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Sample records for selenium 82 reactions

  1. Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillings, Lisa L.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Selenium (Se) was discovered in 1817 in pyrite from copper mines in Sweden. It is a trace element in Earth’s crust, with an abundance of three to seven orders of magnitude less than the major rock-forming elements. Commercial use of selenium began in the United States in 1910, when it was used as a pigment for paints, ceramic glazes, and red glass. Since that time, it has had many other economic uses—notably, in the 1930s and 1940s, when it was used in rectifiers (which change alternating current to direct current), and in the 1960s, when it began to be used in the liner of photocopier drums. In the 21st century, other compounds have replaced selenium in these older products; modern uses for selenium include energy-efficient windows that limit heat transfer and thin-film photovoltaic cells that convert solar energy into electricity.In Earth’s crust, selenium is found as selenide minerals, selenate and selenite salts, and as substitution for sulfur in sulfide minerals. It is the sulfide minerals, most commonly those in porphyry copper deposits, that provide the bulk of the selenium produced for the international commodity market. Selenium is obtained as a byproduct of copper refining and recovered from the anode slimes generated in electrolytic production of copper. Because of this, the countries that have the largest resources and (or) reserves of copper also have the largest resources and (or) reserves of selenium.Because selenium occurs naturally in Earth’s crust, its presence in air, water, and soil results from both geologic reactions and human activity. Selenium is found concentrated naturally in soils that overlie bedrock with high selenium concentrations. Selenium mining, processing, use in industrial and agricultural applications, and disposal may all contribute selenium to the environment. A well-known case of selenium contamination from agricultural practices was discovered in 1983 in the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in California. There

  2. Determination of selenium via the fluorescence quenching effect of selenium on hemoglobin-catalyzed peroxidative reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Tian, Feng-Shou

    2015-05-01

    A new method for the determination of selenium based on its fluorescence quenching on the hemoglobin-catalyzed reaction of H2 O2 and l-tyrosine has been established. The effect of pH, foreign ions and the optimization of variables on the determination of selenium was examined. The calibration curve was found to be linear between the fluorescence quenching (F0 /F) and the concentration of selenium within the range of 0.16-4.00 µg/mL. The detection limit was 1.96 ng/mL and the relative standard deviation was 3.14%. This method can be used for the determination of selenium in Se-enriched garlic bulbs with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Altered selenium status in Huntington's disease: neuroprotection by selenite in the N171-82Q mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhen; Marks, Eileen; Chen, Jianfang; Moline, Jenna; Barrows, Lorraine; Raisbeck, Merl; Volitakis, Irene; Cherny, Robert A; Chopra, Vanita; Bush, Ashley I; Hersch, Steven; Fox, Jonathan H

    2014-11-01

    Disruption of redox homeostasis is a prominent feature in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). Selenium an essential element nutrient that modulates redox pathways and has been reported to provide protection against both acute neurotoxicity (e.g. methamphetamine) and chronic neurodegeneration (e.g. tauopathy) in mice. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of sodium selenite, an inorganic form of selenium, on behavioral, brain degeneration and biochemical outcomes in the N171-82Q Huntington's disease mouse model. HD mice, which were supplemented with sodium selenite from 6 to 14 weeks of age, demonstrated increased motor endurance, decreased loss of brain weight, decreased mutant huntingtin aggregate burden and decreased brain oxidized glutathione levels. Biochemical studies revealed that selenite treatment reverted HD-associated changes in liver selenium and plasma glutathione in N171-82Q mice and had effects on brain selenoprotein transcript expression. Further, we found decreased brain selenium content in human autopsy brain. Taken together, we demonstrate a decreased selenium phenotype in human and mouse HD and additionally show some protective effects of selenite in N171-82Q HD mice. Modification of selenium metabolism results in beneficial effects in mouse HD and thus may represent a therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Making Decisions What you Need To Know About Supplements Dietary ... understand how selenium in food and dietary supplements affects heart health. Cognitive decline Blood selenium levels decrease as people age, ...

  5. Alpha-induced reactions on selenium between 11 and 15 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebiger, Stefan; Slavkovská, Zuzana; Giesen, Ulrich; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Heiske, Annett; Reifarth, René; Schmidt, Stefan; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Thomas, Benedikt; Weigand, Mario

    2017-07-01

    The production of 77,79,85,85m Kr and 77Br via the reaction Se(α ,x) was investigated between {E}α =11 and 15 MeV using the activation technique. The irradiation of natural selenium targets on aluminum backings was conducted at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Germany. The spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products was performed using a high-purity germanium detector located at PTB and a low energy photon spectrometer detector at the Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany. Thick-target yields were determined. The corresponding energy-dependent production cross sections of 77,79,85,85m Kr and 77Br were calculated from the thick-target yields. Good agreement between experimental data and theoretical predictions using the TALYS-1.6 code was found.

  6. Study of the (3He,t) reaction on 48Ca at 82 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, T.; Yasue, M.; Sato, K.; Soga, F.; Igarashi, M.; Ogino, K.; Kadota, Y.; Saito, Y.; Shimokoshi, F.

    1978-01-01

    The reactions ( 3 He,t), ( 3 He, 3 He), ( 3 He,α) and ( 3 He,d) on 48 Ca have been studied at an incident energy of 82 MeV. The obtained angular distributions for the ( 3 He,t) reaction have been analyzed in terms of second-order DWBA theory, using a zero-range approximation. The relative ratio of the cross sections for the excitation of the fsub(7/2)f -1 sub(7/2) multiplets of 48 Sc could not be explained consistently by the one-step charge-exchange process only. However, the ratio was reproduced in order of magnitude by second-order DWBA calculations including the effect of two-step processes, such as ( 3 He-α-t) and ( 3 He-d-t) channels. The effects of the d- and α-channels on the elastic scattering of 3 He from 48 Ca were also examined in the framework of second-order full finite-range DWBA. (Auth.)

  7. Adsorption-desorption reactions of selenium (VI) in tropical cultivated and uncultivated soils under Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, J H L; Araujo, A M; Silva, G N T; Guilherme, L R G; Lopes, G

    2016-12-01

    Soil management may affect selenium (Se) adsorption capacity. This study investigated adsorption and desorption of Se (VI) in selected Brazilian soils from the Cerrado biome, an area of ever increasing importance for agriculture expansion in Brazil. Soil samples were collected from cultivated and uncultivated soils, comprising clayed and sandy soils. Following chemical and mineralogical characterization, soil samples were subjected to Se adsorption and desorption tests. Adsorption was evaluated after a 72-h reaction with increasing concentrations of Se (0-2000 μg L -1 ) added as Na 2 SeO 4 in a NaCl electrolyte solution (pH 5.5; ionic strength 15 mmol L -1 ). Desorption, as well as distribution coefficients (K d ) for selenate were also assessed. Soil management affected Se adsorption capacity, i.e., Se adsorbed amounts were higher for uncultivated soils, when compared to cultivated ones. Such results were also supported by data of K d and maximum adsorption capacity of Se. This fact was attributed mainly to the presence of greater amounts of competing anions, especially phosphate, in cultivated soils, due to fertilizer application. Phosphate may compete with selenate for adsorption sites, decreasing Se retention. For the same group of soils (cultivated and uncultivated), Se adsorption was greater in the clayed soils compared to sandy ones. Our results support the idea that adding Se (VI) to the soil is a good strategy to increase Se levels in food crops (agronomic biofortification), especially when crops are grown in soils that have been cultivated over the time due to their low Se adsorption capacity (high Se availability). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Switching wormlike micelles of selenium-containing surfactant using redox reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongmin; Kong, Weiwei; Wang, Cheng; An, Pengyun; Fang, Yun; Feng, Yujun; Qin, Zhirong; Liu, Xuefeng

    2015-10-14

    A novel redox-switchable wormlike micellar system was developed based on a mixture of selenium-containing zwitterionic surfactant and commercially available anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate, which reversibly and quickly responds to H2O2 and vitamin C, and shows circulatory gel/sol transition, reflecting changes in aggregate morphology from entangled worms to vesicles.

  9. Determination of total selenium and Se-77 in isotopically enriched human samples by ICP-dynamic reaction cell-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Bügel, Susanne H.

    2003-01-01

    and the digested faecal samples were diluted using an aqueous diluent containing 0.5% Triton X-100, 2% nitric acid and 3% methanol. Selenium was detected as Se-76, Se-77 and Se-80 by ICP- DRC- MS. Selenium originating from the natural isotope abundance yeast and other selenium sources from the diet was determined...

  10. Selenium Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium sulfide, an anti-infective agent, relieves itching and flaking of the scalp and removes the dry, ... Selenium sulfide comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium ...

  11. Determination of nuclear cross-section of 81Br (n,,,) Br82 reaction by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... flux of 4.2 x 1013 n cm-2 s-1. The BaBr2 was chemically processed and measured as Hydrogen Bromide (HBr82). The value of nuclear cross-section was determined to be 2.1 0.2 barns, which falls within the range of values as previously reported elsewhere. (Journal of Applied Science and Technology: 2001 6(1-2): 4-6) ...

  12. Chemical equilibrium and reaction modeling of arsenic and selenium in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical processes and soil factors that affect the concentrations of As and Se in soil solution were discussed. Both elements occur in two redox states differing in toxicity and reactivity. Methylation and volatilization reactions occur in soils and can act as detoxification pathways. Precip...

  13. Why Nature Chose Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Hans J; Hondal, Robert J

    2016-04-15

    The authors were asked by the Editors of ACS Chemical Biology to write an article titled "Why Nature Chose Selenium" for the occasion of the upcoming bicentennial of the discovery of selenium by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1817 and styled after the famous work of Frank Westheimer on the biological chemistry of phosphate [Westheimer, F. H. (1987) Why Nature Chose Phosphates, Science 235, 1173-1178]. This work gives a history of the important discoveries of the biological processes that selenium participates in, and a point-by-point comparison of the chemistry of selenium with the atom it replaces in biology, sulfur. This analysis shows that redox chemistry is the largest chemical difference between the two chalcogens. This difference is very large for both one-electron and two-electron redox reactions. Much of this difference is due to the inability of selenium to form π bonds of all types. The outer valence electrons of selenium are also more loosely held than those of sulfur. As a result, selenium is a better nucleophile and will react with reactive oxygen species faster than sulfur, but the resulting lack of π-bond character in the Se-O bond means that the Se-oxide can be much more readily reduced in comparison to S-oxides. The combination of these properties means that replacement of sulfur with selenium in nature results in a selenium-containing biomolecule that resists permanent oxidation. Multiple examples of this gain of function behavior from the literature are discussed.

  14. Selol, an organic selenium donor, prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Agnieszka; Wilkaniec, Anna; Jęśko, Henryk; Czapski, Grzegorz A; Lenkiewicz, Anna M; Kurek, Eliza; Wroczyński, Piotr; Adamczyk, Agata

    2017-09-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are key intertwined pathological factors in many neurological, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disorders as well as autism. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Selol, an organic selenium donor, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in rat brain. The results demonstrated that the peripheral administration of LPS in a dose of 100 μg/kg b.w. evoked typical pathological reaction known as systemic inflammatory response. Moreover, we observed elevated blood levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of oxidative stress, as well as increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-treated animals. Selol significantly prevented these LPS-evoked changes. Subsequently, Selol protected against LPS-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (Tnfa, Ifng, Il6) in rat brain cortex. The molecular mechanisms through which Selol prevented the neuroinflammation were associated with the inhibition of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) accumulation and with an increase of glutathione-associated enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) as well as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity and expression. Finally, we observed that Selol administration effectively protected against LPS-induced changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). In conclusion, our studies indicated that Selol effectively protects against LPS-induced neuroinflammation by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine release, by boosting antioxidant systems, and by augmenting BDNF level. Therefore, Selol could be a multi-potent and effective drug useful in the treatment and prevention of brain disorders associated with neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Kinetics of reaction of peroxynitrite with selenium- and sulfur-containing compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storkey, Corin; Pattison, David I.; Ignasiak, Marta T.

    2015-01-01

    with peroxynitrite with high rate constants. Low molecular mass selenols react particularly rapidly with peroxynitrite, with second order rate constants k2 in the range 5.1×105-1.9×106 M-1 s-1, and 250-830 fold faster than the corresponding thiols (RSH) and many other endogenous biological targets. Reactions......Peroxynitrite (the physiological mixture of ONOOH and its anion, ONOO-) is a powerful biologically-relevant oxidant capable of oxidizing and damaging a range of important targets including sulfides, thiols, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Excessive production of peroxynitrite...... of peroxynitrite with selenides, including selenosugars are approximately 15-fold faster than their sulfur homologs with k2 approximately 2.5×103 M-1 s-1. The rate constants for diselenides and sulfides were slower with k2 0.72-1.3×103 M-1 s-1 and approximately 2.1×102 M-1 s-1 respectively. These studies...

  16. The effect of layer thickness and composition on the kinetics of solid state reactions in the niobium-selenium system studied using superlattice reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuto, M.; Kevan, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    The ability to form an amorphous reaction intermediate by the low temperature interdiffusion of a modulated elemental reactant is shown to be a function of the overall composition as well as elemental layer thicknesses in the niobium-selenium system. For niobium-rich reactants, an amorphous reaction intermediate was observed to form upon low temperature annealing of reactants with modulation thicknesses less than 60 A. Further annealing of the amorphous intermediates led to the crystallization of Nb 2 Se, Nb 5 Se 4 or Nb 3 Se 4 depending upon the overall composition of the amorphous intermediate. Modulated elemental reactants with overall compositions containing more than two-thirds selenium were found to heterogeneously nucleate NbSe 2 at the reacting interfaces. The formation of the thermodynamically expected compounds Nb 2 Se 3 , NbSe 3 , and Nb 2 Se 9 at their respective compositions required extended high temperature annealing to react the dichalcogenide with the remaining elemental reactants. A striking difference between the evolution of the low angle diffraction patterns in these two composition regimes suggests the differences in the reaction kinetics result from a composition dependence of the diffusion coefficients. (orig.)

  17. Ecologic study of serum selenium and upper gastrointestinal cancers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouarie, Mehdi; Pourshams, Akram; Kamangar, Farin; Sotoudeh, Masood; Derakhshan, Mohammad Hossein; Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Fakheri, Hafez; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Caldwell, Kathleen; Abnet, Christian C; Taylor, Philip R; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2004-09-01

    Both observational and experimental studies have shown that higher selenium status reduces the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers in selenium deficient populations. Recent cancer registry data have shown very different rates of esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) in four Provinces of Iran, namely Ardabil, Mazandaran, Golestan, and Kerman. The aim of this study was to have a preliminary assessment of the hypothesis that high rates of EC in Golestan and high rates of GC in Ardabil may be partly attributable to selenium deficiency. We measured serum selenium in 300 healthy adults from Ardabil (n = 100), Mazandaran (n = 50), Golestan (n = 100), and Kerman (n = 50), using inductively coupled plasma, with dynamic reaction cell, mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS) at the US Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta, Georgia). The median serum selenium concentrations were very different in the four Provinces. The medians (IQR) for selenium in Ardabil, Mazandarn, Golestan, and Kerman were 82 (75-94), 123 (111-132), 155 (141-173), and 119 (110-128) microg/L, respectively (P<0.001). The results of linear regression showed that the Province variable, by itself, explained 76% of the variance in log selenium (r2 = 0.76). The proportion of the populations with a serum selenium more than 90 microg/L (the concentration at which serum selenoproteins are saturated) was 100% in Golestan, Kerman, and Mazandaran but only 29% in Ardabil. Our findings suggest that selenium deficiency is not a major contributor to the high incidence of EC seen in northeastern Iran, but it may play a role in the high incidence of GC in Ardabil Province. Copyright 2004 The WJG Press ISSN

  18. Selenium essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sams, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who wants to migrate from Selenium RC or any other automation tool to Selenium WebDriver, then this book is for you. Knowledge of automation tools is necessary to follow the examples in this book.

  19. Investigation of high temperature reactions on solid substrates with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry: interaction of palladium with selenium on heated graphite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, V.; Robertson, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Selenium and palladium interactions on heated pyrolytically coated graphite substrates were investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The studies were performed using selenium alone, palladium alone, and a combination of selenium and palladium deposited on the graphite substrates. The results indicate that palladium instantaneously stabilizes selenium at ambient temperatures and prevents the diffusion of selenium into the graphite. As the substrate is heated, temperature dependent diffusion of all analytes into the graphite is observed. Furthermore, it appears that the stabilization of selenium is due to the formation of a stoichiometric compound with palladium and oxygen. This compound decomposes at a temperature between 1070 and 1770 K. (author)

  20. Investigation of high temperature reactions on solid substrates with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry: interaction of palladium with selenium on heated graphite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, V.; Robertson, J.D. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Selenium and palladium interactions on heated pyrolytically coated graphite substrates were investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The studies were performed using selenium alone, palladium alone, and a combination of selenium and palladium deposited on the graphite substrates. The results indicate that palladium instantaneously stabilizes selenium at ambient temperatures and prevents the diffusion of selenium into the graphite. As the substrate is heated, temperature dependent diffusion of all analytes into the graphite is observed. Furthermore, it appears that the stabilization of selenium is due to the formation of a stoichiometric compound with palladium and oxygen. This compound decomposes at a temperature between 1070 and 1770 K. (author).

  1. Coincidence measurement between. cap alpha. -particles and projectile-like fragments in reaction of 82. 7 MeV /sup 16/O on /sup 27/Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Qing, Shen; Wen-long, Zhan; Yong-tai, Zhu; Shu-zhi, Yin; Zhong-yan, Guo; Wei-min, Qiao; Guo-ying, Fan; Gen-ming, Jin; Song-ling, Li; Zhen, Zhang; others, and

    1987-01-01

    In the coincidence measurement between ..cap alpha..-particles and projectile-like fragments in the reaction of 82.7 MeV /sup 16/O on /sup 27/Al, the contour plot of the C-..cap alpha.. coincidence in the velocity plane and the coincident angular correlation are obtained. Different mechanisms of ..cap alpha..-particle emission are analysed. A possible reaction mechanism of incomplete DIC is discussed.

  2. Comparison of standard and reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the determination of chromium and selenium species by HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, A.J.; Kirgan, R.A.; Jones, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental speciation is becoming a common analytical procedure for geochemical investigations. The various redox species of environmentally relevant metals can have vastly different biogeochemical properties, including sorption, solubility, bioavailability, and toxicity. The use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to elemental specific detectors, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), has become one of the most important speciation methods employed. This is due to the separation versatility of HPLC and the sensitive and selective detection capabilities of ICP-MS. The current study compares standard mode ICP-MS to recently developed reaction cell (RC) ICP-MS, which has the ability to remove or reduce many common polyatomic interferences that can limit the ability of ICP-MS to quantitate certain analytes in complex matrices. Determination of chromium and selenium redox species is achieved using ion-exchange chromatography with elemental detection by standard and RC-ICP-MS, using various chromium and selenium isotopes. In this study, method performance and detection limits for the various permutations of the method (isotope monitored or ICP-MS detection mode) were found to be comparable and generally less than 1 μg L -1 . The method was tested on synthetic laboratory samples, surface water, groundwater, and municipal tap water matrices

  3. Regioselectivity of Sc2C2@C3v(8)-C82: Role of the Sumanene-Type Hexagon in Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pei; Zhao, Xiang; Ehara, Masahiro

    2016-09-16

    Recently, several experiments have demonstrated high chemical reactivity of the sumanene-type hexagon in Sc2C2@C82. To further uncover its reactivity, the Diels-Alder reaction to all the nonequivalent C-C bonds of C82 and Sc2C2@C82 has been investigated by density functional theory calculations. For the free fullerene, the [5,6] bond 7 is the thermodynamically most favored, whereas the addition on the [6,6] bond 3 has the lowest activation energy. Diels-Alder reaction has no preference for addition sites in the sumanene-type hexagon. However, in the case of the endohedral fullerene, the [6,6] bond 19 in the special hexagon becomes the most reactive site according to both kinetic and thermodynamic considerations. Further analyses reveal that bond 19 in Sc2C2@C82 exhibits the shortest bond length and third largest π-orbital axis vector. In addition, the LUMOs of bond 19 are also symmetry-allowed to interact with butadiene.

  4. Strontium-82/rubidium-82 generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennaro, G.P.; Haney, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Hydroxylapatite, a compound having the formula: M 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 wherein M is calcium, strontium, barium, lead, iron, sodium, potassium, zinc, cadmium, magnesium, aluminium or a rare earth metal, is provided as a support medium for strontium-82 in a strontium-82/rubidium-82 parent-daughter radionuclide generator

  5. Selenium biofortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant foods are the major dietary sources of selenium (Se) in most countries around the world, followed by meats and seafood. For this reason, it is vital to increase Se uptake by plants and to produce crops with higher Se concentrations and bioavailability in their edible tissues. One of the most p...

  6. The application of inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry for measurement of selenium isotopes, isotope ratios and chromatographic detection of selenoamino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2000-01-01

    orders of magnitude by using methane as reactive cell gas in the DRC. By using 3% v/v methanol in water for carbon-enhanced ionisation of selenium, the sensitivity of Se-80 was 10(4) counts s(-1) per ng ml(-1) of selenium, and the estimated limit of detection was 6 pg ml(-1). The precision of the isotope...

  7. Selenium and tellurium reagents in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comasseto, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the contribution of the University of Sao Paulo (SP, Brazil) to the organic synthesis of selenium and tellurium reagents is made. Major reactions amoung selenium compounds and insaturated substrates, phosphorus, ester enolates as well as the use of phase transference catalysed reactions to produce arylselenolate are described. For tellurium, interactions of its compounds with organic substrates and reactive intermediates (e.g. benzino diazomethane) are reported. (C.L.B.) [pt

  8. Arsenic and selenium in microbial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha; Santini, Joanne M.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic and selenium are readily metabolized by prokaryotes, participating in a full range of metabolic functions including assimilation, methylation, detoxification, and anaerobic respiration. Arsenic speciation and mobility is affected by microbes through oxidation/reduction reactions as part of resistance and respiratory processes. A robust arsenic cycle has been demonstrated in diverse environments. Respiratory arsenate reductases, arsenic methyltransferases, and new components in arsenic resistance have been recently described. The requirement for selenium stems primarily from its incorporation into selenocysteine and its function in selenoenzymes. Selenium oxyanions can serve as an electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, forming distinct nanoparticles of elemental selenium that may be enriched in (76)Se. The biogenesis of selenoproteins has been elucidated, and selenium methyltransferases and a respiratory selenate reductase have also been described. This review highlights recent advances in ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology and provides a prelude to the impact of genomics studies.

  9. Selenium-containing indolyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaril, Angela M; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chuang, Christine Y

    2017-01-01

    materials, including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, within the artery wall. Here we investigated the potential of selenium-containing indoles to afford protection against these oxidants, by determining rate constants (k) for their reaction, and quantifying the extent of damage on isolated ECM proteins......Tyr on HCAEC-ECM were also reduced. These data demonstrate that the novel selenium-containing compounds show high reactivity with oxidants and may modulate oxidative and nitrosative damage at sites of inflammation, contributing to a reduction in tissue dysfunction and atherogenesis....

  10. Strategies for method development for an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with bandpass reaction cell. Approaches with different reaction gases for the determination of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattendorf, Bodo; Guenther, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with dynamic reaction cell (DRC) was used to investigate different approaches for chemical resolution of Ar 2 + ions and to improve the determination of Se. Hydrogen, methane, oxygen and nitrous oxide were used as reaction gases. The method development for each approach consists of the acquisition of spectra for blank and spiked samples at different operating parameters, including reaction gas flow and transmission settings, of the DRC. Isotope ratio studies and the analytes signal to background ratio (SBR), were used as criteria to determine the operating conditions of the DRC where spectral interferences from the ion source or from polyatomic ions formed inside the DRC are minimized. Methane was found to provide the highest reaction efficiency for determination of Se. Nitrous oxide and oxygen also very efficiently suppress the Ar 2 + interference but reaction or scattering losses of Se + and SeO + are significant. Hydrogen is the least efficient gas for Ar 2 + reduction but little scattering or reactive loss lead to a good SBR. The determination of Se as SeO + was investigated with oxygen and nitrous oxide as reaction gases. The efficiency when using the oxygenation reaction was found to be similar to the efficiency for the charge transfer reactions but the slow oxygenation of the potentially interfering Mo + renders this approach less useful for analytical purposes. Using a natural water sample it could be shown that very good agreement is obtained using methane or hydrogen for analysis of 80 Se + at the μg/l level. Limits of detection are lowest (2 ng/l) when methane is used to suppress the Ar 2 + ion and when 80 Se + is used for analysis

  11. [The role of selenium in endocrine system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Rácz, Károly

    2013-10-13

    Oxygen derived free radicals, generated by a number of cellular reactions, include superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. They exert their cytotoxic effects mainly via peroxidation of the cell membrane resulting in the loss of membrane integrity. The essential trace element, selenium exerts complex effects on the endocrine systems, partly due to its antioxidant capacity. Well-characterized selenoproteins include iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases involved in thyroid hormone metabolism and protection from oxidative damage. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been investigated and most studies confirmed the beneficial effect of selenium supplementation in Hashimoto's and Graves's diseases. Recently, selenium proved to be effective in mild inflammatory orbitopathy. There are a number of reports about the effect of selenium in diabetes mellitus, but the data are controversial as both insulin-like and diabetes-inducing effects of selenium have been described. Selenium was successfully used in both female and male infertility of autoimmune origin.

  12. Coincidence measurement between α-particles and projectile-like fragments in the reaction of 82.7 MeV 16O on 27Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wenqing; Zhan Wenlong; Zhu Yongtai

    1988-01-01

    In a coincidence measurement between α-particles and projectile-like fragments in the reaction of 82.7 MeV 16 O on 27 Al, the contour plot of Galilean-invariant cross section of the coincidence between C-fragments and α-particles in the velocity plane, and the coincident angular correlation have been obtained. The correlated α-particles measured at positive angles (on the same side of the beam as the projectile-like fragments) were emitted mainly from the projectile-like fragments;the α-particles at large negative angles were emitted from the target-like fragments;the α-particles at small negative angles came from the fragmentation of the 16 O projectile. A possible reaction mechanism in which the residue produced in the fragmentation of the projectile continues the dissipation process during the interaction with the target has been discussed. It is also pointed out that in the large yield of C-fragments observed in the inclusive experiment, the contribution of C-fragments produced by the excited 16 O of DIC product via α-emission is quite small

  13. Nuclear transformations studies in selenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A compilation is made with regard to the chemical effects produced by nuclear transformations, such as the chemical effects of the beta decay and the chemical effects of the reaction (n,γ) in selenium radioisotopes. As a particular case the chemical effect of the isomeric transition of sup(81m)Se(VI) in potassium selenate crystals marked with radioactive selenium is studied experimentally and the method of adsorption in activated carbon is applied for the analytical separation of the traces of the nuclear isomer tetravalent sup(81b)Se(IV) of one fraction which contains the mixture of the selenium radioisotopes. (author)

  14. [Selenium treatment in thyreopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotak, Štefan

    Selenium (latin Selenium) is a micronutrient embedded in several proteins. In adults, the thyroid is the organ with the highest amount of selenium per gram of tissue. Selenium levels in the body depend on the characteristics of the population and its diet and geographic area. In the thyroid, selenium is required for the antioxidant function and for the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The literature suggests that selenium supplementation of patients with Hashimotos thyroiditis is associated with a reduction in antithyroperoxidase antibody levels. Selenium supplementation also in mild Graves orbitopathy is associated with delayed progression of ocular disorders. As a consequence of this observation The European Group on Graves Orbitopathy recommend six months selenium preparates supportive therapy for patients with mild form of Graves orbitopathy.Key words: Graves-Basedows disease - Hashimotos thyroiditis - selenium - supplementation.

  15. Selenium: its potential role in male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntibeju, O.O.; Esterhuyse, J.S.; Truter, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, biomedical research is showing interest in the anti-oxidant activity of selenium. This could be due to compelling evidence that reported that oxidative damage to cells and cell membranes is one of the causative agents in the pathogenesis of many disease states including male infertility. Selenium is a trace element which may be found in soil, water and some foods and is considered to be an essential element which plays an active role in several metabolic pathways and is believed to perform several important roles in the human body. These roles include anti-oxidative activities at cellular level and participating in different enzyme systems. Selenium also serves as a vital component in the maintenance of muscle cell and red blood cell integrity, playing a role in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). It has also been reported that selenium is essential in the detoxification of toxic metals in the human system, foetal respiration and energy transfer reactions as well as in the production of sperm cells. It is thought that male infertility can be the result of a selenium deficiency as the absence of selenium in the testicular tissues induces degeneration which results in the active impairment of sperm motility as the first indication of impending infertility. This review paper investigates the role of selenium in male infertility. (author)

  16. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  17. Selenium content of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijve, T

    1977-07-29

    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.

  18. Study of the transverse momentum distribution in the inclusive reactions K+p→K0+X between 5 and 32GeV/c and K+p→π-+X between 8.2 and 32 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chliapnikov, P.V.; Gerdyukov, D.N.; Klimenko, S.V.; Minaev, N.G.; Perevoztchikov, V.M.; Rubin, A.M.; Uvarov, V.A.; Vorobjev, A.P.; Grard, F.; Henri, V.P.; Windmolders, R.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of the transverse momentum spectra in the inclusive reactions K + p→K 0 +X at 5, 8.2, 16 and 32GeV/c and K + p→π - +X at 8.2, 16 and 32GeV/c in terms of a Bose-Einstein distribution reveals a strong correlation between the values of the temperature and the Feynman variable x. The variation of the temperature versus the incident momentum is also discussed [fr

  19. Selenium speciation and isotope composition in 77Se-enriched yeast using gradient elution HPLC separation and ICP-dynamic reaction cell-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Hansen, M.

    2003-01-01

    using the enriched Se-77-selenite as substrate, were released by enzymatic hydrolysis using (I), a beta-glucosidase followed by a protease mixture, and (II), a commercial protease preparation. For selenium speciation the chromatographic selectivity of the cation exchange HPLC system was adjusted...

  20. Impact of Selenium Addition to Animal Feeds on Human Selenium Status in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Pavlovic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the 1980s demonstrated Se deficiency in humans. Increased inclusion of selenium in animal feeds started from the year 2000 onwards. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of selenium inclusion in animal feeds on human selenium status and dietary habits of the Serbian population related to food of animal origin. Plasma selenium concentration in healthy adult volunteers, including residents of one of the regions with the lowest (Eastern Serbia, n = 60 and of one of the regions with the highest Se serum levels reported in the past (Belgrade, n = 82, was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariate analysis was employed to determine the correlation between Se plasma levels and dietary intake data derived from food frequency questionnaires and laboratory tests. The mean plasma Se level of the participants was 84.3 ± 15.9 μg/L (range: 47.3–132.1 μg/L, while 46% of participants had plasma Se levels lower than 80 μg/L. Frequency of meat, egg, and fish consumption was significantly correlated with plasma selenium level (r = 0.437, p = 0.000. Selenium addition to animal feed in the quantity of 0.14 mg/kg contributed to the improvement of human plasma selenium levels by approximately 30 μg/L.

  1. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  2. Quantitative selenium speciation in human urine by using liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ying; Rumpler, Alice; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Pergantis, Spiros A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development of a selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometric method for the identification of Se species in human urine. ► A selenosugar was detected as the major human urinary metabolite of selenium in the samples analysed. ► The trimethylselenonium ion was detected in the urine of one volunteer before and after receiving a selenium supplement. ► Strict quality control measures were applied to validate identification. ► Quantitation was conducted using an isotopically labelled internal standard and the standard additions methodology. - Abstract: A liquid chromatography–electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS/MS) method was developed for the speciation analysis of four organic selenium species of relevance to human urinary metabolism, namely trimethylselenomium ion (TMSe + ), selenomethionine (SeMet) and the two selenosugars, methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-D-galactos/-glucos-amine (SeGalNAc and SeGluNAc, respectively). Their chromatographic separation was achieved by using a cation exchange pre-column coupled in-series with a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography column, along with an isocratic mobile phase. Online detection was performed using ES-MS/MS in selective reaction monitoring mode. SeGalNAc was detected as the major human urinary metabolite of selenium in the samples analysed, whereas TMSe + was detected in the urine of one volunteer before and after receiving a selenium supplement. SeMet was not detected as a urine excretory metabolite in this study. Spiking experiments performed with the urine samples revealed significant signal suppression caused by coeluting matrix constituents. To overcome such interferences, isotopically labelled 13 CD 3 82 SeGalNAc was used as an internal standard, whereas in the absence of an isotopically labelled internal standard for TMSe + , the standard addition method was applied. Quality control for the accurate quantitation of TMSe + and SeGalNAc was carried out by

  3. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, Prince O.; Uden, Peter C.; Tyson, Julian F.

    2009-01-01

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  4. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  5. Excitation function of ''7''4Ge(n, α)''7''1''mZn reaction in the energy range 13.82-14.70 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, M.A.; Hafiz, M.A.; Naher, K.; Miah, R.U.; Ullah, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The excitation function of the reaction ''7''4Ge(n, α)''7''1''mZn is measured by activation technique using high resolution HPGe detector gamma ray spectroscopy. Monoenergetic neutrons are produced via D-T reaction at J-25 neutron generator facility of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AERE, Bangladesh. The neutron flux measurement was done at different energy position in the range 13.82-14.70 MeV using the monitor reaction ''2''7Al(n, α)''2''4Na. The measured cross section values along with the literature data are plotted as a function of neutron energy to get the excitation function of the reaction. A theoretical calculation is also performed to produce the excitation function of the investigated reaction using statistical code SINCROS-II. The measured data are to be found to be in good agreement with the literature data and the theoretical cross section values. (author)

  6. Selenium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how much of the mineral was in the soil where the plants grew. Brazil nuts are a very good source of selenium. Fish, shellfish , red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver, and garlic ... soil have higher levels of selenium. Brewer's yeast, wheat ...

  7. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  8. Multinucleon-Transfer Reactions as a Gateway to Neutron-Rich Actinides and Nuclei near the N=82 and Z=50 Shell Closures

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Andreas Günter Heinz

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, reaction products in the 136Xe+238U multinucleon-transfer reaction at 1 GeV were investigated employing the high-resolution position-sensitive gamma-ray tracking array AGATA coupled to the large-solid-angle mass spectrometer PRISMA at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN, Italy). Beam-like reaction products were identified and selected by the PRISMA spectrometer. Recoils and fission fragments were tagged by DANTE micro-channel plate detectors installed within the sca...

  9. Molecular neutron activation analysis of selenium metabolites in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Hansen, G.T.; Ebrahim, A.; Rack, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the biological importance of selenium in living biological systems, various analytical procedures have been developed for analysis of microquantities of elemental selenium, in urine, serum, and tissue. For urine selenium, these include atomic absorption spectrometry, solution absorption spectrometry, solution fluorescence spectrometry, volumetry, and neutron activation analysis. Of equal or greater importance is the determination of selenium metabolites present in urine for the purpose of describing the biological pathways for the metabolism of selenium in living organisms. While it is known from previous studies that trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) is a major metabolite in urine, probably the result of reduction and methylation reaction, there are no definitive results in the literature indicating the nature or quantity of other selenium metabolic products in urine. Early techniques to measure TMSe levels in urine involved the use of the radiotracer 75 Se. Because of the long biological half-life of selenium and issues of radiation exposure, its use in humans has been limited. In this paper, the authors report the experimental procedure for the determination of total selenoamino acid concentration in urine and present total selenium values, and, where applicable, TMSe, SeO 2- 3 , and total selenoamino acid concentrations in the urine of normal and diseased subjects

  10. Isotopic and velocity distributions of {sub 83}Bi produced in charge-pickup reactions of {sup 208}{sub 82}PB at 1 A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Enqvist, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (DE)] [and others

    2004-07-01

    Isotopically resolved cross sections and velocity distributions have been measured in charge-pickup reactions of 1 A GeV {sup 208}Pb with proton, deuterium and titanium target. The total and partial charge-pickup cross sections in the reactions {sup 208}Pb + {sup 1}H and {sup 208}Pb + {sup 2}H are measured to be the same in the limits of the error bars. A weak increase in the total charge-pickup cross section is seen in the reaction of {sup 208}Pb with the titanium target. The measured velocity distributions show different contributions - quasi-elastic scattering and {delta}-resonance excitation - to the charge-pickup production. Data on total and partial charge-pickup cross sections from these three reactions are compared with other existing data and also with model calculations based on the coupling of different intra-nuclear cascade codes and an evaporation code. (orig.)

  11. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  12. Excitation functions and yields of proton induced reactions at intermediate energies leading to important diagnostics radioisotopes of 52Fe, 77Br, 82Rb, 97Ru, 111In, 123I, 127Xe, 128Cs, 178Ta and 201Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rurarz, E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes investigations of the excitation functions of the proton induced reactions on 14 targets (Mn, Co, Br, Rb, 99 Tc, 113 Cd, 114 Cd, Cd, I, Cs, Ta, 206,207,208 Pb) leading directly or indirectly to the formation of radionuclides 52 Fe, 77 Br, 82 Rb, 97 Ru, 111 In, 123 I, 127 Xe, 128 Cs, 178 Ta and 201 Tl frequently used in diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. The measurements of the excitation functions were made over a wide proton energy range from the reaction threshold up to 100 MeV using the stacked foil (or pellet) technique. Small energy steps were used to allow for accurate determination of the structure of excitation functions. For 97 Ru, 111 In and 127 Xe formation with protons, new reaction channels and targets were used and data concerning this method are published for the first time. The data for 52 Fe, 77 Br, 82 Rb, 123 I, 128 Cs and 201 Tl obtained in the present work for the E p =70-100 MeV region are also published for the first time. The measured excitation functions for the formation of desired (and undesired) radionuclides (altogether 28 excitation functions) are compared with the theoretical ones calculated on the basis of a hybrid model of nuclear reactions in the form of the Overlaid Alice computer code. In order to determine the contribution of the competitive reaction channels to the purity of the produced, desired radionuclide, the excitation functions of the accompanying reactions were also calculated. The 122 calculated excitation functions for the possible contaminant are given in the present work. The comparison of experimental excitation functions with the results of model calculations showed satisfactory agreement, especially if one considers, that no parameter adjustment for individual reaction products was undertaken. From the measured excitation functions the production yields for 28 radionuclides mentioned above have been determined (author). 262 refs, 65 figs, 34 tabs

  13. Mixed Surfactant Template Method for Preparation of Nanometer Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium nanoparticles have been synthesized in an aqueous solution by using sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyvinyl alcohol as a soft template. The factors on synthesis, such as reaction time, concentration of reactants and ultrasonic irradiation were studied. The uniform stable selenium nanospheres were obstained in the conditions of 1.0 (mass fraction sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1.0 (mass fraction polyvinyl alcohol, n(Vc:n(H2SeO3=7:1 and 7 minutes after the initiation of the reaction at room temperature. The average particle size of selenium is about 30 nm. The product was characterized by UV and TEM. Finally the applications of the red element nanometer selenium in anti-older cosmetics are presented.

  14. Selenium in Graves' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Kryczyk

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the current state of knowledge of the role of selenium in Graves’ disease. Recently, in the pathogenesis and course of this autoimmune disease, more attention has been paid to the relationship between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system, where selenium compounds play an important role. The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium concentration in the human body. Selenium compounds, having antioxidant properties, protect thyrocytes against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are generated during the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, strengthening the body’s defense mechanisms, which protect against the formation and activity of ROS during medical treatment of Graves’ disease patients, may be an effective adjuvant in commonly used methods of therapy.

  15. Part A. Neutron activation analysis of selenium and vanadium in biological matrices. Part B. Isomeric transition activation in aqueous solutions of alkyl bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, A.

    1988-01-01

    Several procedures were evaluated for determination of selenium in biological fluids and vanadium in biological tissues by neutron activation analysis (NAA) employing 77m Se and 52 V isotopes, respectively. Procedures for determination of total selenium, trimethylselenonium (TMSe) ion and selenite (SeO 3 2- ) ion in urine and serum and for total selenoamino acids in urine were developed by utilizing anion exchange chromatography and molecular NAA. A pre-column derivatization of selenoamino acids with o-phthalaldehyde was necessary for their determination. Also an analytical approach was developed for determination of trace vanadium in liver samples from normal and diabetic rats as well as human and cow. Reactions of bromine-80 activated by radiative neutron capture and bromine-82 activated by isomeric transition were investigated in aqueous solutions of bromomethane and 1-bromobutane. Bromine-80 organic yields decreased with decreasing solute concentrations. The tendency for aggregation of the solute molecules diminished as the solute concentration approached zero where the probable state of the solute approached a monomolecular dispersion. Unlike reactions of 80 Br born by 79 Br(n,γ) 80 Br reaction, the total organic product yields resulting from the 82m Br(I.T.) 82 Br process showed no solute concentration dependence

  16. Analyses of Selenotranscriptomes and Selenium Concentrations in Response to Dietary Selenium Deficiency and Age Reveal Common and Distinct Patterns by Tissue and Sex in Telomere-Dysfunctional Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Zhang, Li; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan Ty; Wu, Tung-Lung; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2017-10-01

    Background: The hierarchies of tissue selenium distribution and selenotranscriptomes are thought to critically affect healthspan and longevity. Objective: We determined selenium status and selenotranscriptomes in response to long-term dietary selenium deficiency and age in tissues of male and female mice. Methods: Weanling telomerase RNA component knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a selenium-deficient (0.03 mg Se/kg) Torula yeast-based AIN-93G diet or a diet supplemented with sodium selenate (0.15 mg Se/kg) until age 18 or 24 mo. Plasma, hearts, kidneys, livers, and testes were collected to assay for selenotranscriptomes, selected selenoproteins, and tissue selenium concentrations. Data were analyzed with the use of 2-factor ANOVA (diet × age) in both sexes. Results: Dietary selenium deficiency decreased ( P ≤ 0.05) selenium concentrations (65-72%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 3 (82-94%) and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) (17-41%) levels in the plasma of both sexes of mice and mRNA levels (9-68%) of 4, 4, and 12 selenoproteins in the heart, kidney, and liver of males, respectively, and 5, 16, and 14 selenoproteins, respectively, in females. Age increased selenium concentrations and SELENOP levels (27% and 30%, respectively; P ≤ 0.05) in the plasma of males only but decreased (12-46%; P selenium deficiency and age in ≥1 tissue or sex, or both. Dietary selenium deficiency upregulated (40-160%; P ≤ 0.05) iodothyronine deiodinase 2 ( Dio2 ) and selenoprotein N ( Selenon ) in the kidneys of males. Age upregulated (11-44%; P selenium status and selenotranscriptomes because of dietary selenium deficiency and age. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. 82Sr--82Rb radioisotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Erdal, B.R.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved 82 Sr- 82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be greater than 10 7 . Approximately 80 percent of the 82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH 4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be greater than 10 5 , and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three 82 Sr half lives. 2 claims, no drawings

  18. Methods of Selenium Supplementation: Bioavailability and Determination of Selenium Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Malgorzata; Szczyglowska, Marzena; Konieczka, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Selenium, a "dual-surface" element, maintains a very thin line between a level of necessity and harmfulness. Because of this, a deficiency or excess of this element in an organism is dangerous and causes health-related problems, both physically and mentally. The main source of selenium is a balanced diet, with a proper selection of meat and plant products. Meanwhile, the proper assimilation of selenium into these products depends on their bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and/or bioactivity of a given selenium compound. From the time when it was discovered that selenium and its compounds have a significant influence on metabolic processes and in many countries throughout the world, a low quantity of selenium was found in different parts of the environment, pressure was put upon an effective and fast method of supplementing the environment with the help of selenium. This work describes supplementation methods applied with the use of selenium, as well as new ideas for increasing the level of this element in various organisms. Based on the fact that selenium appears in the environment at trace levels, the determination of total amount of selenium or selenium speciation in a given sample demands the selection of appropriate measurement methods. These methods are most often comprised of a sample preparation technique and/or a separation technique as well as a detection system. The work presents information on the subject of analytical methods used for determining selenium and its compounds as well as examples in literature of their application.

  19. Recycling of high purity selenium from CIGS solar cell waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Anna M.K., E-mail: anna.gustafsson@chalmers.se; Foreman, Mark R.StJ.; Ekberg, Christian

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new method for recycling of selenium from CIGS solar cell materials is presented. • Separation of selenium as selenium dioxide after heating in oxygen atmosphere. • Complete selenium separation after oxidation of <63 μm particles at 800 °C for 1 h. • After reduction of selenium dioxide the selenium purity was higher than 99.999 wt%. - Abstract: Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is a promising material in thin film solar cell production. To make CIGS solar cells more competitive, both economically and environmentally, in comparison to other energy sources, methods for recycling are needed. In addition to the generally high price of the material, significant amounts of the metals are lost in the manufacturing process. The feasibility of recycling selenium from CIGS through oxidation at elevated temperatures was therefore examined. During oxidation gaseous selenium dioxide was formed and could be separated from the other elements, which remained in solid state. Upon cooling, the selenium dioxide sublimes and can be collected as crystals. After oxidation for 1 h at 800 °C all of the selenium was separated from the CIGS material. Two different reduction methods for reduction of the selenium dioxide to selenium were tested. In the first reduction method an organic molecule was used as the reducing agent in a Riley reaction. In the second reduction method sulphur dioxide gas was used. Both methods resulted in high purity selenium. This proves that the studied selenium separation method could be the first step in a recycling process aimed at the complete separation and recovery of high purity elements from CIGS.

