions of Mexico like Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). In the ININ due to the necessity to work with Software Quality Guarantee in systems for the nuclear power plant of the CFE, a Software Quality Guarantee Plan and five procedures were developed in the year 2004, obtaining the qualification of the ININ for software development for the nuclear power plant of CFE. These first documents were developed taking like reference IEEE standards and regulator guides of NRC, being the first step for the development of the methodology. (Author)
van Lammeren Anouk
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study took place to enable the measurement of the effects on mental health of a psychosocial intervention in Rwanda. It aimed to establish the capacities of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 to screen for mental disorder and to assess symptom change over time in a Rwandan community setting. Methods The SRQ-20 was translated into Kinyarwanda in a process of forward and back-translation. SRQ-20 data were collected in a Rwandan setting on 418 respondents; a random subsample of 230 respondents was assessed a second time with a three month time interval. Internal reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha. The optimal cut-off point was determined by calculating Receiver Operating Curves, using semi-structured clinical interviews as standard in a random subsample of 99 respondents. Subsequently, predictive value, likelihood ratio, and interrater agreement were calculated. The factor structure of the SRQ-20 was determined through exploratory factor analysis. Factorial invariance over time was tested in a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. Results The reliability of the SRQ-20 in women (α = 0.85 and men (α = 0.81 could be considered good. The instrument performed moderately well in detecting common mental disorders, with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.76 for women and 0.74 for men. Cut-off scores were different for women (10 and men (8. Factor analysis yielded five factors, explaining 38% of the total variance. The factor structure proved to be time invariant. Conclusions The SRQ-20 can be used as a screener to detect mental disorder in a Rwandan community setting, but cut-off scores need to be adjusted for women and men separately. The instrument also shows longitudinal factorial invariance, which is an important prerequisite for assessing changes in symptom severity. This is a significant finding as in non-western post-conflict settings the relevance of diagnostic categories is questionable. The use of the
Quiroz, Viviana; Reinero, Daniela; Hernández, Patricia; Contreras, Johanna; Vernal, Rolando; Carvajal, Paola
This study aimed to develop and assess the content validity and reliability of a cognitively adapted self-report questionnaire designed for surveillance of gingivitis in adolescents. Ten predetermined self-report questions evaluating early signs and symptoms of gingivitis were preliminary assessed by a panel of clinical experts. Eight questions were selected and cognitively tested in 20 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from Santiago de Chile. The questionnaire was then conducted and answered by 178 Chilean adolescents. Internal consistency was measured using the Cronbach's alpha and temporal stability was calculated using the Kappa-index. A reliable final self-report questionnaire consisting of 5 questions was obtained, with a total Cronbach's alpha of 0.73 and a Kappa-index ranging from 0.41 to 0.77 between the different questions. The proposed questionnaire is reliable, with an acceptable internal consistency and a temporal stability from moderate to substantial, and it is promising for estimating the prevalence of gingivitis in adolescents.
Siebes, RC; Ketelaar, M; Wijnroks, L; van Schie, PE; Nijhuis, Bianca J G; Vermeer, A; Gorter, JW
Objective: To validate the Dutch translation of the Canadian Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers questionnaire (MPOC-SP) for use in paediatric rehabilitation settings in the Netherlands. Design: The construct validity, content validity, face validity, and reliability of the Dutch
van den Boer, Janet H W; Kranendonk, Jentina; van de Wiel, Anne; Feskens, Edith J M; Geelen, Anouk; Mars, Monica
Observational studies performed in Asian populations suggest that eating rate is related to BMI. This paper investigates the association between self-reported eating rate (SRER) and body mass index (BMI) in a Dutch population, after having validated SRER against actual eating rate. Two studies were performed; a validation and a cross-sectional study. In the validation study SRER (i.e., 'slow', 'average', or 'fast') was obtained from 57 participants (men/women = 16/41, age: mean ± SD = 22.6 ± 2.8 yrs., BMI: mean ± SD = 22.1 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ) and in these participants actual eating rate was measured for three food products. Using analysis of variance the association between SRER and actual eating rate was studied. The association between SRER and BMI was investigated in cross-sectional data from the NQplus cohort (i.e., 1473 Dutch adults; men/women = 741/732, age: mean ± SD = 54.6 ± 11.7 yrs., BMI: mean ± SD = 25.9 ± 4.0 kg/m 2 ) using (multiple) linear regression analysis. In the validation study actual eating rate increased proportionally with SRER (for all three food products P men and women (P = 0.03 and P men; self-reported fast-eating men had a 0.29 kg/m 2 (95% CI -0.22, 0.80) higher BMI compared to average-speed-eating men, after adjusting for confounders. These studies show that self-reported eating rate reflects actual eating rate on a group-level, and that a high self-reported eating rate is associated with a higher BMI in this Dutch population.
Moryś, Joanna M; Bellwon, Jerzy; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Gruchała, Marcin
The presence of depression symptomatology significantly deteriorates the prognosis for the patient. There are many instruments developed to measure depression and anxiety in clinical trials; however, the suitability of the specific scale for screening these disorders in cardiovascular patients is debatable. The aim of current study is to verify which of the major assessment instruments is the most relevant for the screening evaluation of depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular system diseases. The sample studied consisted of 120 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). They did not display serious psychiatric or somatic disorders. To assess depressive and anxiety symptoms we used self-reporting measures (BDI-II, HADS, SSAI/STAI, and PHQ), the results of which were compared to results obtained on the basis of a clinician-rating instrument (HRSD). We found that depressive symptoms assessed on the basis of HRSD, BDI-II, and PHQ-9 were equivalent in results, while the results obtained in HADS-D were significantly lower. Anxiety symptoms were found at approximate levels in HADS, SSAI, and GAD-7. The assessment of somatic symptoms in patients with CAD indicates that 87.5% of the subjects reported somatic symptoms of various intensity. Screening assessment of depression in patients with CAD gives different results depending on the tool used. We found that HADS significantly underestimates the percentage of patients with symptoms of depression in patients with CAD. Assessing anxiety symptoms with the aid of HADS gave outcomes close to the results gained by use of other tools.
Full Text Available Aki Tsuchiyagaito,1–3 Satoshi Horiuchi,4 Toko Igarashi,5 Yoshiya Kawanori,4 Yoshiyuki Hirano,1,3 Hirooki Yabe,2 Akiko Nakagawa1,3 1Research Center for Child Mental Development, Chiba University, Chiba, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 3United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, Osaka, 4Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 5Graduate School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan Background: The Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR is a five-item scale that assesses the symptoms of hoarding. These symptoms include excessive acquisition, difficulty in discarding, and excessive clutter that causes distress. We conducted three studies to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the HRS-SR (HRS-SR-J. Methods: Study 1 examined its reliability; 193 college students and 320 adolescents and adults completed the HRS-SR-J and, of the college students, 32 took it again 2 weeks later. Study 2 aimed to confirm that its scores in a sample of 210 adolescents and adults are independent of social desirability. Study 3 aimed to validate the HRS-SR-J in the aspects of convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of 550 adults. Results: The HRS-SR-J showed good internal consistency and 2-week test–retest reliability. Based on the nonsignificant correlations between the HRS-SR-J and social desirability, the HRS-SR-J was not strongly affected by social desirability. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Japanese version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R-J and the hoarding subscale of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, while having a significantly weaker correlation with the five subscales of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, except for the hoarding subscale. In addition, the
Background Prevalence studies usually depend on self-report of disease status in survey data or administrative data collections and may over- or under-estimate disease prevalence. The establishment of a linked data collection provided an opportunity to explore the accuracy and completeness of capture of information about diabetes in survey and administrative data collections. Methods Baseline questionnaire data at recruitment to the 45 and Up Study was obtained for 266,848 adults aged 45 years and over sampled from New South Wales, Australia in 2006–2009, and linked to administrative data about hospitalisation from the Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) for 2000–2009, claims for medical services (MBS) and pharmaceuticals (PBS) from Medicare Australia data for 2004–2009. Diabetes status was determined from response to a question ‘Has a doctor EVER told you that you have diabetes’ (n = 23,981) and augmented by examination of free text fields about diagnosis (n = 119) or use of insulin (n = 58). These data were used to identify the sub-group with type 1 diabetes. We explored the agreement between self-report of diabetes, identification of diabetes diagnostic codes in APDC data, claims for glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in MBS data, and claims for dispensed medication (oral hyperglycaemic agents and insulin) in PBS data. Results Most participants with diabetes were identified in APDC data if admitted to hospital (79.3%), in MBS data with at least one claim for HbA1c testing (84.7%; 73.4% if 2 tests claimed) or in PBS data through claim for diabetes medication (71.4%). Using these alternate data collections as an imperfect ‘gold standard’ we calculated sensitivities of 83.7% for APDC, 63.9% (80.5% for two tests) for MBS, and 96.6% for PBS data and specificities of 97.7%, 98.4% and 97.1% respectively. The lower sensitivity for HbA1c may reflect the use of this test to screen for diabetes suggesting that it is less useful in identifying
Levy, Tomer; Apter, Alan; Djalovski, Amir; Peskin, Miriam; Fennig, Silvana; Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Bar-Maisels, Meytal; Borodkin, Katy; Bloch, Yuval
The present study evaluated the self-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU-SR) in terms of reliability, concurrent validity, and correlation with salivary oxytocin levels, a potential biomarker of CU traits. 67 socially at-risk male adolescents (mean 16.2 years) completed the ICU-SR, ICU teacher-version (ICU-TR), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and their medical files were coded for previous antisocial acts using Brown-Goodwin Lifetime Aggression Scale. Salivary samples were assayed for oxytocin. The reliability of ICU-SR was lower (α = 0.71) than ICU-TR (α = 0.86). ICU-SR mean score was significantly lower than ICU-TR (M = 25.29, SD = 8.02; M = 33.14, SD = 9.47). ICU-TR but not ICU-SR, significantly correlated with history of antisocial acts (r = 0.40). Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of conduct disorder and oxytocin on ICU-TR but not ICU-SR [F(1,59) = 6.53; F(1,59) = 6.08], and a significant interaction only for ICU-TR [F(1,59) = 2.89]. Subjective self-reports of CU traits may be less reliable and valid than teachers' reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yon, Bethany Ann; Johnson, Rachel K; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Gold, Beth Casey
Underreporting of energy intake is a pervasive problem and resistant to improvement, especially among people with overweight and obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for dietary self-monitoring would reduce underreporting prevalence and improve the validity of self-reported energy intake. Adults with overweight and obesity (n=61, 92% women, mean age 48.2 years, mean body mass index 32.3) were provided with a PalmZire 21 (Palm, Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) loaded with Calorie King's Diet Diary software (version 3.2.2, 2002, Family Health Network, Costa Mesa, CA). Subjects participated in a 24-week in-person behavioral weight control program and were asked to self-monitor their diet and exercise habits using the PDA. Basal metabolic rate and physical activity level were estimated at baseline. Energy intake from 7-day electronic food records were collected within the first month of the weight-control program. As subjects were actively losing weight, Bandini's adjustments were used to correct self-reported energy intake for weight loss. In this group, where 41% of the subjects were categorized as low-energy reporters, the use of a PDA did not improve validity of energy reporting when compared to what is reported in the literature.
Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Mol, A.J.J.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Kan, C.C.; Zitman, F.G.
The Benzodiazepine Dependence Self-Report Questionnaire (Bendep-SRQ) measures the severity of benzodiazepine (BZ) dependence on four domains: awareness of problematic use, preoccupation with the availability of BZ, lack of compliance with the therapeutic regimen, and withdrawal. Although promising
Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Mol, A.J.J.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Zitman, F.G.
The Benzodiazepine Dependence Self-Report Questionnaire (Bendep-SRQ) measures the severity of benzodiazepine (BZ) dependence on four domains: awareness of problematic use, preoccupation with the availability of BZ, lack of compliance with the therapeutic regimen, and withdrawal. Although promising
Agramunt, Seraina; Meuleners, Lynn; Chow, Kyle Chi; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel
Advances in technology have made it possible to examine real-world driving using naturalistic data obtained from in-vehicle monitoring devices. These devices overcome the weaknesses of self-report methods and can provide comprehensive insights into driving exposure, habits and practices of older drivers. The aim of this study is to compare self-reported and objectively measured driving exposure, habits and practices using a travel diary and an in-vehicle driver monitoring device in older drivers with bilateral cataract. A cross-sectional study was undertaken. Forty seven participants aged 58-89 years old (mean=74.1; S.D.=7.73) were recruited from three eye clinics over a one year period. Data collection consisted of a cognitive test, a researcher-administered questionnaire, a travel diary and an in-vehicle monitoring device. Participants' driving exposure and patterns were recorded for one week using in-vehicle monitoring devices. They also completed a travel diary each time they drove a motor vehicle as the driver. Paired t-tests were used to examine differences/agreement between the two instruments under different driving circumstances. The data from the older drivers' travel diaries significantly underestimated the number of overall trips (ptravel diaries also significantly overestimated overall driving duration (ptravelled under any of the driving circumstances. The results of this study found that relying solely on self-reported travel diaries to assess driving outcomes may not be accurate, particularly for estimates of the number of trips made and duration of trips. The clear advantages of using in-vehicle monitoring devices over travel diaries to monitor driving habits and exposure among an older population are evident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leung, Kwok-fai; Liu, Feng-bin; Zhao, Li; Fang, Ji-qian; Chan, Kelvin; Lin, Li-zhu
This paper describes the development of the Chinese Quality of Life Instrument (ChQOL) which is a self-report health status instrument. Chinese Medicine relies very much on asking subjective feelings of patients in the process of diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. For thousands of years, Chinese Medicine practitioners have accumulated a good wealth of experiences in asking questions about health of their patients based on the concept of health in Chinese Medicine. These experiences were then transformed into questions for the ChQOL. It is believed that ChQOL can contribute to the existing Patient Report Outcome measures. This paper outlines the concept of health and disease in Traditional Chinese Medicine, the building of the conceptual framework of the ChQOL, the steps of drafting, selecting and validating the items, and the psychometric properties of the ChQOL. The development of the ChQOL was based on the concept of health in Traditional Chinese Medicine with a theory driven approach. Based on the results of literature review, the research team developed an initial model of health which encompassed the concept of health in TCM. An expert panel was then invited to comment and give suggestions for improvement of the initial model. According to their suggestions, the model was refined and a set of initial items for the ChQOL was drafted. The refined model, together with the key domains, facets and initial items of the ChQOL were then mailed to a sample of about 100 Chinese medicine practitioners throughout Mainland China for their comments and advice. A revised set of items were developed for linguistic testing by a convenience sample consisting of both healthy people and people who attended Chinese Medicine treatment. After that, an item pool was developed for field-testing. Field test was conducted on a convenience sample of healthy and patient subjects to determine the construct validity and psychometric properties of the ChQOL. Construct validity was
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the development of the Chinese Quality of Life Instrument (ChQOL which is a self-report health status instrument. Chinese Medicine relies very much on asking subjective feelings of patients in the process of diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. For thousands of years, Chinese Medicine practitioners have accumulated a good wealth of experiences in asking questions about health of their patients based on the concept of health in Chinese Medicine. These experiences were then transformed into questions for the ChQOL. It is believed that ChQOL can contribute to the existing Patient Report Outcome measures. This paper outlines the concept of health and disease in Traditional Chinese Medicine, the building of the conceptual framework of the ChQOL, the steps of drafting, selecting and validating the items, and the psychometric properties of the ChQOL. Methods The development of the ChQOL was based on the concept of health in Traditional Chinese Medicine with a theory driven approach. Based on the results of literature review, the research team developed an initial model of health which encompassed the concept of health in TCM. An expert panel was then invited to comment and give suggestions for improvement of the initial model. According to their suggestions, the model was refined and a set of initial items for the ChQOL was drafted. The refined model, together with the key domains, facets and initial items of the ChQOL were then mailed to a sample of about 100 Chinese medicine practitioners throughout Mainland China for their comments and advice. A revised set of items were developed for linguistic testing by a convenience sample consisting of both healthy people and people who attended Chinese Medicine treatment. After that, an item pool was developed for field-testing. Field test was conducted on a convenience sample of healthy and patient subjects to determine the construct validity and psychometric
Smerecnik, Chris M R; Mesters, Ilse; Candel, Math J J M; De Vries, Hein; De Vries, Nanne K
The role of information processing in understanding people's responses to risk information has recently received substantial attention. One limitation of this research concerns the unavailability of a validated questionnaire of information processing. This article presents two studies in which we describe the development and validation of the Information-Processing Questionnaire to meet that need. Study 1 describes the development and initial validation of the questionnaire. Participants were randomized to either a systematic processing or a heuristic processing condition after which they completed a manipulation check and the initial 15-item questionnaire and again two weeks later. The questionnaire was subjected to factor reliability and validity analyses on both measurement times for purposes of cross-validation of the results. A two-factor solution was observed representing a systematic processing and a heuristic processing subscale. The resulting scale showed good reliability and validity, with the systematic condition scoring significantly higher on the systematic subscale and the heuristic processing condition significantly higher on the heuristic subscale. Study 2 sought to further validate the questionnaire in a field study. Results of the second study corresponded with those of Study 1 and provided further evidence of the validity of the Information-Processing Questionnaire. The availability of this information-processing scale will be a valuable asset for future research and may provide researchers with new research opportunities. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.
Maanen, Annette; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F.; Oort, Frans J.; de Bruin, Eduard J.; Smits, Marcel G.; Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Kerkhof, Gerard A.; Meijer, Anne Marie
Background: Sleep reduction, resulting from insufficient or poor sleep, is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Due to its severe negative psychological and behavioral daytime consequences, it is important to have a short reliable and valid measure to assess symptoms of sleep reduction. Objective: This study aims to validate the Sleep Reduction…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ has become one of the most widely used measurement tools in child and adolescent mental health work across the globe. The SDQ was originally developed and validated within the UK and whilst its reliability and validity have been replicated in several countries important cross cultural issues have been raised. We describe normative data, reliability and validity of the Chinese translation of the SDQ (parent, teacher and self report versions in a large group of children from Shanghai. Methods The SDQ was administered to the parents and teachers of students from 12 of Shanghai's 19 districts, aged between 3 and 17 years old, and to those young people aged between 11 and 17 years. Retest data was collected from parents and teachers for 45 students six weeks later. Data was analysed to describe normative scores, bandings and cut-offs for normal, borderline and abnormal scores. Reliability was assessed from analyses of internal consistency, inter-rater agreement, and temporal stability. Structural validity, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Results Full parent and teacher data was available for 1965 subjects and self report data for 690 subjects. Normative data for this Chinese urban population with bandings and cut-offs for borderline and abnormal scores are described. Principle components analysis indicates partial agreement with the original five factored subscale structure however this appears to hold more strongly for the Prosocial Behaviour, Hyperactivity – Inattention and Emotional Symptoms subscales than for Conduct Problems and Peer Problems. Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's α coefficient were generally low ranging between 0.30 and 0.83 with only parent and teacher Hyperactivity – Inattention and teacher Prosocial Behaviour subscales having α > 0.7. Inter-rater correlations were similar to those reported previously (range 0.23 – 0
SCHOLING, A; EMMELKAMP, PMG
This study was meant to investigate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Lehrer Woolfolk Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ), an instrument for assessment of somatic, behavioral and cognitive aspects of anxiety. Confirmatory factor analysis on data from social phobics (n = 108),
Kuçukosmanoglu, Hayrettin Onur
The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine students' attitude levels on individual instruments and individual instrument courses in instrument training, which is an important dimension of music education, and to conduct a validity-reliability research of the scale that has been developed. The scale consists of 16 items. The…
Sulz, Lauren; Temple, Viviene; Gibbons, Sandra
The aim of this research was to develop measures to provide valid and reliable representation of the motivational states and psychological needs proposed by the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000) within a physical education context. Based on theoretical underpinnings of self-determination theory, two questionnaires were…
Wygant, Dustin B.; Sellbom, Martin; Graham, John R.; Schenk, Paul W.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5) scales were developed to measure abnormal personality symptomatology. The present study examines the incremental validity of the PSY-5 scales beyond the clinical and content scales in assessing criteria associated with personality disorders. The…
Liggett, Jacqueline; Carmichael, Kieran L C; Smith, Alexander; Sellbom, Martin
This study examined the validity of newly developed disorder-specific impairment scales (IS), modeled on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, for obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) and avoidant (AvPD) personality disorders. The IS focused on content validity (items directly reflected the disorder-specific impairments listed in DSM-5 Section III) and severity of impairment. A community sample of 313 adults completed personality inventories indexing the DSM-5 Sections II and III diagnostic criteria for OCPD and AvPD, as well as measures of impairment in the domains of self- and interpersonal functioning. Results indicated that both impairment measures (for AvPD in particular) showed promise in their ability to measure disorder-specific impairment, demonstrating convergent validity with their respective Section II counterparts and discriminant validity with their noncorresponding Section II disorder and with each other. The pattern of relationships between scores on the IS and scores on external measures of personality functioning, however, did not indicate that it is useful to maintain a distinction between impairment in the self- and interpersonal domains, at least for AvPD and OCPD.
Goedhart, Geertje; Vrijheid, Martine; Wiart, Joe; Hours, Martine; Kromhout, Hans; Cardis, Elisabeth; Eastman Langer, Chelsea; de Llobet Viladoms, Patricia; Massardier-Pilonchery, Amelie; Vermeulen, Roel
A newly developed smartphone application was piloted to characterize and validate mobile phone use in young people. Twenty-six volunteers (mean age 17.3 years) from France, Spain, and the Netherlands used a software-modified smartphone for 4 weeks; the application installed on the phone recorded
Carlucci, Samantha; Ivanova, Iryna; Bissada, Hany; Tasca, Giorgio A
Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) commonly experience comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The shared features of EDs and ADHD, such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, may exacerbate ED symptomatology and pose challenges to treatment. It is important to screen patients with EDs for symptoms of ADHD to optimize their treatment outcomes. However, the psychometrics of common measures of ADHD have not yet been examined within an ED population. An example of such a measure is the ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-v1.1) symptom checklist, which identifies the presence of ADHD symptoms. This study reports a psychometric study of the ASRS-v1.1 in a clinical sample of 500 adults with an ED. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated the ASRS-v1.1 maintained its two-factor structure of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity. The item loadings demonstrated path invariance across ED diagnostic groups indicating construct validity. Further, the subscales exhibited good internal consistency and they were significantly correlated with other measures of impulsivity indicating convergent validity. The ED sample had significantly higher mean scores than published nonclinical norms indicating predictive validity, but the ASRS-v1.1 scores were not significantly different among ED diagnostic groups. Results suggest the ASRS-v1.1 is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying symptoms of ADHD among adults seeking treatment for ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Cuéllar, Ricardo; Silió, Félix; Rodriguez, Miguel Ángel; Garay, Daniel; Busto, Gorka; Trancho, Ziortza; Escobar, Antonio
The aim of the current study was to validate the self-report section of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons questionnaire (ASES-p) into Spanish. Shoulder pathology patients were recruited and followed up to 6 months post treatment. The ASES-p, Constant, SF-36 and Barthel scales were filled-in pre and post treatment. Reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity with Spearman's correlations coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the Rasch model were implemented for assessing structural validity and unidimensionality of the scale. Models with and without the pain item were considered. Responsiveness to change was explored via standardised effect sizes. Results were acceptable for both tested models. Cronbach's alpha was 0.91, total scale correlations with Constant and physical SF-36 dimensions were >0.50. Factor loadings for CFA were >0.40. The Rasch model confirmed unidimensionality of the scale, even though item 10 "do usual sport" was suggested as non-informative. Finally, patients with improved post treatment shoulder function and those receiving surgery had higher standardised effect sizes. The adapted Spanish ASES-p version is a valid and reliable tool for shoulder evaluation and its unidimensionality is supported by the data.
Liu, N; Xing, H; Zhou, M-W
-report questionnaire was developed based on several events that most patients might experience during bowel routine. 102 participants who sustained SCI within 12 months were asked to complete the questionnaire followed by an anorectal examination. Agreements of answers to the questionnaire and the physical examination......STUDY DESIGN: An observational study. OBJECTIVE: To develop a self-administered tool for assessment of sacral sparing after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to test its validity in individuals with SCI. SETTING: Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China. METHODS: A 5-item SCI sacral sparing self......: The validity of this questionnaire for the assessment of sacral sparing in up to 12 months post injury is good except for the motor function when there was increased AST. In some situations it could be considered as an alternative tool for digital rectal examination, especially when repeated examinations...
Sveen, Unni; Andelic, Nada; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Røe, Cecilie
To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 12 months post-injury. Demographic and injury-related data were registered upon admission to the hospital in 148 TBI patients with mild, moderate, or severe TBI. At 12 months post-injury, competency in activities and global functioning were measured using the PCRS patient version and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE). Descriptive reliability statistics, factor analysis and Rasch modeling were applied to explore the psychometric properties of the PCRS. External validity was evaluated using the GOSE. The PCRS can be divided into three subscales that reflect interpersonal/emotional, cognitive, and activities of daily living competency. The three-factor solution explained 56.6% of the variance in functioning. The internal consistency was very good, with a Cronbach's α of 0.95. Item 30, "controlling my laughter", did not load above 0.40 on any factors and did not fit the Rasch model. The external validity of the subscales was acceptable, with correlations between 0.50 and 0.52 with the GOSE. The Norwegian version of the PCRS is reliable, has an acceptable construct and external validity, and can be recommended for use during the later phases of TBI.
Cancela Carral, José María; Lago Ballesteros, Joaquín; Ayán Pérez, Carlos; Mosquera Morono, María Belén
To analyse the reliability and validity of the Weekly Activity Checklist (WAC), the One Week Recall (OWR), and the Godin-Shephard Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) in Spanish adolescents. A total of 78 adolescents wore a pedometer for one week, filled out the questionnaires at the end of this period and underwent a test to estimate their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). The reliability of the questionnaires was determined by means of a factor analysis. Convergent validity was obtained by comparing the questionnaires' scores against the amount of physical activity quantified by the pedometer and the VO2max reported. The questionnaires showed a weak internal consistency (WAC: α=0.59-0.78; OWR: α=0.53-0.73; GLTEQ: α=0.60). Moderate statistically significant correlations were found between the pedometer and the WAC (r=0.69; p questionnaires analysed, the WAC showed the best psychometric performance as it was the only one with respectable convergent validity, while sharing low reliability with the OWR and the GLTEQ. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tunçalp, Özge; Stanton, Cynthia; Castro, Arachu; Adanu, Richard; Heymann, Marilyn; Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Lattof, Samantha R.; Blanc, Ann; Langer, Ana
Background Cesarean section is the only surgery for which we have nearly global population-based data. However, few surveys provide additional data related to cesarean sections. Given weaknesses in many health information systems, health planners in developing countries will likely rely on nationally representative surveys for the foreseeable future. The objective is to validate self-reported data on the emergency status of cesarean sections among women delivering in teaching hospitals in the capitals of two contrasting countries: Accra, Ghana and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (DR). Methods and Findings This study compares hospital-based data, considered the reference standard, against women’s self-report for two definitions of emergency cesarean section based on the timing of the decision to operate and the timing of the cesarean section relative to onset of labor. Hospital data were abstracted from individual medical records, and hospital discharge interviews were conducted with women who had undergone cesarean section in two hospitals. The study assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of responses to questions regarding emergency versus non-emergency cesarean section and estimated the percent of emergency cesarean sections that would be obtained from a survey, given the observed prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity from this study. Hospital data were matched with exit interviews for 659 women delivered via cesarean section for Ghana and 1,531 for the Dominican Republic. In Ghana and the Dominican Republic, sensitivity and specificity for emergency cesarean section defined by decision time were 79% and 82%, and 50% and 80%, respectively. The validity of emergency cesarean defined by operation time showed less favorable results than decision time in Ghana and slightly more favorable results in the Dominican Republic. Conclusions Questions used in this study to identify emergency cesarean section are promising but insufficient to
Avlund, K; Schultz-Larsen, K; Kreiner, S
do not depend on help. It is also possible to add the items in a valid way. However, to obtain valid IADL-scales, we omitted items that were highly relevant to especially elderly women, such as house-work items. We conclude that the criteria employed for this IADL-measure are somewhat contradictory....... showed that 14 items could be combined into two qualitatively different additive scales. The IADL-measure complies with demands for content validity, distinguishes between what the elderly actually do, and what they are capable of doing, and is a good discriminator among the group of elderly persons who...
Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton
There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Dwijayanti, I.; Budayasa, I. K.; Siswono, T. Y. E.
Imagination has an important role as the center of sensorimotor activity of the students. The purpose of this research is to construct the instrument of students’ mathematical imagination in understanding concept of algebraic expression. The researcher performs validity using questionnaire and test technique and data analysis using descriptive method. Stages performed include: 1) the construction of the embodiment of the imagination; 2) determine the learning style questionnaire; 3) construct instruments; 4) translate to Indonesian as well as adaptation of learning style questionnaire content to student culture; 5) perform content validation. The results stated that the constructed instrument is valid by content validation and empirical validation so that it can be used with revisions. Content validation involves Indonesian linguists, english linguists and mathematics material experts. Empirical validation is done through a legibility test (10 students) and shows that in general the language used can be understood. In addition, a questionnaire test (86 students) was analyzed using a biserial point correlation technique resulting in 16 valid items with a reliability test using KR 20 with medium reability criteria. While the test instrument test (32 students) to find all items are valid and reliability test using KR 21 with reability is 0,62.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many individuals with Parkinson's disease are not diagnosed and treated. Attitudes about aging and related help-seeking may affect the timely diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Our objectives were to develop measures of older adults' expectations regarding movement with aging, specifically related to parkinsonism, and their beliefs about seeking healthcare for the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism. METHODS: We established content and face validity from interviews with experts, review of the literature, and pre-testing with key informants. Two 9-item instruments resulted: Expectations Regarding Movement (ERM and Healthcare Seeking Beliefs for parkinsonism (HSB. These instruments were administered to 210 older adults at senior centers to investigate internal consistency and construct validity. RESULTS: 192 (91% of the older adults completed more than 90% of the survey. The mean age was 76; 17 (9% reported parkinsonism. Both scales demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.90. Factor analysis supported construct validity of the ERM and HSB scores. Older age, lower education, worse self-reported health and African American race each were associated with lower ERM scores, but not HSB scores. CONCLUSION: The ERM, a brief measure of expectations regarding movement with aging, shows reliability and validity. This scale may be useful in identifying older adults at increased risk for under-identification of Parkinson's disease. Further work is needed to measure healthcare seeking for parkinsonism.
Pedersen, Scott J; Kitic, Cecilia M; Bird, Marie-Louise; Mainsbridge, Casey P; Cooley, P Dean
With the advent of workplace health and wellbeing programs designed to address prolonged occupational sitting, tools to measure behaviour change within this environment should derive from empirical evidence. In this study we measured aspects of validity and reliability for the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire that asks employees to recount the percentage of work time they spend in the seated, standing, and walking postures during a typical workday. Three separate cohort samples (N = 236) were drawn from a population of government desk-based employees across several departmental agencies. These volunteers were part of a larger state-wide intervention study. Workplace sitting and physical activity behaviour was measured both subjectively against the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and objectively against ActivPal accelerometers before the intervention began. Criterion validity and concurrent validity for each of the three posture categories were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, and a bias comparison with 95 % limits of agreement. Test-retest reliability of the survey was reported with intraclass correlation coefficients. Criterion validity for this survey was strong for sitting and standing estimates, but weak for walking. Participants significantly overestimated the amount of walking they did at work. Concurrent validity was moderate for sitting and standing, but low for walking. Test-retest reliability of this survey proved to be questionable for our sample. Based on our findings we must caution occupational health and safety professionals about the use of employee self-report data to estimate workplace physical activity. While the survey produced accurate measurements for time spent sitting at work it was more difficult for employees to estimate their workplace physical activity.
Scott J. Pedersen
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of workplace health and wellbeing programs designed to address prolonged occupational sitting, tools to measure behaviour change within this environment should derive from empirical evidence. In this study we measured aspects of validity and reliability for the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire that asks employees to recount the percentage of work time they spend in the seated, standing, and walking postures during a typical workday. Methods Three separate cohort samples (N = 236 were drawn from a population of government desk-based employees across several departmental agencies. These volunteers were part of a larger state-wide intervention study. Workplace sitting and physical activity behaviour was measured both subjectively against the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and objectively against ActivPal accelerometers before the intervention began. Criterion validity and concurrent validity for each of the three posture categories were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, and a bias comparison with 95 % limits of agreement. Test-retest reliability of the survey was reported with intraclass correlation coefficients. Results Criterion validity for this survey was strong for sitting and standing estimates, but weak for walking. Participants significantly overestimated the amount of walking they did at work. Concurrent validity was moderate for sitting and standing, but low for walking. Test-retest reliability of this survey proved to be questionable for our sample. Conclusions Based on our findings we must caution occupational health and safety professionals about the use of employee self-report data to estimate workplace physical activity. While the survey produced accurate measurements for time spent sitting at work it was more difficult for employees to estimate their workplace physical activity.
Abell, Neil; Kamata, Akihito
This book provides an overview of scale and test development. From conceptualization through design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation, critical concerns are identified and grounded in the increasingly sophisticated psychometric literature. Measurement within the health, social, and behavioral sciences is addressed, and technical and practical guidance is provided. Acknowledging the increasingly sophisticated contributions in social work, psychology, education, nursing, and medicine, the book balances condensation of complex conceptual challenges with focused recommendations for conceiving, planning, and implementing psychometric study. Primary points are carefully referenced and consistently illustrated to illuminate complicated or abstract principles. Basics of construct conceptualization and establishing evidence of validity are complimented with introductions to concept mapping and cross-cultural translation. In-depth discussion of cutting edge topics like bias and invariance in item responses...
Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Leon, Terry L; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A
The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD. Cronbach's alphas were high for all sections of the scales. Examining histograms of ASRS 31-item and AISRS 18-item total scores for ADHD controls, 95% cutoff scores were 70 and 23, respectively; histograms for pilot normative sample suggest cutoffs of 82 and 26, respectively. (a) ASRS- and AISRS-expanded versions have high validity in assessment of core 18 adult ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) symptoms and EFD and EC symptoms. (b) ASRS (31-item) scores 70 to 82 and AISRS (18-item) scores from 23 to 26 suggest a high likelihood of adult ADHD.
Ana M. Galetti
Full Text Available Objective: To validate the Gambling Follow-up Scale, Self-Report version (GFS-SR, a 10-item scale designed to assess gambling frequency, time and money spent on gambling, gambling craving, debts, emotional distress, family relationships, autonomy, and frequency of and satisfaction with leisure activities in individuals diagnosed with gambling disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria. Methods: One hundred and twenty treatment-seeking gamblers were evaluated, 84 of whom proceeded to treatment. Fifty-two relatives provided collateral informant reports at baseline. Six months later, the 50 patients who completed the program were reassessed. Results: The GFS-SR showed good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency. Factor analysis presented a three-factor solution: gambling behavior (factor 1; social life (factor 2; and personal hardship (factor 3. There was a high degree of convergence between GFS-SR scores and those of reference scales. The GFS-SR scores showed excellent sensitivity to change (factor 1, predictive validity for treatment response (factor 2, and ability to distinguish recovered from unrecovered patients after treatment (factor 3. A cutoff score of 33 was found to have 87% sensitivity and 80% specificity for gambling recovery. Conclusion: The GFS-SR is well suited to providing reliable follow-up of gamblers under treatment and assessing the efficacy of their treatment.
Nilsson, Jan; Johansson, Eva; Egmar, Ann-Charlotte; Florin, Jan; Leksell, Janeth; Lepp, Margret; Lindholm, Christina; Nordström, Gun; Theander, Kersti; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Carlsson, Marianne; Gardulf, Ann
To develop and validate a new tool intended for measuring self-reported professional competence among both nurse students prior to graduation and among practicing nurses. The new tool is based on formal competence requirements from the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare, which in turn are based on WHO guidelines. A methodological study including construction of a new scale and evaluation of its psychometric properties. 1086 newly graduated nurse students from 11 universities/university colleges. The analyses resulted in a scale named the NPC (Nurse Professional Competence) Scale, consisting of 88 items and covering eight factors: "Nursing care", "Value-based nursing care", "Medical/technical care", "Teaching/learning and support", "Documentation and information technology", "Legislation in nursing and safety planning", "Leadership in and development of nursing care" and "Education and supervision of staff/students". All factors achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.70. A second-order exploratory analysis resulted in two main themes: "Patient-related nursing" and "Nursing care organisation and development". In addition, evidence of known-group validity for the NPC Scale was obtained. The NPC Scale, which is based on national and international professional competence requirements for nurses, was comprehensively tested and showed satisfactory psychometrical properties. It can e.g. be used to evaluate the outcomes of nursing education programmes, to assess nurses' professional competences in relation to the needs in healthcare organisations, and to tailor introduction programmes for newly employed nurses. © 2013.
Bryant, Maria; LeCroy, Madison; Sahota, Pinki; Cai, Jianwen; Stevens, June
Despite interest in the importance of the home food environment and its potential influence on children's diets and social norms, there remain few self-report checklist methods that have been validated against the gold standard of researcher-conducted inventories. This study aimed to assess the criterion validity and reliability of the 'Home Food Availability Inventory Checklist' (HFAI-C), a 39-item checklist including categories of fruit, vegetables, snacks and drinks. The HFAI-C was completed by 97 participants of White and Pakistani origin in the UK. Validity was determined by comparing participant-reported HFAI-C responses to data from researcher observations of home food availability using PABAK and weighted kappa statistics. The validity of measuring the amount of items (in addition to presence/absence) available was also determined. Test-retest reliability compared repeated administrations of the HFAI-C using intra-class correlation coefficients. Validity and reliability was fair to moderate overall. For validity, the average category-level PABAK ranged from 0.31 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.37) for vegetables to 0.44 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.49) for fruits. Assessment of the presence/absence of items demonstrated higher validity compared to quantity measurements. Reliability was increased when the HFAI-C was repeated close to the time of the first administration. For example, ICCs for reliability of the measurement of fruits were 0.52 (95%CI: 0.47, 0.56) if re-administered within 5 months, 0.58 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.64) within 30 days and 0.97 (95%CI: 0.94, 1.00) if re-administered on the same day. Overall, the HFAI-C demonstrated fair to moderate validity and reliability in a population of White and South Asian participants. This evaluation is consistent with previous work on other checklists in less diverse, more affluent populations. Our research supports the use of the HFAI-C as a useful, albeit imperfect, representation of researcher-conducted inventories. The feasibility of
Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A
The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.
Green, Robert G.
Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…
Although current research exists on school culture, there is a gap in the literature on specialized aspects of culture such as STEM Culture defined as the beliefs, values, practices, resources, and challenges in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) within a school. The objective of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument, the STEM Culture Assessment Tool (STEM-CAT), that measures this cultural aspect based on a survey of stakeholder groups within the school community and use empirical data to support the use of this instrument to measure STEM Culture. Items were created and face validity was determined through a focus group and expert review before a pilot study was conducted to determine reliability of the items. Once items were determined reliable, the survey was given to eight high schools and results were correlated to the percentage of seniors who self-reported whether they intend to pursue STEM fields upon graduation. The results of this study indicate further need for research to determine how the STEM-CAT correlates to STEM culture due to some inconsistencies with the dependent variable in this study. Future research could be done correlating the results of the STEM-CAT with participation in Advanced Placement science and mathematics, SAT/ACT scores in science and mathematics or the number of students who actually pursue STEM fields rather than a prediction halfway through the 12th grade.
Aspegren, Knut; Bastholt, Lars; Bested, K.M.
The Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) has been translated into Danish and then validated with good internal consistency by 342 Danish junior and senior hospital doctors. Four of the 40 items are culturally dependent in the Danish hospital setting. Factor analysis...... demonstrated that seven items are interconnected. This information can be used to shorten the instrument by perhaps another three items...
Matney, Gabriel; Jackson, Jack L., II.; Panarach, Yupadee
This article presents our work in translating the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI) from English to Thai and our resulting investigation of validity with Thai preservice teachers. The translation process occurred over several meetings between two U.S. mathematics educators and one Thai mathematics educator. To check for…
Chen, Weiyun; Hendricks, Kristin; Zhu, Weimo
The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Basketball Offensive Game Performance Instrument (BOGPI) that assesses an individual player's offensive game performance competency in basketball. Twelve physical education teacher education (PETE) students playing two 10-minute, 3 vs. 3 basketball games were videotaped at end of a…
LeSourd, Sandra J.; And Others
Findings from a study to develop and validate an instrument for the measurement of principals' attitudes toward visionary leadership are presented in this paper. Two leadership styles--visionary and managerial--were measured by a 35-item five-point Likert attitude scale. Questionnaires mailed to a random sample of 250 K-12 Nebraska and 250…
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
school Mathematics classroom environment as it affects teaching and learning of Mathematics in Enugu. State. ... plays a significant role in computer technology. ... classroom. The main purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument for assessing junior secondary school Mathematics classroom learning ...
Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swinkels, S. H. N.; Bekker, Evelijne M.; de Noord, Ineke; Buitelaar, Jan K.
Objective: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. Method: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale…
Kooij, J.J.S.; Boonstra, A.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Bekker, E.M.; Noord, I. de; Buitelaar, J.K.
OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. METHOD: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales
Ghotra, Satvinder; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan
Background. School is an integral component of the life of a child, and thus quality of school life is an important part of the overall quality of life experienced by a child. There are a few instruments available to measure the quality of school life but they are often not available in English, or they are not appropriate for use alongside other instruments in a survey of young children. The Quality of Life in School (QoLS) instrument is a short, self-report measure to assess elementary school students' perception of their quality of school life in four domains. The instrument was developed in Israel and has been validated among Hebrew-speaking children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the QoLS measure in Canadian elementary school children. Methods. A total of 629 children attending grades 4-6 were recruited in a population-based cross-sectional study. The QoLS measure was administered to participating children by trained research assistants. In addition, their socio-demographic details and academic data were also obtained. The psychometric testing included exploratory factor analysis and reliability estimation using internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha). Construct validity was investigated using the known groups comparisons for discriminative validity and via convergent validity. Results. A four-factor structure was generated explaining 39% of the total variance in the model. The results showed good internal consistency and acceptable floor and ceiling effects. Cronbach's Alpha ranged from 0.75 to 0.93. Known groups comparisons showed that the QoLS measure discriminated well between subgroups on the basis of gender, grade, and academic achievement, thus providing evidence of construct validity. The convergent validity was also appropriate with all the four domains demonstrating moderate to strong correlations to each other and to the total QoLS score. Conclusions. QoLS appears to be a valid and reliable measure for
Carter, Allison; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Ding, Erin; Sereda, Paul; Webster, Kath; Nicholson, Valerie; Beaver, Kerrigan; Hogg, Robert S; Kaida, Angela
We assessed the validity of a self-report measure of undetectable viral load (VL) among women with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Questionnaire data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study was linked with population-based clinical data from the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. Self-reported undetectable VL was assessed by the question: "What was your most recent VL, undetectable (i.e. linked to clinical data. Those unlinked (n = 1), missing self-report VL (n = 18), or missing self-report and laboratory VL (n = 1) were excluded. Among the remaining 336: median age was 44 (IQR 37-51); 96% identified as cis-gender; 84% identified as heterosexual; and 45% identified as Indigenous, 40% White, 8% African, Caribbean, or Black, and 8% other/multiple ethnicities. Overall, 85% self-reported having an undetectable VL while 82% had clinical data indicating viral suppression. The PPV was 93.7 (95% CI 90.2-96.2) indicating that 94% of women who self-reported being undetectable truly were. The NPV was 80.4 (95% CI 66.9-90.2). LR+ was 3.2 (2.1-4.6) and LR- was 0.05 (0.03-0.10). Our self-report measure assessing undetectable VL strongly predicted true viral suppression among Canadian women with HIV. This measure can be used in research settings without laboratory data in regions with high rates of VL testing and suppression.
Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Granero-Molina, José; Mollinedo-Mallea, Judith; de Gonzales, María Hilda Peredo; Aguilera-Manrique, Gabriel; Ponce, Mara Luna
The objective of this study, conducted in Bolivia from April to July of 2008, is the design and validation of an initial nursing assessment instrument to be used in clinical and educational environments in Santa Cruz (Bolivia). Twelve Bolivian nurses participated; both document analysis as well as consensus techniques were used to determine the categories and criteria to be assessed. Categories included in the nursing assessment instrument are a physical assessment and the eleven Gordon's Functional Health Patterns. The nursing assessment instrument stands out as being concise, easy to complete and utilizing a nursing approach. It does not include items for advanced nursing assessment. However, it incorporates items regarding lifestyle and the patient's autonomy. The nursing assessment instrument contributes to improving the quality of clinical records, supports the nursing diagnosis and implementation of the nursing process, promotes the nurse's role and helps to standardize practice.
Bond, J. C.; Greenfield, T. K.; Patterson, D.; Kerr, W.C.
Background Prior studies adjusting self-reported measures of alcohol intake for drink size and ethanol content have relied on single-point assessments. Methods A prospective 28-day diary study investigated magnitudes of drink ethanol adjustments and factors associated with these adjustments. Transdermal alcohol sensor (TAS) readings and prediction of alcohol-related problems by number of drinks versus ethanol-adjusted intake were used to validate drink ethanol adjustments. Self-completed event diaries listed up to 4 beverage types and 4 drinking events/day. Eligible volunteers had ≥ weekly drinking and ≥ 3+ drinks per occasion with ≥ 26 reported days and pre- and post-summary measures (n = 220). Event reports included drink types, sizes, brands or spirits contents, venues, drinks consumed and drinking duration. Results Wine drinks averaged 1.19, beer, 1.09 and spirits 1.54 US standard drinks (14g ethanol). Mean adjusted alcohol intake was 22% larger using drink size and strength (brand/ethanol concentration) data. Adjusted drink levels were larger than “raw” drinks in all quantity ranges. Individual-level drink ethanol adjustment ratios (ethanol adjusted/unadjusted amounts) averaged across all days drinking ranged from 0.73-3.33 (mean 1.22). Adjustment ratio was only marginally (and not significantly) positively related to usual quantity, frequency and heavy drinking (all psalcohol dependence symptoms (p<.01) and number of consequences (p<.05). In 30 respondents with sufficiently high quality TAS readings, higher correlations (p=.04) were found between the adjusted vs. the raw drinks/event and TAS areas under the curve. Conclusions Absent drink size and strength data, intake assessments are downward biased by at least 20%. Between-subject variation in typical drink content and pour sizes should be addressed in treatment and epidemiological research. PMID:25581661
Full Text Available Repetitive negative thinking (RNT is a transdiagnostic process involved in the risk, maintenance, and relapse of serious conditions including mood disorders, anxiety, eating disorders, and addictions. Processing mode theory provides a theoretical model to assess, research, and treat RNT using a transdiagnostic approach. Clinical researchers also often employ categorical approaches to RNT, including a focus on depressive rumination or worry, for similar purposes. Three widely used self-report questionnaires have been developed to assess these related constructs: the Ruminative Response Scale (RRT, the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ, and the Mini-Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale (Mini-CERTS. Yet these scales have not previously been used in conjunction, despite useful theoretical distinctions only available in Mini-CERTS. The present validation of the methods in a Polish speaking population provides psychometric parameters estimates that contribute to current efforts to increase reliable replication of theoretical outcomes. Moreover, the following study aims to present particular characteristics and a comparison of the three methods. Although there has been some exploration of the categorical approach, the comparison of transdiagnostic methods is still lacking. These methods are particularly relevant for developing and evaluating theoretically based interventions like concreteness training, an emerging field of increasing interest, which can be used to address the maladaptive processing mode in RNT that can lead to depression and other disorders. Furthermore, the translation of these measures enables the examination of possible cross-cultural structural differences that may lead to important theoretical progress in the measurement and classification of RNT. The results support the theoretical hypothesis. As expected, the dimensions of brooding, general Repetitive Negative Thinking and Abstract Analytic Thinking, can all be
Sun, Gang; Zheng, Wengang; Huang, Wengjiang; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Liangyun
In this paper, a portable diagnostic instrument was designed and tested, which can measure the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structure insensitive pigment index (SIPI) of crop canopy in field. The instrument have a valid survey area of 1 m*1 m when the height between instrument and the ground was fixed to 1.3 meter The crop growth condition can be assessed based on their NDVI and SIPI values, so it will be very important for crop management to get these values. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. There are six special different photoelectrical detectors within red, blue and near infrared bands, which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and reflex light from the canopy of crop. This optical instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process and A/D convert module, the data storing and transmission module and human-machine interface module. The detector is the core of the instrument which measures the spectrums at special bands. The microprocessor calculates the NDVI and SIPI value based on the A/D value. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's RS232 serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field at different view directions. This paper also provided the method of calibration, the results showed that the average measurement error to SIPI value of instrument was 5.25% and the average measurement error to NDVI value in vegetation-covered region is 6.40%. It reveals the on-site and non-sampling mode of crop growth monitoring by fixed on the agricultural machine traveling in the field.
Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.
The authors evaluated self-report instruments currently being used to assess children and adolescents with psychopathic personality traits with respect to their reliability, validity, and research utility. Comprehensive searches across multiple computerized bibliographic databases were conducted and supplemented with manual searches. A total of 30…
Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth
The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....
Glintborg, Bente; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Olsen, Lenette Holm
were compared to the patients' self-reported medication history. Information on prescribed drugs dispensed from any Danish pharmacy was collected from nationwide real-time pharmacy records. The authors performed home visits in a subgroup of 115 patients 4 weeks after their discharge. Stored drugs were......The medication history among hospitalized patients often relies on patients' self-reports due to insufficient communication between health care professionals. The aim of the present study was to estimate the reliability of patients' self-reported medication use. Five hundred patients admitted...... to an acute medical department at a Danish university hospital were interviewed on the day of admission about their recent medication use. Blood samples drawn immediately after admission were screened for contents of 5 drugs (digoxin, bendroflumethiazide, amlodipine, simvastatin, glimepiride), and the results...
Abma, F.I.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Terwee, C.B.; Amick, B.C.; Bultmann, U.
Objectives During the past decade, common mental disorders (CMD) have emerged as a major public and occupational health problem in many countries. Several instruments have been developed to measure the influence of health on functioning at work. To select appropriate instruments for use in
Sempos Christopher T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data have been published on the validity of classification of overweight and obesity based on self-reported weight in representative samples of Hispanic as compared to other American populations despite the wide use of such data. Objective To test the null hypothesis that ethnicity is unrelated to bias of mean body mass index (BMI and to sensitivity of overweight or obesity (BMI >= 25 kg/m2 derived from self-reported (SR versus measured weight and height using measured BMI as the gold standard. Design Cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III conducted in 1988–1994. Participants American men and women aged 20 years and over (n = 15,025. Measurements SR height, weight, cigarette smoking, health status, and socio-demographic variables from home interview and measured weight and height. Results In women and Mexican American (MA men SR BMI underestimated true prevalence rates of overweight or obesity. For other men, no consistent difference was seen. Sensitivity of SR was similar in non-Hispanic European Americans (EA and non-Hispanic African Americans (AA but much lower in MA. Prevalence of obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m2 is consistently underestimated by self-report, the gap being greater for MA than for other women, but similar for MA and other men. The mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI was greater in MA (men -0.37, women -0.76 kg/m2 than in non-Hispanic EA (men -0.22, women -0.62 kg/m2. In a regression model with the difference between self-reported and measured BMI as the dependent variable, MA ethnicity was a significant (p Conclusion Under-estimation of the prevalence of overweight or obesity based on height and weight self-reported at interview varied significantly among ethnic groups independent of other variables.
Schlegel, Claudia; Woermann, Ulrich; Rethans, Jan-Joost; van der Vleuten, Cees
In the training of healthcare professionals, one of the advantages of communication training with simulated patients (SPs) is the SP's ability to provide direct feedback to students after a simulated clinical encounter. The quality of SP feedback must be monitored, especially because it is well known that feedback can have a profound effect on student performance. Due to the current lack of valid and reliable instruments to assess the quality of SP feedback, our study examined the validity and reliability of one potential instrument, the 'modified Quality of Simulated Patient Feedback Form' (mQSF). Content validity of the mQSF was assessed by inviting experts in the area of simulated clinical encounters to rate the importance of the mQSF items. Moreover, generalizability theory was used to examine the reliability of the mQSF. Our data came from videotapes of clinical encounters between six simulated patients and six students and the ensuing feedback from the SPs to the students. Ten faculty members judged the SP feedback according to the items on the mQSF. Three weeks later, this procedure was repeated with the same faculty members and recordings. All but two items of the mQSF received importance ratings of > 2.5 on a four-point rating scale. A generalizability coefficient of 0.77 was established with two judges observing one encounter. The findings for content validity and reliability with two judges suggest that the mQSF is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the quality of feedback provided by simulated patients.
Amy Z Fan
Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising
This paper examines issues arising from the use of self-report questionnaires in cross-cultural contexts. The research draws from the extensive literature on cross-cultural leadership in business organizational culture as well as from educational cross-cultural contexts. It examines claims, drawn from business and educational contexts, that many…
Cundiff, Jenny M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Frandsen, Clay A.
The personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently related to marital quality, influencing the individual's own (i.e., actor effect) and the spouse's marital quality (i.e., partner effect). However, this research has almost exclusively relied on self-reports of personality, despite the fact that spouse ratings have been found…
Chen, Stephanie Y; Griffin, Brianna M; Mancuso, Dean; Shiau, Stephanie; DiMattia, Michelle; Cellum, Ilana; Harvey Boyd, Kelly; Prevoteau, Charlotte; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Lalwani, Anil K
Although speech perception tests are available to evaluate hearing, there is no standardized validated tool to quantify speech quality. The objective of this study is to develop a validated tool to measure quality of speech heard. Prospective instrument validation study of 35 normal hearing adults recruited at a tertiary referral center. Participants listened to 44 speech clips of male/female voices reciting the Rainbow Passage. Speech clips included original and manipulated excerpts capturing goal qualities such as mechanical and garbled. Listeners rated clips on a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) of 18 characteristics (e.g. cartoonish, garbled). Skewed distribution analysis identified mean ratings in the upper and lower 2-point limits of the VAS (ratings of 8-10, 0-2, respectively); items with inconsistent responses were eliminated. The test was pruned to a final instrument of nine speech clips that clearly define qualities of interest: speech-like, male/female, cartoonish, echo-y, garbled, tinny, mechanical, rough, breathy, soothing, hoarse, like, pleasant, natural. Mean ratings were highest for original female clips (8.8) and lowest for not-speech manipulation (2.1). Factor analysis identified two subsets of characteristics: internal consistency demonstrated Cronbach's alpha of 0.95 and 0.82 per subset. Test-retest reliability of total scores was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.76. The Speech Quality Instrument (SQI) is a concise, valid tool for assessing speech quality as an indicator for hearing performance. SQI may be a valuable outcome measure for cochlear implant recipients who, despite achieving excellent speech perception, often experience poor speech quality. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Maria do Rosário Gondim Peixoto
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade do peso e altura referidos no diagnóstico da obesidade e identificar características sociodemográficas e individuais que podem constituir viés de informação. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal populacional realizado na cidade de Goiânia em 2001. Em entrevista domiciliar com 1.023 indivíduos de 20-64 anos, foram coletadas informações sociodemográficas e sobre peso e altura referidos. Na ocasião, os indivíduos foram pesados e medidos. Foram calculadas diferenças entre médias, coeficiente de correlação e de medidas referidas e aferidas, segundo idade, índice de massa corporal, escolaridade, renda e altura. RESULTADOS: Homens e mulheres superestimaram a altura (p0,05. O comportamento de supestimar a altura foi influenciado pela idade, escolaridade, altura e índice de massa corporal. Embora o índice obtido a partir dos dados referidos tenha sido subestimado (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of self-reported weight and height at the time of diagnosing obesity, and to identify the sociodemographic and individual characteristics that might be a source of information bias. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study carried out in the city of Goiânia in 2001. Interviews were conducted with 1,023 individuals aged 20-64 years, in their homes, to collect sociodemographic and self-reported weight and height information. On the same occasion, weight and height measurements were made on these individuals. The mean differences and correlation coefficients between self-reported and measured data were calculated according to age, body mass index (BMI, schooling, income and height. RESULTS: Both the men and women overestimated their heights (p0.05. The behavior of overestimating height was influenced by age, schooling, height and body mass index. Although this index obtained from the self-reported data was underestimated (p<0.05, by 0.27 kg/m² and 0.67 kg/m² for men and women respectively, the measured
Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather
The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Paula G; Rau, Holly K; Suchy, Yana; Thorgusen, Sommer R; Smith, Timothy W
Individual differences in attentional control involve the ability to voluntarily direct, shift, and sustain attention. In studies of the role of attentional control in emotional adjustment, social relationships, and vulnerability to the effects of stress, self-report questionnaires are commonly used to measure this construct. Yet, convincing evidence of the association between self-report scales and actual cognitive performance has not been demonstrated. Across 2 independent samples, we examined associations between self-reported attentional control (Attentional Control Scale; ACS), self-reported emotional adjustment, Five-Factor Model personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and performance measures of attentional control. Study 1 examined behavioral performance on the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002) and the Modified Switching Task (MST; Suchy & Kosson, 2006) in a large sample (n = 315) of healthy young adults. Study 2 (n = 78) examined behavioral performance on standardized neuropsychological tests of attention, including Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II and subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Third Edition (WAIS-III; Psychological Corporation, 1997) and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). Results indicated that the ACS was largely unrelated to behavioral performance measures of attentional control but was significantly associated with emotional adjustment, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. These findings suggest that although self-reported attentional control may be a useful construct, researchers using the ACS should exercise caution in interpreting it as a proxy for actual cognitive ability or performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Chipi, Elena; Frattini, Giulia; Eusebi, Paolo; Mollica, Anita; D'Andrea, Katia; Russo, Mirella; Bernardelli, Alice; Montanucci, Chiara; Luchetti, Elisa; Calabresi, Paolo; Parnetti, Lucilla
The Alzheimer's disease Cooperative Study (ADCS)-Cognitive Function Instrument (CFI) is a 14-item questionnaire administered to the subject and the referent, aimed at detecting early changes in cognitive and functional abilities in individuals without clinical impairment. It is used for monitoring annual variations in cognitive functioning in prevention trials. The aim of the present study was to validate the Italian version of the CFI. A consecutive series of 257 functionally independent subjects was recruited among relatives of patients or as volunteers. They were administered CFI and global cognition measurements: Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). The reliability and criterion validity were comparable to the original in both self- and partner-report. Similarly to what reported in the original version, we found a corrected item-total correlation ranging between 0.38 and 0.54 in self-report and between 0.33 and 0.64 in partner-report. Cronbach's α was 0.77 (95% CI 0.72-0.83) in self-report and 0.78 (95% CI 0.73-0.84) in partner-report. Total partner- and self-report scores were significantly correlated (rS = 0.31, p reliability and validity of the Italian version of CFI. In order to definitely propose the use of CFI for tracking longitudinal changes of cognitive and functional abilities in subjects without clinical impairment, data from the follow-up of this cohort are needed.
Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A; Uscanga, Doris K; Hanfling, Marcus J
Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI) and intraclass correlations (ICC) across research assistant ratings. The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (kappa = 0.97, n = 96, p < 0.001) and convergent validity (kappa = 0.87, n = 81, p < 0.001). The pedestrian safety behavior checklist had moderate reliability across research assistants' ratings (ICC = 0.48) and moderate correlation with the PI (r = 0.55, p = < 0.01). When two raters simultaneously used the instrument, the ICC increased to 0.65. Overall percent agreement (91%), sensitivity (85%) and specificity (83%) were acceptable. These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work.
Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality.
Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Jensen, Chris; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Fleten, Nils; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM) has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1) validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2) validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were used. The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6). Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100). The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9) weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1).The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 - 95.5) % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 - 65.6) % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 - 88.6) % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 - 99.3) %. The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick leave spells of at least 15 days among eldercare employees. Pregnancy
Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality
Stapelfeldt Christina Malmose
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1 validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2 validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Methods Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI were used. Results The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6. Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100. The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9 weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1. The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 – 95.5 % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 – 65.6 % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 – 88.6 % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 – 99.3 %. Conclusions The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick
Soler, Joaquim; Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; García-Rizo, Clemente; Vega, Daniel; Elices, Matilde; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Carmona, Cristina; Pascual, Juan C
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common and severe mental illness. Early detection is important and reliable screening instruments are required. To date, however, there has been no evidence of any specific BPD screening tool validated for the Spanish-speaking population. The McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD) is a 10-item self-report questionnaire that can detect the presence of BPD in a reliable and quick manner. The aim of the present study is the validation of the MSI-BPD for its use in the Spanish-speaking population. Psychometric properties of the MSI-BPD Spanish version were examined in a sample of 344 participants (170 outpatients with the possible diagnosis of BPD and 174 healthy controls). Exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of a bi-factorial structure. The scale showed a high internal consistency (KR-20=0.873) and an optimal test-retest reliability (ICC=0.87). Using logistic regression analyses and taking the DIB-R as reference, a best cut-off of 7 was determined, obtaining a good sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.68). The area under the curve, was 0.742 (95% CI 0.660-0.824). The discriminant analysis showed a classification ability of 72.8%. The Spanish version of the MSI-BPD has good psychometric properties as a measure for the screening of BPD. Its ease and quickness of use make it valuable to detect the presence of BPD in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Despite the vast studies on the measurement of teachers’ sense of efficacy, little has been done in the domain of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL. Hence, this study was motivated by a practical need to develop and validate a teacher efficacy questionnaire in TEFL. To this end, the questionnaire (English Language Teachers’ Efficacy Beliefs Questionnaire (ELTEBQ was developed through semi-structured interviews with English university instructors of universities in Iran and a review of relevant literature. In order to validate the instrument it was administrated to 65 English language instructors. The result of factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution with a reliability index (Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.82.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe Routes to School (SRTS programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Methods Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI and intraclass correlations (ICC across research assistant ratings. Results The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (κ = 0.97, n = 96, p Conclusions These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work.
Vreugdenhil, Jettie; Spek, Bea
Clinical reasoning in patient care is a skill that cannot be observed directly. So far, no reliable, valid instrument exists for the assessment of nursing students' clinical reasoning skills in hospital practice. Lasater's clinical judgment rubric (LCJR), based on Tanner's model "Thinking like a nurse" has been tested, mainly in academic simulation settings. The aim is to develop a Dutch version of the LCJR (D-LCJR) and to test its psychometric properties when used in a hospital traineeship context. A mixed-model approach was used to develop and to validate the instrument. Ten dedicated educational units in a university hospital. A well-mixed group of 52 nursing students, nurse coaches and nurse educators. A Delphi panel developed the D-LCJR. Students' clinical reasoning skills were assessed "live" by nurse coaches, nurse educators and students who rated themselves. The psychometric properties tested during the assessment process are reliability, reproducibility, content validity and construct validity by testing two hypothesis: 1) a positive correlation between assessed and self-reported sum scores (convergent validity) and 2) a linear relation between experience and sum score (clinical validity). The obtained D-LCJR was found to be internally consistent, Cronbach's alpha 0.93. The rubric is also reproducible with intraclass correlations between 0.69 and 0.78. Experts judged it to be content valid. The two hypothesis were both tested significant, supporting evidence for construct validity. The translated and modified LCJR, is a promising tool for the evaluation of nursing students' development in clinical reasoning in hospital traineeships, by students, nurse coaches and nurse educators. More evidence on construct validity is necessary, in particular for students at the end of their hospital traineeship. Based on our research, the D-LCJR applied in hospital traineeships is a usable and reliable tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Senín-Calderón, Cristina; Valdés-Díaz, María; Benítez-Hernández, Ma M; Núñez-Gaitán, Ma C; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Martínez-Cervantes, Rafael; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan F
Dysmorphic concern (DC) refers to excessive preoccupation with a slight or imagined defect in physical appearance with social avoidance and behavior directed at controlling the defect in appearance. This study attempted to adapt the factor structure of two instruments that cover the DC construct, the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination Self-Report (BDDE-SR), to Spanish and establish their psychometric properties. A total of 920 subjects (62.7% women, M age = 32.44 years) participated. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of both scales found adequate goodness of fit indices. A one-dimensional structure was found for the DCQ and two first-order factors (dissatisfaction/preoccupation with body image (BI) and BI avoidance behavior) were identified for the BDDE-SR. The psychometric test-retest reliability and validity properties (content, convergent, and discriminant) were satisfactory. It is suggested that the DC construct includes both cognitive and behavioral aspects and may represent a continuum of severity with Body Dysmorphic Disorder at the end.
Full Text Available Dysmorphic concern (DC refers to excessive preoccupation with a slight or imagined defect in physical appearance with social avoidance and behavior directed at controlling the defect in appearance. This study attempted to adapt the factor structure of two instruments that cover the DC construct, the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ and the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination Self-Report (BDDE-SR, to Spanish and establish their psychometric properties. A total of 920 subjects (62.7% women, Mage = 32.44 years participated. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of both scales found adequate goodness of fit indices. A one-dimensional structure was found for the DCQ and two first-order factors (dissatisfaction/preoccupation with body image (BI and BI avoidance behavior were identified for the BDDE-SR. The psychometric test–retest reliability and validity properties (content, convergent, and discriminant were satisfactory. It is suggested that the DC construct includes both cognitive and behavioral aspects and may represent a continuum of severity with Body Dysmorphic Disorder at the end.
The primary purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to examine science teachers' assessment beliefs and practices in science classrooms. The present study also investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs and practices in terms of assessment issues in science, their perceptions of the factors that influenced their assessment practices and their feelings towards high-stakes testing. The participants of the study were 408 science teachers teaching at middle and high school levels in the State of Florida. Data were collected through two modes of administration of the instrument as a paper-and-pencil and a web-based form. The response rate for paper-and-pencil administration was estimated as 68% whereas the response for the web administration was found to be 27%. Results from the various dimensions of validity and reliability analyses revealed that the 24 item-four-factor belief and practice measures were psychometrically sound and conceptually anchored measures of science teachers' assessment beliefs and self-reported practices. Reliability estimates for the belief measure ranged from .83 to .91 whereas alpha values for the practice measure ranged from .56 to .90. Results from the multigroup analysis supported that the instrument has the same theoretical structure across both administration groups. Therefore, future researchers may use either a paper-and-pencil or web-based format of the instrument. This study underscored a discrepancy between what teachers believe and how they act in classroom settings. It was emphasized that certain factors were mediating the dynamics between the belief and the practice. The majority of teachers reported that instruction time, class size, professional development activities, availability of school funding, and state testing mandates impact their assessment routines. Teachers reported that both the preparation process and the results of the test created unbelievable tension both on students and
Lynne S. Nemeth
Full Text Available An examination of the psychometric properties of the Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey (LVNS, an instrument previously developed to measure the perceived incidence and severity of lateral violence (LV in the nursing workplace, was carried out. Conceptual clustering and principal components analysis were used with survey responses from 663 registered nurses and ancillary nursing staff in a southeastern tertiary care medical center. Where appropriate, Cronbach’s alpha (α evaluated internal consistency. The prevalence/severity of lateral violence items constitute two distinct subscales (LV by self and others with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.74 and 0.86, respectively. The items asking about potential causes of LV are unidimensional and internally consistent (alpha = 0.77 but there is no conceptually coherent theme underlying the various causes. Respondents rating a potential LV cause as “major” scored higher on both prevalence/severity subscales than those rating it a “minor” cause or not a cause. Subsets of items on the LVNS are internally reliable, supporting construct validity. Revisions of the original LVNS instrument will improve its use in future work.
Wolf E Mehling
Full Text Available Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct.From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments.Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding
Glintborg, Bente; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Olsen, Lenette Holm
inspected, and patients were interviewed about their drug use. Additional blood samples were drawn for drug analysis. The median age of included patients was 72 years, and 298 patients (60%) were women. Patients reported use of 3 (median) prescription-only medications (range, 0-14) during the structured...... interview. The congruence between self-report and drug analysis was high for all 5 drugs measured (all kappa >0.8). However, 9 patients (2%) reported use of drugs that were not detected in their blood samples. In 29 patients (6%), the blood samples contained drugs not reported during the structured...... to an acute medical department at a Danish university hospital were interviewed on the day of admission about their recent medication use. Blood samples drawn immediately after admission were screened for contents of 5 drugs (digoxin, bendroflumethiazide, amlodipine, simvastatin, glimepiride), and the results...
Full Text Available In this paper a self-report questionnaire on reading-writing difficulties for adults in Spanish (ATLAS is presented. Studies that use self-report questionnaires as a tool for screening of reading-writing difficulties in adults were reviewed. Two studies were carried out to determine the validity and reliability of ATLAS. The first study was aimed to select the critical items and to assess their reliability and their ability to discriminate. In the second study the assessment reported through the answers to the questionnaire was contrasted with the results of psychometric tests. Results showed that (a items were suitable descriptors for adult difficulties, (b there were significant correlations between self-report scores and reading measures, and (c the items discriminate between good and poor readers. The results of this study demonstrated that ATLAS is a sensitive tool to screen adults with reading difficulties. As a further advantage, ATLAS is an easy-to-use and time-saving instrument.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a scale unique to our culture, concerning individual instrument performance anxiety of the students who are getting instrument training in the Department of Music Education. In the study, the descriptive research model is used and qualitative research techniques are utilized. The study population consists of the students attending the 23 universities which has Music Education Department. The sample of the study consists of 438 girls and 312 boys, totally 750 students who are studying in the Department of Music Education of randomly selected 10 universities. As a result of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses that were performed, a one-dimensional structure consisting of 14 items was obtained. Also, t-scores and the coefficient scores of total item correlation concerning the distinguishing power of the items, the difference in the scores of the set of lower and upper 27% was calculated, and it was observed that the items are distinguishing as a result of both analyses. Of the scale, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .94, and test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated as .93. As a result, a valid and reliable assessment and evaluation instrument that measures the exam performance anxiety of the students studying in the Department of Music Education, has been developed.Extended AbstractsIntroductionAnxiety is a universal phenomenon which people experience once or a few times during lives. It was accepted as concern for the future or as an unpleasant emotional experience regarding probable hitches of the events (Di Tomasso & Gosch, 2002.In general, the occasions on which negative feelings are experienced cause anxiety to arise (Baltaş and Baltaş, 2000. People also feel anxious in dangerous situations. Anxiety may lead a person to be creative, while it may have hindering characteristics. Anxiety is that an individual considers him
Self-reported pain severity, quality of life, disability, anxiety and depression in patients classified with 'nociceptive', 'peripheral neuropathic' and 'central sensitisation' pain. The discriminant validity of mechanisms-based classifications of low back (±leg) pain.
Smart, Keith M
Evidence of validity is required to support the use of mechanisms-based classifications of pain clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of \\'nociceptive\\' (NP), \\'peripheral neuropathic\\' (PNP) and \\'central sensitisation\\' (CSP) as mechanisms-based classifications of pain in patients with low back (±leg) pain by evaluating the extent to which patients classified in this way differ from one another according to health measures associated with various dimensions of pain. This study employed a cross-sectional, between-subjects design. Four hundred and sixty-four patients with low back (±leg) pain were assessed using a standardised assessment protocol. Clinicians classified each patient\\'s pain using a mechanisms-based classification approach. Patients completed a number of self-report measures associated with pain severity, health-related quality of life, functional disability, anxiety and depression. Discriminant validity was evaluated using a multivariate analysis of variance. There was a statistically significant difference between pain classifications on the combined self-report measures, (p = .001; Pillai\\'s Trace = .33; partial eta squared = .16). Patients classified with CSP (n = 106) reported significantly more severe pain, poorer general health-related quality of life, and greater levels of back pain-related disability, depression and anxiety compared to those classified with PNP (n = 102) and NP (n = 256). A similar pattern was found in patients with PNP compared to NP. Mechanisms-based pain classifications may reflect meaningful differences in attributes underlying the multidimensionality of pain. Further studies are required to evaluate the construct and criterion validity of mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain.
Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina
Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...
Haslam, Divna; Filus, Ania; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R; Fletcher, Renee
This paper outlines the development and validation of the Work-Family Conflict Scale (WAFCS) designed to measure work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) for use with parents of young children. An expert informant and consumer feedback approach was utilised to develop and refine 20 items, which were subjected to a rigorous validation process using two separate samples of parents of 2-12 year old children (n = 305 and n = 264). As a result of statistical analyses several items were dropped resulting in a brief 10-item scale comprising two subscales assessing theoretically distinct but related constructs: FWC (five items) and WFC (five items). Analyses revealed both subscales have good internal consistency, construct validity as well as concurrent and predictive validity. The results indicate the WAFCS is a promising brief measure for the assessment of work-family conflict in parents. Benefits of the measure as well as potential uses are discussed.
Validade da hipertensão autorreferida associa-se inversamente com escolaridade em brasileiros Validity of self-reported hypertension is inversely associated with the level of education in Brazilian individuals
Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro Selem
.BACKGROUND: Self-reported hypertension is an important piece of information for public health that is available in epidemiological studies. For proper use of this information, such studies should be validated. OBJECTIVE: To validate self-reported hypertension and associated factors in adults and elderly individuals in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Participants were selected from the sample of a population-based cross-sectional health survey carried out in São Paulo (ISA Capital-2008. Their age was 20 years or older, they were from both genders, and had their blood pressure measured (n = 535. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg and/or use of medication for hypertension. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Poisson regression was used to identify factors associated with sensitivity of self-reported hypertension. RESULTS: Sensitivity of self-reported hypertension was 71.1% (95%CI: 64.8 to 76.9, specificity 80.5% (95%CI: 75.6 to 84.8, PPV 73.7% (95%CI: 67.4 to 79.3, and NPV 78.5% (95%CI: 73.5 to 82.9. There was moderate agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension as diagnosed by blood pressure measurement (kappa = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.45 to 0.59. Body mass index and level of education were independently associated with sensitivity (body mass index > 25 kg/m²: PR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.76; schooling > 9 years: PR = 0.71 95%CI: 0.54-0.94. CONCLUSION: Self-reported hypertension was shown to be valid in adults and the elderly in the city of São Paulo, and is thus an appropriate indicator for the surveillance of hypertension prevalence in the absence of blood pressure measurement. Overweight was positively associated with validity of self-reported hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the inverse association between the validity of self-reported hypertension and level of education.
Validade da hipertensão autorreferida associa-se inversamente com escolaridade em brasileiros Validity of self-reported hypertension is inversely associated with the level of education in Brazilian individuals
Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro Selem
.BACKGROUND: Self-reported hypertension is an important piece of information for public health that is available in epidemiological studies. For proper use of this information, such studies should be validated. OBJECTIVE: To validate self-reported hypertension and associated factors in adults and elderly individuals in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Participants were selected from the sample of a population-based cross-sectional health survey carried out in São Paulo (ISA Capital-2008. Their age was 20 years or older, they were from both genders, and had their blood pressure measured (n = 535. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg and/or use of medication for hypertension. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Poisson regression was used to identify factors associated with sensitivity of self-reported hypertension. RESULTS: Sensitivity of self-reported hypertension was 71.1% (95%CI: 64.8 to 76.9, specificity 80.5% (95%CI: 75.6 to 84.8, PPV 73.7% (95%CI: 67.4 to 79.3, and NPV 78.5% (95%CI: 73.5 to 82.9. There was moderate agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension as diagnosed by blood pressure measurement (kappa = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.45 to 0.59. Body mass index and level of education were independently associated with sensitivity (body mass index > 25 kg/m²: PR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.76; schooling > 9 years: PR = 0.71 95%CI: 0.54-0.94. CONCLUSION: Self-reported hypertension was shown to be valid in adults and the elderly in the city of São Paulo, and is thus an appropriate indicator for the surveillance of hypertension prevalence in the absence of blood pressure measurement. Overweight was positively associated with validity of self-reported hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the inverse association between the validity of self-reported hypertension and level of education.
Full Text Available Introduction: In this study it was aimed to study validity and reliability of Turkish form of Massachusetts outh Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2.Method and materials: Totally 387 adolescents, 333 boys and 54 girls participated to the study. Calculation of each subscale’s Cronbach’s alpha and inter subscales correlation coefficiency has been performed to assess reliability of Turkish form of MAYSI-2. Explanatory factor analysis and Turkish form of Youth Self Report (YSR have been used to assess validity of the scale.Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficiency values were 0.84 for Alcohol/Drug Use, 0.78 for Anger/Irritability, 0.66 for Depression/Anxiety, 0.58 for Somatic Complaints, 0.84 for Suicidal Ideation, 0,15 for Thought Disturbance, 0.55 for Traumatic Experiences for boys and 0.66 for Traumatic Experiences for girls. Turkish form of MAYSI-2 consisted of seven factor structure as the original one in explanatory factor analysis. Statistically significant correlation coefficiencies which range between 0.27 and 0.69 were found in between all the subscales of both Turkish form of MAYSI-2 and Turkish YSR.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that Turkish form of MAYSI-2 is valid and reliable to perform risk assessment with regard to psychiatric disorders among Turkish youth population who entered to the juvenile justice system.
Erkin, Özüm; Göl, İlknur
This study aims to measure the validity and reliability of Turkish male breast self-examination (MBSE) instrument. The methodological study was performed in 2016 at Ege University, Faculty of Nursing, İzmir, Turkey. The MBSE includes ten steps. For validity studies, face validity, content validity, and construct validity (exploratory factor analysis) were done. For reliability study, Kuder Richardson was calculated. The content validity index was found to be 0.94. Kendall W coefficient was 0.80 (p=0.551). The total variance explained by the two factors was found to be 63.24%. Kuder Richardson 21 was done for reliability study and found to be 0.97 for the instrument. The final instrument included 10 steps and two stages. The Turkish version of MBSE is a valid and reliable instrument for early diagnose. The MBSE can be used in Turkish speaking countries and cultures with two stages and 10 steps.
Bödeker, Malte; Bucksch, Jens; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit
The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire allows to assess physical activity within and outside the neighborhood. Study objectives were to examine the criterion-related validity and health/functioning associations of Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire-derived physical activity in German older adults. A total of 107 adults aged…
Dadun,; Peters, Ruth M. H.; Van Brakel, Wim H.; Lusli, Mimi; Damayanti, Rita; Irwanto, A.; Bunders- Aelen, J.G.F.
Background: There is a need for comprehensive, valid and reliable instruments to assess leprosy-related stigma. This paper presents the process of the cross-cultural validation of an instrument in Cirebon District, Indonesia initiated by the Stigma Assessment and Reduction of Impact (SARI) project.
van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Donker, Tara; Martin Abello, Katherina; Marks, Isaac; Cuijpers, Pim
The advent of web-based treatments for anxiety disorders creates a need for quick and valid online screening instruments, suitable for a range of social groups. This study validates a single-item multimedia screening instrument for agoraphobia, part of the Visual Screener for Common Mental Disorders
Mangione, Katherine Anna
This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a
Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K.; Stein, Dan J.; Sorsdahl, Katherine
Common mental disorders are highly prevalent in emergency centre (EC) patients, yet few brief screening tools have been validated for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) ECs. This study explored the psychometric properties of the SRQ-20 screening tool in South African ECs using the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as the gold standard comparison tool. Patients (n=200) from two ECs in Cape Town, South Africa were interviewed using the SRQ-20 and the MINI. Internal consistency, screening properties and factorial validity were examined. The SRQ-20 was effective in identifying participants with major depression, anxiety disorders or suicidality and displayed good internal consistency. The optimal cutoff scores were 4/5 and 6/7 for men and women respectively. The factor structure differed by gender. The SRQ-20 is a useful tool for EC settings in South Africa and holds promise for task-shifted approaches to decreasing the LMIC burden of mental disorders. PMID:26957953
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The importance of content validity in the instrument psychometric and its relevance with reliability, have made it an essential step in the instrument development. This article attempts to give an overview of the content validity process and to explain the complexity of this process by introducing an example. Methods: We carried out a methodological study conducted to examine the content validity of the patient-centered communication instrument through a two-step process (development and judgment. At the first step, domain determination, sampling (item generation and instrument formation and at the second step, content validity ratio, content validity index and modified kappa statistic was performed. Suggestions of expert panel and item impact scores are used to examine the instrument face validity. Results: From a set of 188 items, content validity process identified seven dimensions includes trust building (eight items, informational support (seven items, emotional support (five items, problem solving (seven items, patient activation (10 items, intimacy/friendship (six items and spirituality strengthening (14 items. Content validity study revealed that this instrument enjoys an appropriate level of content validity. The overall content validity index of the instrument using universal agreement approach was low; however, it can be advocated with respect to the high number of content experts that makes consensus difficult and high value of the S-CVI with the average approach, which was equal to 0.93. Conclusion: This article illustrates acceptable quantities indices for content validity a new instrument and outlines them during design and psychometrics of patient-centered communication measuring instrument.
Donovan, Corinne Baron; Mercier, Kevin; Phillips, Sharon R.
The Centers for Disease Control have suggested that physical education plays a role in promoting healthy lifestyles. Prior research suggests a link between attitudes toward physical education and physical activity outside school. The current study provides additional evidence of construct validity through a validation across two instruments…
Mudarra, Maria J.; Lázaro Martínez, Ángel
Introduction: The current study demonstrates empirical and cultural validity of "La Clave Profesional" (Spanish adaptation of Career Key, Jones's test based Holland's RIASEC model). The process of providing validity evidence also includes a reflection on personal and career development and examines the relationahsips between RIASEC…
Alfian; Siti Suprapti; Setyo Purwanto
NAA is a method of testing that has not been standardized. To affirm and confirm that this method is valid. it must be done validation of the method with various sample standard reference materials. In this work. the validation is carried for food product samples using NIST SRM 1567a (wheat flour) and NIST SRM 1568a (rice flour). The results show that the validation method for testing nine elements (Al, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ca, Fe, Se and Zn) in SRM 1567a and eight elements (Al, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ca, Se and Zn ) in SRM 1568a pass the test of accuracy and precision. It can be conclude that this method has power to give valid result in determination element of the food products samples. (author)
The validity of socioeconomic status measures among adolescents based on self-reported information about parents occupations, FAS and perceived SES; implication for health related quality of life studies
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown inconsistencies in results and difficulties in conceptualization of assessment of socioeconomic status (SES among adolescents. The aim of this study was thus to test the validity of self-reported information on SES in two age-groups (11–13 and 14–16 years old in an adolescent population and to evaluate its relationship to self-reported health related quality of life (HRQOL. Different measures of SES commonly used in research in relation to HRQOL were tested in this study; parent’s occupations status, family material affluence status (FAS and perceived SES. Method A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 948 respondents (n = 467, 11–13 years old and n = 481, 14–16 years old completed questionnaires about SES and HRQOL. The adolescents’ completion rates were used, with chi2-test, to investigate differences between gender and age-group. Correlation was used for convergent validity and ANOVA for concurrent validity. Results We found a low completion rate for both fathers’ (41.7 % and mothers' (37.5 % occupation status, and a difference in completion rate between gender and age-groups. FAS had the highest completion rate (100 % compared to parent's occupations status and perceived SES. The convergent validity between the SES-indicators was weak (Spearman correlation coefficient below 0.3, suggesting that the indicators measured different dimensions of SES. Both FAS and perceived SES showed a gradient in mean HRQOL between low and high SES in relation to HRQOL, this was significant only for perceived SES (p < 0.01, both age-groups. Conclusion This study indicates the need for considering different approaches to measures of SES among adolescences and when evaluating SES in relation to HRQOL. Further research is needed to investigate sustainable ways to measure SES, delineating the relevance of tangible measures of education, occupation and income in relation to the perceived
Validity and reliability of self-reported weight and height measures for the diagnoses of adolescent's nutritional status Validade e confiabilidade das medidas referidas de peso e estatura para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional de adolescents
Carla Cristina Enes
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the validity and reliability of self-reported height, weight, and Body Mass Index (BMI to diagnose the nutritional status of adolescents. METHODS: The study included 360 public school students of both genders, with ages ranging from 10 to 15 years. Adolescents self-reported their weight and height, and these values were later obtained directly by interviewers. The validity of BMI based on self-reported measures was calculated using sensitivity and specificity indexes, and positive predictive value (PPV. Agreement between self-reported and measured BMI was evaluated using Kappa's weight coefficient, the Lin correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman and Lin's plots. RESULTS: Both girls and boys underestimated their weight (-1.0 girls and boys and height (girls - 1.2 and boys - 0.8 (p OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade do peso, estatura e Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC referidos e sua confiabilidade para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional de adolescentes de Piracicaba. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 360 adolescentes de ambos os sexos, de escolas públicas de Piracicaba, com idade entre 10 e 15 anos. Os adolescentes auto-relataram seu peso e estatura, sendo esses valores obtidos por medidas diretas, logo em seguida, pelos entrevistadores. A validade do IMC referido foi calculada segundo índices de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo (VPP. Avaliou-se a concordância entre as categorias de IMC obtido por meio das medidas referidas e aferidas a partir do coeficiente kappa ponderado, coeficiente de correlação de Lin. e gráficos de Bland e Altman e Lin. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que tanto os meninos quanto as meninas subestimaram o peso (-1,0 meninas e meninos e a estatura (meninas -1,2 e meninos -0,8 (p < 0,001. Os valores de IMC aferidos e referidos apresentaram uma concordância moderada. A sensibilidade do IMC referido para classificar os indivíduos obesos foi maior para os meninos (87,5%, enquanto a
José Manuel Palao
Full Text Available Technical and tactical actions determine performance in beach volleyball. This research develops and tests an instrument to monitor and evaluate the manner of execution and efficacy of the actions in beach volleyball. The purpose of this paper was to design and validate an observational instrument to analyze technical and tactical actions in beach volleyball. The instrument collects information regarding: a information about the match (context, b information about game situations, c information about technical situations (serve, reception, set, attack, block, and court defense in relation to player execution, role, manner of execution, execution zone, and efficacy, and d information about the result of the play (win-lose and way point is obtained. Instrument design and validation was done in seven stages: a review of literature and consultation of experts; b pilot observation and data analysis; c expert review of instrument (qualitative and quantitative evaluation; d observer training test; e expert review of instrument (content validity; f measurement of the ability of the instrument to discriminate the result of the set; and g measurement of the ability of the instrument to differentiate between competition age groups. The results show that the instrument allows for obtaining objective and valid information about the players and team from offensive and defensive technical and tactical actions, as well as indirectly from physical actions. The instrument can be used, in its entirety or partially, for researching and coaching purposes.
