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Sample records for selectively separate sodium

  1. Selective Separation of Fluorite, Barite and Calcite with Valonea Extract and Sodium Fluosilicate as Depressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijie Ren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorite, barite and calcite are important industry minerals. However, they often co-exist, presenting difficulty in selectively separating them due to their similar surface properties. In this study, valonea extract and sodium fluosilicate were used as depressants to selectively separate them by flotation, with sodium oleate as the collector. The single mineral flotation results showed that valonea extract displayed the strongest depression on calcite, while sodium fluosilicate displayed the strongest depression on barite. These two depressants allowed selective separation of the three minerals through sequential flotation. The flotation of mixed minerals showed that 94% of the calcite was successfully depressed by the valonea extract, and 95% recovery of the fluorite was achieved in the subsequent flotation with sodium fluosilicate depressing barite. The different depressant–mineral interactions were investigated via electro-kinetic studies and molecular dynamics (MD simulations using the Materials Studio 6.0 program. The valonea extract exhibited the strongest adsorption on the calcite surface, and sodium fluosilicate exhibited the strongest adsorption on the barite surface, which prevented oleate species from reacting with Ca2+ or Ba2+ surface sites. This study provides useful guidance for how to process fluorite, barite and calcite resources.

  2. Study of the Effect of Sodium Sulfide as a Selective Depressor in the Separation of Chalcopyrite and Molybdenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Peng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of collectors, sodium butyl xanthate and kerosene, and a depressor, sodium sulfide, were used in this research. The study applied flotation tests, pulp potential measurements, contact angle measurements, adsorption calculations, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analyses to demonstrate the correlation between reagents and minerals. For xanthate collectors, the best flotation responses of chalcopyrite and molybdenite were obtained at pH = 8, and, for kerosene, these were obtained at pH = 4. The flotation of molybdenite seemed to be less influenced by xanthate than by kerosene, while that of chalcopyrite showed the opposite. The optimum concentration of sodium sulfide for separation was 0.03 mol/L, which rejected 83% chalcopyrite and recovered 82% molybdenite in the single mineral flotation. Pulp potential measurements revealed that the dixanthogen and xanthate were decomposed and desorbed, respectively, from the mineral surface in a reducing environment. The contact angle measurement and adsorption calculation conformed to the flotation response, indicating that few functions of the xanthate and sodium sulfide on the molybdenite flotation were due to their low adsorption densities. The FTIR results further clarified that the xanthate ion was adsorbed on chalcopyrite by forming cuprous xanthate and dixanthogen; however, on molybdenite the adsorption product was only dixanthogen. After conditioning with sodium sulfide, the chalcopyrite surface became clean, but the molybdenite surface still retained slight peaks of dixanthogen. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism was expounded in this research.

  3. Selective oxoanion separation using a tripodal ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A.; Rajbanshi, Arbin

    2016-02-16

    The present invention relates to urea-functionalized crystalline capsules self-assembled by sodium or potassium cation coordination and by hydrogen-bonding water bridges to selectively encapsulate tetrahedral divalent oxoanions from highly competitive aqueous alkaline solutions and methods using this system for selective anion separations from industrial solutions. The method involves competitive crystallizations using a tripodal tris(urea) functionalized ligand and, in particular, provides a viable approach to sulfate separation from nuclear wastes.

  4. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-04-26

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  5. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na 2 CO 3 -0.5 N NaHCO 3 ) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na 2 CO 3 ). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

  6. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na 2 CO 3 -0.5 N NaHCO 3 ) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na 2 CO 3 ). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

  7. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  8. Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyunghee X

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, which is composed of the three subunits α-,β- and γ-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3. By contrast, α-,β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with αβγ-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala

  9. Separation and recovery of sodium nitrate from low-level radioactive liquid waste by electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Yoshihiro; Kato, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoko; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    An advanced method, in which electrodialysis separation of sodium nitrate and decomposition of nitrate ion are combined, has been developed to remove nitrate ion from low-level radioactive liquid wastes including nitrate salts of high concentration. In the electrodialysis separation, the sodium nitrate was recovered as nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. When they are reused, it is necessary to reduce the quantity of impurities getting mixed with them from the waste fluid as much as possible. In this study, therefore, a cation exchange membrane with permselectivity for sodium ion and an anion exchange membrane with permselectivity for monovalent anion were employed. Using these membranes sodium and nitrate ions were effectively removed form a sodium nitrate solution of high concentration. And also it was confirmed that sodium ion was successfully separated from cesium and strontium ions and that nitrate ion was separated from sulfate and phosphate ions. (author)

  10. Sodium separation from the cover gas system of the PEC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, R.; Picone, G.; Valentini, P.; Bandiera, P.G.; Barilli, L.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of separation of sodium vapours and aerosols from argon was studied. The study generally dealt with the realisation and application on the CNEN sodium loops of sodium vapour traps, which normally have a discontinuous working and treat limited argon flow. Those experiences were utilised for NIRA industrial applications. A possible application of these type of traps was shown for the PEC reactor

  11. Rare earth separations by selective borate crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xuemiao; Wang, Yaxing; Bai, Xiaojing; Wang, Yumin; Chen, Lanhua; Xiao, Chengliang; Diwu, Juan; Du, Shiyu; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wang, Shuao

    2017-03-01

    Lanthanides possess similar chemical properties rendering their separation from one another a challenge of fundamental chemical and global importance given their incorporation into many advanced technologies. New separation strategies combining green chemistry with low cost and high efficiency remain highly desirable. We demonstrate that the subtle bonding differences among trivalent lanthanides can be amplified during the crystallization of borates, providing chemical recognition of specific lanthanides that originates from Ln3+ coordination alterations, borate polymerization diversity and soft ligand coordination selectivity. Six distinct phases are obtained under identical reaction conditions across lanthanide series, further leading to an efficient and cost-effective separation strategy via selective crystallization. As proof of concept, Nd/Sm and Nd/Dy are used as binary models to demonstrate solid/aqueous and solid/solid separation processes. Controlling the reaction kinetics gives rise to enhanced separation efficiency of Nd/Sm system and a one-step quantitative separation of Nd/Dy with the aid of selective density-based flotation.

  12. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko (Government Industrial Research Inst., Shikoku, Takamatsu (Japan))

    1982-09-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-0.5 N NaHCO/sub 3/) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased.

  13. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, K.; Hirotsu, T.; Fujii, A.; Katoh, S.; Sugasaka, K. (Government Industrial Research. Inst., Shikoku, Takamatsu (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-0.5 N NaHCO/sub 3/) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased.

  14. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

    2004-01-01

    This research was intended to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of high-activity tank waste can be evaluated. Primary focus has been on sodium hydroxide separation, with potential Hanford application. Value in sodium hydroxide separation can potentially be found in alternative flowsheets for treatment and disposal of low-activity salt waste. Additional value can be expected in recycle of sodium hydroxide for use in waste retrieval and sludge washing, whereupon additions of fresh sodium hydroxide to the waste can be avoided. Potential savings are large both because of the huge cost of vitrification of the low-activity waste stream and because volume reduction of high-activity wastes could obviate construction of costly new tanks. Toward these ends, the conceptual development begun in the original proposal was extended with the formulation of eight fundamental approaches that could be undertaken for extraction of sodium hydroxide

  15. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  16. Effect of heat treatment duration on phase separation of sodium borosilicate glass, containing copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shejnina, T.G.; Gutner, S.Kh.; Anan'in, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment duration on phase separation of sodium borosilicate (SBS) glass, containing copper is studied. It is stated that phase separation close to equilibrium one is attained under 12 hours of heat treatment of SBS glass containing copper

  17. Design and selection of materials for sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium cooled fast reactors are currently in operation, under construction or under design by a number of countries. The design of sodium cooled fast reactor is covered by French RCC - MR code and ASME code NH. The codes cover rules as regards to materials, design and construction. These codes do not cover the effect of irradiation and environment. Elevated temperature design criteria in nuclear codes are much stringent in comparison to non nuclear codes. Sodium corrosion is not an issue in selection of materials provided oxygen impurity in sodium is controlled for which excellent reactor operating experience is available. Austenitic stainless steels have remained the choice for the permanent structures of primary sodium system. Stabilized austenitic stainless steel are rejected because of poor operating experience and non inclusion in the design codes. Route for improved creep behaviour lies in compositional modifications in 316 class steel. However, the weldability needs to be ensured. For cold leg component is non creep regime, SS 304 class steel is favoured from overall economics. Enhanced fuel burn up can be realized by the use of 9-12%Cr 1%Mo class steel for the wrapper of MOX fuel design, and cladding and wrapper for metal fuel reactors. Minor compositional modifications of 20% cold worked 15Cr-15Ni class austenitic stainless steel will be a strong candidate for the cladding of MOX fuel design in the short term. Long term objective for the cladding will be to develop oxide dispersion strengthened steel. 9%Cr 1%Mo class steel (Gr 91) is an ideal choice for integrated once through sodium heated steam generators. One needs to incorporate operating experience from reactors and thermal power stations, industrial capability and R and D feedback in preparing the technical specifications for procurement of wrought products and welding consumables to ensure reliable operation of the components and systems over the design life. The paper highlights the design approach

  18. Selective sodium removal from lithium chloride brine with novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natrium superionic conductor (NASICON) ceramics present interesting sensitive and selective properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. The powder of Li1.4La0.4Zr1.6(PO4)3 has been synthesized by a solid phase reaction. The removal of sodium was studied in an extensive series of tests involving different ...

  19. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent

  20. Selective Photoinitiated Electrophoretic Separator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA Johnson Space Center needs for gas separation and collection technology for lunar in-situ resource utilization, Physical Optics Corporation (POC)...

  1. Isotope separation by selective photodissociation of glyoxal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marling, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Dissociation products, mainly formaldehyde and carbon monoxide, enriched in a desired isotope of carbon, oxygen, or hydrogen are obtained by the selective photodissociation of glyoxal wherein glyoxal is subjected to electromagnetic radiation in a predetermined wavelength such that photon absorption excites and induces dissociation of only those molecules of glyoxal containing the desired isotope

  2. Selection of steam generator materials for sodium cooled fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, P.

    1977-01-01

    The sodium water heat exchangers are now considered as the stumbling block in the development of liquid metal cooled fast breeders, due to the risk of sodium-water reactions. The selection of the materials for these tube-bundles has been very broad, for the different existing, or in-project, reactors in the world: low alloy 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steels (unstabilized or stabilized); 9 Cr - 1 Mo ferritic steel; 18 Cr - 10 Ni austenitic stainless steels; alloy 800. On can also add other ferritic steels, as 9 Cr - 2 Mo stabilized, which are studied for this application. In the framework of the E.D.F.-C.E.A. working group a major effort was undertaken to study the characteristics of these various materials with respect to the main criteria governing construction of the tube bundles and their performance in service: mechanical characteristics at high temperature; fabrication and welding; behavior with respect to mass transfer in sodium; carburization and decarburization; corrosion resistance. The main lines and results of this program are described [fr

  3. EFFECT OF SODIUM PHOSPHATES ON SELECTED FOOD GRADE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect in vitro of selected sodium phosphates (under the corporate names Hexa 68, Hexa 70, Trikrystal, FST, Pyro 52, KPS, Didi on selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Seven different concentrations of each phosphate were used. Sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phosphates was observed in broth supplemented with salts. In vitro was showed a negative effect of various phosphates on growth of selected gram-positive bacteria. Orthophosphates and diphosphates (pyrophosphates did not have significant inhibitory effect on tested bacteria at neutral pH. With the exception of phosphate Trikrystal has not been found in vitro significant inhibitory effects on gram-negative bacteria.doi:10.5219/141

  4. Separation of uranium isotopes by selective photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snavely, B.B.; Solarz, R.W.; Tuccio, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Recent results of experiments on the laser photoseparation of U isotopes are reported. In the first series of experiments a two-step ionization process using a Xe laser to excite the atoms below the ionization level and then a Kr laser to ionize the atoms was described. Under the geometric conditions of the experiment and power of the Kr laser, enrichments between 2.5 and 3 percent were obtained in runs lasting 2 hrs. Calculations to describe the ion trajectories in the collector system reflected the two-band pattern observed on the Be collector plate. A system to study the photoionization process was assembled in which the U beam is excited to a desired energy level with a CW dye laser and an ultraviolet beam intercepts the excited U beam. An analysis of a photoionization spectrum obtained at a resolution of 8 A indicates that the peak cross section for transitions to autoionization states from the 7 M 7 level is large enough to be used in large-scale U separation systems. An ionization value of 6.15 +- 0.2 eV was deduced for the ionization potential of the U atom. (U.S.)

  5. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these

  6. New selective ligands for caesium. Application to Cs+/Na+ separation by nano-filtration-complexation in aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet-Rostaing, S.; Chitry, F.; Lemaire, M.; Guy, A.; Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    Separating traces of caesium from aqueous medium containing high sodium concentration is a harsh problem because caesium and sodium have a similar behaviour in aqueous medium. The aim of our study was to select a highly caesium-selective ligand in a nano-filtration-complexation process in order to achieve Cs + /Na + separation. This process involve a nano-filtration step combined with a preliminary complexation step. Caesium complexes are retained by the nano-filtration membrane whereas free sodium cations pass through it. We tried to find a relation between the ligands structure and their activity towards caesium-complexation. Among the synthesized receptors, Tetra-hydroxylated bis-crown-6 calix[4]arene was found to be the more caesium-selective ligand (S=β(Cs + )/β(Na+)=6600). Combined with a nano-filtration process, this ligand helped reaching 90% caesium retention in a highly concentrated aqueous medium ([NaNO 3 ] = 3 mol/L). (authors)

  7. Methods for selective functionalization and separation of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Marek, legal representative, Irene Marie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  8. Measuring the separation of the sodium D-doublet with a Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, M.; Corridoni, T.

    2018-01-01

    Revisiting a method proposed by Fizeau in 1862, in this paper we measure the separation of the Na-doublet (the wavelength difference {{Δ }}λ between the two emission D-lines of the sodium spectrum) with a didactical Michelson interferometer. We describe the setup, how the measurements have been done and develop a mathematical model in order to explain the principal features of the collected data. Discussing the limits of this model, we suggest further experimental and theoretical extensions of the experience, also focusing on the didactical aspects to show how this experiment could bring advanced modern physics topics into high schools.

  9. Microporous carbonaceous adsorbents for CO2 separation via selective adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Xin; Han, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Selective adsorption of CO2 has important implications for many energy and environment-related processes, which require the separation of CO2 from other gases (e.g. N2 and CH4) with high uptakes and selectivity. The development of high

  10. Harnessing electro driven separation technique for the separation of selected agrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Alam, S.M. Monjurul; Azli Sulaiman

    2008-01-01

    Electro driven separation techniques offer a different approach to the analysis of complex mixtures than do traditional pressure-driven chromatographic system; it may rely on electrophoresis, the transport of charged species through a medium by an applied field or may rely on electro driven mobile phase to provide a true chromatographic separation. In the current work the potential of an electro driven separation technique viz. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), is harnessed for the separation of selected agrochemicals (organophosphorus pesticides, OPPs) widely used in the agriculture sector in Malaysia. The current study compares the use of MEKC in normal mode (NM) and reverse mode (RM) for the separation of the selected OPPS. This study also highlights the difference in separations produced by performing separations in normal mode-MEKC (NM-MEKC) and reverse mode-MEKC (RM-MEKC) for the selected OPPs. In RM-MEKC, separation is conducted at acidic pH (pH 2.5 in the current work) where the electro osmotic flow (EOF) is weak whereas in NM-MEKC, the separation is carried out under basic pH (9.3 in this work) where the EOF is strong. A reverse migration order of the OPPs was observed under RM-MEKC. Separation under NM-MEKC was found to be superior to those of RM- MEKC. A comparison is also made between separations performed under sweeping-NM-MEKC and sweeping-RM-MEKC. In sweeping, the OPPs are prepared in the same background solution (BGS) minus the micelles and is adjusted to the same conductivity as the BGS. The study showed that NM-MEKC is more sensitive than RM-MEKC but sweeping-RM-MEKC is superior to sweeping-NM-MEKC. However, sweeping-RM-MEKC only separates two of the OPPs in a single run whereas sweeping-NM-MEKC separates four OPPs in a single run. The better choice of separation mode would be sweeping-NM- MEKC for more OPPs separation in a single run. (author)

  11. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  12. Selective separation of pyrite and chalcopyrite by biomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraprabha, M N; Natarajan, K A; Modak, Jayant M

    2004-09-01

    Selective separation of pyrite from other associated ferrous sulphides at acidic and neutral pH has been a challenging problem. This paper discusses the utility of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans for the selective flotation of chalcopyrite from pyrite. Consequent to interaction with bacterial cells, pyrite remained depressed even in the presence of potassium isopropyl xanthate collector while chalcopyrite exhibited significant flotability. However, when the minerals were conditioned together, the selectivity achieved was poor due to the activation of pyrite surface by the copper ions in solution. The selectivity was improved when the sequence of conditioning with bacterial cells and collector was reversed, since the bacterial cells were able to depress collector interacted pyrite effectively, while having negligible effect on chalcopyrite. The observed behaviour is analysed and discussed in detail. The separation obtained was significant both at acidic and alkaline pH. This selectivity achieved was retained when the minerals were interacted with both bacterial cells and collector simultaneously.