  20. Theoretical predictions of arsenic and selenium species under atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan-Pendergast, M.T.; Przybylek, M.; Lindblad, M.; Wilcox, J. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    Thermochemical properties of arsenic and selenium species thought to be released into the atmosphere during the coal combustion were examined using ab initio methods. At various levels of theory, calculated geometries and vibrational frequencies of the species were compared with experimental data, where available. Through a comparison of equilibrium constants for a series of gaseous arsenic and selenium oxidation reactions involving OH and HO{sub 2}, five thermodynamically favored reactions were found. In addition, it was determined that all favored reactions were more likely to go to completion tinder tropospheric, rather than stratospheric, conditions.

  1. Biological selenium removal from wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, microbial conversion of water-soluble, highly toxic forms of selenium (selenate, selenite) to less bioavailable elemental selenium was investigated. By the exploitation of different groups of microorganisms (selenium-respiring, nitrate-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria,

  2. Selenium in human mammary carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim; Grøn, P.; Langhoff, Otto

    1991-01-01

    /l and TNM stage II 76 +/- 13 micrograms selenium/l), indicating disease-mediated changes. The evaluation of selenium as a risk indicator in human breast cancer was therefore restricted to TNM stage I patients (n = 36). Multiple logistic regression analyses including variables associated with selenium levels...

  3. No-carrier-added labeling of the neuroprotective Ebselen with selenium-73 and selenium-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Andreas; Ermert, Johannes; Humpert, Sven; Coenen, Heinz H

    2015-03-01

    Selenium-73 is a positron emitting non-standard radionuclide, which is suitable for positron emission tomography. A copper-catalyzed reaction allowed no-carrier-added labeling of the anti-inflammatory seleno-organic compound Ebselen with (73) Se and (75) Se under addition of sulfur carrier in a one-step reaction. The new authentically labeled radioselenium molecule is thus available for preclinical evaluation and positron emission tomography studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Selenium for preventing cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Dennert, Gabriele; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice Pa; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Crespi, Catherine M

    2018-01-29

    This review is the third update of the Cochrane review "Selenium for preventing cancer". Selenium is a naturally occurring element with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancer. To gather and present evidence needed to address two research questions:1. What is the aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans?2. Describe the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans. We updated electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid, 2013 to January 2017, week 4), and Embase (2013 to 2017, week 6), as well as searches of clinical trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies that enrolled adult participants. We performed random-effects (RE) meta-analyses when two or more RCTs were available for a specific outcome. We conducted RE meta-analyses when five or more observational studies were available for a specific outcome. We assessed risk of bias in RCTs and in observational studies using Cochrane's risk assessment tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. We considered in the primary analysis data pooled from RCTs with low risk of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence by using the GRADE approach. We included 83 studies in this updated review: two additional RCTs (10 in total) and a few additional trial reports for previously included studies. RCTs involved 27,232 participants allocated to either selenium supplements or placebo. For analyses of RCTs with low risk of bias, the summary risk ratio (RR) for any cancer incidence was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.10; 3 studies, 19,475 participants; high-certainty evidence). The RR for estimated cancer mortality was 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30; 1 study, 17,444 participants). For the most frequently

  5. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Background This review is an update of the first Cochrane publication on selenium for preventing cancer (Dennert 2011). Selenium is a metalloid with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. Objectives Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: an aetiological relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans? andthe efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans? Search methods We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1966 to February 2013 week 1), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 6), CancerLit (February 2004) and CCMed (February 2011). As MEDLINE now includes the journals indexed in CancerLit, no further searches were conducted in this database after 2004. Selection criteria We included prospective observational studies (cohort studies including sub-cohort controlled studies and nested case-control studies) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy adult participants (18 years of age and older). Data collection and analysis For observational studies, we conducted random effects meta-analyses when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. For RCTs, we performed random effects meta-analyses when two or more studies were available. The risk of bias in observational studies was assessed using forms adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort and case-control studies; the criteria specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were used to evaluate the risk of bias in RCTs. Main results We included 55 prospective observational studies (including more than 1,100,000 participants) and eight RCTs (with a total of 44,743 participants). For the observational studies, we found lower cancer incidence (summary odds ratio (OR) 0

  6. Matrix modification with silver for the electrothermal atomization of arsenic and selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1981-01-01

    Silver as a matrix modifier is shown to improve the carbon-rod atomization of both arsenic and selenium for atomic absorption spectrometry. Compared to nickel, the efficiency of silver is greater for arsenic and about the same for selenium. Silver fulfils two functions in its reaction, namely stabilization during the ashing stage and enhancement of absorbance in the final atomization. ?? 1981.

  7. Biomarkers of selenium status

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential trace element selenium (Se) has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potentia...

  8. Selenium Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is a metalloid that is a dietary requirement in small quantities, but toxic at higher quantities. It also is known to bioaccumulate. In oxic environments, it exists as selenate (+6) and selenite (+4), both of which are soluble. Selenite will sorb more strongly to...

  9. Optimal serum selenium concentrations are associated with lower depressive symptoms and negative mood among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S; Richardson, Aimee C; Miller, Jody C

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that low, and possibly high, selenium status is associated with depressed mood. More evidence is needed to determine whether this pattern occurs in young adults with a wide range of serum concentrations of selenium. The aim of this study was to determine if serum selenium concentration is associated with depressive symptoms and daily mood states in young adults. A total of 978 young adults (aged 17-25 y) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale and reported their negative and positive mood daily for 13 d using an Internet diary. Serum selenium concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. ANCOVA and regression models tested the linear and curvilinear associations between decile of serum selenium concentration and mood outcomes, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, and weekly alcohol intake. Smoking and childhood socioeconomic status were further controlled in a subset of participants. The mean ± SD serum selenium concentration was 82 ± 18 μg/L and ranged from 49 to 450 μg/L. Participants with the lowest serum selenium concentration (62 ± 4 μg/L; decile 1) and, to a lesser extent, those with the highest serum selenium concentration (110 ± 38 μg/L; decile 10) had significantly greater adjusted depressive symptoms than did participants with midrange serum selenium concentrations (82 ± 1 to 85 ± 1 μg/L; deciles 6 and 7). Depressive symptomatology was lowest at a selenium concentration of ∼85 μg/L. Patterns for negative mood were similar but more U-shaped. Positive mood showed an inverse U-shaped association with selenium, but this pattern was less consistent than depressive symptoms or negative mood. In young adults, an optimal range of serum selenium between ∼82 and 85 μg/L was associated with reduced risk of depressive symptomatology. This range approximates the values at which glutathione peroxidase is maximal, suggesting that future research should investigate

  10. Acute selenium poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbedy, B J; Dickson, J

    1969-10-01

    An outbreak of sodium selenite poisoning is reported in which 180 of 190 six-weeks-old lambs died. The estimated dose rate of the selenium was 6.4 mg/kg body weight. Liver concentrations of selenium at the time of poisoning averaged 64 ppM and 15 days later liver and kidney concentrations of selenium averaged 26 ppM and 7.4 ppM respectively.

  11. Selenium in food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reilly, Conor

    2006-01-01

    ...) to be a carcinogen and banned as an additive in food. Selenium is considered by some to be a serious hazard to the environment and to animal health. Selenium-contaminated water has brought deformity and death to wildlife in nature reserves in western USA. There is even concern that because of selenium contamination of soil, crops supplied to the great cities of California could become unfit for human consumption. In large areas of China, endemic selenium toxicity is a hazard for locals who depend on cr...

  12. Nutrigenetics, Nutrigenomics, and Selenium

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Karunasinghe, Nishi

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health, and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se le...

  13. Microbial selenium sulfide reduction for selenium recovery from wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, S.P.W.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Stams, A.J.M.; Cappellen, van P.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial reduction of selenium sulfide (SeS2) is a key step in a new treatment process to recover selenium from selenate and selenite streams. In this process, selenate is first reduced to selenite, and subsequently selenite is reduced by sulfide and precipitates from the solution as SeS2. The

  14. Binary mixtures of mercury/ selenium, and lead/selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiologically-based biokinetic models have been developed for predicting simultaneously the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination (ADME) properties of lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) and selenium in a number of target tissues of humans. This was done for three population groups, ...

  15. Selenium-mediated synthesis of biaryls through rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Sohail A; Vivant, Clotilde; Wirth, Thomas

    2010-03-19

    A new cyclization of beta-keto ester substituted stilbene derivatives using selenium electrophiles in the presence of Lewis acids is described. Substituted naphthols are obtained through cyclization and subsequent 1,2-rearrangement of aryl groups under very mild reaction conditions.

  16. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of selenium and vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safavi, A.; Sedghy, H.R.; Shams, E. [Dept. of Chemistry, Shiraz Univ. (Iran)

    1999-11-01

    A sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Se(IV) over the range of 45 to 4000 ng in 10 mL of solution. The method is based on the catalytic effect of Se(IV) on the reduction reaction of bromate by hydrazinium dichloride, with subsequent reaction of Ponceau S with products of the above reaction (chlorine and bromine), causing color changing of Ponceau S. Method development includes optimization of time interval for measurement of slope, pH, reagents concentration, and temperature. The optimized conditions yielded a theoretical detection limit of 33 ng/10 mL of solution of Se(IV). The interfering effects were studied and removed. The method was applied to the determination of selenium in spiked water, Kjeldahl tablet, selenium tablet, and shampoo. Vanadium(V) has an inhibition effect on the catalyzed reaction of bromate and hydrazine by selenium. Using this effect, V(V) can be determined in the range of 70 to 2500 ng in 10 mL of solution. The optimization procedure includes pH and selenium concentration. An extraction method was used for interference removal. The method was applied to the determination of vanadium in petroleum. (orig.)

  17. Selenium accumulation in lettuce germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to reduce the widespread selenium deficiency problem in many parts of the world. In this study, we evaluated thirty diverse accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) f...

  18. Induction of Apoptosis by Superoxide Anion and the Protective Effects of Selenium and Vitamin E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of superoxide anion on the apoptosis of cultured fibroblasts and the protective role of selenium and Vitamin E. Methods Cultured fibroblasts (NIH3T3), with or without selenium or vitamin E in the medium, were treated by superoxide anion produced by xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction system and changes in cell structure and DNA were observed microscopically and electrophoretically. Results Apoptosis was observed when superoxide anion at a concentration of 5 nmol/L or 10 nmol/L had acted on the fibroblasts for 5-10 h. Selenium and Vitamin E in the medium inhibited the apoptosis significantly when their concentrations reached 1.15 mol/L and 2.3 mol/L respectively. Conclusion Selenium and vitamin E have protective effect against the apoptosis induced by superoxide anion. The effect of selenium is more remarkable than that of vitamin E.

  19. Energy research program 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The energy research program 82 (EFP-82) is prepared by the Danish ministry of energy in order to continue the extension of the Danish energy research and development started through the former trade ministry's programs EM-1 (1976) and EM-2 (1978), and the energy ministry's programs EFP-80 and EFP-81. The new program is a continuation of the activities in the period 1982-84 with a total budget of 100 mio.Dkr. The program gives a brief description of background, principles, organization and financing, and a detailed description of each research area. (BP)

  20. Recommended activation detector cross sections (RNDL-82)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondars, Kh.Ya.; Lapenas, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the comparison between measured and calculated average cross sections in 5 benchmark experiments are presented. Calculations have been based on the data from 10 libraries of evaluated cross sections. The recommended library (RNDL-82) of the activation detector cross sections has been created on the basis of the comparison. RNDL-82, including 26 reactions, and the basic characteristics of the detectors are presented. (author)

  1. Determination of the solubility limiting solid of the selenium in the presence of iron under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Y.; Yamaguchi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, A.; Nakayama, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dissolution experiments of selenium were performed from both under saturation and over saturation directions to determine the solubility limiting solid of selenium under the conditions which thermodynamically prefer the formation of ferroselite (FeSe 2 ). X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that FeSe 2 was formed in the over-saturation experiments. However, the ion activity products for the reaction of 0.5 FeSe 2 + H + + e - 0.5 Fe 2+ + HSe - , aFe 2+0.5 aHSe - a H+ -1 a e- -1 , obtained from both under saturation and over saturation directions were 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the equilibrium constants calculated from existing thermodynamic data. The dependencies of the selenium concentration on pH, Eh and the iron concentration were better interpreted as a dissolution reaction of selenium solid (Se(s)) than the iron-selenium compounds. The equilibrium constant of: Se(s) + H + + 2e - = HSe - was determined to be logK 0 -7.46±0.11. This value agrees with the value of logK 0 = -7.62±0.06 calculated from existing thermodynamic data of crystalline selenium within errors. Because crystalline selenium was not identified in the solid phases by XRD, the solubility limiting solid would be amorphous or minor amount of crystalline selenium, even if the iron-selenium compound was formed. (authors)

  2. Removal of Selenium and Nitrate in Groundwater Using Organic Carbon-Based Reactive Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyeonsil; Jeen, Sung-Wook

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of selenium and nitrate in groundwater was evaluated through column experiments. Four columns consisting of reactive mixtures, either organic carbon-limestone (OC-LS) or organic carbon-zero valent iron (OC-ZVI), were used to determine the removal efficiency of selenium with different concentrations of nitrate. The source waters were collected from a mine site in Korea or were prepared artificially based on the mine drainage water or deionized water, followed by spiking of elevated concentrations of Se (40 mg/L) and nitrate (100 or 10 mg/L as NO3-N). The results for the aqueous chemistry showed that selenium and nitrate were effectively removed both in the mine drainage water and deionized water-based artificial input solution. However, the removal of selenium was delayed when selenium and nitrate coexisted in the OC-LS columns. The removal of selenium was not significant when the influent nitrate concentration was 100 mg/L as NO3-N, while most of nitrate was gradually removed within the columns. In contrast, 94% of selenium was removed when the influent nitrate concentration was reduced to 10 mg/L as NO3-N. In the OC-ZVI column, selenium and nitrate was removed almost simultaneously and completely even with the high nitrate concentration; however, a high concentration of ammonia was produced as a by-product of abiotic reaction between ZVI and nitrate. The elemental analysis for the solid samples after the termination of the experiments showed that selenium was accumulated in the reactive materials where removal of aqueous-phase selenium mostly occurred. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) study indicated that selenium existed in the forms of SeS2 and Se(0) in the OC-LS column, while selenium was present in the forms of FeSe, SeS2 and absorbed Se(IV) in the OC-ZVI column. This study shows that OC-based reactive mixtures have an ability to remove selenium and nitrate in groundwater. However, the removal of selenium was influenced by the high

  3. Serum selenium levels and the risk of progression of laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiński, Jan; Marciniak, Wojciech; Muszynska, Magdalena; Jaworowska, Ewa; Sulikowski, Mieczyslaw; Jakubowska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Falco, Michal; Baszuk, Piotr; Mojsiewicz, Magdalena; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A; Lubiński, Jan A

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies have reported an inverse relationship between selenium status (blood or toenail) and the risk of laryngeal cancer; however, the impact of low serum selenium level on survival has not been evaluated. We conducted a prospective study of 296 patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer in Szczecin, Poland. Serum selenium was measured at diagnosis and prior to treatment. Patients were followed from the date of diagnosis to death at five years. Vital status was obtained by linkage to the Polish National Death Registry. The five-year survival after diagnosis was 82.0% (95% CI: 68% to 91%) for individuals in the highest quartile of serum selenium (> 66.8 μg/L) and was 28.6% (95% CI 19% to 42%) for individuals in the lowest quartile (selenium, compared to those in the highest quartile. The corresponding multivariate HR was 3.07 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.94). This study suggests that a selenium level in excess of 70 μg/L is associated with improved outcome among patients undergoing treatment for laryngeal cancer. Further studies are needed to evaluate if selenium supplementation to achieve this level might improve overall prognosis.

  4. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 oct. 2017 ... Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". .... Bertini L1, Savoia G, De Nicola A, Ivani G, Gravino E, Albani A et al ... 2010;7(2):101-.

  5. Mechanism of Selenium Loss in Copper Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Bhavin; Tathavadkar, Vilas; Basu, Somnath

    2018-06-01

    During smelting of copper sulfide concentrate, selenium is distributed between silica-saturated iron-silicate slag and copper-iron sulfide matte. The recovery coefficients of selenium between slag and matte were determined as a function of the initial concentration of selenium at 1523 K (1250 °C) under an inert atmosphere in a vertical tubular furnace. The initial concentration of selenium was varied by the addition of metallic selenium as well as selenium dioxide to the mixture of slag and matte. Analysis of the results indicated high affinity of selenium for matte. The apparent loss of selenium with the slag was attributed to the presence of selenium-enriched matte particles entrapped in the slag, rather than dissolved SeO2. The mechanisms proposed by previous investigators were discussed and also compared with the results of the present investigation.

  6. Mechanism of Selenium Loss in Copper Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Bhavin; Tathavadkar, Vilas; Basu, Somnath

    2018-03-01

    During smelting of copper sulfide concentrate, selenium is distributed between silica-saturated iron-silicate slag and copper-iron sulfide matte. The recovery coefficients of selenium between slag and matte were determined as a function of the initial concentration of selenium at 1523 K (1250 °C) under an inert atmosphere in a vertical tubular furnace. The initial concentration of selenium was varied by the addition of metallic selenium as well as selenium dioxide to the mixture of slag and matte. Analysis of the results indicated high affinity of selenium for matte. The apparent loss of selenium with the slag was attributed to the presence of selenium-enriched matte particles entrapped in the slag, rather than dissolved SeO2. The mechanisms proposed by previous investigators were discussed and also compared with the results of the present investigation.

  7. Acute selenium poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shortridge, E H; O' Hara, P J; Marshall, P M

    1971-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy-six (67%) of 557 calves of approximately 150-200 kg live-weight died following subcutaneous injection of a solution containing 100 mg selenium as sodium selenite. Eight per cent of the 254 heifer calves and 56% of the 303 steers died. The calves had endured the stress of being weaned twice and held in stockyards twice as well as encountering wet weather during the 4 days before receiving the selenium. The heifer calves were also vaccinated with Br. abortus strain 19 vaccine at the same time as receiving the selenium. The clinical signs and pathological findings of circulatory failure and myocardial damage were similar to those previously reported in acute selenium poisoning.

  8. Sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter on the coordination compounds of sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium starts with an introduction to the bonding, valence and geometry of the elements. Complexes of the group VIB elements are discussed with particular reference to the halo and pseudohalide complexes, oxo acid complexes, oxygen and nitrogen donor complexes and sulfur and selenium donor complexes. There is a section on the biological properties of the complexes discussed. (UK)

  9. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  10. Selenium Utilization Strategy by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Araie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of selenoproteins raises the question of why so many life forms require selenium. Selenoproteins are found in bacteria, archaea, and many eukaryotes. In photosynthetic microorganisms, the essential requirement for selenium has been reported in 33 species belonging to six phyla, although its biochemical significance is still unclear. According to genome databases, 20 species are defined as selenoprotein-producing organisms, including five photosynthetic organisms. In a marine coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta, we recently found unique characteristics of selenium utilization and novel selenoproteins using 75Se-tracer experiments. In E. huxleyi, selenite, not selenate, is the main substrate used and its uptake is driven by an ATP-dependent highaffinity, active transport system. Selenite is immediately metabolized to low-molecular mass compounds and partly converted to at least six selenoproteins, named EhSEP1–6. The most (EhSEP2 and second-most abundant selenoproteins (EhSEP1 are disulfide isomerase (PDI homologous protein and thioredoxin reductase (TR 1, respectively. Involvement of selenium in PDI is unique in this organism, while TR1 is also found in other organisms. In this review, we summarize physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of selenium utilization by microalgae and discuss their strategy of selenium utilization.

  11. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  12. Selenium Content, Influential Factors Within the Plant and the Transformation of Different Selenium Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yuan-yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper collected relevant literatures on selenium and explored the function to plant, selenium content, influential factors and selenium specification and transformation. We believed that there should be more deep researches on function of selenium to plant. Approaches of molecular, genetic engineering and isotope could be employed to breed selenium rich crops and possibilities in practice. More efforts should be spent on the technologies research for improving selenium level in crops under natural soil conditions to sustainably utilize the selenium resources.

  13. Low selenium status affects arsenic metabolites in an arsenic exposed population with skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Pei, Qiuling; Sun, Guifan; Zhang, Sichum; Liang, Jiang; Gao, Yi; Zhang, Xinrong

    2008-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low selenium status plays important roles in arsenism development. However, no study has been reported for humans suffering from chronic arsenic exposure with low selenium status. Sixty-three subjects were divided into 2 experimental groups by skin lesions (including hyperkeratosis, depigmentation, and hyperpigmentation). Total urine and serum concentrations of arsenic and selenium were determined by ICP-MS with collision/reaction cell. Arsenic species were analysed by ICP-MS coupled with HPLC. The mean concentration of As in the drinking waters was 41.5 microg/l. The selenium dietary intake for the studied population was 31.7 microg Se/d, and which for the cases and controls were 25.9 and 36.3 microg Se/d, respectively. Compared with the controls, the skin lesions cases had lower selenium concentrations in serum and urine (41.4 vs 49.6 microg/l and 71.0 vs 78.8 microg/l, respectively), higher inorganic arsenic (iAs) in serum (5.2 vs 3.4 microg/l, PiAs in serum and urine (20.2) vs 16.9% and 18.3 vs 14.5%, respectively, PiAs and its inhibition to be biotransformed to DMA occurred in human due to chronic exposure of low selenium status.

  14. Report on Security 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The 1982 trade fair Security 82 presented a variety of equipment and systems for protection and security in general. Apart from physical protection devices to prevent theft, a great number of fire protection devices, transmitting apparatus, locator systems, metal detectors, protective devices against signal interception, and complete alarm systems were exhibited and explained. By means of specifications and brief descriptions, sometimes with figures, predominantly passive and active infrared sensors, light and microwave sensors, ultrasound and microwave Doppler effect devices for indoor and outdoor physical protection, as well as other alarm systems and fire alarm systems or entry control systems are presented in this report. Design and functioning mode of the equipment presented are illustrated by explaining the fields of employment. (orig.) [de

  15. Biomarkers of Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Yan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanism of selenium growth inhibition in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells Selenium retarded cell cycle progression at multiple transition points...

  16. A Study of Selenium in Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Partogi

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Selenium serum levels of patients with PB leprosy are higher than patients with MB leprosy, and high bacteriological index in patients with leprosy were correlated with low selenium serum levels.

  17. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  18. 21 CFR 573.920 - Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section, or as selenium yeast, as provided in paragraph (h) of this section. (c) It is added to feed as... months.” (h) Selenium yeast is a dried, non-viable yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultivated in a fed-batch fermentation which provides incremental amounts of cane molasses and selenium salts in a manner...

  19. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  20. Dietary habits and selenium intake of residents in mountain and coastal communities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Sasada, Yoko; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2004-10-01

    We used a Simple Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ) in combination with other dietary approaches to estimate the selenium intake from different food groups based on the average long-term diet, in two rural communities in Japan, one in a mountain area and the other in a coastal area. The intake frequencies of rice and wheat products were significantly different in the two districts. The intake frequencies of fish, meat, and eggs, which are rich in selenium, were not significantly different. The mean dietary selenium intake, estimated from the SFFQ and the 24-h recall method, was 82.7 microg/d (n=234) (range 19.2-180.1 microg/d) in the mountain community. The mean dietary selenium intake estimated from the SFFQ and average value of the normal portion size was 118.0 microg/d (n=123) (range 22.6-255.3 microg/d) in the coastal community. These estimated mean values exceeded the Japanese RDA, although the range of daily selenium intake was large. In the mountain community, fish made the largest contribution to dietary selenium intake (48.2% of daily total), followed by eggs (24.3%), and meat (17.0%). In the coastal community, fish accounted for 57.7% of daily total selenium intake, followed by meat (17.5%), and eggs (16.1%). In both districts, the total contribution of rice and wheat products was around 10%. It was found that the contribution of fish to dietary selenium intake was high and the contribution of cereals was low among Japanese.

  1. Joint refinery selenium treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, C.L.; Folwarkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board recently established mass limits on discharges of selenium to the San Francisco Bay from several petroleum refineries. The refineries had been working independently to develop control strategies, including both source control and treatment options, for removal of selenium from their discharges. By January 1992, over fifty different combinations of treatment technologies, wastewater streams, and pretreatment steps had been investigated to determine their effectiveness and feasibility as selenium removal processes. No treatment process studied could achieve the required mass limits without serious negative environmental consequences, such as generation of large amounts of hazardous sludge. To better facilitate the development of a feasible selenium treatment process, the six Bay Area refineries shared results of their studies and identified several technologies that, with further work, could be developed further. This additional work is currently being carried out as part of a joint selenium treatability study sponsored by the Western States Petroleum Association. A review of the previous source control and treatment studies, along with a description of the current treatability studies will be discussed

  2. Selenium and tellurium nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Presentato, Alessandro; Zonaro, Emanuele; Lampis, Silvia; Vallini, Giovanni; Turner, Raymond J.

    2018-04-01

    Over the last 40 years, the rapid and exponential growth of nanotechnology led to the development of various synthesis methodologies to generate nanomaterials different in size, shape and composition to be applied in various fields. In particular, nanostructures composed of Selenium (Se) or Tellurium (Te) have attracted increasing interest, due to their intermediate nature between metallic and non-metallic elements, being defined as metalloids. Indeed, this key shared feature of Se and Te allows us the use of their compounds in a variety of applications fields, such as for manufacturing photocells, photographic exposure meters, piezoelectric devices, and thermoelectric materials, to name a few. Considering also that the chemical-physical properties of elements result to be much more emphasized when they are assembled at the nanoscale range, huge efforts have been made to develop highly effective synthesis methods to generate Se- or Te-nanomaterials. In this context, the present book chapter will explore the most used chemical and/or physical methods exploited to generate different morphologies of metalloid-nanostructures, focusing also the attention on the major advantages, drawbacks as well as the safety related to these synthetic procedures.

  3. The relationship between selenium and gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Kuixiong; Ma Guansheng; Zhang Tingyu; Cheng Wufeng; Mao Dajuan; Pan Bixia; Xu Xiuxian

    1993-01-01

    Both sodium selenite and selenium yeast were chosen to block the MNNG mutagenesis. The inhibition rates were 66.5% and 37.9% respectively. The selenium levels in hair, serum and gastric juice, and the contents of nitrosamine in gastric juice were also determined. The results showed that the selenium levels were SG > CAG and Dys > GC (p CAG, Dyas and GC (p < 0.05). 19 cases of CAG patients treated with selenium yeast and 16 cases of the control were observed. After 10 weeks, the selenium levels in serum for the treated group were significantly increased. The symptoms of CAG patients seemed to be alleviated

  4. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  5. Effect of selenium on its content in milk and performance of dairy cows in ecological farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the ecological farming is increasingly spread in the European Union. The aim of this relatively young farming method is a friendly approach to agricultural production with an emphasis to deliver healthy raw materials and food to final consumer. Selenium is included in an essential trace micronutrients which are necessary for the proper process of physiological reactions. It is a part of glutathione peroxidase, which is a powerful antioxidant. At present,  selenium-deficiency can occur in feed and food in central Europe. Selenium deficiency is one cause of the higher occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the experiment was to study whether the addition of selenium to the diet of dairy cows in ecological farming can increase its concentration in milk and affect quantitative (milk yield and quality (content of protein, fat, lactose, somatic cells and urea milk indicators. The experiment included twenty cows of Holstein breed. The first experimental group of cows (n = 10 was fed with selenium in an amount of 0.3 mg.kg-1 (as selenomethionine in the feed dose. The control group (n = 10 was not fed with the increased selenium in the feed dose. The basic feed dose contained 0.17 mg of Se/kg in the diet. For dairy cows, daily intake was of 20.5 kg of dry matter feed. The duration of the experiment was set at 45 days. The selenium concentration in milk was measured from 0.13 to 0.15 µg.mL-1 in the experimental group of cows during the evaluation. The control group of cows without the addition of selenium to the diet showed a selenium concentration below the detection limit. During the experiment, milk yield, lactose, fat and protein were not affected. A significant decrease (p <0.05 of somatic cells by 58% occurred in milk in the experimental group. The amount of urea was significantly lower in both groups in the experimental (by 52%; p <0.05 and control (50%; p <0.05. These results show that the addition of selenium may increase

  6. Cross sections of photoneutron reactions on /sup 64/,/sup 66/,/sup 68/n, /sup 70/,/sup 72/,/sup 74/,/sup 76/Ge, /sup 76/,/sup 78/,/sup 80/,/sup 82/Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, A M; Zalesnyi, G N [Saratovskii Gosudarstvennyi Univ. (USSR); Tulupov, B A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanii

    1975-01-01

    Photoneutron cross-sections for /sup 64/,/sup 66/,/sup 68/Zn, /sup 70/,/sup 72/,/sup 74/,/sup 76/Ge, and /sup 76/,/sup 78/,/sup 80/,/sup 82/Se nuclei from the threshold energy to 24 MeV with 0.2 MeV step have been measured. Results of the experiment are compared to predictions of the collective dynamical model of a giant resonance.

  7. Nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Karunasinghe, Nishi

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its' levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health, and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics, and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimizing the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design, and innovative approaches to data analysis.

  8. Nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette Robiin Ferguson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimising the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design and innovative approaches to data analysis.

  9. Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, K; Richardson, M; Blythe, G; Wallschlaeger, D; Chu, P; Dene, C

    2012-02-29

    rapidly than it sorbs to ferric solids. Though it was not possible to demonstrate a decrease in selenium concentrations to levels below the project'ale testing were evident at the pilot scale. Specifically, reducing oxidation air rate and ORP tends to either retain selenium as selenite in the liquor or shift selenium phase partitioning to the solid phase. Oxidation air flow rate control may be one option for managing selenium behavior in FGD scrubbers. Units that cycle load widely may find it more difficult to impact ORP conditions with oxidation air flow rate control alone. Because decreasing oxidation air rates to the reaction tank showed that all new selenium reported to the solids, the addition of ferric chloride to the pilot scrubber could not show further improvements in selenium behavior. Ferric chloride addition did shift mercury to the slurry solids, specifically to the fine particles. Several competing pathways may govern the reporting of selenium to the slurry solids: co-precipitation with gypsum into the bulk solids and sorption or co-precipitation with iron into the fine particles. Simultaneous measurement of selenium and mercury behavior suggests a holistic management strategy is best to optimize the fate of both of these elements in FGD waters. Work conducted under this project evaluated sample handling and analytical methods for selenium speciation in FGD waters. Three analytical techniques and several preservation methods were employed. Measurements of selenium speciation over time indicated that for accurate selenium speciation, it is best to conduct measurements on unpreserved, filtered samples as soon after sampling as possible. The capital and operating costs for two selenium management strategies were considered: ferric chloride addition and oxidation air flow rate control. For ferric chloride addition, as might be expected the reagent makeup costs dominate the overall costs, and range from 0.22 to 0.29 mills/kWh. For oxidation air flow rate

  10. Fracture Phenomena in Amorphous Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard-Andersen, Asger; Dahle, Birgit

    1966-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of amorphous selenium broken in flexure at room temperature have been studied. The fracture velocity was found to vary in different regions of the fracture surface. Peculiar features were observed in a transition zone between fast and slower fracture. In this zone cleavage steps...

  11. Transcriptome profiling reveals the immune response of goose T cells under selenium stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Li, Wanyan; Li, Bingxin; Tian, Yunbo; Xu, Danning

    2017-12-01

    The goose is an economically important poultry species and a principal natural host of avian viruses. This study aimed to determine the effects of selenium on the immune response of geese. Under selenium stimulation, gene expression profiling was investigated using transcriptome sequencing. The selenoproteins were promoted by selenium stimulation, while the heat shock proteins, interleukin and interferons were mainly down-regulated. After comparison, 2228 differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in immune and environmental response, and infectious disease and genetic information processing related pathways were identified. Specifically, the enzymes of the lysosomes which acted as a safeguard in preventing pathogens were mostly up-regulated and six randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the most proportional increased transcription factor family basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) located in the 5' flank of selenoprotein P-like protein for selenium metabolism was identified by response to the selenium stimulation in this study. These analyses show that selenium can promote immune function by activating selenoproteins, transcript factors and lysosome pathway related genes, while weakening cytokine content genes in geese. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY BASIL PLANTS (OCINUM BASILICUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium accumulation level in basil plants is investigated. A direct correlation between selenium concentration and essential oil content is demonstrated for basil and other aroma plants. No correlation is found between selenium and flavonoids.

  13. Chemical Form of Selenium in Naturally Selenium-Rich Lentils (Lens Culinaris L.) From Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thavarajah, D.; Vandenberg, A.; George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-06-04

    Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) are a source of many essential dietary components and trace elements for human health. In this study we show that lentils grown in the Canadian prairies are additionally enriched in selenium, an essential micronutrient needed for general well-being, including a healthy immune system and protection against cancer. Selenium K near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the selenium biochemistry of two lentil cultivars grown in various locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. We observe significant variations in total selenium concentration with geographic location and cultivar; however, almost all the selenium (86--95%) in these field-grown lentils is present as organic selenium modeled as selenomethionine with a small component (5--14%) as selenate. As the toxicities of certain forms of arsenic and selenium are antagonistic, selenium-rich lentils may have a pivotal role to play in alleviating the chronic arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

  14. Selenopeptides and elemental selenium in Thunbergia alata after exposure to selenite: quantification method for elemental selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aborode, Fatai Adigun; Raab, Andrea; Foster, Simon; Lombi, Enzo; Maher, William; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    Three month old Thunbergia alata were exposed for 13 days to 10 μM selenite to determine the biotransformation of selenite in their roots. Selenium in formic acid extracts (80 ± 3%) was present as selenopeptides with Se-S bonds and selenium-PC complexes (selenocysteinyl-2-3-dihydroxypropionyl-glutathione, seleno-phytochelatin2, seleno-di-glutathione). An analytical method using HPLC-ICPMS to detect and quantify elemental selenium in roots of T. alata plants using sodium sulfite to quantitatively transform elemental selenium to selenosulfate was also developed. Elemental selenium was determined as 18 ± 4% of the total selenium in the roots which was equivalent to the selenium not extracted using formic acid extraction. The results are in an agreement with the XAS measurements of the exposed roots which showed no occurrence of selenite or selenate but a mixture of selenocysteine and elemental selenium.

  15. The selenium isotopic variations in chondrites are mass-dependent; Implications for sulfide formation in the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, J.; König, S.; Kurzawa, T.; Yierpan, A.; Schoenberg, R.

    2018-01-01

    Element transfer from the solar nebular gas to solids occurred either through direct condensation or via heterogeneous reactions between gaseous molecules and previously condensed solid matter. The precursors of altered sulfides observed in chondrites are for example attributed to reactions between gaseous hydrogen sulfide and metallic iron grains. The transfer of selenium to solids likely occurred through a similar pathway, allowing the formation of iron selenides concomitantly with sulfides. The formation rate of sulfide however remains difficult to assess. Here we investigate whether the Se isotopic composition of meteorites contributes to constrain sulfide formation during condensation stages of our solar system. We present high precision Se concentration and δ 82 / 78 Se data for 23 chondrites as well as the first δ 74 / 78 Se , δ 76 / 78 Se and δ 77 / 78 Se data for a sub-set of seven chondrites. We combine our dataset with previously published sulfur isotopic data and discuss aspects of sulfide formation for various types of chondrites. Our Se concentration data are within uncertainty to literature values and are consistent with sulfides being the dominant selenium host in chondrites. Our overall average δ 82 / 78 Se value for chondrites is - 0.21 ± 0.43 ‰ (n = 23, 2 s.d.), or - 0.14 ± 0.21 ‰ after exclusion of three weathered chondrites (n = 20, 2 s.d.). These average values are within uncertainty indistinguishable from a previously published estimate. For the first time however, we resolve distinct δ 82 / 78 Se between ordinary (- 0.14 ± 0.07 ‰, n = 9, 2 s.d.), enstatite (- 0.27 ± 0.05 ‰, n = 3, 2 s.d.) and CI carbonaceous chondrites (- 0.01 ± 0.06 ‰, n = 2, 2 s.d.). We also resolve a Se isotopic variability among CM carbonaceous chondrites. In addition, we report on δ 74 / 78 Se , δ 76 / 78 Se and δ 77 / 78 Se values determined for 7 chondrites. Our data allow evaluating the mass dependency of the δ 82 / 78 Se variations. Mass

  16. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon‐Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid‐June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  17. Determination of Selenium and Nickel in Asphaltite from Milli (Sirnak) Deposit in SE Anatolia of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Isil; Fidan, Celal; Kavak, Orhan; Erek, Figen; Aydin, Firat

    2017-12-01

    Asphaltite is one of the naturally occurring black, solid bitumen’s, which are soluble at heating in carbon disulphide band fuse. Asphaltite is also a solidified hydro carbon compound derived from petroleum [1]. According to the World Energy Council, Turkish National Committee (1998), the total reserve of the asphaltic substances that are found in south eastern Turkey is about 82 million tons, with Silopi and Sirnak reserves to get her comprising the major part of the Asphaltite deposits. Selenium and Nickel are very important elements both environmental and health. Selenium plays an important role in the formation of the enzyme antioxidant effect in the cell. The need for Selenium increases in situations such as pregnancy, menopause, grow than development, air pollution. Nickel is used for preventing iron-poor blood, increasing iron absorption, and treating weak bones. In this study, asphaltites were taken from Milli vein from Sirnak deposit in SE Anatolia of Turkey. A total of 6.500.000 tons of Asphaltite reserves have been identified as asphaltites in Milli (Sirnak). The sample preparation method was developed in Asphaltite by spectroanalytical techniques, wet acid digestion. MW-AD followed by ICP-OES were used for the determination of Selenium and Nickel in Asphaltite. Proximate analysis of Asphaltite fly ash samples was made. It also, Selenium and Nickel element analysis in Asphaltite were made.

  18. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  19. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake....... DESIGN: The Danish PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with SElenium pilot study (DK-PRECISE) is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 491 males and females aged 60-74 years were randomized to 100 μg (n=124), 200 μg (n=122), or 300 μg (n=119) selenium-enriched yeast......=0.015), respectively, per 100 μg/day increase, with insignificant differences between 6 months and 5 years. No significant effects were found for FT3 and FT3:FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid subjects, selenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when compared...

  20. Chemical State of Radiobromine Formed by the Rb{sup 85}(n, {alpha}) Br{sup 82} Reaction; Etat Chimique Du Ra Diobrome Forme Par La Reaction {sup 85}Rb (n, {alpha}) {sup 82}Br; 0425 0418 041c 0418 0427 0415 0421 041a 041e 0415 0421 041e 0421 0422 041e 042f 041d 0418 0415 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0410 041a 0422 0418 0412 041d 041e 0413 041e 0411 0420 041e 041c 0410 , 041e 0411 0420 0410 0417 041e 0412 0410 041d 041d 041e 0413 041e 041f 0420 0418 0420 0415 0410 041a 0426 0418 0418 Rb{sup 85}(n, {alpha}) Br{sup 82}; Estado Quimico Del Radiobromo Formado Por La Reaccion {sup 85}Rb (n, {alpha}) {sup 82}Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlatkovic, M.; Kauiic, S. [' ' Ruder Boskovic' ' Institute, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1965-04-15

    A study has been made of the chemical distribution of radiobromine between its higher (BrO{sup -}{sub 3}) and lower (Br{sup -}, Br{sub 2}, BrO{sup -}) oxidation states produced by nuclear reaction Rb{sup 85}(n, {alpha}) Br{sup 82} in a number of rubidium inorganic solids. The samples of dried Rb{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Rb{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}, RbMnO{sub 4}, RbNO{sub 3}, Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and RblO{sub 3} were irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons by a (T + d) neutron generator. It appeared that in the case of Rb{sub 2}SO{sub 4} irradiated at room temperature or at -195 C approximately 8% of total Br{sup 82} activity was found in the bromate fraction, the rest following the bromide fraction. The room temperature irradiation of RbMnO{sub 4} and RbNO{sub 3} yielded about 1% of activity in the higher oxidation state of bromine and in the cases of Rb{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} , Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and RblO{sub 3} activity could be measured only in the bromide fraction. A small increase of the bromate activity was observed when neutron-irradiated Rb{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was heated up to 250 Degree-Sign C. At higher temperatures (up to 500 Degree-Sign C) the activity passed into the lower oxidation state. Theheating of the irradiated RbMnO{sub 4} and RbNO{sub 3} did not provoke any oxidation of bromine activity. While in the case of RbNO{sub 3} pre-irradiation {gamma}-dose of 22 Mrad had no influence upon the distribution of bromine recoils, the analysis of Rb{sub 2}SO{sub 4} pretreated with {gamma}-rays (55 Mrad) gave higher bromate activity compared with the samples that before neutron irradiation had only been dried at 150 Degree-Sign C. In conclusion the authors stress the significance of the chemical constitution of the target compound and non-isotopic media with regard to the distribution of highly energetic Br{sup 82} atoms and to their inability to anneal in the rubidium compounds investigated. (author) [French] Le memoire traite de la repartition, entre ses etats d

  1. Review on Nano SeleniumProduced by Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ji-xiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is a kind of essential trace element for people and animal, while ionic state of selenium is toxic with high concentrations and will cause the selenium pollution. Nano-selenium is stable, nontoxic with higher biological activity. Application of bacteria reducing selenite or selenate to biological nano-selenium has great potential in selenium pollution control and nano-selenium production. This review summarizes the research progress of the red elemental nano-selenium reduced by bacteria including characteristics and application of nano-selenium, effects of carbon and nitrogen source, oxygen, temperature and pH in bacteria nano-selenium production, and molecular mechanisms of nano-selenium reduced by bacteria.

  2. Shape coexistence in selenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Cao Zhongbin; Xu Furong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear shape change and shape coexistence in the Selenium isotopes have been investigated by Total-Routhian-Surface (TRS) calculations. It is found that nuclear shapes vary significantly with increasing neutron number. The TRS calculations for the ground states of 66,72,92,94 Se isotopes show that both neutron-deficient and neutron-dripline Selenium isotopes have oblate and prolate shape coexistence. The cranking shell-model calculations for 72,94 Se give that prolate and oblate shape coexistence in low rotational frequency. However, oblate rotational bands disappear and prolate rotational bands become yrast bands with increasing rotational frequency, which is due to the intrusion of the g 9/2 orbitals. (authors)

  3. Effects of normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Won

    2013-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, and controlled study examined the effects of normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats. The study comprised two control groups (untreated and saline-treated) and three experimental groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups received an instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) only, LPS+normal saline (LPS/saline), or LPS+selenium-enriched hot spring water (LPS/selenium). Histopathological changes were identified using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Leakage of exudate was identified using fluorescence microscopy. Microvascular permeability was measured using the Evans blue dye technique. Expression of the Muc5ac gene was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mucosal edema and expression of the Muc5ac gene were significantly lower in the LPS/saline group than in the LPS group. Microvascular permeability, mucosal edema, and expression of the Muc5ac gene were significantly lower in the LPS/selenium group than in the LPS group. Mucosal edema was similar in the LPS/selenium group and LPS/saline group, but capillary permeability and Muc5ac expression were lower in the LPS/selenium group. This study shows that normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water reduce inflammatory activity and mucus hypersecretion in LPS-induced rhinosinusitis in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selenium determination by fluorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavorenti, A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluorimetric method to determine selenium both in vegetable samples and blood serum is developed. The method consists of a radioisotope 75 Se initially in order to optimize the determination of analytical conditions. Three samples digestion processes and also some factors related to methodology is studied. The nitric-percloric digestion process for 40 samples and the analytical process is shown. (M.J.C.) [pt

  5. High-spin states in 82Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Halper, M.L.; Garcia Bermudez, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    As recent theoretical calculations that predicted the onset of superdeformation in the A ≅ 80 region, the 52 Cr( 34 S,2p2n) reaction at 130 MeV beam energy was employed to populate the high-spin states in 82 Sr. The detection system consisted of the ORNL Compton-Suppression Spectrometer System (18 Ge detectors), the Spin Spectrometer, and the 4 φ CsI Dwarf Ball of Washington University. Off-line analysis of the proton-gated data resulted in nearly 170 million Ge-Ge pairs, which were mostly due to the 2p2n channel. A decay scheme extending to spin I=27h has been established. No strong evidence for the presence of superdeformed states in 82 Sr was found in a preliminary analysis of the data. (Author) [es

  6. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  7. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Puccinelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  8. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-03-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na2SeO3 as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant ( K m) values and maximal reaction velocity ( V max) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  9. Annual report 1981-82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and teaching programmes of the Universities Research Reactor, Risley, U.K. are reviewed giving outlines of the individual experiments undertaken during 1981-82 and the reactor operation and safety arrangements. (U.K.)