Hauer, Kristiane; Yardley, L; Beyer, N
Frail, old patients with and without cognitive impairment are at high risk of falls and associated medical and psychosocial issues. The lack of adequate, validated instruments has partly hindered research in this field. So far no questionnaire documenting fall-related self-efficacy/fear of falling...
Hauer, Kristiane; Yardley, L; Beyer, N
Frail, old patients with and without cognitive impairment are at high risk of falls and associated medical and psychosocial issues. The lack of adequate, validated instruments has partly hindered research in this field. So far no questionnaire documenting fall-related self-efficacy/fear of fallin...
Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
A number of methods exist for estimating the size of animal populations. All methods generate an uncertain estimate of population size, and have different properties, which can be taken into account when designing regulation. We consider hunting regulation when the population size is uncertain...... and when the self-reported bag is used to estimate the population size. The properties of a population tax and a tax on self-reported bag are analyzed and we begin by considering a baseline situation with full certainty and no use of self-reporting for population size estimation. Here individual hunters...... self-report a bag on zero and a population tax alone can secure an optimum. Next we show that when facing uncertain population size, a risk-averse hunter will self-report part of the bag to reduce the uncertain population tax payment, making both tax instruments necessary for reaching an optimum...
Abstract. Purpose: To develop an instrument (DSCKQ-30) for measuring type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge of self-care practices. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire (DSCKQ-30) consisting of close ended questions was developed for this study. DSCKQ-30 was self administered to a cross-section of randomly selected 400 ...
Gnjidic, Danijela; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Hilmer, Sarah N; Basilakis, Jim; Schaffer, Andrea L; Blyth, Fiona M; Banks, Emily
Increasingly, automated methods are being used to code free-text medication data, but evidence on the validity of these methods is limited. To examine the accuracy of automated coding of previously keyed in free-text medication data compared with manual coding of original handwritten free-text responses (the 'gold standard'). A random sample of 500 participants (475 with and 25 without medication data in the free-text box) enrolled in the 45 and Up Study was selected. Manual coding involved medication experts keying in free-text responses and coding using Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes (i.e. chemical substance 7-digit level; chemical subgroup 5-digit; pharmacological subgroup 4-digit; therapeutic subgroup 3-digit). Using keyed-in free-text responses entered by non-experts, the automated approach coded entries using the Australian Medicines Terminology database and assigned corresponding ATC codes. Based on manual coding, 1377 free-text entries were recorded and, of these, 1282 medications were coded to ATCs manually. The sensitivity of automated coding compared with manual coding was 79% (n = 1014) for entries coded at the exact ATC level, and 81.6% (n = 1046), 83.0% (n = 1064) and 83.8% (n = 1074) at the 5, 4 and 3-digit ATC levels, respectively. The sensitivity of automated coding for blank responses was 100% compared with manual coding. Sensitivity of automated coding was highest for prescription medications and lowest for vitamins and supplements, compared with the manual approach. Positive predictive values for automated coding were above 95% for 34 of the 38 individual prescription medications examined. Automated coding for free-text prescription medication data shows very high to excellent sensitivity and positive predictive values, indicating that automated methods can potentially be useful for large-scale, medication-related research.
Voloshina, Alexandra S; Ferris, Daniel P
Studying human and animal locomotion on an uneven terrain can be beneficial to basic science and applied studies for clinical and robotic applications. Traditional biomechanical analysis of human locomotion has often been limited to laboratory environments with flat, smooth runways and treadmills. The authors modified a regular exercise treadmill by attaching wooden blocks to the treadmill belt to yield an uneven locomotion surface. To ensure that these treadmill modifications facilitated biomechanical measurements, the authors compared ground reaction force data collected while a subject ran on the modified instrumented treadmill with a smooth surface with data collected using a conventional instrumented treadmill. Comparisons showed only minor differences. These results suggest that adding an uneven surface to a modified treadmill is a viable option for studying human or animal locomotion on an uneven terrain. Other types of surfaces (eg, compliant blocks) could be affixed in a similar manner for studies on other types of locomotion surfaces.
Lindgren, Margareta; Andersson, Inger S
Valid and reliable instruments for measuring the quality of care are needed for evaluation and improvement of nursing care. Previously developed and evaluated instruments, the Karen-patient and the Karen-personnel based on Donabedian's Structure-Process-Outcome triad (S-P-O triad) had promising content validity, discriminative power and internal consistency. The objective of this study was to further develop the instruments with regard to construct validity and internal consistency. This prospective study was carried out in medical and surgical wards at a hospital in Sweden. A total of 95 patients and 120 personnel were included. The instruments were tested for construct validity by performing factor analyses in two steps and for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The first confirmatory factor analyses, with a pre-determined three-factor solution did not load well according to the S-P-O triad, but the second exploratory factor analysis with a six-factor solution appeared to be more coherent and the distribution of variables seemed to be logical. The reliability, i.e. internal consistency, was good in both factor analyses. The Karen-patient and the Karen-personnel instruments have achieved acceptable levels of construct validity. The internal consistency of the instruments is good. This indicates that the instruments may be suitable to use in clinical practice for measuring the quality of nursing care.
McGee, Jennifer R.; Wang, Chuang
The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument (SETMI). Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest provided insights into the…
Peltier, James W.; Cummins, Shannon; Pomirleanu, Nadia; Cross, James; Simon, Rob
Students' desire and intention to pursue a career in sales continue to lag behind industry demand for sales professionals. This article develops and validates a reliable and parsimonious scale for measuring and predicting student intention to pursue a selling career. The instrument advances previous scales in three ways. The instrument is…
Ezeudu, F. O.; Chiaha, G. T. U.; Eze, J. U.
The study was designed to develop and factorially validate an instrument for measuring teaching practice skills of chemistry student-teachers in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Two research questions guided the study. The design of the study was instrumentation. All the chemistry student-teachers in the Department of Science Education, University…
van Saane, N.; Sluiter, J. K.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.
Background Although job satisfaction research has been carried out for decades, no recent overview of job satisfaction instruments and their quality is available. Aim The aim of this systematic review is to select job satisfaction instruments of adequate reliability and validity for use as
The study of competencies in student affairs began more than 4 decades ago, but no instrument currently exists to measure competencies broadly. This study builds upon previous research by developing an instrument to measure student affairs competencies. Results not only validate the competencies espoused by NASPA and ACPA, but also suggest adding…
Voigt-Radloff, S.; Leonhart, R.; Schutzwohl, M.; Jurjanz, L.; Reuster, T.; Gerner, A.; Marschner, K.; van Nes, F.A.; Graff, M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Holthoff, V.; Hull, M.
Background and purpose: To translate the Dementia quality of life instrument (DQoL) into German and assess its construct and concurrent validity in community-dwelling people with mild to moderate dementia. Methods: Dementia quality of life instrument data of two pooled samples (n=287) were analysed
Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung
Background: Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose: The present study is to validate an…
Doheny, Margaret O; Sedlak, Carol A; Zeller, Richard; Estok, Patricia J
Smoking has a deleterious effect on bone mineral density. Psychometric properties were conducted for 3 smoking cessation subscales of the Osteoporosis Smoking Health Belief (OSHB) instrument: barriers, benefits, and self-efficacy. The instrument was evaluated by 6 nurse researchers, administered to a pilot sample of 23 adult smokers aged 19-39, and to a convenience sample of 59 adult smokers aged 19-84 years attending bingo at churches and community centers. Principal components factor analyses were conducted on the 18 items at both time points and accounted for 65.05% of the variances in the matrix at Time 1 and 71.19% at Time 2. The 3 statistical factors corresponded to the theoretically derived concepts. Cronbach's alphas for benefits of not smoking were .86 at Time 1 and .88 at Time 2; for barriers, .78 at Time 1 and .89 at Time 2; and for self-efficacy, .94 at Time 1 and .96 at Time 2. The test-retest correlations were .68 for benefits, .74 for barriers, and .79 for self-efficacy. Paired t tests showed no significant change over time. The OSHB meets relevant measurement criteria.
The IAEA has supported the availability of well functioning nuclear instruments in Member States over more than three decades. Some older or aged instruments are still being used and are still in good working condition. However, those instruments may not meet modern software requirements for the end-user in all cases. Therefore, Member States, mostly those with emerging economies, modernize/refurbish such instruments to meet the end-user demands. New advanced software is not only applied in case of new instrumentation, but often also for new and improved applications of modernized and/or refurbished instruments in many Member States for which in few cases the IAEA also provided support. Modern software applied in nuclear instrumentation plays a key role for their safe operation and execution of commands in a user friendly manner. Correct data handling and transfer has to be ensured. Additional features such as data visualization, interfacing to PC for control and data storage are often included. To finalize the task, where new instrumentation which is not commercially available is used, or aged instruments are modernized/refurbished, the applied software has to be verified and validated. A Technical Meeting on 'Validation Procedures of Software Applied in Nuclear Instruments' was organized in Vienna, 20-23 November 2006, to discuss the verification and validation process of software applied to operation and use of nuclear instruments. The presentations at the technical meeting included valuable information, which has been compiled and summarized in this publication, which should be useful for technical staff in Member States when modernizing/refurbishing nuclear instruments. 22 experts in the field of modernization/refurbishment of nuclear instruments as well as users of applied software presented their latest results. Discussion sessions followed the presentations. This publication is the outcome of deliberations during the meeting
Jansen, Daniel J.
Teacher efficacy continues to be an important area of study in educational research. This study tested an instrument designed to assess the perceived efficacy of agricultural education teachers when engaged in lessons involving mathematics instruction. The study population of Oregon and Washington agricultural educators utilized in the validation of the instrument revealed important demographic findings and specific results related to teacher efficacy for the study population. An instrument was developed from the assimilation of three scales previously used and validated in efficacy research. Participants' mathematics teaching efficacy was assessed using a portion of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI), and personal mathematics efficacy was evaluated by the mathematics self-belief instrument which was derived from the Betz and Hackett's Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale. The final scale, the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) created by Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy, examined perceived personal teaching efficacy. Structural equation modeling was used as the statistical analyses tool to validate the instrument and examine correlations between efficacy constructs used to determine potential professional development needs of the survey population. As part of the data required for validation of the Mathematics Enhancement Teaching Efficacy instrument, demographic information defining the population of Oregon and Washington agricultural educators was obtained and reported. A hypothetical model derived from teacher efficacy literature was found to be an acceptable model to verify construct validity and determine strength of correlations between the scales that defined the instrument. The instrument produced an alpha coefficient of .905 for reliability. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to verify construct and discriminate validity. Specifics results related to the survey population of agricultural educators
Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.
Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.
Francisco, M T; Clos, A C; dos Santos, I; Larrubia, E de O
The present study has as an object the modalities of conflict administration adopted by nurses in professional praxis. Considering the Management Grid Theory (BLAKE & MOUNTON, 1978), the conflict can be solved in different levels of quality or even, not solved, influenced by the manager behavior model. It is intended to identify nurses managing styles in conflict administration, analyzing their interactions. A questionnaire composed with 25 items, in its majority of popular adagios which express the five basic models of the Management Grid, has been tested. The research was run at the Rio de Janeiro State University Pedro Ernesto University Hospital from June, 1996 to August, 1997, and descriptive method and check-list schedule type functional analysis technique have been used. The factorial analysis of items has showed an occurrence of eight interdependent factors which designing the following styles that have been adopted by nurses: confrontation, negotiation, facing, conciliation, manipulation, acceptance, submission and withdrawing. The authors recommend data collect instrument revalidation.
Jordao, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel; Rocha, Pedro; Carvalho, Ricardo; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme
Commercial Software (CS) for collection, analysis and plot time and frequency data plots are being increasingly used in reference laboratories worldwide. With this, it has greatly improved the results of calculations of uncertainty for these values. We propose the creation of a collection of software and data analysis using Virtual Instruments (VI) developed the Primary Laboratory Time and frequency of the National Observatory - ON and validation of this instrument. To validate the instrument developed, it made a comparative analysis between the results obtained (VI) with the results obtained by (CS) widely used in many metrology laboratories. From these results we can conclude that there was equivalence between the analyzed data. (author)
Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Makambi, Kepher; Lewis, Shantell; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn
Few studies have reported on the validity of physical activity measures in African Americans. The present study was designed to determine the validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) that was used in a large prospective study of African American women in the United States against an accelerometer (actigraph), an objective assessment of movement, and a seven-day activity diary. The study was conducted among 101 women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) cohort who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, representing 11.2% (101/900) of this sample. Physical activity levels were obtained from the parent BWHS PAQ (eg, 1997 and 1999) and repeated in the present study. This information entailed hours per week of participation in walking for exercise, hours per week of moderate activity (eg, housework, gardening, and bowling), and hours per week of strenuous activity (eg, basketball, swimming, running, and aerobics) during the previous year. The participants were required to wear actigraphs for seven days and then record their physical activities in their diaries (seven-day physical activity diary) during this time. The diaries were used to record the amount and pattern of daily energy expenditure. Significant positive correlations were seen between the BWHS PAQ and the actigraph for total activity, r=.28; walking, r=.26; and vigorous activity, r=.40, PPAQ also demonstrated significant correlations for total (r=0.42, PPAQ is a useful measure of physical activity in the BWHS cohort and thus has utility in prospective epidemiologic research.
Bifactor Models Show a Superior Model Fit: Examination of the Factorial Validity of Parent-Reported and Self-Reported Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders in Children and Adolescents.
Rodenacker, Klaas; Hautmann, Christopher; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Döpfner, Manfred
Various studies have demonstrated that bifactor models yield better solutions than models with correlated factors. However, the kind of bifactor model that is most appropriate is yet to be examined. The current study is the first to test bifactor models across the full age range (11-18 years) of adolescents using self-reports, and the first to test bifactor models with German subjects and German questionnaires. The study sample included children and adolescents aged between 6 and 18 years recruited from a German clinical sample (n = 1,081) and a German community sample (n = 642). To examine the factorial validity, we compared unidimensional, correlated factors and higher-order and bifactor models and further tested a modified incomplete bifactor model for measurement invariance. Bifactor models displayed superior model fit statistics compared to correlated factor models or second-order models. However, a more parsimonious incomplete bifactor model with only 2 specific factors (inattention and impulsivity) showed a good model fit and a better factor structure than the other bifactor models. Scalar measurement invariance was given in most group comparisons. An incomplete bifactor model would suggest that the specific inattention and impulsivity factors represent entities separable from the general attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder construct and might, therefore, give way to a new approach to subtyping of children beyond and above attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Elbers, Roy G.; Rietberg, Marc B.; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Verhoef, John; Kramer, Sharon F.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kwakkel, Gert
Purpose To critically appraise, compare and summarize the measurement properties of self-report fatigue questionnaires validated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s disease (PD) or stroke. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTdiscus were searched. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of studies. A qualitative data synthesis was performed to rate the mea...
Mercier, Kevin; Silverman, Stephen
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to develop an instrument that has scores that are valid and reliable for measuring students' attitudes toward fitness testing. Method: The method involved the following steps: (a) an elicitation study, (b) item development, (c) a pilot study, and (d) a validation study. The pilot study included 427…
Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Stewart, Victoria C.; Pugh, Kevin J.
Onwuegbuzie and colleagues proposed the Instrument Development and Construct Validation (IDCV) process as a mixed methods framework for creating and validating measures. Examples applying IDCV are lacking. We provide an illustrative case integrating the Rasch model and cognitive interviews applied to the development of the Transformative…
Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.
-culturaly valid way. To this end we have developed a pool of 202 items, collected data in three countries, and have constructed scales based on cross-culturally stable factor patterns. We have then applie set of scales to a fourth country, in order to further test the cross-cultural validity of the instrument....
Bing-You, Robert; Ramesh, Saradha; Hayes, Victoria; Varaklis, Kalli; Ward, Denham; Blanco, Maria
Construct: Medical educators consider feedback a core component of the educational process. Effective feedback allows learners to acquire new skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Learners' perceptions of feedback are an important aspect to assess with valid methods in order to improve the feedback skills of educators and the feedback culture. Although guidelines for delivering effective feedback have existed for several decades, medical students and residents often indicate that they receive little feedback. A recent scoping review on feedback in medical education did not reveal any validity evidence on instruments to assess learner's perceptions of feedback. The purpose of our study was to gather validity evidence on two novel FEEDME (Feedback in Medical Education) instruments to assess medical students' and residents' perceptions of the feedback that they receive. After the authors developed an initial instrument with 54 items, cognitive interviews with medical students and residents suggested that 2 separate instruments were needed, one focused on the feedback culture (FEEDME-Culture) and the other on the provider of feedback (FEEDME-Provider). A Delphi study with 17 medical education experts and faculty members assessed content validity. The response process was explored involving 31 medical students and residents at 2 academic institutions. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were performed on completed instruments. Two Delphi consultation rounds refined the wording of items and eliminated several items. Learners found both instruments easy and quick to answer; it took them less than 5 minutes to complete. Learners preferred an electronic format of the instruments over paper. Factor analysis revealed a two- and three-factor solution for the FEEDME-Culture and FEEDME-Provider instruments, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.80 for all factors. Items on both instruments were moderately to highly correlated (range, r = .3-.7). Our
Magalhães Junior, Hipólito V; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Lima, Kenio C; Ferreira, Maria Angela F
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a swallowing disorder with signs and symptoms which may be present in older adults, but they are rarely noticed as a health concern by older people. The earliest possible identification of this clinical condition is needed by self-reported population-based screening questionnaire, which are valid and reliable for preventing risks to nutritional status, increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this systematic review was to identify self-reported screening questionnaires for oropharyngeal dysphagia in older adults to evaluate their methodological quality for population-based studies. An extensive search of electronic databases (PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid MEDLINE(R), Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science (WOS), PsycINFO (APA), Lilacs and Scielo) was conducted in the period from April to May 2017 using previously established search strategies by the two evaluators. The methodological quality and the psychometric properties of the included studies were evaluated by the COSMIN (Consensus based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments) checklist and the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues, respectively. The analysed information was extracted from three articles which had conducted studies on the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia by self-reported screening questionnaires, showing poor methodological quality and flaws in the methodological description to demonstrate its psychometric properties. This study did not find any self-reported screening questionnaires for oropharyngeal dysphagia with suitable methodological quality and appropriate evidence in its psychometric properties for elders. Therefore, the self-reported questionnaires within the diagnostic proposal require greater details in its process for obtaining valid and reliable evidence. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Steffgen, Georges; Kohl, Diane; Reese, Gerhard; Happ, Christian; Sischka, Philipp
A new instrument to measure quality of work was developed in three languages (German, French and Luxembourgish) and validated in a study of employees working in Luxembourg. A representative sample (n = 1529) was taken and exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution for the 21-item instrument (satisfaction and respect, mobbing, mental strain at work, cooperation, communication and feedback, and appraisal). Reliability analysis showed satisfying reliability for all six factors and the total questionnaire. In order to examine the construct validity of the new instrument, regression analyses were conducted to test whether the instrument predicted work characteristics’ influence on three components of well-being -- burnout, psychological stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. The present validation offers a trilingual inventory for measuring quality of work that may be used, for example, as an assessment tool or for testing the effectiveness of interventions.
Full Text Available Introduction and objective: A new instrument to measure quality of work was developed in three languages (German, French and Luxembourgish and validated in a study of employees working in Luxembourg. Methods and results: A representative sample (n = 1529 was taken and exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution for the 21-item instrument (satisfaction and respect, mobbing, mental strain at work, cooperation, communication and feedback, and appraisal. Reliability analysis showed satisfying reliability for all six factors and the total questionnaire. In order to examine the construct validity of the new instrument, regression analyses were conducted to test whether the instrument predicted work characteristics’ influence on three components of well-being—burnout, psychological stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. Conclusion: The present validation offers a trilingual inventory for measuring quality of work that may be used, for example, as an assessment tool or for testing the effectiveness of interventions.
Steffgen, Georges; Kohl, Diane; Reese, Gerhard; Happ, Christian; Sischka, Philipp
Introduction and objective: A new instrument to measure quality of work was developed in three languages (German, French and Luxembourgish) and validated in a study of employees working in Luxembourg. Methods and results: A representative sample (n = 1529) was taken and exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution for the 21-item instrument (satisfaction and respect, mobbing, mental strain at work, cooperation, communication and feedback, and appraisal). Reliability analysis showed satisfying reliability for all six factors and the total questionnaire. In order to examine the construct validity of the new instrument, regression analyses were conducted to test whether the instrument predicted work characteristics’ influence on three components of well-being—burnout, psychological stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. Conclusion: The present validation offers a trilingual inventory for measuring quality of work that may be used, for example, as an assessment tool or for testing the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:26703634
Full Text Available Riding the unicycle presupposes the knowledge of the set of elements which describe motoric skill, or just part of that set with which we could measure the level of that knowledge. Testing and evaluation of the elements is time consuming. In order to design a unique, composite measuring instrument, to facilitate the evaluation of the initial level of unicycling skill, we tested 17 recreative subjects who were learning to ride the unicycle in 15 hours of training, without any previous knowledge or experience what was measured before the beginning of the training. At the beginning and at the end of the training they were tested with the set of the 12 riding elements test that was carried out to record only successful attempts, followed by unique SLALOM test which include previously tested elements. It was found that the unique SLALOM test has good metric features and a high regression coefficient showed that the SLALOM could be used instead of the 12 elements of unicycle riding skill, and it could be used as a uniform test to evaluate learned or existing knowledge. Because of its simplicity in terms of action and simultaneous testing of more subjects, the newly constructed test could be used in evaluating the unicycling recreational level, but also for monitoring and programming transformation processes to develop the motor skills of riding of unicycle. Because of its advantages, it is desirable to include unicycling in the educational processes of learning new motor skills, which can be evaluated by the results of this research. The obtained results indicate that the unicycle should be seriously consider as a training equipment to “refresh” or expand the recreational programs, without any fear that it is just for special people. Namely, it was shown that the previously learned motor skills (skiing, roller-skating, and cycling had no effect on the results of final testing.
Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H
this study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by 22 adult protective services investigators from 7 agencies in Illinois to 227 substantiated abuse clients. Analyses included tests for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation. Results from the OAFEM were also compared with the substantiation decision of abuse and with investigators' assessments of FE using a staff report version. Hypotheses were generated to test hypothesized relationships. the OAFEM, including the original 79-, 54-, and 30-item measures, met stringent Rasch analysis fit and unidimensionality criteria and had high internal consistency and item reliability. The validation results were supportive, while leading to reconsideration of aspects of the hypothesized theoretical hierarchy. Thresholds were suggested to demonstrate levels of severity. the measure is now available to aid in the assessment of FE of older adults by both clinicians and researchers. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.
Harmanci Seren, Arzu Kader; Tuna, Rujnan; Eskin Bacaksiz, Feride
Objective measurement of the job performance of nursing staff using valid and reliable instruments is important in the evaluation of healthcare quality. A current, valid, and reliable instrument that specifically measures the performance of nurses is required for this purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Job Performance Instrument. This study used a methodological design and a sample of 240 nurses working at different units in four hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey. A descriptive data form, the Job Performance Scale, and the Employee Performance Scale were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 21.0 and LISREL Version 8.51. On the basis of the data analysis, the instrument was revised. Some items were deleted, and subscales were combined. The Turkish version of the Job Performance Instrument was determined to be valid and reliable to measure the performance of nurses. The instrument is suitable for evaluating current nursing roles.
Tulek, Zeliha; Polat, Cansu; Ozkan, Ilknur; Theofanidis, Dimitris; Togrol, Rifat Erdem
Sound knowledge of pressure ulcers is important to enable good prevention. There are limited instruments assessing pressure ulcer knowledge. The Pressure Ulcer Prevention Knowledge Assessment Instrument is among the scales of which psychometric properties have been studied rigorously and reflects the latest evidence. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Pressure Ulcer Prevention Knowledge Assessment Instrument (PUPKAI-T), an instrument that assesses knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention by using multiple-choice questions. Linguistic validity was verified through front-to-back translation. Psychometric properties of the instrument were studied on a sample of 150 nurses working in a tertiary hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. The content validity index of the translated instrument was 0.94, intra-class correlation coefficients were between 0.37 and 0.80, item difficulty indices were between 0.21 and 0.88, discrimination indices were 0.20-0.78, and the Kuder Richardson for the internal consistency was 0.803. The PUPKAI-T was found to be a valid and reliable tool to evaluate nurses' knowledge on pressure ulcer prevention. The PUPKAI-T may be a useful tool for determining educational needs of nurses on pressure ulcer prevention. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rensen, Carin; Bandyopadhyay, Sudhakar; Gopal, Pala K; Van Brakel, Wim H
Stigma negatively affects the quality of life of leprosy-affected people. Instruments are needed to assess levels of stigma and to monitor and evaluate stigma reduction interventions. We conducted a validation study of such instruments in Tamil Nadu and West Bengal, India. Four instruments were tested in a 'Community Based Rehabilitation' (CBR) setting, the Participation Scale, Internalised Scale of Mental Illness (ISMI) adapted for leprosy-affected persons, Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) for leprosy-affected and non-affected persons and the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale. We evaluated the following components of validity, construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reproducibility and reliability to distinguish between groups. Construct validity was tested by correlating instrument scores and by triangulating quantitative and qualitative findings. Reliability was evaluated by comparing levels of stigma among people affected by leprosy and community controls, and among affected people living in CBR project areas and those in non-CBR areas. For the Participation, ISMI and EMIC scores significant differences were observed between those affected by leprosy and those not affected (p = 0.0001), and between affected persons in the CBR and Control group (p < 0.05). The internal consistency of the instruments measured with Cronbach's α ranged from 0.83 to 0.96 and was very good for all instruments. Test-retest reproducibility coefficients were 0.80 for the Participation score, 0.70 for the EMIC score, 0.62 for the ISMI score and 0.50 for the GSE score. The construct validity of all instruments was confirmed. The Participation and EMIC Scales met all validity criteria, but test-retest reproducibility of the ISMI and GSE Scales needs further evaluation with a shorter test-retest interval and longer training and additional adaptations for the latter.
Singh, Ramandeep; Suri, Ashish; Anand, Sneh; Baby, Britty
With advancements in imaging techniques, neurosurgical procedures are becoming highly precise and minimally invasive, thus demanding development of new ergonomically aesthetic instruments. Conventionally, neurosurgical instruments are manufactured using subtractive manufacturing methods. Such a process is complex, time-consuming, and impractical for prototype development and validation of new designs. Therefore, an alternative design process has been used utilizing blue light scanning, computer-aided designing, and additive manufacturing direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) for microsurgical instrument prototype development. Deviations of DMLS-fabricated instrument were studied by superimposing scan data of fabricated instrument with the computer-aided designing model. Content and concurrent validity of the fabricated prototypes was done by a group of 15 neurosurgeons by performing sciatic nerve anastomosis in small laboratory animals. Comparative scoring was obtained for the control and study instrument. T test was applied to the individual parameters and P values for force (P direct application of these additive-manufactured instruments in the operating room requires further validation. © The Author(s) 2016.