  13. Technical Status Report on the Effect of Phosphate and Aluminum on the Development of Amorphous Phase Separation in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the Tank Focus Area ''Optimize Waste Loading'' task is to enhance the definition of the acceptable processing window for high-level waste vitrification plants. One possible manner in which the acceptable processing window may be enhanced is by reducing the uncertainty of various compositional/property models through a specifically defined experimental plan. A reduction in model uncertainty can reduce limitations on current acceptance constraints and may allow for a larger processing or operational window. Enhanced composition/property model predictions coupled with an increased waste loading may decrease the processing time and waste glass disposal costs (i.e., overall lifecycle costs). One of the compositional/property models currently being evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area is related to the development of amorphous phase separation in multi-component borosilicate glasses.Described in this report is the current status for evaluating the effect of phosphorus and alumina on both simple sodium borosilicate and high-level waste glasses on the formation of amorphous phase separation. The goal of this subtask is to increase the understanding of the formation of phase separation by adding significant amounts (3-5 wt. percent) of phosphorus and alumina to well-characterized glasses. Additional scope includes evaluating the effects of thermal history on the formation of amorphous phase separation and durability of select glasses.The development of data, understanding, and quantitative description for composition and kinetic effects on the development of amorphous phase separation will continue in FY99. This effort will provide insight into the compositional and thermal effects on phase stability and will lead to a better understanding of the methods used to predict the development of amorphous phase separation in HLW glasses

  14. Selective separation of Eu3+ using polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.V.

    1994-03-01

    A process to selectively remove 241 Am from liquid radioactive waste was investigated as an actinide separation method applicable to Hanford and other waste sites. The experimental procedures involved removal of Eu, a nonradioactive surrogate for Am, from aqueous solutions at pH 5 using organic polymers in conjunction with ultrafiltration. Commercially available polyacrylic acid (60,000 MW) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) synthesized E3 copolymer (∼10,000 MW) were tested. Test solutions containing 10 μg/mL of Eu were dosed vath each polymer at various concentrations in order to bind Eu (i.e., by complexation and/or cation exchange) for subsequent rejection by an ultrafiltration coupon. Test solutions were filtered with and without polymer to determine if enhanced Eu separation could be achieved from polymer treatment. Both polymers significantly increased Eu removal. Optimum concentrations were 20 μg/mL of polyacrylic acid and 100 μg/mL of E3 for 100% Eu rejection by the Amicon PM10 membrane at 55 psi. In addition to enhancement of removal, the polymers selectively bound Eu over Na, suggesting that selective separation of Eu was possible. This suggests that polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration is a potential process for separation of 241 Am from Hanford tank waste, further investigation of binding agents and membranes effective under very alkaline and high ionic strength is warranted. This process also has potential applications for selective separation of toxic metals from industrial process streams

  15. Preparation of sodium fluoride agglomerates for selective adsorption of uranium hexafluoride (U F6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.; Maximiano, C.; Shimba, R.; Silva, E.R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (U F 6 ) and Sodium Fluoride (NaF) reacts reversibly to form a solid complex. Such reversibility accounts for the great interest in using Sodium Fluoride (NaF) to separate Uranium Hexafluoride (U F 6 ) from other gases. Therefore a chemical trap offers an alternative to the cryogenic trapping device. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  16. Microporous carbonaceous adsorbents for CO2 separation via selective adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Selective adsorption of CO2 has important implications for many energy and environment-related processes, which require the separation of CO2 from other gases (e.g. N2 and CH4) with high uptakes and selectivity. The development of high-performance adsorbents is one of the most promising solutions to the success of these processes. The present review is focused on the state-of-the-art of carbon-based (carbonaceous) adsorbents, covering microporous inorganic carbons and microporous organic polymers, with emphasis on the correlation between their textural and compositional properties and their CO2 adsorption/separation performance. Special attention is given to the most recently developed materials that were not covered in previous reviews. We summarize various effective strategies (N-doping, surface functionalization, extra-framework ions, molecular design, and pore size engineering) for enhancing the CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity of carbonaceous adsorbents. Our discussion focuses on CO2/N2 separation and CO2/CH4 separation, while including an introduction to the methods and criteria used for evaluating the performance of the adsorbents. Critical issues and challenges regarding the development of high-performance adsorbents as well as some overlooked facts and misconceptions are also discussed, with the aim of providing important insights into the design of novel carbonaceous porous materials for various selective adsorption based applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. High selectivity ZIF-93 hollow fiber membranes for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho-Bailo, Fernando; Caro, Guillermo; Etxeberría-Benavides, Miren; Karvan, Oğuz; Téllez, Carlos; Coronas, Joaquín

    2015-06-30

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework-93 (ZIF-93) continuous membranes were synthesized on the inner side of P84 co-polyimide hollow fiber supports by microfluidics. MOFs and polymers showed high compatibility and the membrane exhibited H2-CH4 and CO2-CH4 separation selectivities of 97 (100 °C) and 17 (35 °C), respectively.

  18. Development of Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Selective Ion Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassat, Scot D.; Sukamto, Johanes H.; Orth, Rick J.; Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    The electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) process, being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, provides an alternative separation method to selectively remove ions from process and waste streams. In the ESIX process, in which an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto a high surface area electrode, uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the electrochemical potential of the film. This paper addresses engineering issues necessary to fully develop ESIX for specific industrial alkali cation separation challenges. The cycling and chemical stability and alkali cation selectivity of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) electroactive films were investigated. The selectivity of NiHCF was determined using cyclic voltammetry and a quartz crystal microbalance to quantify ion uptake in the film. Separation factors indicated a high selectivity for cesium and a moderate selectivity for potassium in high sodium content solutions. A NiHCF film with improved redox cycling and chemical stability in a simulated pulp mill process stream, a targeted application for ESIX, was also prepared and tested

  19. A method for the separation of sodium and iron from plutonium and other impurities in concentrated plutonium solution and their subsequent measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.; Brown, M.L.

    1988-06-01

    Sodium and iron are separated from plutonium and other impurities by solvent extraction. Sodium is determined by flame photometry and iron by spectrophotometric measurement of the orthophenanthroline complex. (author)

  20. Lithium-sodium separation by ion-exchange. Particular study of a pulsed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvert, H.

    1966-02-01

    A study is made of the operational conditions and constraints in the case of a moving-bed ion-exchange column subjected to pulses. The example chosen to illustrate its application concerns the lithium-sodium separation in a hydroxide medium (LiOH, NaOH). In the first part, the physico-chemical characteristics of the exchange and the kinetic characteristics of the exchange-reaction are considered. In the second part, the operation of the pulsed column is studied. Using the results obtained in the first part, the conditions required for study state operation are determined. When this is obtained, it is possible to calculate the height equivalent of the theoretical plate (HETP) of the installation. A study is also made of 'sliding', a phenomenon peculiar to pulsed columns. The results obtained show that it is possible, using laboratory tests, to determine the characteristics and the operational condition of a moving-bed ion-exchange column. (author) [fr

  1. Selective heating and separation of isotopes in a metallic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffa, P.; Cheshire, D.; Flanders, B.; Myer, R.; Robinette, W.; Thompson, J.; Young, S.

    1983-01-01

    Several types of metallic plasmas have been produced at the Plasma Separation Process facility of TRW. Selective heating and separation of specific isotopes in these plasmas have been achieved. In this presentation the authors concentrate on the modeling of the selective heating and separation of the isotope Ni 58 . Two models are currently used to describe the excitation process. In both, the electromagnetic fields in the plasma produced by the ICRH antenna are calculated self-consistently using a kinetic description of the warm plasma dielectric. In the Process Model Code, both the production of the plasma and the heating are calculated using a Monte Carlo approach. Only the excitation process is treated in the second simplified model. Test particles that sample an initial parallel velocity distribution are launched into the heating region and the equations of motion including collisional damping are calculated. For both models, the perpendicular energy for a number of particles with different initial conditions and representing the different isotopes is calculated. This information is then input into a code that models the performance of our isotope separation collector. The motion of the ions of each isotope through the electrically biased collector is followed. An accounting of where each particle is deposited is kept and hence the isotope separation performance of the collector is predicted

  2. Microporous ceramic coated separators with superior wettability for enhancing the electrochemical performance of sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharto, Yustian; Lee, Yongho; Yu, Ji-Sang; Choi, Wonchang; Kim, Ki Jae

    2018-02-01

    Finding an alternative to glass fiber (GF) separators is a crucial factor for the fast commercialization of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), because GF separators are too thick for use in SIBs, thereby decreasing the volumetric and gravimetric energy density. Here we propose a microporous composite separator prepared by introducing a polymeric coating layer of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP co-polymer) with ZrO2 nanoparticles to a polyethylene (PE) separator. The coated separator efficiently enhances the cell performance of SIBs. The ZrO2 nanoparticles, finely dispersed on the polymeric coating layer, induce the formation of many micropores on the polymeric coating layer, suggesting that micropore formation on the coating layer renders the composite separator more open in structure. An ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte for SIBs is not absorbed by PE separators even after 1 h of electrolyte droplet testing, while the proposed separator with many micropores is completely wetted by the electrolyte. Sodium ion migration across the composite separator is therefore effectively enhanced by the formation of ion transfer pathways, which improve ionic conductivity. As a result, the microporous composite separator affords stable cycle performances and excellent specific capacity retention (95.8%) after 50 cycles, comparable to those offered by a SIB with a GF separator.

  3. Separation of chloride and fluoride from uranium compounds and their determination by ion selective electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Abrao, A.

    1982-01-01

    Fluoride and chloride must be rigorously controlled in uranium compounds, especially in ceramic grade UO 2 . Their determination is very difficult without previous uranium separation, particularly when both are at a low concentration. A simple procedure is described for this separation using a strong cationic resin to retain the uranyl ion. Both anions are determined in the effluent solution. Uranium compounds of nuclear fuel cycle, especially ammonium diuranate, ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, sodium diuranate, uranium trioxide and dioxide and uranium peroxide are dissolved in nitric acid and the solutions are percolated through the resin column. Chloride and fluoride are determined in the effluent by selective electrodes, the detection limits being 0.02 μg F - /ml and 1.0 μg Cl - /ml. The dissolution of the sample, the acidity of the solution, the measurement conditions and the sensitivity of the method are discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. Americium-curium separation by means of selective extraction of hexavalent americium using a centrifugal contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Germain, M.; Bathellier, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with Am (VI) - Cm (III) separation in nitrate media. The kinetics of oxidation of Am (III) by sodium persulfate in the presence of Ag + ions were reinvestigated by studying the effect of additions of small amounts of reagents which do not drastically change the distribution coefficients of Am (VI) or Cm (III) ions. Organo phosphorus solvents were selected because they are radiation resistant, possess weak reductant properties and that their affinity for hexavalent ion is high. The operating procedure was selected by consideration of the results of the two previous investigations. This can be done by using a centrifugal contactor enabling in to set organic-aqueous phase contact time in accordance with the kinetics of extraction of Am (VI), oxidation of Am (III) in aqueous phase, and reduction of Am (VI) in organic phase

  5. How Many Separable Sources? Model Selection In Independent Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Roger P.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Strother, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mixtures consisting solely of non-Gaussian sources, mixtures including two or more Gaussian components cannot be separated using standard independent components analysis methods that are based on higher order statistics and independent observations. The mixed Independent Components Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (mixed ICA/PCA) model described here accommodates one or more Gaussian components in the independent components analysis model and uses principal components analysis to characterize contributions from this inseparable Gaussian subspace. Information theory can then be used to select from among potential model categories with differing numbers of Gaussian components. Based on simulation studies, the assumptions and approximations underlying the Akaike Information Criterion do not hold in this setting, even with a very large number of observations. Cross-validation is a suitable, though computationally intensive alternative for model selection. Application of the algorithm is illustrated using Fisher's iris data set and Howells' craniometric data set. Mixed ICA/PCA is of potential interest in any field of scientific investigation where the authenticity of blindly separated non-Gaussian sources might otherwise be questionable. Failure of the Akaike Information Criterion in model selection also has relevance in traditional independent components analysis where all sources are assumed non-Gaussian. PMID:25811988

  6. On separation of heavy isotopes by means of selective ICRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotelnikov, I.A.; Kuzmin, S.G.; Volosov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present a theoretical study of the isotope separation by means of isotopically selective ion cyclotron resonance plasma heating (ICRH). The special attention is devoted to the separation of gadolinium isotopes. The ions are supposed to pass through the device shown on Fig. 1 where they are heated by the full-turn-loop antenna that excites RF field with azimuthal number m = 0. They calculate the distribution function of ions in a plasma stream at the orifice of the device. A satisfactory separation is achieved for the following values of parameters. The length of heating zone ell = 200 cm, initial temperature of plasma stream T parallel = 5 eV, T perpendicular = 60 eV, the plasma radius a = 10 cm, plasma density n = 10 12 cm -3 , external magnetic field B = 30 kGs. The energy of resonance ions W = 100 divided-by 200 eV. The latter value is achieved if a current in the antenna loops is equal to 60A with full number of loops N = 150. With the specified parameters, the current in the plasma stream is equal to 15 divided-by 20A. Then the production rate equals to 100 kg of Gd 157 per year. Energy of Gd's ions after pass through the heating zone vs. their axial velocity

  7. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  8. Selective hydrogenation of 4-isobutylacetophenone over a sodium-promoted Pd/C catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hong-Baek; Lee, Bae Uk; Nakayama, Tadachika; Park, Yeung-Ho; Ryu, Chung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sodium promotion on the selective hydrogenation of 4-isobutylacetophenone, 4-IBAP, was investigated over a Pd/C catalyst. A precipitation and deposition method was used to prepare the catalyst, and sodium was promoted on the Pd/C catalyst via post-impregnation while varying the sodium content. The sodium-promoted Pd/C catalyst resulted in a significantly improved yield greater than 96% of the desired product, 1-(4-isobutylphenyl) ethanol (4-IBPE), compared with the non-patented literature results under a mild hydrogenation condition. A detailed hydrogenation network over the Pd/C catalyst was suggested. The reaction mechanism for the yield and selectivity enhancement of 4-IBPE induced-by the promoted Pd/C was elucidated in relation to the geometric and electronic effects of reactant molecules in the microporous support depending on the reaction steps

  9. Isotopic separation of 13C by selective photodissociation of formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussillon, T.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of the 13 C isotopic separation by UV laser spectroscopy. The spectra of H 2 12 CO and H 2 13 CO have been recorded by a Fourier transform spectrometer between 28000 and 34000 cm -1 . From these data has been carried out a systematic study of some lines by laser spectroscopy. The selectivity measurements have been compared with the obtained enrichment factors. Thus has been revealed in a quantitative way, the importance of the isotopic re-mixture phenomena and of the selectivity loss. The best enrichment factor has been measured at 29935,56 cm -1 (band: (2,14,1)). A final percentage of 42,1 % has been obtained in a reproducible way for 13 C. The evolution of the enrichment factor has been characterized for a pressure range between 4,4 and 43 mbar. Above the radical dissociation threshold, it has not be possible to show a positive effect of NO on the enrichment factor. This negative result has been explained by a detailed kinetic study of the radical reactions (available literature). This experimental study has been completed by a bibliographic synthesis for understanding the formaldehyde photochemistry. All the processes able to influence the performance of this isotopic separation process have been gathered in this work in an exhaustive way. The radical dissociation threshold of H 2 13 CO have been calculated from molecular constants of the literature and from known thermodynamic data for H 2 12 CO. (O.M.)

  10. Selective adsorption of benzhydroxamic acid on fluorite rendering selective separation of fluorite/calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Gao, Zhiyong; Khoso, Sultan Ahmed; Gao, Jiande; Sun, Wei; Pu, Wei; Hu, Yuehua

    2018-03-01

    Fluorite, a chief source of fluorine in the nature, usually coexists with calcite mineral in ore deposits. Worldwide, flotation techniques with a selective collector and/or a selective depressant are commonly preferred for the separation of fluorite from calcite. In the present study, an attempt was made to use benzhydroxamic acid (BHA) as a collector for the selective separation of fluorite from calcite without using any depressant. Results obtained from the flotation experiments for single mineral and mixed binary minerals revealed that the BHA has a good selective collecting ability for the fluorite when 50 mg/L of BHA was used at pH of 9. The results from the zeta potential and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the BHA easily chemisorbs onto the fluorite as compared to calcite. Crystal chemistry calculations showed the larger Ca density and the higher Ca activity on fluorite surface mainly account for the selective adsorption of BHA on fluorite, leading to the selective separation of fluorite from calcite. Moreover, a stronger hydrogen bonding with BHA and the weaker electrostatic repulsion with BHA- also contribute to the stronger interaction of BHA species with fluorite surface.