  10. Pre-Antiretroviral Therapy Serum Selenium Concentrations Predict WHO Stages 3, 4 or Death but not Virologic Failure Post-Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Shivakoti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A case-cohort study, within a multi-country trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART efficacy (Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource Limited Settings (PEARLS, was conducted to determine if pre-ART serum selenium deficiency is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression after ART initiation. Cases were HIV-1 infected adults with either clinical failure (incident World Health Organization (WHO stage 3, 4 or death by 96 weeks or virologic failure by 24 months. Risk factors for serum selenium deficiency (<85 μg/L pre-ART and its association with outcomes were examined. Median serum selenium concentration was 82.04 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR: 57.28–99.89 and serum selenium deficiency was 53%, varying widely by country from 0% to 100%. In multivariable models, risk factors for serum selenium deficiency were country, previous tuberculosis, anemia, and elevated C-reactive protein. Serum selenium deficiency was not associated with either clinical failure or virologic failure in multivariable models. However, relative to people in the third quartile (74.86–95.10 μg/L of serum selenium, we observed increased hazards (adjusted hazards ratio (HR: 3.50; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.30–9.42 of clinical failure but not virologic failure for people in the highest quartile. If future studies confirm this relationship of high serum selenium with increased clinical failure, a cautious approach to selenium supplementation might be needed, especially in HIV-infected populations with sufficient or unknown levels of selenium.

  11. Understanding selenium biogeochemistry in engineered ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Rohan; Hullebusch, Van Eric D.; Lenz, Markus; Farges, François

    2017-01-01

    Selenium is used extensively in many industries, and it is necessary for human nutrition. On the other hand, it is also toxic at slightly elevated concentrations. With the advent of industrialisation, selenium concentrations in the environment due to anthropogenic activities have increased.

  12. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  13. Learning selenium testing tools with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Gundecha, Unmesh

    2014-01-01

    If you are a quality testing professional, or a software or web application developer looking to create automation test scripts for your web applications, with an interest in Python, then this is the perfect guide for you. Python developers who need to do Selenium testing need not learn Java, as they can directly use Selenium for testing with this book.

  14. Advanced prostate cancer risk in relation to toenail selenium levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium may prevent advanced prostate cancer (PCa), but most studies on this topic were conducted in populations with moderate to high selenium status. We investigated the association of toenail selenium, reflecting long-term selenium exposure, and advanced PCa risk in a population from

  15. The correlation between selenium adsorption and the mineral and chemical composition of Taiwan local granite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, TsingHai; Chiang, Chu-Ling; Wang, Chu-Fang [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences

    2015-07-01

    are able to underlie cation exchange reaction would not be the minerals regulating the transport of selenium nuclides. Further, a relative high correlation coefficient (R-square 0.137) between the variation of pH before and after selenium adsorption and iron oxide content implies that surface complexation reaction is much likely accounting for selenium adsorption. Future works would be particularly focusing on the outlet data interpretation (i.e., high iron oxide content but low Kd value and vice versa) as well as the form/phase regarding the origin of these iron oxide contents.

  16. Excitation functions and yields of proton induced reactions at intermediate energies leading to important diagnostics radioisotopes of {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 127}Xe, {sup 128}Cs, {sup 178}Ta and {sup 201}Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rurarz, E. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes investigations of the excitation functions of the proton induced reactions on 14 targets (Mn, Co, Br, Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 113}Cd, {sup 114}Cd, Cd, I, Cs, Ta, {sup 206,207,208}Pb) leading directly or indirectly to the formation of radionuclides {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 127}Xe, {sup 128}Cs, {sup 178}Ta and {sup 201}Tl frequently used in diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. The measurements of the excitation functions were made over a wide proton energy range from the reaction threshold up to 100 MeV using the stacked foil (or pellet) technique. Small energy steps were used to allow for accurate determination of the structure of excitation functions. For {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In and {sup 127}Xe formation with protons, new reaction channels and targets were used and data concerning this method are published for the first time. The data for {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 123}I, {sup 128}Cs and {sup 201}Tl obtained in the present work for the E{sub p}=70-100 MeV region are also published for the first time. The measured excitation functions for the formation of desired (and undesired) radionuclides (altogether 28 excitation functions) are compared with the theoretical ones calculated on the basis of a hybrid model of nuclear reactions in the form of the Overlaid Alice computer code. In order to determine the contribution of the competitive reaction channels to the purity of the produced, desired radionuclide, the excitation functions of the accompanying reactions were also calculated. The 122 calculated excitation functions for the possible contaminant are given. The comparison of experimental excitation functions with the results of model calculations showed satisfactory agreement; no parameter adjustment for individual reaction products was undertaken. Production yields for 28 radionuclides mentioned above were determined (author). 262 refs, 65 figs, 34 tabs.

  17. Dietary supply of selenium for adolescents in three residential care orphanages in Southern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adotey, Dennis K.; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Serfor-Armah, Yaw; Nyarko, Benjamin J.B.; Jaćimović, Radojko

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents require optimum dietary supply of the essential trace mineral selenium (Se); however the absence of reliable and accurate data on the dietary supply of selenium for the adolescent population in Ghanaian residential care orphanages have made it difficult for public health nutritionists to assess the adequacy of the dietary supply. The dietary supply of selenium for adolescents (12–15 years) in three residential care orphanages, (Osu, Tutu-Akwapim and Teshie), in Southern Ghana have been evaluated by sampling their 24-h duplicate diets (including water) for 7-consecutive days using the duplicate diet sampling technique. The mass fraction of selenium in the blended lyophilized homogenates of duplicate diets was determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). The validity of the RNAA method for selenium determination was checked by analyses of NIST SRM 1548a (Typical diet). The chemical yield of the radiochemical separation was determined by spectrophotometry. The average mass fractions of selenium in the blended lyophilized 24-hour duplicate diets for Osu, Tutu-Akwapim and Teshie were; 165 ± 61 [117.2–285.2], 203 ± 68 [110.5–304.9] and 250 ± 92 [128.8–408.0] ng Se g −1 lyophilized matter respectively. The average dietary supply of Se were, 57.6 ± 17.3 [42.2–88.4], 82.0 ± 30.7 [44.3–136.2] and 91.7 ± 44.2 [46.0–153.4] μg Se day −1 for Osu, Tutu-Akwapim and Teshie orphanages respectively. The data generated will help public health nutritionists in the provision of dietary advice and nutritional support for the studied orphanages, as well as other orphanages. The data will also help in the planning of institutional diets.

  18. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, Edda Y; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorlacius, Arngrimur; Reykdal, Olafur; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Thorsdottir, Inga; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16-20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90-208); nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P=0.002 and r=0.22; P=0.04, respectively) while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  19. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  20. Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Röse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt(I-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers.

  1. Dietary selenium in the Glasgow area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.D.; Raie, R.M.; Smith, H.

    1978-01-01

    A typical diet for people in the Glasgow area is analysed and an estimate is made of the daily intake of selenium for the average person (234 μg). Meat, poultry and bread products contribute 65% of the total selenium consumed. There is a significant loss of selenium on cooking but the concentration in the diet is high compared with the estimated requirement. Selenium levels in prepared infant foods, artificial milk and natural milk are reported. Those infants on artificial milk feeds have a selenium intake equivalent to that of adults (3 μg/kg) while those on natural milk or prepared infant foods have an intake of 6 μg/kg. Adult and infant tissue selenium levels are established and are shown to be in equilibrium with the diet. There is no concentration in man as a result of his position at the top of the food chain. Sudden infant death cannot be related to selenium levels in human tissue or diet. (author)

  2. In Situ Immobilization of Selenium in Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stewart, Thomas Austin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This project focused on the use of a sorbent, carbonated apatite, to immobilize selenium in the environment. It is know that apatite will sorb selenium and based on the mechanism of sorption it is theorized that carbonated apatite will be more effective that pure apatite. Immobilization of selenium in the environment is through the use of a sorbent in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A PRB can be constructed by trenching and backfill with the sorbent or in the case of apatite as the sorbent formed in situ using the apatite forming solution of Moore (2003, 2004). There is very little data on selenium sorption by carbonated apatite in the literature. Therefore, in this work, the basic sorptive properties of carbonated apatite were investigated. Carbonated apatite was synthesized by a precipitation method and characterized. Batch selenium kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed. The results indicate the carbonated apatite contained 9.4% carbonate and uptake of selenium as selenite was rapid; 5 hours for complete uptake of selenium vs. more than 100 hours for pure hydroxyapatite reported in the literature. Additionally, the carbonated apatite exhibited significantly higher distribution coefficients in equilibrium experiments than pure apatite under similar experimental conditions. The next phase of this work will be to seek additional funds to continue the research with the goal of eventually demonstrating the technology in a field application.

  3. Distribution and mode of occurrence of selenium in US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, L.; Bragg, L.J.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium excess and deficiency have been established as the cause of various health problems in man and animals. Combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal, may be a major source of the anthropogenic introduction of selenium in the environment. Coal is enriched in selenium relative to selenium's concentration in most other rocks and relative to selenium in the Earth's crust. Data from almost 9,000 coal samples have been used to determine the concentration and distribution of selenium in US coals. The geometric mean concentration of selenium in US coal is 1.7 ppm. The highest mean selenium value (geometric mean 4.7 ppm) is in the Texas Region. Atlantic Coast (Virginia and North Carolina) and Alaska coals have the lowest geometric means (0.2 and 0.42 ppm, respectively). All western coal regions have mean selenium concentrations of less than 2.0 ppm. In contrast, all coal basins east of the Rocky Mountains (except for several small basins in Rhode Island, Virginia, and North Carolina) have mean selenium values of 1.9 or greater. Generally, variations in selenium concentration do not correlate with variations in ash yield, pyritic sulphur, or organic sulphur concentrations. This may be the result of multiple sources of selenium; however, in some non-marine basins with restricted sources of selenium, selenium has positive correlations with other coal quality parameters. Selenium occurs in several forms in coal but appears to be chiefly associated with the organic fraction, probably substituting for organic sulphur. Other important forms of selenium in coal are selenium-bearing pyrite, selenium-bearing galena, and lead selenide (clausthalite). Water-soluble and ion-exchangeable selenium also have been reported. ?? 1993 Copyright Science and Technology Letters.

  4. Distribution and reuse of 76Se-selenosugar in selenium-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Somekawa, Layla; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional selenium compounds are transformed to the common intermediate selenide and then utilized for selenoprotein synthesis or excreted in urine mostly as 1β-methylseleno-N-acetyl-DD-galactosamine (selenosugar). Since the biological significance of selenosugar formation is unknown, we investigated their role in the formation of selenoenzymes in selenium deficiency. Rats were depleted of endogenous natural abundance selenium with a single stable isotope ( 82 Se) and then made Se-deficient. 76 Se-Selenosugar was administered intravenously to the rats and their urine, serum, liver, kidneys and testes were subjected to speciation analysis with HPLC inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry. Most 76 Se was recovered in its intact form (approximately 80% of dose) in urine within 1 h. Speciation analysis revealed that residual endogenous natural abundance selenium estimated by 77 Se and 78 Se was negligible and distinct distributions of the labeled 76 Se were detected in the body fluids and organs without interference from the endogenous natural abundance stable isotope. Namely, intact 76 Se-selenosugar was distributed to organs after the injection, and 76 Se was used for selenoprotein synthesis. Oxidation to methylseleninic acid and/or hydrolysis of the selenoacetal group to methylselenol were proposed to the transformation of selenosugar for the reuse. Effective use of an enriched stable isotope as an absolute label in hosts depleted of natural abundance isotopes was discussed for application in tracer experiments

  5. Protective effect of selenium on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity: A double-blind controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ali; Omidvar, Bita; Parsi, Abazar

    2013-04-01

    Renal injury is common following cisplatin infusion. Some agents have been used to attenuate cisplatin nephrotoxicity. However, except hydration, none of them has been proved to be effective. In this study selenium as an antioxidant supplement was tested on cisplatin induced renal injury. 122 cancerous patients (85 male and 37 female; age range of 14 to 82 years old) were enrolled to receive chemotherapy regimens consisting cisplatin. They were allocated into two groups using a random number list . Investigators, patients and analyzers all, were blinded in allocation by using sealed opaque envelopes. Intervention group received a single 400 mcg selenium tablet and patients in control group took a placebo tablet which was similar with selenium preparation in color, weight, shape and taste. Primary end points were an increase in plasma creatinine above 1.5 mg/dl in men and 1.4mg/dl in women, or increase of plasma creatinine more than 50% from baseline or urine flow rate less than 0.5 ml/kg/h. Creatinine level was measured initially and on the 5th day after cisplatin therapy. There was no difference in cumulative dose of cisplatin between the groups (p=0.54). There were not evidences of acute renal failure (ARF) in cases. While, among placebo group, 7 patients had criteria of acute kidney injury. Conclusions :selenium could probably prevent cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, when it is added to hydration therapy in cancerous patients.

  6. Selenium supplementation for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Albusta, Amira Y; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Pijl, Hanno

    2013-06-06

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common auto-immune disorder. The most common presenting symptoms may include anxiety, negative mood, depression, dry skin, cold intolerance, puffy eyes, muscle cramps and fatigue, deep voice, constipation, slow thinking and poor memory. Clinical manifestations of the disease are defined primarily by low levels of thyroid hormones; therefore it is treated by hormone replacement therapy, which usually consists of levothyroxine (LT4). Selenium might reduce antibody levels and result in a decreased dosage of LT4 and may provide other beneficial effects (e.g. on mood and health-related quality of life). To assess the effects of selenium supplementation on Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We searched the following databases up to 2 October 2012: CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science; we also screened reference lists of included studies and searched several online trial registries for ongoing trials (5 November 2012). Randomised controlled clinical trials that assessed the effects of selenium supplementation for adults diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and analyses were carried out by two independent review authors. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADE. We were unable to conduct a meta-analysis because clinical heterogeneity between interventions that were investigated is substantial. Four studies at unclear to high risk of bias comprising 463 participants were included. The mean study duration was 7.5 months (range 3 to 18 months). One of our primary outcomes-'change from baseline in health related quality of life'-and two of our secondary outcomes-'change from baseline in LT4 replacement dosage at end of the study' and 'economic costs'-were not assessed in any of the studies. One study at high risk of bias showed statistically significant improvement in subjective well-being with sodium

  7. Recent trends in selenium regulation and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolewski, A.

    2010-01-01

    Selenium is a contaminant encountered at uranium mines. When discharged into water, it can build up in the food chain and become toxic to egg-laying fish and shorebirds. This presentation reviews recent developments in its regulation, management and treatment. Selenium will soon be regulated on the basis of its concentration in fish or bird eggs, not its dissolved concentrations, which challenges managers trying to establish acceptable discharge limits. Information supporting this change will be discussed. Recent developments to manage and treat selenium will also be reviewed, emphasizing new chemical and biological treatment processes applicable at uranium mines and mill sites. (author)

  8. Selenium content of foods purchased or produced in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, J T; Kinsey, D; Palmquist, D L; DeLany, J P; Vivian, V M; Moxon, A L

    1987-06-01

    Approximately 450 samples of about 100 types of foods consumed by rural and urban Ohioans were analyzed for selenium. Meat, dairy products, eggs, and grain products produced in Ohio have considerably lower selenium content than corresponding products produced in high selenium areas, such as South Dakota. Retail Ohio foods with interregional distribution tended to be higher in selenium content than corresponding foods produced in Ohio. Best sources of selenium in Ohio foods commonly consumed were meat and pasta products. Poor sources of selenium were fruits, most vegetables, candies, sweeteners, and alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Establishment of an accurate data base for selenium depends on knowledge of the interregional distribution of foods, the selenium content of foods at their production site, and the selenium content of foods with wide local distribution.

  9. Polymer supported synthesis of unsymmetrical n.c.a. selenium-73/75 ethers for the labelling of amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaljohann, J.

    1995-09-01

    The synthesis of n.c.a. selenium-73/75 labelled methionine and of a selenoalkylation agent have been performed according to a reaction including a primary, polymer supported alkylation step. The selenium-75 was produced through the 75 As(p, n)-process and separated as [ 75 Se]selenium dioxide by thermochromatography. The [ 75 Se]SeO 2 -sublimate was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and reduced with sulfur dioxide to obtain elemental n.c.a. selenium-75, which was extracted into benzene. Reaction of the elemental n.c.a. selenium-75 with polymeric bound triphenylphosphine led to the formation of the corresponding [ 75 Se]triphenylphosphinselenide in a nearly quantitative yield. The asymmetrical [ 75 Se]selenoethers were synthesized in homogeneous phase through the reaction of the [ 75 Se]MeSe - with propylhalides in radiochemical yields up of to 55%. A selenium-75 labelled prosthetic group was synthesized in radiochemical yields of 48% by the reaction of 1-chloro-3-iodopropane with the [ 75 ]selenation reagent [ 75 Se]MeSe - . For labelling amino functions via [ 75 Se]selenoalkylation the [ 75 Se]selenated propyl chloride has to be transfered into the iodide with sodium iodide, which was performed in radiochemical yields of 90%. After the reaction of [ 75 Se]-1-iodo-3-(methylseleno)propane with butylamine or with N α -, O-protected lysine in DMF at 80 C the [ 75 Se]methylselenopropylated products were obtained in radiochemical yields of 95% and 90%, respectively. (orig./SR)

  10. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  11. Determination of low concentrations of iron, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and other trace elements in natural samples using an octopole collision/reaction cell equipped quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Angela R; Misra, Sambuddha; Landing, William M

    2015-04-30

    Accurate determination of trace metals has many applications in environmental and life sciences, such as constraining the cycling of essential micronutrients in biological production and employing trace metals as tracers for anthropogenic pollution. Analysis of elements such as Fe, As, Se, and Cd is challenged by the formation of polyatomic mass spectrometric interferences, which are overcome in this study. We utilized an Octopole Collision/Reaction Cell (CRC)-equipped Quadrupole-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer for the rapid analysis of small volume samples (~250 μL) in a variety of matrices containing HNO3 and/or HCl. Efficient elimination of polyatomic interferences was demonstrated by the use of the CRC in Reaction Mode (RM; H2 gas) and in Collision-Reaction Mode (CRM; H2 and He gas), in addition to hot plasma (RF power 1500 W) and cool plasma (600 W) conditions. It was found that cool plasma conditions with RM achieved the greatest signal sensitivity while maintaining low detection limits (i.e. (56) Fe in 0.44 M HNO3 has a sensitivity of 160,000 counts per second (cps)-per-1 µg L(-1) and a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.86 ng L(-1) ). The average external precision was ≤ ~10% for minor (≤10 µg L(-1) ) elements measured in a 1:100 dilution of NIST 1643e and for iron in rainwater samples under all instrumental operating conditions. An improved method has been demonstrated for the rapid multi-element analysis of trace metals that are challenged by polyatomic mass spectrometric interferences, with a focus on (56) Fe, (75) As, (78) Se and (111) Cd. This method can contribute to aqueous environmental geochemistry and chemical oceanography, as well as other fields such as forensic chemistry, agriculture, food chemistry, and pharmaceutical sciences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Selenium supplementation induces mitochondrial biogenesis in trophoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khera, A.; Dong, L. F.; Holland, O.; Vanderlelie, J.; Pasdar, E.A.; Neužil, Jiří; Perkins, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 8 (2015), s. 363-369 ISSN 0143-4004 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Selenium * Reactive oxygen species * Mitochondrial biogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.972, year: 2015

  13. Biofortification and phytoremediation of selenium in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification is an agricultural process that increases the uptake and accumulation of specific nutrients, e.g. selenium (Se), in agricultural food products through plant breeding, genetic engineering, and manipulation of agronomic practices. The development and uses of biofortified agricultural ...

  14. Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. L Barkat, A Boumendjel, C Abdennour, MS Boulakoud, A El Feki, M Messarah ...

  15. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace mineral essential to health and has an important role in immunity, defence against tissue damage and thyroid function. Improving selenium status could help protect against overwhelming tissue damage and infection in critically ill adults. This Cochrane review...... was originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...... supplementation and number of infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and length of hospital stay. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 5); MEDLINE (Ovid SP...

  16. Thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis in selenium-adequate mice displays rapid and persistent abnormity of hepatic selenoenzymes which are mute to selenium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsong; Wang Huali; Yu Hanqing

    2007-01-01

    Selenium reduction in cirrhosis is frequently reported. The known beneficial effect of selenium supplementation on cirrhosis is probably obtained from nutritionally selenium-deficient subjects. Whether selenium supplementation truly improves cirrhosis in general needs additional experimental investigation. Thioacetamide was used to induce cirrhosis in selenium-adequate and -deficient mice. Selenoenzyme activity and selenium content were measured and the influence of selenium supplementation was evaluated. In Se-adequate mice, thioacetamide-mediated rapid onset of hepatic oxidative stress resulted in an increase in thioredoxin reductase activity and a decrease in both glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content. The inverse activity of selenoenzymes (i.e. TrxR activity goes up and GPx activity goes down) was persistent and mute to selenium supplementation during the progress of cirrhosis; accordingly, cirrhosis was not improved by selenium supplementation in any period. On the other hand, selenium supplementation to selenium-deficient mice always more efficiently increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content compared with those treated with thioacetamide, indicating that thioacetamide impairs the liver bioavailability of selenium. Although thioacetamide profoundly affects hepatic selenium status in selenium-adequate mice, selenium supplementation does not modify the changes. Selenium supplementation to cirrhotic subjects with a background of nutritional selenium deficiency can improve selenium status but cannot restore hepatic glutathione peroxidase and selenium to normal levels

  17. Selenium nanoparticles: potential in cancer gene and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyo, Fiona; Singh, Moganavelli

    2017-05-01

    In recent decades, colloidal selenium nanoparticles have emerged as exceptional selenium species with reported chemopreventative and therapeutic properties. This has sparked widespread interest in their use as a carrier of therapeutic agents with results displaying synergistic effects of selenium with its therapeutic cargo and improved anticancer activity. Functionalization remains a critical step in selenium nanoparticles' development for application in gene or drug delivery. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the synthesis and functionalization strategies of selenium nanoparticles used in cancer drug and gene delivery systems. We also provide an update of recent preclinical studies utilizing selenium nanoparticles in cancer therapeutics.

  18. Is selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid diseases justified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian H.; Bonnema, Steen; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid...... diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies. The immunomodulatory effects of selenium might involve reducing...... proinflammatory cytokine release. However, clinically relevant effects of selenium supplementation, including improvement in quality of life, are more elusive. In Graves’ disease, some, but not all, trials indicate that adjuvant selenium supplementation enhances the restoration of biochemical euthyroidism...

  19. Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-12-06

    Methods and apparatus are described for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short. 2 figures.

  20. The role of selenium in predicting preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Ghaemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preeclampsia is a common disorder that is a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality; however its specific etiology has still remained obscure.The first step in preventing preeclampsia is early detection of women at risk. Since there is no valid and reliable screening test, appropriate diagnostic and screening tests are necessary, which are inexpensive, non-invasive and beneficial for pregnant women. Therefore, regarding the role of selenium as an antioxidant in the prevention preeclampsia, this study was designed which aimed to determine the prognostic value of plasma selenium levels in the diagnosis of preeclampsia in primigravida women Methods: In a nested case control design, a sample of 650 normal primigravida women of 24-28 weeks participated in the study. Subjects who involved the case group were followed up for 3 months and 38 were affected by preeclampsia. Blood samples were obtained from these 38patients as well as from 38 subjects as their matched controls. Moreover, the amount of selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean level of selenium in blood plasma of the cases was significantly lower than in their matched controls. The present study findings revealed that pregnant women with serum Se < 66.1 μg/L had a significantly increased risk of preeclampsia. Conclusion: Lower plasma selenium level in women destines to suffering from preeclampsia which confirms the destructive effect of selenium deficiency as an antioxidant in etiopathology of preeclampsia. Measurement of plasma selenium can improve the prediction of preeclampsia; thus, it seems that plasma selenium level test owns an acceptable sensitivity and specificity for predicting preeclampsia.

  1. Association Between Selenium and Malondialdehyde as an Efficient Biomarker of Oxidative Stress in Infantile Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ulbrecht, Marlice Oliveira; Gonçalves, Daniel Araujo; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia Garcia; do Nascimento, Valter Aragão

    2018-05-12

    The present work describes a method to quantify the level of oxidative stress in infantile cardiac surgery. Fifteen patients, 6 girls and 9 boys, aged between 3 months and 16 years were divided into three groups. The first group sought to quantify the oxidative stress from differing concentrations of selenium. The second group used malondialdehyde as an indicator of oxidative stress. Finally, the third group quantified oxidative stress by normalizing the selenium concentration via malondialdehyde. Blood aliquots of 1.50 ml, drawn from the radial artery, were collected and centrifuged for quantification of Se and MDA in plasma. The statistical method ANOVA was used with a 95% confidence interval to indicate significant statistical differences between the post- and pre-operative stage for each group. The concentrations of malondialdehyde were measured by using UV-Vis following the thiobarbituric acid reaction method. For quantification of selenium, the samples were submitted to assisted microwave digestion and measured by ICP OES. In the first two groups, it was not possible to affirm that selenium and malondialdehyde could be biomarkers of oxidative stress, so a statistic test (ANOVA) was performed. However, the selenium/malondialdehyde ratios in the pre-operative and post-operative stage were 2.10 ± 0.70 and 3.20 ± 0.40, respectively. The ANOVA test confirmed a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-operative stages with p value = 0.004. Here, the ratio of selenium concentration by malondialdehyde was confirmed to be an effective parameter for demonstration and quantification of oxidative stress activity at the post-operative stage.

  2. Determinants of selenium in the toenail biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.S.; Spate, V.L.; Ngwenyama, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of human nails as a measure of selenium intake and to assess selenium status in critical tissues is now being used routinely to investigate hypotheses relating selenium status to chronic disease, especially cancer. In this study we report on our observations of the major determinants of toenail selenium concentrations. Toenail specimens (3575) were, under a protocol we provided, self-collected by adult females (1940, 54.3%) and males (1635, 45.7%) living in 111 of Missouri's 114 counties. The health-conscious participants ranged in age from 18 to 94 years with means of 53.7±14.1 and 56.4±14.2 years for females and males, respectively. Selenium supplement use was over represented, 39.1% and 42.7%, and smoking was under represented, 7.5% and 7.8%, for females and males, respectively. The major determinants of toenail selenium concentration were supplement use, sex and cigarette smoking. We found no overall correlations with age, body mass index or diet selection. (author)

  3. Dietary Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Schomburg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Next year (2017, the micronutrient Selenium (Se is celebrating its birthday—i.e., 200 years after first being identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius. Despite its impressive age, research into the functions of this essential trace element is very alive and reaching out for new horizons. This special issue presents some recent fascinating, exciting, and promising developments in Se research in the form of eight original contributions and seven review articles. Collectively, aspects of Se supply, biochemical, physiological, and chemotherapeutic effects, and geobiological interactions are covered by leading scientists in the areas of nutritional, basic, and clinical research. It is obvious from the contributions that the bicentennial anniversary will celebrate a micronutrient still in its infancy with respect to being understood in terms of its biomedical importance.

  4. Selenium Se and tellurium Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for determining selenium and tellurium in various objects are presented. The bichromatometric determination of Te in cadmium, zinc and mercury tellurides is based on oxidation of Te(4) to (6) in H 2 SO 4 with potassium bichromate. In steels, Te is determined photometrically with the aid of KI. The determination is hindered by Fe(3), Cu(2), Bi(3) and Se(4) ions, which must be separated. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in native sulfur is carried out with the aid of 5-mercapto-3-(naphthyl-2)-1,3,4-thiadiazolthione-2 (pH=4.8-5.0). The dyed complex is readily extracted with chloroform and benzene. The spectrophotometric determination of Te in selenium is performed with the aid of 3,5-diphenylpyrazoline-1-dithiocarbamate of sodium. Te is determined in commercial indium, arsenic and their semiconductor compounds photometrically with the aid of copper diethyldithiocarbamate. The method permits determining 5x10 -5 % Te in a weighed amount of 0.5 g. The chloride complex of Te(4) with diantipyriodolpropylmethane is quantitatively extracted with dichloroethane from hydrochloric acid solutions. Thus, any amounts of Te can be separated from Se and determined photometrically. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in commercial lead and bismuth is carried out with the aid of pyrazolone derivatives, in commercial copper with the aid of diantipyridolpropylmethane, and in ores (more than 0.01% Te) with the aid of bismuthol 2. Also described is the extraction-polarographic determination of Te in sulfide ores

  5. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  6. Intracoronary use of rubidium-82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.V.; Ryan, J.W.; Al-Sadir, J.; Chua, K.G.; Resnekov, L.; Nierinckx, R.; Loberg, M.

    1985-01-01

    Rubidium-82 (75 sec) is well suited for myocardial localization studies performed by intracoronary injection in connection with coronary angiography. Rubidium ion is efficiently extracted from the blood so that blood background and radiation to other organs such as the kidneys are greatly reduced, as is the amount of activity required to make satisfactory images. Pilot studies in 15 patients have resulted in no complications. Feasibility has been demonstrated for pacing studies and for drug intervention with nitroglycerine. Uptake defects correlate well with vascular lesions

  7. PVP存在下液液界面生长法制备硒纳米线%Preparation of Selenium Nanowires by Liquid-liquid Interface Growth in the Presence of Polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜义; 张娟; 刘明珠; 朱俊杰; 陈洪渊

    2005-01-01

    Nanowires of trigonal selenium were synthesized in large-scale by two step processes: reaction in homogeneous solution and growth at liquid-liquid interface. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used as a soft template in the synthesis.

  8. Feasibility of measuring selenium in humans using in vivo neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, S N A; Chettle, D R; Byun, S H; Prestwich, W V

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is an element that, in trace quantities, plays an important role in the normal function of a number of biological processes in humans. Many studies have demonstrated that selenium deficiency in the body may contribute to an increased risk for certain neoplastic, cardiovascular, osseous, and nervous system diseases including retardation of bone formation. However, at higher concentrations Se is cytotoxic. For these reasons it is desirable to have a means of monitoring selenium concentration in humans.This paper presents the outcome of a feasibility study carried out for measuring selenium in humans using in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this technique a small dose of neutrons is delivered to the organ of interest, the neutrons are readily captured by the target nuclei, and the γ-rays given off are detected outside of the body. For the present study, human hand (bone) tissue equivalent phantoms were prepared with varying amounts of Se. These were irradiated by a low energy fast neutron beam produced by the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction employing the high beam current Tandetron accelerator. The counting data saved using a 4π NaI(TI) detection system were analyzed. The selenium was detected via the neutron capture reaction, (76)Se(n,γ)(77 m)Se, whereas calcium was detected through the (48)Ca(n,γ)(49)Ca reaction for the purpose of normalization of the Se signals to the calcium signals. From the calibration lines drawn between Se/Ca concentrations and Se/Ca counts ratio, the minimum detection limits (MDLs) were computed for two sets of phantoms irradiated under different irradiation parameters.In this study the optimized MDL value was determined to be 81 ng g(-1) (Se/phantom mass) for an equivalent dose of 188 mSv to the phantom. This MDL was found at least 10 times lower than the reported data on Se concentration measured in bone tissues. It was concluded that the NAA technique would be a feasible means of performing in vivo measurements of

  9. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei, E-mail: hmliu2004@126.com [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) values and maximal reaction velocity (V{sub max}) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  10. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na 2 SeO 3 as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant (K m ) values and maximal reaction velocity (V max ) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  11. New challenge in the speciation of selenium. Measurement and production on nano selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokisch, J; Sztrik, A; Babka, B; Zommara, M; Daroczi, L [Debrecen University, Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, Debrecen (Hungary). Institute of Bio- and Environmental Energetics

    2009-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows. We have found that several species of probiotic bacteria also used in food industry for making yogurts is capable of producing spherical elemental selenium nanospheres having an average diameter in the range of 50-500 nm when 1-1000 mg/L selenium was added to the medium in the form of selenite ions. Elemental selenium produced thereby has a high degree of purity, is spherical, and its size and crystalline form depends on the bacterium species applied. We have found that some species of the probiotic yogurt bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium bifidum or Bifidobacterium longum) are capable of producing the grey crystalline form of elemental selenium which is so far unprecedented in the art for any bacteria capable of producing elemental selenium nanoparticles. Our finding, therefore, enables the first time the development of economical industrial bacterial fermentation based processes for the production of a high quality elemental selenium material comprising uniformly sized grey or red nanospheres having an average diameter in the range of 50-500 nm. The size and the crystalline form of the produced nanosized (50-500 nm) spherical particles is defined by the selected microorganism. This genetic pre-determination result in reproducible production of a material having individual characteristics which can be used in numerous fields of industry and research. The produced nano selenium could be a good raw material for a production of certified reference materials. The measurement of the produced elemental nanoselenium is a new challenge for the speciation analysis. A sample preparation and measurement method was developed and investigated for the analysis of different selenium forms by HPLC-AFS system. The atomic fluorescence (AFS) was a reliable and simple detection method for the elemental nano selenium. The elemental selenium can produce hydride in the system or can be converted to selenite with HCl/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} digestion.

  12. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  13. Effect of Gamma Radiation on The Microbial Production of Selenium Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zahaby, D.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium is a trace element commonly found in materials of the earth's crust. Selenium is well known for its photoelectric, semiconductor, free-radical scavenging (HUANG et al., 2003), anti-oxidant(El-Batal et al., 2012 a) and anti-cancer properties(El-Batal et al., 2012 b ; El-Batal et al., 2012 c; Mansour et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2004). Selenium occurs in different forms as red amorphous selenium (Se"0), highly water soluble selenate(SeO_4"2"-) and Selenite(SeO_3"2"-), and as gaseous selenide(Se"2"-). Amongst its various forms, the SeO_3"2"- is highly toxic, which adversely affect the cellular respiration and antioxidant system causes protein inactivation and DNA repair inhibition (Dong et al., 2003; Eustice et al., 1981; Turner et al., 1998). Therefore, detoxification of SeO_3"2"- has attracted a great deal of attention, particularly the reduction of this oxy anion by the microorganisms(Dwivedi et al., 2013). Most methods used to synthesize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are physical and chemical methods, they are characterized by elevated temperatures, long growth times, high pressures, low yields and are also environmentally hazardous (Li et al., 2007). There is an interesting and exciting biogenic synthesis to prepare SeNPs, the synthesis of SeNPs by biological systems occurs at close to ambient temperatures and pressures and at neutral ph(Bharde et al., 2006). This method is a clean, nontoxic and environmentally friendly procedure. In addition, biological synthesis can present extra advantages over chemical methods such as higher productivity and lower cost (Parikh et al., 2008). Attempts have been made to synthesize SeNPs from such microorganisms as bacteria, fungi (Zare et al., 2013) and yeast (Hariharan et al., 2012). However, a bacterial system is preferred mainly due to reduced time of reaction, ease in handling, and easy genetic manipulation (Wang et al., 2010). The majority of studies on the biogenesis of SeNPs have focused on anaerobic systems

  14. Substoichiometric determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Polaiah, B.; Rangamannar, B.

    1989-01-01

    A substoichiometric radiochemical method was developed for the determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate. The selenium ethyl xanthate complex formed was extracted into chloroform from borate buffer at pH 5. The effect of foreign ions on the extraction was studied. Microgram quantities of selenium could be conveniently determined with a fair degree of accuracy. The method was successfully applied for the determination of selenium content in food stuffs such as 'Jaggery' and 'Wheat powder'. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Organic anodes and sulfur/selenium cathodes for advanced Li and Na batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao

    To address energy crisis and environmental pollution induced by fossil fuels, there is an urgent demand to develop sustainable, renewable, environmental benign, low cost and high capacity energy storage devices to power electric vehicles and enhance clean energy approaches such as solar energy, wind energy and hydroenergy. However, the commercial Li-ion batteries cannot satisfy the critical requirements for next generation rechargeable batteries. The commercial electrode materials (graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode) are unsustainable, unrenewable and environmental harmful. Organic materials derived from biomasses are promising candidates for next generation rechargeable battery anodes due to their sustainability, renewability, environmental benignity and low cost. Driven by the high potential of organic materials for next generation batteries, I initiated a new research direction on exploring advanced organic compounds for Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes. In my work, I employed croconic acid disodium salt and 2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone disodium salt as models to investigate the effects of size and carbon coating on electrochemical performance for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The results demonstrate that the minimization of organic particle size into nano-scale and wrapping organic materials with graphene oxide can remarkably enhance the rate capability and cycling stability of organic anodes in both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. To match with organic anodes, high capacity sulfur and selenium cathodes were also investigated. However, sulfur and selenium cathodes suffer from low electrical conductivity and shuttle reaction, which result in capacity fading and poor lifetime. To circumvent the drawbacks of sulfur and selenium, carbon matrixes such as mesoporous carbon, carbonized polyacrylonitrile and carbonized perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride are employed to encapsulate sulfur, selenium and selenium sulfide. The resulting composites exhibit

  16. Selenium deficiency and the effects of supplementation on preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Germano B. O. N. Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review the literature about blood concentrations of selenium associated with gestational age, feeding, supplementation and related clinical features in preterm infants. Data sources: Systematic review in the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google academics, SciELO. org, ScienceDirect (Elsevier and CINAHL-Plus with Full Text (EBSCO. Articles published up to January 2013 with the keywords "selenium deficiency", "selenium supplementation", "neonates", "infants", "newborn" and "preterm infants" were selected. Data synthesis: The studies reported that low blood selenium levels are associated with increased risk of respiratory diseases. Preterm infants, especially with low birth weight, presented lower selenium levels. Selenium deficiency has also been associated with the use of oral infant formula, enteral and parenteral nutrition (with or without selenium addition. The optimal dose and length of selenium supplementation is not well-established, since they are based only on age group and selenium ingestion by breastfed children. Furthermore, the clinical status of the infant affected by conditions that may increase oxidative stress, and consequently, selenium requirements is not taken into account. Conclusions: Prematurity and low birth weight can contribute to low blood selenium in premature infants. Selenium supplementation seems to minimize or prevent clinical complications caused by prematurity.

  17. EURRECA—Estimating Selenium Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurst, R.; Collings, R.; Harvey, L.J.; King, M.; Hooper, L.; Bouwman, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Current reference values for selenium, an essential micronutrient, are based on the intake of selenium that is required to achieve maximal glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma or erythrocytes. In order to assess the evidence of relevance to setting dietary reference values for selenium, the

  18. Selenium supplementation for patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism (the GRASS trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Cramon, Per; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2013-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disease causing hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. The concentration of selenium is high in the thyroid gland and two important groups of enzymes within the thyroid are selenoproteins, that is, they depend on selenium. Selenium may have beneficial effects...

  19. Selenistasis: Epistatic Effects of Selenium on Cardiovascular Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease.

  20. NAIL KERATIN AS MONITOR-TISSUE FOR SELENIUM EXPOSURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANNOORD, PAH; MAAS, MJ; DEBRUIN, M

    1992-01-01

    Nail clippings might provide a way to monitor exposure to selenium in the recent past of an individual, since a clipping collected from a toe would reflect exposures months before actual clipping date. The relation between levels of exogenous selenium exposure and selenium levels in nail keratin was

  1. Bio-induced solid selenium for recovery from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, S.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium in the form of selenate or selenite in wastewater needs to be removed due to its potential toxicity in the environment. Also, selenium is a valuable element that is used in several industries and current selenium resources are likely to be exhausted in less than 50 years. Waste streams

  2. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Yu, Xuerong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Li, Chuanhao

    2007-10-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO32-) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO32- ions to Se0, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se0, and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO32- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  3. Selenocysteine in thiol/disulfide-like exchange reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondal, Robert J; Marino, Stefano M; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2013-05-01

    Among trace elements used as cofactors in enzymes, selenium is unique in that it is incorporated into proteins co-translationally in the form of an amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Sec differs from cysteine (Cys) by only one atom (selenium versus sulfur), yet this switch dramatically influences important aspects of enzyme reactivity. The main focus of this review is an updated and critical discussion on how Sec might be used to accelerate thiol/disulfide-like exchange reactions in natural selenoenzymes, compared with their Cys-containing homologs. We discuss in detail three major aspects associated with thiol/disulfide exchange reactions: (i) nucleophilicity of the attacking thiolate (or selenolate); (ii) electrophilicity of the center sulfur (or selenium) atom; and (iii) stability of the leaving group (sulfur or selenium). In all these cases, we analyze the benefits that selenium might provide in these types of reactions. It is the biological thiol oxidoreductase-like function that benefits from the use of Sec, since Sec functions to chemically accelerate the rate of these reactions. We review various hypotheses that could help explain why Sec is used in enzymes, particularly with regard to competitive chemical advantages provided by the presence of the selenium atom in enzymes. Ultimately, these chemical advantages must be connected to biological functions of Sec.

  4. Novel complex MAD phasing and RNase H structural insights using selenium oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdur, Rob; Gerlits, Oksana O.; Gan, Jianhua; Jiang, Jiansheng; Salon, Jozef; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Chumanevich, Alexander A.; Weber, Irene T.; Huang, Zhen, E-mail: huang@gsu.edu [Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Selenium-derivatized oligonucleotides may facilitate phase determination and high-resolution structure determination for protein–nucleic acid crystallography. The Se atom-specific mutagenesis (SAM) strategy may also enhance the study of nuclease catalysis. The crystal structures of protein–nucleic acid complexes are commonly determined using selenium-derivatized proteins via MAD or SAD phasing. Here, the first protein–nucleic acid complex structure determined using selenium-derivatized nucleic acids is reported. The RNase H–RNA/DNA complex is used as an example to demonstrate the proof of principle. The high-resolution crystal structure indicates that this selenium replacement results in a local subtle unwinding of the RNA/DNA substrate duplex, thereby shifting the RNA scissile phosphate closer to the transition state of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. It was also observed that the scissile phosphate forms a hydrogen bond to the water nucleophile and helps to position the water molecule in the structure. Consistently, it was discovered that the substitution of a single O atom by a Se atom in a guide DNA sequence can largely accelerate RNase H catalysis. These structural and catalytic studies shed new light on the guide-dependent RNA cleavage.

  5. Toenail mercury and dyslipidemia: Interaction with selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyong; Seo, Eunmin

    2017-01-01

    Although compelling evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies exist, limited studies have examined the association between chronic mercury exposure and dyslipidemia. Particularly, data are sparse regarding the influence of selenium on this association of mercury with dyslipidemia in humans. The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations of toenail mercury with dyslipidemia and its components, and to examine whether selenium in toenails modifies these associations. We performed cross-sectional analyses using baseline data from a cohort in the Yeungnam area in South Korea, including 232 men and 269 women. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were quantified using neutron activation analysis, and fasting serum lipid measurements were obtained through the medical examination. Odds ratios of the prevalent hypercholesterolemia, hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia in correlation with mercury levels were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. The mean levels of toenail mercury were 0.47μg/g for men and 0.34μg/g for women. After adjustment for multiple confounding variables, participants in the highest tertile of toenail mercury levels had 4.08 (95% CI 1.09-15.32, p for trend=0.02) times higher risk of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, and 2.24 (95% CI 1.15-4.37, p for trend=0.004) times higher risk of dyslipidemia than those in the lowest tertile. Selenium is a significant effect-modifier for these associations; the highest tertile of toenail mercury were significantly associated with a higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (OR 5.25, 95% CI 1.04-26.38) and dyslipidemia (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.16-7.66) compared to the lowest tertile at toenail selenium levels ≤0.685μg/g, while these associations became weak and non-significant, showing OR 0.98 and 95% CI 0.25-3.80 for hypercholesterolemia and OR 1.99 and 95% CI 0.73-5.45 for dyslipidemia at toenail selenium levels >0.685μg/g. We

  6. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  7. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Dunn, Barbara K.

    2013-01-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention. PMID:23552052

  8. [Pharmaconutrition with parenteral selenium in sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, P L; de Oliveira Figliolino, L F; Hardy, G; Manzanares, W

    2014-04-01

    Critical illness is characterized by oxidative stress which leads to multiple organ failure, and sepsis-related organ dysfunction remains the most common cause of death in the intensive care unit. Over the last 2 decades, different antioxidant therapies have been developed to improve outcomes in septic patients. According to recent evidence, selenium therapy should be considered the cornerstone of the antioxidant strategies. Selenium given as selenious acid or sodium selenite should be considered as a drug or pharmaconutrient with prooxidant and cytotoxic effects when a loading dose in intravenous bolus form is administered, particularly in the early stage of severe sepsis/septic shock. To date, several phase ii trials have demonstrated that selenium therapy may be able to decrease mortality, improve organ dysfunction and reduce infections in critically ill septic patients. The effect of selenium therapy in sepsis syndrome must be confirmed by large, well designed phase iii clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to discuss current evidence on selenium pharmaconutrition in sepsis syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of selenium and zinc status in Korean middle-aged male patients with coronary heart disease using neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Kim, Bo Ha; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam

    2005-01-01

    The presented study aimed to evaluate the selenium and zinc status of Korean middle -aged male patients with CHD. The serum concentration of zinc and selenium was measured by Neutron activation analysis method. The mean serum selenium and zinc concentrations of patients were 94.9 μg/l and 826.4 μg/l, respectively compared to the 97.8μg/l, 891.6 μg/l of control group, showing no any difference in selenium status, but showed significant difference for zinc status of middle -aged men. The deficiency of zinc in control group was 9.8%, but that was 31.3% in patient group. Conclusively, this study indicated that zinc status, which is associated with inflammatory reaction, is low in Korean male patients with CHD

  10. Loss of selenium-binding protein 1 decreases sensitivity to clastogens and intracellular selenium content in HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesized that loss of SBP1 modulates cellular selenium content and the response of ...