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...
Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John
Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…
van der Put, Claudia E; Assink, Mark; Boekhout van Solinge, Noëlle F
Risk assessment is crucial in preventing child maltreatment since it can identify high-risk cases in need of child protection intervention. Despite widespread use of risk assessment instruments in child welfare, it is unknown how well these instruments predict maltreatment and what instrument characteristics are associated with higher levels of predictive validity. Therefore, a multilevel meta-analysis was conducted to examine the predictive accuracy of (characteristics of) risk assessment instruments. A literature search yielded 30 independent studies (N=87,329) examining the predictive validity of 27 different risk assessment instruments. From these studies, 67 effect sizes could be extracted. Overall, a medium significant effect was found (AUC=0.681), indicating a moderate predictive accuracy. Moderator analyses revealed that onset of maltreatment can be better predicted than recurrence of maltreatment, which is a promising finding for early detection and prevention of child maltreatment. In addition, actuarial instruments were found to outperform clinical instruments. To bring risk and needs assessment in child welfare to a higher level, actuarial instruments should be further developed and strengthened by distinguishing risk assessment from needs assessment and by integrating risk assessment with case management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lecomte, P.; Koopman, R.; Zehner, C.; Laur, H.; Attema, E.; Wursteisen, P.; Snoeij, P.
Envisat is ESA's advanced Earth observing satellite launched in March 2002 and is designed to provide measurements of the atmosphere, ocean, land and ice over a five-year period. After the launch and the switch-on period, a six-month commissioning phase has taken place for instrument calibration and geophysical validation, concluded with the Envisat Calibration Review held in September 2002. In addition to ESA and its industrial partners in the Envisat consortium, many other companies and research institutes have contributed to the calibration and validation programme under ESA contract as expert support laboratories (ESLs). A major contribution has also been made by the Principal Investigators of approved proposals submitted to ESA in response to a worldwide "Announcement of Opportunity for the Exploitation of the Envisat Data Products" in 1998. Working teams have been formed in which the different participants worked side by side to achieve the objectives of the calibration and validation programme. Validation is a comparison of Envisat level-2 data products and estimates of the different geophysical variables obtained by independent means, the validation instruments. Validation is closely linked to calibration because inconsistencies discovered in the comparison of Envisat Level 2 data products to well-known external instruments can have many different sources, including inaccuracies of the Envisat instrument calibration and the data calibration algorithms. Therefore, initial validation of the geophysical variables has provided feedback to calibration, de-bugging and algorithm improvement. The initial validation phase ended in December 2002 with the Envisat Validation Workshop at which, for a number of products, a final quality statement was given. Full validation of all data products available from the Atmospheric Chemistry Instruments on Envisat (MIPAS, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY) is quite a challenge and therefore it has been decided to adopt a step-wise approach
McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn
As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…
Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna
The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the attitudes toward science class of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs-science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to science class experiences. A total of 265 elementary school students in Taiwan responded to the instrument developed. Data analysis indicated that the instrument exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability with the Taiwan population used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the entire instrument indicating a satisfactory level of internal consistency. However, both principal component analysis and parallel analysis showed that the three attitude scales were not unique and should be combined and used as a general "attitudes toward science class" scale. The analysis also showed that there were no gender or grade-level differences in students' overall attitudes toward science class.
Ghazali, Nor Hasnida Md
A valid, reliable and practical instrument is needed to evaluate the implementation of the school-based assessment (SBA) system. The aim of this study is to develop and assess the validity and reliability of an instrument to measure the perception of teachers towards the SBA implementation in schools. The instrument is developed based on a…
Nguyen, Van N B; Forbes, Helen; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Duke, Maxine
Teaching nursing in clinical environments is considered complex and multi-faceted. Little is known about the role of the clinical nurse educator, specifically the challenges related to transition from clinician, or in some cases, from newly-graduated nurse to that of clinical nurse educator, as occurs in developing countries. Confidence in the clinical educator role has been associated with successful transition and the development of role competence. There is currently no valid and reliable instrument to measure clinical nurse educator confidence. This study was conducted to develop and psychometrically test an instrument to measure perceived confidence among clinical nurse educators. A multi-phase, multi-setting survey design was used. A total of 468 surveys were distributed, and 363 were returned. Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The instrument was successfully tested and modified in phase 1, and factorial validity was subsequently confirmed in phase 2. There was strong evidence of internal consistency, reliability, content, and convergent validity of the Clinical Nurse Educator Skill Acquisition Assessment instrument. The resulting instrument is applicable in similar contexts due to its rigorous development and validation process. © 2017 The Authors. Nursing & Health Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Singh Dara Singh Karpal
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop and propose a valid and reliable instrument to measure brand equity of CSR driven organizations in Malaysia. An instrument to measure brand equity was constructed with adaptations from two key sources, namely Yew Leh and Lee (2011 and Yoo and Donthu (2001. As such the study only focuses on the development and validation of an instrument to measure brand equity of CSR driven organizations. The usable sample population included 909 respondents from 12 states of West Malaysia which were selected using a quota sampling plan. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and reliability analysis were carried out to test and validate the proposed brand equity instrument containing four components (brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and brand loyalty with a total of 13 items. Results from the CFA and reliability analysis indicated that all the items representing the four components were valid and can be used to measure the brand equity of organizations that are practicing CSR. The study tried to set an empirical basis for brand equity and CSR related research which could be used by future researchers in different industries and geographical locations. The study also implies the need for organizations to assess the success of their CSR efforts through the use of the proposed instrument in order to gauge whether all their CSR efforts translate to improved brand equity.
Zometa, Carlos S; Dedrick, Robert; Knox, Michael D; Westhoff, Wayne; Siri, Rodrigo Simán; Debaldo, Ann
An instrument developed in the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and four attitudinal dimensions (Peer Pressure, Abstinence, Drug Use, and Threat of HIV Infection) and an instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. (1999) to measure abstinence and condom use were translated, cross-culturally adapted, and validated for use with Spanish-speaking high school students in El Salvador. A back-translation of the English version was cross-culturally adapted using two different review panels and pilot-tested with Salvadorian students. An expert panel established content validity, and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for construct validity. Results indicated that the methodology was successful in cross-culturally adapting the instrument developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. The psychometric properties of the knowledge section were acceptable and there was partial support for the four-factor attitudinal model underlying the CDC instrument and the two-factor model underlying the Basen-Engquist et al. instrument. Additional studies with Spanish-speaking populations (either in the United States or Latin America) are needed to evaluate the generalizability of the present results.
This report is produced in response to a recommendation of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation. The report has objectives of providing practical guidance on the methods available for verification of the software and validation of computer based systems, and on how and when these methods can be effectively applied. It is meant for those who are in any way involved with the development, implementation, maintenance and use of software and computer based instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. The report is intended to be used by designers, software producers, reviewers, verification and validation teams, assessors, plant operators and licensers of computer based systems
Chrubasik, C; Himmelberger, D; Kohlmann, T; Chrubasik, S
The aim of this study was to prepare according to standardised criteria a German version of the validated short instrument for the quality of life in patients suffering from hypertension. This instrument is appropriate for clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of antihypertensive treatments. But also in the daily routine this instrument enables one to identify any impairment of life quality due to antihypertensive treatment as early as possible, especially sexual dysfunction, and to react appropriately with treatment adaptations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Hashemian, H.M.; Mitchell, D.W.; Petersen, K.M.; Shell, C.S.
This report presents the preliminary results of a research and development project on the validation of new techniques for on-line testing of calibration drift of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. These techniques generally involve a computer-based data acquisition and data analysis system to trend the output of a large number of instrument channels and identify the channels that have drifted out of tolerance. This helps limit the calibration effort to those channels which need the calibration, as opposed to the current nuclear industry practice of calibrating essentially all the safety-related instrument channels at every refueling outage
Velligan, Dawn; Carpenter, William; Waters, Heidi C; Gerlanc, Nicole M; Legacy, Susan N; Ruetsch, Charles
The Relapse Assessment for Schizophrenia Patients (RASP) was developed as a six-question self-report screener that measures indicators of Increased Anxiety and Social Isolation to assess patient stability and predict imminent relapse. This paper describes the development and psychometric characteristics of the RASP. The RASP and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were administered to patients with schizophrenia (n=166) three separate times. Chart data were collected on a subsample of patients (n=81). Psychometric analyses of RASP included tests of reliability, construct validity, and concurrent validity of items. Factors from RASP were correlated with subscales from PANSS (sensitivity to change and criterion validity [agreement between RASP and evidence of relapse]). Test-retest reliability returned modest to strong agreement at the item level and strong agreement at the questionnaire level. RASP showed good item response curves and internal consistency for the total instrument and within each of the two subscales (Increased Anxiety and Social Isolation). RASP Total Score and subscales showed good concurrent validity when correlated with PANSS Total Score, Positive, Excitement, and Anxiety subscales. RASP correctly predicted relapse in 67% of cases, with good specificity and negative predictive power and acceptable positive predictive power and sensitivity. The reliability and validity data presented support the use of RASP in settings where addition of a brief self-report assessment of relapse risk among patients with schizophrenia may be of benefit. Ease of use and scoring, and the ability to administer without clinical supervision allows for routine administration and assessment of relapse risk.
Nelson, Helen J; Kendall, Garth E; Burns, Sharyn K; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A
Bullying in schools is a major health concern throughout the world, contributing to poor educational and mental health outcomes. School nurses are well placed to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of bullying prevention strategies. To evaluate the effect of such strategies, it is necessary to measure children's behavior over time. This scoping review of instruments that measure the self-report of aggressive behavior and bullying by children will inform the evaluation of bullying interventions. This review aimed to identify validated instruments that measure aggression and bullying among preadolescent children (age 8-12). The review was part of a larger study that sought to differentiate bullying from aggressive behavior by measuring the self-report of power imbalance between the aggressor and the child being bullied. The measurement of power imbalance was therefore a key aspect of the scoping review.
Chaidez, Virginia; Kaiser, Lucia L
This paper describes qualitative and quantitative aspects of testing a 34-item Toddler-Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ), designed for use in Latino families, and the associations between feeding practices and toddler dietary outcomes. Qualitative methods included review by an expert panel for content validity and cognitive testing of the tool to assess face validity. Quantitative analyses included use of exploratory factor analysis for construct validity; Pearson's correlations for test-retest reliability; Cronbach's alpha (α) for internal reliability; and multivariate regression for investigating relationships between feeding practices and toddler diet and anthropometry. Interviews were conducted using a convenience sample of 94 Latino mother and toddler dyads obtained largely through the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Data collection included household characteristics, self-reported early-infant feeding practices, the toddler's dietary intake, and anthropometric measurements. Factor analysis suggests the TFQ contains three subscales: indulgent; authoritative; and environmental influences. The TFQ demonstrated acceptable reliability for most measures. As hypothesized, indulgent practices in Latino toddlers were associated with increased energy consumption and higher intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and sweetened beverages. This tool may be useful in future research exploring the relationship of toddler feeding practices to nutritional outcomes in Latino families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kok, Tim; de Haan, Hein A; van der Velden, Helena J W; van der Meer, Margreet; Najavits, Lisa M; de Jong, Cor A J
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in substance use disorder (SUD) populations. Because resources for extensive and thorough diagnostic assessment are often limited, reliable screening instruments for PTSD are needed. The aim of the current study was to test two short PTSD measures for diagnostic efficiency in predicting PTSD compared to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The sample consisted of 197 SUD patients receiving residential substance use treatment who completed questionnaires regarding substance use and trauma-related symptoms, all abstinent from substance for 4weeks. The PTSD section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview plus (MINIplus) and the Self-Report Inventory for PTSD (SRIP) are compared to the CAPS. Results showed low sensitivity (.58) and high specificity (.91) for the PTSD section of the MINIplus. The SRIP showed high sensitivity (.80) and moderately high specificity (.73) at a cut-off score of 48. The prevalence of PTSD as measured with the CAPS was 25.4% current and 46.2% lifetime. Results indicate that the MINIplus, a short clinical interview, has insufficient quality as a screener for PTSD. The SRIP, however, is a reliable instrument in detecting PTSD in a SUD inpatient population in The Netherlands. Screening for PTSD is time efficient and increases detection of PTSD in SUD treatment settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hani J Marcus
Full Text Available Residents are required to learn a multitude of skills during their microsurgical training. One such skill is the judicious application of force when handling delicate tissue. An instrument has been developed that indicates to the surgeon when a force threshold has been exceeded by providing vibrotactile feedback. The objective of this study was to validate the use of this "smart" force-limiting instrument for microsurgery. A laboratory and an in vivo experiment were performed to evaluate the force-limiting instrument. In the laboratory experiment, twelve novice surgeons were randomly allocated to use either the force-limiting instrument or a standard instrument. Surgeons were then asked to perform microsurgical dissection in a model. In the in vivo experiment, an intermediate surgeon performed microsurgical dissection in a stepwise fashion, alternating every 30 seconds between use of the force-limiting instrument and a standard instrument. The primary outcomes were the forces exerted and the OSATS scores. In the laboratory experiment, the maximal forces exerted by novices using the force-limiting instrument were significantly less than using a standard instrument, and were comparable to intermediate and expert surgeons (0.637N versus 4.576N; p = 0.007. In the in vivo experiment, the maximal forces exerted with the force-limiting instrument were also significantly less than with a standard instrument (0.441N versus 0.742N; p 0.1. In conclusion, the development and use of this force-limiting instrument in a clinical setting may improve patient safety.
Palese, Alvisa; Dante, Angelo; Tonzar, Laura; Balboni, Bernardo
The aims of the study were to (a) validate N2N Healthy Work Environment tool, (b) assess the healthiness of work environments as perceived by nurses themselves and (c) identify the factors associated with Italian nurses' perception of work environment healthiness. The linguistic and cultural adaptation of USA-N2N Healthy Work Environments was achieved through a process of forward/backward translation. Content validity was assessed by three expert nurses. The stability of the instrument was checked with a test/retest evaluation. The instrument psychometric properties, the confirmatory factor analysis as well the healthiness of the work environment and its determinant factors were evaluated with a sample of 294 nurses. The content and face validity of the N2N Healthy Work Environment instrument was confirmed. The instrument demonstrated good internal consistency (α of 0.82), excellent stability values (ρ > 0.70) and high levels of acceptability (response rate: 96.4 %). The confirmatory factor analysis has corroborated the existence of two factors as documented in the original instrument (Mays et al. in J Nurs Manag 19:18-26, 2011). Eighty-seven (29.6 %) nurses perceived the work environment where they work as "healthy". Working under a functional model of care delivery (χ(2) 24.856, p 0.000) and being responsible for one project or more (χ(2) 5.256, p 0.021) were associated with healthy environments. The instrument--valid and reliable, short in the number of items, easy to understand and based on international standards--allows a systematic assessment of the healthiness of the environment and might provide not only the opportunity to evaluate the effects of new organizational models and interventions, but also the possibility to activate a process of self-analysis and a process of ongoing review. The instrument can be used to systematically check the healthiness of Italian working environments, allowing for organizational diagnosis, targeted interventions and
Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung
Background:Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose:The present study is to validate an instrument for assessing senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning. Sample:A total of 1822 Taiwanese senior high school students (1020 males and 802 females) responded to the newly developed instrument. Design and method:The Motivation and Self-regulation towards Technology Learning (MSRTL) instrument was developed based on the previous instruments measuring students' motivation and self-regulation towards science learning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were utilized to investigate the structure of the items. Cronbach's alpha was applied for measuring the internal consistency of each scale. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine gender differences. Results:Seven scales, including 'Technology learning self-efficacy,' 'Technology learning value,' 'Technology active learning strategies,' 'Technology learning environment stimulation,' 'Technology learning goal-orientation,' 'Technology learning self-regulation-triggering,' and 'Technology learning self-regulation-implementing' were confirmed for the MSRTL instrument. Moreover, the results also showed that male and female students did not present the same degree of preference in all of the scales. Conclusions:The MSRTL instrument composed of seven scales corresponding to 39 items was shown to be valid based on validity and reliability analyses. While male students tended to express more positive and active performance in the motivation scales, no gender differences were found in the self-regulation scales.
Remelhe, Mafalda; Teixeira, Pedro M; Lopes, Irene; Silva, Luís; Correia de Sousa, Jaime
Enabling patients with asthma to obtain the knowledge, confidence and skills they need in order to assume a major role in the management of their disease is cost effective. It should be an integral part of any plan for long-term control of asthma. The modified Patient Enablement Instrument (mPEI) is an easily administered questionnaire that was adapted in the United Kingdom to measure patient enablement in asthma, but its applicability in Portugal is not known. Validity and reliability of questionnaires should be tested before use in settings different from those of the original version. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the mPEI to Portuguese asthma patients after translation and cross-cultural adaptation, and to verify the structural validity, internal consistency and reproducibility of the instrument. The mPEI was translated to Portuguese and back translated to English. Its content validity was assessed by a debriefing interview with 10 asthma patients. The translated instrument was then administered to a random sample of 142 patients with persistent asthma. Structural validity and internal consistency were assessed. For reproducibility analysis, 86 patients completed the instrument again 7 days later. Item-scale correlations and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess structural validity. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal consistency, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of reproducibility. All items of the Portuguese version of the mPEI were found to be equivalent to the original English version. There were strong item-scale correlations that confirmed construct validity, with a one component structure and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.8) as well as high test-retest reliability (ICC=0.85). The mPEI showed sound psychometric properties for the evaluation of enablement in patients with asthma making it a reliable instrument for use in research and clinical practice in
Hadzaman, N. A. H.; Takim, R.; Nawawi, A. H.; Mohamad Yusuwan, N.
BIM governance assessment instrument is a process of analysing the importance in developing BIM governance solution to tackle the existing problems during team collaboration in BIM-based projects. Despite the deployment of integrative technologies in construction industry particularly BIM, it is still insufficient compare to other sectors. Several studies have been established the requirements of BIM implementation concerning all technical and non-technical BIM adoption issues. However, the data are regarded as inadequate to develop a BIM governance framework. Hence, the objective of the paper is to evaluate the content validity of the BIM governance instrument prior to the main data collection. Two methods were employed in the form of literature review and questionnaire survey. Based on the literature review, 273 items with six main constructs are suggested to be incorporated in the BIM governance instrument. The Content Validity Ratio (CVR) scores revealed that 202 out of 273 items are considered as the utmost critical by the content experts. The findings for Item Level Content Validity Index (I-CVI) and Modified Kappa Coefficient however revealed that 257 items in BIM governance instrument are appropriate and excellent. The instrument is highly reliable for future strategies and the development of BIM projects in Malaysia.
Rodrigo Assis Neves Dantas
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To validate an instrument to assess quality of mobile emergency pre-hospital care. METHOD A methodological study where 20 professionals gave their opinions on the items of the proposed instrument. The analysis was performed using Kappa test (K and Content Validity Index (CVI, considering K> 0.80 and CVI ≥ 0.80. RESULTS Three items were excluded from the instrument: Professional Compensation; Job Satisfaction and Services Performed. Items that obtained adequate K and CVI indexes and remained in the instrument were: ambulance conservation status; physical structure; comfort in the ambulance; availability of material resources; user/staff safety; continuous learning; safety demonstrated by the team; access; welcoming; humanization; response time; costumer privacy; guidelines on care; relationship between professionals and costumers; opportunity for costumers to make complaints and multiprofessional conjunction/actuation. CONCLUSION The instrument to assess quality of care has been validated and may contribute to the evaluation of pre-hospital care in mobile emergency services.
Full Text Available Orientation: Collaboration is deemed important in today’s connected and complex business environment. People’s ability to collaborate with each other in organisations is becoming a business imperative. This study focuses on a valid measurement of collaboration within organisations. Research purpose: Thomson, Perry and Miller (2007 developed a collaboration measurement instrument in the United States. The aim of this study was to validate this instrument for a South African context. Motivation for the study: South African organisations face unique challenges that require optimal use of resources to improve business results. Effective collaboration is considered a powerful strategy to achieve this. Measuring the extent of collaboration can help to identify required changes in business practices. As far as could be established, there is no evidence of collaboration instruments developed and validated in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: Additional items were designed for further development of the Thomson, Perry and Miller (2007 Collaboration Instrument sub-scales, as suggested by the authors. The revised questionnaire consisting of 31 (17 existing, 14 new items was distributed electronically to 4200 employees in two organisations, with 343 valid responses received. Reliability and construct validity were tested, as was convergent validity of the norms factor with the Trust in Teams Scale. Main findings: The results of the study support a four-factor, 29-item model of collaboration when applied to a South African sample. Cronbach’s alpha ranged between 0.85 and 0.95. Confirmatory Factor Analysis fits were at an acceptable level. Convergent validity showed a moderate fit with the data. Practical/managerial implications: South African managers and human resources practitioners can utilise results to foster a collaborative environment. Contribution/value-add: This study builds on the theoretical concept of collaboration as
Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two
Spiegel, van der M.; Boer, de W.J.; Luning, P.A.; Ziggers, G.W.; Jongen, W.M.F.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to show that manufacturers use several quality assurance systems to assure quality. This paper aims to describe the validation of IMAQE-Food - an instrument that measures effectiveness of food quality systems. Design/methodology/approach - Generalisability,
Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Ertepinar, Hamide
The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument for assessing elementary students' nature of science (NOS) views and to explain the elementary school students' NOS views, in terms of varying grade levels and gender. The sample included 782 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Exploratory factor analysis…
Reid, Denise T.; Renwick, Rebecca M.
A new questionnaire instrument, the Life Satisfaction Index for Adolescents (LSIA), has been developed for adolescents with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This article reviews the conceptual basis of the LSIA, its development, and its reliability and validity (established with 15 male adolescents with DMD). (DB)
La Monte, Michelle Evonne
This study focused on developing a valid and reliable instrument that can not only identify successful co-teaching, but also the professional development needs of co-teachers and their administrators in public schools. Two general questions about the quality of co-teaching were addressed in this study: (a) How well did descriptors within each of…
Staver, John R.; Harty, Harold
Designs a testing situation to examine the presence of combinatorial analysis, to establish construct validity in the use of an instrument, Combinatorial Analysis Behavior Observation Scheme (CABOS), and to investigate the presence of the schema in young adolescents. (Author/GA)
Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Silverman, Stephen
Perception of Competence (POC) has been studied extensively in physical activity (PA) research with similar instruments adapted for physical education (PE) research. Such instruments do not account for the unique PE learning environment. Therefore, an instrument was developed and the scores validated to measure POC in middle school PE. A multiphase design was used consisting of an intensive theoretical review, elicitation study, prepilot study, pilot study, content validation study, and final validation study (N=1281). Data analysis included a multistep iterative process to identify the best model fit. A three-factor model for POC was tested and resulted in root mean square error of approximation = .09, root mean square residual = .07, goodness offit index = .90, and adjusted goodness offit index = .86 values in the acceptable range (Hu & Bentler, 1999). A two-factor model was also tested and resulted in a good fit (two-factor fit indexes values = .05, .03, .98, .97, respectively). The results of this study suggest that an instrument using a three- or two-factor model provides reliable and valid scores ofPOC measurement in middle school PE.
Scantlebury, Kathryn; Boone, William; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fraser, Barry J.
Describes the design, development, validation, and use of an instrument that measures student attitudes and several environmental dimensions (i.e., standards-based teaching, home support, and peer support). Indicates that the classroom environment (standards-based teaching practices) was the strongest independent predictor of both achievement and…
Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Garcia-Iriarte, Edurne; Henry, David B.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.
This study describes the development and validation of the Evaluation Capacity Assessment Instrument (ECAI), a measure designed to assess evaluation capacity among staff of nonprofit organizations that is based on a synthesis model of evaluation capacity. One hundred and sixty-nine staff of nonprofit organizations completed the ECAI. The 68-item…
Jirativanont, T; Raksamani, K; Aroonpruksakul, N; Apidechakul, P; Suraseranivongse, S
We sought to evaluate the validity of two non-technical skills evaluation instruments, the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) behavioural marker system and the Ottawa Global Rating Scale (GRS), to apply them to anaesthesia training. The content validity, response process, internal structure, relations with other variables and consequences were described for validity evidence. Simulated crisis management sessions were initiated during which two trained raters evaluated the performance of postgraduate first-, second- and third-year (PGY-1, PGY-2 and PGY-3) anaesthesia residents. The study included 70 participants, composed of 24 PGY-1, 24 PGY-2 and 22 PGY-3 residents. Both instruments differentiated the non-technical skills of PGY-1 from PGY-3 residents ( P skills were 0.86, 0.83, 0.84, 0.87, 0.80 and 0.86, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of the ANTS instrument was 0.93, and was 0.96 for the Ottawa GRS. There was a high correlation between the ANTS and Ottawa GRS. The raters reported the ease of use of the Ottawa GRS compared to the ANTS. We found sufficient evidence of validity in the ANTS instrument and the Ottawa GRS for the evaluation of non-technical skills in a simulated anaesthesia setting, but the Ottawa GRS was more practical and had higher reliability.
Recycling and its applications are growing significantly due to the great potential for solving a range of environmental problems in society. Nevertheless, there are currently very few instruments that can provide valid and reliable data on students' attitudes toward recycling. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation…
Arrindell, W.A.; Engebretsen, A.A
Using a large sample of Spanish students (N = 796), Livianos-Aldana and Rojo-Moreno (1999) found poor evidence of convergent validity of the homologous dimensions that underlie the EMBU and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The Spanish findings however are neither in line with previous ones that were
Knuijt, S.; Sondaar, M.; Kleine, M.J. de; Kollee, L.A.A.
AIM: The validation of the Dutch Taal Screenings Test (TST), a language-screening test, which is included in a follow-up instrument developed to enable paediatricians to assess 5-y-old preterm infants for their motor, cognitive and speech and language development. METHODS: The speech and language
Wang, Jian; Shen, Bo; Luo, Xiaobin; Hu, Qingshan; Garn, Alex C.
Purpose: Using Butler's teacher achievement goal orientation as a conceptual framework, we developed this study to validate a teachers' achievement goal instrument for teaching physical education. Methods: A sample of 322 Chinese physical education teachers participated in this study and completed measures of achievement goal orientations and job…
Aworanti, O. A.; Taiwo, M. B.; Iluobe, O. I.
Currently, it has become an accepted norm nearly all over the globe to teach and assess soft skills. However, in Nigeria, it is an emerging area of interest that needs to be addressed squarely. In the light of the fore-going, this study validated a modified version of Measuring and Assessment Soft Skills (MASS) (an instrument developed and used by…
Castillo Mayret M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures that reflect patients' assessment of their health are of increasing importance as outcome measures in randomised controlled trials. The methodological approach used in the pre-validation development of new instruments (item generation, item reduction and question formatting should be robust and transparent. The totality of the content of existing PRO instruments for a specific condition provides a valuable resource (pool of items that can be utilised to develop new instruments. Such 'top down' approaches are common, but the explicit pre-validation methods are often poorly reported. This paper presents a systematic and generalisable 5-step pre-validation PRO instrument methodology. Methods The method is illustrated using the example of the Aberdeen Glaucoma Questionnaire (AGQ. The five steps are: 1 Generation of a pool of items; 2 Item de-duplication (three phases; 3 Item reduction (two phases; 4 Assessment of the remaining items' content coverage against a pre-existing theoretical framework appropriate to the objectives of the instrument and the target population (e.g. ICF; and 5 qualitative exploration of the target populations' views of the new instrument and the items it contains. Results The AGQ 'item pool' contained 725 items. Three de-duplication phases resulted in reduction of 91, 225 and 48 items respectively. The item reduction phases discarded 70 items and 208 items respectively. The draft AGQ contained 83 items with good content coverage. The qualitative exploration ('think aloud' study resulted in removal of a further 15 items and refinement to the wording of others. The resultant draft AGQ contained 68 items. Conclusions This study presents a novel methodology for developing a PRO instrument, based on three sources: literature reporting what is important to patient; theoretically coherent framework; and patients' experience of completing the instrument. By systematically accounting for all items dropped
Full Text Available Purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish form of the Attitude Towards Mathematics Instrument Short Form developed by Lim and Chapman (2013. In this study, data gathered from 310 elementary students were utilized for Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis to determine the structure of factor loading. The factor loading among the sub-scales were different from original. Confirmatory Factor analysis revealed that the model was acceptable. There were three sub-scales, value, self-confidence, enjoyment and motivation. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall instrument was calculated as .84, respectively. The adapted instrument includes three sub-scales: value (α=.91, self-confidence (α=.86, enjoyment and motivation (α=.82. Turkish adaptation of the questionnaire is valid and reliable and appropriate to use in Turkish culture.