  11. Boundary layer separation method for recycling of sodium ions from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petho, Dóra; Horváth, Géza; Liszi, János; Tóth, Imre; Paor, Dávid

    2010-12-01

    The most effective technological solution for waste treatment is recycling. We have developed a new method for the treatment of industrial wastewaters and have called it the boundary layer separation method (BLSM). We have used the phenomenon that, on the surface of an electrically charged electrode, ions can be enriched in the boundary layer, as compared with the inside of the phase. The essence of the method is that, with an appropriately chosen velocity, the boundary layer can be removed from the wastewater, and the boundary layer, which is rich in ions, can be recycled. The BLSM can be executed as a cyclic procedure. The capacitance of the boundary layer was examined. The best mass transport can be achieved with the use of 1000 and 1200 mV polarization potentials in the examined system, with its value being 1200 mg/m2 per cycle. The necessary operation times were determined by the examination of the velocity of the electrochemical processes. When using 1000 mV polarization potential, the necessary adsorption time is at least 25 seconds, and the desorption time at least 300 seconds. The advantage of the procedure is that it does not use dangerous chemicals, only inert electrodes. The drawback is that it is not selective to ions, the achievable separation in one step is low, and the hydrogen that emerges during the electrolysis might be dangerous.

  12. Influence of sodium chloride on shear flow induced starch-gluten separation from Soissons wheat dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat dough can be separated into a starch-rich and a gluten-rich fraction by subjecting the dough to curvilinear shear flow. This paper presents the effect of salt (NaCl) addition on the shear-induced separation process. The separation (defined as the changes in protein concentration in the various

  13. Separation selectivity patterns of fully charged achiral compounds in capillary electrophoresis with a neutral cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthorntantikul, Wasura; Srisa-art, Monpichar; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2013-01-01

    Based on the separation selectivity equation, related to the dimensionless parameters for fully charged achiral analytes using a neutral CD, the separation selectivity can be classified into seven patterns. With respect to CZE without CD, the presence of CD in the buffer may improve, or reduce, the separation selectivity with this effect being accompanied by the same or reversed electrophoretic mobility order for charged analytes. This can depend on the separation selectivity of the two analytes in free solution, the binding selectivity, the separation selectivity of analyte-CD complexes and the ratio of electrophoretic mobility of the analytes in free, and complexed forms. Using positional isomers of benzoic acids and phenoxy acids as test analytes and α-CD as a selector, the observed separation selectivity shapes were found to be in excellent agreement with the predicted separation selectivities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Functionalized membranes for environmental remediation and selective separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    Membrane process including microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) have provided numerous successful applications ranging from drinking water purification, wastewater treatment, to material recovery. The addition of functional moiety in the membranes pores allows such membranes to be used in challenging areas including tunable separations, toxic metal capture, and catalysis. In this work, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) MF membrane was functionalized with temperature responsive (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAAm) and pH responsive (polyacrylic acid, PAA) polymers. It's revealed that the permeation of various molecules (water, salt and dextran) through the membrane can be thermally or pH controlled. The introduction of PAA as a polyelectrolyte offers an excellent platform for the immobilization of metal nanoparticles (NPs) applied for degradation of toxic chlorinated organics with significantly increased longevity and stability. The advantage of using temperature and pH responsive polymers/hydrogels also includes the high reactivity and effectiveness in dechlorination. Further advancement on the PVDF functionalization involved the alkaline treatment to create partially defluorinated membrane (Def-PVDF) with conjugated double bounds allowing for the covalent attachment of different polymers. The PAA-Def-PVDF membrane shows pH responsive behavior on both the hydraulic permeability and solute retention. The sponge-like PVDF (SPVDF) membranes by phase inversion were developed through casting PVDF solution on polyester backing. The SPVDF membrane was demonstrated to have 4 times more surface area than commercial PVDF MF membrane, allowing for enhanced nanoparticles loading for chloro-organics degradation. The advanced functionalization method and process were also validated to be able to be scaled-up through the evaluation of full-scale functionalized membrane provided by Ultura Inc. California, USA. Nanofiltration (NF

  15. Separate patient serum sodium medians from males and females provide independent information on analytical bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During monitoring of monthly medians of results from patients undertaken to assess analytical stability in routine laboratory performance, the medians for serum sodium for male and female patients were found to be significantly related. METHODS: Daily, weekly and monthly patient medians...... all instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The tight relationship between the gender medians for serum sodium is only possible when raw laboratory data are used for calculation. The two patient medians can be used to confirm both and are useful as independent estimates of analytical bias during constant...... calibration periods. In contrast to the gender combined median, the estimate of analytical bias can be confirmed further by calculation of the ratios of medians for males and females....

  16. Fort St. Vrain graphite site mechanical separation concept selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    One of the alternatives to the disposal of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reactor spent nuclear fuel involves the separation of the fuel rods composed of compacts from the graphite fuel block assembly. After the separation of these two components, the empty graphite fuel blocks would be disposed of as a low level waste (provided the appropriate requirements are met) and the fuel compacts would be treated as high level waste material. This report deals with the mechanical separation aspects concerning physical disassembly of the FSV graphite fuel element into the empty graphite fuel blocks and fuel compacts. This report recommends that a drilling technique is the preferred choice for accessing the, fuel channel holes and that each hole is drilled separately. This report does not cover any techniques or methods to separate the triso fuel particles from the graphite matrix of the fuel compacts

  17. Separate patient serum sodium medians from males and females provide independent information on analytical bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2017-10-26

    During monitoring of monthly medians of results from patients undertaken to assess analytical stability in routine laboratory performance, the medians for serum sodium for male and female patients were found to be significantly related. Daily, weekly and monthly patient medians of serum sodium for both male and female patients were calculated from results obtained on samples from the population >18 years on three analysers in the hospital laboratory. The half-range of medians was applied as an estimate of the maximum bias. Further, the ratios between the two medians were calculated. The medians of both genders demonstrated dispersions over time, but they were closely connected in like patterns, which were confirmed by the half-range of the ratios of medians for males and females that varied from 0.36% for daily, 0.14% for weekly and 0.036% for monthly ratios over all instruments. The tight relationship between the gender medians for serum sodium is only possible when raw laboratory data are used for calculation. The two patient medians can be used to confirm both and are useful as independent estimates of analytical bias during constant calibration periods. In contrast to the gender combined median, the estimate of analytical bias can be confirmed further by calculation of the ratios of medians for males and females.

  18. Calixarene receptors in the selective separation of alachlor. Characterization of the separated complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides have been necessary in the agriculture since the plagues control have been remedied thanks to them but it has also provoked pollution. Nowadays, there are several methods which help to decrease or remedy such a pollution provoked. Unfortunately, any of them work out the environmental problem totally. Therefore, alternatives have to be found. The organic and tri dimensional characteristics of these macrocycles afford them a high versatility in such a way that these hosts can interact with organic guests selectively. Alachlor is a chlorinated organic herbicide useful in the plagues control of annual grasses and many broad-leave weeds which grow in maize, peanuts and soyabean. The ability of calixarenes to host organic guests with chemical characteristics similar to pesticides let them to be good candidates to compete with others methods which are used presently to separate organic pesticides. In this direction one of the advantages of proposing the use of calixarenes is, its facility of being modified in the lower and/or upper rims, to adapt them to aqueous, organic, gaseous and aqueous-organic media. Once the characteristics of reagents informed in the literature were confirmed and complemented with others found in this work, we studied, in solution, the interaction of the calixarenes with alachlor using 1 x 10 -5 to 1 x 10 -3 M solutions in acetonitrile for calixarenes fitted with phosphinoyl pendant arms in the lower rim, B n bL n , n= 4, 6) and in chloroform for parents calixarenes (H n bL n n = 4, 6, 8). Meticulous studies monitored by UV-Vis and luminescence were carried out, and the best stoichiometry to be used in further studies resulted to be 1(host): 1(alachlor). Therefore, we chose the 1 x 10 -4 M concentration to find how long the host-guest should be interacting in order to guarantee the formation in solution of the calixarene-alachlor species. It was found 168 h for the alachlor-B n bL n interaction while 165 h were necessary with H n bL n

  19. Thermodynamics of chiral selectivity in capillary electrophoresis : separation of ibuprofen enantiomers with beta-cyclodextrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijenga, J.C.; Ingelse, B.A.; Everaerts, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the electrophoretic chiral separation of ibuprofen with ß-CD was investigated. Background electrolytes with sodium acetate or formate were chosen because of their constant pK within 0.03 units in the temperature range 25–50°C. Ibuprofen has a temperature independent pK

  20. Dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation and stable performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Qu, Shao-Bo; Peng, Wei-Dong; Lin, Bao-Qin; Wang, Jia-Fu; Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie-Qiu; Bai, Peng; Wang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Zhuo

    2012-05-01

    A new technique of designing a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is presented. This technique is based on a delicately designed topology of L- and Ku-band microwave filters. The two band-pass responses are generated by a capacitively-loaded square-loop frequency selective surface and an aperture-coupled frequency selective surface, respectively. A Faraday cage is located between the two frequency selective surface structures to eliminate undesired couplings. Based on this technique, a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is designed, which possesses large band separation, high selectivity, and stable performance under various incident angles and different polarizations.

  1. Sodium dithionite as a selective demasking agent for the complexometric determination of thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAKASH SHETTY

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium dithionite is proposed as a new demasking agent for the rapid and selective complexometric determination of thallium(III. In the presence of diverse metal ions, thallium (III was first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTAwas then titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5–6 (hexamine buffer using Xylenol Orange as the indicator. The EDTAequivalent to thallium was then released selectively with sodium dithionite and back titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results were obtained in the range 4–100 mg of thallium with a relative error of ±27 % and a coefficient of variation (n = 6 of not more than 0.30 %. The effects of various diverse ions were studied. The method was applied to the determination of thallium in its complexes and in alloys.

  2. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  3. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirin, Dejan M; Poša, Mihalj M; Krstonošić, Veljko S

    2011-12-29

    In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  4. Safety and efficacy of a Nav1.7 selective sodium channel blocker in patients with trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Palmer, Joanne; Morisset, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current standard of care for trigeminal neuralgia is treatment with the sodium channel blockers carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, which although effective are associated with poor tolerability and the need for titration. BIIB074, a Nav1.7-selective, state-dependent sodium-channel blocker...

  5. Separation and selective determination of molybdenum with sodiumthiosulfate and ethylacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainberger, L.; de Oliveira Andrade, W.

    1982-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method of spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum is described. Molybdenum is extracted to more than 97%. Lambert-Beer's law is obeyed between 0.35 and 30μg/10ml of the used aqueous solution. 43 ions concerning their interference are studied. The method was used to determine the content of molybdenum in black beans. (Author)

  6. Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, I; Luchinsky, D G; Tindjong, R; McClintock, P V E; Eisenberg, R S

    2013-11-01

    We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to study the ionic conduction and valence selectivity of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as functions of the fixed charge Q(f) at its selectivity filter. We are thus able to reconcile the discrete calcium conduction bands recently revealed in our BD simulations, M0 (Q(f)=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e), with a set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5e), L1 (1.5e), thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands vs Q(f) for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Q(f) leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium-selective, nonblocking channel) → M0 (nonselective channel) → L1 (sodium-selective channel with divalent block) → M1 (calcium-selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L0 band is putatively identified with the eukaryotic sodium channel The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced transformations between nonselective channels, sodium-selective channels, and calcium-selective channels, which we interpret as transitions between different rows of the identification table. By considering the potential energy changes during permeation, we show explicitly that the multi-ion conduction bands of calcium and sodium channels arise as the result of resonant barrierless conduction. The pattern of periodic conduction bands is explained on the basis of sequential neutralization taking account of self-energy, as Q(f)(z,i)=ze(1/2+i), where i is the order of the band and z is the valence of the ion. Our results confirm the crucial influence of electrostatic interactions on conduction and on the Ca(2+)/Na(+) valence selectivity of calcium and sodium ion channels. The model and results could be also applicable to biomimetic nanopores with charged walls.

  7. Separate and Combined Effects of Caffeine and Sodium-Bicarbonate Intake on Judo Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe, Leandro C; Lopes-Silva, João P; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; McGinley, Cian; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2016-03-01

    The combined supplementation of caffeine (CAF) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) may have a potential ergogenic effect during intermittent-exercise tasks such as judo; however, its effect in this sport has not been tested. To investigate the isolated and combined effects of CAF and NaHCO3 on judo performance. Ten judokas performed 4 supplementation protocols-NaHCO3, CAF, NaHCO3 + CAF, and placebo (PLA) (cellulose)-followed by 3 Special Judo Fitness Tests (SJFTs) interspaced with 5 min rest. In the first SJFT, the combined supplement (NaHCO3 + CAF) resulted in a higher number of throws than with PLA (24.4 ± 0.9 and 23.2 ± 1.5 throws, respectively, P = .02). There was no significant difference between conditions for the 2nd SJFT (P = .11). In the 3rd SJFT, NaHCO3 and NaHCO3 + CAF resulted in more throws than with PLA (23.7 ± 1.6, 24.4 ± 1.0, and 22.0 ± 1.6 throws, P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). When the total throws performed in the 3 SJFTs were summed, they were higher than PLA only for NaHCO3 + CAF (68.8 ± 4.4 and 72.7 ± 3.1 throws, respectively, P = .003). Postexercise plasma lactate after each SJFT was higher in all experimental conditions than with PLA (P = .001). There was no significant difference in rating of perceived exertion across the conditions (P = .18). The results of the current study show that the combined supplementation of NaHCO3 + CAF increases judo performance compared with PLA.

  8. How Many Separable Sources? Model Selection In Independent Components Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Roger P.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Strother, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    among potential model categories with differing numbers of Gaussian components. Based on simulation studies, the assumptions and approximations underlying the Akaike Information Criterion do not hold in this setting, even with a very large number of observations. Cross-validation is a suitable, though....../Principal Components Analysis (mixed ICA/PCA) model described here accommodates one or more Gaussian components in the independent components analysis model and uses principal components analysis to characterize contributions from this inseparable Gaussian subspace. Information theory can then be used to select from...... might otherwise be questionable. Failure of the Akaike Information Criterion in model selection also has relevance in traditional independent components analysis where all sources are assumed non-Gaussian....

  9. Digestion of Alumina from Non-Magnetic Material Obtained from Magnetic Separation of Reduced Iron-Rich Diasporic Bauxite with Sodium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by the Bayer process from non-magnetic material obtained after magnetic separation of reduced iron-rich diasporic bauxite with sodium salts was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of sodium salts can destroy the original occurrences of iron-, aluminum- and silicon-containing minerals of bauxite ore during reductive roasting. Meanwhile, the reactions of sodium salts with complex aluminum- and silicon-bearing phases generate diaoyudaoite and sodium aluminosilicate. The separation of iron via reductive roasting of bauxite ore with sodium salts followed by magnetic separation improves alumina digestion in the Bayer process. When the alumina-bearing material in bauxite ore is converted into non-magnetic material, the digestion temperature decreases significantly from 280 °C to 240 °C with a nearly 99% relative digestion ratio of alumina.

  10. Novel strategy for diameter-selective separation and functionalization of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, R M; Afzali, A; Freitag, M; Mitzi, D B; Chen, Zh

    2008-02-01

    The problem of separating single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by diameter and/or chirality is one of the greatest impediments toward the widespread application of these promising materials in nanoelectronics. In this paper, we describe a novel physical-chemical method for diameter-selective CNT separation that is both simple and effective and that allows up-scaling to large volumes at modest cost. Separation is based on size-selective noncovalent matching of an appropriate anchor molecule to the wall of the CNT, enabling suspension of the CNTs in solvents in which they would otherwise not be soluble. We demonstrate size-selective separation in the 1-2 nm diameter range using easily synthesized oligo-acene adducts as a diameter-selective molecular anchor. CNT field effect transistors fabricated from diameter-selected CNTs show markedly improved electrical properties as compared to nonselected CNTs.