  11. Selenium balance in the adult cat in relation to intake of dietary sodium selenite and organically bound selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The response of cats to dietary sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and organically bound selenium was studied in two separate studies with four cats per treatment and three levels of selenium supplementation (targets 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µg/g DM) for each Se source. Whole blood and plasma selenium concentrations

  12. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI; Mehrdad LAHOUTI; Ali GANJEALI; Hassan BAYAT

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri�) plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like sh...

  13. Investigation of electrical noise in selenium-immersed thermistor bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpley, J. L.; Sarmiento, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    The selenium immersed, thermistor bolometer, IR detector failed due to spurious and escalating electrical noise outburst as a function of time at elevated temperatures during routine ground based testing in a space simulated environment. Spectrographic analysis of failed bolometers revealed selenium pure zones in the insulating selenium arsenic (Se-As) glass film which surrounds the active sintered Mn, Ni, Co oxide flake. The selenium pure film was identified as a potentially serious failure mechanism. Significant changes were instituted in the manufacturing techniques along with more stringent process controls which eliminated the selenium pure film and successfully produced 22study bolometers.

  14. Comparison between selenium and tellurium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, A.; Rayane, D.; Tribollet, B.; Broyer, M.; Melinon, P.

    1991-01-01

    Selenium and tellurium clusters are produced by the inert gas condensation technique. The mass spectra of both species are completely different and reveal different properties. In selenium, a periodicity of 6-7 is observed and may be interpreted by the binding energy between small cyclic molecules. Moreover, it was very difficult to obtained large clusters probably because the binding energy between these molecules is very small. In tellurium, these periodic structures do not exist and large clusters are easily obtained in nucleation conditions where only small selenium clusters are present. These results are discussed and a simple nucleation model is used to illustrate this different behavior. Finally these clusters properties are correlated to the bulk structure of both materials. (orig.)

  15. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  16. Annual report, 1981-82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The annual report of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) for the financial year 1981-82 is presented. The main objectives of the DAE's programmes are generation of electric power from nuclear energy and applications of radioisotopes in agriculture, medicine, industry, research and other areas. Performance of the atomic power stations at Tarapur and Kota, the progress of work of the nuclear power projects at Kalpakkam, Narora and Kakrapar, and the work of the supporting units (of the power programme), namely, the Nuclear fuel Complex at Hyderabad, the heavy water plants -both commissioned and under construction, and the Atomic Minerals Division are surveyed. The research and development activities of the Bhabha Atomic Research at Bombay and the Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam, and those of the aided institutions, namely, the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Tata Memorial Centre, both at Bombay are described. Performance of the DAE's public sector undertakings, namely, the Indian Rare Earths Ltd., the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd. at Hyderabad, and the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. at Jaduguda is reported. (M.G.B.)

  17. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must be...

  18. 42 CFR 460.82 - Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing. 460.82 Section 460.82 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.82 Marketing. (a) Information that a PACE organization must include in its marketing materials. (1) A PACE organization must inform the public about its program and give prospective...

  19. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. [41 FR 49488, Nov. 9, 1976. Redesignated at...

  20. 40 CFR 82.62 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Containing or Manufactured With Class II Substances § 82.62 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart... to subpart A. Class II Substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82.... Hydrochlorofluorocarbon means any substance listed as class II in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A. Initial...

  1. 7 CFR 82.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 82.2 Section 82.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.2 Administration. The program will be administered under...

  2. 11 CFR 100.82 - Bank loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.82 Section 100.82 Federal... Contributions § 100.82 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. A loan of money to a political committee or a candidate by a State bank, a federally chartered depository institution (including a national bank) or a...

  3. 25 CFR 82.6 - Petition format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petition format. 82.6 Section 82.6 Indians BUREAU OF... REORGANIZED UNDER FEDERAL STATUTE AND OTHER ORGANIZED TRIBES § 82.6 Petition format. Petitions may consist of... of a petition must set forth at least a summary of the objectives of the petitioners and must show...

  4. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations promulgated...

  5. 50 CFR 82.4 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 82.4 Section 82.4 Wildlife and... PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Introduction § 82.4 Authority. The Secretary of the Interior has delegated to the Director, Fish and Wildlife Service, his authority under the Marine Mammal Protection Act to enter into...

  6. 7 CFR 905.82 - Effective time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 905.82 Section 905.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.82 Effective time. The...

  7. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as the...

  8. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force until...

  9. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental studies. 256.82 Section 256.82... OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Studies § 256.82 Environmental studies. (a) The Director... practicable, be designed to predict environmental impacts of pollutants introduced into the environments and...

  10. 45 CFR 74.82 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 74.82 Section 74.82 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Special Provisions for Awards to Commercial Organizations § 74.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 74.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program income...

  11. 40 CFR 82.260 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 82.260 Section 82.260... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Halon Emissions Reduction § 82.260 Definitions. Halon-containing equipment means equipment.... This group consists of the three halogenated hydrocarbons known as Halon 1211, Halon 1301, and Halon...

  12. Testing the Late-Veneer hypothesis with selenium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, J.; Koenig, S.; Bennett, N.; Kurzawa, T.; Aierken, E.; Shahar, A.; Schoenberg, R.

    2016-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a siderophile element displaying an excess abundance in Earth's mantle compared to experimental predictions [1], which may be attributed to the Late-Veneer. As Se is also volatile, testing the late-veneer addition of Se can constrain the origin of other volatile elements on Earth. Here we combine high-precision Se isotope measurements of metal-silicate partitioning experiments and chondrites to assess whether planetary differentiation could leave a measurable Se isotopic signature on planetary mantles. We performed Se isotopic measurements of 5 metal-silicate partitioning experiments and 20 chondrites of all major classes. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa and 1650 C for 1 to 4 hours using the piston-cylinder apparatus at Carnegie's Geophysical Laboratory. After wet chemistry, data were obtained on a ThermoFisher Scientific™ NeptunePlus MC-ICP-MS at the University of Tübingen with a 74Se/77Se double spike technique. δ82/76Se values are given relative to NIST SRM-3149 and the external reproducibility calculated from duplicate meteorite analyses is ≤ 0.1‰ (2 s.d.). Chondrites vary over a 0.8‰ range of δ82/76Se values. CIs and CMs show evidence for heavier 82Se/76Se ratios, likely due to mixing processes in the proto-planetary nebula. When these isotopically heavier meteorites are excluded, remaining chondrites have δ82/76Se values varying over a 0.3‰ range, within uncertainty of previous results [2]. We suggest that these chondrites may be used to estimate a δ82/76Se value of bulk planets. At the conditions of our experiments, the partition coefficients for Se log Dmetal-silicate range from 0.7±0.1 to 1.9±0.1, consistent with previous work [1]. A small but resolvable Se isotopic fractionation was observed: 82Se/76Se ratios were enriched by ≤ 0.5‰ in the silicates relative to the metals. Thus, given current uncertainties for Se isotopic measurements, marginal differences between planetary mantles and chondrites may be resolved

  13. Selenium electrochemistry. Applications in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslennikov, A.; Peretroukhine, V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry; David, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France); Lecomte, M. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de la Valle du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible

    1999-07-01

    Modern state of selenium electrochemistry is reviewed in respect of the application of electrochemical methods for the study of the behavior of this element and its quantitative analysis in the solutions of nuclear fuel cycle. The review includes the data on the redox potentials of Se in aqueous solutions, and the data on Se redox reactions, occurring at mercury and solid electrodes. Analysis of the available literature data shows that the inverse stripping voltammetry technique for trace Se concentration and determination seems to be the most promising in application for the Se determination in PUREX solutions and in radioactive wastes. The adaptation of the ISV technique for the trace Se concentration and determination in the solutions of the nuclear fuel cycle is indicated as the most prospective goal of the future experimental study. (author)

  14. Synthesis and properties of selenium trihydride at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Wan; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Shuqing; Gorelli, Federico A.; Greenberg, Eran; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2018-02-01

    The chemical reaction products of molecular hydrogen (H2) with selenium (Se) are studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy at high pressures. We find that a common H2Se is synthesized at 0.3 GPa using laser heating. Upon compression at 300 K, a crystal of the theoretically predicted Cccm H3Se has been grown at 4.6 GPa. At room temperature, H3Se shows a reversible phase decomposition after laser irradiation above 8.6 GPa, but remains stable up to 21 GPa. However, at 170 K Cccm H3Se persists up to 39.5 GPa based on XRD measurements, while low-temperature Raman spectra weaken and broaden above 23.1 GPa. At these conditions, the sample is visually nontransparent and shiny suggesting that metallization occurred.

  15. Selenium content in tissues and meat quality in rabbits fed selenium yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dokoupilová, A.; Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Březina, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2007), s. 165-169 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * selenium * meat Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.633, year: 2007

  16. In vivo and in vitro testing for selenium and selenium compounds bioavailability assessment in foodstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2017-03-04

    The assessment of selenium and selenium species bioavailability in foodstuff is of special concern on the context of human nutrition. In vivo (human and animal), and in vitro tests are important approaches for estimating the bioavailability of toxic and essential compounds to humans. An overview on in vivo and in vitro bioavailability assays for releasing selenium and selenium species in foodstuffs is summarized. Se and Se species content in a foodstuff critically influence Se bioavailability and bioactivity to humans and animals. Se bioavailability is affected by foodstuff-matrix major composition and minor components. Foodstuffs processing and/or treatments could enhancement or decrease Se bioavailability. Experimental conditions such as the selection of healthy status of examined people (in in vivo humans approaches), the selection of animal model (in vivo animals approaches), or the selection of GI conditions (in in vitro tests) could determines the results. Thus, international standardized protocol for in vivo and in vitro approaches assessment is mandatory.

  17. The stability of arsenic and selenium compounds that were retained in limestone in a coal gasification atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Somoano, M.; Lopez-Anton, M.A.; Huggins, F.E.; Martinez-Tarazona, M.R. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of arsenic and selenium species retained in a lime/limestone mixture obtained by using limestone as a sorbent for gas cleaning in a coal gasification atmosphere. It was found that the stability of arsenic and selenium species produced by the gas-solid reactions with lime/limestone may be affected by their exposure to air and by their contact with water. The results confirm the conclusions of a previous work in which Ca(AsO{sub 2}){sub 2} and CaSe was postulated as the products of the reaction between the arsenic and selenium species present in a coal gasification atmosphere with lime/limestone. Moreover it was proved that the compounds (Ca(AsO{sub 2}){sub 2} and CaSe) may undergo transformations when the sorbents post-retention are stored or disposed of in air. From the results obtained by XAFS it was possible to identify the Ca{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the Ca(ASO{sub 2}){sub 2} on the sorbent surface. The XAFS results for selenium showed that the CaSe formed on the sorbent was transformed to form several species, but mainly elemental Se. These changes in the speciation of arsenic and selenium may explain the behavior of the sorbent post-retention during the water solubility test. Although the selenium compounds and the products that may originate from their decomposition in water are not toxic, in the case of arsenic, species like Ca(AsO{sub 2}){sub 2} and Ca{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 2} may lixiviate, and generate toxic arsenic compounds in solution that could pose a risk when the sorbent is finally disposed of.

  18. High-Resolution Imaging of Selenium in Kidneys: A Localized Selenium Pool Associated with Glutathione Peroxidase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Kehr, Sebastian; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Carlson, Bradley A.; Seravalli, Javier; Jin, Richard; Handy, Diane E.; Park, Thomas J.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Results: Liver showed a uniform selenium distribution that was dependent on selenocysteine tRNA[Ser]Sec and dietary selenium. In contrast, kidney selenium had both uniformly distributed and highly localized components, the latter visualized as thin circular structures surrounding proximal tubules. Other parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli and distal tubules, only manifested the uniformly distributed selenium pattern that co-localized with sulfur. We found that proximal tubule selenium localized to the basement membrane. It was preserved in Selenoprotein P knockout mice, but was completely eliminated in glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) knockout mice, indicating that this selenium represented GPx3. We further imaged kidneys of another model organism, the naked mole rat, which showed a diminished uniformly distributed selenium pool, but preserved the circular proximal tubule signal. Innovation: We applied XFM to image selenium in mammalian tissues and identified a highly localized pool of this trace element at the basement membrane of kidneys that was associated with GPx3. Conclusion: XFM allowed us to define and explain the tissue topography of selenium in mammalian kidneys at submicron resolution. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 185–192. PMID:21854231

  19. High-resolution imaging of selenium in kidneys: a localized selenium pool associated with glutathione peroxidase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinouski, M.; Kehr, S.; Finney, L.; Vogt, S.; Carlson, B.A.; Seravalli, J.; Jin, R.; Handy, D.E.; Park, T.J.; Loscalzo, J.; Hatfield, D.L.; Gladyshev, V.N. (Harvard-Med)

    2012-04-17

    Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Liver showed a uniform selenium distribution that was dependent on selenocysteine tRNA{sup [Ser]Sec} and dietary selenium. In contrast, kidney selenium had both uniformly distributed and highly localized components, the latter visualized as thin circular structures surrounding proximal tubules. Other parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli and distal tubules, only manifested the uniformly distributed selenium pattern that co-localized with sulfur. We found that proximal tubule selenium localized to the basement membrane. It was preserved in Selenoprotein P knockout mice, but was completely eliminated in glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) knockout mice, indicating that this selenium represented GPx3. We further imaged kidneys of another model organism, the naked mole rat, which showed a diminished uniformly distributed selenium pool, but preserved the circular proximal tubule signal. We applied XFM to image selenium in mammalian tissues and identified a highly localized pool of this trace element at the basement membrane of kidneys that was associated with GPx3. XFM allowed us to define and explain the tissue topography of selenium in mammalian kidneys at submicron resolution.

  20. Status of selenium in cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abundance of data indicate that selenium (Se) can be antitumorigenic. Those data, mostly from controlled studies using animal tumor models and some from clinical studies in free-living people, indicate that treatment with Se in the absence of nutritional Se-deficiency, can reduce cancer risk. T...

  1. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  2. Normal mode calculations of trigonal selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; McMurry, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations for trigonal selenium have been calculated on the basis of a short range potential field model. Electrostatic long range forces have not been included. The force field is defined in terms of symmetrized coordinates which reflect partly the symmetry of the space group...

  3. Overview and prospects of selenium phytoremediation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence is lacking on whether selenium (Se) is essential for vegetation growth, but plants can absorb, assimilate, and accumulate Se in leaves and roots. The capability of plants to take up substantial amount of Se is now being utilized to remove excess Se from contaminated soils. This process has ...

  4. Selenium speciation in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.; Gmerek, A.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Chromatographic (IC-CD, GC-FID) and spectroscopic (XRD) techniques that allow the specific determination of several selenium species present or formed during bioremediation processes of selenate contaminated drinking, ground, or wastewaters have been established. The developed techniques are shown

  5. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  6. Analysis of anomalous high concentration of lead and selenium and their origin in the main minable coal seam in the Junger coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Sheng-sheng; Ren De-yi [State Administration of Work Safety, Beijing (China)

    2006-07-01

    The concentration, occurrence, and geological origin of lead and selenium in the main minable coal seam from the Junger coalfield were studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CICP-MS), instrumental neutron activation analysis (CINAA), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), and optical microscope. The results show that the average concentrations of Pb and Se are as high as 35.7 {mu}g/g and 8.2 {mu}g/g, respectively, which are much higher than those of coals from North China, Guizhou, China, and USA. In addition, their enrichment factors are up to 2.4 and 68.1, respectively. Lead and selenium are significantly enriched in the seam. Lead and selenium mainly exist in galena, clausthalite, and selenio-galena which occur as cell-filling of coal-forming plants and are of chemical-sedimentary origin. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Thyroid hormones regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium status in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Mittag

    Full Text Available Impaired expression of selenium-containing proteins leads to perturbed thyroid hormone (TH levels, indicating the central importance of selenium for TH homeostasis. Moreover, critically ill patients with declining serum selenium develop a syndrome of low circulating TH and a central downregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This prompted us to test the reciprocal effect, i.e., if TH status would also regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium levels. To investigate the TH dependency of selenium metabolism, we analyzed mice expressing a mutant TH receptor α1 (TRα1+m that confers a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism. Serum selenium was reduced in these animals, which was a direct consequence of the mutant TRα1 and not related to their metabolic alterations. Accordingly, hyperthyroidism, genetically caused by the inactivation of TRβ or by oral TH treatment of adult mice, increased serum selenium levels in TRα1+m and controls, thus demonstrating a novel and specific role for TRα1 in selenium metabolism. Furthermore, TH affected the mRNA levels for several enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis as well as serum selenoprotein P concentrations and the expression of other antioxidative selenoproteins. Taken together, our results show that TH positively affects the serum selenium status and regulates the expression of several selenoproteins. This demonstrates that selenium and TH metabolism are interconnected through a feed-forward regulation, which can in part explain the rapid parallel downregulation of both systems in critical illness.

  8. Recovery of stream communities from experimental selenium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, M.C.; Kuklinskal, B.; Ferkull, K. [Univ. of Minnesota, Monticello, MN (United States); Allen, K.N.; Hermanutz, R.O.; Roush, T.H.; Hedtke, S.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1994-12-31

    The effects of selenium on stream communities and their recovery from those effects were studied at MERS from 1987--1991. Selenium was dosed into two replicate streams each at concentrations of 30, 10, 2.5 and 0 (control) {mu}g L{sup {minus}1} for 18, 30, and 12 months, respectively. Recovery was monitored for three (30) or two (1 0, 2.5) years following cessation of selenium dosing. Selenium rapidly accumulated in the sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates and fish during dosing. Selenium concentrations in sediment, macroinvertebrates, and plants were as high as 2X--4X, 2X--4X, and 1X--1OX the dosed concentration in the 30, 10, and 2.5 treatments, respectively. Selenium decreased relatively rapidly following cessation of dosing. By two years after dosing ceased, selenium concentrations in plants and macroinvertebrates were little different from the controls; selenium in sediment from the 30 and 10 streams was still higher than in the control streams two years after dosing ceased. The macroinvertebrate community changed little during the dosing and recovery period. Commonly used indices of community structure showed no effect of selenium dosing. The isopod Asellus and oligochaetes in the family Tubificidae decreased rapidly following the onset of selenium dosing; their recovery following cessation of dosing was slow.

  9. Low plasma selenium concentrations in critically ill children: the interaction effect between inflammation and selenium deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low plasma selenium concentrations are frequent in critically ill patients. However, whether this is due to systemic inflammation, a deficient nutritional state or both is still not clear. We aimed to determine the factors associated with low plasma selenium in critically ill children while considering the inflammatory response and nutritional status. Method A prospective study was conducted in 173 children (median age 34 months) with systemic inflammatory response who had plasma selenium concentrations assessed 48 hours after admission and on the 5th day of ICU stay. The normal reference range was 0.58 μmol/L to 1.6 μmol/L. The outcome variable was ‘low plasma selenium’, which was defined as plasma selenium values below the distribution median during this period. The main explanatory variables were age, malnutrition, sepsis, C-reactive protein (CRP), and clinical severity scores. The data were analyzed using a Binomial Generalized Estimating Equations model, which includes the correlation between admission and 5th day responses. Results Malnutrition and CRP were associated with low plasma selenium. The interaction effect between these two variables was significant. When CRP values were less than or equal to 40 mg/L, malnutrition was associated with low plasma selenium levels (odds ratio (OR) = 3.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39 to 7.63, P = 0.007; OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.26 to 7.06, P = 0.013; OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 6.17, P = 0.049, for CRP = 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, respectively). This effect decreased as CRP concentrations increased and there was loose significance when CRP values were >40 mg/L. Similarly, the effect of CRP on low plasma selenium was significant for well-nourished patients (OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.22, P selenium. This interaction should be considered when interpreting plasma concentrations as an index of selenium status in patients with systemic inflammation as well as in the decision

  10. In-beam gamma spectroscopy of /sup 82/Sr

    CERN Document Server

    Dewald, A; Gelberg, A; Kaup, U; Von Brentano, P; Zell, K O

    1981-01-01

    The excited levels of /sup 82/Sr have been investigated by means of in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy via the reactions /sup 72/Ge(/sup 12/C, 2n), /sup 66/Zn(/sup 19/F, p2n), and /sup 79/Br(/sup 6/Li, 3n). Lifetimes of excited states were measured by the recoil distance method. Excitation energies and B(E2) values have been compared with calculations using the Interacting Boson Model. (19 refs).

  11. Speciation of Selenium in Selenium-Enriched Sunflower Oil by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry/Electrospray-Orbitrap Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierla, Katarzyna; Flis-Borsuk, Anna; Suchocki, Piotr; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2016-06-22

    The reaction of sunflower oil with selenite produces a complex mixture of selenitriglycerides with antioxidant and anticancer properties. To obtain insight into the identity and characteristics of the species formed, an analytical approach based on the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with (78)Se-specific selenium detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-resolution (100 000), high mass accuracy (HPLC-ICP MS for the separation of a complex mixture of selenospecies and a mathematical correction of the background signal was developed. The identical chromatographic conditions served for the sample introduction into electrospray MS. Two types of samples were analyzed: sunflower oil dissolved in isopropanol and methanol extract of the oil containing 65% selenium. HPLC-ICP MS showed 14 peaks, 11 of which could also be detected in the methanol extract. Isotopic patterns corresponding to molecules with one or two selenium atoms could be attributed by Orbitrap MS at the retention times corresponding to the HPLC-ICP MS peak apexes. Structural data for these species were acquired by MS(2) and MS(3) fragmentation of protonated or sodiated ions using high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD). A total of 11 selenium-containing triglycerol derivatives resulting from the oxidation of one or two double bonds of linoleic acid and analogous derivatives of glycerol-mixed linoleate(s)/oleinate(s) have been identified for the first time. The presence of these species was confirmed by the targeted analysis in the total oil isopropanol solution. Their identification corroborated the predicted elution order in reversed-phase chromatography: LLL (glycerol trilinoleate), LLO (glycerol dilinoleate-oleinate), LOO (glycerol linoleate-dioleinate), OOO (glycerol trioleinate), of which the extrapolation allowed for the prediction of the identity [glycerol dioleinate-stearate (OOS) and glycerol oleinate-distearate (OSS)] of the

  12. Bioavailability of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: A comparative study in humans using stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, T.E.; Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Atherton, C.A.; Dainty, J.R.; Lewis, D.J.; Langford, N.J.; Crews, H.M.; Luten, J.B.; Lorentzen, M.; Sieling, F.W.; Aken-Schneyder, P. van; Hoek, M.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Dael, P. van; Firweather-Tail, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To measure the bioavailability of selenium from cooked and raw fish in humans by estimating and comparing apparent absorption and retention of selenium in biosynthetically labelled fish with labelled selenate and biosynthetically labelled selenium in brewers yeast. Design: The

  13. Bioavailibility of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: a comparative study in humans using stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, T.E.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Atherton, C.A.; Luten, J.B.; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, van M.; Kotterman, M.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To measure the bioavailability of selenium from cooked and raw fish in humans by estimating and comparing apparent absorption and retention of selenium in biosynthetically labelled fish with labelled selenate and biosynthetically labelled selenium in brewers yeast. Design: The

  14. Reactivity of selenium-containing compounds with myeloperoxidase-derived chlorinating oxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Luke; Pattison, David I.; Fu, Shanlin

    2015-01-01

    and N-chloramines, causes damage to host tissue. Low molecular mass thiol compounds, including glutathione (GSH) and methionine (Met), have demonstrated efficacy in scavenging MPO-derived oxidants, which prevents oxidative damage in vitro and ex vivo. Selenium species typically have greater reactivity...... compounds (selenomethionine, methylselenocysteine, 1,4-anhydro-4-seleno-L-talitol, 1,5-anhydro-5-selenogulitol) studied. In general, selenomethionine was the most reactive with N-chloramines (k2 0.8-3.4×10(3)M(-1) s(-1)) with 1,5-anhydro-5-selenogulitol and 1,4-anhydro-4-seleno-L-talitol (k2 1.1-6.8×10(2)M......(-1) s(-1)) showing lower reactivity. This resulted in the formation of the respective selenoxides as the primary oxidation products. The selenium compounds demonstrated greater ability to remove protein N-chloramines compared to the analogous sulfur compounds. These reactions may have implications...

  15. The influence of selenium status on body composition, oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Fatimah Binti; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Bin Jan; Sirajudeen, K N S; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal B Md; Rajab, Nor Fadilah

    2017-09-01

    Selenium is involved in the complex system of defense against oxidative stress in diabetes through its biological function of selenoproteins and the antioxidant enzyme. A case-control study was carried out to determine the association of plasma selenium with oxidative stress and body composition status presented in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patient and healthy control. This study involved 82 newly diagnosed T2DM patients and 82 healthy controls. Plasma selenium status was determined with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Body Mass Index, total body fat and visceral fat was assessed for body composition using Body Composition Analyzer (TANITA). Oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity were determined for oxidative stress biomarker status. In age, gender and BMI adjustment, no significant difference of plasma selenium level between T2DM and healthy controls was observed. There was as a significant difference of Oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity between T2DM patients and healthy controls with tail DNA% 20.62 [95% CI: 19.71,21.49] (T2DM), 17.67 [95% CI: 16.87,18.56] (control); log tail moment 0.41[95% CI: 0.30,0.52] (T2DM), 0.41[95% CI: 0.30,0.52] (control); total antioxidant capacity 0.56 [95% CI: 0.54,0.58] (T2DM), 0.60 [95% CI: 0.57,0.62] (control). Waist circumference, BMI, visceral fat, body fat and oxidative DNA damage in the T2DM group were significantly lower in the first plasma selenium tertile (38.65-80.90μg/L) compared to the second (80.91-98.20μg/L) and the third selenium tertiles (98.21-158.20μg/L). A similar trend, but not statistically significant, was observed in the control group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Enrichment of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) with functional selenium originating from garlic: effect of enrichment period and depuration on total selenium level and sensory properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to optimize the procedure for the selenium enrichment of farmed African catfish, using garlic as dietary selenium source. In the first experiment we established the relation between the length of the selenium enrichment period and the resulting total selenium level in the fillet of the

  17. Developments in Synthetic Application of Selenium(IV Oxide and Organoselenium Compounds as Oxygen Donors and Oxygen-Transfer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Młochowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of selenium compounds were proven to be useful reagents and catalysts for organic synthesis over the past several decades. The most interesting aspect, which emerged in recent years, concerns application of hydroperoxide/selenium(IV oxide and hydroperoxide/organoselenium catalyst systems, as “green reagents” for the oxidation of different organic functional groups. The topic of oxidations catalyzed by organoselenium derivatives has rapidly expanded in the last fifteen years This paper is devoted to the synthetic applications of the oxidation reactions mediated by selenium compounds such as selenium(IV oxide, areneseleninic acids, their anhydrides, selenides, diselenides, benzisoselenazol-3(2H-ones and other less often used other organoselenium compounds. All these compounds have been successfully applied for various oxidations useful in practical organic syntheses such as epoxidation, 1,2-dihydroxylation, and α-oxyfunctionalization of alkenes, as well as for ring contraction of cycloalkanones, conversion of halomethyl, hydroxymethyl or active methylene groups into formyl groups, oxidation of carbonyl compounds into carboxylic acids and/or lactones, sulfides into sulfoxides, and secondary amines into nitrones and regeneration of parent carbonyl compounds from their azomethine derivatives. Other reactions such as dehydrogenation and aromatization, active carbon-carbon bond cleavage, oxidative amidation, bromolactonization and oxidation of bromide for subsequent reactions with alkenes are also successfully mediated by selenium (IV oxide or organoselenium compounds. The oxidation mechanisms of ionic or free radical character depending on the substrate and oxidant are discussed. Coverage of the literature up to early 2015 is provided. Links have been made to reviews that summarize earlier literature and to the methods of preparation of organoselenium reagents and catalysts.

  18. Biogeochemical studies of selenium in the Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, H.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kimura, M.; Koike, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Selenium that is a one of trace essential elements exists mainly in the chemical form of Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic selenium in ocean. Moreover, the monitoring of the selenium species has become a matter of interest as a mean of estimating their influence in biological processes in ocean. In recent works, some investigators reported that Se(IV) shows nutrient-type especially like silica's behavior, Se(VI) shows an approximately constant value, and the biological activities control the distribution of organic selenium. However, these reports were not included the whole world's oceans. It is necessary to research several oceans for the explication of fate on selenium. We investigated at the most interesting area - the Eastern Indian Ocean where should play a key role in global ocean's cycle for acquiring the new knowledge of selenium species at first

  19. Search for relevant indications for selenium supplementation in thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Durczynska, Katarzyna; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    Selenium plays a significant role in the thyroid function and its deficiency is considered by some authors to be a cause of thyroid disorders. The potential therapeutic influence of selenium supplementation in thyroid disease was investigated in several studies and some results were encouraging, however results were inconsistent and did not allow conclusion to be drawn. For that reason, we have performed a review study on relevance of selenium supplementation in thyroid disease. Till now, there is no strong evidence that selenium supplementation leads to clinical improvement in the course of autoimmune thyroiditis, nodular goitre or thyroid cancer. On the other hand, there is some evidence that selenium is effective in the treatment of orbitopathy; thus, the European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) recommends selenium administration in mild active orbitopathy.

  20. Effect of long-term selenium supplementation on mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayman, Margaret P.; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Background: Selenium, an essential trace element, is incorporated into selenoproteins with a wide range of health effects. Selenoproteins may reach repletion at a plasma selenium concentration of ∼ 125 μg/L, at which point the concentration of selenoprotein P reaches a plateau; whether sustained...... concentrations higher than this are beneficial, or indeed detrimental, is unknown. Objective: In a population of relatively low selenium status, we aimed to determine the effect on mortality of long-term selenium supplementation at different dose levels. Design: The Denmark PRECISE study was a single...... for extension of the study and mortality assessment. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment with 100, 200, or 300 μg selenium/d as selenium-enriched-yeast or placebo-yeast for 5 years from randomization in 1998-1999 and were followed up for mortality for a further 10 years (through March 31, 2015...

  1. Production of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation.

  2. Erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase: Its relationship to plasma selenium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, G.; Cellerino, R.; Guidi, G.C.; Moschini, G.; Stievano, B.M.; Tregnaghi, C.

    1977-01-01

    Erythrocytic glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and plasma selenium concentrations were measured in 14 patients: 7 with iron deficiency and 7 with raised serum iron levels. The decreased enzymatic activity in iron deficiency was confirmed. Plasma selenium was significantly lower in patients with lower serum iron; furthermore there is a significant correlation between serum iron and plasma selenium concentrations. Another correlation even more significant was found between plasma selenium and enzyme activity in all the cases we studied. These data suggests that the importance of iron for GSH-Px activity may be merely due to its relationship with selenium and that plasma selenium concentration may be of critical importance for enzyme activity. (author)

  3. Selenium's importance in regulatory issues regarding mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Laura J.; Ralston, Nicholas V.C. [University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, 15 North 23rd Street, Stop 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Current seafood safety and health risk assessment criteria use mercury concentrations as their sole basis. This unfortunate limitation omits consideration of selenium, an essential trace element that appears to be the primary molecular target of mercury toxicity. Although selenium has been recognized for decades as a means of counteracting mercury toxicity, its effects have often been overlooked or misunderstood. Experimental animal studies have demonstrated that increasing concentrations of selenium throughout the normal dietary range increasingly counteracts methylmercury toxicity. Dietary concentrations of selenium that are slightly less than the average amount present in ocean fish have been shown to completely prevent the onset of toxic symptoms of mercury toxicity, while animals fed lesser amounts of selenium rapidly sickened and died. Dietary selenium from a variety of sources including ocean fish such as tuna, swordfish, menhaden, and rockfish has been shown to counteract mercury toxicity. Since ocean fish are among the richest sources of dietary selenium, it is important to include selenium concentration measurements in future mercury risk assessments and seafood safety criteria. Mercury:selenium molar ratios in blood provide far more consistent and physiologically meaningful risk assessments. Comprehensive seafood safety criteria such as the Selenium Health Benefit Value enable clear differentiation between seafoods that are safe and those that are hazardous for human consumption. Use of parameters that integrate mercury-selenium relationships also make it easy to understand the differences between the findings of maternal mercury exposure studies that have been performed in New Zealand, the Faroes, the Seychelles, and the United Kingdom. Development of criteria for evaluating mercury-selenium interactions will enhance environmental protection and improve public safety. (author)

  4. Selenium Poisoning of Wildlife and Western Agriculture: Cause and Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    2000-02-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that selenium contamination is not the principal cause of the decline of endemic fish species in the Upper Colorado Basin. Activities employed to test this hypothesis included a reconnaissance of locations altered by recent road construction, a re-interpretation of available literature regarding selenium toxicity, and the interpretation of unpublished data obtained from the Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Program. The project demonstrates that most of the evidence implicating selenium is circumstantial.

  5. Effect of selenium supplementation on pigeon reproductive performance, selenium concentration and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yang, H M; Cao, W; Li, Y B

    2017-09-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of sodium selenite (SS) on the reproductive performance and the concentration of selenium, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined, and expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) and bone morphogenic protein 15 (BMP15) was evaluated. Paired pigeons (n = 864) were fed: T1 received no SS, while T2, T3, and T4 received 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of SS/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. Treatments were performed in triplicate with 72 pairs in each replicate. The results showed that selenium supplementation significantly affected pigeon reproductive performance. Birds fed 1.0 mg of SS/kg displayed higher egg production (P > 0.05), higher birth rate, and lower dead sperm rate than the control group (P Selenium and biochemical analyses revealed a higher selenium concentration in the 1.5 mg of SS/kg group than in the control group (P  0.05); however, in plasma, MDA was lower in the control group (P  0.05), while in ovary, BMP15 was down-regulated in the 1.5 mg of SS/kg group (P selenium concentration, and 0.5 mg of SS/kg up-regulated GSH-Px activity. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Ecological Importance of Insects in Selenium Biogenic Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Golubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element for animal and human beings. Despite the importance of insects in most ecosystems and their significant contribution to the biological cycling of trace elements due to high abundance, population productivity, and diverse ecosystem functions, surprisingly little information is available on selenium bioaccumulation by these arthropods. This review considers selenium essentiality and toxicity to insects as well as insects’ contribution to selenium trophic transfer through the food chains. Data on Se accumulation by insects of the Dniester River Valley with no anthropogenic Se loading reveal typically low Se content in necrophagous insects compared to predators and herbivores and seasonal variations in Se accumulation.

  7. Is selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid diseases justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Kristian H; Bonnema, Steen J; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-10-01

    This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies. The immunomodulatory effects of selenium might involve reducing proinflammatory cytokine release. However, clinically relevant effects of selenium supplementation, including improvement in quality of life, are more elusive. In Graves' disease, some, but not all, trials indicate that adjuvant selenium supplementation enhances the restoration of biochemical euthyroidism, and might benefit patients with mild Graves' orbitopathy. The use of selenium supplementation as adjuvant therapy to standard thyroid medication may be widespread, but a growing body of evidence yields equivocal results. The available evidence from trials does not support routine selenium supplementation in the standard treatment of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves' disease. However, correction of moderate to severe selenium deficiency may offer benefits in preventing, as well as treating, these disorders. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed, but further studies are needed.

  8. Absorption and retention of selenium from shrimps in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, S. H.; Sandstrom, B.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the bioavailability of selenium in shrimps, a possible good source of selenium, by measurements of the absorption and retention of selenium and the effects on plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Twelve healthy young subjects (9F...... of the study, after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The selenium intake increased from 39.4 +/- 15.3 mug/d to 127 +/- 5.5 mug/d with the addition of shrimps. The apparent absorption of selenium from shrimps was 83 +/- 4%, Faecal and urinary selenium excretion was 32.5 +/- 17.0 mug/d and 21.2 +/- 9.0 mug/d, re spectively...... and the total retention of selenium was 3.1 +/- 1.1 mg. Plasma selenium concentrations were 95.2 +/- 9.7 mug/L and 101.5 +/- 9.7 mug/L before and after six weeks of shrimp intake, respectively (p...

  9. Selenium and phosphorus interaction in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra; Bhandari, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of selenium and phosphorus on the dry matter yield and concentration and uptake of phosphorus, sulfur and selenium was studied in pea (Pisum sativnum) var. T 163. The fertilizer was tagged with P 32 . It was observed that increased concentration of applied selenium in soil decreased the dry matter yield and increased the concentration and uptake of total P, soil P and selenium in pea plants. Increased concentration of P alone increased dry matter yield, concentration and uptake of total, soil and fertilizer P and selenium which was beyond safe limits, and decreased concentration and uptake of sulphur. Selenium and phosphorus showed strong synergetic relationship by increasing the concentration of each other in plants while both showed antagonistic effect on the concentration of sulphur. Phosphorus compensated the toxic effect of selenium and improved the growth and dry matter yield of pea plants. The highest selenium concentration of 22.4 ppm was observed in 100 ppm phosphorus with 5 ppm selenium treated pots while lowest (0.10 ppm) in control. (author)

  10. Does mercury vapor exposure increase urinary selenium excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T; Suzuki, T; Himeno, S; Watanabe, C; Satoh, H; Shimada, Y

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that an increase of urinary selenium excretion may occur as a result of mercury vapor exposure. However, experimental data regarding the interaction between mercury vapor and selenium have yielded ambiguous results about the retention and elimination of selenium due to mercury vapor exposure and the decrease of selenium excretion due to mercury in the form of mercuric mercury (Hg/sup 2 +/). In this study, the authors measured urinary mercury and selenium in workers with or without exposure to mercury vapor to determine whether or not urinary selenium excretion was increased as a result of mercury vapor exposure. Urine samples were collected from 141 workers, 71 men and 70 women, whose extent of exposure to mercury vapor varied according to their job sites. Workers were divided into five groups according to their urinary mercury levels. The mercury level in group I was less than 2.8 nmol/mmol creatinine which means that this group was mostly free from mercury exposure. The average age was almost identical among the groups. For both sexes, group V (with the highest urinary mercury level) had the lowest urinary selenium level, but one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) did not reveal any significant variations of urinary selenium with urinary mercury levels; however, a weak but significant negative correlation between mercury and selenium was found in men.

  11. 21 CFR 500.82 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 500.82 Section 500.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds Used in Food-Producing Animals § 500...

  12. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different areas...

  13. 22 CFR 8.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 8.2 Section 8.2 Foreign Relations... solely for advisory functions and any decision taken pursuant to the advice or recommendation of an... advisory committees will be open to the public unless there is a compelling reason which requires...

  14. 21 CFR 82.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 82.3 Section 82.3 Food and Drugs FOOD... gloss white means a suspension in water of co-precipitated aluminum hydroxide and barium sulfate. (j... interpretations of terms contained in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall be applicable...

  15. 27 CFR 24.82 - Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Samples. 24.82 Section 24.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... vinegar and salted wine as defined in § 24.215, the proprietor shall submit under separate cover at the...

  16. High-Resolution Imaging of Selenium in Kidneys: A Localized Selenium Pool Associated with Glutathione Peroxidase 3

    OpenAIRE

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Kehr, Sebastian; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Carlson, Bradley A.; Seravalli, Javier; Jin, Richard; Handy, Diane E.; Park, Thomas J.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Results: Liver showed a uniform selenium distributio...

  17. Comparison of the redox chemistry of sulfur- and selenium-containing analogs of uracil✰

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, N. Connor; Geissler, Andrew; Button, Aileen; Sasuclark, Alexandru R.; Schroll, Alayne L.; Ruggles, Erik L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hondal, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Selenium is present in proteins in the form of selenocysteine, where this amino acid serves catalytic oxidoreductase functions. The use of selenocysteine in nature is strongly associated with redox catalysis. However, selenium is also found in a 2-selenouridine moiety at the wobble position of tRNAGlu, tRNAGln and tRNALys. It is thought that the modifications of the wobble position of the tRNA improves the selectivity of the codon-anticodon pair as a result of the physico-chemical changes that result from substitution of sulfur and selenium for oxygen. Both selenocysteine and 2-selenouridine have widespread analogs, cysteine and thiouridine, where sulfur is used instead. To examine the role of selenium in 2-selenouridine, we comparatively analyzed the oxidation reactions of sulfur-containing 2-thiouracil-5-carboxylic acid (s2c5Ura) and its selenium analog 2-selenouracil-5-carboxylic acid (se2c5Ura) using 1H-NMR spectroscopy, 77Se-NMR spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment of s2c5Ura with hydrogen peroxide led to oxidized intermediates, followed by irreversible desulfurization to form uracil-5-carboxylic acid (c5Ura). In contrast, se2c5Ura oxidation resulted in a diselenide intermediate, followed by conversion to the seleninic acid, both of which could be readily reduced by ascorbate and glutathione. Glutathione and ascorbate only minimally prevented desulfurization of s2c5Ura, whereas very little deselenization of se2c5Ura occurred in the presence of the same antioxidants. In addition, se2c5Ura but not s2c5Ura showed glutathione peroxidase activity, further suggesting that oxidation of se2c5Ura is readily reversible, while oxidation of s2c5Ura is not. The results of the study of these model nucleobases suggest that the use of 2-selenouridine is related to resistance to oxidative inactivation that otherwise characterizes 2-thiouridine. As the use of selenocysteine in proteins also confers resistance to oxidation, our findings suggest a

  18. Comparison of the redox chemistry of sulfur- and selenium-containing analogs of uracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, N Connor; Geissler, Andrew; Button, Aileen; Sasuclark, Alexandru R; Schroll, Alayne L; Ruggles, Erik L; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Hondal, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    Selenium is present in proteins in the form of selenocysteine, where this amino acid serves catalytic oxidoreductase functions. The use of selenocysteine in nature is strongly associated with redox catalysis. However, selenium is also found in a 2-selenouridine moiety at the wobble position of tRNA Glu , tRNA Gln and tRNA Lys . It is thought that the modifications of the wobble position of the tRNA improves the selectivity of the codon-anticodon pair as a result of the physico-chemical changes that result from substitution of sulfur and selenium for oxygen. Both selenocysteine and 2-selenouridine have widespread analogs, cysteine and thiouridine, where sulfur is used instead. To examine the role of selenium in 2-selenouridine, we comparatively analyzed the oxidation reactions of sulfur-containing 2-thiouracil-5-carboxylic acid (s 2 c 5 Ura) and its selenium analog 2-selenouracil-5-carboxylic acid (se 2 c 5 Ura) using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy, 77 Se-NMR spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment of s 2 c 5 Ura with hydrogen peroxide led to oxidized intermediates, followed by irreversible desulfurization to form uracil-5-carboxylic acid (c 5 Ura). In contrast, se 2 c 5 Ura oxidation resulted in a diselenide intermediate, followed by conversion to the seleninic acid, both of which could be readily reduced by ascorbate and glutathione. Glutathione and ascorbate only minimally prevented desulfurization of s 2 c 5 Ura, whereas very little deselenization of se 2 c 5 Ura occurred in the presence of the same antioxidants. In addition, se 2 c 5 Ura but not s 2 c 5 Ura showed glutathione peroxidase activity, further suggesting that oxidation of se 2 c 5 Ura is readily reversible, while oxidation of s 2 c 5 Ura is not. The results of the study of these model nucleobases suggest that the use of 2-selenouridine is related to resistance to oxidative inactivation that otherwise characterizes 2-thiouridine. As the use of selenocysteine in proteins also confers

  19. Preparation of selenium coatings onto beryllium foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films onto 50.8 microns thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicate deposit thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 microns. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable thin film controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV. 15 references, 3 figures

  20. The Cultivation and SeleniumEnrichment of SeleniumEnriched Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Xiao-fei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a bio-carrier, Eisenia fetida was fed with cow dung that added with sodium selenite in order to transfer inorganic selenium(Se into organic selenium. Targeting on survival rate and selenium content, the effects of five Se concentrations(0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg·kg-1 and four cultivation periods(15, 30, 45, 60 don earthworm growth and Se contents were investigated. The cultivation method with high survival rate, high Se content of earthworm and short breeding time would be screened out. The experimental results showed that the earthworm survival rate decreased and the Se content in earthworm increased with the increase of Se application and the extension of breeding time. The most optimummethod was screened out when the Se concentration was 80 mg·kg-1 and the cultivation period was 45 days, Se content in earthworm was up to 33.25 mg·kg-1.