Full Text Available This study was aimed to develop and produce an assessment instrument of mathematical learning results based on multiple intelligence. The methods in this study used Borg & Gall-Research and Development approach (Research & Development. The subject of research was 289 students. The results of research: (1 Result of Aiken Analysis showed 58 valid items were between 0,714 to 0,952. (2 Result of the Exploratory on factor analysis indicated the instrument consist of three factors i.e. mathematical logical intelligence-spatial intelligence-and linguistic intelligence. KMO value was 0.661 df 0.780 sig. 0.000 with valid category. This research succeeded to developing the assessment instrument of mathematical learning results based on multiple intelligence of second grade in elementary school with characteristics of logical intelligence of mathematics, spatial intelligence, and linguistic intelligence.
Paudel, Prakash; Cronjé, Sonja; O'Connor, Patricia M; Khadka, Jyoti; Rao, Gullapalli N; Holden, Brien A
The aim was to develop and validate an instrument to measure job satisfaction in eye-care personnel and assess the job satisfaction of one-year trained vision technicians in India. A pilot instrument for assessing job satisfaction was developed, based on a literature review and input from a public health expert panel. Rasch analysis was used to assess psychometric properties and to undertake an iterative item reduction. The instrument was then administered to vision technicians in vision centres of Andhra Pradesh in India. Associations between vision technicians' job satisfaction and factors such as age, gender and experience were analysed using t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Rasch analysis confirmed that the 15-item job satisfaction in eye-care personnel (JSEP) was a unidimensional instrument with good fit statistics, measurement precisions and absence of differential item functioning. Overall, vision technicians reported high rates of job satisfaction (0.46 logits). Age, gender and experience were not associated with high job satisfaction score. Item score analysis showed non-financial incentives, salary and workload were the most important determinants of job satisfaction. The 15-item JSEP instrument is a valid instrument for assessing job satisfaction among eye-care personnel. Overall, vision technicians in India demonstrated high rates of job satisfaction. © 2016 Optometry Australia.
Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Beyler, Nicholas K; Bartee, Roderick T; Heelan, Kate A
The utility of self-report measures of physical activity (PA) in youth can be greatly enhanced by calibrating self-report output against objectively measured PA data.This study demonstrates the potential of calibrating self-report output against objectively measured physical activity (PA) in youth by using a commonly used self-report tool called the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). A total of 148 participants (grades 4 through 12) from 9 schools (during the 2009-2010 school year) wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days and then completed the PAQ. Multiple linear regression modeling was used on 70% of the available sample to develop a calibration equation and this was cross validated on an independent sample of participants (30% of sample). A calibration model with age, gender, and PAQ scores explained 40% of the variance in values for the percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (%MVPA) measured from the accelerometers (%MVPA = 14.56 - (sex*0.98) - (0.84*age) + (1.01*PAQ)). When tested on an independent, hold-out sample, the model estimated %MVPA values that were highly correlated with the recorded accelerometer values (r = .63) and there was no significant difference between the estimated and recorded activity values (mean diff. = 25.3 ± 18.1 min; p = .17). These results suggest that the calibrated PAQ may be a valid alternative tool to activity monitoring instruments for estimating %MVPA in groups of youth.
Fraser, Barry J.; Giddings, Geoffrey J.; McRobbie, Campbell J.
The research reported in this article makes two distinctive contributions to the field of classroom environment research. First, because existing instruments are unsuitable for science laboratory classes, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was developed and validated. Second, a new Personal form of the SLEI (involving a student's perceptions of his or her own role within the class) was developed and validated in conjunction with the conventional Class form (involving a student's perceptions of the class as a whole), and its usefulness was investigated. The instrument was cross-nationally fieldtested with 5,447 students in 269 senior high school and university classes in six countries, and cross-validated with 1,594 senior high school students in 92 classes in Australia. Each SLEI scale exhibited satisfactory internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, and factorial validity, and differentiated between the perceptions of students in different classes. A variety of applications with the new instrument furnished evidence about its usefulness and revealed that science laboratory classes are dominated by closed-ended activities; mean scores obtained on the Class form were consistently somewhat more favorable than on the corresponding Personal form; females generally held more favorable perceptions than males, but these differences were somewhat larger for the Personal form than the Class form; associations existed between attitudinal outcomes and laboratory environment dimensions; and the Class and Personal forms of the SLEI each accounted for unique variance in student outcomes which was independent of that accounted for by the other form.
Lanuza Borges Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to develop and validate an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of health professionals about domestic violence on children. Method: this was a study conducted with 194 physicians, nurses and dentists. A literature review was performed for preparation of the items and identification of the dimensions. Apparent and content validation was performed using analysis of three experts and 27 professors of the pediatric health discipline. For construct validation, Cronbach's alpha was used, and the Kappa test was applied to verify reproducibility. The criterion validation was conducted using the Student's t-test. Results: the final instrument included 56 items; the Cronbach alpha was 0.734, the Kappa test showed a correlation greater than 0.6 for most items, and the Student t-test showed a statistically significant value to the level of 5% for the two selected variables: years of education and using the Family Health Strategy. Conclusion: the instrument is valid and can be used as a promising tool to develop or direct actions in public health and evaluate knowledge about domestic violence on children.
Muhamad, Zailani; Ramli, Ayiesah; Amat, Salleh
The aim of this study was to determine the content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability of the Clinical Competency Evaluation Instrument (CCEVI) in assessing the clinical performance of physiotherapy students. This study was carried out between June and September 2013 at University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A panel of 10 experts were identified to establish content validity by evaluating and rating each of the items used in the CCEVI with regards to their relevance in measuring students' clinical competency. A total of 50 UKM undergraduate physiotherapy students were assessed throughout their clinical placement to determine the construct validity of these items. The instrument's reliability was determined through a cross-sectional study involving a clinical performance assessment of 14 final-year undergraduate physiotherapy students. The content validity index of the entire CCEVI was 0.91, while the proportion of agreement on the content validity indices ranged from 0.83-1.00. The CCEVI construct validity was established with factor loading of ≥0.6, while internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) overall was 0.97. Test-retest reliability of the CCEVI was confirmed with a Pearson's correlation range of 0.91-0.97 and an intraclass coefficient correlation range of 0.95-0.98. Inter-rater reliability of the CCEVI domains ranged from 0.59 to 0.97 on initial and subsequent assessments. This pilot study confirmed the content validity of the CCEVI. It showed high internal consistency, thereby providing evidence that the CCEVI has moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability. However, additional refinement in the wording of the CCEVI items, particularly in the domains of safety and documentation, is recommended to further improve the validity and reliability of the instrument.
Calsyn, Robert J.; And Others
Reliability and validity of self-report data provided by 178 mentally ill homeless persons were generally favorable. Self-reports of service use also generally agreed with treatment staff estimates, providing further validity evidence. Researchers and administrators can be relatively confident in using such data. (SLD)
van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; van Oppen, Patricia; Smit, Johannes H
Online questionnaires for measuring common mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders are increasingly used. The psychometrics of several pen-and-paper questionnaires have been re-examined for online use and new online instruments have been developed and tested for validity as well. This study aims to review and synthesise the literature on this subject and provide a framework for future research. We searched Medline and PsycINFO for psychometric studies on online instruments for common mental health disorders and extracted the psychometric data. Studies were coded and assessed for quality by independent raters. We included 56 studies on 62 online instruments. For common instruments such as the CES-D, MADRS-S and HADS there is mounting evidence for adequate psychometric properties. Further results are scattered over different instruments and different psychometric characteristics. Few studies included patient populations. We found at least one online measure for each of the included mental health disorders and symptoms. A small number of online questionnaires have been studied thoroughly. This study provides an overview of online instruments to refer to when choosing an instrument for assessing common mental health disorders online, and can structure future psychometric research.
Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Eun Jung; Chae, Hyun-Ju; Cho, Soo-Yeon
The purpose of this study was to evaluate measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for studies published in Korean nursing journals. Of 424 Korean nursing articles initially identified, 168 articles met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the measurements used in the studies and interpretability were assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. It consists of items on internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, content validity, construct validity including structural validity, hypothesis testing, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity, and responsiveness. For each item of the COSMIN checklist, measurement properties are rated on a four-point scale: excellent, good, fair, and poor. Each measurement property is scored with worst score counts. All articles used the classical test theory for measurement properties. Internal consistency (72.6%), construct validity (56.5%), and content validity (38.2%) were most frequently reported properties being rated as 'excellent' by COSMIN checklist, whereas other measurement properties were rarely reported. A systematic review of measurement properties including interpretability of most instruments warrants further research and nursing-focused checklists assessing measurement properties should be developed to facilitate intervention outcomes across Korean studies.
Chamlin, Sarah L; Mancini, Anthony J; Lai, Jin-Shei; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Cella, David; Adams, Denise; Drolet, Beth; Baselga, Eulalia; Frieden, Ilona J; Garzon, Maria; Holland, Kristin; Horii, Kimberly A; Lucky, Anne W; McCuaig, Catherine; Metry, Denise; Morel, Kimberly D; Newell, Brandon D; Nopper, Amy J; Powell, Julie; Siegel, Dawn; Haggstrom, Anita N
Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common tumors for which there is no validated disease-specific instrument to measure the quality of life in infants and their parents/caregivers during the critical first months of life. This study prospectively developed and validated a quality-of-life instrument for patients with IH and their parents/caregivers and correlated demographic and clinical features to the effects on the quality of life. A total of 220 parents/caregivers completed the 35-item Infantile Hemangioma Quality-of-Life (IH-QoL) instrument and provided demographic information. The dimensionality of the items was evaluated using factor analysis, with results suggesting four factors: child physical symptoms, child social interactions, parent emotional functioning, and parent psychosocial functioning. Each factor fit the Rasch measurement model with acceptable fit index (mean square instrument consists of four scales with a total of 29 items. Content validity was verified by analyzing parents' responses to an open-ended question. Test-retest reliability at a 48-hour interval was supported by a total IH-QoL intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.84. Certain clinical characteristics of hemangioma, including those located on the head and neck, in the proliferative stage, and requiring treatment, are associated with a greater impact on QoL.
ter Huurne, Elke D; de Haan, Hein A; ten Napel-Schutz, Marieke C; Postel, Marloes G; Menting, Juliane; van der Palen, Job; Vroling, Maartje S; DeJong, Cor A J
The Eating Disorder Questionnaire-Online (EDQ-O) is an online self-report questionnaire, which was developed specifically to provide a DSM-IV-TR classification of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eating disorder (BED), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), without using a face-to-face clinical interview. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric quality of the EDQ-O. The validity of the EDQ-O was determined by examining the agreement with the diagnoses obtained from the Longitudinal, Expert, and All DATA (LEAD) standard. Participants included 134 new patients of a specialist center for eating disorders located in the Netherlands. Assessment of the validity of the EDQ-O yielded acceptable to good AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) values with a range from 0.72 to 0.83. Most other diagnostic efficiency statistics were also good except for a low sensitivity for AN (0.44), a low positive predictive value for BN (0.50), and a relatively low sensitivity for BED (0.66). The results of the present study suggest that the EDQ-O performs acceptably as a diagnostic instrument for all DSM-IV-TR eating disorder classifications. However, suggestions are made to further improve the validity of the EDQ-O. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grando, Luciana Rosa; Horn, Roberta; Cunha, Vivian Trein; Cestari, Tania Ferreira
The Cardiff Acne Disability Index was originally developed in English for measuring quality of life of acne patients. Considering the psychosocial impact of this disease, it is important to have instruments culturally and linguistically validated for use in Brazilian adolescents. To translate the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese, culturally adapt it, and verify its reliability and validity in adolescent patients with acne. In the first step, the Cardiff Acne Disability Index was translated and validated linguistically to Brazilian Portuguese in accordance with international guidelines published. In the second step, the validation of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese instrument was performed, when patients aged from 12 to 20 years with acne were selected. The participants were interviewed to collect demographic data, submitted to the classification of acne by the Global Acne Grading System and invited to respond the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version and DLQI (>16 years) or CDLQI (≤16 years). The internal consistency of Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and concurrent validity was measured by the Spearman correlation coefficient and Student 's t-test for paired samples. The study included 100 adolescents. The Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version showed good reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73). The concurrent validity of the scale was supported by a strong and significant correlation with CDLQI / DLQI instruments (rs=0.802;pPortuguese version is a reliable, valid and valuable tool to measure the impact of acne on quality of life in adolescent patients.
Oubaya, N; Dramé, M; Novella, J-L; Quignard, E; Cunin, C; Jolly, D; Mahmoudi, R
To study the capacity of the SEGAm instrument to predict loss of independence among elderly community-dwelling subjects. The study was performed in four French departments (Ardennes, Marne, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse). Subjects aged 65 years or more, living at home, who could read and understand French, with a degree of autonomy corresponding to groups 5 or 6 in the AGGIR autonomy evaluation scale were included. Assessment included demographic characteristics, comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the SEGAm instrument at baseline. Subjects had follow-up visits at home at 6 and 12 months. During follow-up, vital status and level of independence were recorded. Logistic regression was used to study predictive validity of the SEGAm instrument. Among the 116 subjects with complete follow-up, 84 (72.4%) were classed as not very frail at baseline, 23 (19.8%) as frail, and 9 (7.8%) as very frail; 63 (54.3%) suffered loss of at least one ADL or IADL at 12 months. By multivariable analysis, frailty status at baseline was significantly associated with loss of independence during the 12 months of follow-up (OR=4.52, 95% CI=1.40-14.68; p=0.01). We previously validated the SEGAm instrument in terms of feasibility, acceptability, internal structure validity, reliability, and discriminant validity. This instrument appears to be a suitable tool for screening frailty among community-dwelling elderly subjects, and could be used as a basis to plan early targeted interventions for subjects at risk of adverse outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this report is to show how the objective of developing guidelines for a solar energy related portable meteorology instrument package, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA), was carried out and preliminarily demonstrated and validated. A project to develop guidelines for such packages was initiated at IEA's Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings Program Expert's Meeting held in Norrkoping, Sweden in February 1976. An international comparison of resultant devices was conducted on behalf of the IEA at a conference held in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, in 1978. Results of the 1978 Hamburg comparison of two devices and the Swiss Mobile Solar Radiation System, using German meteorological standards, are discussed. The consensus of the IEA Task Group is that the objective of the subtask has been accomplished.
Crossley, James G M
Nurse appraisal is well established in the Western world because of its obvious educational advantages. Appraisal works best with many sources of information on performance. Multisource feedback (MSF) is widely used in business and in other clinical disciplines to provide such information. It has also been incorporated into nursing appraisals, but, so far, none of the instruments in use for nurses has been validated. We set out to develop an instrument aligned with the UK Knowledge and Skills Framework (KSF) and to evaluate its reliability and feasibility across a wide hospital-based nursing population. The KSF framework provided a content template. Focus groups developed an instrument based on consensus. The instrument was administered to all the nursing staff in 2 large NHS hospitals forming a single trust in London, England. We used generalizability analysis to estimate reliability, response rates and unstructured interviews to evaluate feasibility, and factor structure and correlation studies to evaluate validity. On a voluntary basis the response rate was moderate (60%). A failure to engage with information technology and employment-related concerns were commonly cited as reasons for not responding. In this population, 11 responses provided a profile with sufficient reliability to inform appraisal (G = 0.7). Performance on the instrument was closely and significantly correlated with performance on a KSF questionnaire. This is the first contemporary psychometric evaluation of an MSF instrument for nurses. MSF appears to be as valid and reliable as an assessment method to inform appraisal in nurses as it is in other health professional groups. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Full Text Available Objective: To adapt and validate an evaluation tool on psychosocial skills for life and healthy habits in Schoolchildren from a locality in Bogota, Colombia. Materials and methods: This quantitative transversal with empirical analytical non-experimental approach study evaluated responses of schoolchildren in third and fourth grade of primary school with the instrument adapted and reconstructed to establish technical quality of items, reliability and validity of it. The instrument (18 psychosocial skills and 19 healthy habits, plus 4 identification items was self-diligence with Yes, No dichotomous answer option. It had evidence of apparent validity with schoolchildren from other peer institutions and was tested at 32 Public schools and analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: 1,066 schoolchildren participated in total. The items of the two constructs showed a good fit to the Rasch model as well as unidimensionality, reliability and separation measures above the recommended values. There was no differential functioning of the item by sex. Conclusion: The instrument of 37 items presented good properties of validity, reliability and adjustment to Rasch; although it does not have enough items of high difficulty level, which can be corrected in future applications.
Nugroho, A. A.; Juniati, D.; Siswono, T. Y. E.
Self Regulated Learning (SRL) is an individual's ability to achieve academic goals by controlling behavior, motivate yourself and use cognitive in learning, so it is important for a teacher especially teachers of mathematics related to the ability of management, design, implementation of learning and evaluation of learning outcomes. The purpose of the research is to develop an instrument to describe the SRL of a prospective mathematics teacher. Data were collected by (1) the study of the theory of SRL produced the indicator SRL used to design the questionnaire SRL; (2) analysis of the questionnaire SRL obtained from several References; and (3) development stage of the SRL questionnaire through validity test of content and empirical validation. The study involved 2 content experts in mathematics, 1 linguist, and 92 prospective mathematics teachers. The results of the research on content validity test based on Indonesian expert and 2 content experts indicate that the content can assess the indicator of the SRL and feasible to be used, in the test of legibility of two prospective mathematics teacher concluded that the instrument has a language that can be understood by the prospective teacher of mathematics and on empirical validation involving 92 prospective mathematics teacher generate data that of 65 statements there are 3 invalid statements. Reliability calculation shows high category that values 0,93. The conclusion is the SRL instrument developed for the prospective mathematics teacher.
Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve; Tremblay, Joël
Stakeholder participation is an important trend in the field of program evaluation. Although a few measurement instruments have been proposed, they either have not been empirically validated or do not cover the full content of the concept. This study consists of a first empirical validation of a measurement instrument that fully covers the content of participation, namely the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument (PEMI). It specifically examines (1) the intercoder reliability of scores derived by two research assistants on published evaluation cases; (2) the convergence between the scores of coders and those of key respondents (i.e., authors); and (3) the convergence between the authors' scores on the PEMI and the Evaluation Involvement Scale (EIS). A purposive sample of 40 cases drawn from the evaluation literature was used to assess reliability. One author per case in this sample was then invited to participate in a survey; 25 fully usable questionnaires were received. Stakeholder participation was measured on nominal and ordinal scales. Cohen's κ, the intraclass correlation coefficient, and Spearman's ρ were used to assess reliability and convergence. Reliability results ranged from fair to excellent. Convergence between coders' and authors' scores ranged from poor to good. Scores derived from the PEMI and the EIS were moderately associated. Evidence from this study is strong in the case of intercoder reliability and ranges from weak to strong in the case of convergent validation. Globally, this suggests that the PEMI can produce scores that are both reliable and valid.
Holzemer, William L; Uys, Leana R; Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Makoae, Lucia N; Kohi, Thecla W; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Stewart, Anita L; Mullan, Joseph; Phetlhu, René D; Wantland, Dean; Durrheim, Kevin
This article describes the development and testing of a quantitative measure of HIV/AIDS stigma as experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS. This instrument is designed to measure perceived stigma, create a baseline from which to measure changes in stigma over time, and track potential progress towards reducing stigma. It was developed in three phases from 2003-2006: generating items based on results of focus group discussions; pilot testing and reducing the original list of items; and validating the instrument. Data for all phases were collected from five African countries: Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania. The instrument was validated with a sample of 1,477 persons living with HIV/AIDS from all of the five countries. The sample had a mean age of 36.1 years and 74.1% was female. The participants reported they knew they were HIV positive for an average of 3.4 years and 46% of the sample was taking antiretroviral medications. A six factor solution with 33 items explained 60.72% of the variance. Scale alpha reliabilities were examined and items that did not contribute to scale reliability were dropped. The factors included: Verbal Abuse (8 items, alpha=0.886); Negative Self-Perception (5 items, alpha=0.906); Health Care Neglect (7 items, alpha=0.832); Social Isolation (5 items, alpha=0.890); Fear of Contagion (6 items, alpha=0.795); and Workplace Stigma (2 items, alpha=0.758). This article reports on the development and validation of a new measure of stigma, HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument - PLWA (HASI-P) providing evidence that supports adequate content and construct validity, modest concurrent validity, and acceptable internal consistency reliability for each of the six subscales and total score. The scale is available is several African languages.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cyndi W; Moore, Thomas E; Catalanotto, Frank A
Valid and reliable instruments to measure and assess cultural competence for oral health care providers are scarce in the literature, and most published scales have been contested due to a lack of item analysis and internal estimates of reliability. The purposes of this study were, first, to develop a standardized instrument to measure dental students' knowledge of diversity, skills in culturally competent patient-centered communication, and use of culture-centered practices in patient care and, second, to provide preliminary validity support for this instrument. The initial instrument used in this study was a thirty-six-item Likert-scale survey entitled the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Oral Health Providers (KEPI-OHP). This instrument is an adaption of an initially thirty-three-item version of the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Scale-Counselor Edition (MAKSS-CE), a scale that assesses factors related to social justice, cultural differences among clients, and cross-cultural client management. After the authors conducted cognitive and expert interviews, focus groups, pilot testing, and item analysis, their initial instrument was reduced to twenty-eight items. The KEPI-OHP was then distributed to 916 dental students (response rate=48.6 percent) across the United States to measure its reliability and assess its validity. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the scale's validity. The modification of the survey into a sensible instrument with a relatively clear factor structure using factor analysis resulted in twenty items. A scree test suggested three expressive factors, which were retained for rotation. Bentler's comparative fit and Bentler and Bonnett's non-normed indices were 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. A three-factor solution, including efficacy of assessment, knowledge of diversity, and culture-centered practice subscales, comprised of twenty-items was identified. The KEPI-OHP was found to
Myles Benjamin Walton
Full Text Available To test the 'Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs' (LOAD questionnaire for construct and criterion validity, and to similarly test the Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI.Prospective Study.222 dogs with osteoarthritis.Osteoarthritis was diagnosed in a cohort of dogs on the basis of clinical history and orthopedic examination. Force-platform analysis was performed and a "symmetry index" for peak vertical force (PVF was calculated. Owners completed LOAD, CBPI and HCPI instruments. As a test of construct validity, inter-instrument correlations were calculated. As a test of criterion validity, the correlations between instrument scores and PVF symmetry scores were calculated. Additionally, internal consistency of all instruments was calculated and compared to those previously reported. Factor analysis is reported for the first time for LOAD, and is compared to that previously reported for CBPI and HCPI.Significant moderate correlations were found between all instruments, implying construct validity for all instruments. Significant weak correlations were found between LOAD scores and PVF symmetry index, and between CBPI scores and PVF symmetry index.LOAD is an owner-completed clinical metrology instrument that can be recommended for the measurement of canine osteoarthritis. It is convenient to use, validated and, as demonstrated here for the first time, has a correlation with force-platform data.
Connor, Jane M.; And Others
Reported a self-report measure of adolescents' assertiveness. Items for the scale were presented to sixth-grade students. Factor analysis revealed factors of submissiveness, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. After the validational study, a small assertiveness training program indicated that training effects were obtained and could be generalized…
Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve
Although combining methods is nothing new, more contributions about why and how to mix methods for validation purposes are needed. This article presents a case of validating the inferences drawn from the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument, an instrument that purports to measure stakeholder participation in evaluation. Although the…
Rhee, John S; Matthews, B Alex; Neuburg, Marcy; Logan, Brent R; Burzynski, Mary; Nattinger, Ann B
To validate a disease-specific quality-of-life instrument--the Skin Cancer Index--intended to measure quality-of-life issues relevant to patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer. Internal reliability, convergent and divergent validity with existing scales, and factor analyses were performed in a cross-sectional study of 211 patients presenting with cervicofacial nonmelanoma skin cancer to a dermatologic surgery clinic. Factor analyses of the Skin Cancer Index confirmed a multidimensional scale with 3 distinct subscales-emotional, social, and appearance. Excellent internal validity of the 3 subscales was demonstrated. Substantial evidence was observed for convergent validity with the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Lerman's Cancer Worry Scale, and Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 12 domains for vitality, emotion, social function, and mental health. These findings validate a new disease-specific quality-of-life instrument for patients with cervicofacial nonmelanoma skin cancer. Studies on the responsiveness of the Skin Cancer Index to clinical intervention are currently under way.
Juliano Teixeira Moraes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop and validate an array of analysis and judgment for the evaluation of Health Care Services of people with stomas. Methods: cross-sectional study in 28 health facilities in the state of Minas Gerais. A descriptive analysis of the instrument and a study of its psychometric properties were performed. We used the Delphi technique for the validation of content and appearance. A psychometric analysis was carried out through the study of the reliability and validity of the measures obtained with the instrument. Results: it was possible to construct an array analysis and judgment with 16 components (with scores from zero to five grouped according to size and structure and process considered essential to evaluate the service. The results achieved in the reliability for structure and process, through the Cronbach alpha coefficient (α = 0.771 and α = 0.809, respectively, and the validity of content and construct demonstrated good internal consistency and satisfactory validity. An exploratory factor analysis indicated the item "main activity performed in the unit" as a limitation of the scale. Conclusion: the study provides a new tool for the evaluation of structure and process of Health Care Services of a Person with a stoma.
Wang, Yi-Shun; Wang, Hsiu-Yuan
IT-related self-efficacy has been found to have a critical influence on system use. However, traditional measures of computer self-efficacy and Internet-related self-efficacy are perceived to be inapplicable in the context of mobile computing and commerce because they are targeted primarily at either desktop computer or wire-based technology contexts. Based on previous research, this study develops and validates a multidimensional instrument for measuring mobile computing self-efficacy (MCSE). This empirically validated instrument will be useful to researchers in developing and testing the theories of mobile user behavior, and to practitioners in assessing the mobile computing self-efficacy of users and promoting the use of mobile commerce systems.
The Technical Committee Meeting on design, verification and validation of advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants was held in Espoo, Finland on 20 - 23 June 1994. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) International Working Group's (IWG) on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (NPPCI) and on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (ATWR). VTT Automation together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy responded about the practical arrangements of the meeting. In total 96 participants from 21 countries and the Agency took part in the meeting and 34 full papers and 8 posters were presented. Following topics were covered in the papers: (1) experience with advanced and digital systems, (2) safety and reliability analysis, (3) advanced digital systems under development and implementation, (4) verification and validation methods and practices, (5) future development trends. (orig.)
Rosenblatt, Mike; Urh, Marjeta; Saveliev, Sergei
Biological samples of high complexity are required to test protein mass spec sample preparation procedures and validate mass spec instrument performance. Total cell protein extracts provide the needed sample complexity. However, to be compatible with mass spec applications, such extracts should meet a number of design requirements: compatibility with LC/MS (free of detergents, etc.)high protein integrity (minimal level of protein degradation and non-biological PTMs)compatibility with common sample preparation methods such as proteolysis, PTM enrichment and mass-tag labelingLot-to-lot reproducibility Here we describe total protein extracts from yeast and human cells that meet the above criteria. Two extract formats have been developed: Intact protein extracts with primary use for sample preparation method development and optimizationPre-digested extracts (peptides) with primary use for instrument validation and performance monitoring
Kong, Qi-Ping; Wong, Ngai-Ying; Lam, Chi-Chung
Universal education has aggravated the problems of students' disengagement in learning, highlighting in particular, a greater range of motivations to learn and wider diversification in students' interests. Students' engagement with curriculum has become a crucial element in classroom learning. How we cultivate their involvement in the curriculum may be seen as being far more important than the epistemological consideration in the design of the school curriculum. Though aspects of behavioural, affective and cognitive engagements have been revealed in literature, we are still in need of a validated instrument that measures student engagement for further research. In the present study, an instrument of student engagement in the subject area of mathematics was developed through grounded research. Its validity was established by statistical methods
Kuwabara, Cleuza Catsue Takeda; Evora, Yolanda Dora Martinez; de Oliveira, Márcio Mattos Borges
With the continuous incorporation of health technologies, hospital risk management should be implemented to systemize the monitoring of adverse effects, performing actions to control and eliminate their damage. As part of these actions, Technovigilance is active in the procedures of acquisition, use and quality control of health products and equipment. This study aimed to construct and validate an instrument to evaluate medical-hospital products. This is a quantitative, exploratory, longitudinal and methodological development study, based on the Six Sigma quality management model, which has as its principle basis the component stages of the DMAIC Cycle. For data collection and content validation, the Delphi technique was used with professionals from the Brazilian Sentinel Hospital Network. It was concluded that the instrument developed permitted the evaluation of the product, differentiating between the results of the tested brands, in line with the initial study goal of qualifying the evaluations performed.
Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.
Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…
Thijs, Jochem T.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Van Der Leij, Aryan
This study examined teachers' self-reported pedagogical practices toward socially inhibited, hyperactive, and average kindergartners. A self-report instrument was developed and examined in three samples of kindergartners and their teachers. Principal components analyses were conducted in four datasets pertaining to 1 child per teacher. Two…
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a global need to assess physicians' professional performance in actual clinical practice. Valid and reliable instruments are necessary to support these efforts. This study focuses on the reliability and validity, the influences of some sociodemographic biasing factors, associations between self and other evaluations, and the number of evaluations needed for reliable assessment of a physician based on the three instruments used for the multisource assessment of physicians' professional performance in the Netherlands. Methods This observational validation study of three instruments underlying multisource feedback (MSF was set in 26 non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands. In total, 146 hospital-based physicians took part in the study. Each physician's professional performance was assessed by peers (physician colleagues, co-workers (including nurses, secretary assistants and other healthcare professionals and patients. Physicians also completed a self-evaluation. Ratings of 864 peers, 894 co-workers and 1960 patients on MSF were available. We used principal components analysis and methods of classical test theory to evaluate the factor structure, reliability and validity of instruments. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear mixed models to address other objectives. Results The peer, co-worker and patient instruments respectively had six factors, three factors and one factor with high internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha 0.95 - 0.96. It appeared that only 2 percent of variance in the mean ratings could be attributed to biasing factors. Self-ratings were not correlated with peer, co-worker or patient ratings. However, ratings of peers, co-workers and patients were correlated. Five peer evaluations, five co-worker evaluations and 11 patient evaluations are required to achieve reliable results (reliability coefficient ≥ 0.70. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the three MSF instruments produced
Full Text Available The ability of an individual to participate in courtroom proceedings is assessed by clinicians using legal 'fitness to plead' criteria. Findings of 'unfitness' are so rare that there is considerable professional unease concerning the utility of the current subjective assessment process. As a result, mentally disordered defendants may be subjected unfairly to criminal trials. The Law Commission in England and Wales has proposed legal reform, as well as the utilisation of a defined psychiatric instrument to assist in fitness to plead assessments. Similar legal reforms are occurring in other jurisdictions. Our objective was to produce and validate a standardised assessment instrument of fitness to plead employing a filmed vignette of criminal proceedings. The instrument was developed in consultation with legal and clinical professionals, and was refined using standard item reduction methods in two initial rounds of testing (n = 212. The factorial structure, test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the resultant instrument were assessed in a further round (n = 160. As a result of this iterative process a 25-item scale was produced, with an underlying two-factor structure representing the foundational and decision-making abilities underpinning fitness to plead. The sub-scales demonstrate good internal consistency (factor 1: 0·76; factor 2: 0·65 and test-retest stability (0·7 as well as excellent convergent validity with scores of intelligence, executive function and mentalising abilities (p≤0·01 in all domains. Overall the standardised Fitness to Plead Assessment instrument has good psychometric properties. It has the potential to ensure that the significant numbers of mentally ill and cognitively impaired individuals who face trial are objectively assessed, and the courtroom process critically informed.
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per
AIMS: Screening instruments for detection of common mental disorders have not been validity tested in long term sickness absence (LSA), which is the aim of this study for the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: Of all 2,414 incident persons on continuous sick...... in Denmark there is not a legal requirement that sick-listed persons are certified as sick by a physician....
Ogden, C A; Akobeng, A K; Abbott, J; Aggett, P; Sood, M R; Thomas, A G
To validate IMPACT-III (UK), a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, in British children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). One hundred six children and parents were invited to participate. IMPACT-III (UK) was validated by inspection by health professionals and children to assess face and content validity, factor analysis to determine optimum domain structure, use of Cronbach alpha coefficients to test internal reliability, ANOVA to assess discriminant validity, correlation with the Child Health Questionnaire to assess concurrent validity, and use of intraclass correlation coefficients to assess test-retest reliability. The independent samples t test was used to measure differences between sexes and age groups, and between paper and computerised versions of IMPACT-III (UK). IMPACT-III (UK) had good face and content validity. The most robust factor solution was a 5-domain structure: body image, embarrassment, energy, IBD symptoms, and worries/concerns about IBD, all of which demonstrated good internal reliability (α = 0.74-0.88). Discriminant validity was demonstrated by significant (P measure HRQoL in British children with IBD.
Patricia Santos de Oliveira
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the process of content validation of an instrument of evaluation of Body Scheme for children with congenital blindness with aged between 6 and 9 years old. The population was composed of seven judges who received a first version of the instrument, they analyzed each item in the categories, clarity of language, theoretical pertinence, viability of application, and adequacy of construction. Item 1 – “Exploring the body” obtained 80% agreement; item 2 – “Playing getting dressed” received 70% agreement; item 3 – “Imitating gestures” 60% agreement; item 4 – “Puzzle” 75% agreement. It was adopted as a criterion of permanence in the proof at least 80% agreement. The item 1 remained as it was in the first version; item 2 was excluded and items 3 and 4 were modified. Based on the suggestions of the judges and the rate of agreement, a second version of the instrument composed of three items was elaborated. It was possible to consider the changes suggested by the judges were important to ensure the content validity of the instrument.
Frandes, Mirela; Deiac, Anca V; Timar, Bogdan; Lungeanu, Diana
Nowadays, mobile technologies are part of everyday life, but the lack of instruments to assess their acceptability for the management of chronic diseases makes their actual adoption for this purpose slow. The objective of this study was to develop a survey instrument for assessing patients' attitude toward and intention to use mobile technology for diabetes mellitus (DM) self-management, as well as to identify sociodemographic characteristics and quality of life factors that affect them. We first conducted the documentation and instrument design phases, which were subsequently followed by the pilot study and instrument validation. Afterward, the instrument was administered 103 patients (median age: 37 years; range: 18-65 years) diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 DM, who accepted to participate in the study. The reliability and construct validity were assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha and using factor analysis, respectively. The instrument included statements about the actual use of electronic devices for DM management, interaction between patient and physician, attitude toward using mobile technology, and quality of life evaluation. Cronbach's alpha was 0.9 for attitude toward using mobile technology and 0.97 for attitude toward using mobile device applications for DM self-management. Younger patients (Spearman's ρ =-0.429; P higher education level (Kendall's τ =0.51; P mobile assistive applications for DM control. Moreover, patients with a higher quality of life presented a significantly more positive attitude toward using modern technology (Spearman's ρ =0.466; P mobile technology for DM self-management. Additionally, we found that even if most of the patients showed positive attitude toward mobile applications, only a moderate level of intention to indeed use them was observed. Moreover, the study indicated that barriers were truthfulness and easiness to use.
Boas, Lilian Cristiane Gomes-Villas; Lima, Maria Luisa Soares Almeida Pedroso de; Pace, Ana Emilia
to verify the face validity, criterion-related validity and the reliability of two distinct forms of presentation of the instrument Measurement of Adherence to Treatment, one being for ascertaining the adherence to the use of oral antidiabetics and the other for adherence to the use of insulin, as well as to assess differences in adherence between these two modes of drug therapy. a methodological study undertaken with 90 adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The criterion-related validity was verified using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves; and for the reliability, the researchers calculated the Cronbach alpha coefficient, the item-total correlation, and the Pearson correlation coefficient. the oral antidiabetics and the other showed sensitivity of 0.84, specificity of 0.35 and a Cronbach correlation coefficient of 0.84. For the adherence to the use of insulin, the values found were, respectively, 0.60, 0.21 and 0.68. A statistically significant difference was found between the final scores of the two forms of the instrument, indicating greater adherence to the use of insulin than to oral antidiabetics. it is concluded that the two forms of the Measurement of Adherence to Treatment instrument are reliable and should be used to evaluate adherence to drug treatment among people with diabetes mellitus.
Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two survey instruments to evaluate high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The initial relationships between the sampled students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science were also investigated. A final valid sample of 600 volunteer Taiwanese high school students participated in this survey by responding to the Scientific Epistemic Beliefs Instrument (SEBI) and the Goal Orientations in Learning Science Instrument (GOLSI). Through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the SEBI and GOLSI were proven to be valid and reliable for assessing the participants' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The path analysis results indicated that, by and large, the students with more sophisticated epistemic beliefs in various dimensions such as Development of Knowledge, Justification for Knowing, and Purpose of Knowing tended to adopt both Mastery-approach and Mastery-avoidance goals. Some interesting results were also found. For example, the students tended to set a learning goal to outperform others or merely demonstrate competence (Performance-approach) if they had more informed epistemic beliefs in the dimensions of Multiplicity of Knowledge, Uncertainty of Knowledge, and Purpose of Knowing.
Hollar, David; Hobgood, Cherri; Foster, Beverly; Aleman, Marco; Sawning, Susan
Positive attitudes towards teamwork among health care professionals are critical to patient safety. The purpose of this study is to describe the development and concurrent validation of a new instrument to measure attitudes towards healthcare teamwork that is generalizable across various populations of healthcare students. The Collaborative Healthcare Interdisciplinary Planning (CHIRP) scale was validated against the Readiness for Inter-Professional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Analyses included student (n = 266) demographics, ANOVA, internal consistency, factor analysis, and Rasch analysis. The two instruments correlated at r = .582. The CHIRP showed a multifactorial structure having excellent internal consistency (alpha = .850), with 25 of the 36 scale items loading onto a single Teamwork Attitudes factor. The RIPLS likewise had strong internal consistency (alpha = .796) and a three-factor structure, supporting previous studies of the instrument. However, Rasch analyses showed 14 (38.9%) of the 36 CHIRP items, but only four (21.1%) of the 19 RIPLS items remaining within the satisfactory standardized OUTFIT zone of 2.0 standard deviation units. We propose the 14 fitting items as a new, validated teamwork attitudes scale.
Simonize Cunha Barreto de Mendonça
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to construct and validate the contents of the Self-care Assessment instrument for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: methodological study, based on Orem's General Theory of Nursing. The empirical categories and the items of the instrument were elucidated through a focus group. The content validation process was performed by seven specialists and the semantic analysis by 14 patients. The Content Validity Indices of the items, ≥0.78, and of the scale, ≥0.90, were considered excellent. Results: the instrument contains 131 items in six dimensions corresponding to the health deviation self-care requisites. Regarding the maintenance, a Content Validity Index of 0.98 was obtained for the full set of items, and, regarding the relevance, Content Validity Indices ≥0.80 were obtained for the majority of the assessed psychometric criteria. Conclusion: the instrument showed evidence of content validity.
Saputri, G. Z.; Akrom; Dini, S. M.
Non-adherence to the treatment of chronic diseases such as hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major obstacle in achieving patient therapy targets and quality of life of patients. A comprehensive approach involving pharmacists counselling has shown influences on changes in health behaviour and patient compliance. Behaviour changes in patients are one of the parameters to assess the effectiveness of counselling and education by pharmacists. Therefore, it is necessary to develop questionnaires of behaviour change measurement in DM-hypertension patients. This study aims to develop a measurement instrument in the form of questionnaires in assessing the behaviour change of DM-hypertension patients. Preparation of question items from the questionnaire research instrument refers to some guidelines and previous research references. Test of questionnaire instrument valid was done with expert validation, followed by pilot testing on 10 healthy respondents, and 10 DM-hypertension patients included in the inclusion criteria. Furthermore, field validation test was conducted on 37 patients who had undergone outpatient care at the PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta City Hospital and The Gading Clinic in Yogyakarta. The inclusion criteria were male and female patients, aged 18-65, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with hypertension who received oral antidiabetic drugs and antihypertensives, and who were not illiterate and co-operative. The data were collected by questionnaire interviews by a standardized pharmacist. The result of validation test using Person correlation shows the value of 0.33. The results of the questionnaire validation test on 37 patients showed 5 items of invalid questions with the value of r 0.33. The reliability value is shown from the Cronbach's alpha value of 0.722 (> 0.6), implying that the questionnaire is reliable for DM-hypertension patients. This Behavioural change questionnaire can be used on DM-hypertension patients, and an FGD approach is required
Leff, Stephen S; Baum, Katherine T; Bevans, Katherine B; Blum, Nathan J
To describe the development and psychometric evaluation of the Core Competency Measure (CCM), an instrument designed to assess professional competencies as defined by the Maternal Child Health Bureau (MCHB) and targeted by Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) programs. The CCM is a 44-item self-report measure comprised of six subscales to assess clinical, interdisciplinary, family-centered/cultural, community, research, and advocacy/policy competencies. The CCM was developed in an iterative fashion through participatory action research, and then nine cohorts of LEND trainees (N = 144) from 14 different disciplines completed the CCM during the first week of the training program. A 6-factor confirmatory factor analysis model was fit to data from the 44 original items. After three items were removed, the model adequately fit the data (comparative fit indices = .93, root mean error of approximation = .06) with all factor loadings exceeding .55. The measure was determined to be quite reliable as adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability were found for each subscale. The instrument's construct validity was supported by expected differences in self-rated competencies among fellows representing various disciplines, and the convergent validity was supported by the pattern of inter-correlations between subscale scores. The CCM appears to be a reliable and valid measure of MCHB core competencies for our sample of LEND trainees. It provides an assessment of key training areas addressed by the LEND program. Although the measure was developed within only one LEND Program, with additional research it has the potential to serve as a standardized tool to evaluate the strengths and limitations of MCHB training, both within and between programs.
Thomas M. Brinthaupt
Full Text Available Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt, Hein, & Kramer, 2009 is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1 comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2 using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3 comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1 overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2 high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3 friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented.
Nymark, C; Saboonchi, F; Mattiasson, A-C; Henriksson, P; Kiessling, A
Reducing patient delay for patients afflicted by an acute myocardial infarction is a task of great complexity, which might be alleviated if more factors that influence this delay could be identified. Although a number of self-reported instruments associated with patient delay exist, none of these taps the content of the appraisal process related to patients' subjective emotions. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire aimed at assessing patients' appraisal, emotions and action tendencies when afflicted by an acute myocardial infarction. An item pool was generated based on themes conceptualized in a recent qualitative study of acute myocardial infarction patients' thoughts, feelings and actions preceding the decision to seek medical care. The 'Think-Aloud Protocol' and test-retest analysis at item level were performed. The modified item pool was administered to 96 patients when treated for acute myocardial infarction. Explorative factor analysis and principal component analysis with the non-linear iterative partial least squares algorithm were performed to examine the underlying factor structure of the items. The findings indicated three core dimensions corresponding to three subscales, namely, 'symptom appraisal'; 'perceived inability to act'; 'autonomy preservation'. The results demonstrated acceptable measures of reliability and validity Conclusions: The PA-AMI questionnaire demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties. Assessment of the included core dimensions may contribute to greater understanding of the appraisal processes for patients afflicted by an acute myocardial infarction.
Di Maggio, Ilaria; Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore
The study is aimed at providing the development and initial validation of the Design My Future (DMF), which may be administered in career counseling and research activities to assess adolescents' future orientation and resilience. Two studies with two independent samples of Italian adolescents were conducted to examine psychometric requisites of DMF. Specifically, in the first study, after developing items and examined the content validity, the factorial structure, reliability and discriminant validity of the DMF were tested. In the second study, the measurement invariance across gender, conducing a sequence of nested CFA models, was evaluated. Results showed good psychometric support for the instrument with Italian adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kubayi, Alliance; Toriola, Abel; Didymus, Faye
The aim of this series of studies was to develop and initially validate an instrument to assess stressors among South African sports coaches. In study one, a preliminary pool of 45 items was developed based on existing literature and an expert panel was employed to assess the content validity and applicability of these items. In study two, the 32 items that were retained after study one were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). The resultant factorial structure comprised four components: environmental stressors, performance stressors, task-related stressors, and athlete stressors. These four components were made up of 26 items and, together, the components and items comprised the provisional Stressors in Sports Coaching Questionnaire (SSCQ). The results show that the SSCQ demonstrates acceptable internal consistency (.73-.89). The findings provide preliminary evidence that SSCQ is a valid tool to assess stressors among South African sports coaches.
Mills, Tamara L; Holm, Margo B; Schmeler, Mark
The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability and content validity of an outcomes tool designed to measure the effectiveness of seating-mobility interventions on the functional performance of individuals who use wheelchairs or scooters as their primary seating-mobility device. The instrument, Functioning Everyday With a Wheelchair (FEW), is a questionnaire designed to measure perceived user function related to wheelchair/scooter use. Using consumer-generated items, FEW Beta Version 1.0 was developed and test-retest reliability was established. Cross-validation of FEW Beta Version 1.0 was then carried out with five samples of seating-mobility users to establish content validity. Based on the content validity study, FEW Version 2.0 was developed and administered to seating-mobility consumers to examine its test-retest reliability. FEW Beta Version 1.0 yielded an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) Model (3,k) of .92, p content validity results revealed that FEW Beta Version 1.0 captured 55% of seating-mobility goals reported by consumers across five samples. FEW Version 2.0 yielded ICC(3,k) = .86, p content validity of FEW Version 2.0 was confirmed. FEW Beta Version 1.0 and FEW Version 2.0 were highly stable in their measurement of participants' seating-mobility goals over a 1-week interval.
Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.
This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs
Conclusion: PedsQL Oral Health Scale is a valid instrument to measure OHRQoL. However,our results indicated that the parent-proxy report was inferior to the student self-report, and healthcare providers should primarily use the student self-report.
Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Sørensen, Kristine; Kamberi, Haxhi; Brand, Helmut
Public health practice has come to increasing recognition of health promotion and the central role of knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in achieving health promotion. Health literacy (HL) is an under-explored topic in South Eastern European countries. There are no HL reports from Albania to date. The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in a population-based sample of adults in Albania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Tirana, Albania, including 239 individuals aged ≥ 18 years (61% women; 87% response). A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied twice (test and retest procedure after 2 weeks) including HLS-EU-Q and TOFHLA instruments. The internal consistency was high for both instruments (Cronbach's alpha for the test procedure was 0.92 for TOFHLA and 0.98 for HLS-EU-Q). Both tools exhibited a high stability over time (Spearman's rho: 0.88 for TOFHLA and 0.87 for HLS-EU). Mean values of both instruments were similar in men and women (mean score for TOFHLA: 76.0 vs. 76.5, P = 0.83; mean score for HLS-EU-Q: 32.2 vs. 32.6, P = 0.63). For both instruments, higher HL scores were significantly associated with younger age, higher educational and economic level and lower body mass index. Our study provides valuable novel evidence on concurrent validation of two major HL instruments in a South Eastern European population-based sample. Future studies should be conducted in order to confirm and expand our findings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor
Lennerling, Annette; Forsberg, Anna
Patients' non-adherence to immunosuppressant treatment after organ transplantation may lead to organ failure, graft loss and death. Non-adherence among Swedish kidney transplant recipients has not previously been studied. Hence the aim of this study was to explore non-adherence among Swedish kidney transplant recipients by using self-report instruments as well as testing the hypothesis that there is a difference in self-reported symptoms, beliefs about medicine and social support between respondents with or without self reported non-adherence. In the present cross sectional study 250 renal transplant recipients participated by replying to a questionnaire. Two validated instruments were included, one on beliefs about medicine (the BMQ©), the other on nonadherence (the BAASIS©). Only 46 % never failed to follow the medical treatment with respect to taking the drugs, dosage or timing (>2 hrs from prescribed time). Timing was the most frequently reported deviation (48 %). Forty-seven patients (16 %) had failed taking at least one dose of the prescribed immunosuppressants during the past four weeks. Four individuals had reduced the prescribed doses. Only one reported taking a 'drug holiday'. Nine participants reported stronger concerns than necessities for immunosuppressive medication. For the BMQ the necessity scores were extremely high while the scores for concern were low. Risk behaviour identified by the BAASIS had no association in risk attitudes as identified in the BMQ. The only factor relating to non-adherence was lack of social support (p=0.022). In general adherence was high. Identification of the exceptions remains a challenge.
Hobbelen, Johannes S M; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Verhey, Frans R J; Habraken, Kitty M; de Bie, Rob A
Paratonia is one of the associated movement disorders characteristic of dementia. The aim of this study was to develop an assessment tool (the Paratonia Assessment Instrument, PAI), based on the new consensus definition of paratonia. An additional aim was to investigate the reliability and validity of the PAI. A three-phase cross-sectional survey was conducted. In the first two phases, the PAI was developed and validated. In the third phase, the inter-observer reliability and feasibility of the instrument was tested. The original PAI consisted of five criteria that all needed to be met in order to make the diagnosis. On the basis of a qualitative analysis, one criterion was reformulated and another was removed. Following this, inter-observer reliability between the two assessors resulted in an improvement of Cohen's kappa from 0.532 in the initial phase to 0.677 in the second phase. This improvement was substantiated in the third phase by two independent assessors with Cohen's kappa ranging from 0.625 to 1. The PAI is a reliable and valid assessment tool for diagnosing paratonia in elderly people with dementia that can be applied easily in daily practice.
Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Dugdale, Alexandra; Romainville, Marc
There are indications that motivation correlates with better performance for those studying veterinary medicine. To assess objectively whether motivation profiles influence both veterinary students' attitudes towards educational interventions and their academic success and whether changes in curriculum can affect students' motivation, there is need for an instrument that can provide a valid measurement of the strength of motivation for the study of veterinary medicine. Our objectives were to design and validate a questionnaire that can be used as a psychometric scale to capture the motivation profiles of veterinary students. Question items were obtained from semi-structured interviews with students and from a review of the relevant literature. Each item was scored on a 5-point scale. The preliminary instrument was trialed on a cohort of 450 students. Responses were subjected to reliability and principal component analysis. A 14-item scale was designed, within which two factors explained 53.4% of the variance among the items. The scale had good face, content, and construct validities as well as a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.88).
Baker, Nancy A; Cook, James R; Redfern, Mark S
This paper describes the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, and the concurrent validity of an observational instrument, the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS), which assesses stereotypical postures and movements associated with computer keyboard use. Three trained raters independently rated the video clips of 45 computer keyboard users to ascertain inter-rater reliability, and then re-rated a sub-sample of 15 video clips to ascertain intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing the ratings obtained using the K-PeCS to scores developed from a 3D motion analysis system. The overall K-PeCS had excellent reliability [inter-rater: intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)=.90; intra-rater: ICC=.92]. Most individual items on the K-PeCS had from good to excellent reliability, although six items fell below ICC=.75. Those K-PeCS items that were assessed for concurrent validity compared favorably to the motion analysis data for all but two items. These results suggest that most items on the K-PeCS can be used to reliably document computer keyboarding style.
Full Text Available Measuring organisational justice in a South African context is a concern as the concept is multi-dimensional and there is no comprehensive definition; therefore, an integrative and well-developed measure of organisational justice can advance the measurement and analysis of this concept. This study investigates the development and validity of an organisational justice measuring instrument (OJMI, and determines the relationships between the different dimensions of the concept organisational justice. Data was gathered from 289 participants, employed in a public service organisation. To analyse the data the descriptive and inferential statistics used are Cronbach alpha coefficient, means, the explanatory factor analysis (EFA and the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. It was found that the model fitted the data well and the measurement of each dimension, namely strategic direction; distributive, procedural, interactional, informational, diversity management; customer relations; service delivery innovation as well as ethical leadership and management justice were confirmed to be statistically significant and positive. These results indicate that OJMI is a reliable and valid measure that organisations need in order to measure perceptions of fairness, and to monitor trends of fair practices. The validated measuring instrument for organisational justice and the conducted analysis of the interrelationships between the different dimensions of the concept will enable organisations to initiate proactive and reactive interventions to facilitate justice and fair practices.
Gonzales, Paola Sampaio; Martins, Ismar Eduardo; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Silva, Paulo Roberto da; Michel-Crosato, Edgard
Questionnaires for the assessment of knowledge and self-perception can be useful to diagnose what a dentist knows about management and administration. The aim of the present study was to create and validate the Dental Management Survey Brazil (DMS-BR) scale, based on meetings with experts in the field. After having elaborated the first version, 10 audits were performed in dental offices in order to produce the final version, which included nine dimensions: location, patient, finance, marketing, competition, quality, staff, career, and productivity. The accuracy of the instrument was measured by intrarater and interrater reliability. In the validation phase, 247 Brazilian dentists answered a web-based questionnaire. The data were processed using Stata 13.0 and the significance level was set at 95%. The instrument had intrarater and interrater reliability (ICC-0.93 and 0.94). The overall average of respondents for the DMS-BR scale was 3.77 (SD = 0.45). Skewness and kurtosis were below absolute values 3 and 7, respectively. Internal validity measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.925 and the correlation of each dimension with the final result of the DMS-BR ranged between 0.606 and 0.810. Correlation with the job satisfaction scale was 0.661. The SEM data ranged between 0.80 and 0.56. The questionnaire presented satisfactory indicators of dentists' self-perception about management and administration activities.
Moraes, Rodolfo Pacheco de; Silva, Jonas Lopes da; Calado, Adriano Almeida; Cavalcanti, Geraldo de Aguiar
Overactive Bladder (OAB) is a clinical condition characterized by symptoms reported by patients. Therefore, measurement instruments based on reported information are important for understanding its impact and treatment benefits. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Urgency Questionnaire (UQ) in Portuguese. Initially, the UQ was translated and culturally adapted to Portuguese. Sixty-three volunteers were enrolled in the study and were interviewed for responding the Portuguese version of the UQ and the validated Portuguese version of the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire short-form (OABq-SF), used as the gold standard measurement for the validation process. Psychometric properties such as criterion validity, stability, and reliability were tested. Forty-six subjects were included in the symptomatic group (presence of "urgency"), and seventeen were included in the asymptomatic group (control group). There was difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects on all of the subscales (p≤0.001). The UQ subscales correlated with the OABq-SF subscales (p≤0.01), except the subscale "time to control urgency" and the item "impact" from the visual analog scales (VAS). However, these scales correlated with the OABq-SF - Symptom Bother Scale. The UQ subscales demonstrated stability over time (pPortuguese version of the UQ proved to be a valid tool for the evaluation of OAB in individuals whose native language is Portuguese. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.
Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Polo-del-Río, María I.; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián; Felipe-Castaño, Elena; León-del-Barco, Benito
Cooperative, collaborative learning and other forms of group learning methods are increasingly used in classrooms. Knowing students’ attitudes toward teamwork has great value since they influence the students’ learning results as well as their social development. So it is necessary to have robust instruments to provide a better understanding of these attitudes and preferences concerning teamwork. Such instruments also help to identify the factors that promote positive or negative attitudes within the context of group activities. Using a sample of 750 first and second year university students studying a degree in Kindergarten, Primary and Social Education, an instrument measuring attitudes toward team learning has been developed. Two distinct factors were obtained through various factorial analyses and structural equations: Academic attitudes and Social and emotional attitudes. Our study reveals that the instrument is both valid and reliable. Its application is both simple and fast and it has important implications for planning teaching and learning activities that contribute to an improvement in attitudes as well as the practice of teaching in the context of learning through teamwork. PMID:28676775
Branson, Bonnie G; Williams, Karen B; Bray, Kimberly Krust; Mcllnay, Sandy L; Dickey, Diana
Basic operating posture is considered an important occupational health issue for oral health care clinicians. It is generally agreed that the physical posture of the operator, while providing care, should be such that all muscles are in a relaxed, well-balanced, and neutral position. Postures outside of this neutral position are likely to cause musculoskeletal discomfort. To date, the range of the neutral operator position has not been well-defined; nor have any specific instruments been identified that can quantitatively or semi-quantitatively assess dental operator posture. This paper reports on the development of an instrument that can be used to semi-quantitatively evaluate postural components. During the first phase of the study, an expert panel defined the basic parameters for acceptable, compromised, and harmful operator postures and established face validity of a posture assessment instrument (PAI). During the second phase, the PAI was tested for reliability using generalizability theory. Four raters tested the instrument for reliability. Overall, total PAI scores were similar amongst three of the raters, with the fourth rater's scores being slightly greater than the other three. The main effect of the rater on individual postural components was moderate, indicating that rater variance contributed to 11.9% of total variance. The PAI measures posture as it occurs and will have numerous applications when evaluating operator performance in the dental and dental hygiene education setting. Also, the PAI will prove useful when examining the effects of operator posture and musculoskeletal disorders.