  11. Preparation and Characterisation of tri-n-octylamine Microcapsule (TOA-MC) as Selective Separation of Re (VII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, T.L.; Mimura, H.; Syed, M.R.; Yin, X.B.; Lee, C.P.; Tsai, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid on the selective separation and effective utilisation of 99 Tc from high level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW). TOA-MC was developed as an absorbent for Re (VII), a substitute for Tc (VII) due to their similarities of chemical behaviour in this study. The uptake (%), normally above 95% of Re (VII) for TOA-MC in the presence of dilute HNO 3 (0.01∼0.1 M) was strongly retained and decreased with higher HNO 3 concentration by batch method. The surface morphology and thermal stability of microcapsules were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The diameters in the range of 700-800 μm and size distribution of the microcapsules were examined using digital microscope (DM). The chemical structures of the synthesised microcapsules and two starting materials of TOA and sodium alginate (NaALG) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (authors)

  12. Dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation and stable performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hang; Qu Shao-Bo; Lin Bao-Qin; Wang Jia-Fu; Ma Hua; Zhang Jie-Qiu; Peng Wei-Dong; Bai Peng; Wang Xu-Hua; Xu Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    A new technique of designing a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is presented. This technique is based on a delicately designed topology of L- and Ku-band microwave filters. The two band-pass responses are generated by a capacitively-loaded square-loop frequency selective surface and an aperture-coupled frequency selective surface, respectively. A Faraday cage is located between the two frequency selective surface structures to eliminate undesired couplings. Based on this technique, a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is designed, which possesses large band separation, high selectivity, and stable performance under various incident angles and different polarizations. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. Efficacy of Substance Removal by Immunoadsorption With a Selective Plasma Separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Norio; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Tamachi, Masaki; Torato, Toshihiro; Sakurai, Satoko; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2017-06-01

    Immunoadsorption with a tryptophan-conjugated column has a limited capacity and reduces fibrinogen. We speculated that immunoadsorption with a selective plasma separator has higher efficiency in removing immunoglobulins than ordinary immunoadsorption without affecting coagulation factors. This study investigated the efficacy of immunoadsorption with a selective plasma separator in vitro. The sieving coefficients, the pool concentration, and the adsorbed amount were investigated serially with up to 5 L of processed plasma. The sieving coefficients of the selective plasma separator were 0.8, 0.5, and 0.1 for albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and factor 13, respectively. The trend of concentrations for the ordinary plasma separator in the pool reached its nadir at 1.5 L and 3.5 L of plasma processed for IgG, IgG1, or IgG2, and IgG3, respectively. However, the volume was doubled for the selective plasma separator. The trends of fibrinogen and factor 13 concentrations differed significantly between two plasma separators. The trends of the absorbed amount were mirror images of the concentration in the pool. Comparison of the peak amount absorbed indicated that the amounts were almost identical between the two separators for IgG, IgG1, and IgG2. On the other hand, the peak amounts were less for albumin, fibrinogen, and IgG3 with the selective plasma separator than with the ordinary separator. Although further investigations about bradykinin are required, immunoadsorption with the selective plasma separator supports the administration of more frequent and intensive treatments to remove IgG1 or IgG2 without affecting coagulation factors. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  14. Lysine and the Na+/K+ Selectivity in Mammalian Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Huihui; Xia, Mengdie; Gong, Haipeng

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are critical in the generation and transmission of neuronal signals in mammals. The crystal structures of several prokaryotic Nav channels determined in recent years inspire the mechanistic studies on their selection upon the permeable cations (especially between Na+ and K+ ions), a property that is proposed to be mainly determined by residues in the selectivity filter. However, the mechanism of cation selection in mammalian Nav channels lacks direct explanation at atomic level due to the difference in amino acid sequences between mammalian and prokaryotic Nav homologues, especially at the constriction site where the DEKA motif has been identified to determine the Na+/K+ selectivity in mammalian Nav channels but is completely absent in the prokaryotic counterparts. Among the DEKA residues, Lys is of the most importance since its mutation to Arg abolishes the Na+/K+ selectivity. In this work, we modeled the pore domain of mammalian Nav channels by mutating the four residues at the constriction site of a prokaryotic Nav channel (NavRh) to DEKA, and then mechanistically investigated the contribution of Lys in cation selection using molecular dynamics simulations. The DERA mutant was generated as a comparison to understand the loss of ion selectivity caused by the K-to-R mutation. Simulations and free energy calculations on the mutants indicate that Lys facilitates Na+/K+ selection by electrostatically repelling the cation to a highly Na+-selective location sandwiched by the carboxylate groups of Asp and Glu at the constriction site. In contrast, the electrostatic repulsion is substantially weakened when Lys is mutated to Arg, because of two intrinsic properties of the Arg side chain: the planar geometric design and the sparse charge distribution of the guanidine group.

  15. Lysine and the Na+/K+ Selectivity in Mammalian Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium (Nav channels are critical in the generation and transmission of neuronal signals in mammals. The crystal structures of several prokaryotic Nav channels determined in recent years inspire the mechanistic studies on their selection upon the permeable cations (especially between Na+ and K+ ions, a property that is proposed to be mainly determined by residues in the selectivity filter. However, the mechanism of cation selection in mammalian Nav channels lacks direct explanation at atomic level due to the difference in amino acid sequences between mammalian and prokaryotic Nav homologues, especially at the constriction site where the DEKA motif has been identified to determine the Na+/K+ selectivity in mammalian Nav channels but is completely absent in the prokaryotic counterparts. Among the DEKA residues, Lys is of the most importance since its mutation to Arg abolishes the Na+/K+ selectivity. In this work, we modeled the pore domain of mammalian Nav channels by mutating the four residues at the constriction site of a prokaryotic Nav channel (NavRh to DEKA, and then mechanistically investigated the contribution of Lys in cation selection using molecular dynamics simulations. The DERA mutant was generated as a comparison to understand the loss of ion selectivity caused by the K-to-R mutation. Simulations and free energy calculations on the mutants indicate that Lys facilitates Na+/K+ selection by electrostatically repelling the cation to a highly Na+-selective location sandwiched by the carboxylate groups of Asp and Glu at the constriction site. In contrast, the electrostatic repulsion is substantially weakened when Lys is mutated to Arg, because of two intrinsic properties of the Arg side chain: the planar geometric design and the sparse charge distribution of the guanidine group.

  16. Characteristics of isotope-selective chemical reactor with gas-separating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshunov, N.M.; Kalitin, S.A.; Laguntsov, N.I.; Neshchimenko, Yu.P.; Sulaberidze, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was made on characteristics of separating stage, composed of isotope-selective chemical (or photochemical) reactor and membrane separating cascade (MSC), designated for separation of isotope-enriched products from lean reagents. MSC represents the counterflow cascade for separation of two-component mixtures. Calculations show that for the process of carton isotope separation the electric power expences for MSC operation are equal to 20 kWxh/g of CO 2 final product at 13 C isotope content in it equal to 75%. Application of the membrane gas-separating cascade at rather small electric power expenses enables to perform cascading of isotope separation in the course of nonequilibrium chemical reactions

  17. The selective separation of Cs and Sr ion on the inorganic ion-exchanger zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Min, Byeog Heon [Hoseo University, Taegu (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    This study shows the selective separation of Cs and Sr ion on the inorganic ion-exchanger zeolites such as clinoptilolite, Y-type CBV760, CBV780 and A-type 3A. The selective separation of Cs and Sr on these zeolites was examined using batch and continuous column experiments. For the selective separation of Cs and Sr from a synthetic wastewater, adsorption rate of Cs increased in the order, clinoptilolite> 3A>> CBV760> CBV780, adsorption rate of Sr increased in the other, 3A>> clinoptilolite> CBV760> CBV780. For the clinoptilolite, the adsorption rate of Cs reached about 96 {approx} 98% within 3h. The adsorption rate of Sr on 3A reached about 99% within 3h. (author). 40 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Selective separation of actinides and long-lived fission products from 1 AW MTR liquid waste: pilot plant tests part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, G.; Marrocchelli, A.; Pietrelli, L.; Calle, C.; Gili, M.; Luce, A.; Troiani, F.

    1992-01-01

    In Italy there are some 120 m 3 of liquid High-level radioactive Wastes coming from MTR, Candu and EPK River fuel elements reprocessing. These High-level radioactive wastes contain a large amount of chemicals and inert salts together with cesium, strontium and transuranium elements. Transuranium elements and strontium are separated from the inert salts by means of a selective precipitation while Cesium is adsorbed on synthetic zeolithes (AZE Process) or precipitated with sodium Tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) (ATE process). The benchscale experiments have confirmed the feasibility of selective separation processes and have showed that decontamination efficiency for strontium, plutonium and cesium were, respectively, 100, 5000 and 1000. This second part of the CEC final report describes Searse pilot plant tests with cold experiments. 37 Refs.; 17 Figs.; 16 Tabs

  19. Distinct interactions of Na+ and Ca2+ ions with the selectivity filter of the bacterial sodium channel NaVAb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Song; Zangerl, Eva-Maria; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ca 2+ translocates slowly in the filter, due to lack of “loose” knock-on mechanism. ► Identification of a high affinity binding site in Na V Ab selectivity filter. ► Changes of EEEE locus triggered by electrostatic interactions with Ca 2+ ions. -- Abstract: Rapid and selective ion transport is essential for the generation and regulation of electrical signaling pathways in living organisms. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations to investigate how the bacterial sodium channel Na V Ab (Arcobacter butzleri) differentiates between Na + and Ca 2+ ions. Multiple nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations revealed distinct binding patterns for these two cations in the selectivity filter and suggested a high affinity calcium binding site formed by backbone atoms of residues Leu-176 and Thr-175 (S CEN ) in the sodium channel selectivity filter

  20. New Proton-Ionizable, Calixarene-Based Ligands for Selective Metal Ion Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Richard A.

    2012-06-04

    The project objective was the discovery of new ligands for performing metal ion separations. The research effort entailed the preparation of new metal ion complexing agents and polymers and their evaluation in metal ion separation processes of solvent extraction, synthetic liquid membrane transport, and sorption. Structural variations in acyclic, cyclic, and bicyclic organic ligands were used to probe their influence upon the efficiency and selectivity with which metal ion separations can be performed. A unifying feature of the ligand structures is the presence of one (or more) side arm with a pendent acidic function. When a metal ion is complexed within the central cavity of the ligand, ionization of the side arm(s) produces the requisite anion(s) for formation of an overall electroneutral complex. This markedly enhances extraction/transport efficiency for separations in which movement of aqueous phase anions of chloride, nitrate, or sulfate into an organic medium would be required. Through systematic structural variations, new ligands have been developed for efficient and selective separations of monovalent metal ions (e.g., alkali metal, silver, and thallium cations) and of divalent metal ion species (e.g., alkaline earth metal, lead, and mercury cations). Research results obtained in these fundamental investigations provide important insight for the design and development of ligands suitable for practical metal ion separation applications.

  1. All-Solid-State Sodium-Selective Electrode with a Solid Contact of Chitosan/Prussian Blue Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Ghosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional ion-selective electrodes with a liquid junction have the disadvantage of potential drift. All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes with solid contact in between the metal electrode and the ion-selective membrane offer high capacitance or conductance to enhance potential stability. Solution-casted chitosan/Prussian blue nanocomposite (ChPBN was employed as the solid contact layer for an all-solid-state sodium ion-selective electrode in a potentiometric sodium ion sensor. Morphological and chemical analyses confirmed that the ChPBN is a macroporous network of chitosan that contains abundant Prussian blue nanoparticles. Situated between a screen-printed carbon electrode and a sodium-ionophore-filled polyvinylchloride ion-selective membrane, the ChPBN layer exhibited high redox capacitance and fast charge transfer capability, which significantly enhanced the performance of the sodium ion-selective electrode. A good Nernstian response with a slope of 52.4 mV/decade in the linear range from 10−4–1 M of NaCl was observed. The stability of the electrical potential of the new solid contact was tested by chronopotentiometry, and the capacitance of the electrode was 154 ± 4 µF. The response stability in terms of potential drift was excellent (1.3 µV/h for 20 h of continuous measurement. The ChPBN proved to be an efficient solid contact to enhance the potential stability of the all-solid-state ion-selective electrode.

  2. Cell adsorption and selective desorption for separation of microbial cells by using chitosan-immobilized silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Munehiro; Matsui, Masayoshi; Chiku, Hiroyuki; Kasashima, Nobuyuki; Shimojoh, Manabu; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2005-12-01

    Cell adsorption and selective desorption for separation of microbial cells were conducted by using chitosan-immobilized silica (CIS). When chitosan was immobilized onto silica surfaces with glutaraldehyde, bacterial cells adsorbed well and retained viability. Testing of the adsorption and desorption ability of CIS using various microbes such as Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces ludwigii, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe revealed that most microbes could be adsorbed and selectively desorbed under different conditions. In particular, recovery was improved when L-cysteine was added. A mixture of two bacterial strains adsorbed onto CIS could also be successfully separated by use of specific solutions for each strain. Most of the desorbed cells were alive. Thus, quantitative and selective fractionation of cells is readily achievable by employing chitosan, a known antibacterial material.

  3. Selective separation of arsenopyrite from pyrite by biomodulation in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraprabha, M N; Natarajan, K A; Somasundaran, P

    2004-08-15

    Effective methods for selective separation using flotation or flocculation of arsenopyrite from pyrite by biomodulation using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans are presented here. Adhesion of the bacterium to the surface of arsenopyrite was very slow compared to that to pyrite, resulting in a difference in surface modification of the minerals subsequent to interaction with cells. The cells were able to effectively depress pyrite flotation in presence of collectors like potassium isopropyl xanthate and potassium amyl xanthate. On the other hand the flotability of arsenopyrite after conditioning with the cells was not significantly affected. The activation of pyrite by copper sulfate was reduced when the minerals were conditioned together, resulting in better selectivity. Selective separation could also be achieved by flocculation of biomodulated samples.

  4. Ultrathin self-assembled anionic polymer membranes for superfast size-selective separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Han, Guang Lu; Gong, Yi; Zhu, Ai Mei; Liu, Qing Lin

    2013-10-01

    Nanoporous membranes with superior separation performance have become more crucial with increasing concerns in functional nanomaterials. Here novel ultrahigh permeable nanoporous membranes have been fabricated on macroporous supports by self-assembly of anionic polymer on copper hydroxide nanostrand templates in organic solution. This facile approach has a great potential for the fabrication of ultrathin anionic polymer membranes as a general method. The as-fabricated self-assembled membranes have a mean pore size of 5-12 nm and an adjustable thickness as low as 85 nm. They allow superfast permeation of water, and exhibit excellent size-selective separation properties and good fouling resistance for negatively-charged solutes during filtration. The 85 nm thick membrane has an ultrahigh water flux (3306 l m-2 h-1 bar-1) that is an order of magnitude larger than commercial membranes, and can highly efficiently separate 5 and 15 nm gold nanoparticles from their mixtures. The newly developed nanoporous membranes have a wide application in separation and purification of biomacromolecules and nanoparticles.Nanoporous membranes with superior separation performance have become more crucial with increasing concerns in functional nanomaterials. Here novel ultrahigh permeable nanoporous membranes have been fabricated on macroporous supports by self-assembly of anionic polymer on copper hydroxide nanostrand templates in organic solution. This facile approach has a great potential for the fabrication of ultrathin anionic polymer membranes as a general method. The as-fabricated self-assembled membranes have a mean pore size of 5-12 nm and an adjustable thickness as low as 85 nm. They allow superfast permeation of water, and exhibit excellent size-selective separation properties and good fouling resistance for negatively-charged solutes during filtration. The 85 nm thick membrane has an ultrahigh water flux (3306 l m-2 h-1 bar-1) that is an order of magnitude larger than

  5. Gating transitions in the selectivity filter region of a sodium channel are coupled to the domain IV voltage sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capes, Deborah L; Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel; Jarecki, Brian W; French, Robert J; Chanda, Baron

    2012-02-14

    Voltage-dependent ion channels are crucial for generation and propagation of electrical activity in biological systems. The primary mechanism for voltage transduction in these proteins involves the movement of a voltage-sensing domain (D), which opens a gate located on the cytoplasmic side. A distinct conformational change in the selectivity filter near the extracellular side has been implicated in slow inactivation gating, which is important for spike frequency adaptation in neural circuits. However, it remains an open question whether gating transitions in the selectivity filter region are also actuated by voltage sensors. Here, we examine conformational coupling between each of the four voltage sensors and the outer pore of a eukaryotic voltage-dependent sodium channel. The voltage sensors of these sodium channels are not structurally symmetric and exhibit functional specialization. To track the conformational rearrangements of individual voltage-sensing domains, we recorded domain-specific gating pore currents. Our data show that, of the four voltage sensors, only the domain IV voltage sensor is coupled to the conformation of the selectivity filter region of the sodium channel. Trapping the outer pore in a particular conformation with a high-affinity toxin or disulphide crossbridge impedes the return of this voltage sensor to its resting conformation. Our findings directly establish that, in addition to the canonical electromechanical coupling between voltage sensor and inner pore gates of a sodium channel, gating transitions in the selectivity filter region are also coupled to the movement of a voltage sensor. Furthermore, our results also imply that the voltage sensor of domain IV is unique in this linkage and in the ability to initiate slow inactivation in sodium channels.