  1. Polarographic determination of selenium in indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, B.Ya.; Mikheeva, V.A.; Priz, N.B.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure of determining nx10 -6 % Se in indium after concentrating in an elemental form on arsenic and sulphur has been developed. The selenium content is determined by inversion a.c. polarography on a sulphuric-acid background in the presence of Cu(2), potassium bichromate, and sodium pyrophosphate. 5.7x10 -6 % Se in metal indium has been determined by this procedure, the mean standard deviation being Sr=0.26

  2. Improvement of Selenium Status of Pasture Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Selenium was applied to pasture crops in a field experiment (1) by foliar application of 10 g Se/ha as selenite in the spring, (2) or by 5 g Se/ha in the spring plus 5 g in early August, (3) as selenite-enriched calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) at 4 g Se/ha after each cut, and (4) as 4 g Se after...

  3. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Missouri plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  4. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri� plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  5. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T. R.; McInteer, B. B.; Montoya, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of these isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separation of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S vs. 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produced separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . 8 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T.R.; McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of theses isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separations of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S and 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produces separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . (author). 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  8. Estimation of the behaviors of selenium in the near field of repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Min, Jae Ho; Baik, Min Hoon; Kim, Gye Nam; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The sorption of selenium ions onto iron and iron compounds as a disposal container material and its corrosion products, and onto bentonite as a buffer material, was studied to understand the behaviors of selenium in a waste repository. Selenite was sorbed onto commercial magnetite very well in solutions at around pH 9, but silicate hindered their sorption onto both magnetite and ferrite. Unlike commercial magnetite and ferrite, flesh synthesized magnetite, green rust and iron greatly decreased selenium concentration even in a silicate solution. These results might be due to the formation of precipitates, or the sorption of selenide or selenite onto an iron surface at below Eh= -0.2 V. Red-colored Se(Cr) was observed on the surface of a reaction bottle containing iron powder added into a selenite solution. Silicate influences on the sorption onto magnetite and iron for selenide are the same as those for selenite. Even though bentonite adsorbed a slight amount of selenite, the sorption cannot be ignored in the waste repository since a very large quantity of bentonite is used.

  9. STS-82 Pilot Scott Horowitz at SLF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz flashes a wide grin for photographers after he lands his T-38 jet at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility. Horowitz and the other six members of the STS-82 crew came from their home base at Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, to spend the last few days before launch at KSC. STS-82 is scheduled for liftoff on Feb. 11 during a 65-minute launch window which opens at 3:56 a.m. EST. The 10-day flight aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery will be the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission.

  10. 21 CFR 522.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E injection. 522.2100 Section... § 522.2100 Selenium, vitamin E injection. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is an emulsion containing in... of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl acetate). (2) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c...

  11. Low blood selenium: A probable factor in essential hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood selenium (BSe) and plasma glutathione peroxidase (plGSH-Px) activity were measured as biochemical markers of selenium status of 103 hypertensive patients (44 males and 59 females) and 88 apparently healthy subjects (40 males and 48 females). The hypertensive patients were classified into three groups based ...

  12. Enrichment of African catfish with functional selenium originating from garlic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Pedrero, Z.; Camara, C.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to create functional seafood with high concentrations of organic selenium (seleno-methyl-selenocysteine and ¿-glutamyl-seleno-methyl-selenocysteine) with anti-carcinogenic properties for human consumers. Garlic containing high concentrations of these organic selenium compounds was used as

  13. Relationship between soil contents and plasma levels of selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil contents of trace elements selenium, chromium and manganese were measured to determine their impact on the plasma levels of 160 healthy adult Nigerians in five different experimental locations in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States, South - South Nigeria. The mean (±SD) soil selenium, chromium and ...

  14. Aquatic selenium pollution is a global environmental safety issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    2004-01-01

    Selenium pollution is a worldwide phenomenon and is associated with a broad spectrum of human activities, ranging from the most basic agricultural practices to the most high-tech industrial processes. Consequently, selenium contamination of aquatic habitats can take place in urban, suburban, and rural settings alike--from mountains to plains, from deserts to...

  15. Selenium enrichment pattern in flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Zhang, M.

    2006-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS - Within a certain range, selenium accumulation in three studied vegetables was lineally correlated with spraying concentration. However, a too high concentration caused the reduction of vegetable output and damage in quality. - Twice spraying with lower concentration of selenium was a

  16. Preliminary study of daily selenium level intake in algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, M.A.; Tchantchane, A.; Tobbeche, S.

    1992-10-01

    The amount of selenium in onions and potatoes was measured by Pixe (particle Induced X-ray Emission) in the Nuclear Center at Bordeaux-Gradignan (CNBG). The goal of this work is to investigate the level of selenium concentration that may be consumed by different class of people

  17. 22 CFR 226.82 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Additional Provisions For Awards to Commercial Organizations § 226.82 Program income. The... commercial organization. ...

  18. PDX experimental results in FY82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.

    1983-08-01

    This report presents a detailed summary of the major experimental results of PDX in FY82 and represents the efforts of the entire PDX group. Topics covered include β-scaling and fishbone studies, fluctuations, disruptions, impurities and impurity transport, power handling, limiter conditioning, edge studies, plasma fueling, counter-injection, and diagnostic development. A less detailed version will appear as the FY82 PDX contribution to the PPPL Annual Report

  19. Neutrinoless double beta decay with 82SeF6 and direct ion imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, D. R.; Jones, B. J. P.; López-March, N.; Mei, Y.; Psihas, F.; Renner, J.

    2018-03-01

    We present a new neutrinoless double beta decay concept: the high pressure selenium hexafluoride gas time projection chamber. A promising new detection technique is outlined which combines techniques pioneered in high pressure xenon gas, such as topological discrimination, with the high Q-value afforded by the double beta decay isotope 82Se. The lack of free electrons in SeF6 mandates the use of an ion TPC. The microphysics of ion production and drift, which have many nuances, are explored. Background estimates are presented, suggesting that such a detector may achieve background indices of better than 1 count per ton per year in the region of interest at the 100 kg scale, and still better at the ton-scale.

  20. Response of selenium changes in blood using cyclic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Akanle, O.B.; Damyanova, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the response of selenium uptake and washout in whole blood and its components in healthy subjects, aged 20 to 30 yr, who were given selenium as a supplement to their usual diet, in the form of a yeast tablet (200 mg) containing 100 μg of the element together with vitamins A, C, and E (natural). Selenium has gained worldwide interest not only as an essential trace element but as a potent modifier of environmental hazards and as a naturally occurring toxicant. It is important therefore to investigate the character and the degree of the changes in healthy people on selenium supplementation. Cyclic activation analysis was used for the determination of selenium concentration through the detection of /sup 77m/Se (17.5 s), because of the increased sensitivity of the method and the large number of samples involved

  1. Genome-wide association study of serum selenium concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Jian; Hsu, Li; Harrison, Tabitha

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and circulating selenium concentrations have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Candidate gene studies suggest that circulating selenium concentrations may be impacted by genetic variation; however, no study has comprehensively investigated...... this hypothesis. Therefore, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with serum selenium concentrations in 1203 European descents from two cohorts: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). We...... tested association between 2,474,333 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum selenium concentrations using linear regression models. In the first stage (PLCO) 41 SNPs clustered in 15 regions had p

  2. Reproduction in eastern screech-owls fed selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Raptors are occasionally exposed to excessive selenium from contaminated prey, but the effects of this exposure on reproduction are unknown. Therefore, we fed captive eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) diets containing 0, 4.4, or 13.2 ppm (wet wt) added selenium in the form of seleno-DL-methionine. Adult mass at sacrifice and reproductive success of birds receiving 13.2 ppm selenium were depressed (P biochemistries indicative of oxidative stress were affected (P < 0.05) in 5-day-old nestlings from parents fed 4.4 ppm selenium and included a 19% increase in glutathione peroxidase activity, a 43% increase in the ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH), and a 17% increase in lipid peroxidation. Based on reproductive effects relative to dietary exposure, sensitivity of eastern screech-owls to selenium was similar to that of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) but less than that of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

  3. Recent Microextraction Techniques for Determination and Chemical Speciation of Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed S. A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research designed to improve extraction has led to the development of microextraction techniques (ME, which involve simple, low cost, and effective preconcentrationof analytes in various matrices. This review is concerned with the principles and theoretical background of ME, as well as the development of applications for selenium analysis during the period from 2008 to 2016. Among all ME, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was found to be most favorable for selenium. On the other hand, atomic absorption spectrometry was the most frequently used instrumentation. Selenium ME have rarely been coupled to spectrophotometry and X-ray spectrophotometry methods, and there is no published application of ME with electrochemical techniques. We strongly support the idea of using a double preconcentration process, which consists of microextraction prior to preconcentration, followed by selenium determination using cathodic stripping voltammetry (ME-CSV. More attention should focus on the development of accurate, precise, and green methods for selenium analysis.

  4. Selenium fertilization on lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) grain yield, seed selenium concentration, and antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element for mammals but has not been considered as an essential element for higher plants. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a cool season food legume rich in protein and a range of micronutrients including minerals (iron and zinc), folates, and carotenoids. The objecti...

  5. Selenium content in wheat and estimation of the selenium daily intake in different regions of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beladel, B.; Nedjimi, B.; Mansouri, A.; Tahtat, D.; Belamri, M.; Tchanchane, A.; Khelfaoui, F.; Benamar, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have measured the selenium content in wheat produced locally in eight different regions of Algeria from east to west, and we have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is used. The selenium levels in wheat samples varied from 21 (Tiaret) to 153 μg/kg (Khroub), with a mean value about 52 μg/kg. The mean of selenium daily consumption from ingestion of wheat per person in the eight regions varied from 32 to 52 μg/day which is close to the minimal FAO recommendation. - Highlights: ► Cereals and cereal products represent a staple food in Algeria. ► The objective of this study is to determine the Se intake in wheat produced locally. ► The concentration of Se in the wheat reflects the level of the Se in regional soils. ► The mean of Se daily consumption is close to the minimal WHO/FAO recommendation.

  6. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, October 2008 and January 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods (October 2008 and January 2009) during a 4-year monitoring program to characterize selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species (dissolved selenite, selenate, organoselenium), and total suspended solids were determined in water samples. Total selenium also was determined in water column particulates and in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Mean total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 1.00 to 33.6 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters where selenium is leached out of selenium-containing marine shales and associated soils under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations (micrograms per gram dry weight) ranged as follows: algae, 1.52 to 8.26; plankton, 0.79 to 3.66; midges, 2.68 to 50.6; fish, 3.09 to 30.4; detritus, 1.78 to 58.0; and sediment, 0.42 to 10.0.

  7. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, April and July 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods (April 2008 and July 2008) during a 4-year monitoring program to characterize selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species (dissolved selenite, selenate, organoselenium), and total suspended solids were determined in water samples and total selenium was determined in water column particulates and in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species - western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Mean total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 1.93 to 44.2 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters where selenium is leached out of selenium-containing marine shales and associated soils under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations (micrograms per gram dry weight) ranged as follows: algae, 0.75 to 3.39; plankton, 0.88 to 4.03; midges, 2.52 to 44.3; fish, 3.37 to 18.9; detritus, 1.11 to 13.6; sediment, 0.11 to 8.93.

  8. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, October 2007 and January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods (October 2007 and January 2008) during a 4-year monitoring program to characterize selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species (selenite, selenate, organoselenium), and total suspended solids were determined in water samples, and total selenium was determined in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species?western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Mean total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 0.97 to 64.5 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters where selenium is leached out of selenium-containing marine shales and associated soils under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations (micrograms per gram dry weight) ranged as follows: algae, 0.95 to 5.99; plankton, 0.15 to 19.3; midges, 1.39 to 15.4; fish, 3.71 to 25.1; detritus, 0.85 to 21.7; sediment, 0.32 to 7.28.

  9. Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi; Kennedy, Deborah; Fergusson, Dean; Fernandes, Rochelle; Cooley, Kieran; Seely, Andrew; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies. Methods and Findings Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serumselenium (≥121.6 ng/mL). Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61–1.43); other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70–3.24); and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79–1.10). In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy. Conclusions Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before any broad clinical recommendations can be made in this context. PMID:22073154

  10. Rapid determination of selenium in various marine species by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberger, S; Hoffman, E [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). McMaster Nuclear Reactor

    1984-08-16

    INAA was used to determine selenium concentrations in several marine organisms including two certified reference materials (NRCC lobster hepatopancreas, NBC oyster tissue) and one uncertified material (IAEA fish homogenate). The /sup 76/Se(n,..gamma..) sup(77m)Se (T=17.4 s) reaction was successfully employed to achieve an overall precision between 3-10% and detection limits between 0.3-0.6 ..mu..g/g. The accuracy of the results, as compared to the certified values, was in excellent agreement with the NBS material and only slightly lower (approx. 9%) for the NRCC material.

  11. Speciation of selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium by ion exchange HPLC with mass spectrometric detection and its application to yeast and algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, M.; Fan, T.

    2001-01-01

    Cation and anion exchange HPLC were used to separate a mixture of 12 selenium species comprising selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium. The cationic species were separated from each other and from the co-injected anions using a cation exchange column with gradient elution...... by aqueous pyridinium formate at pH similar to 3 as the mobile phase. The anionic species were separated using an anion exchange column with isocratic elution by an aqueous salicylate-TRIS mobile phase at pH 8.5. The separated selenium species were detected as Se-80 by ICP-dynamic reaction cell (DRC...... acid extract of Chlorella algae contained dimethylselenonium propionate (DMSeP), which was verified by HPLC-ES-MS. Se-allylselenocysteine and selenoethionine was detected at the low ng g(-1) concentration level based on co-chromatography with the standard substances spiked to the algal extract....

  12. Iron-tellurium-selenium mixed oxide catalysts for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.M.; Price, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on iron-tellurium-selenium mixed oxide catalysts prepared by coprecipitation from aqueous solution investigated for the propylene to acrolein reaction in the temperature range 543-773 K. Infrared spectroscopy, electron dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and isotopic tracer techniques have also been employed to characterize this catalytic system. Properties of the Fe-Te-Se mixed oxide catalysts have been compared with Fe-Te mixed oxides in an effort to deduce the functionality of Se. The selenium in the Fe-Te-Se-O catalyst has been found to be the hydrocarbon activating site. The activation energies for the acrolein and carbon dioxide formation are 71 and 54 kJ/mol, respectively. Reactions carried out with 18 O 2 have shown lattice oxygen to be primarily responsible for the formation of both acrolein and carbon dioxide. The initial and rate-determining step for acrolein formation is hydrogen abstraction as determined by an isotope effect associated with the C 3 D 6 reaction. No isotope effect is observed for carbon dioxide formation from C 3 D 6 suggesting that CO 2 is formed by parallel, not consecutive, oxidation of propylene

  13. Density dependence of dielectronic recombination in selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, P.L.; Rosen, M.D.; Jacobs, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination has been found to be the dominant recombination process in the determination of the ionization balance of selenium near the Ne-like sequence under conditions relevant to the exploding-foil EUV laser plasmas. The dielectronic recombination process tends to populate excited levels, and these levels in turn are more susceptible to subsequent excitation and ionization than are the ground-state ions. If one defines an effective recombination rate which includes, in addition to the primary recombination, the subsequent excitation and ionization of the additional excited-state population due to the primary recombination, then this effective recombination rate can be density-sensitive at relatively low electron density. We present results for this effective dielectronic recombination rate at an electron density of 3 x 10/sup 20/ electrons/cm 3 for recombination from Ne-like to Na-like selenium and from F-like to Ne-like selenium. In the former case, the effective recombination rate coefficient is found to be 1.8 x 10/sup -11/ cm 3 /sec at 1.0 keV, which is to be compared with the zero-density value of 2.8 x 10/sup -11/ cm 3 /sec. In the latter case (F-like to Ne-like), the effective recombination rate coefficient is found to be 1.3 x 10/sup -11/ cm 3 /sec, which is substantially reduced from the zero-density result of 3.3 x 10/sup -11/ cm 3 /sec. We have examined the effects of dielectronic recombination on the laser gain of the dominant Ne-like 3p-3s transitions and have compared our results with those presented by Whitten et al. [Phys. Rev. A 33, 2171 (1986)

  14. Iodine and selenium migration through argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasca, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Deep argillaceous formations are considered as potential host rock for high-level radioactive waste repository. Based on safety assessment calculations, active selenium ( 79 Se) and iodine ( 129 I) from high level radioactive waste might be ones of the major dose contributors due to their longevity and their anionic character. However, because of their high sensitivity to redox condition, a special attention to the oxidation state of these elements is required. A comparative study on the diffusion properties of selenium and iodine through argillaceous rocks was realized with the aim to determine the effects of both the redox conditions and the mineralogy on the migration of these two elements. For these purposes, we have studied two argillaceous rocks: Toarcian argillite from Tournemire (France) and Opalinus clay (OPA) from the Mont-Terri (Switzerland). The study of the iodide migration allowed to confirm the control on the iodide retention of both oxidized pyrite and natural organic matter. A kinetic control of the iodide sorption is also suspected. We focus the selenium study on the more oxidized species, Se(IV) and Se(VI). The Se(IV) migration is strongly dependant from oxido-reduction processes. Indeed, the Se(IV) diffusion experiments through Tournemire argillite and OPA indicated a significant reduction associated to Fe(II). The Se(VI) study evidenced a behavior dependant from the initial concentration: at the highest concentration, no significant retention was observed while the retention is significant at the lowest concentration. Furthermore, spectroscopic analyses tend to show a low Se(VI) reduction at the Fe contact. However, biotic origin cannot be excluded. (author)

  15. SELENIUM SUBSTITUTION – EFFECT ON THYROID FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Pešić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the essential role of selenium (Se in thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and action, as well as normal thyroid function, increased during the past decades. The thyroid gland is among the human tissues with the highest Se content per mas unit, similar to other endocrine organs and brain. Biological actions of Se are mediated, in most cases, through the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins coded by 25 selenoprotein genes in the human. Via the selenoproteins, selenium can influence the cell function through antioxidant activites, modifying redox status and thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins iodothyronine deiodinases are present in most tissues and have a role to increase the production of bioactive tri-iodothyronine. Futhermore, Se has been shown to be important in the regulation of immune function. Se deficiency is accompained by the loss of immune competence. The links between Se deficiency, altered immune function and inflamation have prompted studies in humans to examine if Se suplementation can modify auto-antibodies production in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Until now, several randomised prospective clinical trials have been performed in patients with established chronic autoimmune thyrioditis. The clinical endpoint of each study was the decrease in TPO antibodies concentration after 3-12 months of treatment. Ussualy, the dosage of daily Se supplementation was 200µg. Selenium suplemetation had no significant effect on the concentration of TSH or thyroid hormone concentrations. These studies indicate that Se treatment result in reduced inflammatory activity, but it does not cure chronc autoimmune process.

  16. Chemoprevention Trial of Selenium and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    use in slowing the growth of prostate cancer. This study will not use selenium as a treatment option for the possible cure of prostate cancer...slice or 1 piece o Q rj Chocolate candy and candy bars o o o o o Q o o c 1 small bar or 1 ounce ._> . ■Q Hard candy, jam, jelly, honey , or...your stream? Have you noticed any stress incontinence? (leakage of urine when sneezing, coughing or laughing) _1 -NOT AT ALL _ 2-LESS THAN 1 IN 5

  17. Preliminary Study on the Standard of Selenium Content in Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-yuan; YOU Yong; GUO Qing-quan; WANG Yong-hong; DENG Shi-lin

    2012-01-01

    With the improvement of living standards, people pay more attention to the agricultural products with health protection function, and the selenium-rich agricultural products attract more and more consumers. The main biological role of selenium is to resist oxidation and inflammatory response, mainly focusing on resisting aging, preventing cardiovascular disease, protecting eyesight, counteracting or destroying the toxic properties, preventing cancer and thyroid disease. In most areas of China, there is a widespread shortage of selenium, thus producing selenium-rich agricultural products to provide natural selenium-rich health food to the areas in need of selenium, has gradually become a new hot spot of China’s health food industry, but high content of selenium in food is detrimental to human body, even leads to selenium intoxication, and artificially adding inorganic selenium is difficult to guarantee that the selenium content of agricultural products is not exceeded. According to human body’s daily demand for selenium in dietetics and the content of selenium in agricultural products in the Chinese food composition table, we put forward the recommendations on the standard of selenium in agricultural products, in order to provide the basis for China to formulate the health standard of selenium content in selenium-rich agricultural products.

  18. Studies on the origin and transformation of selenium and its chemical species along the process of petroleum refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin de Almeida, Cibele M.; Ribeiro, Anderson S.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.; Miekeley, Norbert

    2009-06-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry (ICPMS), the latter hyphenated to flow injection hydride generation, electrothermal vaporization or ion chromatography, have been applied to the chemical characterization of crude oil, aqueous process stream samples and wastewaters from a petroleum refinery, in order to get information on the behavior of selenium and its chemical species along effluent generation and treatment. Multielemental characterization of these effluents by ICPMS revealed a complex composition of most of them, with high salinity and potential spectral and non-spectral interferents present. For this reason, a critical re-assessment of the analytical techniques for the determination of total selenium and its species was performed. Methane was employed as gas in dynamic reaction cell ICPMS and cell parameters were optimized for a simulated brine matrix and for diluted aqueous solutions to match the expected process and treated wastewaters samples. The signal-to-background ratios for 78Se and 80Se were used as criteria in optimization, the first isotope resulting in better detection limits for the simulated brine matrix ( 78Se: 0.07 μg L - 1 , 80Se: 0.31 μg L - 1 ). A large variability in the concentration of selenium (from crude oil samples in the refinery here investigated, which may explain the pronounced concentrations changes of this element measured in aqueous process stream and wastewater samples. Highest concentrations of total selenium were analyzed in samples from the hydrotreater (up to about 1800 μg L - 1 ). The predominance of selenocyanate (SeCN -) was observed in most of the wastewaters so far investigated, but also other species were detected with retention times different from Se(IV), Se(VI) and SeCN -. Colloidal selenium (Se 0) was the only Se-species observed in samples from the atmospheric distillation unit, but was also identified in other samples, most probably formed by the decomposition of

  19. A systematic approach to the accurate quantification of selenium in serum selenoalbumin by HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitaru, Petru; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Vaslin-Reimann, Sophie; Fisicaro, Paola

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two different methods are for the first time systematically compared for the determination of selenium in human serum selenoalbumin (SeAlb). Firstly, SeAlb was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resulting selenomethionine (SeMet) was quantified using species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) with reversed phase-HPLC (RP-HPLC) hyphenated to (collision/reaction cell) inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (CRC ICP-QMS). In order to assess the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, SeAlb was determined as an intact protein by affinity-HPLC (AF-HPLC) coupled to CRC ICP-QMS. Using this approach, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and selenoprotein P (SelP) (the two selenoproteins present in serum) were also determined within the same chromatographic run. The levels of selenium associated with SeAlb in three serum materials, namely BCR-637, Seronorm level 1 and Seronorm level 2, obtained using both methods were in a good agreement. Verification of the absence of free SeMet, which interferes with the SeAlb determination (down to the amino acid level), in such materials was addressed by analyzing the fraction of GPx, partially purified by AF-HPLC, using RP-HPLC (GPx only) and size exclusion-HPLC (SE-HPLC) coupled to CRC ICP-QMS. The latter methodology was also used for the investigation of the presence of selenium species other than the selenoproteins in the (AF-HPLC) SelP and SeAlb fractions; the same selenium peaks were detected in both control and BCR-637 serum with a difference in age of ca. 12 years. It is also for the first time that the concentrations of selenium associated with SeAlb, GPx and SelP species in such commercially available serums (only certified or having indicative levels of total selenium content) are reported. Such indicative values can be used for reference purposes in future validation of speciation methods for selenium in human serum and/or inter-laboratory comparisons.

  20. A systematic approach to the accurate quantification of selenium in serum selenoalbumin by HPLC-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitaru, Petru, E-mail: Petru.Jitaru@lne.fr [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), Department of Biomedical and Inorganic Chemistry, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Goenaga-Infante, Heidi [LGC Limited, Queens Road, Teddington, TW11 OLY, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Vaslin-Reimann, Sophie; Fisicaro, Paola [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), Department of Biomedical and Inorganic Chemistry, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France)

    2010-01-11

    In this paper, two different methods are for the first time systematically compared for the determination of selenium in human serum selenoalbumin (SeAlb). Firstly, SeAlb was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resulting selenomethionine (SeMet) was quantified using species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) with reversed phase-HPLC (RP-HPLC) hyphenated to (collision/reaction cell) inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (CRC ICP-QMS). In order to assess the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, SeAlb was determined as an intact protein by affinity-HPLC (AF-HPLC) coupled to CRC ICP-QMS. Using this approach, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and selenoprotein P (SelP) (the two selenoproteins present in serum) were also determined within the same chromatographic run. The levels of selenium associated with SeAlb in three serum materials, namely BCR-637, Seronorm level 1 and Seronorm level 2, obtained using both methods were in a good agreement. Verification of the absence of free SeMet, which interferes with the SeAlb determination (down to the amino acid level), in such materials was addressed by analyzing the fraction of GPx, partially purified by AF-HPLC, using RP-HPLC (GPx only) and size exclusion-HPLC (SE-HPLC) coupled to CRC ICP-QMS. The latter methodology was also used for the investigation of the presence of selenium species other than the selenoproteins in the (AF-HPLC) SelP and SeAlb fractions; the same selenium peaks were detected in both control and BCR-637 serum with a difference in age of ca. 12 years. It is also for the first time that the concentrations of selenium associated with SeAlb, GPx and SelP species in such commercially available serums (only certified or having indicative levels of total selenium content) are reported. Such indicative values can be used for reference purposes in future validation of speciation methods for selenium in human serum and/or inter-laboratory comparisons.

  1. Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H O; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium has been implicated as a risk factor for lung cancer, but the issue remains unsettled. We tested in a cohort of 3,333 males aged 53 to 74 years the hypothesis that a low serum selenium would be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality.During 16 years, 167 subjects(5.......1%) died from lung cancer; 48 males (5.0%) among males with low serum selenium, 0.4-1.0 μmol·l(-1), n=965, 57 males (5.1%) among males with medium serum selenium, 1.1-1.2 μmol·l(-1), n=1,141, and 62 males (5.1%) among males with high serum selenium, 1.3-3.0 μmol·l(-1), n=1,227. After adjustment for age...... (chronic bronchitis and peak flow), referencing the lowest level of serum selenium HRs were 1.17(0.79-1.75), and 1.43(0.96-2.14), respectively. Among heavy smokers a high serum selenium was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer mortality after taking into account all potential...

  2. COMPARISON OF DETERMINING METHODS REGARDING SELENIUM CONTENT IN WHEAT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Monica Stanciu-Burileanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a metallic chemical element, selenium has received special attention from biologists because of its dual role as a trace element essential and toxic. The important part of enzymes that protect cells against the effects of free radicals that are produced during normal metabolism of oxygen. Also, selenium is essential for normal immune system and thyroid gland, The concentration of selenium in the soil, which varies by region, determines the default concentration of selenium in plants growing in the soil.The purpose of this paper is to present methods of comparison, dry oxidation at 450ºC and wet digestion – digestion with acids in high concentrations at microwave system digestion, for determining selenium content from wheat samples collected from the south-eastern part of Romania, namely Bărăgan Plain and Central-South Dobrogea. Selenium separation and dosage from obtained extracts carry out through a selective hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. With the software SURFER, a tendency map of selenium distribution was drawn.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Serum Selenium Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Peters

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element and circulating selenium concentrations have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Candidate gene studies suggest that circulating selenium concentrations may be impacted by genetic variation; however, no study has comprehensively investigated this hypothesis. Therefore, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with serum selenium concentrations in 1203 European descents from two cohorts: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI. We tested association between 2,474,333 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and serum selenium concentrations using linear regression models. In the first stage (PLCO 41 SNPs clustered in 15 regions had p < 1 × 10−5. None of these 41 SNPs reached the significant threshold (p = 0.05/15 regions = 0.003 in the second stage (WHI. Three SNPs had p < 0.05 in the second stage (rs1395479 and rs1506807 in 4q34.3/AGA-NEIL3; and rs891684 in 17q24.3/SLC39A11 and had p between 2.62 × 10−7 and 4.04 × 10−7 in the combined analysis (PLCO + WHI. Additional studies are needed to replicate these findings. Identification of genetic variation that impacts selenium concentrations may contribute to a better understanding of which genes regulate circulating selenium concentrations.

  4. Effects of selenium supplementation on four agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Kathleen M; Gallardo-Williams, Maria T; Benson, Robert F; Martin, Dean F

    2003-01-29

    Agricultural crops can be used either to remediate selenium-contaminated soils or to increase the daily selenium intake of consumers after soil supplementation using inorganic or organic selenium sources. In this study, four agricultural crops were examined for potential selenium enhancement. Soils containing tomato, strawberry, radish, and lettuce plants were supplemented with either an inorganic or an organic form of selenium. Two different soils, i.e., low Se and high Se containing, were also used. Statistically significant differences in appearance, fruit production, and fresh weights of the fruit produced were studied. Next, the amount of selenium retained in the edible fruits, nonedible plant, and soil for each was analyzed by acid digestion followed by hydride generation atomic absorption analysis. Finally, inhibition effects on the seeds of the agricultural plants were studied. The results show that supplementation with an inorganic form of selenium led to higher retention in the plants, with a maximum of 97.5% retained in the edible portion of lettuce plants.

  5. Selenium Nanoparticles for Stress-Resilient Fish and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Daware, Akshay; Tribedi, Prosun; Krishnani, K. K.; Minhas, P. S.

    2015-09-01

    The fisheries and livestock sectors capture the highest share of protein-rich animal food and demonstrate accelerated growth as an agriculture subsidiary. Environmental pollution, climate change, as well as pathogenic invasions exert increasing stress impacts that lead the productivity momentum at a crossroads. Oxidative stress is the most common form of stress phenomenon responsible for the retardation of productivity in fisheries and livestock. Essential micronutrients play a determinant role in combating oxidative stress. Selenium, one of the essential micronutrients, appears as a potent antioxidant with reduced toxicity in its nanoscale form. In the present review, different methods of synthesis and characterization of nanoscale selenium have been discussed. The functional characterization of nano-selenium in terms of its effect on growth patterns, feed digestibility, and reproductive system has been discussed to elucidate the mechanism of action. Moreover, its anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant potentiality, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy, and fatty acid reduction in liver have been deciphered as the new phenomena of nano-selenium application. Biologically synthesized nano-selenium raises hope for pharmacologically enriched, naturally stable nanoscale selenium with high ecological viability. Hence, nano-selenium can be administered with commercial feeds for improvising stress resilience and productivity of fish and livestock.

  6. Perfusion imaging using rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) PET in rats with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Andreas Ettrup; Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Bodholdt, Rasmus Poul

    2017-01-01

    Assessing myocardial perfusion using 82Rb-PET is emerging as a valuable clinical tool.1,2 The rapid decay (T½ = 76 s) allows for absolute quantification of both rest and stress perfusion within 30 minutes. In addition to evaluation of epicardial disease with perfusion defects, also evaluation...... of balanced coronary and small vessel disease is possible. For further evaluation of how 82Rb-PET can be used clinically, pre-clinical application of the method would be valuable. However, so far no data on the use of 82Rb-PET in small animals have been published nor has the use of 82Rb-PET, to the best...

  7. Selenium status in cattle herds in Wallonia (Belgium: overview and health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Monitoring was performed in order to determine the Selenium (Se status of cattle herds in different agricultural areas in Wallonia (Belgium. Materials and Methods: The study included 114 heifers and 184 cows (82 dairy and 102 beef cows from 66 cattle farms situated in Wallonia. The Se status was assessed by measuring the glutathion peroxydase in red cells and converting it to the equivalent Se blood content. Results: The average blood concentrations of Se were very low. The Ardennes region was an area where the lowest Se status was recorded. The highest levels of Se in dairy cows and beef cows were recorded respectively in the limoneuse region and Famenne areas. The Se content in beef herds was lower compared with that of dairy herds (35 vs. 56 μg/L, p<0.01. Conclusion: On average over all the regions, 87% of animals were classified as deficient and only 13% of the animals were classified as adequate. The heifers from both dairy and beef herds in Wallonia exhibited a deficiency in Se classified as moderate to severe. The beef herds showed larger deficiencies compared with the dairy herds. Selenium deficiency can be prevented by ensuring adequate supplementation of deficient animals in Se deficient regions. An increased consumption of vitamin-mineral supplements, the use of Se-enriched fertilizers and ingredients containing high levels of Se can help to reduce or correct deficiencies recorded in cattle herds in Wallonia.

  8. Biotransformation of vegetable and fruit processing wastes into yeast biomass enriched with selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabnikova, O.; Jing Yuan Wang; Hong Bo Ding; Joo Hwa Tay [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2005-04-01

    Water extracts of cabbage, watermelon, a mixture of residual biomass of green salads and tropical fruits were used for yeast cultivation. These extracts contained from 1420 to 8900 mg/l of dissolved organic matter, and from 600 to 1800 mg/l of nitrogen. pH of the extracts was in the range from 4.1 to 6.4. Biomass concentration of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEE 12 grown at 30 {sup o}C for 96 h in the sterilized extracts without any nutrient supplements was from 6.4 to 8.2 g/l; content of protein was from 40% to 45% of dry biomass. The yield was comparable with the yield of yeast biomass grown in potato dextrose broth. The biomass can be considered as the protein source. Its feed value was enhanced by incorporation of selenium in biomass to the level of 150 {mu}g/g of dry biomass. Therefore, it was recommended to transform the extracts from vegetable and fruit processing wastes into the yeast biomass enriched with selenium. (Author)

  9. Selenium and tellurium as carbon substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This review has summarized structure-activity studies with 75 Se- and /sup 123m/Te-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in which the selenium or tellurium heteroatom has been inserted between carbon-carbon bonds. The agents that have been investigated in most detail include steroids for adrenal imaging and long-chain fatty acids, and a variety of other unique agents have also been studied. Because of the great versatility of the organic chemistry of selenium and tellurium, there is continuing interest in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 75 Se, 73 Se, and /sup 123m/Te. There are two important factors which will determine the extent of future interest in such agents. These include the necessity of a decrease in the cost of highly enriched 122 Te to make the reactor production of /sup 123m/Te cost effective. In addition, the potential preparation of large amounts of 73 Se should stimulate the development of 73 Se-labeled radiopharmaceuticals

  10. Biofortification and phytoremediation of selenium in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin eWu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for humans and animals but at high concentrations, Se becomes toxic to organisms due to Se replacing sulfur in proteins. Selenium biofortification is an agricultural process that increases the accumulation of Se in crops, through plant breeding, genetic engineering, or use of Se fertilizers. While Se phytoremediation is a green biotechnology to clean up Se-contaminated environments, primarily through phytoextraction and phytovolatilization. By integrating Se phytoremediation and biofortification technologies, Se-enriched plant materials harvested from Se phytoremediation can be used as Se-enriched green manures or other supplementary sources of Se for producing Se-biofortified agricultural products. Earlier studies primarily aimed at enhancing efficacy of phytoremediation and biofortification of Se based on natural variation in progenitor or identification of unique plant species. In this review, we discuss promising approaches to improve biofortification and phytoremediation of Se using knowledge acquired from model crops. We also explored the feasibility of applying biotechnologies such as inoculation of microbial strains for improving the efficiency of biofortification and phytoremediation of Se. The key research and practical challenges that remain in improving biofortification and phytoremediation of Se have been highlighted, and the future development and uses of Se-biofortified agricultural products in China has also been discussed.

  11. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  12. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Pamela B.; Fain, Heidi D.; Cassidy, James P.; Tran, Sally M.; Moos, Philip J.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Gerads, Russell; Florell, Scott R.; Grossman, Douglas; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of selenium (Se) supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence. PMID:23470450

  13. Biogenesis of Selenium Nanoparticles Using Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeibi, Sara; Mozdziak, Paul; Golkar-Narenji, Afsaneh

    2017-11-09

    Selenium binds some enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase, which may be activated in biological infections and oxidative stress. Chemical and physical methods for synthesizing nanoparticles, apart from being expensive, have their own particular risks. However, nanoparticle synthesis through green chemistry is a safe procedure that different biological sources such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and plants can be the catalyst bed for processing. Synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by macro/microorganisms causes variation in morphology and shape of the particles is due to diversity of reduction enzymes in organisms. Reducing enzymes of microorganisms by changing the status of redox convert metal ions (Se 2- ) to SeNPs without charge (Se 0 ). Biological activity of SeNPs includes their protective role against DNA oxidation. Because of the biological and industrial properties, SeNPs have wide applications in the fields of medicine, microelectronic, agriculture and animal husbandry. SeNPs can show strong antimicrobial effects on the growth and proliferation of microorganisms in a dose-dependent manner. The objective of this review is to consider SeNPs applications to various organisms.

  14. Microgravimetric Studies of Selenium Electrodeposition Onto Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of selenium electrodeposition from sulfuric acid solution on different substrates was studied with the electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammetry was combined with the quartz crystal microbalance technique to analyze selenium deposition process. The electrochemical reduction of selenous acid on gold, silver and copper electrodes was investigated. It was found that reduction of selenous acid is a very complex process and it strongly depends from the applied substrate. The voltammetric measurements indicate the range of potentials in which the process of reduction of selenous acids on the applied substrate is possible. Additionally, the microgravimetric data confirm the deposition of selenium and they reveal the mechanism of the deposition process.

  15. Selenium Level and Dyslipidemia in Rural Elderly Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liqin; Gao, Sujuan; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cheng, Yibin; Hake, Ann M.; Xin, Pengju; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jingyi; Ma, Feng; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Jin, Yinlong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Higher selenium level has been hypothesized to have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases including dyslipidemia. However, results from previous studies are inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between selenium level and dyslipidemia in elderly Chinese with relatively low selenium status. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1859 participants aged 65 or older from four rural counties in China was conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC), nail selenium concentration and APOE genotype were measured in all subjects. The four types of dyslipidemia were defined as >5.17mmol/L for High-TC, >1.69 mmol/L for High-TG, >3.36 mmol/L for High-LDLC, and selenium levels and the risk of dyslipidemia. Results Mean nail selenium concentration was 0.465μg/gin this sample. Rates for High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, Low-HDLC were 18.13%, 13.23%, 12.21% and 32.76% respectively. Results from logistic models indicated that higher selenium levels were significantly associated with higher risk of High-TC, High-LDLC and lower risk of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates (p selenium quartile group, participants in selenium quartile groups 2, 3 and 4 had significantly higher rates of High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, and lower rate of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates. No significant association was observed between selenium level and the risk of High-TG. APOEε4 carriers had higher rates of High-TC and High-LDLC. There was no interaction between selenium level and APOE with the rates of dyslipidemia. Conclusions Our results suggest long-term selenium exposure level may be associated with the risk of dyslipidemia in elderly population. Future studies are needed to examine the underlying mechanism of the association. PMID:26380972

  16. An Introduction to Testing Web Applications with twill and Selenium

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Titus; Huggins, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut is an introduction tobuilding automated web tests using twotools, twill and Selenium. twill is a simpleweb scripting language that can be usedto automate web tests, while Selenium isa web testing framework that runs in anybrowser and can be used to test complexweb sites that make extensive use ofJavaScript. The best way to use this Short Cut is torun through the examples. We expectthat within an hour you can start writingyour own functional tests in either twillor Selenium, and within a day you willunderstand most, if not all, of the possibilitiesand the limitations of these t

  17. Toenail selenium level among healthy residents of two Polish Districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukowska, J.; Biziuk, M.; Bode, P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the selenium mass fraction in toenail clippings taken from random inhabitants living in various areas of the Pomeranian (Northern Poland) and Lubuskie (Western Poland) Districts. Toenail clippings were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) giving means of 0.57±0.10 and 0.60±0.16 mg x kg -1 for the two areas, respectively, but the difference was statistically not significant. In additional, it was found that gender, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and selenium supplementation are factors with apparent effects to the selenium levels in toenail clippings. (author)

  18. Selenium Level and Dyslipidemia in Rural Elderly Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Su

    Full Text Available Higher selenium level has been hypothesized to have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases including dyslipidemia. However, results from previous studies are inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between selenium level and dyslipidemia in elderly Chinese with relatively low selenium status.A cross-sectional study of 1859 participants aged 65 or older from four rural counties in China was conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC, nail selenium concentration and APOE genotype were measured in all subjects. The four types of dyslipidemia were defined as >5.17 mmol/L for High-TC, >1.69 mmol/L for High-TG, >3.36 mmol/L for High-LDLC, and <1.04 mmol/L for Low-HDLC according to Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. Logistic models adjusting for age, gender, APOE genotype, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, medication use for cardiovascular diseases were used to examine the relationship between selenium levels and the risk of dyslipidemia.Mean nail selenium concentration was 0.465 μg/gin this sample. Rates for High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, Low-HDLC were 18.13%, 13.23%, 12.21% and 32.76% respectively. Results from logistic models indicated that higher selenium levels were significantly associated with higher risk of High-TC, High-LDLC and lower risk of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates (p < 0.0001. Compared with the lowest selenium quartile group, participants in selenium quartile groups 2, 3 and 4 had significantly higher rates of High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, and lower rate of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates. No significant association was observed between selenium level and the risk of High-TG. APOEε4 carriers had higher rates of High-TC and High-LDLC. There was no interaction between selenium level and APOE with the rates of

  19. Total selenium and selenium species in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, April and July 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results for two sampling periods during a 4-year monitoring survey to provide a characterization of selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium, selenium species, and total suspended solids were determined in water samples, and total selenium was determined in sediment, detritus, and biota that included algae, plankton, midge larvae (family, Chironomidae), and two fish species-western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). In addition, sediments were analyzed for percent total organic carbon and particle size. Total selenium concentrations in water for both sampling periods ranged from 1.43 to 47.1 micrograms per liter, predominately as selenate, which is typical of waters leached out of selenium-contaminated marine shales under alkaline and oxidizing conditions. Total selenium concentrations ranged from 0.88 to 20.2 micrograms per gram in biota, and from 0.15 to 28.9 micrograms per gram in detritus and sediment.

  20. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the refiner may: (i) Blend the butane with conventional gasoline, or...

  1. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... substance for use in motor vehicle air conditioners in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart G; (4) The... wholly or in part of a class I or class II substance for use in motor vehicle air conditioners pursuant... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF...

  2. 40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., restaurants and other food service establishments. Cold storage includes the equipment used to store meat... apprentice in service, maintenance, repair, or disposal of appliances with the U.S. Department of Labor's... Administrator pursuant to § 82.160. Certified refrigerant recovery or recycling equipment means equipment...

  3. 40 CFR 82.32 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator pursuant to § 82.38. (b) Approved refrigerant recycling equipment means equipment certified by the... equipment extracts and recycles refrigerant or extracts refrigerant for recycling on-site or reclamation off... for reclamation. (2) Refrigerant from reclamation facilities that is used for the purpose of...

  4. 40 CFR 82.65 - Temporary exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Nonessential Products Containing Class I Substances and Ban on Nonessential Products Containing or Manufactured With Class II Substances § 82.65 Temporary exemptions. (a) Any... January 1, 1996. (e) Any person selling or distributing, or offering to sell or distribute, any product...

  5. Regression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation after Disease Progression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shidfar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that zinc and selenium deficiency is common in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD are not clear enough. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD prognosis. Methods: Forty male Sprague–Dawley rats (197±4 g were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups: normal-fat diet (NFD; receiving 9% of calories as fat, high-fat diet (HFD; receiving 82% of calories as fat, supplementation before disease progression (S+HFD, and supplementation after disease progression (HFD+S. The diets were implemented over a 20-week period in all the groups. Biochemical and histologic parameters were compared between the 4 groups, and between-group comparisons were also carried out. Results: There were significant differences in the average food dietary intake (P<0.001, weight (P<0.001, fasting blood sugar (P=0.005, triglyceride (P<0.001, total cholesterol (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.002, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.001, alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001 between the 4 dietary groups. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly lower in the HFD+S Group than in the S+HFD Group (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively. Fat accumulation was significantly reduced in the HFD+S Group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after disease progression improved biochemical and histologic parameters in an experimental model of NAFLD.

  6. Regression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation after Disease Progression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Faghihi, Amirhosein; Amiri, Hamid Lorvand; Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda

    2018-01-01

    Studies have shown that zinc and selenium deficiency is common in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD are not clear enough. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD prognosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (197±4 g) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups: normal-fat diet (NFD; receiving 9% of calories as fat), high-fat diet (HFD; receiving 82% of calories as fat), supplementation before disease progression (S+HFD), and supplementation after disease progression (HFD+S). The diets were implemented over a 20-week period in all the groups. Biochemical and histologic parameters were compared between the 4 groups, and between-group comparisons were also carried out. There were significant differences in the average food dietary intake (P<0.001), weight (P<0.001), fasting blood sugar (P=0.005), triglyceride (P<0.001), total cholesterol (P<0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.002), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.001), alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001), and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) between the 4 dietary groups. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly lower in the HFD+S Group than in the S+HFD Group (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). Fat accumulation was significantly reduced in the HFD+S Group (P<0.001). Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after disease progression improved biochemical and histologic parameters in an experimental model of NAFLD.