Full Text Available Cooperative, collaborative learning and other forms of group learning methods are increasingly used in classrooms. Knowing students’ attitudes toward teamwork has great value since they influence the students’ learning results as well as their social development. So it is necessary to have robust instruments to provide a better understanding of these attitudes and preferences concerning teamwork. Such instruments also help to identify the factors that promote positive or negative attitudes within the context of group activities. Using a sample of 750 first and second year university students studying a degree in Kindergarten, Primary and Social Education, an instrument measuring attitudes toward team learning has been developed. Two distinct factors were obtained through various factorial analyses and structural equations: Academic attitudes and Social and emotional attitudes. Our study reveals that the instrument is both valid and reliable. Its application is both simple and fast and it has important implications for planning teaching and learning activities that contribute to an improvement in attitudes as well as the practice of teaching in the context of learning through teamwork.
Amir Zaib Abbasi
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop a new instrument to measure engagement in videogame play termed as consumer videogame engagement. The study followed the scale development procedure to develop an instrument to measure the construct of consumer videogame engagement. In this study, we collected the data in two different phases comprising study 1 (n=136 and study 2 (n=270. We employed SPSS 22.0 for exploratory factor analysis using study 1 respondents to explore the factors for consumer videogame engagement and reliability analysis. Results of EFA resulted with six-factor solution. We further used SmartPLS 3.0 software on study 2 respondents to further confirm the six-factor solution as reflective measurement model on the first-order level, and three second-order formative constructs on the second-order or higher-order level as formative measurement model. Results of the reflective measurement model and formative measurement model evidenced that consumer videogame engagement has strong psychometric properties and is a valid instrument to measure engagement in videogame play. Results also confirmed that consumer videogame engagement is a multidimensional construct as well as a reflective-formative construct. The study is unique in its investigation as it develops an instrument to measure engagement in videogame play which comprises the cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions.
Lam-Figueroa, Nelly; Contreras-Pulache, Hans; Mori-Quispe, Elizabeth; Nizama-Valladolid, Martín; Gutiérrez, César; Hinostroza-Camposano, Williams; Reyes, Erasmo Torrejón; Hinostroza-Camposano, Richard; Coaquira-Condori, Elizabeth; Hinostroza-Camposano, Willy David
To develop and validate an instrument to assess Internet Addiction (IA) phenomenon in adolescents of Metropolitan Lima. We performed an observational analytical study, including a sample of 248 high school adolescent students. In order to evaluate the IA, we constructed the questionnaire: "Scale for Internet Addiction of Lima" (SIAL), which assesses symptoms and dysfunctional characteristics. The resulting items were submitted to experts' judgment, finally obtaining a 11-item scale. The mean age was 14 years old. The psychometric analysis of the instrument showed a Cronbach' Alpha Coefficient of 0.84, with values of item-total correlation ranging from 0.45 to 0.59. The dimensional analysis yielded a two-dimensional structure that explained up to 50.7% of the total variance. The bi-dimensional data analysis revealed a significant association (paddiction has a dynamic role, which evidences a problem generated in family patterns and inadequate social networks.
Posmatal depression occurs in 10 - 15% of women. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a ID-item self-report scale designed specifically as a screening instrument for the postnatal period. It was initially validated for use in the UK, but has subsequently been validated for other communities. It has not been ...
Klepsch, Melina; Schmitz, Florian; Seufert, Tina
Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 (N = 97), we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1) Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2) Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study (N = between 65 and 95 for each task), we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results. PMID:29201011
Klepsch, Melina; Schmitz, Florian; Seufert, Tina
Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 ( N = 97), we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1) Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2) Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study ( N = between 65 and 95 for each task), we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results.
Full Text Available Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 (N = 97, we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1 Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2 Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study (N = between 65 and 95 for each task, we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results.
Scantlebury, Kathryn; Boone, William; Butler Kahle, Jane; Fraser, Barry J.
Over the past decade, state and national policymakers have promoted systemic reform as a way to achieve high-quality science education for all students. However, few instruments are available to measure changes in key dimensions relevant to systemic reform such as teaching practices, student attitudes, or home and peer support. Furthermore, Rasch methods of analysis are needed to permit valid comparison of different cohorts of students during different years of a reform effort. This article describes the design, development, validation, and use of an instrument that measures student attitudes and several environment dimensions (standards-based teaching, home support, and peer support) using a three-step process that incorporated expert opinion, factor analysis, and item response theory. The instrument was validated with over 8,000 science and mathematics students, taught by more than 1,000 teachers in over 200 schools as part of a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of Ohio's systemic reform initiative. When the new four-factor, 20-item questionnaire was used to explore the relative influence of the class, home, and peer environment on student achievement and attitudes, findings were remarkably consistent across 3 years and different units and methods of analysis. All three environments accounted for unique variance in student attitudes, but only the environment of the class accounted for unique variance in student achievement. However, the class environment (standards-based teaching practices) was the strongest independent predictor of both achievement and attitude, and appreciable amounts of the total variance in attitudes were common to the three environments.
SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described
SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.
Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Sim, Si Mui; Chua, Siew Siang; Tan, Choo Hock; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Achike, Francis Ifejika; Teng, Cheong Lieng
Prescribing incompetence is an important factor that contributes to prescribing error, and this is often due to inadequate training during medical schools. We therefore aimed to develop and validate an instrument to assess the prescribing readiness of medical students (PROMS) in Malaysia. The PROMS comprised of 26 items with four domains: undergraduate learning opportunities; hands-on clinical skills practice; information gathering behaviour; and factors affecting the learning of prescribing skills. The first three domains were adapted from an existing questionnaire, while items from the last domain were formulated based on findings from a nominal group discussion. Face and content validity was determined by an expert panel, pilot tested in a class of final year (Year 5) medical students, and assessed using the Flesch reading ease. To assess the reliability of the PROMS, the internal consistency and test-retest (at baseline and 2 weeks later) were assessed using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test and Spearman's rho. The discriminative validity of the PROMS was assessed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (to assess if the PROMS could discriminate between final year medical students from a public and a private university). A total of 119 medical students were recruited. Flesch reading ease was 46.9, indicating that the instrument was suitable for use in participants undergoing tertiary education. The overall Cronbach alpha value of the PROMS was 0.695, which was satisfactory. Test-retest showed no difference for 25/26 items, indicating that our instrument was reliable. Responses from the public and private university final year medical students were significantly different in 10/26 items, indicating that the PROMS was able to discriminate between these two groups. Medical students from the private university reported fewer learning opportunities and hands-on practice compared to those from the public university. On the other hand, medical students from the private university
Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni
We derive testable implications of instrument validity in just identified treatment effect models with endogeneity and consider several tests. The identifying assumptions of the local average treatment effect allow us to both point identify and bound the mean potential outcomes (i) of the always...... takers under treatment and (ii) of the never takers under non-treatment. The point identified means must lie within their respective bounds, which provides us with four testable inequality moment constraints. Finally, we adapt our testing framework to the identification of distributional features....... A brief simulation study and an application to labor market data are also provided....
Judith Araceli Dorantes-Nova
Full Text Available Recent studies are proof of the importance of burnout syndrome, considered as one of the "occupational disease" worldwide. International organizations have been given the task of investigating the triggers and psychosocial involvement of workers in their working environment, however, among all sectors that have been analyzed, in teaching there is still a gap, this study, which purpose is to validate, by expert judgment, the contents of a diagnostic instrument of burnout syndrome in the current context of teachers, the factors involved in the detection of this disease are explored, taking as main reference features Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, but with a higher level of analysis and strength in Mexican stage. It validates the agreement and consistency of the items that assess levels of job satisfaction, product of organizational climate of the school, as factors affecting the appearance of burnout syndrome. The concordance coefficient W Kendall is used to measure the degree of correlation and internal consistency of variables among experts.
Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.. The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.
Vromans, Lyn; Schweitzer, Robert D; Brough, Mark
The Multidimensional Loss Scale (MLS) represents the first instrument designed specifically to index Experience of Loss Events and Loss Distress across multiple domains (cultural, social, material, and intrapersonal) relevant to refugee settlement. Recently settled Burmese adult refugees (N = 70) completed a questionnaire battery, including MLS items. Analyses explored MLS internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and factor structure. Cronbach alphas indicated satisfactory internal consistency for Experience of Loss Events (0.85) and Loss Distress (0.92), reflecting a unitary construct of multidimensional loss. Loss Distress did not correlate with depression or anxiety symptoms and correlated moderately with interpersonal grief and trauma symptoms, supporting divergent and convergent validity. Factor analysis provided preliminary support for a five-factor model: Loss of Symbolic Self, Loss of Interdependence, Loss of Home, Interpersonal Loss, and Loss of Intrapersonal Integrity. Received well by participants, the new scale shows promise for application in future research and practice.
Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Felix, Márcia Marques Dos Santos; Galvão, Cristina Maria
to culturally adapt The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale and to analyze the metric validity and reliability properties of its Brazilian Portuguese version. methodological research conducted by means of the cultural adaptation process (translation and back-translation), face and content validity, construct validity (dimensionality and known groups) and reliability analysis (internal consistency and test-retest). The sample consisted of 335 nurses, of whom 43 participated in the retest phase. the validity of the adapted version of the instrument was confirmed. The scale investigates the barriers for the use of the research results in clinical practice. Confirmatory factorial analysis demonstrated that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument is adequately adjusted to the dimensional structure the scale authors originally proposed. Statistically significant differences were observed among the nurses holding a Master's or Doctoral degree, with characteristics favorable to Evidence-Based Practice, and working at an institution with an organizational cultural that targets this approach. The reliability showed a strong correlation (r ranging between 0.77 and 0.84, pcultura organizacional dirigida hacia tal aproximación. La fiabilidad presentó correlación fuerte (r variando entre 0,77 y 0,84, pcultura organizacional direcionada para tal abordagem. A confiabilidade apresentou correlação forte (r variando entre 0,77e 0,84, p<0,001) e a consistência interna foi adequada (alfa de Cronbach variando entre 0,77 e 0,82) . a versão para o português brasileiro do instrumento The Barriers Scale demonstrou-se válida e confiável no grupo estudado.
Housen, Tambri; Lenglet, Annick; Ariti, Cono; Ara, Shabnum; Shah, Showkat; Dar, Maqbool; Hussain, Arshad; Paul, Altaf; Wagay, Zahoor; Viney, Kerri; Janes, Simon; Pintaldi, Giovanni
The present study aimed to culturally adapt, translate, and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist (HTQ-16) prior to use in a cross-sectional mental health population survey in the Kashmir Valley. Cultural adaptation and translation of the HSCL-25 and the HTQ-16 employed multiple forms of transcultural validity check. The HSCL-25 and HTQ-16 were compared against a "gold standard" structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Interviews were conducted with 290 respondents recruited using consecutive sampling from general medical outpatient departments in five districts of the Kashmir Valley. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to estimate the cut point with optimal discriminatory power based on sensitivity and specificity. Internal reliability of the HSCL-25 was high, Cronbach's alpha (α) = .92, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.75, with an estimated optimal cut point of 1.50, lower than the conventional cut point of 1.75. Separation of the instruments into subscales demonstrated a difference in the estimated cut point for the anxiety subscale and the depression subscale, 1.75 and 1.57, respectively. Too few respondents were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during structured psychiatric interview, and therefore the HTQ-16 could not be validated despite the fact that high internal reliability was demonstrated (α = .90). This study verified the importance of culturally adapting and validating screening instruments in particular contexts. The use of the conventional cut point of 1.75 would likely have misclassified depression in our survey, leading to an underestimate of this condition.
A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.
Full Text Available Ingestion of water has been associated with general wellbeing. When water intake is insufficient, symptoms such as thirst, fatigue and impaired memory result. Currently there are no instruments to assess water consumption associated with wellbeing. The objective of our study was to develop and validate such an instrument in urban, low socioeconomic, adult Mexican population.To construct the Water Ingestion-Related Wellbeing Instrument (WIRWI, a qualitative study in which wellbeing related to everyday practices and experiences in water consumption were investigated. To validate the WIRWI a formal, five-process procedure was used. Face and content validation were addressed, consistency was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory psychometric factor analyses, repeatability, reproducibility and concurrent validity were assessed by conducting correlation tests with other measures of wellbeing such as a quality of life instrument, the SF-36, and objective parameters such as urine osmolality, 24-hour urine total volume and others.The final WIRWI is composed of 17 items assessing physical and mental dimensions. Items were selected based on their content and face validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. The final confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the model estimates were satisfactory for the constructs. Statistically significant correlations with the SF-36, total liquid consumption and simple water consumption were observed.The resulting WIRWI is a reliable tool for assessing wellbeing associated with consumption of plain water in Mexican adults and could be useful for similar groups.
Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu
Food insecurity occurs whenever people are not able to access enough food at all times for an active and healthy life or when adequate and safe food acquired by socially acceptable ways is not available. To validate the Malaysian Coping Strategy Instrument (MCSI) to measure household food insecurity in Kelantan, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 301 nonpregnant, nonlactating Malay women, aged between 19 and 49 years, living in rural and urban areas. The respondents were interviewed with the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain information on their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, household food security, and dietary intake. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics (household size, number of children, number of children attending school, household income, and per capita income) were significantly associated with household food-security status in rural and urban areas. Energy intake, fat intake, percentage of energy from fat, and number of servings of meat,fish, or poultry and legumes were significantly associated with household food-security status in rural areas. The dietary diversity score was significantly associated with household food-security status in rural and urban areas. Validating the MCSI in other areas of Malaysia as well as in similar settings elsewhere in the world before it is used to measure household food insecurity in the population is strongly recommended. In this study, the MCSI was found to be a reliable and valid measure of household food insecurity based on criterion-related validity, particularly in terms of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and dietary diversity.
Full Text Available Objective. Sasang typology is a traditional Korean medicine based on the biopsychosocial perspectives of Neo-Confucianism and utilizes medical herbs and acupuncture for type-specific treatment. This study was designed to develop and validate the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ for future use in the assessment of personality based on Sasang typology. Design and Methods. We selected questionnaire items using internal consistency analysis and examined construct validity with explorative factor analysis using 245 healthy participants. Test-retest reliability as well as convergent validity were examined. Results. The 14-item SPQ showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=.817 and test-retest reliability (=.837. Three extracted subscales, SPQ-behavior, SPQ-emotionality, and SPQ-cognition, were found, explaining 55.77% of the total variance. The SPQ significantly correlated with Temperament and Character Inventory novelty seeking (=.462, harm avoidance (=−.390, and NEO Personality Inventory extraversion (=.629. The SPQ score of the So-Eum (24.43±4.93, Tae-Eum (27.33±5.88, and So-Yang (30.90±5.23 types were significantly different from each other (<.01. Conclusion. Current results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the SPQ and its subscales that can be utilized as an objective instrument for conducting personalized medicine research incorporating the biopsychosocial perspective.
Ross, Lone; Lundstrøm, Louise Hyldborg; Petersen, Morten Aagaard
Patients' perceptions of care including the communication with health care staff is recognized as an important aspect of the quality of cancer care. Using mixed methods, we developed and validated a short instrument assessing this communication.......Patients' perceptions of care including the communication with health care staff is recognized as an important aspect of the quality of cancer care. Using mixed methods, we developed and validated a short instrument assessing this communication....
Kauffman, Douglas F.; Yilmaz Soylu, Meryem; Duke, Bryan
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report psychological instrument assessing pre-service teachers' relative intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to teach. One hundred forty seven undergraduate students taking Educational Psychology courses from a large US University participated in this study completed the 12 item MTS along…
In his focus article, "Rethinking Traditional Methods of Survey Validation," published in this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Andrew Maul wrote that it is commonly believed that self-report, survey-based instruments can be used to measure a wide range of psychological attributes, such as…
Aryadoust, Vahid; Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa
A few computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruments have been developed in Iran to measure EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitude toward CALL. However, these instruments have no solid validity argument and accordingly would be unable to provide a reliable measurement of attitude. The present study aimed to develop a CALL…
Voigt-Radloff, S.; Leonhart, R.; Schutzwohl, M.; Jurjanz, L.; Reuster, T.; Gerner, A.; Marschner, K.; Nes, F. van; Graff, M.J.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.; Holthoff, V.; Hull, M.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To translate the Dementia quality of life instrument (DQoL) into German and assess its construct and concurrent validity in community-dwelling people with mild to moderate dementia. METHODS: Dementia quality of life instrument data of two pooled samples (n=287) were analysed
Justice, Lenora Jean
The purpose of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument to measure teacher perceived barriers to the adoption of games and simulations in instruction. Previous research, interviews with educators, a focus group, an expert review, and a think aloud protocol were used to design a survey instrument. After finalization, the survey was…
Patrick D Wettenschwiler
Full Text Available Due to the increasing load in backpacks and other load carriage systems over the last decades, load carriage system designs have to be adapted accordingly to minimize discomfort and to reduce the risk of injury. As subject studies are labor-intensive and include further challenges such as intra-subject and inter-subject variability, we aimed to validate an instrumented dummy as an objective laboratory tool to assess the mechanical aspects of discomfort. The validation of the instrumented dummy was conducted by comparison with a recent subject study. The mechanical parameters that characterize the static and dynamic interaction between backpack and body during different backpack settings were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether high predictive power (coefficient of determination R2>0.5 in assessing the discomfort of load carriage systems could be reached using the instrumented dummy. Measurements were conducted under static conditions, simulating upright standing, and dynamic conditions, simulating level walking. Twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt, were assessed. The mechanical parameters were measured in the shoulder and the hip region of the dummy and consisted of average pressure, peak pressure, strap force and relative motion between the system and the body. The twelve configurations consisted of three different weights (15kg, 20kg, and 25kg, combined with four different hip belt tensions (30N, 60N, 90N, and 120N. Through the significant (p<0.05 correlation of the mechanical parameters measured on the dummy with the corresponding values of the subject study, the dummy was validated for all static measurements and for dynamic measurements in the hip region to accurately simulate the interaction between the human body and the load carriage system. Multiple linear regressions with the mechanical parameters measured on the dummy as independent
Remijn, Lianne; Speyer, Renée; Groen, Brenda E; van Limbeek, Jacques; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G
The Mastication Observation and Evaluation (MOE) instrument was developed to allow objective assessment of a child's mastication process. It contains 14 items and was developed over three Delphi rounds. The present study concerns the further development of the MOE using the COSMIN (Consensus based Standard for the Selection of Measurement Instruments) and investigated the instrument's internal consistency, inter-observer reliability, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects. Consumption of three bites of bread and biscuit was evaluated using the MOE. Data of 59 healthy children (6-48 mths) and 38 children (bread) and 37 children (biscuit) with cerebral palsy (24-72 mths) were used. Four items were excluded before analysis due to zero variance. Principal Components Analysis showed one factor with 8 items. Internal consistency was >0.70 (Chronbach's alpha) for both food consistencies and for both groups of children. Inter-observer reliability varied from 0.51 to 0.98 (weighted Gwet's agreement coefficient). The total MOE scores for both groups showed normal distribution for the population. There were no floor or ceiling effects. The revised MOE now contains 8 items that (a) have a consistent concept for mastication and can be scored on a 4-point scale with sufficient reliability and (b) are sensitive to stages of chewing development in young children. The removed items are retained as part of a criterion referenced list within the MOE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this study, it is intended to develop a scale unique to our culture, concerning individual instrument performance anxiety of the students who are getting instrument training in the Department of Music Education. In the study, the descriptive research model is used and qualitative research techniques are utilized. The study population consists of the students attending the 23 universities which has Music Education Department. The sample of the study consists of 438 girls and 312 boys, totally 750 students who are studying in the Department of Music Education of randomly selected 10 universities. As a result of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses that were performed, a onedimensional structure consisting of 14 items was obtained. Also, t-scores and the coefficient scores of total item correlation concerning the distinguishing power of the items, the difference in the scores of the set of lower and upper 27% was calculated, and it was observed that the items are distinguishing as a result of both analyses. Of the scale, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .94, and test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated as .93. As a result, a valid and reliable assessment and evaluation instrument that measures the exam performance anxiety of the students studying in the Department of Music Education, has been developed.
Zini, Avraham; Büssing, Arndt; Chay, Cindy; Badner, Victor; Weinstock-Levin, Tamar; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Cochardt, Philip; Friedmann, Anton; Ziskind, Karin; Vered, Yuval
Most existing measures of oral health focus solely on negative oral health, illness, and deficiencies and ignore positive oral health. In an attempt to commence exploration of this challenging field, an innovative instrument was developed, the "Positive Oral Health and Well-Being" (POHW) index. This study aimed to validate this instrument and to explore an initial model of the pathway between oral health attributes and positive oral health. A cross-sectional, multicenter study (Israel, USA, and Germany), was conducted. Our conceptual model suggests that positive oral health attributes, which integrate with positive unawareness or positive awareness on the one hand and with positive perception on the other hand, may result via appropriate oral health behavior on positive oral health. The 17-item self-administered index was built on a theoretical concept by four experts from Israel and Germany. Reliability, factor, and correlation analyses were performed. For external correlations and to measure construct validity of the instrument, we utilized the oral health impact profile-14, self-perceived oral impairment, life satisfaction, self-perceived well-being, sociodemographic and behavioral data, and oral health status indices. Four hundred and seventy participants took part in our three-center study. The combined data set reliability analyses detected two items which were not contributing to the index reliability. Thus, we tested a 15-item construct, and a Cronbach's α value of 0.933 was revealed. Primary factor analysis of the whole sample indicated three subconstructs which could explain 60 % of variance. Correlation analyses demonstrated that the POHW and OHIP-14 were strongly and negatively associated. The POHW correlated strongly and positively with general well-being, moderately with life satisfaction, and weakly with the perceived importance of regular dental checkups. It correlated moderately and negatively with perceived oral impairment, and marginally and
Full Text Available Introduction: Lessons captured from interviews with 12 European regions are represented in a new instrument, the B3-Maturity Model (B3-MM. B3-MM aims to assess maturity along 12 dimensions reflecting the various aspects that need to be managed in order to deliver integrated care. The objective of the study was to test the content validity of B3-MM as part of SCIROCCO (Scaling Integrated Care into Context, a European Union funded project. Methods: A literature review was conducted to compare B3-MM’s 12 dimensions and their measurement scales with existing measures and instruments that focus on assessing the development of integrated care. Subsequently, a three-round survey conducted through a Delphi study with international experts in the field of integrated care was performed to test the relevance of: 1 the dimensions, 2 the maturity indicators and 3 the assessment scale used in B3-MM. Results: The 11 articles included in the literature review confirmed all the dimensions described in the original version of B3-MM. The Delphi study rounds resulted in various phrasing amendments of indicators and assessment scale. Full agreement among the experts on the relevance of the 12 B3-MM dimensions, their indicators, and assessment scale was reached after the third Delphi round. Conclusion and discussion: The B3-MM dimensions, maturity indicators and assessment scale showed satisfactory content validity. While the B3-MM is a unique instrument based on existing knowledge and experiences of regions in integrated care, further testing is needed to explore other measurement properties of B3-MM.
Introduction: Lessons captured from interviews with 12 European regions are represented in a new instrument, the B3-Maturity Model (B3-MM). B3-MM aims to assess maturity along 12 dimensions reflecting the various aspects that need to be managed in order to deliver integrated care. The objective of the study was to test the content validity of B3-MM as part of SCIROCCO (Scaling Integrated Care into Context), a European Union funded project. Methods: A literature review was conducted to compare B3-MM’s 12 dimensions and their measurement scales with existing measures and instruments that focus on assessing the development of integrated care. Subsequently, a three-round survey conducted through a Delphi study with international experts in the field of integrated care was performed to test the relevance of: 1) the dimensions, 2) the maturity indicators and 3) the assessment scale used in B3-MM. Results: The 11 articles included in the literature review confirmed all the dimensions described in the original version of B3-MM. The Delphi study rounds resulted in various phrasing amendments of indicators and assessment scale. Full agreement among the experts on the relevance of the 12 B3-MM dimensions, their indicators, and assessment scale was reached after the third Delphi round. Conclusion and discussion: The B3-MM dimensions, maturity indicators and assessment scale showed satisfactory content validity. While the B3-MM is a unique instrument based on existing knowledge and experiences of regions in integrated care, further testing is needed to explore other measurement properties of B3-MM. PMID:29588644
The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs
Gustin, Jillian L; Way, David P; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla; McCallister, Jennifer W
Fellows in pulmonary and critical care medicine are required to show competency in facilitating family meetings for critically ill patients. There are many assessment measures available for evaluating physician-patient communication (e.g., the SEGUE Framework [Set the stage, Elicit information, Give information, Understand the patient's perspective, End the encounter]) and some designed for family meetings. However, no validated measure exists that is specifically designed to assess communication skills during family meetings with surrogate decision makers in intensive care settings. We developed the Family Meeting Behavioral Skills Checklist (FMBSC) to measure advanced communication skills of fellows in family meetings of critically ill patients based on a literature review and consensus of an interdisciplinary group of communications experts. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the FMBSC. We digitally recorded 16 pulmonary/critical care fellows performing a simulated family meeting for a critically ill patient at the end of 1 year of fellowship training. Two clinical health psychologists evaluated each recording independently using the FMBSC Rating Scale and the SEGUE Framework. Judges recorded the number of skills performed using the checklist and employed a summary rating scale to judge the level of performance for each of nine subsets of skills. Each instrument was scored and converted to percentage scores. The FMBSC and SEGUE Framework items were summed and converted to percentage scores for each category and as a total for each instrument. The rating scale items on the FMBSC were also summed and converted to a percentage score. Four primary analyses were conducted to evaluate interjudge reliability, internal consistency, and concurrent validity. Interrater reliability was higher for the FMBSC (intraclass correlation [ICC2,2] = 0.57) than for the SEGUE instrument (ICC2,2 = 0.32) or the FMBSC Rating Scale (ICC2,2 = 0.23). The FMBSC
Boyland, Emma; Bauman, Adrian E.
Background Children’s exposure to food marketing is one environmental determinant of childhood obesity. Measuring the extent to which children are aware of food brands may be one way to estimate relative prior exposures to food marketing. This study aimed to develop and validate an Australian Brand Awareness Instrument (ABAI) to estimate children’s food brand awareness. Methods The ABAI incorporated 30 flashcards depicting food/drink logos and their corresponding products. An abbreviated version was also created using 12 flashcards (ABAI-a). The ABAI was presented to 60 primary school aged children (7-11yrs) attending two Australian after-school centres. A week later, the full-version was repeated on approximately half the sample (n=27) and the abbreviated-version was presented to the remaining half (n=30). The test-retest reliability of the ABAI was analysed using Intra-class correlation coefficients. The concordance of the ABAI-a and full-version was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. The ‘nomological’ validity of the full tool was investigated by comparing children’s brand awareness with food marketing-related variables (e.g. television habits, intake of heavily promoted foods). Results Brand awareness increased with age (plevels of brand awareness. It was shown to be a valid and reliable tool and may allow quantification of brand awareness as a proxy measure for children’s prior food marketing exposure. PMID:26222624
Turner, Laura; Kelly, Bridget; Boyland, Emma; Bauman, Adrian E
Children's exposure to food marketing is one environmental determinant of childhood obesity. Measuring the extent to which children are aware of food brands may be one way to estimate relative prior exposures to food marketing. This study aimed to develop and validate an Australian Brand Awareness Instrument (ABAI) to estimate children's food brand awareness. The ABAI incorporated 30 flashcards depicting food/drink logos and their corresponding products. An abbreviated version was also created using 12 flashcards (ABAI-a). The ABAI was presented to 60 primary school aged children (7-11 yrs) attending two Australian after-school centres. A week later, the full-version was repeated on approximately half the sample (n=27) and the abbreviated-version was presented to the remaining half (n=30). The test-retest reliability of the ABAI was analysed using Intra-class correlation coefficients. The concordance of the ABAI-a and full-version was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. The 'nomological' validity of the full tool was investigated by comparing children's brand awareness with food marketing-related variables (e.g. television habits, intake of heavily promoted foods). Brand awareness increased with age (pbrand awareness. It was shown to be a valid and reliable tool and may allow quantification of brand awareness as a proxy measure for children's prior food marketing exposure.