  6. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lee, Po-Heng, E-mail: poheng76@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic approach to select a functional agent for adsorbent is proposed. • ITC and QCS were used to interpret the interaction between adsorbate and agent. • The interaction identifies the adsorption mechanism and performance. • This approach enables the manipulation of adsorption capacity optimization. - Abstract: This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C{sub 14}TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C{sub 14}HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C{sub 14}TAB and C{sub 14}HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization.

  7. Adsorbate shape selectivity: Separation of the HF/134a azeotrope over carbogenic molecular sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, A.; Mariwala, R.K.; Kane, M.S.; Foley, H.C. [Univ. of Delaware, Nework, DE (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Experimental evidence is provided for adsorptive shape selectivity in the separation of the azeotrope between HF and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (134a) over pyrolyzed poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbogenic molecular sieve (PPFA-CMS). The separation can be accomplished over coconut charcoal or Carbosieve G on the basis of the differences in the extent of equilibrium adsorption of HF and 134a. On these adsorbents 134a is more strongly bound than HF, thus it elutes much more slowly from the bed. The heat of adsorption for 134a in the vicinity of 200 C on Carbosieve G is {approximately}8.8 kcal/mol. In contrast, when the same azeotropic mixture is separated over PPFA-CMS prepared at 500 C, 134a is not adsorbed. As a result 134a elutes from the bed first, followed by HF. The reversal is brought about by the narrower pore size and pore size distribution of the PPFA-CMS versus that for Carbosieve G. Thus the separation over PPFA-CMS is an example of adsorbate shape selectivity and represents a limiting case of kinetic separation.

  8. Selective separation of oil and water with special wettability mesh membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Defei

    2017-02-24

    Due to the different interfacial effects of oil and water, utilizing the special wettability of solid surfaces to design an oil and water separation process has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for oil/water separation. In this report, a simple process has been developed to fabricate special surface wettability mesh membranes. The carbon nanoparticles with diameters of 10 nm were first coated onto the surface of steel wires based on a candle soot coating process. These templates of carbon nanoparticles were then coated with a more stable layer of silica (SiO2) particles via a facile chemical vapor deposition route. After being modified by two separate methods, a superhydrophobic/superoleophilic membrane was obtained by the use of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTS) and a oleophobic/superhydrophilic membrane was obtained by using poly(diallyldimethylammonium-perfluorooctanoate) (PDDA–PFO). Separation experiments show that these superhydrophobic/superoleophilic or oleophobic/superhydrophilic mesh membranes can be used to selectively separate oil/water with a high flux of more than 930 L m−2 h−1 and a collecting efficiency of over 97%. Furthermore, the repetitions of the separation experiments demonstrate that these superhydrophobic/superoleophilic or oleophobic/superhydrophilic mesh membranes are durable, stable and reusable, making them encouraging candidates for practical oil-polluted water treatment.

  9. Design and Development of Selective Extractants for Ln/An Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    This study has succeeded in further developing phosphinoylmethyl pyridine compounds as selective recognition and separations agents for trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions present in nuclear materials. The parameters for efficient separations have been further elucidated and factors important to further development have been identified. Further development will lead to optimal extractant design for effective actinide ion partitioning under process practical conditions. The primary objective of the project involved the design, synthesis, and characterization of the extraction performance of 2,6-bis(phosphinomethyl)pyridine N,P,P'-trioxides (NOPOPO) as potential reagents for the separation of Am, Cm, and fission product lanthanides from other transuranics and fission products and for acting as a separations 'platform' for the mutual separation of Am/Cm from the lanthanides. The secondary but critical objective of the project focused on the characterization of aqueous acid and radiation stability of NOPOPO ligands. Further, the project served as a interdisciplinary training vehicle for new, young investigators in actinide separations chemistry.

  10. Selective separation of oil and water with mesh membranes by capillarity

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yuanlie; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yun; Craig, Vincent S.J.; Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    The separation of oil and water from wastewater generated in the oil-production industries, as well as in frequent oil spillage events, is important in mitigating severe environmental and ecological damage. Additionally, a wide arrange of industrial processes require oils or fats to be removed from aqueous systems. The immiscibility of oil and water allows for the wettability of solid surfaces to be engineered to achieve the separation of oil and water through capillarity. Mesh membranes with extreme, selective wettability can efficiently remove oil or water from oil/water mixtures through a simple filtration process using gravity. A wide range of different types of mesh membranes have been successfully rendered with extreme wettability and applied to oil/water separation in the laboratory. These mesh materials have typically shown good durability, stability as well as reusability, which makes them promising candidates for an ever widening range of practical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Selective separation of oil and water with mesh membranes by capillarity

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yuanlie

    2016-05-29

    The separation of oil and water from wastewater generated in the oil-production industries, as well as in frequent oil spillage events, is important in mitigating severe environmental and ecological damage. Additionally, a wide arrange of industrial processes require oils or fats to be removed from aqueous systems. The immiscibility of oil and water allows for the wettability of solid surfaces to be engineered to achieve the separation of oil and water through capillarity. Mesh membranes with extreme, selective wettability can efficiently remove oil or water from oil/water mixtures through a simple filtration process using gravity. A wide range of different types of mesh membranes have been successfully rendered with extreme wettability and applied to oil/water separation in the laboratory. These mesh materials have typically shown good durability, stability as well as reusability, which makes them promising candidates for an ever widening range of practical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Magnetic deep eutectic solvents molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective recognition and separation of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanjin; Wang, Yuzhi; Dai, Qingzhou; Zhou, Yigang

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile magnetic deep eutectic solvents (DES) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective recognition and separation of Bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was prepared. The new-type DES was adopted as the functional monomer which would bring molecular imprinted technology to a new direction. The amounts of DES were optimized. The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), elemental analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results suggested that the imprinted polymers were successfully formed and possessed a charming magnetism. The maximum adsorption capability (Q_m_a_x) and dissociation constant (K_L) were analyzed by Langmuir isotherms (R"2 = 0.9983) and the value were estimated to be 175.44 mg/g and 0.035 mg/mL for the imprinted particles. And the imprinted particles showed a high imprinting factor of 4.77. In addition, the magnetic DES-MIPs presented outstanding recognition specificity and selectivity so that it can be utilized to separate template protein from the mixture of proteins and real samples. Last but not least, the combination of deep eutectic solvents and molecular imprinted technology in this paper provides a new perspective for the recognition and separation of proteins. - Highlights: • Combined green deep eutectic solvents (DES) and molecular imprinted technology in recognition and separation of proteins. • DES was adopted as a new-type functional monomer. • The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs can separate proteins rapidly by an external magnetic field. • Adsorption and selectivity properties were discussed.

  13. Magnetic deep eutectic solvents molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective recognition and separation of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanjin [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Dai, Qingzhou [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Zhou, Yigang [Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2016-09-14

    A novel and facile magnetic deep eutectic solvents (DES) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective recognition and separation of Bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was prepared. The new-type DES was adopted as the functional monomer which would bring molecular imprinted technology to a new direction. The amounts of DES were optimized. The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), elemental analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results suggested that the imprinted polymers were successfully formed and possessed a charming magnetism. The maximum adsorption capability (Q{sub max}) and dissociation constant (K{sub L}) were analyzed by Langmuir isotherms (R{sup 2} = 0.9983) and the value were estimated to be 175.44 mg/g and 0.035 mg/mL for the imprinted particles. And the imprinted particles showed a high imprinting factor of 4.77. In addition, the magnetic DES-MIPs presented outstanding recognition specificity and selectivity so that it can be utilized to separate template protein from the mixture of proteins and real samples. Last but not least, the combination of deep eutectic solvents and molecular imprinted technology in this paper provides a new perspective for the recognition and separation of proteins. - Highlights: • Combined green deep eutectic solvents (DES) and molecular imprinted technology in recognition and separation of proteins. • DES was adopted as a new-type functional monomer. • The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs can separate proteins rapidly by an external magnetic field. • Adsorption and selectivity properties were discussed.

  14. Cation gating and selectivity in a purified, reconstituted, voltage-dependent sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchi, R.L.; Tanaka, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    In excitable membranes, the voltage-dependent sodium channel controls the primary membrane conductance change necessary for the generation of an action potential. Over the past four decades, the time- and voltage-dependent sodium currents gated by this channel have been thoroughly documented with increasingly sophisticated voltage-clamp techniques. Recent advances in the biochemistry of membrane proteins have led to the solubilization and purification of this channel protein from nerve (6) and from muscle (4) or muscle-derived (1) membranes, and have provided an approach to the correlation of the channel's molecular structure with its functional properties. Each of these sodium channel preparations appears to contain a large glycoprotein either as its sole component (2) or in association with several small subunits (6, 3). Evidence that these purified proteins represent the excitable membrane sodium channel is presented. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Pinnau, Ingo; He, Zhenjie; Da Costa, Andre R.; Daniels, Ramin; Amo, Karl D.; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    2003-06-03

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  16. Chiral stationary phase optimized selectivity liquid chromatography: A strategy for the separation of chiral isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegade, Ravindra Suryakant; De Beer, Maarten; Lynen, Frederic

    2017-09-15

    Chiral Stationary-Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOSLC) is proposed as a tool to optimally separate mixtures of enantiomers on a set of commercially available coupled chiral columns. This approach allows for the prediction of the separation profiles on any possible combination of the chiral stationary phases based on a limited number of preliminary analyses, followed by automated selection of the optimal column combination. Both the isocratic and gradient SOSLC approach were implemented for prediction of the retention times for a mixture of 4 chiral pairs on all possible combinations of the 5 commercial chiral columns. Predictions in isocratic and gradient mode were performed with a commercially available and with an in-house developed Microsoft visual basic algorithm, respectively. Optimal predictions in the isocratic mode required the coupling of 4 columns whereby relative deviations between the predicted and experimental retention times ranged between 2 and 7%. Gradient predictions led to the coupling of 3 chiral columns allowing baseline separation of all solutes, whereby differences between predictions and experiments ranged between 0 and 12%. The methodology is a novel tool allowing optimizing the separation of mixtures of optical isomers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Strontium Nitrate and Sodium Permanganate Addition on Solid-Liquid Separation of SRS High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    As a pretreatment step for the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet, the process contacts the incoming salt solution containing entrained sludge with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and actinides. An operation filters the resulting slurry to remove the sludge and MST. Previous work for the River Protection Program at Hanford suggests that addition of strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate for strontium and actinide removal, rather than MST, improves the filtration rate for comparable waste streams

  18. Isotope separation by selective dissociation of trifluoromethane with an infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    A process for obtaining compounds enriched in a desired isotope of an element selected from hydrogen and carbon comprises exposing subatmospheric pressure gaseous trifluoromethane containing said desired isotope and one or more other isotopes of the same element to infrared laser radiation of a predetermined frequency, which selectively dissociates trifluoromethane molecules containing said desired isotope and separating the resulting dissociation product enriched in said desired isotope from the remainder of the gas. The term 'trifluoromethane' (TFM) refers to a mixture of CF 3 H and CF 3 D, the latter constituting about 0.015 percent of the total. TFM is irradiated with a CO 2 laser at an appropriate infrared wavelength

  19. Calculation of separation selectivity of aqueous electrolytic solutions with reverse osmosis membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ognevskij, A.V.; Fomichev, S.V.; Khvostov, V.F.; Kochergin, N.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1988-01-01

    Viscosity and dielectric permittivity of a bound water layer in micropores of cellulose acetate membranes used for electrolyte ion separation by reverse osmosis method are calculated using the water cluster model and the proposed structural temperature parameter. Based on the model representations presented an algorithmof reverse osmosis membrane selectivity calculation in diluted aqueous solutions ofelectrolytes containing Cs + , Sr 2+ , I - and other ions is constructed

  20. Selective separation of Cu, Zn, and As from solution by flotation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalidis, G.A.; Matis, K.A.; Lazaridis, N.K.

    1989-01-01

    The selective precipitation and flotation of copper, zinc, and arsenic ions from dilute aqueous solutions were investigated. Phase separation was accomplished effectively by the dissolved-air technique for the production of fine gas bubbles, and a short-chain xanthate was applied as the collector for copper ions, dialkyl-dithiocarbamate for zinc, and ferric sulfate for the pentavalent arsenic. The procedures followed were ion flotation for copper and zinc, and adsorbing colloid flotation for arsenic (without a surfactant)

  1. Flame treatment for the selective wetting and separation of PVC and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, R D; O'Connell, B

    2003-01-01

    Flame treatment has been used for many years to modify the surface of plastics to allow coatings to be added. The effect of the treatment is to produce hydrophilic species on the surface of the plastic making it water-wettable. The production of hydrophilic plastic surfaces is also required in the selective separation of plastics by froth flotation. For the process to be selective one plastic must be rendered hydrophilic while another remains hydrophobic. In this study the potential for separation of PVC and PET has been investigated. Flame treatment was shown to be very effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on both plastics, although the process was not selective under the conditions investigated. Raising the temperature of the plastics above their softening point produced a hydrophobic recovery. As the softening point of PVC was significantly lower than for PET it was possible to produce a significant difference in hydrophobicity, as judged using contact angle measurement. When immersed in water the contact angle of the PVC was found to be strongly dependent on the pH. Good separation efficiency of the two plastics was achieved by froth flotation from pH 4 to 9. One particular advantage of the technique is that no chemical reagents may be required in the flotation stage. The practicalities of designing a flake treatment system however have to be addressed before considering it to be a viable industrial process.

  2. New influence factor inducing difficulty in selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Mao, Ying-bo; Wen, Shu-ming; Liu, Jian; Xian, Yong-jun; Feng, Qi-cheng

    2015-02-01

    Selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfides has been proven to be difficult. Thus far, researchers have found no satisfactory way to separate Cu-Zn mixed sulfides by selective flotation, mainly because of the complex surface and interface interaction mechanisms in the flotation solution. Undesired activation occurs between copper ions and the sphalerite surfaces. In addition to recycled water and mineral dissolution, ancient fluids in the minerals are observed to be a new source of metal ions. In this study, significant amounts of ancient fluids were found to exist in Cu-Zn sulfide and gangue minerals, mostly as gas-liquid fluid inclusions. The concentration of copper ions released from the ancient fluids reached 1.02 × 10-6 mol/L, whereas, in the cases of sphalerite and quartz, this concentration was 0.62 × 10-6 mol/L and 0.44 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively. As a result, the ancient fluid is a significant source of copper ions compared to mineral dissolution under the same experimental conditions, which promotes the unwanted activation of sphalerite. Therefore, the ancient fluid is considered to be a new factor that affects the selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide ores.

  3. Flame treatment for the selective wetting and separation of PVC and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, R.D.; O'Connell, B.

    2003-01-01

    Flame treatment has been used for many years to modify the surface of plastics to allow coatings to be added. The effect of the treatment is to produce hydrophilic species on the surface of the plastic making it water-wettable. The production of hydrophilic plastic surfaces is also required in the selective separation of plastics by froth flotation. For the process to be selective one plastic must be rendered hydrophilic while another remains hydrophobic. In this study the potential for separation of PVC and PET has been investigated. Flame treatment was shown to be very effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on both plastics, although the process was not selective under the conditions investigated. Raising the temperature of the plastics above their softening point produced a hydrophobic recovery. As the softening point of PVC was significantly lower than for PET it was possible to produce a significant difference in hydrophobicity, as judged using contact angle measurement. When immersed in water the contact angle of the PVC was found to be strongly dependent on the pH. Good separation efficiency of the two plastics was achieved by froth flotation from pH 4 to 9. One particular advantage of the technique is that no chemical reagents may be required in the flotation stage. The practicalities of designing a flake treatment system however have to be addressed before considering it to be a viable industrial process

  4. Selective separation of virgin and post-consumer polymers (PET and PVC) by flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burat, Firat; Gueney, Ali; Olgac Kangal, M.

    2009-01-01

    More and more polymer wastes are generated by industry and householders today. Recycling is an important process to reduce the amount of waste resulting from human activities. Currently, recycling technologies use relatively homogeneous polymers because hand-sorting waste is costly. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. At present, most waste polymers cause serious environmental problems. Burning polymers for recycling is not practiced since poisonous gases are released during the burning process. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste polymers generate hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, etc., which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of the incinerator. In addition, they make other polymers difficult to recycle. Both polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and PVC have densities of 1.30-1.35 g/cm 3 and cannot be separated using conventional gravity separation techniques. For this reason, polymer recycling needs new techniques. Among these techniques, froth flotation, which is also used in mineral processing, can be useful because of its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this research is to recycle PET and PVC selectively from post-consumer polymer wastes and virgin polymers by using froth flotation. According to the results, all PVC particles were floated with 98.8% efficiency in virgin polymer separation while PET particles were obtained with 99.7% purity and 57.0% efficiency in post-consumer polymer separation.