  7. Comparative effect of selenium and selenium tolerant microbes on brachiaria reptans l. growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.; Faisal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Brachiaria reptans L. is an annual grass. It is good fodder grass which is distributed in tropical Asia, Kenya, Pakistan and India and introduced throughout the tropics. In present study we determine the growth correlation among B. reptans, selenium (Se) and two Se tolerant bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis-YAP7 and Bacillus cereus-YAP6). Plants treated with Se showed a significant decrease in shoot length (33%) and fresh biomass (41%) compared to control. When plants were co-cultivated in the presence of bacteria or Se and bacteria both the shoot length increased (16-34%) significantly compared to control. B. reptans plants treated with Se have shown a significant decrease in peroxidase contents (59%) compared to control. However, bacterial inoculation of Se treated plants resulted in significant increase in peroxidase contents (113-171%). Selenium treatment caused increase in leaf soluble protein contents compared to control. In conclusion, bacteria can enhance B. reptans growth under Se stress. (author)

  8. Polymer supported synthesis of unsymmetrical n.c.a. selenium-73/75 ethers for the labelling of amino acids; Polymergestuetzte Synthese von unsymmetrischen n.c.a. [{sup 73,75}Se] Selenoethern zur Markierung von Aminosaeuren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmaljohann, J

    1995-09-01

    The synthesis of n.c.a. selenium-73/75 labelled methionine and of a selenoalkylation agent have been performed according to a reaction including a primary, polymer supported alkylation step. The selenium-75 was produced through the {sup 75}As(p, n)-process and separated as [{sup 75}Se]selenium dioxide by thermochromatography. The [{sup 75}Se]SeO{sub 2}-sublimate was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and reduced with sulfur dioxide to obtain elemental n.c.a. selenium-75, which was extracted into benzene. Reaction of the elemental n.c.a. selenium-75 with polymeric bound triphenylphosphine led to the formation of the corresponding [{sup 75}Se]triphenylphosphinselenide in a nearly quantitative yield. The asymmetrical [{sup 75}Se]selenoethers were synthesized in homogeneous phase through the reaction of the [{sup 75}Se]MeSe{sup -} with propylhalides in radiochemical yields up of to 55%. A selenium-75 labelled prosthetic group was synthesized in radiochemical yields of 48% by the reaction of 1-chloro-3-iodopropane with the [{sup 75}]selenation reagent [{sup 75}Se]MeSe{sup -}. For labelling amino functions via [{sup 75}Se]selenoalkylation the [{sup 75}Se]selenated propyl chloride has to be transfered into the iodide with sodium iodide, which was performed in radiochemical yields of 90%. After the reaction of [{sup 75}Se]-1-iodo-3-(methylseleno)propane with butylamine or with N{sup {alpha}}-, O-protected lysine in DMF at 80 C the [{sup 75}Se]methylselenopropylated products were obtained in radiochemical yields of 95% and 90%, respectively. (orig./SR)

  9. Investigation of evaporation characteristics of polonium and its lighter homologues selenium and tellurium from liquid Pb-Bi-eutecticum

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, J; Eichler, B

    2004-01-01

    The evaporation behaviour of polonium and its lighter homologues selenium and tellurium dissolved in liquid Pb-Bi-eutecticum (LBE) has been studied at various temperatures in the range from 482 K up to 1330 K under Ar/H2 and Ar/H2O-atmospheres using γ-ray spectroscopy. Polonium release in the temperature range of interest for technical applications is slow. Within short term (1h) experiments measurable amounts of polonium are evaporated only at temperatures above 973 K. Long term experiments reveal that a slow evaporation of polonium occurs at temperatures around 873 K resulting in a fractional polonium loss of the melt around 1% per day. Evaporation rates of selenium and tellurium are smaller than those of polonium. The presence of H2O does not enhance the evaporation within the error limits of our experiments. The thermodynamics and possible reaction pathways involved in polonium release from LBE are discussed.

  10. Determination of arsenic antimony and selenium in water by neutron activation and coprecipitation with bismuth sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, L.M.; Cohen, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed for determination of arsenic, antimony and selenium in water samples, based on neutron activation and separation by coprecipitation with bismuth sulfide. Experiments performed with the aid of radioactive tracers proved that As(III), Sb(III) and Se, either as Se(IV) or Se(VI), were quantitatively coprecipitated in 1.2 N HCl, provided they were present in masses larger than 10 ng, 50 ng, and 20 ng, respectively; 24 Na and 82 Br were collected at minimum percentages (0.5 and 2) when using hold-back carriers, whereas no appreciable coprecipitation of 32 P was observed. Interferences by other trace elements were also investigated, finding that they were negligible in most of the cases. The method was applied to the analysis of underground water samples from the province of Cordoba (Republica Argentina). The characteristics of this method and the results are discussed. 12 references, 2 tables

  11. Effect of selenium-enriched organic material amendment on selenium fraction transformation and bioavailability in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Dinh, Quang Toan; Anh Thu, Tran Thi; Zhou, Fei; Yang, Wenxiao; Wang, Mengke; Song, Weiwei; Liang, Dongli

    2018-05-01

    To exploit the plant byproducts from selenium (Se) biofortification and reduce environmental risk of inorganic Se fertilizer, pot experiment was conducted in this study. The effects of Se-enriched wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (WS + Se) and pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) (P + Se) amendment on organo-selenium speciation transformation in soil and its bioavailability was evaluated by pak choi uptake. The Se contents of the cultivated pak choi in treatments amended with the same amount of Se-enriched wheat straw and pak choi were 1.7 and 9.7 times in the shoots and 2.3 and 6.3 times in the roots compared with control treatment. Soil respiration rate was significantly increased after all organic material amendment in soil (p organic materials and thus resulted in soluble Se (SOL-Se), exchangeable Se (EX-Se), and fulvic acid-bound Se (FA-Se) fraction increasing by 25.2-29.2%, 9-13.8%, and 4.92-8.28%, respectively. In addition, both Pearson correlation and cluster analysis showed that EX-Se and FA-Se were better indicators for soil Se availability in organic material amendment soils. The Marquardt-Levenberg Model well described the dynamic kinetics of FA-Se content after Se-enriched organic material amendment in soil mainly because of the mineralization of organic carbon and organo-selenium. The utilization of Se in P + Se treatment was significantly higher than those in WS + Se treatment because of the different mineralization rates and the amount of FA-Se in soil. Se-enriched organic materials amendment can not only increase the availability of selenium in soil but also avoid the waste of valuable Se source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bio-transformation of selenium in Se-enriched bacterial strains of Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Eliza; Ruszczyńska, Anna; Wojciechowski, Marcin; Łuciuk, Anna; Michalska-Kacymirow, Magdalena; Motyl, Ilona; Bulska, Ewa

    Selenium is an element of very great importance for the proper functioning of the human body, mainly due to its antioxidant properties. Selenium exhibits a preventive effect in the case of cardiovascular disease, the immune system, male infertility and inhibits the toxic action of other agents. Selenium is important for Hashimoto's disease. Intake of selenium in the diet slows the aging process. The biological and toxicological effects of selenium strongly depend on its chemical form. Some organisms for example: plant, yeast, are capable of metabolizing low bioavailable selenium compounds (inorganic selenium) into its high bioavailable forms (organic selenium). The aim of this study was to investigate the bio-transformation of selenium by Lactobacillus bacteria towards the characterisation of selenium metabolites. The speciation of selenium was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detector. The extraction of selenium species from lyophilized bacteria was executed with water, the mixture of lipase and protease, as well as lisozyme and sodium dodecyl sulphate. All investigated bacteria strains cultivated in the presence of Na2SeO3 effectively uptake selenium. Surprisingly, none of the applied extraction media exhibited a strong power to release the majority of the uptaken selenium compounds. Thus a maximum of 10% of the selenium was extracted from bacteria exposed to the enzymes. However, it was found that Lactobacillus bacteria are able to metabolize inorganic ions of selenium (IV) into Se-methionine, Se-methyloselenocysteine and other unidentified forms. The study confirmed the ability of probiotic bacteria to biotransform inorganic selenium into its organic derivatives. Therefore, Se-enriched bacteria can be considered as an addition to the functional food. selenium speciation, extraction procedure, Lactobacillus casei bacteria, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), HPLC ICP-MS, functional food.

  13. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shikuo; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Yu Xuerong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Yang Liangbao; Li Chuanhao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2007-10-10

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium ({alpha}-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions to Se{sup 0}, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se{sup 0}, and even participates in the formation of {alpha}-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the {alpha}-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  14. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shikuo; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Yu Xuerong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Yang Liangbao; Li Chuanhao

    2007-01-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO 3 2- ) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO 3 2- ions to Se 0 , but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se 0 , and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO 3 2- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract

  15. Evaluation of the inorganic selenium biotransformation in selenium-enriched yogurt by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, Adriana; Cañas, Benito; Pérez-Munguía, Sandra; Hernández-Mendoza, Hector; Pérez-Conde, Concepción; Gutiérrez, Ana Maria; Cámara, Carmen

    2007-11-28

    Selenium is an essential element in the human diet. Interestingly, there has been an increased consumption of dietary supplements containing this element in the form of either inorganic or organic compounds. The effect of using selenium as a dietary supplement in yogurt has been evaluated. For this purpose, different concentrations of inorganic Se (ranging from 0.2 to 5000 microg g(-1)) have been added to milk before the fermentation process. Biotransformation of inorganic Se into organic species has been carefully evaluated by ion-exchange, reversed-phase, or size-exclusion chromatography, coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Yogurt fermentation in the presence of up to 2 microg g(-1) of Se(IV) produces a complete incorporation of this element into proteins as has been demonstrated applying a dialysis procedure. Analysis by SEC-ICP-MS showed that most of them have a molecular mass in the range of 30-70 kDa. Species determination after enzymatic hydrolysis has allowed the identification of Se-cystine using two different chromatographic systems. The biotransformation process that takes place during yogurt fermentation is very attractive because yogurt can act as a source of selenium supplementation.

  16. Effects of Selenium Yeast on Blood Glucose and Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Biomarkers in Cholesterol Fed Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetes. Mellitus in Wistar Rats. ... Keywords: Cholesterol diet; Diabetes Mellitus; Selenium yeast; SOD; CAT; GPx. ©Physiological ..... relationship with different diseases. Science Tot.

  17. Catalytic oxidant scavenging by selenium-containing compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Luke; Pattison, David I; Fu, Shanlin

    2017-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase produces strong oxidants during the immune response to destroy invading pathogens. However, these oxidants can also cause tissue damage, which contributes to the development of numerous inflammatory diseases. Selenium containing compounds, including selenomethionine (SeMet) and 1,...

  18. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and zinc in the tissues of the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis (Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913), from the Vaal Dam, South Africa, and associated consumption risks.

  19. Serum Selenium levels in Essential hypertension among adults at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communicable diseases. In the current medical literature it is not clear on the serum selenium levels among essential hypertensive patients in Zambia despite evidence in literature of its role in development of hypertension. The present study ...

  20. Copper and selenium supplementation of ewes grazing on pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ,09 pg Se/g DM, het bloedseleniumkonsentrasiesvaono ie verhoog, maar het min invloed op die lewer- en nierseleniumkonsentrasievsa n lammers kort na geboorte gehad. Keywords: Blood selenium, copper supplementiation, fertility, plasma ...

  1. Distribution and retention of inhaled selenium compounds in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkstaller, M.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Selenium containing compounds released into the atmosphere during coal combustion are principally of the elemental form or the dioxide. These compounds differ greatly in their chemical properties. Fischer-344 rats were exposed via inhalation to both the dioxide and the red elemental form of selenium. Subsequently, measurements were made of internal absorption, organ distribution and retention, and modes of excretion. A radiotracer, 75 Se, was incorporated into the aerosol to facilitate these measurements. Retention of both aerosols in the total body showed long term components with half lives of 43 and 15 days accounting for 25 to 35% of the initially deposited selenium. Excretion occurred principally by way of urine. For both aerosols, selenium absorbed into the systemic circulation was mainly found in the liver, kidney, blood, gastrointestinal tract and bone

  2. Selenium- or tellurium- containing bile acids and derivatives thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monks, R.; Riley, A.L.M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of selenium and tellurium derivatives, particularly γ-emitting radioactive derivatives of bile acids and bile salts. Such compounds are valuable in the examination of body function, especially small bowel function. (author)

  3. The Determination of Selenium in Blood. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japenga, J.; Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Zonderhuis, J.

    1971-12-01

    A procedure for the determination of selenium by neutron activation analysis in blood is given. The radionuclide used is 75 Se (T½ = 120 d). Chemical separation is performed by precipitation of the element. (author)

  4. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casey W

    reviewed paper: Proc. ... maize grain is a staple food for humans and a major ingredient in the diets of intensively fed livestock. Therefore, Se in ..... Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and carotenoids. National Research.

  5. Effect of selenium on malignant tumor cells of brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y; Nakatsu, S; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H

    1995-07-01

    Some reports have demonstrated that selenium can inhibit tumorigenesis in some tissues of animal. However, little is known about the inhibitory effect on malignant tumor cells of brain. The purpose of our study was to determine the biological effect of selenium on growth of rat glioma and human glioblastoma cell lines. Cell lines C6 and A172 were obtained from Japanese Cancer Research Resources Bank, Tokyo, Japan (JCRB). Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of air and 5% CO2. Antiproliferative effects of selenium were evaluated using growth rate assay quantifying cell number by MTT assay. An antiproliferative effect of selenium was found in two cell lines, which was more effective on human A172 glioblastoma and less effective on rat C6 glioma.

  6. 6. THE ROLE OF SELENIUM IN HUMAN IMMUNITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    lymphocyte (CD3+) immune response was enhanced in persons that ... Selenium and Disease Conditions ... In China, Keshan and Kashin-Beck diseases are human. 21,22,23 ... and cytotoxic cell activities that act against the HIV virus.

  7. Selenium derivatives of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Novel selenium derivatives of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine are described. They preferably contain at least one 75 Se atom. The compounds are useful in dual isotope assays of thyroid function. (U.K.)

  8. Assessment of selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium soy foods in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Reeves, Philip G; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2010-10-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from a protein isolate and tofu (bean curd) prepared from naturally produced high-Se soybeans. The Se concentrations of the soybeans, the protein isolate and tofu were 5.2±0.2, 11.4±0.1 and 7.4±0.1mg/kg, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet containing 14, 24 or 30 μg Se/kg from the protein isolate or 13, 23 or 31 μg Se/kg from tofu, respectively. l-Selenomethionine (SeMet) was used as a reference. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for the protein isolate and tofu to those for SeMet by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Furthermore, supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in the Se concentrations of plasma, liver, muscle and kidneys. These results indicated an overall bioavailability of approximately 101% for Se from the protein isolate and 94% from tofu, relative to SeMet. We conclude that Se from naturally produced high-Se soybeans is highly bioavailable in this model and that high-Se soybeans may be a good dietary source of Se. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Mercury and selenium levels, and selenium:mercury molar ratios of brain, muscle and other tissues in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A number of contaminants affect fish health, including mercury and selenium, and the selenium: mercury molar ratio. Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for consumption of saltwater fish. Yet the relative ameliorating effects of selenium on toxicity within fish have not been examined, nor has the molar ratio in different tissues, (i.e. brain). We examined mercury and selenium levels in brain, kidney, liver, red and white muscle, and skin and scales in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey to determine whether there were toxic levels of either metal, and we computed the selenium: mercury molar ratios by tissues. Total mercury averaged 0.32 ± 0.02 ppm wet weight in edible muscle and 0.09 ± 0.01 ppm in brain. Selenium concentration averaged 0.37 ± 0.03 in muscle and 0.36 ± 0.03 ppm in brain. There were significant differences in levels of mercury, selenium, and selenium: mercury molar ratios, among tissues. Mercury and selenium levels were correlated in kidney and skin/scales. Mercury levels were highest in kidney, intermediate in muscle and liver, and lowest in brain and skin/scales; selenium levels were also highest in kidney, intermediate in liver, and were an order of magnitude lower in the white muscle and brain. Mercury levels in muscle, kidney and skin/scales were positively correlated with fish size (length). Selenium levels in muscle, kidney and liver were positively correlated with fish length, but in brain; selenium levels were negatively correlated with fish length. The selenium: mercury molar ratio was negatively correlated with fish length for white muscle, liver, kidney, and brain, particularly for fish over 50 cm in length, suggesting that older fish experience less protective advantages of selenium against mercury toxicity than smaller fish, and that consumers of bluefish similarly receive less advantage from eating larger fish. PMID:23202378

  10. Determination of Se at low concentration in coal by collision/reaction cell technology inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Alessandra S.; Rondan, Filipe S.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Mello, Paola A.; Perez, Magali; Armstrong, Joseph; Bullock, Liam A.; Parnell, John; Feldmann, Joerg; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2018-05-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of selenium at low concentration in coal by collision/reaction cell technology inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS). Samples were decomposed by high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) using 250 mg of coal, a mixture of 5 mL of 14.4 mol L-1 HNO3 and 1 mL of 40% HF and 70 min of heating program (200 °C and 40 bar). Hydrogen gas used in the collision/reaction cell was investigated to minimize the argon-based interferences at m/z 77, 78 and 80. The rejection parameter (RPq) and the H2 gas flow rate were set to 0.45 and 4.8 mL min-1, respectively. The use of H2 in the cell resulted in other polyatomic interferences, such as 76Ge1H+, 79Br1H+ and 81Br1H+, which impaired Se determination using 77Se, 80Se and 82Se isotopes, thus Se determination was carried out by monitoring only 78Se isotope. Selenium was determined in certified reference materials of coal (NIST 1635 and SARM 20) and an agreement better than 95% was observed between the results obtained by CRC-ICP-MS and the certified values. Under optimized conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.01 μg L-1 and the method limit of detection was 0.01 μg g-1, which was suitable for Se determination at very low concentration in coal.

  11. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl acid... of vitamin E (17 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl acid succinate.) (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510...

  12. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  13. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  14. Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism

  15. Double beta decay of 82Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Hahn, A.A.; Moe, M.K.; Nelson, M.A.; Vient, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The two-neutrino double beta decay of 82 Se has been measured during a 20 244 h run resulting in a half-life of 1.08 -0.06 +0.26 x10 20 years (68% C.L.). No candidate events for the zero-neutrino double beta decay during 21 924 h results in a half-life limit of 2.7x10 22 years at the 68% confidence level

  16. Anglo-Australian Telescope 1981/82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Operations of the Board for the period July 81 to June 82 are summarised. Major areas under study are galaxies, quasi-stellar objects, stars, supernova remnants and interstellar material. Research on dwarf novae, an infrared view of our galactic centre, the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068, galaxies at great distances, the highest redshift quasar, the origin of quasar absorption lines and the unseen mass in our galaxy is briefly reported

  17. Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retondario, Anabelle; Fernandes, Ricardo; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-03-02

    Metabolic syndrome is a multi-causal disease. Its treatment includes lifestyle changes with a focus on weight loss. This systematic review assessed the association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected mainly from four databases: PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane), Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Keywords related to metabolic syndrome, selenium, as well as metabolic syndrome features were searched. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. A systematic review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (n. 42016046321). Two reviewers independently screened 2957 abstracts. Six studies were included to perform data extraction with standardized spreadsheets. The risk of bias was assessed by using specific tools according to the design of the relevant studies. An assessment was carried out based on the appropriateness of the study reports accordingly to STROBE and the CONSORT-based checklist for each study design. Three studies found no association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome; two of them found an inverse association; and one study found a direct association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. One study also showed an inverse association between Selenium intake and the prevalence of high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure, and hyperglycaemia in women. Overall, based on the argumentation and results of this study, it is possible to conclude that Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome are not clearly associated in adults and elderly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological effects of selenium and relationships with carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diplock, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    Selenium is an element that is both essential, at low levels of dietary intake, and toxic, at high levels, to man and a wide range of animals. The purpose of the communication is to review the evidence for the involvement of hyper- and hypo-selenosis in the etiology of cancer. High levels of selenium intake have been blamed for an increase in cancer, dental caries and an array of other conditions. Critical evaluation of the evidence, however, leads to the conclusion that such claims have little substance. On the other hand, low levels of selenium intake may be associated with an increased incidence of certain forms of cancer and there appears to be an inverse relationship between blood selenium levels and cancer death rate in the US. Keshan Disease, in the People's Republic of China has only been shown to occur in populations severely depleted of selenium. In well nourished populations there is no evidence to indicate that selenium supplements have any prophylactic or therapeutic benefit against human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease or cystic fibrosis. 33 references.

  19. Nuclear-based methods for the study of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Akanle, O.A.; Dhani, A.

    1988-01-01

    The essentiality of selenium to the human being and in particular its deficiency state, associated with prolonged inadequate dietary intake, have received considerable attention. In addition, the possible relationship between selenium and cancer and the claim that selenium may possess cancer-prevention properties have focused research effort. It has been observed in a number of studies on laboratory animals that selenium supplementation protects the animals against carcinogen-induced neoplastic growth in various organ sites, reduces the incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors, and suppresses the growth of transplanted tumor cells. In these research programs on the relationship between trace element levels and senile dementia and depression and the elemental changes in blood associated with selenium supplementation in a normal group of volunteers, it became obvious that in addition to establishing normal levels of elements in the population of interest, there was a more fundamental requirement for methods to be developed that would allow the study of the distribution of selenium in the body and its binding sites. The authors propose emission tomography and perturbed angular correlation as techniques worth exploring

  20. Selenium in the Blackfoot, Salt, and Bear River Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nine stream sites in the Blackfoot River, Salt River, and Bear River watersheds in southeast Idaho, USA were sampled in May 2001 for water, surficial sediment, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. Selenium was measured in these aquatic ecosystem components, and a hazard assessment was performed on the data. Water quality characteristics such as pH, hardness, and specific conductance were relatively uniform among the nine sites. Of the aquatic components assessed, water was the least contaminated with selenium because measured concentrations were below the national water quality criterion of 5 μ g/L at eight of the nine sites. In contrast, selenium was elevated in sediment, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, and fish from several sites, suggesting deposition in sediments and food web cycling through plants and invertebrates. Selenium was elevated to concentrations of concern in fish at eight sites (> 4 μ g/g in whole body). A hazard assessment of selenium in the aquatic environment suggested a moderate hazard at upper Angus Creek (UAC) and Smoky Creek (SC), and high hazard at Little Blackfoot River (LiB), Blackfoot River gaging station (BGS), State Land Creek (SLC), upper (UGC) and lower Georgetown Creek (LGC), Deer Creek (DC), and Crow Creek (CC). The results of this study indicate that selenium concentrations from the phosphate mining area of southeast Idaho were sufficiently elevated in several ecosystem components to cause adverse effects to aquatic resources in southeastern Idaho.

  1. The Thermodynamics of Selenium Minerals in Near-Surface Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Krivovichev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium compounds are relatively rare as minerals; there are presently only 118 known mineral species. This work is intended to codify and systematize the data of mineral systems and the thermodynamics of selenium minerals, which are unstable (selenides or formed in near-surface environments (selenites, where the behavior of selenium is controlled by variations of the redox potential and the acidity of solutions at low temperatures and pressures. These parameters determine the migration of selenium and its precipitation as various solid phases. All selenium minerals are divided into four groups—native selenium, oxide, selenides, and oxysalts—anhydrous selenites (I and hydrous selenites and selenates (II. Within each of the groups, minerals are codified according to the minimum number of independent elements necessary to define the composition of the mineral system. Eh–pH diagrams were calculated and plotted using the Geochemist’s Workbench (GMB 9.0 software package. The Eh–pH diagrams of the Me–Se–H2O systems (where Me = Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ag, Bi, As, Sb, Al and Ca were plotted for the average contents of these elements in acidic waters in the oxidation zones of sulfide deposits. The possibility of the formation of Zn, Cd, Ag and Hg selenites under natural oxidation conditions in near surface environments is discussed.

  2. Selenium accumulation in the cockle Anadara trapezia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Dianne F.; Maher, William A.; Kyd, Jennelle

    2004-01-01

    An extensive study on Se accumulation in a population of Anadara trapezia from a marine lake is reported. The effects of organism mass, gender, reproductive cycle, and season on Se accumulation and tissue distribution were investigated. Analyses showed that gender and reproductive cycle had no significant effect on Se accumulation. A. trapezia showed a strong positive correlation between Se burden and tissue mass. Constant Se concentrations were observed within individual populations but varied spatially with sediment Se concentrations. Se concentrations in tissues decreased from gills > gonad/intestine > mantle > muscle > foot, which remained constant over 12 months, however, significantly lower concentrations were observed in the summer compared to winter. A. trapezia is a good biomonitor for Se, as gender and size do not effect concentration, however, season of collection must be reported if changes in Se bioavailability are to be identified in short term studies, or during intersite comparisons. - Capsule: The marine bivalve Anadara trapezia is a good bioindicator for marine selenium contamination

  3. Selenium content in milk and diary samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2005-01-01

    Food is the primary source of Se for human beings. As such determining Se levels in foodstuffs become very important. However, information concerning Se levels in different sources of nutrition in different country, particularly in Brazil, is limited. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to effectively determine micronutrient levels in foodstuffs, such as milk and dairy samples. The advantage of using the INAA technique is that the samples do not require previous dissolution before analysis. In this study, INAA was applied to determine Se concentration in milk and dairy products. The samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After a 8-hour irradiation in the research reactor IEA-R1, selenium was analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials (Whole Milk Powder and Non Fat Milk Powder). Se concentrations in the sample analyzed were below 0.300 μg g -1 . (author)

  4. Selenium implantation in epitaxial gallium arsenide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, T.; Tokunaga, K.; Taka, S.; Yuge, Y.; Kohzu, H.

    1981-01-01

    Selenium implantation at room temperature in S-doped epitaxial GaAs layers as a means of the formation of n + layers has been investigated. Doping profiles for Se-implanted layers have been examined by a C-V technique and/or a differential Hall effect method. It has been shown that n + layers with a maximum carrier concentration of approx. equal to1.5 x 10 18 cm -3 can be formed by implantation followed by a 15 min annealing at 950 0 C. Contact resistance of ohmic electrodes is reduced by use of the Se-implanted n + layers, resulting in the improvement on GaAs FET performance. Measured minimum noise figure of the Se-implanted GaAs FETs is 0.74 dB at 4 GHz. (orig.)

  5. Chemical reactions of fission products with ethylene using the gas jet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contis, E.T.; Rengan, Krish; Griffin, Henry C.

    1994-01-01

    An understanding of the nature of the chemical reactions taking place between fission products and their carrier gases, and the designing of a fast separation procedure were the purposes of this investigation. Chemical reactions of short-lived (less than one minute half-life) fission products with carrier gases lead to various chemical species which can be separated in the gas phase. The Gas Jet Facility at the Ford Nuclear Reactor was used to study the yields of volatile selenium and bromine fission products of 235 U using a semi-automatic batch solvent extraction technique. Heptane and water were used as organic and inorganic solvents. A carrier gas mixture of ethylene to pre-purified nitrogen (1 : 3) was used to sweep the fission products from the target to the chemistry area for analysis. The results indicated that the volatile selenium products generated by the interaction of selenium fission fragments with ethylene were predominantly organic in nature (84%), possibly organoselenides. The selenium values were used to resolve the fractions of the bromine nuclides, which come from two major sources, viz., directly from fission and from the beta-decay of selenium. The data showed that the fractions of independent bromine fission products in the organic phase were much lower compared to selenium; the bromine values range from 10 to 22% and varied with mass number. Results indicated that the bromine products were inorganic in nature, as possibly hydrogen chloride. ((orig.))

  6. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  7. Effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvicala, J.; Hrda, P.; Zamrazil, V.; Nemecek, J.; Hill, M.; Jiranek, V.

    2009-01-01

    Selenium is an essential component of selenoproteins, enzymes with extensive regulatory and protective effect in organism. Immunological effects of Se are documented and are distinct even above concentrations necessary for maximal activity of selenoenzymes. Therefore, we investigated effect of supplementation by 100 μg of yeast-bound Se on concentrations of thyroid autoantibodies TPOAb and TgAb in the group of 253 seniors living in the Asylum Houses of South Bohemia. Increase of serum selenium from 59 to 150 μg Se/L serum in supplemented group and from 59 to 72 μg Se/L serum in group with placebo were detected by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and proved increased Se intake during the trial. Autoantibodies were analyzed by ELISA at the beginning of the trial and after 1 year. Statistical evaluation of results in whole groups (regardless of increased autoantibodies) by ANOVA manifested significant decrease of TPOAb and TgAb in non-supplemented group while supplementation did not effect serum autoantibodies concentrations. Evaluation of groups of seniors created from those with increased autoantibodies, ANOVA demonstrated decrease of TPOAb in both groups but Se supplementation did not affect the decrease. In opposite, TgAb increased significantly and Se supplementation led to higher increase of TgAb. Recent results of possibility to decrease serum concentration of TPOAb proved this effect only for high TPOAb concentrations and for higher Se supplements. From this point of view, it is necessary to conduct subsequent trials with the patients with autoimmune thyreoiditis with different levels of autoantibodies and detect also serum Se levels. (author)

  8. Determinants of selenium status in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeg Antonia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium (Se status in non-deficient subjects is typically assessed by the Se contents of plasma/serum. That pool comprises two functional, specific selenoprotein components and at least one non-functional, non-specific components which respond differently to changes in Se intake. A more informative means of characterizing Se status in non-deficient individuals is needed. Methods Multiple biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P [SEPP1], plasma glutathione peroxidase activity [GPX3], buccal cell Se, urinary Se were evaluated in relation to selenoprotein genotypes (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, SEP15, dietary Se intake, and parameters of single-carbon metabolism in a cohort of healthy, non-Se-deficient men (n = 106 and women (n = 155. Conclusions Plasma Se concentration was 142.0 ± 23.5 ng/ml, with GPX3 and serum-derived SEPP1 calculated to comprise 20% and 34%, respectively, of that total. The balance, comprised of non-specific components, accounted for virtually all of the interindividual variation in total plasma Se. Buccal cell Se was associated with age and plasma homocysteine (hCys, but not plasma Se. SEPP1 showed a quadratic relationship with body mass index, peaking at BMI 25-30. Urinary Se was greater in women than men, and was associated with metabolic body weight (kg0.75, plasma folate, vitamin B12 and hCys (negatively. One GPX1 genotype (679T/T was associated with significantly lower plasma Se levels than other allelic variants. Selenium intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, did not predict Se status as indicated by any biomarker. These results show that genotype, methyl-group status and BMI contribute to variation in Se biomarkers in Se-adequate individuals.

  9. Copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on the nutritional characteristics of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Saran Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.

  10. Selenium Homeostasis and Clustering of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Salehi, Mansour; Nezafati, Pouya; Gharpour, Amin

    2017-10-23

      Selenium is a trace element required for a range of cellular functions. It is widely used for the biosynthesis of the unique amino acid selenocysteine [Sec], which is a structural element of selenoproteins. This systematic review focused on the possible relation between selenium and metabolic risk factors. The literature was searched via PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Searches were not restricted by time or language. Relevant studies were selected in three phases. After an initial quality assessment, two reviewers extracted all the relevant data, whereas the third reviewer checked their extracted data. All evidence came from experimental and laboratory studies. Selenoprotein P is the best indicator for selenium nutritional levels. In addition, high levels of selenium may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome while the lack of sufficient selenium may also promote metabolic syndrome. selenium supplementation in subjects with sufficient serum selenium levels has a contrary effect on blood pressure, LDL, and total cholesterol. According to the bioavailability of different types of selenium supplementation such as selenomethionine, selenite and selenium-yeast, it seems that the best nutritional type of selenium is selenium-yeast. Regarding obtained results of longitudinal studies and randomized controlled trials, selenium supplementation should not be recommended for primary or secondary cardio-metabolic risk prevention in populations with adequate selenium status.

  11. Laser-Induced Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Dimethyl Selenium: Chemical Deposition of Selenium and Poly(selenoformaldehyde)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Dana; Urbanová, Markéta; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2004), s. 635-644 ISSN 0165-2370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072107; GA MŠk OC 523.60 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : dimethyl selenium * laser pyrolysis * selenium films Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.352, year: 2004

  12. Use of sodium hydroxide treated selenium deficient barley to induce vitamin E and selenium deficiency in yearling cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, D A; McMurray, C H

    1986-02-15

    Selenium deficient barley grown in Northern Ireland was treated with sodium hydroxide to deplete it of vitamin E. Housed cattle fed a complete diet based on this treated barley developed nutritional degenerative myopathy, showing that spontaneous myopathy in yearling cattle can be the result of vitamin E and selenium deficiency alone. The diet used is as effective and cheaper than others presently in use for inducing degenerative myopathy.

  13. Determination of human and Sprague-Dawley rat trimethylseleonium ion and total selenium urine concentrations from endogenous body selenium pool by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Claassen, J.P.; Rack, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    This study determined trimethylselenonium ion [TMSe,(CH 3 ) 3 Se + ] and total organic selenium cationic species urinary excretion values for healthy human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats fed regular diets. The only source of TMSe was from the endogenous selenium body pool. Total selenium concentration in urine was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. TMSe and total selenium cationic species concentrations and percent of total selenium urine excretion were determined by chemical neutron activation analysis and coupled anion-cation exchange chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography, respectively. Within experimental error, mean values for TMSe and cationic species as percent selenium were comparable for both human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats. This study suggested that TMSe excreated in urine by healthy human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats fed a normal diet is not a minor but a general metabolite of selenium ingested in a normal diet. (author) 27 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  14. Effect of Nitrates, Thiocyanates and Selenium on the Iron and Iodine Status of Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolarska, Anelia V; Maneva, Ana I; Gatseva, Penka D; Katsarova, Mariana N

    2016-09-01

    To find correlations between high thiocyanate and nitrate levels and low selenium levels and the indicators of the iodine and iron status of postpartum women. The study included 41 mothers aged 26.4±5.9 yrs from Asenovgrad and nearby villages. Urinary iodine was determined by the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction and thiocyanate - by the interaction of these ions with acidic solution of KMnO4; for serum nitrates we used the colorimetric method; serum selenium was assessed by electro-thermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry; thyroxin (FT4), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), serum ferritin (SF), and serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) were determined using ELISA; Hb levels were determined by hematology analyzer. Assessing the iodine status, we found a negative correlation between the levels of iodine and thiocyanates in urine (R=-0.717, рnitrates and TSH (R=0.487, р=0.003) and a negative correlation between nitrates and FT4 (R=-0.312, р=0.06). For the iron status, we found a negative correlation between nitrates and SF (R=-0.429, р=0.009) and between nitrates and Hb (R=-0.383, р=0.021). The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that in women with nitrate levels higher than the mean value there was low FT4 level (р=0.06), high TSH level (р=0.013), low Hb concentration (р=0.061) and low SF concentration (р=0.005). The combined effects of environmental factors (elevated nitrate levels and low selenium level) on the iodine and iron status are manifested by low concentrations of FT4 (р=0.033), Hb (р=0.06) and SF (р=0.05) and high level of TSH (р=0.05). In conclusion, we found that environmental factors, especially when combined, have a negative impact on the iron and iodine status of females.

  15. Loss of Selenium-Binding Protein 1 Decreases Sensitivity to Clastogens and Intracellular Selenium Content in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changhui; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan T Y; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesize that SBP1 sequesters cellular selenium and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down SBP1 expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells by employing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach. Reduced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat and camptothecin, reactive oxygen species content, and intracellular retention of selenium after selenomethionine treatment were observed in SBP1 shRNA HeLa cells. Results from Western analyses showed that treatment of HeLa cells with selenomethionine resulted in increased SBP1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of SBP1 rendered HeLa cells increased expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 but not glutathione peroxidase-4 protein levels and accelerated migration from a wound. Altogether, SBP1 retains supplemental selenium and sensitizes HeLa cancer cells to clastogens, suggesting a new cancer treatment strategy by sequestering selenium through SBP1.

  16. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  17. The ISM in the M82 starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Steven

    1993-01-01

    We have observed (O 1) (63 microns) and (Si 2) (35 microns) in the central 700 pc of the starburst galaxy M82. The luminosities in these transitions are 7.1 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosity and 6.2 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosity, respectively, which are each approx. 0.15% of the bolometric luminosity from this region. The ratios of (O 1) line luminosity to (O 3), (Si 2) (35 microns), and to bolometric luminosities in M82 are similar to those in M42, M17, and Sgr A. These similarities, and the association of the bulk of the (O 1) and (Si 2) emission with the ionized emission, suggest that the dominant emission mechanism for (O 1) and (Si 2) in M82 is the same as in these Galactic regions, namely warm gas photodissociated by UV flux from the OB stars responsible for the nearby H 2 regions. We argue that shock or x ray heated gas or H 2 plasma is a minor contributor to the intensities of these fine structure lines. Both the (O 1) (53 microns) and the (Si 2) (35 microns) spectrum show an asymmetric line profile indistinguishable in shape from those of the (O 3) (52 and 88 microns) and (N 3) (57 microns) lines and similar to that of the more extended (C 2) 158 micron line measured previously in M82. We detect two distinct velocity components, which we attribute to emission from two regions at either end of the central bar, where the bar connects to an orbiting torus of neutral gas seen in H 1 and CO J = 1-0. We model separately the two velocity components and derive the physical conditions in these two regions. The clouds in these regions are small, R approx. 1-2 pc, have warm neutral gas surfaces, T approx. 200 K, and are concentrated with volume filling factors of approx. 0.02 and area filling factors of 1-5. The entire central region (R approx. 700 pc) is characterized by a large number, approx. 5 x 10(exp 4), of 2 x 10(exp 3) solar mass clouds with surface densities of approx. 3 x 10(exp 4) cm(exp -3), illuminated by FUV fluxes 10(exp 4) times the average local

  18. Solar India - 82: national solar energy convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the Solar India - 82 conference, which was held 17-19 December 1982. The papers are organized into functional groupings which include: (1) solar radiation, (2) flat plate solar collectors and solar water heaters, (3) solar concentrators, (4) solar air heaters and dryers, (5) solar ponds and energy storage, (6) solar cookers, (7) solar stills, (8) selective coatings, (9) photovoltaics, (10) space heating and cooling, (11) bio-energy, and (12) miscellaneous papers. The vast majority of the papers describe work carried out in India, the vast majority of the papers also contain relatively readable abstracts.

  19. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  20. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Shweta; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  1. Concentrations of boron, molybdenum, and selenium in chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven J.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of boron, molybdenum, and selenium in young chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were determined in three partial life cycle chronic toxicity studies. In each study, fish were exposed to a mixture of boron, molybdenum, selenate, and selenite in the proportions found in subsurface agricultural drainage water in the basin of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Tests were conducted in well water and in site-specific fresh and brackish waters. No boron or molybdenum was detected in fish exposed to concentrations as high as 6,046 μg boron/L and 193 μg molybdenum/L for 90 d in well water or fresh water; however, whole-body concentrations of selenium increased with increasing exposure concentrations in well water and fresh water, but not in brackish water. Concentrations of selenium in chinook salmon were strongly correlated with reduced survival and growth of fish in well water and with reduced survival in a 15-d seawater challenge test of fish from fresh water. Concentrations of selenium in fish seemed to reach a steady state after 60 d of exposure in well water or fresh water. Fish in brackish water had only background concentrations of selenium after 60 d of exposure, and no effects on survival and growth in brackish water or on survival in a 10-d seawater challenge test were exhibited. This lack of effect in brackish water was attributed to initiation of the study with advanced fry, which were apparently better able to metabolize the trace element mixture than were the younger fish used in studies with well water and fresh water. In all three experimental waters, concentration factors (whole-body concentration/waterborne concentration) for selenium decreased with increasing exposure concentrations, suggesting decreased uptake or increased excretion, or both, of selenium at the higher concentrations.

  2. Selenium and the thyroid: A close-knit connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Bhuyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In areas with severe selenium deficiency higher incidence of thyroiditis has been reported due to a decreased activity of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase enzyme within thyroid cells. Aims and Objective: To study the effect of selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Materials and Methods: This is a blinded placebo-controlled prospective study done in 60 patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (as defined by an anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb level more than 150 IU/ml irrespective of the baseline thyroid status. Patients with overt hyperthyroidism who are on antithyroid drugs, patients on any other medication, which may alter the immunity status of the patients, and pregnant patients were excluded from the study. Patients were randomized into two age and TPOAb-matched groups; 30 patients received 200 μg of sodium selenite/day, orally, for 3 months, and 30 patients received placebo. All hypothyroid patients were given l-thyroxine replacement. Results: Of 30 patients in the selenium treated group, 6 patients were overtly hypothyroid, 15 were subclinical hypothyroid, 6 were euthyroid, and 3 were subclinical hyperthyroid. The mean TPOAb concentration decreased significantly by 49.5% (P < 0.013 in the selenium treated group versus 10.1% (P < 0.95 in the placebo-treated group. Conclusion: Selenium substitution has a significant impact on inflammatory activity in thyroid-specific autoimmune disease. It would be of interest to determine whether early treatment with selenium in patients with newly developed autoimmune thyroiditis may delay or even prevent the natural course of these diseases.

  3. Impact of vitamin E and selenium on antioxidant capacity and lipid oxidation of cheddar cheese in accelerated ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Maryam; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Gulzar, Nabila; Shahid, Muhammad Qamar; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Khan, Imran Taj

    2018-04-11

    protein content of cheddar cheese. After 6 weeks of ripening, total antioxidant capacity of T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 , T 6 , T 7 and standard cheese were 29.61%, 44.7%, 53.6%, 42.5%, 41.4%, 64.1%, 85.1% and 25.4%. After 6 weeks of ripening, reducing power of T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 , T 6 , T 7 and SC cheese were 14.7%, 18.1%, 26.3%, 19.2%, 25.3%, 33.4%, 40.3% and 11.6%. After 6 weeks of ripening, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of T 6 and T 7 were 54.2% and 66.9%. While, DPPH free radical scavenging activity of T 1 and standard cheese after 6 weeks of ripening were, 19.1 and 18.5%, respectively. Free fatty acids of vitamin E and selenium supplemented, non-supplemented and standard cheese were not significantly influenced from each other in 0, 6 and 12 weeks old cheddar cheese. Peroxide values of T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 , T 6 , T 7 and standard cheese after 6 weeks of accelerated ripening were 1.19, 1.05, 0.88, 1.25, 0.29, 0.25, 0.24 and 0.28 (MeqO 2 /kg). After 6 weeks of ripening, anisidine value of T 6 and T 7 were 6.55 and 6.14. Conjugated dienes of T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 , T 6 , T 7 and standard cheese, after 6 weeks of accelerated ripening were 0.61, 0.55, 0.42, 0.77, 0.65, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.19. After 6 weeks of accelerated ripening, concentrations unsaturated fatty acids in T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 , T 6 , T 7 and standard cheese decreased by18.19%, 17.45%, 16.82%, 16.19%, 12.71%, 8.48%, 6.92% and 14.71%. After 12 weeks of accelerated ripening, concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 , T 6 and T 7 and standard cheese decreased by 26.2%, 21.2%, 18.7%, 14.2%, 10.4%, 4.84%, 1.03% and 6.78%. Cheddar cheese samples added with vitamin E, selenium and their combinations produced more organic acids during the ripening period of 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks of ripening, flavor score of T 6 and T 7 was better than standard ripened cheddar cheese. After 6 weeks of

  4. Definition of the optimal terms of isotope 82Sr obtaining on cyclotron U-240

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Valkov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the various nuclear reactions for the production of radionuclide 82Sr was performed and optimum process for the production of this radionuclide was determined. Proton beam energy range for minimizing 85Sr impurity was also determined. The thickness of the RbCl target was calculated.

  5. Beneficial Effects of Selenium on Some Morphological and Physiological Trait of Hot Pepper (Capsicum anuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shekari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aluminum (Al, cobalt (Co, sodium (Na, selenium (Se, and silicon (Si are considered as beneficial elements for plants. They are not required for all plants but they can improve the growth and development of some plant species. Selenium is an essential element for human with antioxidant and antivirus functions but is not considered essential for higher plants. Selenium is reported to be protective against cancer and more than 40 types of diseases are associated with Se deficiency. The amounts of selenium in food also depend on the amount of the element in the soil. However, its beneficial role in improving plant growth and stress tolerances is well established. Plants revealed different physiological reactions into the Se levels, some specious accumulate it unlike some which are sensitive and Se is a toxic element for them. Some studies showed that Se can reduce adverse effects of salinity, drought, high and low temperatures and also heavy metal stress by enhancing antioxidant defense and MG detoxification systems. Pepper is one of the most important vegetable crops which have strong antioxidant properties. The effect of Se on vegetable especially on hot pepper is not well documented. Materials and Methods: Present experiment was designed in order to study the effects of different concentrations of selenium on vegetative growth and physiological trait of hot pepper (Capsicum annum cv. kenya in hydroponic conditions in the greenhouse at the Department of Horticulture Science, Islamic Azad University of Shiraz (Iran under natural light with a day/night average temperature of 25/17 °C, relative humidity of 50±8.5% and photoperiod 14/10 (day/night. This experiment was carried out based on completed randomized design (CRD with 5 Se levels at (0 as control, 3, 5, 7 and 10 µM with 3 replications. 30 days old seedling with uniform size were selected and transplanted into 4 L pot containing a mixture of peat moss and perlite (1:1. The

  6. Vaporization studies on elemental tellurium and selenium by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, R., E-mail: rvis1953@gmail.com; Balasubramanian, R., E-mail: rbs@igcar.gov.in; Darwin Albert Raj, D., E-mail: darwinalbertraj1953@gmail.com; Sai Baba, M., E-mail: msb@igcar.gov.in; Lakshmi Narasimhan, T.S., E-mail: tslak@igcar.gov.in

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • A detailed KEMS study of vaporization of elemental tellurium and selenium systems. • Clusters Te{sub i}(g) (i = 2 to 7) and Se{sub i}(g) (i = 2 to 9) identified over Te(s) and Se(s). • p–T relations for Te{sub i}(g) (590 to 690 K) and Se{sub i}(g) (380 to 480 K). • Vapor phase of Te dominated by Te{sub 2}(g) (∼95%) while that of Se by Se{sub 6}(g) (∼50%) and Se{sub 5}(g) (∼25%). • Sublimation and atomization enthalpies deduced for Te{sub i}(g) and Se{sub i}(g). - Abstract: Vaporization studies on elemental tellurium and selenium were conducted by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry in the temperature range of 590–690 K and 380–480 K, respectively. The ionic species Te{sub i}{sup +} (i = 1–7) and Se{sub i}{sup +}(g) (i = 1–9) were detected in the mass spectra over these two condensed phases. Measurement of ion intensities were performed as a function of electron impact energy and as a function of temperature (at different electron impact energies) for identifying the gaseous precursor species as well as for determining the partial pressure–temperature relations and sublimation enthalpies for these species. While the major species over elemental tellurium was confirmed to be Te{sub 2}(g) (with all other gaseous species Te{sub 3}–Te{sub 7} put together constituting less than 5%), the major species over elemental selenium was found to be Se{sub 6}(g), closely followed by Se{sub 5}(g) (with other gaseous species Se{sub 2}–Se{sub 4} and Se{sub 7}–Se{sub 9} put together also moderately constituting ∼25%). From the partial pressures, the thermodynamic data for the sublimation reactions i Te(s) = Te{sub i}(g) and i Se(s) = Se{sub i}(g) were deduced by second- and third-law methods. The atomization enthalpies of tellurium and selenium clusters were also deduced by using the recommended enthalpies of formation of monomeric species. Comparison of the findings obtained in the present study with those in previous studies revealed

  7. Neutron activation analysis applied to the determination of selenium in bovine plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, Sonia E.; Resnizky, Sara M.; Gil, Susana B.; Pawlak, Eva

    1999-01-01

    The procedure used to determine selenium in bovine plasma by neutron irradiation of the samples, followed by a radiochemical separation, is described. This procedure allows the direct determination of the value of the selenium plasmatic level, instead of the indirect conventional method that determines the blood glutathion peroxidase enzyme, as an indicator of the selenium content in the blood. (author)

  8. Speciation of Selenium in Stream Insects Using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrahennadi, R.; Wayland, M.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-05-28

    Selenium contamination in the environment is a widespread problem affecting insects and other wildlife. Insects occupy a critical middle link and aid in trophic transfer of selenium in many terrestrial and freshwater food chains, but the mechanisms of selenium uptake through the food chain are poorly understood. In particular, biotransformation of selenium by insects into different chemical forms will greatly influence how toxic or benign the selenium is to that organism or to its predators. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical form of selenium in insects inhabiting selenium contaminated streams near Hinton, Alberta (Canada). Selenium K near-edge spectra indicate a variability of selenium speciation among the insects that included mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), and craneflies (Diptera). Higher percentages of inorganic selenium were observed in primary consumers, detritivores, and filter feeders than in predatory insects. Among the organic forms of selenium, organic selenides constituted a major fraction in most organisms. A species modeled as trimethylselenonium was observed during the pupal stage of caddisflies. These results provide insights into how the insects cope with their toxic cargo, including how the selenium is biotransformed into less toxic forms and how it can be eliminated from the insects. More broadly, this study demonstrates the strengths of XAS to probe the effects of heavy elements at trace levels in insects from the field.

  9. Speciation of selenium in stream insects using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruwandi Andrahennadi; Mark Wayland; Ingrid J. Pickering [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Department of Geological Sciences

    2007-11-15

    Selenium contamination in the environment is a widespread problem affecting insects and other wildlife. Insects occupy a critical middle link and aid in trophic transfer of selenium in many terrestrial and freshwater food chains, but the mechanisms of selenium uptake through the food chain are poorly understood. In particular, biotransformation of selenium by insects into different chemical forms will greatly influence how toxic or benign the selenium is to that organism or to its predators. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical form of selenium in insects inhabiting selenium contaminated streams near Hinton, Alberta (Canada). Selenium K near-edge spectra indicate a variability of selenium speciation among the insects that included mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), and craneflies (Diptera). Higher percentages of inorganic selenium were observed in primary consumers, detritivores, and filter feeders than in predatory insects. Among the organic forms of selenium, organic selenides constituted a major fraction in most organisms. A species modeled as trimethylselenonium was observed during the pupal stage of caddisflies. These results provide insights into how the insects cope with their toxic cargo, including how the selenium is biotransformed into less toxic forms and how it can be eliminated from the insects. More broadly, this study demonstrates the strengths of XAS to probe the effects of heavy elements at trace levels in insects from the field.

  10. Selenium containing clays minerals as additive for the discoloration of glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, K.; Limpt, J.A.C. van; Fischer, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    While selenium is applied as decolorizing agent for flint container glass or tableware glass, the retention of selenium in glass however is very low. Generally more than 75% of the total selenium input sublimes from the glass melt and leaves the clay minerals due to the high volatility of

  11. Marginal selenium deficiency down-regulates inflammation-related genes in splenic leukocytes of the mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipp, A.P.; Banning, A.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Meplan, C.; Coort, S.L.; Evelo, C.; Keijer, J.; Hesketh, J.; Brigelius, R.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate selenium deficiency may lead to an impaired capacity to cope with health challenges. Functional effects of suboptimal selenium intake are not fully known, and biomarkers for an insufficient selenium supply are inadequate. We therefore fed mice diets of moderately deficient or adequate

  12. Aerobic and anaerobic biosynthesis of nano-selenium for remediation of mercury contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Mortuza, M Golam; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2017-03-01

    Selenium (Se) nanoparticles are often synthesized by anaerobes. However, anaerobic bacteria cannot be directly applied for bioremediation of contaminated top soil which is generally aerobic. In this study, a selenite-reducing bacterium, Citrobacter freundii Y9, demonstrated high selenite reducing power and produced elemental nano-selenium nanoparticles (nano-Se 0 ) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The biogenic nano-Se 0 converted 45.8-57.1% and 39.1-48.6% of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) in the contaminated soil to insoluble mercuric selenide (HgSe) under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfonate enhanced Hg 0 remediation, probably owing to the release of intracellular nano-Se 0 from the bacterial cells for Hg fixation. The reaction product after remediation was identified as non-reactive HgSe that was formed by amalgamation of nano-Se 0 and Hg 0 . Biosynthesis of nano-Se 0 both aerobically and anaerobically therefore provides a versatile and cost-effective remediation approach for Hg 0 -contaminated surface and subsurface soils, where the redox potential often changes dramatically. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Separation of Selenite from Inorganic Selenium Ions using TiO{sub 2} Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongmin; Lim, H. B. [Donkook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    A simple and quick separation technique for selenite in natural water was developed using TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. For the synthesis of nanoparticles, a polymer-assisted sol-gel method using hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was developed to control particle dispersion in the synthetic procedure. In addition, titanium butoxide (TBT) precursor, instead of the typical titanium tetra isopropoxide, was used for the formation of the TiO{sub 2} shell. The synthesized nanoparticles were used to separate selenite (Se{sup 4+}) in the presence of Se{sup 6+} or selenium anions for the photocatalytic reduction to Se{sup 0} atom on the TiO{sub 2} shell, followed by magnetic separation using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The reduction efficiency of the photocatalytic reaction was 81.4% at a UV power of 6W for 3 h with a dark adsorption of 17.5% to the nanoparticles, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The developed separation method can be used for the speciation and preconcentration of selenium cations in environmental and biological analysis.

  14. Nanosized Selenium: A Novel Platform Technology to Prevent Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    As an important category of bacterial infections, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are considered an increasing threat to the safety and health of patients worldwide. HAIs lead to extended hospital stays, contribute to increased medical costs, and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In the United States, infections encountered in the hospital or a health care facility affect more than 1.7 million patients, cost 35.7 billion to 45 billion, and contribute to 88,000 deaths in hospitals annually. The most conventional and widely accepted method to fight against bacterial infections is using antibiotics. However, because of the widespread and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics, many strains of bacteria have rapidly developed antibiotic resistance. Those new, stronger bacteria pose serious, worldwide threats to public health and welfare. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported antibiotic resistance as a global serious threat that is no longer a prediction for the future but is now reality. It has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country. The most effective strategy to prevent antibiotic resistance is minimizing the use of antibiotics. In recent years, nanomaterials have been investigated as one of the potential substitutes of antibiotics. As a result of their vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume, nanomaterials will likely exert a stronger interaction with bacteria which may affect bacterial growth and propagation. A major concern of most existing antibacterial nanomaterials, like silver nanoparticles, is their potential toxicity. But selenium is a non-metallic material and a required nutrition for the human body, which is recommended by the FDA at a 53 to 60 μg daily intake. Nanosized selenium is considered to be healthier and less toxic compared with many metal-based nanomaterials due to the generation of reactive oxygen species from metals, especially heavy metals. Therefore, the objectives of

  15. Hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein B expression: Regulation by selenium status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Mohinder P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein B (apoB contains ligand-binding domain for the binding of LDL to LDL-R site, which enables the removal of LDL from circulation. Our recent data showed that selenium (Se is involved in the lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed to understand the effect of Se deficiency (0.02 ppm and selenium supplementation (1 ppm on apoB expression in liver during hypercholesterolemia in male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were fed with control and high cholesterol diet (2% for 1 and 2 months. ApoB levels by ELISA and protein expression by western blot was done. Hepatic LDL receptor (LDL-R activity (in vivo and mRNA expression by RT-PCR was monitored. Results In selenium deficiency and on high cholesterol diet (HCD feeding apoB levels increased and LDL-R expression decreased significantly after 2 months. On 1 ppm selenium supplementation apoB expression significantly decreased and LDL-R expression increased after 2 months. But after one month of treatment there was no significant change observed in apoB and LDL-R expression. Conclusion So the present study demonstrates that Se deficiency leads to up regulation of apoB expression during experimental hypercholesterolemia. Selenium supplementation upto 1 ppm leads to downregulation of apoB expression. Further, this study will highlight the nutritional value of Se supplementation in lipid metabolism.

  16. Activation analysis of selenium in odorous vegetable foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shoji; Noda, Katsuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    The selenium in odorous vegetables was analyzed by nondestructive neutron activation analysis using 75 Se, by the γ-ray coincidence method with a Ge(Li) and a NaI(Tl) detectors of definite energy ranges. By means of the coincidence counting, the background spectrum in 75 Se in the vicinity of 265 KeV was able to be reduced to about 1/20 of that by the former detector alone, so that the 75 Se detection sensitivity was raised over fourfold. Thus the selenium in odorous vegetables was able to be determined down to the content as low as 0.02 μg/g. The selenium content in garlic bulbs was 0.02 - 0.31 μg/g, and in onion bulbs 0.02 - 0.05 μg/g, both of which agreed well with those by fluorometry. In other odorous vegetables, the selenium content was as little as 0.1 μg/g or lower. It has been said that the selenium content is relatively large along with sulfur because of the same group, but it was found to be fairly small in the odorous vegetables. (Mori, K.)

  17. AN ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF SELENIUM IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Luca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential microelement, sometimes redoubtable, through its beneficial role - risk depending on its concentration in the food chain, at low dose is an important nutrient in the life of humans and animals, contrary at high doses, it becomes toxic. Selenium may be find itself in the environment (soil, sediment, water in many forms (oxidized, reduced, organometallic which determine their mobility and toxicity. Determination of chemical speciation (identification of different chemical forms provides much more complete information for a better understanding of the behavior and the potential impact on the environment. In this work we present the results of methodological research on the extraction of sequential forms of selenium in the soil and the coupling of analytical methods capable of identifying very small amounts of selenium in soils An efficient scheme of sequential extractions forms of selenium (SES consisting in atomic absorption spectrometry coupled with hydride generation (HGAAS has been developed into five experimental steps, detailed in the paper. This operational scheme has been applied to the analysis of chemical speciation in the following areas: the Bărăgan Plain and Central Dobrogea of Romania.

  18. [Plasma selenium and peripartum cardiomyopathy in Bamako, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cénac, A; Touré, K; Diarra, M B; Sergeant, C; Jobic, Y; Sanogo, K; Dembele, M; Fayol, V; Simonoff, M

    2004-01-01

    Peripartum heart failure due to unexplained dilated cardiomyopathy is a common disorder as Savannak-Sahelian Africa. One of the many suspected risk factors identified is selenium deficiency. The purpose of this study was to measure plasma selenium levels in patients with peripartum heart failure due to cardiomyopathy in Bamako, Republic of Mali and compare data with healthy Sahalian women with the same obstetrical status. Plasma selenium was measured in a patient group consisting of 28 Malian women presenting peripartum heart failure and in a control group of 28 healthy breast-feeding Nigerien women of comparable age. The criteria for matching the two groups was parity (similar number of deliveries) since multiparity is a risk factor for peripartum cardiomyopathy. The Wilcoxon test (nonparametric) was used to compare the 2 groups considering up value < 0.05 as significant. Plasma selenium was significantly lower in patients from Mali than in controls from Niger (65 +/- 17 ng/ml vs. 78 +/- 17 ng/ml, p = 0.01). The results of this study showing lower plasma selenium in Bamako patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy than in a matching healthy control population confirms the previous data from the Niamey study.

  19. Optimization of wet digestion procedure of blood and tissue for selenium determination by means of 75Se tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynska, B.; Lipinska, K.

    1977-01-01

    Selenium-75 tracer has been used for optimization of analytical procedure of selenium determination in blood and tissue. Wet digestion procedure and reduction of selenium to its elemental form with tellurium as coprecipitant have been tested. Recovery of selenium obtained with the use of optimized analytical procedure amounts up 95% and precision is equal to 4.2%. (author)

  20. An introduction to PYTHIA 8.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoestrand, Torbjoern; Christiansen, Jesper R.; Corke, Richard; Rasmussen, Christine O. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics; Ask, Stefan [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Desai, Nishita [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Ilten, Philip [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Mrenna, Stephen [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Prestel, Stefan [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Skands, Peter Z. [CERN/PH, Geneva (Switzerland); Monash Univ., Melbourne (Australia). School of Physics

    2014-10-15

    The Pythia program is a standard tool for the generation of events in high-energy collisions, comprising a coherent set of physics models for the evolution from a few-body hard process to a complex multiparticle final state. It contains a library of hard processes, models for initial- and final-state parton showers, matching and merging methods between hard processes and parton showers, multiparton interactions, beam remnants, string fragmentation and particle decays. It also has a set of utilities and several interfaces to external programs. Pythia 8.2 is the second main release after the complete rewrite from Fortran to C++, and now has reached such a maturity that it offers a complete replacement for most applications, notably for LHC physics studies. The many new features should allow an improved description of data.

  1. Verification of rubidium-82 for heart studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Yano, Y.; Twitchell, J.A.; Brennan, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Whereas 82 Rb has been shown to reflect heart blood-flow under normal circumstances and has the great benefit of being available from a noncyclotron source, there remains a question with regard to the physiology of rubidium transport into the heart muscle. The fraction of the amount of the rubidium tracer that goes into the heart varies with flow, and, unfortunately, the amount that accumulates in the muscle will not therefore be proportional to flow. Over the past three years, the authors have re-evaluated this question and determined that the uptake of rubidium in the myocardium follows a simple model of conservation of mass wherein the amount that is present is equal to the product of flow times extraction

  2. An Introduction to PYTHIA 8.2

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Christiansen, Jesper R.; Corke, Richard; Desai, Nishita; Ilten, Philip; Mrenna, Stephen; Prestel, Stefan; Rasmussen, Christine O.; Skands, Peter Z.

    2015-02-11

    The PYTHIA program is a standard tool for the generation of events in high-energy collisions, comprising a coherent set of physics models for the evolution from a few-body hard process to a complex multiparticle final state. It contains a library of hard processes, models for initial- and final-state parton showers, matching and merging methods between hard processes and parton showers, multiparton interactions, beam remnants, string fragmentation and particle decays. It also has a set of utilities and several interfaces to external programs. PYTHIA 8.2 is the second main release after the complete rewrite from Fortran to C++, and now has reached such a maturity that it offers a complete replacement for most applications, notably for LHC physics studies. The many new features should allow an improved description of data.

  3. An introduction to PYTHIA 8.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, Torbjoern; Christiansen, Jesper R.; Corke, Richard; Rasmussen, Christine O.; Mrenna, Stephen; Prestel, Stefan; Skands, Peter Z.; Monash Univ., Melbourne

    2014-10-01

    The Pythia program is a standard tool for the generation of events in high-energy collisions, comprising a coherent set of physics models for the evolution from a few-body hard process to a complex multiparticle final state. It contains a library of hard processes, models for initial- and final-state parton showers, matching and merging methods between hard processes and parton showers, multiparton interactions, beam remnants, string fragmentation and particle decays. It also has a set of utilities and several interfaces to external programs. Pythia 8.2 is the second main release after the complete rewrite from Fortran to C++, and now has reached such a maturity that it offers a complete replacement for most applications, notably for LHC physics studies. The many new features should allow an improved description of data.

  4. Plant selenium hyperaccumulation- Ecological effects and potential implications for selenium cycling and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Jason B; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2018-04-25

    Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation occurs in ~50 plant taxa native to seleniferous soils in Western USA. Hyperaccumulator tissue Se levels, 1000-15,000 mg/kg dry weight, are typically 100 times higher than surrounding vegetation. Relative to other species, hyperaccumulators also transform Se more into organic forms. We review abiotic and biotic factors influencing soil Se distribution and bioavailability, soil being the source of the Se in hyperaccumulators. Next, we summarize the fate of Se in plants, particularly hyperaccumulators. We then extensively review the impact of plant Se accumulation on ecological interactions. Finally, we discuss the potential impact of Se hyperaccumulators on local community composition and Se cycling. Selenium (hyper)accumulation offers ecological advantages: protection from herbivores and pathogens and competitive advantage over other plants. The extreme Se levels in and around hyperaccumulators create a toxic environment for Se-sensitive ecological partners, while offering a niche for Se-resistant partners. Through these dual effects, hyperaccumulators may influence species composition in their local environment, as well as Se cycling. The implied effects of Se hyperaccumulation on community assembly and local Se cycling warrant further investigations into the contribution of hyperaccumulators and general terrestrial vegetation to global Se cycling and may serve as a case study for how trace elements influence ecological processes. Furthermore, understanding ecological implications of plant Se accumulation are vital for safe implementation of biofortification and phytoremediation, technologies increasingly implemented to battle Se deficiency and toxicity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Ftr82 Is Critical for Vascular Patterning during Zebrafish Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Wei Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular components and signaling pathways are required for the proper growth of blood vessels. Here, we report for the first time that a teleost-specific gene ftr82 (finTRIM family, member 82 plays a critical role in vasculature during zebrafish development. To date, there has been no description of tripartite motif proteins (TRIM in vascular development, and the role of ftr82 is unknown. In this study, we found that ftr82 mRNA is expressed during the development of vessels, and loss of ftr82 by morpholino (MO knockdown impairs the growth of intersegmental vessels (ISV and caudal vein plexus (CVP, suggesting that ftr82 plays a critical role in promoting ISV and CVP growth. We showed the specificity of ftr82 MO by analyzing ftr82 expression products and expressing ftr82 mRNA to rescue ftr82 morphants. We further showed that the knockdown of ftr82 reduced ISV cell numbers, suggesting that the growth impairment of vessels is likely due to a decrease of cell proliferation and migration, but not cell death. In addition, loss of ftr82 affects the expression of vascular markers, which is consistent with the defect of vascular growth. Finally, we showed that ftr82 likely interacts with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and Notch signaling. Together, we identify teleost-specific ftr82 as a vascular gene that plays an important role for vascular development in zebrafish.

  6. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Kohrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    ) introduction of iodine fortification. Serum selenium concentration and urinary iodine were measured, and the thyroid gland was examined by ultrasonography in the same subjects. Associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid parameters were examined in multiple linear regression models...... or logistic regression models.Results: Serum selenium concentration was found to be significantly, negatively associated with thyroid volume (P=0.006), and a low selenium status significantly increased the risk for thyroid enlargement (P=0.007). Furthermore, low serum selenium status had a tendency...

  7. Selenium status and cancer mortality in subjects residing in four Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.S.; Horsman, T.L.; Spate, V.L.; Baskett, C.K.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Rohan, T.; Soskolne, C.L.; Jain, M.

    2001-01-01

    Selenium status in male and female Canadian subjects was measured relative to cancer mortality in their respective provinces. Toenail specimens from 755 subjects, 377 males and 378 females, living in Vancouver (186), Edmonton (188), Toronto (197) and Montreal (184) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis giving means of 0.968 ± 0.177, 0.950 ± 0.148, 0.932 ± 0.135 and 0.896 ± 0.127 ppm Se, respectively. The effect of selenium determinants such as gender, selenium supplementation and smoking on selenium status is presented. Details of the observed inverse relationship of selenium status and cancer mortality are discussed. (author)

  8. The Effect of Red Pepper Waste Added to Compost on Selenium Content of Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kalyoncu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selenium levels of P.citrinopileatus added different rates of red pepper waste to compost as a source of selenium were determined. For this purpose, six different compost groups were prepared and inoculated with P.citrinopileatus mycelia. Selenium levels of harvested mushrooms were analysed. In conclusion, 0.338 µg/g selenium were determined in one gram dry mushroom that red pepper waste added to compost at 5%. Mycelia growth and selenium accumulation were negatively affected by higher rates of red pepper waste.

  9. Total selenium in irrigation drain inflows to the Salton Sea, California, April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Saiki, Michael K.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results for the final sampling period (April 2009) of a 4-year monitoring program to characterize selenium concentrations in selected irrigation drains flowing into the Salton Sea, California. Total selenium and total suspended solids were determined in water samples. Total selenium, percent total organic carbon, and particle size were determined in sediments. Mean total selenium concentrations in water ranged from 0.98 to 22.9 micrograms per liter. Total selenium concentrations in sediment ranged from 0.078 to 5.0 micrograms per gram dry weight.

  10. Distribution of Iodine and Selenium in Selected Food Commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strapáč I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the contents of iodine and selenium in selected food commodities. Fresh food commodities were mineralized and analysed for their iodine and selenium content by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry using the calibration curve as the method for determining the contents of the elements. The average fruit and vegetables concentrations of iodine were very low. The cow’s milk, other dairy products, eggs, poultry, fresh water fish, beef, liver, and mushrooms are frequently regarded as the most important natural source of dietary iodine from common foods. The higher concentrations of selenium were recorded in the kidney, liver, pork, beef, poultry, fresh water fish, hen’s eggs, cow’s milk, other dairy products, wheat flour, fats, coffee, peppers, mushrooms and potatoes.

  11. Structure of amorphous selenium studied by neutron diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Knudsen, Torben Steen; Carneiro, K.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements on amorphous selenium have been performed at 293 and 80 K. Careful analyses of the instrumental corrections were made to avoid systematic errors in the measured structure factor S (kappa) in the wave vector region 0 ? kappa ? 12 Å−1. As a result of the data...... treatment, the neutron scattering cross sections of selenium are determined to be sigmacoh = 8.4±0.1 b and sigmainc = 0.1±0.1 b. Using the fact that S (kappa) for large kappa's is determined by the short distances in the sample, a new method for extrapolation of the experimental S (kappa) until convergence....... Finally, we give a brief discussion of the different models for the structure of amorphous selenium, taking both diffraction measurements and thermodynamic considerations into account. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  12. Investigation of the selenium metabolism in cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Kristoffer; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Stürup, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different selenium species for their ability to induce cell death in different cancer cell lines, while investigating the underlying chemistry by speciation analysis. A prostate cancer cell line (PC-3), a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and a leukaemia cell line...... (Jurkat E6-1) were incubated with five selenium compounds representing inorganic as well as organic Se compounds in different oxidation states. Selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), methylseleninic acid (MeSeA), selenite and selenate in the concentration range 5-100 mu M were...... incubated with cells for 24 h and the induction of cell death was measured using flow cytometry. The amounts of total selenium in cell medium, cell lysate and the insoluble fractions was determined by ICP-MS. Speciation analysis of cellular fractions was performed by reversed phase, anion exchange and size...

  13. Deposition of selenium coatings on beryllium foils. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films on 50.8 micrometers thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. A water-cooled enclosure was used to minimize contamination of the vacuum system and to reduce the exposure of personnel to toxic and obnoxious materials. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicated selenium thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 micrometers. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable deposition controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV

  14. The Effect on Selenium Concentrations of a Randomized Intervention with Fish and Mussels in a Population with Relatively Low Habitual Dietary Selenium Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Selenium status of the Danish population is below that assumed optimal for the suggested protective effects against chronic diseases, including certain cancers. Fish and shellfish are important dietary sources of selenium in Denmark. We investigated the effect of increased fish and mussel intake...... on selenium blood concentrations in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48-76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received 1000 g fish and mussels....../week for 26 weeks (similar to 50 mu g selenium/day). Controls received no intervention. Non-fasting blood samples were taken and whole blood selenium was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and plasma selenoprotein P (SelP) was determined by high performance liquid...

  15. Optimization of LC-DRC-ICP-MS for the speciation of selenotrisulfides with simultaneous detection of sulfur and selenium as oxides combined with determination of elemental and isotope ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturup, S.; Bendahl, L.; Gammelgaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    A LC-DRC-ICP-MS method for the simultaneous detection of selenium and Sulfur in the selenotrisulfides selenocysteineglutathione (Cys-Se-SG) and selenodiglutathione (GS-Se-SG) is described. Both sulfur and selenium are reacted with oxygen in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) and detected as oxides....... The selenotrisulfides were separated applying a 30 rnin gradient liquid chromatographic (LC) method with a formic acid/methanol eluent. The detection limits for sulfur (as (SO+)-S-32-O-16) and selenium (as (SeO+)-Se-80-O-16) in the chromatographic system were 4.0 and 0.2 mu g L-1 (100 and 5 ng in absolute mass units...

  16. Epigenetic Regulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Macrophages by Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Vivek; Ravindra, Kodihalli C.; Liao, Chang; Kaushal, Naveen; Carlson, Bradley A.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins by histone acetyltransferases plays a pivotal role in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Given the importance of dietary selenium in mitigating inflammation, we hypothesized that selenium supplementation may regulate inflammatory gene expression at the epigenetic level. The effect of selenium towards histone acetylation was examined in both in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and immunoblotting. Our results indicated that selenium supplementation, as selenite, decreased acetylation of histone H4 at K12 and K16 in COX-2 and TNF promoters, and of the p65 subunit of the redox sensitive transcription factor NFκB in primary and immortalized macrophages. On the other hand, selenomethionine had a much weaker effect. Selenite treatment of HIV-1 infected human monocytes also significantly decreased the acetylation of H4 at K12 and K16 on the HIV-1 promoter, supporting the downregulation of proviral expression by selenium. A similar decrease in histone acetylation was also seen in the colonic extracts of mice treated with dextran sodium sulfate that correlated well with the levels of selenium in the diet. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from Trspfl/flCreLysM mice that lack expression of selenoproteins in macrophages confirmed the important role of selenoproteins in the inhibition of histone H4 acetylation. Our studies suggest that the ability of selenoproteins to skew the metabolism of arachidonic acid to contribute, in part, to their ability to inhibit histone acetylation. In summary, our studies suggest a new role for selenoproteins in the epigenetic modulation of pro-inflammatory genes. PMID:25458528

  17. Selenium and Selenoprotein Deficiencies Induce Widespread Pyogranuloma Formation in Mice, while High Levels of Dietary Selenium Decrease Liver Tumor Size Driven by TGFα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianxin; Ward, Jerrold M.; Perella, Christine M.; Hoffmann, Victoria J.; Rogers, Keith; Combs, Gerald F.; Schweizer, Ulrich; Merlino, Glenn; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dietary selenium and selenoprotein status may influence both anti- and pro-cancer pathways, making the outcome of interventions different from one study to another. To characterize such outcomes in a defined setting, we undertook a controlled hepatocarcinogenesis study involving varying levels of dietary selenium and altered selenoprotein status using mice carrying a mutant (A37G) selenocysteine tRNA transgene (TrsptG37) and/or a cancer driver TGFα transgene. The use of TrsptG37 altered selenoprotein expression in a selenoprotein and tissue specific manner and, at sufficient dietary selenium levels, separate the effect of diet and selenoprotein status. Mice were maintained on diets deficient in selenium (0.02 ppm selenium) or supplemented with 0.1, 0.4 or 2.25 ppm selenium or 30 ppm triphenylselenonium chloride (TPSC), a non-metabolized selenium compound. TrsptG37 transgenic and TGFα/TrsptG37 bi-transgenic mice subjected to selenium-deficient or TPSC diets developed a neurological phenotype associated with early morbidity and mortality prior to hepatocarcinoma development. Pathology analyses revealed widespread disseminated pyogranulomatous inflammation. Pyogranulomas occurred in liver, lungs, heart, spleen, small and large intestine, and mesenteric lymph nodes in these transgenic and bi-transgenic mice. The incidence of liver tumors was significantly increased in mice carrying the TGFα transgene, while dietary selenium and selenoprotein status did not affect tumor number and multiplicity. However, adenoma and carcinoma size and area were smaller in TGFα transgenic mice that were fed 0.4 and 2.25 versus 0.1 ppm of selenium. Thus, selenium and selenoprotein deficiencies led to widespread pyogranuloma formation, while high selenium levels inhibited the size of TGFα–induced liver tumors. PMID:23460847

  18. The necessity of selenium substitution in total parenteral nutrition and artificial alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramm, H J; Kopf, A; Brätter, P

    1995-03-01

    For the trace element selenium, in contrast to zinc, iron, copper, chromium, manganese and iodine, there is still no clear official recommendation with regard to routine substitution in artificial nutrition. An overview of the manifestations of selenium deficiency in humans during the period 1979-1995 shows that nutritive deficiencies are exclusively TPN-induced or the result of severe malnutrition. The pathology of TPN-induced selenium deficiency and the analytic assessment of selenium status are described. Patients undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition or suffering from an increased loss of intestinal secretions have to be characterized as being especially at risk for clinical selenium deficiency. The relationship of the serum selenium kinetics in pediatric and adult patients to the depletion of body compartments during the course of short-term and prolonged TPN is discussed. Because of the importance of the selenoproteins, the regularly occurring depletion during selenium-free TPN and the borderline supply of selenium in Germany the routine substitution of selenium in TPN is strongly recommended. The pharmaceutical industry should be encouraged to develop a trace element solution that includes selenium, so that the nutritive requirement of patients on TPN can be satisfied. Adequate intravenous dosage recommendations are based on maintenance of glutathione peroxidase homeostasis. The routine supplementation dosage may not meet the selenium requirements of intensive care patients under conditions of increased metabolic demands on their anti-oxidative system.

  19. Selenium and Its Supplementation in Cardiovascular Disease—What do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, Carina; Goetzenich, Andreas; Kraemer, Sandra; Borosch, Sebastian; Manzanares, William; Hardy, Gil; Stoppe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The trace element selenium is of high importance for many of the body’s regulatory and metabolic functions. Balanced selenium levels are essential, whereas dysregulation can cause harm. A rapidly increasing number of studies characterizes the wide range of selenium dependent functions in the human body and elucidates the complex and multiple physiological and pathophysiological interactions of selenium and selenoproteins. For the majority of selenium dependent enzymes, several biological functions have already been identified, like regulation of the inflammatory response, antioxidant properties and the proliferation/differentiation of immune cells. Although the potential role of selenium in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has been investigated for decades, both observational and interventional studies of selenium supplementation remain inconclusive and are considered in this review. This review covers current knowledge of the role of selenium and selenoproteins in the human body and its functional role in the cardiovascular system. The relationships between selenium intake/status and various health outcomes, in particular cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia/infarction and reperfusion injury are reviewed. We describe, in depth, selenium as a biomarker in coronary heart disease and highlight the significance of selenium supplementation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:25923656

  20. Selenium and Its Supplementation in Cardiovascular Disease—What do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Benstoem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The trace element selenium is of high importance for many of the body’s regulatory and metabolic functions. Balanced selenium levels are essential, whereas dysregulation can cause harm. A rapidly increasing number of studies characterizes the wide range of selenium dependent functions in the human body and elucidates the complex and multiple physiological and pathophysiological interactions of selenium and selenoproteins. For the majority of selenium dependent enzymes, several biological functions have already been identified, like regulation of the inflammatory response, antioxidant properties and the proliferation/differentiation of immune cells. Although the potential role of selenium in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has been investigated for decades, both observational and interventional studies of selenium supplementation remain inconclusive and are considered in this review. This review covers current knowledge of the role of selenium and selenoproteins in the human body and its functional role in the cardiovascular system. The relationships between selenium intake/status and various health outcomes, in particular cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia/infarction and reperfusion injury are reviewed. We describe, in depth, selenium as a biomarker in coronary heart disease and highlight the significance of selenium supplementation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  1. [Is plasma selenium correlated to transthyretin levels in critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renata G B O N; Nogueira, Roberto Jose Negrão; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Ferreira, Matthew Thomas; Hessel, Gabriel

    2017-06-05

    Selenium is an essential trace element, but critically ill patients using total parenteral nutrition (PN) do not receive selenium because this mineral is not commonly offered. Threfore, the eval uation of plasma selenium levels is very important for treating or preventing this deficiency. Recent studies have shown that transthyretin may reflect the selenium intake and could be considered a biomarker. However, this issue is still little explored in the literature. This study aims to investigate the correlation of transthyretin with the plasma selenium of critically ill patients receiving PN. This was a prospective cohort study with 44 patients using PN without selenium. Blood samples were carried out in 3 stages: initial, 7th and 14th day of PN. In order to evaluate the clinical condition and the inflammatory process, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), transthyretin, creatinine and HDL cholesterol levels were observed. To assess the selenium status, plasma selenium and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in whole blood were measured. Descriptive analyses were performed and the ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Spearman's coefficient tests were conducted; we assumed a significance level of 5%. A positive correlation of selenium with the GPx levels (r = 0.46; p = 0.03) was identified. During two weeks, there was a positive correlation of transthyretin with plasma selenium (r = 0.71; p = 0.05) regardless of the CRP values. Transthyretin may have reflected plasma selenium, mainly because the correlation was verified after the acute phase.

  2. Comparative enzymology of the adenosine triphosphate sulfurylases from leaf tissue of selenium-accumulator and non-accumulator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, W H; Anderson, J W

    1974-01-01

    ATP sulfurylases were partially purified (20-40-fold) from leaf tissue of Astragalus bisulcatus, Astragalus racemosus (selenium-accumulator species) and Astragalus hamosus and Astragalus sinicus (non-accumulator species). Activity was measured by sulfate-dependent PP/sub 1/-ATP exchange. The enzymes were separated from pyrophosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase activities. The properties of the Astragalus ATP sulfurylases were similar to the spinach enzyme. The ATP sulfurylases from both selenium-accumulator and non-accumulator species catalyzed selenate-dependent PP/sub 1/-ATP exchange; selenate competed with sulfate. The ratio of V(selenate)/V(sulfate) and K/sub m/ (selenate)/K/sub m/(sulfate) was approximately the same for the enzyme from each species. Sulfate-dependent PP/sub 1/-ATP exchange was inhibited by ADP, chlorate and nitrate. The kinetics of the inhibition for each enzyme were consistent with an ordered reaction mechanisms, in which ATP is the first substrate to react with the enzyme and PP/sub 1/ is the first product released. Synthesis of adenosine 5'-(/sup 35/S)sulfatophosphate from (/sup 35/S)sulfate was demonstrated by coupling the Astrgalus ATP sulfurylases with Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent pyrophosphatase; the reaction was inhibited by selenate. An analogous reaction using (/sup 75/Se)selenate as substrate could not be demonstrated.

  3. Hydrodynamic aspects of selenium X-ray laser targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charatis, G; Busch, G E; Shepard, C L; Campbell, P M; Rosen, M D

    1986-10-01

    Recent experiments at KMS have been performed to investigate parameter variations of target component thickness, laser pulse duration and intensity, and one-sided vs two-sided irradiation in order to optimize the performance of the Livermore exploding foil selenium x-ray laser experiments. Preliminary experiments with selenium double foil targets were also conducted as a means of prolonging the duration and enlarging the spatial extent of the lasing conditions. Four-frame holographic interferometry was used in determining the time-dependence of density profiles obtained by Abel inversion of the interferometric fringe field and comparisons were made to LASNEX code calculations.

  4. Blood selenium content determination by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of some elements in small amounts (traces) in the human body is of foremost importance for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. It has been recently shown that traces of selenium in blood are closely related to the occurrence of miotonic distrophy, a muscular disease that is affecting a significant percentage of the population. This work describes a simple procedure to determine selenium in human blood serum by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Final quantification is achieved through the addition of titanium as an internal standard. (Author) [es

  5. Muonic X-ray intensities in phosphorus- and selenium modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, K.; Robert-Tissot, B.; Schaller, L.A.; Schellenberg, L.; Schneuwly, H.

    1979-01-01

    Muonic X-ray intensity measurements have been performed at SIN on allotropic modifications of phosphorus (white, red and black) and of selenium (red and black). Structure effects have been found in the intensity ratios of the K-series between amorphous and crystalline modifications of the same element. The effect in the higher series (Se) is less pronounced. On the other hand, the two crystalline phosphorus modifications (red and black) show the same intensity behavior. The root-mean-square radii 2 >sup(1/2) of phosphorus and (natural) selenium were found to be 3.187(3) fm and 4.138(1) fm respectively. (Auth.)

  6. Effect of irradiation on sod activity and selenium content in garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weimin; Zheng Anjian; Yan Jianmin; Cao Qingsui; Wu Haihong; Cao Shifeng

    2006-01-01

    The effects of irradiation at 0.1 kGy, 1.0 kGy on SOD activity and the content of total selenium, inorganic selenium, organic selenium in garlic (Allium sativum L.) stored at 10 degree C or 25 degree C were investigated. The results indicated that irradiation treatment with 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy significantly slowed the reduction of SOD activities in garlic stored at 10 degree C or 25 degree C, while the treatment irradiation had no influence on the content of all kinds of selenium. But the garlic stored at 25 degree C had higher content of total selenium, inorganic selenium, organic selenium than that in garlic stored at 10 degree C. (authors)

  7. Influence of dietary sodium selenite on tissue selenium levels of growing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moksnes, K.; Tollersrud, S.; Larsen, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty Norwegian Landrace pigs were divided into 5 groups and fed a basal diet consisting of a mixture of dried skim milk and whey powder together with ground barley. The diet was supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.8, 1.2, and 2.2 μg/g selenium as sodium selenite and was fed for 12 weeks. The muscle selenium level was increased by a factor of about 4 and the liver selenium by a factor of about 12 when the dietary selenium supplement was increased from zero to 2.2μg/g. There was a significant linear correlation between dietary selenium and selenium concentrations in tissues. Possible benefit for humans consuming meat from animals having received the selenium doses used in this experiment are discussed. (author)

  8. Serum selenium concentration in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal complica......The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal...... complications and selenium values. In mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries serum selenium concentrations were 0.84 +/- 0.19 mumol/l (mean +/- SD), whereas in cord blood from full-term babies born adequate for gestational age and with no malformations serum selenium concentrations were 0...

  9. Potential reproduction and response of selenium and zinc mineral supplementation on quality of goat samosir semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswoyo, P.; Tafsin, M.; Handarini, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of suppllementattion of selenium and zinc on semen quality and growth of samosir goat. The experimental design used latin square design (4x4). The treatment supplementation mineral on multi nutrient block (MNB) composed of without sipplementation (p0), +10ppm selenium (p1), +10ppm zinc (p2), +10ppm selenium and +10ppm zinc (p3). The result showed that supplementation mineral selenium and zinc increased significantly (pgoat were supplemented by selenium and zinc influenced motility, viability, volume concentration, and responding hypo osmotic swelling (HOS). Combination supplementation selenium and zinc significanly had higher semen quality than ither treatment. It is concluded that supplementation selenium and zinc improve growth and semen quality of samosir goat.

  10. Introduction of iodine 131 and bromine 82 in antibiotics of tetracycline group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.P.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Grushevich, L.E.; Kuz'mina, T.S.

    1983-01-01

    Chloline- and oxytetracycline reactions with iodide-131-and bromide-82-ions in methanol and acetone are studied. It is established that labelled compounds reveal tetracycline (TC) properties in pharmacokinetic experiments on laboratory animals for 20-25 hours after synthesis; the yield of purposeful preparations for radioactive isotopes is 90-95%. Kinetic dependences of iodine-131 and bromine-82-TC yield on acidity and temperature of medium are presented. TC radiation resistance in solutions and in solid state at different temperatures in the range of absorbed doses of 1-10 Mrad is investigated. The possibility of TC radiation sterilization is shown

  11. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhizeng Wang,1 Dejuan Zhi,2 Yang Zhao,1 Hailong Zhang,2 Xin Wang,2 Yi Ru,1 Hongyu Li1,2 1MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Institute of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Although high melamine (MEL intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 µg/kg, 1,000 µg/kg, and 800 µg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. Keywords: melamine, selenium nanoparticles, test strip, milk, animal feed, dairy food

  12. Direct introduction of volatile carbon compounds into the spray chamber of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer: Sensitivity enhancement for selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, Miroslav; Goessler, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The effect of signal enhancement of elements with ionization potentials in the range from 9 to 11 eV by carbon-containing compounds is a well-known phenomenon in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). It has traditionally been exploited through the addition of organic solvents to the sample matrix or to the mobile phase to improve sensitivity. In the present work, aqueous solutions of volatile carbon compounds (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) were directly introduced into the thermostatted spray chamber rather than being added to the sample matrix. It is presumed that no aerosol is produced from these solutions and only vapors of organic compounds are swept into the plasma together with the sample aerosol. When a 0.40 mol l -1 aqueous solution of acetone was introduced directly into the spray chamber, the signals for arsenic and selenium were enhanced by a factor of 4.2. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated through the achievement of lower instrumental detection limits for selenium at m/z 82 (0.1 ng ml -1 ) compared to the system without direct introduction of volatile carbon compounds (0.5 ng ml -1 ). The method was successfully applied in the determination of traces of selenium in natural water, urine and bovine liver reference material

  13. Selecting Lentil Accessions for Global Selenium Biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dil Thavarajah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The biofortification of lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus. has the potential to provide adequate daily selenium (Se to human diets. The objectives of this study were to (1 determine how low-dose Se fertilizer application at germination affects seedling biomass, antioxidant activity, and Se uptake of 26 cultivated lentil genotypes; and (2 quantify the seed Se concentration of 191 lentil wild accessions grown in Terbol, Lebanon. A germination study was conducted with two Se treatments [0 (control and 30 kg of Se/ha] with three replicates. A separate field study was conducted in Lebanon for wild accessions without Se fertilizer. Among cultivated lentil accessions, PI533690 and PI533693 showed >100% biomass increase vs. controls. Se addition significantly increased seedling Se uptake, with the greatest uptake (6.2 µg g−1 by PI320937 and the least uptake (1.1 µg g−1 by W627780. Seed Se concentrations of wild accessions ranged from 0 to 2.5 µg g−1; accessions originating from Syria (0–2.5 µg g−1 and Turkey (0–2.4 µg g−1 had the highest seed Se. Frequency distribution analysis revealed that seed Se for 63% of accessions was between 0.25 and 0.75 µg g−1, and thus a single 50 g serving of lentil has the potential to provide adequate dietary Se (20–60% of daily recommended daily allowance. As such, Se application during plant growth for certain lentil genotypes grown in low Se soils may be a sustainable Se biofortification solution to increase seed Se concentration. Incorporating a diverse panel of lentil wild germplasm into Se biofortification programs will increase genetic diversity for effective genetic mapping for increased lentil seed Se nutrition and plant productivity.