  5. Laser isotope separation using selective inhibition and encouragement of dimer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivel, B.

    1979-01-01

    Method and apparatus for inhibiting dimer formation of molecules of a selected isotope type in a cooled flow of gas to enhance the effectiveness of mass difference isotope separation techniques are described. Molecules in the flow containing atoms of the selected isotope type are selectively excited by infrared radiation in order to inhibit the formation of dimers and larger clusters of such molecules, while the molecules not containing atoms of the selected, excited type are encouraged to form dimers and higher order aggregates by the cooling of the gaseous flow. The molecules with the excited isotope will predominate in monomers and will constitute the enriched product stream, while the aggregated group comprising molecules having the unexcited isotope will predominate in dimers and larger clusters of molecules, forming the tails stream. The difference in diffusion coefficientts between particles of the excited and unexcited isotopes is enhanced by the greater mass differences resulting from aggregation of unexcited particles into dimers and larger clusters. Prior art separation techniques which exploit differences in isotopic diffusion rates will consequently exhibit enhanced enrichment per stage by the utilization of the present invention

  6. Effects of Force Field Selection on the Computational Ranking of MOFs for CO2 Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokur, Derya; Keskin, Seda

    2018-02-14

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been considered as highly promising materials for adsorption-based CO 2 separations. The number of synthesized MOFs has been increasing very rapidly. High-throughput molecular simulations are very useful to screen large numbers of MOFs in order to identify the most promising adsorbents prior to extensive experimental studies. Results of molecular simulations depend on the force field used to define the interactions between gas molecules and MOFs. Choosing the appropriate force field for MOFs is essential to make reliable predictions about the materials' performance. In this work, we performed two sets of molecular simulations using the two widely used generic force fields, Dreiding and UFF, and obtained adsorption data of CO 2 /H 2 , CO 2 /N 2 , and CO 2 /CH 4 mixtures in 100 different MOF structures. Using this adsorption data, several adsorbent evaluation metrics including selectivity, working capacity, sorbent selection parameter, and percent regenerability were computed for each MOF. MOFs were then ranked based on these evaluation metrics, and top performing materials were identified. We then examined the sensitivity of the MOF rankings to the force field type. Our results showed that although there are significant quantitative differences between some adsorbent evaluation metrics computed using different force fields, rankings of the top MOF adsorbents for CO 2 separations are generally similar: 8, 8, and 9 out of the top 10 most selective MOFs were found to be identical in the ranking for CO 2 /H 2 , CO 2 /N 2 , and CO 2 /CH 4 separations using Dreiding and UFF. We finally suggested a force field factor depending on the energy parameters of atoms present in the MOFs to quantify the robustness of the simulation results to the force field selection. This easily computable factor will be highly useful to determine whether the results are sensitive to the force field type or not prior to performing computationally demanding

  7. Separation and characterization of unknown impurities and isomers in flomoxef sodium by LC-IT-TOF MS and study of their negative-ion fragmentation regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xu; Wang, Fan; Li, Jiani; Shan, Weiguang; Zhu, Bingqi; Wang, Jian

    2017-06-05

    Thirteen unknown impurities in flomoxef sodium were separated and characterized by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF MS)with positive and negative modes of electrospray ionization method for further improvement of official monographs in pharmacopoeias. The fragmentation patterns of impurities in flomoxef in the negative ion mode were studied in detail, and new negative-ion fragmentation regularities were discovered. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kromasil C18 column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of (A) ammonium formate aqueous solution (10mM)-methanol (84:16, v/v) and (B) ammonium formate aqueous solution (10mM)-methanol (47:53, v/v). In order to determine the m/z values of the molecular ions and formulas of all detected impurities, full scan LC-MS in both positive and negative ion modes was firstly executed to obtain the m/z value of the molecules. Then LC-MS 2 and LC-MS 3 were carried out on target compounds to obtain as much structural information as possible. Complete fragmentation patterns of impurities were studied and used to obtain information about the structures of these impurities. Structures of thirteen unknown degradation products in flomoxef sodium were deduced based on the high resolution MS n data with both positive and negative modes. The forming mechanisms of degradation products in flomoxef sodium were also studied. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Achieving high permeability and enhanced selectivity for Angstrom-scale separations using artificial water channel membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue-Xiao; Song, Woochul C; Barden, D Ryan; Ren, Tingwei; Lang, Chao; Feroz, Hasin; Henderson, Codey B; Saboe, Patrick O; Tsai, Daniel; Yan, Hengjing; Butler, Peter J; Bazan, Guillermo C; Phillip, William A; Hickey, Robert J; Cremer, Paul S; Vashisth, Harish; Kumar, Manish

    2018-06-12

    Synthetic polymer membranes, critical to diverse energy-efficient separations, are subject to permeability-selectivity trade-offs that decrease their overall efficacy. These trade-offs are due to structural variations (e.g., broad pore size distributions) in both nonporous membranes used for Angstrom-scale separations and porous membranes used for nano to micron-scale separations. Biological membranes utilize well-defined Angstrom-scale pores to provide exceptional transport properties and can be used as inspiration to overcome this trade-off. Here, we present a comprehensive demonstration of such a bioinspired approach based on pillar[5]arene artificial water channels, resulting in artificial water channel-based block copolymer membranes. These membranes have a sharp selectivity profile with a molecular weight cutoff of ~ 500 Da, a size range challenging to achieve with current membranes, while achieving a large improvement in permeability (~65 L m -2  h -1  bar -1  compared with 4-7 L m -2  h -1  bar -1 ) over similarly rated commercial membranes.

  9. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Gold Nanoparticle Nanoframework as a Highly Selective Separation Material for Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbo; Wu, Lidong; Fan, Kai; Nie, Dongxia; He, Weijing; Yang, Junhua; Zhao, Zhihui; Han, Zheng

    2017-11-03

    Graphene-based materials have been studied in many applications, owing to the excellent electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of graphene. In the current study, an environmentally friendly approach to the preparation of a reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nanocomposite was developed by using L-cysteine and vitamin C as reductants under mild reaction conditions. The rGO-AuNP material showed a highly selective separation ability for 6 naturally occurring aflatoxins, which are easily adsorbed onto traditional graphene materials but are difficult to be desorbed. The specificity of the nanocomposite was evaluated in the separation of 6 aflatoxin congeners (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin M2) from 23 other biotoxins (including, ochratoxin A, citrinin, and deoxynivalenol). The results indicated that this material was specific for separating aflatoxin congeners. The synthesized material was further validated by determining the recovery (77.6-105.0%), sensitivity (limit of detection in the range of 0.05-0.21 μg kg -1 ), and precision (1.5-11.8%), and was then successfully applied to the separation of aflatoxins from real-world maize, wheat and rice samples.

  10. Investigation of thermal treatment on selective separation of post consumer plastics prior to froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guney, Ali; Poyraz, M. Ibrahim; Kangal, Olgac; Burat, Firat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Both PET and PVC have nearly the same densities. • The best pH value will be 4 for optimizing pH values. • Malic acid gave the best results for selective separation of PET and PVC. - Abstract: Plastics have become the widely used materials because of their advantages, such as cheapness, endurance, lightness, and hygiene. However, they cause waste and soil pollution and they do not easily decompose. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. Depending on their surface characteristics, these plastics can be separated from each other by flotation method which is useful mineral processing technique with its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this study is to investigate the flotation characteristics of PET and PVC and determine the effect of plasticizer reagents on efficient plastic separation. For that purpose, various parameters such as pH, plasticizer concentration, plasticizer type, conditioning temperature and thermal conditioning were investigated. As a result, PET particles were floated with 95.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency while PVC particles were obtained with 98.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency

  11. Selective separation of anaerobic sludge by means of hydrocyclones; Selektive Abtrennung von Anaerobschlamm mit Hydrozyklonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.; Bohnet, M. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrens- und Kerntechnik

    1999-07-01

    In anaerobic waste water cleaning, biomass concentration constitutes a central problem because of long generating times and low biomass sinking speeds. In order to decouple hydraulic retention time from biomass retention time, biomass must be fed back into the reactor. The fact that separation by means of common gravitational separators such as sedimentation tanks and baffle plate thickeners is unspecific results in the enrichment in the reactor of inorganic solids, whose presence is corollary to the anaerobic sludge process. Hence, industry has a great interest in separating anaerobic sludge into organic and inorganic constituents as a means of safeguarding high operating stability and degradation efficiency of anaerobic reactors. Hydrocyclones, permitting selective separation, are an obvious approach. (orig.) [German] Bei der anaeroben Abwasserreinigung ist die Biomassekonzentrierung aufgrund langer Generationszeiten und geringer Sinkgeschwindigkeiten der Biomasse ein zentrales Problem. Zur Entkopplung der hydraulischen Verweilzeit von der Verweilzeit der Biomasse ist eine Rueckfuehrung der Biomasse erforderlich. Da bisher eingesetzte Schwerkraftabscheider, wie Absetzbecken und Lamellenklaerer, unspezifisch trennen, kommt es zu einer Anreicherung anorganischer Feststoffe im Reaktor, die sich prozessbedingt im Anaerobschlamm befinden. So hat die Industrie ein grosses Interesse an einer Auftrennung des Anaerobschlamms in organische und anorganische Bestandteile, um eine hohe Betriebsstabilitaet und Abbauleistung der Anaerobreaktoren zu gewaehrleisten. Hierzu bieten sich Hydrozyklone an, weil mit ihnen eine selektive Trennung moeglich ist. (orig.)

  12. Investigation of thermal treatment on selective separation of post consumer plastics prior to froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guney, Ali; Poyraz, M. Ibrahim; Kangal, Olgac, E-mail: kangal@itu.edu.tr; Burat, Firat

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Both PET and PVC have nearly the same densities. • The best pH value will be 4 for optimizing pH values. • Malic acid gave the best results for selective separation of PET and PVC. - Abstract: Plastics have become the widely used materials because of their advantages, such as cheapness, endurance, lightness, and hygiene. However, they cause waste and soil pollution and they do not easily decompose. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. Depending on their surface characteristics, these plastics can be separated from each other by flotation method which is useful mineral processing technique with its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this study is to investigate the flotation characteristics of PET and PVC and determine the effect of plasticizer reagents on efficient plastic separation. For that purpose, various parameters such as pH, plasticizer concentration, plasticizer type, conditioning temperature and thermal conditioning were investigated. As a result, PET particles were floated with 95.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency while PVC particles were obtained with 98.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency.

  13. Comparison of two selective separation method for 93Zr by using TRU and TEVA resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2011-01-01

    The zirconium isotope 93 Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from 235 U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope 92 Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, 93 Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of 93 Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to compare two radiochemical procedure based on selective extraction using an anion-exchange chromatography, TRU and TEVA resins, in order to separate zirconium from the matrix and to analyze it by liquid scintillation spectrometry technique. To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of 95 Zr and its 724.19 keV γ-ray measurements by γ - spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. A tracer solution of 55 Fe, the main interference in the LSC measurements, was used in order to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1 -1 was obtained for 55 Fe standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. (author)

  14. Molecular interactions between selected sodium salts of bile acids and morphine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poša, Mihalj; Csanádi, János; Kövér, Katalin E; Guzsvány, Valéria; Batta, Gyula

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the prolonged analgesic action of morphine hydrochloride observed in the presence of sodium 12-oxochenodeoxycholanate. Based on literature, this phenomenon may be due to the formation of aggregates in the cell between the molecules of bile acids and morphine. In addition to the sodium 12-oxochenodeoxycholanate, the present investigation also included salts of cholic and 7-oxodeoxycholic acids. Saturation transfer difference NMR experiments showed that morphine binds to the bile acid molecule close to the aromatic protons H1 and H2 provided that the concentration of the bile acid salt approaches the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) of the affected protons decrease significantly in the presence of micellar solutions of the bile acid salts, and the most pronounced change in T(1) was observed for sodium 7-oxodeoxycholate. Diffusion-ordered NMR experiments suggested that morphine hydrochloride can interact only with sodium 7-oxochenodeoxycholate. It can be supposed that the molecular ratio of sodium 7-oxodeoxycholate and morphine hydrochloride in the mixed micelle is 2:1. The CMC values of mixed micelles do not differ from the CMC values of the micelle constituents, which suggests that the binding of morphine hydrochloride does not perturb the hydrophobic domain of the bile acid molecule. In the presence of bile acids, the transfer rate constant (k(12)) of morphine hydrochloride from the buffered aqueous solution to chloroform (model of the cell membrane) shows a decrease. A significant decrease of the k(12) was also observed in the presence of micellar solutions. Kinetic measurements indicated that, in addition to micellar interaction between morphine hydrochloride and sodium salts of bile acids, a complex may also be formed in chloroform via hydrogen bonds formed between the drug and bile acid molecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Matthew A.; Livens, Francis R.; Heath, Sarah L. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiochemistry Research; Thompson, Paul; Marsden, Olivia J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Harwood, Laurence M.; Hudson, Michael J. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Lewis, Frank W. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Northumbria Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Forensic Sciences

    2015-07-01

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements, rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands tested in our process were CyMe{sub 4}-BTPhen, CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP, CA-BTP and CA-BTPhen. Our process allows for purification and quantification of Am and Cm (recoveries 80% - 100%) and other major actinides in < 2 d without the use of multiple columns or thiocyanate. The process is unaffected by high level Ca(II)/Fe(III)/Al(III) (10 mg mL{sup -1}) and thus requires little pre-treatment of samples.

  16. Imprint-coating synthesis of selective functionalized ordered mesoporous sorbents for separation and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Burleigh, Mark C.; Shin, Yongsoon

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to mesoporous sorbent materials having high capacity, high selectivity, fast kinetics, and molecular recognition capability. The invention also relates to a process for preparing these mesoporous substrates through molecular imprinting techniques which differ from convention techniques in that a template molecule is bound to one end of bifunctional ligands to form a complex prior to binding of the bifunctional ligands to the substrate. The present invention also relates to methods of using the mesoporous sorbent materials, for example, in the separation of toxic metals from process effluents, paints, and other samples; detection of target molecules, such as amino acids, drugs, herbicides, fertilizers, and TNT, in samples; separation and/or detection of substances using chromatography; imaging agents; sensors; coatings; and composites.

  17. Selectivity in capillary electrophoresis:  application to chiral separations with cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, F; Gareil, P; Jardy, A

    1997-02-01

    In order to accurately evaluate the performances of any electrolyte medium, a clear concept of selectivity in capillary electrophoresis and related electroseparation techniques is proposed. Selectivity is defined as the ratio of the affinity factors of both analytes for a separating agent (phase, pseudophase, or complexing agent present in the background electrolyte). When in the presence of a complexing agent and if only 1:1 complexation occurs, selectivity corresponds to the ratio of the apparent binding constants and is independent of the concentration of the complexing agent. This concept is illustrated through the separations of neutral and anionic enantiomers in the presence of a cationic cyclodextrin, the mono(6-amino-6-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin, as a chiral complexing agent. The values obtained for different pairs of enantiomers are discussed with regard to the functional groups that distinguish them. When the analytes have the same mobilities in free solution and in their complexed form, then the resolution equation developed in micellar electrokinetic chromatography may be applied and optimum conditions (affinity factors, chiral agent concentration) can be predicted.