  14. Selecting Lentil Accessions for Global Selenium Biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Dil; Abare, Alex; Mapa, Indika; Coyne, Clarice J; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Kumar, Shiv

    2017-08-26

    The biofortification of lentil ( Lens culinaris Medikus.) has the potential to provide adequate daily selenium (Se) to human diets. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine how low-dose Se fertilizer application at germination affects seedling biomass, antioxidant activity, and Se uptake of 26 cultivated lentil genotypes; and (2) quantify the seed Se concentration of 191 lentil wild accessions grown in Terbol, Lebanon. A germination study was conducted with two Se treatments [0 (control) and 30 kg of Se/ha] with three replicates. A separate field study was conducted in Lebanon for wild accessions without Se fertilizer. Among cultivated lentil accessions, PI533690 and PI533693 showed >100% biomass increase vs. Se addition significantly increased seedling Se uptake, with the greatest uptake (6.2 µg g -1 ) by PI320937 and the least uptake (1.1 µg g -1 ) by W627780. Seed Se concentrations of wild accessions ranged from 0 to 2.5 µg g -1 ; accessions originating from Syria (0-2.5 µg g -1 ) and Turkey (0-2.4 µg g -1 ) had the highest seed Se. Frequency distribution analysis revealed that seed Se for 63% of accessions was between 0.25 and 0.75 µg g -1 , and thus a single 50 g serving of lentil has the potential to provide adequate dietary Se (20-60% of daily recommended daily allowance). As such, Se application during plant growth for certain lentil genotypes grown in low Se soils may be a sustainable Se biofortification solution to increase seed Se concentration. Incorporating a diverse panel of lentil wild germplasm into Se biofortification programs will increase genetic diversity for effective genetic mapping for increased lentil seed Se nutrition and plant productivity.

  15. Selenium speciation profiles in biofortified sangiovese wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Maria Chiara; D'Amato, Roberto; Regni, Luca; Proietti, Primo; Beone, Gian Maria; Businelli, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Biofortification is an agronomic-based strategy, utilized by farmers, to produce selenium (Se)-enriched food products that may help reduce dietary deficiencies of Se occurring throughout susceptible regions of the world. The foliar exposure route application ensures a high efficiency of Se assimilation by the plant since it does not depend on root-to-shoot translocation. In this study we treated grapevines of Sangiovese variety in the pre-flowering period with sodium selenate (100mg Se L -1 ). Se content was measured in leaves, fruit at harvest time and in wine respectively in treated and not treated samples with ICP-MS. At harvest, a higher amount of Se in the treated leaves compared to untreated ones was found, 16.0±3.1mgkg -1 dry weight (dw) against 0.17±0.006mgkg -1 dw in the untreated ones. The treated grapes had a content of Se of 0.800±0.08mgkg -1 dw, while that untreated one 0.065±0.025mgkg -1 dw. Immediately after the malolactic fermentation, the wine obtained from treated and untreated vines had a Se content of 0.620±0.09mg Se L -1 and 0.024±0.010mg Se L -1 respectively. In our case the percentage of inorganic Se is 26% of the total Se in the untreated wine, while in Se enriched wine this percentage increase to 47.5% of the total Se. The Se(VI) was the inorganic chemical form more present in enriched wine, probably due to foliar application with selenate. Distributions of Se species suggested being careful to the choice of the enrichment solutions to promote a balanced distribution of different chemical forms, perhaps favouring the accumulation of organic forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 82.36 - Approved refrigerant handling equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment. 82.36 Section 82.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners § 82.36...-12, Extraction and Recycle Equipment for Mobile Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems, and Standard of...

  17. 40 CFR 82.34 - Prohibitions and required practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 82.34 Section 82.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners § 82.34..., any class I or class II substance that is suitable for use as a refrigerant in motor vehicle air...

  18. 34 CFR 82.205 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., drafting of a legal document accompanying a bid or proposal by a lawyer is allowable. Similarly, technical... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Professional and technical services. 82.205 Section 82... by Own Employees § 82.205 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the use of...

  19. 34 CFR 82.300 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and analysis directly applying any professional or technical discipline. For example, drafting or a... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Professional and technical services. 82.300 Section 82... by Other Than Own Employees § 82.300 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the...

  20. 29 CFR 452.82 - Reprisal for exercising rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reprisal for exercising rights. 452.82 Section 452.82 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.82 Reprisal for exercising rights. A member has a right to...

  1. 7 CFR 3015.82 - Financial status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial status report. 3015.82 Section 3015.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Financial Reporting Requirements § 3015.82...

  2. 27 CFR 70.82 - Payment on notice and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... demand. 70.82 Section 70.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Notice and Demand § 70.82 Payment on notice and demand. Upon receipt of notice and demand from the appropriate TTB officer, there shall be paid at the place...

  3. 40 CFR 82.150 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.150 Purpose and scope. (a) The purpose of this subpart is to reduce emissions of class I and class II refrigerants and their substitutes... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 82.150 Section 82...

  4. 21 CFR 1250.82 - Potable water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potable water systems. 1250.82 Section 1250.82... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.82 Potable water systems. The following conditions must be met by vessel water systems used for the storage and distribution of water which has met...

  5. 50 CFR 82.7 - Coordination with States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Application for Grants § 82.7 Coordination with States... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordination with States. 82.7 Section 82.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  6. 7 CFR 8.2 - Delegation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delegation of authority. 8.2 Section 8.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.2 Delegation of authority. The... Agriculture, may authorize the use of the 4-H Club Name and Emblem in accordance with the regulations in this...

  7. Iodine and Selenium Contents in Skeletal Muscles of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus, Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus and Wild Boar (Sus scrofa in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Kursa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine iodine and selenium contents in skeletal muscles of selected species of game animals living in regions with low iodine and selenium contents in the soil and water. Iodine content was determined in 66 samples of skeletal muscles of red deer cut out of the musculus gracilis, 32 samples and 27 samples from the same muscle of roe deer and wild boar, respectively. The shot game animals came from hunting grounds in western and southern regions of the Czech Republic and in Protected Landscape Area Šumava. In red deer muscles the average iodine content was 44.9 ± 15.2 μg I·kg-1 wet weight with the range of 6.9 to 82.0 μg I·kg-1. The lower concentration in roe deer meat with the average 39.3 ± 14.1 μg I·kg-1 and the range from 18.3 to 84.4 μg I·kg-1 may be due to differences between biotopes and food. The average iodine concentration in the musculus gracilis of wild boars was 55.9± 27.0 μg·kg-1 wet weight. Selenium content was determined in 22 samples of red deer, 51 samples of roe deer and 27 samples of wild boar skeletal muscles. The average values of selenium content in the meat of red deer, roe deer and wild boars were 16.2 ± 8.4, 36.9 ± 16.6 and 27.6 ± 19.8 μg Se·kg-1 wet weight, respectively. All three species of game animals are characterised by low content and high variability of selenium concentration in meat with the minimum value 3.9 µg and maximum value 83.3 μg·kg-1 wet weight. The study brings new data on iodine and selenium content in the muscle of game animals in the Czech Republic.

  8. Millijansky radio variability in SDSS stripe 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H. [University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Richards, G. T., E-mail: hodge@mpia.de [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg{sup 2}. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f {sub var} > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  9. Current mass spectrometry strategies for selenium speciation in dietary sources of high-selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Hearn, Ruth; Catterick, Tim [LGC Limited, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    This document reviews the most relevant mass spectrometry approaches to selenium (Se) speciation in high-Se food supplements in terms of qualitative and quantitative Se speciation and Se-containing species identification, with special reference to high-Se yeast, garlic, onions and Brazil nuts. Important topics such as complexity of Se speciation in these materials and the importance of combining Se-specific detection and molecule-specific determination of the particular species of this element in parallel with chromatography, to understand their nutritional role and cancer preventive properties are critically discussed throughout. The versatility and potential of mass spectrometric detection in this field are clearly demonstrated. Although great advances have been achieved, further developments are required, especially if ''speciated''certified reference materials (CRMs) are to be produced for validation of measurements of target Se-containing species in Se-food supplements. (orig.)

  10. Selenium and selenium species in feeds and muscle tissue of Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Ørnsrud, Robin; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element for animals, including fish. Due to changes in feed composition for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), it may be necessary to supplement feeds with Se. In the present work, the transfer of Se and Se species from feed to muscle of Atlantic salmon fed Se supplemented...... diets was studied. Salmon were fed basal fish feed (0.35 mg Se/kg and 0.89 mg Se/kg feed), or feed supplemented either with selenised yeast or sodium selenite, at low (1–2 mg Se/kg feed) and high (15 mg Se/kg feed) levels, for 12 weeks. For the extraction of Se species from fish muscle, enzymatic...... cleavage with protease type XIV was applied. The extraction methods for Se species from fish feed were optimised, and two separate extraction procedures were applied, 1) enzymatic cleavage for organic Se supplemented feeds and 2) weak alkaline solvent for inorganic Se supplemented feeds, respectively...

  11. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  12. Geochemistry and origin of lead and selenium in the No. 6 coal from the Junger coalfield, North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shengsheng; Zhao, Lei

    2007-06-15

    The concentration, occurrence, and geological origin of lead and selenium in the main minable coal seam (No. 6 Coal) from the Junger Coalfield were studied using inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and optical microscope. The results show that the average concentrations of Pb and Se in the No. 6 Coal are as high as 35.7 {mu}g/g and 8.2 {mu}g/g, respectively, which are much higher than those of coals from North China, Guizhou of China, China, and USA. In addition, their enrichment factors are up to 2.4 and 68.1, respectively. Lead and selenium mainly occur in galena, clausthalite, and selenio-galena. These minerals occur as cell-fillings of coal-forming plants and are of chemical sedimentary origin. Much attention should be paid to the industrial values of high Se in this coal.

  13. Detection of over 100 selenium metabolites in selenized yeast by liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Dernovics, Mihaly; Moreno-González, David; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; García-Reyes, Juan F

    2017-08-15

    The characterization of the selenometabolome of Selenized(Se)-yeast, that is the fraction of water soluble low-molecular weight Se-metabolites produced in Se-yeast is of paramount interest to expand the knowledge on the composition of this food supplement. In this work, we have applied liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) to search for Se-species from the low molecular weight range fraction of the selenized yeast used for food supplements. Prior to LC-TOFMS, sample treatment consisted of ultrasound assisted water extraction followed by size exclusion fractionation assisted with off-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection of isotope 82 Se. The fraction corresponding to low-molecular weight species was subjected to LC-TOFMS using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. The detection of the suspected selenized species has been based on the information obtained from accurate mass measurements of both the protonated molecules and fragments from in-source CID fragmentation; along with the characteristic isotope pattern exhibited by the presence of Se. The approach enables the detection of 103 selenized species, most of them not previously reported, in the range from ca. 300-650Da. Besides the detection of selenium species, related sulphur derivate metabolites were detected based on the accurate mass shift due to the substitution of sulphur and selenium. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Polonium-210 and selenium in tissues and tissue extracts of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Gulf of Trieste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristan, Urška; Planinšek, Petra; Benedik, Ljudmila; Falnoga, Ingrid; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms such as mussels and fish take up polonium (Po) and selenium (Se), and distribute them into different cellular components and compartments. Due to its high radiotoxicity and possible biomagnification across the marine food chain Po-210 is potentially hazardous, while selenium is an essential trace element for humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the presence and extractability of the elements in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in the Gulf of Trieste. The levels of Po-210 in the samples ranged from 220 to 400 Bq kg(-1) and of Se from 2.6 to 8.2 mg kg(-1), both on a dry matter basis. Using various extraction types and conditions in water, buffer or enzymatic media, the best extractability was obtained with enzymatic extraction (Protease XIV, 1h shaking at 40 °C) and the worst by water extraction (24 h shaking at 37 °C). 90% of Po-210 and 70% of Se was extractable in the first case versus less than 10% of Po-210 and less than 40% of Se in the second. Such evident differences in extractability between the investigated elements point to different metabolic pathways of the two elements. In enzymatic extracts Se speciation revealed three Se compounds (SeCys2, SeMet, one undefined), while Po-210 levels were too low to allow any conclusions about speciation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from the Aleutians: Potential protection on mercury toxicity by selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2014-01-01

    A number of factors affect the consumption risk from mercury in fish, including mercury levels, seasonal patterns of mercury concentrations, human consumption patterns, and sensitive populations (e.g. pregnant women, fetuses, young children, and yet unknown genetic factors). Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for saltwater fish. We examine levels of mercury and selenium in several species of fish and seabirds from the Aleutians (Alaska), determine selenium:mercury molar ratios, and examine species-specific and individual variation in the ratios as a means of exploring the use of the ratio in risk assessment and risk management. Variation among species was similar for mercury and selenium. There was significant inter-specific and intraspecific variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios for fish, and for birds. The mean selenium:mercury molar ratios for all fish and bird species were above 1, meaning there was an excess of selenium relative to mercury. It has been suggested that an excess of selenium confers some protective advantage for salt water fish, although the degree of excess necessary is unclear. The selenium:mercury molar ratio was significantly correlated negatively with total length for most fish species, but not for dolly varden. Some individuals of Pacific cod, yellow irish lord, rock greenling, Pacific halibut, dolly varden, and to a lesser extent, flathead sole, had selenium:mercury ratios below 1. No bird muscle had an excess of mercury (ratio below 1), and only glaucous-winged gull and pigeon guillemot had ratios between 1 and 5. There was a great deal of variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios within fish species, and within bird species, making it difficult and impractical to use these ratios in risk assessment or management, for fish advisories, or for consumers, particularly given the difficulty of interpreting the ratios. PMID:22664537

  16. JV Task 96 - Phase 2 - Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2008-03-01

    In order to improve the understanding of the mercury issue, it is vital to study mercury's effects on selenium physiology. While mercury present in the environment or food sources may pose health risks, the protective effects of selenium have not been adequately considered in establishing regulatory policy. Numerous studies report that vulnerability to mercury toxicity is inversely proportional to selenium status or level. However, selenium status has not been considered in the development of the reference dosage levels for mercury exposure. Experimental animals fed low-selenium diets are far more vulnerable to mercury toxicity than animals fed normal selenium, and animals fed selenium-rich diets are even more resistant. Selenium-dependent enzymes in brain and endocrine tissues can be impaired by excessive mercury exposure, apparently because mercury has an extremely high binding affinity for selenium. When selenium becomes bound to mercury, it is unable to participate in the metabolic cycling of selenoprotein synthesis. Because of mercury-dependent impairments of selenoprotein synthesis, various antioxidant and regulatory functions in brain biochemistry are compromised. This report details a 2-year multiclient-funded research program designed to examine the interactions between mercury and selenium in animal models. The studies explored the effects of dietary intakes of toxic amounts of methylmercury and the protective effects of the normal dietary range of selenium in counteracting mercury toxicity. This study finds that the amounts of selenium present in ocean fish are sufficient to protect against far larger quantities of methylmercury than those present in typical seafoods. Toxic effects of methylmercury exposure were not directly proportional to mercury concentrations in blood, brain, or any other tissues. Instead, mercury toxicity was proportional to molar ratios of mercury relative to selenium. In order to accurately assess risk associated with

  17. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  18. Decreased reproductive rates in sheep fed a high selenium diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High Se-containing forages grow on seleniferous soils in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. Selenium is an essential trace element that is required for many physiological processes but can also be either acutely or chronically toxic to livestock. Anecdotal reports of decrease...

  19. Assessment of selenium mineralization and availability from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavridou, Eleftheria; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Young, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) release from four plant species (Indian mustard, fodder radish, Italian ryegrass and hairy vetch) was measured under controlled leaching conditions and in a pot incubation experiment as part of a study of the potential for using these plant species as Se catch crops. Catch crops may...

  20. Selenium Adsorption To Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water-and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solut...

  1. Selenium and mercury interactions wtih emphasis on fish tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review addresses the effects of mercury (Hg) in fish as it relates to the health of the fish themselves as well as potential risks of toxicity in wildlife and humans that consume fish. In particular, it addresses selenium (Se) as a bioindicator of susceptibility to harmful e...

  2. Chemoenzymatic approaches to obtain chiral-centered selenium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondani, Patricia B.; Guilmoto, Nathalie M. A. F.; Dudek, Hanna M.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of chiral-centered selenium compounds is presented. Enantioselective oxidations of these organoselenium compounds were performed using a wide range of biocatalysts, including Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, oxidoreductases-containing Aspergillus terreus and lipase (Cal-B) in the

  3. Analysis of selenium in body fluids: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaejos, M.S.; Romero, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews numerous analytical techniques for determining trace amounts of selenium in body fluids. In addition, sampling storage and treatment procedures are evaluated. The analytical techniques reviewed include the following: spectrofluorometry and spectrophotometry; atomic absorption spectrometry; fluorescence and atomic emission spectroscopy; mass spectroscopy; X-ray spectrometric analysis; neutron activation analysis; chromatographic methods; and electrochemical methods. 469 refs

  4. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-20

    May 20, 2014 ... Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and zinc in the ... and sediment were collected and trace element concentrations were measured with an ICP-MS. ..... Clay minerals are known to have high sorption affinities ..... sediment/water quality interaction with particular reference to the.

  5. Selenium Characterization In The Global Rice Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    For up to 1 billion people worldwide, insufficient dietary intake of selenium (Se) is a serious health constraint. Cereals are the dominant Se source for those on low protein diets, as typified by the global malnourished population. With crop Se content constrained largely by u...

  6. Biogeochemistry of selenium isotopes: processes, cycling and paleoenvironmental applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, which, with multiple oxidation states and six stable isotopes, has been suggested as a potentially powerful environmental tracer and paleoenvironmental proxy. Chapter 1 provides a literature review of the Se cycle. While the Se cycle shares some

  7. Grain Accumulation of Selenium Species in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in which up to 1 billion people worldwide are deficient, causing a range of health disorders and potentially an increased risk of certain cancers. Consequently, there is much interest in Se biofortification of rice, the staple food for...

  8. Dyslipidemia, altered erythrocyte fatty acids and selenium are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous blood sample was drawn from all subjects and erythrocytes separated for the determination of fatty acids. Plasma lipids, selenium and vitamin E levels were also measured. There were no differences in BMI, weight and height among the three groups except for systolic BP that was lower in VD (148.3±41.8mmHg) ...

  9. Selenium and the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium was discovered by Berzelius in 1817, and the essentiality of Se was demonstrated that trace amounts of Se protected against liver necrosis in vitamin E deficient rats in the mid-1950s. The benefits of Se are many including protection against cancer, heart diseases, muscle disorders, immunit...

  10. Rumen microorganisms decrease bioavailability of inorganic selenium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the availaility of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study w...

  11. Novel selenium-doped hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valencia, C; López-Álvarez, M; Cochón-Cores, B; Pereiro, I; Serra, J; González, P

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays there is a short-term need of investigating in orthopedic implants with a greater functionality, including an improved osseointegration and also antibacterial properties. The coating of metallic implants with hydroxyapatite (HA) remains to be the main proposal, but superior quality HA coatings with compositions closer to natural bone apatites, including carbonates, trace elements are required. Selenium is an essential nutrient in biological tissues and, at the same time, it also presents antibacterial properties. A pioneering study on the fabrication of selenium-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite (iHA:Se) coatings by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is presented. Different proportions of selenium were incorporated to obtain the iHA:Se coatings. Their physicochemical characterization, performed by SEM/EDS, FTIR, FT-Raman, Interferometric Profilometry and XPS, revealed typical columnar growth of HA in globular aggregates and the efficient incorporation of selenium into the HA coatings by the, most probably, substitution of SeO(3)(2-) groups in the CO(3)(2-) sites. Biological evaluation illustrated the absence of cytotoxicity when an amount of 0.6 at.% of Se was added to the iHA:Se coatings and excellent proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Antibacterial properties were also proved with the inhibition of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus from establishing bacterial biofilms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Selenium-containing enzymes in mammals: Chemical perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The chemical and biochemical route to the synthesis of the 21st amino acid in living systems, selenocysteine, is described. The incorporation of this rare amino acid residue into proteins is described with emphasis on the role of monoselenophosphate as selenium source. The role of selenocysteine moiety in.

  13. Sorption mechanisms of selenium species (selenite and selenate) on copper-based minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoy, J.

    2001-09-01

    The sorption of radionuclides on the surface of minerals represents a process capable to delay the migration of the elements from a spent fuel deep repository towards the biosphere. In the framework of a deep underground repository, an engineered clay barrier has a high trapping capacity for cationic radio-elements, in particular because of the negative charge of clay surfaces. However, anionic radioelements like selenium species, would be only weakly retained by chemical processes. In order to optimize the trapping capacity of a clay barrier with respect to anionic species, prospective studies are carried out in order to find and evaluate some minerals with specific chemical trapping functions. Among radionuclides, the case of selenium has to be considered because its isotope 79 Se is present in radioactive wastes and has a half life time of 6.5 10 4 years. It is also judicious to find a mineral capable of trapping simultaneously several anionic radio-elements. Copper oxides and sulfides (Cu 2 O, CuO, Cu 2 S, CuS, CuFeS 2 and Cu 5 FeS 4 ) are good adsorbents with respect to selenium species (selenite and selenate). These minerals, with their selenium retention properties, could be used also for the decontamination of soils and waters or to process industrial effluents. The sorption mechanisms have been studied in details for copper oxides (Cu 2 O and CuO) with respect to selenite and selenate. Chalcomenite precipitates in acid pH conditions when selenite is added to a Cu 2 O and CuO suspension. Selenate, in contact with cuprite (Cu 2 O) leads also to a selenium-based precipitate in acid pH environment. For higher pH values, selenite and selenate are adsorbed on copper oxides (Cu 2 O and CuO) and lead to internal and external sphere complexes, respectively. In the case of a selenite/cuprite mixture in basic pH environment and at the equilibrium, a chemical reaction occurs between the oxidation product of cuprite, Cu(OH) 2 and HSeO 3 . A preliminary study of

  14. Preparation of 80Br or 82Br-biomolecules via excitation labelling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Ache, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The direct decay-induced 82 Br (or 80 Br) labelling by exposing the solid substrate molecules, such as deoxyuridine, L-tyrosine, guanosine, deoxycytidine, phenylalanine, and acetic acid, to gaseous CF 3 82 /sup m/Br (or CF 3 80 /sup m/Br) was studied. The radiochemical yields of the brominated products are relatively small and range from 1 percent in the case of bromo deoxyuridine to 11 percent for bromoacetic acid. The modification of this technique by adding Cl 2 gas to the reaction mixture improves the yields in several cases drastically (up to 80 percent for bromo-guanosine and bromo-L-tyrosine). Similar improvement can be achieved by exposing crystalline KBrO 3 for some time to CF 3 82 /sup m/Br (or CF 3 80 /sup m/Br) and dissolving subsequently the KBrO 3 in an acidic solution of the substrate. (auth)

  15. Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation Reduces Some Lipid Peroxidation and Angiogenesis Markers in a Rat Model of NAFLD-Fed High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Faghihi, Amirhosein; Motaghinejad, Majid; Shiasi, Maryam; Imanparast, Fatemeh; Amiri, Hamid Lorvand; Shidfar, Farzad

    2018-02-01

    Studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients are more prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Zinc and selenium deficiency are common in NAFLD. But the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on CVD markers are not clear in NAFLD patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on some of the CVD markers in an experimental model of NAFLD. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats (197 ± 4 g) were randomly assigned into four dietary groups: control group (C; received 9% of calorie as fat), model group (M; received 82% of calorie as fat), and supplementation before (BS) or after (AS) disease progression. Animals were fed diets for 20 weeks in all groups. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, HOMA-IR, ALT, AST, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured as CVD indices. Serum ALT, AST, FPG, insulin, MDA, VEGF and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the M than C group. Co-supplementation reduced serum ALT and AST levels in the BS and AS groups compared with the M group. FPG, insulin, HOMA-IR, VEGF, MDA, LDL/HDL-c and TC/HDL-c ratio were significantly reduced in the AS compared with the M group. TG/HDL-c ratio was significantly reduced in the BS and AS compared with the M group. Serum MDA, VEGF, Insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly lowered in the AS than BS group (p < 0.05). Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after NAFLD progression reduced CVD risk indices in an experimental model.

  16. Binding and Conversion of Selenium in Candida utilis ATCC 9950 Yeasts in Bioreactor Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kieliszek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is considered an essential component of all living organisms. The use of yeasts as a selenium supplement in human nutrition has gained much interest over the last decade. The accumulation and biochemical transformation of selenium in yeast cells is particularly interesting to many researchers. In this article, we present the results of the determination of selenium and selenomethionine content in the biomass of feed yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 obtained from the culture grown in a bioreactor. The results indicated that C. utilis cells performed the biotransformation of inorganic selenium(IV to organic derivatives (e.g., selenomethionine. Selenium introduced (20–30 mg Se4+∙L−1 to the experimental media in the form of sodium(IV selenite (Na2SeO3 salt caused a significant increase in selenium content in the biomass of C. utilis,irrespective of the concentration. The highest amount of selenium (1841 μg∙gd.w.−1 was obtained after a 48-h culture in media containing 30 mg Se4+∙L−1. The highest content of selenomethionine (238.8 μg∙gd.w.−1 was found after 48-h culture from the experimental medium that was supplemented with selenium at a concentration of 20 mg Se4+∙L−1. Biomass cell in the cultures supplemented with selenium ranged from 1.5 to 14.1 g∙L−1. The results of this study indicate that yeast cell biomass of C. utilis enriched mainly with the organic forms of selenium can be a valuable source of protein. It creates the possibility of obtaining selenium biocomplexes that can be used in the production of protein-selenium dietary supplements for animals and humans

  17. Features of selenium metabolism in humans living under the conditions of North European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshukova, Olga; Potolitsyna, Natalya; Shadrina, Vera; Chernykh, Aleksei; Bojko, Evgeny

    2014-08-01

    Selenium supplementation and its effects on Northerners have been little studied. The aim of our study was to assess the selenium levels of the inhabitants of North European Russia, the seasonal aspects of selenium supplementation, and the interrelationships between selenium levels and the levels of thyroid gland hormones. To study the particular features of selenium metabolism in Northerners over the course of 1 year, 19 healthy male Caucasian volunteers (18-21 years old) were recruited for the present study. The subjects were military guards in a Northern European region of Russia (Syktyvkar, Russia, 62°N latitude) who spent 6-10-h outdoors daily. The study was conducted over a 12-month period. Selenium levels, glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity, as well as total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxin (T4), free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, were determined in the blood serum. The study subjects showed low levels of plasma selenium throughout the year. We observed a noticeable decrease in plasma selenium levels during the period from May to August, with the lowest levels in July. Selenium levels in the military guards correlated with the levels of selenium-dependent GP enzyme activity throughout the year. Additionally, we demonstrated a significant correlation between selenium and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones (total T3, free T4, and TSH) in periods in which plasma selenium levels were lower than the established normal ranges. Over the course of 1 year, low levels of plasma selenium affect GP activity and thyroid hormone levels in humans living in North European Russia.

  18. Mercury and selenium relationship in a tropical estuarine fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pizzochero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic systems have been considered as final sinks for persistent and bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs, such as metals and organohalogen compounds. Among the trace elements, non-essential metals deserve special attention due to their toxicity. In this context, mercury (Hg should be highlighted due to its toxic effects, which comprise neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, among others. Several studies have highlighted the selenium-mediated methylmercury detoxification process, via mercury selenide formation in tissues of marine vertebrates. Despite being an essential element, selenium may also be toxic in high concentrations. This study focused on Guanabara Bay (GB, a heavily polluted urban estuary in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil, where the whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri provides a valuable fishery resource. Therefore, hepatic (Hg and Se and muscular (Hg concentrations of these elements were determined in GB whitemouth croakers. Mercury and selenium measurements were performed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS and electrothermal AAS (ET-AAS, respectively. Total mercury (THg concentrations in muscle (n=19 ranged from 184.9 to 858.6 (ng/g, while in liver they varied from 11.05 to 1188 (ng/g. Hepatic selenium concentrations ranged from 7820 to 40085 (ng/g. The hepatic Se:THg molar ratio ranged from 40,8 to 3102,5. The results showed a significant correlation between hepatic mercury and selenium levels, but the molar ratio suggests the absence of mercury selenide formation. Some of the Se concentrations found were above the threshold level for freshwater fish (12000 ng/g; however, it is not yet clear if these concentrations are toxic for marine fish as well. More studies are necessary for evaluating the impact of such exposure in fish from Guanabara Bay.

  19. Selenium. Role of the Essential Metalloid in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Suguru; Berry, Marla J.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient in mammals, but is also recognized as toxic in excess. It is a non-metal with properties that are intermediate between the chalcogen elements sulfur and tellurium. Selenium exerts its biological functions through selenoproteins. Selenoproteins contain selenium in the form of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), which is an analog of cysteine with the sulfur-containing side chain replaced by a Se-containing side chain. Sec is encoded by the codon UGA, which is one of three termination codons for mRNA translation in non-selenoprotein genes. Recognition of the UGA codon as a Sec insertion site instead of stop requires a Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element in selenoprotein mRNAs and a unique selenocysteyl-tRNA, both of which are recognized by specialized protein factors. Unlike the 20 standard amino acids, Sec is biosynthesized from serine on its tRNA. Twenty-five selenoproteins are encoded in the human genome. Most of the selenoprotein genes were discovered by bioinformatics approaches, searching for SECIS elements downstream of in-frame UGA codons. Sec has been described as having stronger nucleophilic and electrophilic properties than cysteine, and Sec is present in the catalytic site of all selenoenzymes. Most selenoproteins, whose functions are known, are involved in redox systems and signaling pathways. However, several selenoproteins are not well characterized in terms of their function. The selenium field has grown dramatically in the last few decades, and research on selenium biology is providing extensive new information regarding its importance for human health. PMID:24470102

  20. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  1. Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  2. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Belokobylsky, A I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-08-22

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in S. platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterized. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  3. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Gundorina, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed

  4. Determination of selenium in red blood cells by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggi, U.; Francis, R.; Shanin, M.; Scheelings, P.; Gianduzzo, T.; Nicol, D.

    2004-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and its levels in blood have been widely used for assessing Se status in humans. A suitable method for the determination of Se in red blood cells (RBC) using ICP-MS after microwave digestion was developed. The blood samples were obtained from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), who attended urology clinics at the Princess Alexandra hospital, Brisbane, Australia. No apparent polyatomic and matrix interferences were encountered when 82 Se isotope was used for the analysis of Se levels in RBC. Whole Blood Seronorm Trace Elements (SERO, Norway) and dogfish muscle (DORM-1, NRCC) were used as reference materials for method validation. The method was rapid and accurate, and ideal for routine analysis of Se in RBC, and in particular for assessing of Se status in humans. (author)

  5. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of selenium following oral administration of elemental selenium nanoparticles or selenite in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Hansen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    A suspension of nanoparticles of BSA-stabilized red amorphous elemental selenium (Se) or an aqueous solution of sodium selenite was repeatedly administered by oral gavage for 28 days at 0.05 mg/kg bw/day (low dose) or at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day (high dose) as Se to female rats. Prior to administration...

  6. Selenium and breast cancer risk: A prospective nested case-control study on serum selenium levels, smoking habits and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandsveden, Malte; Manjer, Jonas

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has not been conclusive regarding the association between selenium (Se) and breast cancer. This study was conducted to clarify if there is an association between prediagnostic serum Se levels and breast cancer risk. A population based cohort, the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, was used and linked with the Swedish cancer registry up to 31 December 2013. Our study included 1,186 women with breast cancer and an equal number of controls. Selenium levels were analysed from stored serum samples. The included individuals were divided into quartiles based on Se value and we compared breast cancer cases with controls using logistic regression yielding odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Serum Se was also analysed as a continuous variable regarding breast cancer risk. The analyses were adjusted for established risk factors and stratified on smoking status and body mass index (BMI). When comparing the highest Se quartile with the lowest, the adjusted OR for breast cancer was 0.98 (0.75-1.26). With selenium as a continuous variable the adjusted OR was 1.00 (1.00-1.01) per 10 ng/ml. When comparing the highest with the lowest Se quartile in women with BMI > 25 kg/m 2 the adjusted OR was 0.77 (0.53-1.14). We conclude that it is unlikely that prediagnostic serum selenium is overall associated with breast cancer risk and no modifying effect from BMI or smoking was seen. © 2017 UICC.

  7. Selenium hyperaccumulation - Astragalus bisulcatus, Cardamine hupingshanensis and Stanleya pinnata - may be useful for agromining selenium-rich soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium hyperaccumulator plants like Stanleya pinnata, Astragalus bisulcatus and the newly discovered Se-accumulator Cardamine hupingshanensis may play an important role in the Se cycle from soil to plant to human in China. Se-hyperaccumulators can be used for agromining or for phytoremediation of ...

  8. The Effect on Selenium Concentrations of a Randomized Intervention with Fish and Mussels in a Population with Relatively Low Habitual Dietary Selenium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik H.; Andersen, Klaus K.; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Selenium status of the Danish population is below that assumed optimal for the suggested protective effects against chronic diseases, including certain cancers. Fish and shellfish are important dietary sources of selenium in Denmark. We investigated the effect of increased fish and mussel intake on selenium blood concentrations in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48–76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received 1000 g fish and mussels/week for 26 weeks (~50 μg selenium/day). Controls received no intervention. Non-fasting blood samples were taken and whole blood selenium was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and plasma selenoprotein P (SelP) was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. All available observations were included in linear multiple regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the intervention. The difference in mean change for intervention compared with control persons was 14.9 ng/mL (95% CI: 10.2, 19.7) for whole blood selenium, and 7.0 ng/mL (95% CI: 3.1, 10.9) for plasma SelP (Weeks 0–26). Selenium concentrations were significantly increased after 26 weeks of intervention, albeit to a lower degree than expected. PMID:25599275

  9. Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q10 Reduces Cardiovascular Mortality in Elderly with Low Selenium Status. A Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jan; Aaseth, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium is needed by all living cells in order to ensure the optimal function of several enzyme systems. However, the selenium content in the soil in Europe is generally low. Previous reports indicate that a dietary supplement of selenium could reduce cardiovascular disease but mainly in populations in low selenium areas. The objective of this secondary analysis of a previous randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial from our group was to determine whether the effects on cardiovascular mortality of supplementation with a fixed dose of selenium and coenzyme Q10 combined during a four-year intervention were dependent on the basal level of selenium. Methods In 668 healthy elderly individuals from a municipality in Sweden, serum selenium concentration was measured. Of these, 219 individuals received daily supplementation with selenium (200 μg Se as selenized yeast) and coenzyme Q10 (200 mg) combined for four years. The remaining participants (n = 449) received either placebo (n = 222) or no treatment (n = 227). All cardiovascular mortality was registered. No participant was lost during a median follow-up of 5.2 years. Based on death certificates and autopsy results, all mortality was registered. Findings The mean serum selenium concentration among participants at baseline was low, 67.1 μg/L. Based on the distribution of selenium concentration at baseline, the supplemented group was divided into three groups; 85 μg/L (45 and 90 percentiles) and the remaining participants were distributed accordingly. Among the non-treated participants, lower cardiovascular mortality was found in the high selenium group as compared with the low selenium group (13.0% vs. 24.1%; P = 0.04). In the group with the lowest selenium basal concentration, those receiving placebo or no supplementation had a mortality of 24.1%, while mortality was 12.1% in the group receiving the active substance, which was an absolute risk reduction of 12%. In the middle selenium concentration

  10. Preparation of 80-82BrNa of high specific activity in the Chatillon pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.; Herczeg, C.; Laurent, H.

    1951-10-01

    The Szilard-Chalmers reaction was used to concentrate the 80,82 Br produced by pile irradiation of an organic bromide, solvent partition being carried out between benzene and H 2 S-saturated H-2O. Specific activities produced by various lengths of irradiation of bromoform, ethyl bromide, and ethylene bromide are tabulated. Bromoform is recommended for production since it gives the highest specific activity. The enrichment factor decreases with extended irradiation time

  11. Optimization of wet digestion procedure of blood and tissue for selenium determination by means of 75Se tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynska, B.; Lipinska-Kalita, K.

    1977-01-01

    Selenium-75 tracer has been used for optimization of analytical procedure of selenium determination in blood and tissue. Wet digestion procedure and reduction of selenium to its elemental form with tellurium as coprecipitant have been tested. It is seen that the use of a mixture of perchloric and sulphuric acid with sodium molybdenate for the wet digestion of organic matter followed by the reduction of selenium to its elementary form by a mixture of stannous chloride and hydroxylamine hydrochloride results in very good recovery of selenium. Recovery of selenium obtained with the use of optimized analytical procedure amounts to 95% and precision is equal to 4.2%. (T.I.)

  12. E-book Trial Using Handheld Devices Yields Mixed Reactions from Public Library Staff and Users in Essex County, UK. A review of: Dearnley, James, Cliff McKnight, and Anne Morris. “Electronic Book Usage in Public Libraries: A Study of User and Staff Reactions to a PDA-based Collection.” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 36.4 (December 2004: 175‐82.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2006-03-01

    negative reactions to reading from the devices, and differences in the reading experience using the PDA as oopsed to a book. A group discussion with p[articipating library staff was held in April of 2004. The feedback from both groups was compared. Main results - Patrons: The devices were generally found to be usable, with a few exceptions; one patron with arthritis had difficulty operating the device and another developed hand cramps. Positive reactions regarding the vovelty of using the devices, portability (the ability to store several books on one small device and readability (the ability to customize font size and to read in low light conditions were offset by frustration with low battery life, small screen size, limits on usage (i.e. not to be used in the bath, difficulty paging back and forth ('getting lost on the iPAQ', and the inferior sensation of using a PDA as opposed to the 'tactile' quantity of books. In addtion, some patrons voiced fears that e-books might supplant paper books and libraries themselves. In all, thirteen patrons indicated that the e-books had some advantages over books, while eighteen found that there were aspects of using e-books that they disliked compared to books. Staff: The staff shared some concerns with the users, identifying portability as a strength and low battery life (including the need to reformat devices after batteries ran out as a weakness. In addition, some staff felt that some patrons preferred e-book format for books on sensitive topcs, as they provided more privacy in borrowing. Other staff concerns included the potential for users loading other software on the devices and the (presumably in the case of a full roll-out where users would download their own e-books from home lack of a broadband connection for some users. Conclusions - This study should be read as a case study of a trial of the Adobe Book and Palm e-book formats in Hewlett Packard iPAQ 1910 Pdas amongst a small group pf public library (primarily mobile library

  13. Redox-Active Selenium Compounds—From Toxicity and Cell Death to Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougat Misra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is generally known as an antioxidant due to its presence in selenoproteins as selenocysteine, but it is also toxic. The toxic effects of selenium are, however, strictly concentration and chemical species dependent. One class of selenium compounds is a potent inhibitor of cell growth with remarkable tumor specificity. These redox active compounds are pro-oxidative and highly cytotoxic to tumor cells and are promising candidates to be used in chemotherapy against cancer. Herein we elaborate upon the major forms of dietary selenium compounds, their metabolic pathways, and their antioxidant and pro-oxidant potentials with emphasis on cytotoxic mechanisms. Relative cytotoxicity of inorganic selenite and organic selenocystine compounds to different cancer cells are presented as evidence to our perspective. Furthermore, new novel classes of selenium compounds specifically designed to target tumor cells are presented and the potential of selenium in modern oncology is extensively discussed.

  14. Effect of foliar application of selenium on its uptake and speciation in carrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Laursen, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) shoots were enriched by selenium using foliar application. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate at 10 and 100 mu g Se ml(-1), were sprayed on the carrot leaves and the selenium content and uptake rate of selenium were estimated by ICP-MS analysis. Anion and cation......(-1) (dry mass) in the carrot root whereas the selenium concentration in the controls was below the limit of detection at 0.045 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass). Selenate-enriched carrot leaves accumulated as much as 80 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass), while the selenite-enriched leaves contained approximately 50 mu...... g Se g(-1) (dry mass). The speciation analyses showed that inorganic selenium was present in both roots and leaves. The predominant metabolised organic forms of selenium in the roots were selenomethionine and gamma-glutamyl-selenomethyl-selenocysteine, regardless of which of the inorganic species...

  15. Selenium Exposure and Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis and Meta-regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianlei; Wang, Chen; Yu, Wanqi; Fan, Wenjie; Wang, Shan; Shen, Ning; Wu, Pengcheng; Li, Xiuyang; Wang, Fudi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between selenium exposure and cancer risk. We identified 69 studies and applied meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose-response analysis to obtain available evidence. The results indicated that high selenium exposure had a protective effect on cancer risk (pooled OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.73–0.83). The results of linear and nonlinear dose-response analysis indicated that high serum/plasma selenium and toenail selenium had the efficacy on cancer prevention. However, we did not find a protective efficacy of selenium supplement. High selenium exposure may have different effects on specific types of cancer. It decreased the risk of breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, but it was not associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, and skin cancer. PMID:26786590

  16. New scientific challenges - the possibilities of using selenium in poultry nutrition and impact on meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, R.; Glišić, M.; Bošković, M.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Physiological stress is one of many concerns facing modern broiler production. In conditions when birds are exposed to stress, supplementation of selenium, which is a crucial glutathione peroxidase enzymatic cofactor, increases the antioxidant capacity of the animals and decreases the harmful effects of free radicals. Dietary selenium improves production performance and health of animals, and positively affects the immune system, the quality, selenium content and fatty acid composition of meat and eggs. There are several different forms of selenium, the most common dietary supplements being an inorganic form (sodium selenite) and anorganic form (selenomethionine). However, in recent years, new forms of selenium, such as a 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA) and nanoselenium, which have more bioavailability, bioefficacy, and low toxicity have been designed. In this short comparative overview discusses the effects of inorganic, organic and nanoforms of selenium on production results, glutathione peroxidase activity, meat quality and level of toxicity in poultry.

  17. Effect of Se-enriched Organic Fertilizers on Selenium Accumulation in Corn and Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Sheng-nan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two Se-enriched organic fertilizers (cow dung and rice straw biochar on selenium accumulation of corn growing in selenium deficient soil was studied with pot experiment. The results showed that corn accumulated more selenium and the selenium was much easier to convert from root to shoot in the corn plant with the application of Se-enriched cow dung than Se-enriched rice straw biochar. With the application of more organic fertilizer such as 25 t·hm-2 Se-enriched cow dung or 40 t·hm-2 Se-enriched rice straw biochar, the accumulation of selenium and growth status of corn were getting better than the other treatments. At the same time, as the application amount of Se-enriched organic fertilizers (cow dung and rice straw biochar increased, the total selenium content in the soil also increased, which positively correlated with each other.

  18. Low selenium and reduced cognitive function in a cohort elderly study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianchao Bian; Sujuan Gao; Qiliang Qin; Zhongjie Yun; Yuan Liu; Shuliang Song; Chuanjiao Liu; Xiaohong Luo; Jie Gao; Chaoke Liang

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive function in the elderly is affected by various environmental,social,and individual factors.Studies show that chemical trace elements are closely related to cognitive function.As a protective factor,selenium promotes cognition in the elderly.However,study results into the effects of selenium on cognition have varied.By eliminating unstable environmental and other related factors,the present study selected elderly individuals from rural areas of the Shandong province to verify whether low selenium exposure is a risk factor for decreased cognitive function.Results demonstrated that age,sex,education,occupation,hypertension,stroke,and body selenium levels were factors affecting cognitive function in the elderly,and that selenium was an important protective factor.Moreover,results supported the hypothesis that a lifelong low selenium level is associated with low cognitive function.

  19. Selenium recovery from kiln powder of cement manufacturing by chemical leaching and bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, S; Hasegawa, A; Kuroda, M; Hanada, A; Yamashita, M; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel process by using chemical leaching followed by bacterial reductive precipitation was proposed for selenium recovery from kiln powder as a byproduct of cement manufacturing. The kiln powder at a slurry concentration of 10 w/v% with 0.25 M Na2CO3 at 28°C produced wastewater containing about 30 mg-Se/L selenium. The wastewater was diluted four-fold and adjusted to pH 8.0 as preconditioning for bioreduction. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NT-I, capable of reducing selenate and selenite into insoluble elemental selenium, could recover about 90% selenium from the preconditioned wastewater containing selenium of 5 mg-Se/L when supplemented with lactate or glycerol. The selenium concentrations in the treated wastewater were low around the regulated effluent concentration of 0.1 mg-Se/L in Japan.

  20. Evaluation of Selenium Content of Plant Samples Collected from Indigenous Sources for Se-supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, T.; Sosan, A.; Rehman, R.; Abbas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Selenium contents were evaluated in different plant species such as Canola (Brassica napus), Sunflower (Helianthus annus), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Soyabean Seeds (Glycine max) and Akk (Calotropis procera) in order to access their possibility for Se-supplementation. The dry ash of bulb of Turmeric and seeds of Canola, Sunflower, and Soyabean were digested in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, HClO/sub 4/ and HCl to obtain selenium (IV). After adding different reagents, stable blue colored complex was formed. From this colored complex, selenium (IV) was determined by UV/visible spectrophotometer. This work was carried out in an attempt to obtain information concerning the amount of selenium present in different plants. It was observed that Akk is a good accumulator of selenium as it contains almost 30 mu g selenium per gram and can be used for different medicinal applications. (author)