  18. Preparation of diclofenac-imprinted polymer beads for selective molecular separation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tongchang; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Molecular imprinting technique is an attractive strategy to prepare materials for target recognition and rapid separation. In this work, a new type of diclofenac (DFC)-imprinted polymer beads was synthesized by Pickering emulsion polymerization using 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate as the functional monomer. The selectivity and capacity of the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were investigated in aqueous solution. Equilibrium binding results show that the MIPs have a high selectivity to bind DFC in a wide range of pH values. Moreover, in liquid chromatography experiment, the imprinted polymer beads were packed into column to investigate the binding selectivity under nonequilibrium conditions. The retention time of DFC on the MIP column is significantly longer than its structural analogues. Also, retention of DFC on the MIP column was significantly longer than on the nonimprinted polymer column under aqueous condition. As the new MIP beads can be used to achieve direct separation of DFC from water, the synthetic method and the affinity beads developed in this work opened new possibilities for removing toxic chemicals from environmental and drinking water. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A simple and selective method for the separation of Cu radioisotopes from nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xianfeng [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: x.fan@bham.ac.uk; Parker, David J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Smith, Mike D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Ingram, Andy [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Yang Zhufang [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Seville, Jonathan P.K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    Separation of copper radioisotopes from a nickel target is normally performed using solvent extraction or anion exchange rather than using cationic exchange. A commonly held opinion is that cationic exchangers have very similar thermodynamic complexation constants for metallic ions with identical charges, therefore making the separation very difficult or impossible. The results presented in this article indicate that the selectivity of Chelex-100 (a cationic ion exchanger) for Cu radioisotope and Ni ions not only depends on the thermodynamic complexation constant in the resin but also markedly varies with the concentration of mobile H{sup +}. In our developed method, separation of copper radioisotopes from a nickel target was fulfilled in a column filled with Chelex-100 via controlling the HNO{sub 3} concentration of the eluent, and the separation is much more effective, simple and economical in comparison with the common method of anion exchange. For an irradiated nickel target with 650 mg Ni, after separation, the loss of Cu radioisotopes in the nickel portion was reduced from 30% to 0.33% of the total initial radioactivity and the nickel mixed into the radioactive products was reduced from 9.5 to 0.5 mg. This significant improvement will make subsequent labeling much easier and reduce consumption of chelating agents and other chemicals during labeling. If the labeled agent is used in human medical applications, the developed method will significantly decrease the uptake of Ni and chelating agents by patients, therefore reducing both the stress on human body associated with clearing the chemicals from blood and tissue and the risk of various types of acute and chronic disorder due to exposure to Ni.

  20. [Technological and pharmacotherapeutic properties of selected drugs with modified release of diclofenac sodium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof; Kołodziejska, Justyna; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2012-01-01

    Diclofenac and its sodium salt is one of the best-known and popular therapeutic agents from the group of NSAIDs used in medicine in many various pharmaceutical forms. Therapeutic products containing diclofenac sodium salt in doses of 100 mg and 75 mg with a qualitatively and quantitatively diversified share of excipients and a variable dosage form of the drug (solid capsules, tablets with modified release) were subjected to technological and pharmaceutical analysis. The effect of solid formulation components of polymer character making the core and the coating of the pharmaceutical form of therapeutic products on the disintegration time and pharmaceutical availability in pharmacopoeial receptor fluids was estimated. Market therapeutic products with diclofenac sodium in doses of 75 mg and 100 mg, technological analysis of the drug dosage form was conducted, disintegration time of solid oral dosage forms of the drug with diclofenac sodium salt was examined and research on pharmaceutical availability of diclofenac sodium salt from tested therapeutic products was conducted using the acid phase and the buffer phase according to the FP standards for delayed release enteral dosage forms. The experimental data was supplemented with the statistical analysis. There are three formulations in the form of solid capsules and one formulation in the form of a coated tablet. All therapeutic products bear features of a dosage form of modified release of diclofenac sodium salt, frequently of a delayed release formula in the duodenum or the small intestine with regard to the limitation of typical undesirable effects after taking NSAIDs. Considerable diversity between solid capsules and the tablet with modified release during disintegration or hydration and swelling has been observed. In the environment of a receptor fluid--purified water (pH = 7) the capsule Dicloberl retard disintegrates at the fastest rate in 5,49 minutes, and then in the order: DicloDuo 75 mg--8,13 minutes and

  1. Physical aspects of the isotope separation by laser induced selective ionization, with emphasis on model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubbaramayer.

    1987-01-01

    Basic studies on the process of isotope separation by laser-induced selective ionization have started about fifteen years ago. In the present time, the interest in this process is considerably increased since some countries' decision of funding a substantial R and D program with the ultimate goal of a possible industrial production of reactor grade uranium in the late nineties'. Several hundreds of professionals in the world are now exploring the science of the process, the components technology and the optimal way of industrialization. This review paper is restricted to the physical aspects of the process as they can be understood from the published literature. 55 refs

  2. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy...... and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which...... suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates...

  3. An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kojima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99, and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL. In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\\( \\log \\,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\\ and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system.

  4. Selecting a separable parametric spatiotemporal covariance structure for longitudinal imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Brandon; Aban, Inmaculada

    2015-01-15

    Longitudinal imaging studies allow great insight into how the structure and function of a subject's internal anatomy changes over time. Unfortunately, the analysis of longitudinal imaging data is complicated by inherent spatial and temporal correlation: the temporal from the repeated measures and the spatial from the outcomes of interest being observed at multiple points in a patient's body. We propose the use of a linear model with a separable parametric spatiotemporal error structure for the analysis of repeated imaging data. The model makes use of spatial (exponential, spherical, and Matérn) and temporal (compound symmetric, autoregressive-1, Toeplitz, and unstructured) parametric correlation functions. A simulation study, inspired by a longitudinal cardiac imaging study on mitral regurgitation patients, compared different information criteria for selecting a particular separable parametric spatiotemporal correlation structure as well as the effects on types I and II error rates for inference on fixed effects when the specified model is incorrect. Information criteria were found to be highly accurate at choosing between separable parametric spatiotemporal correlation structures. Misspecification of the covariance structure was found to have the ability to inflate the type I error or have an overly conservative test size, which corresponded to decreased power. An example with clinical data is given illustrating how the covariance structure procedure can be performed in practice, as well as how covariance structure choice can change inferences about fixed effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Bioinspired Diatomite Membrane with Selective Superwettability for Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Ching-Yu; Chang, Haw-Kai; Hung, Wei-Chen; Chen, Po-Yu

    2017-05-03

    Membranes with selective superwettability for oil/water separation have received significant attention during the past decades. Hierarchical structures and surface roughness are believed to improve the oil repellency and the stability of Cassie-Baxter state. Diatoms, unicellular photosynthetic algae, possess sophisticated skeletal shells (called frustules) which are made of hydrated silica. Motivated by the hierarchical micro- and nanoscale features of diatom, we fabricate a hierarchical diatomite membrane which consists of aligned micro-sized channels by the freeze casting process. The fine nano-porous structures of frustules are well preserved after the post sintering process. The bioinspired diatomite membrane performs both underwater superoleophobicity and superhydrophobicity under various oils. Additionally, we demonstrate the highly efficient oil/water separation capabililty of the membranes in various harsh environments. The water flux can be further adjusted by tuning the cooling rates. The eco-friendly and robust bioinspired membranes produced by the simple, cost-effective freeze casting method can be potentially applied for large scale and efficient oil/water separation.

  6. Robust Multilayer Graphene-Organic Frameworks for Selective Separation of Monovalent Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Jiajie; Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhijuan; Charchalac Ochoa, Sebastian Ignacio; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2018-05-30

    The chemical and mechanical stability of graphene nanosheets was used in this work to design a multilayer architecture of graphene, grafted with sulfonated 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (SDDS). Quaternized poly(phenylene oxide) (QPPO) was synthesized and mixed with SDDS (rGO-SDDS-rGO@QPPO), yielding a multilayer graphene-organic framework (MGOF) with positive as well as negative functional groups that can be applied as a versatile electrodriven membrane in electrodialysis (ED). Multilayer graphene-organic frameworks are a new class of multilayer structures, with an architecture having a tunable interlayer spacing connected by cationic polymer material. MGOF membranes were demonstrated to allow for an excellent selective separation of monovalent anions in aqueous solution. Furthermore, different types of rGO-SDDS-rGO@QPPO membranes were found to have a good mechanical strength, with a tensile strength up to 66.43 MPa. The membrane (rGO-SDDS-rGO@QPPO-2) also has a low surface electric resistance (2.79 Ω·cm 2 ) and a low water content (14.5%) and swelling rate (4.7%). In addition, the selective separation between Cl - and SO 4 2- of the MGOF membranes could be as high as 36.6%.

  7. Selective separation of yttrium by CA-100 in the presence of a complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaobo; Wang Yige; Li Deqian

    2006-01-01

    The selective separation of Y from yttrium solution containing small heavy rare earth (HRE) impurities (Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) by liquid-liquid extraction using CA-100 in the presence of a water-soluble complexing agent of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was experimentally studied at 298 K. Experiments were carried out in two feeds, Feed-I: [RE] f = 4.94 x 10 -3 M, Y = 98.5%, HRE (Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) = 1.5%; Feed-II: [RE] f = 4.94 x 10 -3 M, Y = 99.9%, HRE (Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) = 0.1%, as a function of equilibrium pH (pH eq ), the concentration ratio of [EDTA]:[HRE impurities]. It was shown that the extraction of HRE in the presence of EDTA was suppressed when compared to that of Y because of the masking effect, while the selective extraction of Y was enhanced and the separation factors increased to maximum at appropriate condition for Feed-I: Y/Ho = 1.53, Y/Er 3.09, Y/Tm = 5.61, Y/Yb = 12.04, Y/Lu = 27.51 at pH 4.37 and [EDTA]:[HRE impurities] = 4:1, for Feed-II: Y/Ho = 1.32, Y/Er = 1.91, Y/Tm = 2.00, Y/Yb 3.05, Y/Lu = 3.33 at pH 4.42 and [EDTA]:[HRE impurities] = 8:1. The separation and purification of Y by this method was discussed

  8. Effect of microwave irradiation on selective heating behavior and magnetic separation characteristics of Panzhihua ilmenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Chang, Xiaodong; Guo, Shenghui; Srinivasakannan, C.; Chen, Guo; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave irradiation can be applied effectively and efficiently to the irradiation processes of Panzhihua ilmenite. • The mineral processing properties of microwave treated ilmenite were generally as good as or better than that of initial ilmenite. • The microwave selective heating characteristics of the different minerals and compounds, and the thermal stresses were caused by the uniform heat rate disturbed under microwave irradiation. - Abstract: The influences of microwave irradiation on the surface characteristics of Panzhihua ilmenite were systematically investigated. The crystal structures, surface morphology and surface chemical functional groups of ilmenite were characterized before and after microwave irradiation and magnetic separation for different microwave treatment times by using various methods, such as XRD, SEM, and FT-IR, respectively. XRD analysis showed that the microwave treated ilmenite has the strongest peaks of phase more than that of raw samples, indicates that the crystalline compound of ilmenite increased with the microwave irradiation time. SEM analysis showed the micro-cracking appeared at many grain boundaries of ilmenite after being pretreated by microwave treatment. The separations of ilmenite from gangue minerals were completed and the micro-fissure within ilmenite minerals were also formed, which could be attributed to the microwave selective heating characteristics of the different minerals and compounds, and the thermal stresses were caused by the uniform heat rate disturbed under microwave irradiation. The mineral processing results showed that the magnetic separation characteristics and properties of microwave treated ilmenite samples were better than that of microwave untreated ilmenite samples. It was concluded that microwave irradiation can be applied effectively and efficiently to the irradiation processes of Panzhihua ilmenite

  9. Comparison of two selective separation method for {sup 93}Zr by using TRU and TEVA resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: tco@cdtn.b, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The zirconium isotope {sup 93}Zr is a long-lived pure {beta}-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from {sup 235}U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope {sup 92}Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, {sup 93}Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of {sup 93}Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to compare two radiochemical procedure based on selective extraction using an anion-exchange chromatography, TRU and TEVA resins, in order to separate zirconium from the matrix and to analyze it by liquid scintillation spectrometry technique. To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of {sup 95}Zr and its 724.19 keV {gamma}-ray measurements by {gamma} - spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. A tracer solution of {sup 55}Fe, the main interference in the LSC measurements, was used in order to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1{sup -1} was obtained for {sup 55}Fe standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. (author)

  10. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirin Dejan M; Poša Mihalj M; Krstonošić Veljko S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, ...

  11. The role of chloride in deoxycorticosterone hypertension: selective sodium loading by diet or drinking fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef; Jelínek, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2004), s. 149-154 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/0769; GA MŠk LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : sodium * chloride * DOCA-salt hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  12. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. (Yale Univ. School of medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  13. Accelerating the design of molecularly imprinted nanocomposite membranes modified by Au@polyaniline for selective enrichment and separation of ibuprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuling; Wu, Yilin; Dong, Hongjun; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Chen; Zhou, Shi; Lu, Jian; Yan, Yongsheng; Li, He

    2018-01-01

    A novel system for harvesting molecularly imprinted nanocomposite membranes (MINcMs) with Au-modified polyaniline (Au@polyaniline) nanocomposite structure was developed for selective enrichment and separation of ibuprofen. This unique nanocomposite structure obviously enhanced the adsorption capacity, perm-selectivity performance, and regeneration ability of MINcMs. The as-prepared MINcMs showed outstanding adsorption capacity (22.02 mg g-1) of ibuprofen, which was four times higher than that of non-imprinted nanocomposite membranes (NINcMs). Furthermore, the selectivity factor of MINcMs for ibuprofen reached up to 4.67 and the perm-selectivity factor β was about 8.74, which indicated MINcMs had a good selective separation performance of ibuprofen. We envision that this novel synthesis method will open a new direction to manipulation of molecularly imprinted membrane materials and provide a simple yet convenient way to selective separation of ibuprofen.

  14. Mixed matrix membranes with fast and selective transport pathways for efficient CO2 separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinpeng; Li, Xueqin; Guo, Ruili; Zhang, Jianshu; Wang, Zhongming

    2018-03-01

    To improve CO2 separation performance, porous carbon nanosheets (PCNs) were used as a filler into a Pebax MH 1657 (Pebax) matrix, fabricating mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). The PCNs exhibited a preferential horizontal orientation within the Pebax matrix because of the extremely large 2D plane and nanoscale thickness of the matrix. Therefore, the micropores of the PCNs provided fast CO2 transport pathways, which led to increased CO2 permeability. The reduced pore size of the PCNs was a consequence of the overlapping of PCNs and the polymer chains penetrating into the pores of the PCNs. The reduction in the pore size of the PCNs improved the CO2/gas selectivity. As a result, the CO2 permeability and CO2/CH4 selectivity of the Pebax membrane with 10 wt% PCNs-loading (Pebax-PCNs-10) were 520 barrer and 51, respectively, for CO2/CH4 mixed-gas. The CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity of the Pebax-PCNs-10 membrane were 614 barrer and 61, respectively, for CO2/N2 mixed-gas.

  15. Laser isotope separation by selective excited state photochemistry. Annual progress report, March 31, 1976--February 28, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, R.N.

    1977-03-01

    Experimental results are presented providing insight into the mechanisms of photochemical separation of Cd isotopes by selective excitation of ICl in the presence of halogenated olefins. The types of scrambling reactions that can be expected in isotope separation by scavenging are discussed along with strategies for minimizing such reactions. The experimental results are summarized and the reaction mechanisms are represented by graphic equations

  16. Selective separation of hydroxy polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) by the structural recognition on the molecularly imprinted polymers: Direct separation of the thyroid hormone active analogues from mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Takuya; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shiraishi, Fujio; Nomachi, Makoto; Nemoto, Koji; Hosoya, Ken; Kaya, Kunimitsu

    2007-01-01

    We developed novel separation media for hydroxy polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) using the molecular imprinting techniques. The results of evaluation for the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by the liquid chromatography (LC) suggested that MIPs had selective separation ability for certain HO-PCB analogues. The results of the LC evaluations and molecular modeling indicated that the molecular volumes and pK a values of template molecules were related with the retention factor of HO-PCBs. Additionally, according to the detail evaluation toward the selective separation behaviors of MIPs, these HO-PCB analogues have low pK a values dependent on their chemical structures. In other words, the prepared MIPs had selective recognition ability against the analogues, which have an OH group on a phenyl carbon and two chlorine atoms on the both neighboring carbons of the carbon attached with the OH group. Moreover, these analogues may have a potential for thyroid hormone activities so that we attempted to separate these analogues directly from mixtures of HO-PCBs using a prepared MIP

  17. Process and system for isotope separation using the selective vibrational excitation of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Keck, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns the separation of isotopes by using the isotopically selective vibrational excitation and the vibration-translation reactions of the excited particles. UF 6 molecular mixed with a carrier gas, such as argon, are directed through a refrigerated chamber lighted by a laser radiation tuned to excite vibrationally the uranium hexafluoride molecules of a particular uranium isotope. The density of the carrier gas is preferably maintained above the density of the uranium hexafluoride to allow a greater collision probability of the vibrationally excited molecules with a carried molecule. In such a case, the vibrationally excited uranium hexafluoride will collide with a carrier gas molecule provoking the conversion of the excitation energy into a translation of the excited molecule, resulting in thermal energy or greater diffusibility than that of the other uranium hexafluoride molecules [fr

  18. Performance Analysis of Thiocarbonohydrazide as a Novel Selective Depressant for Chalcopyrite in Molybdenite-Chalcopyrite Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changping Guan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel surfactant, thiocarbonohydrazide (TCH, was synthesized and tested for the first time as a selective chalcopyrite depressant in Cu-Mo separation. Its adsorption mechanisms on chalcopyrite were studied by flotation tests, zeta potential, FTIR, XPS and ToF-SIMS measurements. FTIR and zeta potential analyses suggested that there was a strong chemisorption reaction between TCH and chalcopyrite, resulting in the formation of TCH–copper complexes. XPS and ToF-SIMS measurements further confirmed the chemisorption of TCH onto the chalcopyrite surface and showed that this chemisorption reaction is due to its S and N atoms, which form five-membered chelating rings by releasing H ions.

  19. A chemically selective laser ion source for the on-line isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheerer, F.

    1993-03-01

    In this thesis a laser ion source is presented. In a hot chamber the atoms of the elements to be studied are resonantly by light of pulsed dye lasers, which are pumped by pulsed copper-vapor lasers with extremely high pulse repetition rate (ν rep ∼ 10 kHz), stepwise excited and ionized. By the storage of the atoms in a hot chamber and the high pulse repetition rate of the copper-vapor lasers beyond the required high efficiency (ε ∼ 10%) can be reached. First preparing measurements were performed at the off-line separator at CERN with the rare earth elements ytterbium and thulium. Starting from the results of these measurements further tests of the laser ion source were performed at the on-line separator with in a thick tantalum target produced neutron-deficient ytterbium isotopes. Under application of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer in Mainz an efficient excitation scheme on the resonance ionization of tin was found. This excitation scheme is condition for an experiment at the GSI for the production of the extremely neutron-deficient, short-lived nucleus 102 Sn. In the summer 1993 is as first application of the newly developed laser ion source at the PSB-ISOLDE at CERN an astrophysically relevant experiment for the nuclear spectroscopy of the neutron-rich silver isotopes 124-129 Ag is planned. This experiment can because of the lacking selectivity of conventional ion sources only be performed by means of the here presented laser ion source. The laser ion source shall at the PSB-ISOLDE 1993 also be applied for the selective ionization of manganese. (orig./HSI) [de

  20. Characterization of sodium stibogluconate by online liquid separation cell technology monitored by ICPMS and ESMS and computational chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rusz; Hansen, Claus; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2008-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), and computational chemistry has been applied to resolve the composition and structure of the Sb species present in dilutions of Pentostam, a first-line treatment drug against Leishmania parasites. Using HPLC-inductively coupled......(V)-glyconate complexes of various stoichiometry (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:2, 2:3, 2:4, 3:3, 3:4). The 1:1 complex became the most abundant low molecular mass Sb(V) complex with dilution time. A novel mixed-mode chromatographic system was applied in order to separate complexes of various stoichiometry and isomers. Density...

  1. Separation and determination of arsenic species in water by selective exchange and hybrid resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, Nureddin Ben [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, Belgrade (Serbia); Marinkovic, Aleksandar D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic, Ljubinka V., E-mail: ljubinka@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of arsenic species. {yields} A new hybrid resin HY-AgCl is effective for iAs and oAs analytical separation. {yields} SBAE resin was convenient for the separation of As(III) from As(V) and oAs species. {yields} HY-Fe resin was convenient for the separation of DMAs(V). - Abstract: A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and organic arsenic (oAs) in drinking, natural and wastewater was developed. If arsenic is present in water prevailing forms are inorganic acids of As(III) and As(V). oAs can be found in traces as monomethylarsenic acid, MMA(V), and dimethylarsenic acid, DMAs(V). Three types of resins: a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) and two hybrid (HY) resins: HY-Fe and HY-AgCl, based on the activity of hydrated iron oxides and a silver chloride were investigated. It was found that the sorption processes (ion exchange, adsorption and chemisorptions) of arsenic species on SBAE (ion exchange) and HY resins depend on pH values of water. The quantitative separation of molecular and ionic forms of iAs and oAs was achieved by SBAE and pH adjustment, the molecular form of As(III) that exists in the water at pH <8.0 was not bonded with SBAE, which was convenient for direct determination of As(III) concentration in the effluent. HY-Fe resin retained all arsenic species except DMAs(V), which makes possible direct measurements of this specie in the effluent. HY-AgCl resin retained all iAs which was convenient for direct determination of oAs species concentration in the effluent. The selective bonding of arsenic species on three types of resins makes possible the development of the procedure for measuring and calculation of all arsenic species in water. In order to determine capacity of resins the preliminary investigations were performed in batch system and fixed bed flow system. Resin capacities were calculated according to breakthrough

  2. Influence of sand base preparation on properties of chromite moulding sands with sodium silicate hardened with selected methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research on the relation between thermal preparation of chromite sand base of moulding sands containing sodium silicate, hardened with selected physical and chemical methods, and structure of the created bonding bridges. Test specimens were prepared of chromite sand - fresh or baked at 950°C for 10 or 24 hours - mixed with 0.5 wt.% of the selected non-modified inorganic binder and, after forming, were hardened with CO2 or liquid esters, dried traditionally or heated with microwaves at 2.45 GHz. It was shown on the grounds of SEM observations that the time of baking the base sand and the hardening method significantly affect structure of the bonding bridges and are correlated with mechanical properties of the moulding sands. It was found that hardening chromite-based moulding mixtures with physical methods is much more favourable than hardening with chemical methods, guaranteeing also more than ten times higher mechanical properties.

  3. Efficient Separation and Extraction of Vanadium and Chromium in High Chromium Vanadium Slag by Selective Two-Stage Roasting-Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yingzhe; Liu, Jiayi; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-06-01

    Vanadium and chromium are important rare metals, leading to a focus on high chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) as a potential raw material to extract vanadium and chromium in China. In this work, a novel method based on selective two-stage roasting-leaching was proposed to separate and extract vanadium and chromium efficiently in HCVS. XRD, FT-IR, and SEM were utilized to analyze the phase evolutions and microstructure during the whole process. Calcification roasting, which can calcify vanadium selectively using thermodynamics, was carried out in the first roasting stage to transfer vanadium into acid-soluble vanadate and leave chromium in the leaching residue as (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3 after H2SO4 leaching. When HCVS and CaO were mixed in the molar ratio CaO/V2O3 (n(CaO)/n(V2O3)) of 0.5 to 1.25, around 90 pct vanadium and less than 1 pct chromium were extracted in the first leaching liquid, thus achieving the separation of vanadium and chromium. In the second roasting stage, sodium salt, which combines with chromium easily, was added to the first leaching residue to extract chromium and 95.16 pct chromium was extracted under the optimal conditions. The total vanadium and chromium leaching rates were above 95 pct, achieving the efficient separation and extraction of vanadium and chromium. The established method provides a new technique to separate vanadium and chromium during roasting rather than in the liquid form, which is useful for the comprehensive application of HCVS.

  4. Efficient Separation and Extraction of Vanadium and Chromium in High Chromium Vanadium Slag by Selective Two-Stage Roasting-Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yingzhe; Liu, Jiayi; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-04-01

    Vanadium and chromium are important rare metals, leading to a focus on high chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) as a potential raw material to extract vanadium and chromium in China. In this work, a novel method based on selective two-stage roasting-leaching was proposed to separate and extract vanadium and chromium efficiently in HCVS. XRD, FT-IR, and SEM were utilized to analyze the phase evolutions and microstructure during the whole process. Calcification roasting, which can calcify vanadium selectively using thermodynamics, was carried out in the first roasting stage to transfer vanadium into acid-soluble vanadate and leave chromium in the leaching residue as (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3 after H2SO4 leaching. When HCVS and CaO were mixed in the molar ratio CaO/V2O3 (n(CaO)/n(V2O3)) of 0.5 to 1.25, around 90 pct vanadium and less than 1 pct chromium were extracted in the first leaching liquid, thus achieving the separation of vanadium and chromium. In the second roasting stage, sodium salt, which combines with chromium easily, was added to the first leaching residue to extract chromium and 95.16 pct chromium was extracted under the optimal conditions. The total vanadium and chromium leaching rates were above 95 pct, achieving the efficient separation and extraction of vanadium and chromium. The established method provides a new technique to separate vanadium and chromium during roasting rather than in the liquid form, which is useful for the comprehensive application of HCVS.

  5. Selective separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste solutions with inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.; Harjula, R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear industry produces and stores large volumes of radioactive waste solutions. Removal of radionuclides from the solutions is an important and challenging task for two main reasons: reductions in the volumes of solidified waste, which have to be disposed of, and reductions in the radioactive discharges into the environment. Since the radioactive elements in most waste solutions are in trace concentrations and the waste solutions contain large excesses of inactive metal ions, highly selective separation methods are needed for the removal of radionuclides. A number of inorganic ion exchange materials are very selective to key radionuclides and they can play an important role in solving these problems. The spectrum of nuclear waste solutions is rather wide considering their radionuclide contents, concentrations of interfering salts and acidity/alkalinity. Therefore, several inorganic ions exchangers are needed for the removal of most harmful radionuclides from a variety of solutions. This paper discusses the use and requirements of inorganic ion exchange materials in nuclear waste management. Special attention is paid to the novel ion exchange materials developed in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. (orig.)

  6. Selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins separated on hydrophilic interaction stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the retention behavior and selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins were evaluated with three types of polar stationary phases (i.e. an underivatized silica phase, an amide phase, and an amino phase) operated in the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic mode with ESI mass spectrometric detection. The effects of mobile phase composition, including buffer pH and concentration, on the retention and selectivity of the vitamins were investigated. In all stationary phases, the neutral or weakly charged vitamins exhibited very weak retention under each of the pH conditions, while the acidic and more basic vitamins showed diverse retention behaviors. With the underivatized silica phase, increasing the salt concentration of the mobile phase resulted in enhanced retention of the acidic vitamins, but decreased retention of the basic vitamins. These observations thus signify the involvement of secondary mechanisms, such as electrostatic interaction in the retention of these analytes. Under optimized conditions, a baseline separation of all vitamins was achieved with excellent peak efficiency. In addition, the effects of water content in the sample on retention and peak efficiency were examined, with sample stacking effects observed when the injected sample contained a high amount of water. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. TWIK-1 two-pore domain potassium channels change ion selectivity and conduct inward leak sodium currents in hypokalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liqun; Zhang, Xuexin; Chen, Haijun

    2011-06-07

    Background potassium (K+) channels, which are normally selectively permeable to K+, maintain the cardiac resting membrane potential at around -80 mV. In subphysiological extracellular K+ concentrations ([K+]o), which occur in pathological hypokalemia, the resting membrane potential of human cardiomyocytes can depolarize to around -50 mV, whereas rat and mouse cardiomyocytes become hyperpolarized, consistent with the Nernst equation for K+. This paradoxical depolarization of cardiomyocytes in subphysiological [K+]o, which may contribute to cardiac arrhythmias, is thought to involve an inward leak sodium (Na+) current. Here, we show that human cardiac TWIK-1 (also known as K2P1) two-pore domain K+ channels change ion selectivity, becoming permeable to external Na+, and conduct inward leak Na+ currents in subphysiological [K+]o. A specific threonine residue (Thr118) within the pore selectivity sequence TxGYG was required for this altered ion selectivity. Mouse cardiomyocyte-derived HL-1 cells exhibited paradoxical depolarization with ectopic expression of TWIK-1 channels, whereas TWIK-1 knockdown in human spherical primary cardiac myocytes eliminated paradoxical depolarization. These findings indicate that ion selectivity of TWIK-1 K+ channels changes during pathological hypokalemia, elucidate a molecular basis for inward leak Na+ currents that could trigger or contribute to cardiac paradoxical depolarization in lowered [K+]o, and identify a mechanism for regulating cardiac excitability.

  9. Selective separation of lambdacyhalothrin by porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hui; Li, Chunxiang; Pan, Jianming; Li, Linzi; Dai, Jiangdong; Dai, Xiaohui; Yu, Ping; Feng, Yonghai

    2013-10-01

    Porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (PM-MIPs) were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. The reaction was carried out in an oil/water emulsion using magnetic halloysite nanotubes as the stabilizer instead of a toxic surfactant. In the oil phase, the imprinting process was conducted by radical polymerization of functional and cross-linked monomers, and porogen chloroform generated steam under the high reaction temperature, which resulted in some pores decorated with easily accessible molecular binding sites within the as-made PM-MIPs. The characterization demonstrated that the PM-MIPs were porous and magnetic inorganic-polymer composite microparticles with magnetic sensitivity (M(s) = 0.7448 emu/g), thermal stability (below 473 K) and magnetic stability (over the pH range of 2.0-8.0). The PM-MIPs were used as a sorbent for the selective binding of lambdacyhalothrin (LC) and rapidly separated under an external magnetic field. The Freundlich isotherm model gave a good fit to the experimental data. The adsorption kinetics of the PM-MIPs was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating that the chemical process could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption of LC. The selective recognition experiments exhibited the outstanding selective adsorption effect of the PM-MIPs for target LC. Moreover, the PM-MIPs regeneration without significant loss in adsorption capacity was demonstrated by at least four repeated cycles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Immunomagnetic separation combined with colony immunoblotting for selective enrichment and detection of piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z Q; Wei, Y F; Rao, S Q; Gao, L; Yin, Y Q; Xue, F; Fang, W M; Gu, R X; Jiao, X A

    2016-11-01

    Piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (pLR) strains have attracted much attention owing to their excellent mucus adhering capacity and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive method for isolating pLR strains in complex ecosystems using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with colony immunoblotting (CIB). Magnetic nanobeads (diameter: 180 nm) conjugated with anti-pLR SpaA pilin antibodies (anti-SpaA) were prepared and used to preconcentrate pLR strains in samples, followed by confirmation with anti-SpaA-based CIB analysis. Under optimized experimental conditions, IMS-CIB selectively recovered pLR strains from 10 7  CFU ml -1 of faecal microbiota samples spiked with 2·9 × 10 1 to 2·4 × 10 6  CFU ml -1 of pLR strains. No positive colonies were detected in samples without addition of pLR strains. The detection limit of IMS-CIB was 29 CFU pLR ml -1 of faecal microbiota, which is much lower than that of CIB without IMS preconcentration (2·0 × 10 4  CFU ml -1 ). IMS-CIB allowed selective preconcentration of pLR strains in highly heterogeneous bacterial suspensions and direct detection of pLR colonies, which remained readily available for subsequent isolation. Our findings established an effective method for selective enrichment and detection of pLR strains. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Synthesis of Homoveratric Acid-Imprinted Polymers and Their Evaluation as Selective Separation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A bulk polymerization method was used to easily and efficiently prepare homo-veratric acid (3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid-imprinted polymers from eight basic monomers: 2-vinylpyridine, 4-vinylpyridine, 1-vinylimidazole, N-allylaniline, N-allylpiperazine, allylurea, allylthiourea, and allylamine, in the presence of homoveratric acid as a template in N,N-dimethylformamide as a porogen. The imprinted polymer prepared from allylamine had the highest affinity to the template, showing an imprinting factor of 3.43, and allylamine polymers MIP8/NIP8 were selected for further studies. Their binding properties were analyzed using the Scatchard method. The results showed that the imprinted polymers have two classes of heterogeneous binding sites characterized by two pairs of Kd, Bmax values: Kd(1 = 0.060 μmol/mL, Bmax(1 = 0.093 μmol/mg for the higher affinity binding sites, and Kd(2 = 0.455 μmol/mL, Bmax(2 = 0.248 μmol/mg for the lower affinity binding sites. Non-imprinted polymer has only one class of binding site, with Kd = 0.417 μmol/mL and Bmax = 0.184 μmol/mg. A computational analysis of the energies of the prepolymerization complexes was in agreement with the experimental results. It showed that the selective binding interactions arose from cooperative three point interactions between the carboxylic acid and the two methoxy groups in the template and amino groups in the polymer cavities. Those results were confirmed by the recognition studies performed with the set of structurally related compounds. Allylamine polymer MIP8 had no affinity towards biogenic amines. The obtained imprinted polymer could be used for selective separation of homoveratric acid.

  12. Selection of ionic liquids as entrainers for separation of (water + ethanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge Yun [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang Lianzhong [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)], E-mail: zhanglz@zjut.edu.cn; Yuan Xingcai; Geng Wei; Ji Jianbing [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2008-08-15

    For selection of ionic liquids (ILs) which can be potentially used as entrainers for separation of the azeotropic mixture of (water + ethanol) by extractive distillation, (vapor + liquid) equilibrium was measured for the ternary systems of (water + ethanol + an IL) using a previously proposed ebulliometer. The experimental measurement was performed at p = 100 kPa and in a way of continuous synthesis, in which analysis of liquid phase composition was avoided. While the mole fraction of ethanol calculated on IL-free basis, x{sub 2}{sup '}, was kept almost unchanged at 0.95, isobaric T, x, y data were measured at different IL mass fractions. Activity coefficients, as well as relative volatilities, of the volatile components were obtained from the experimental data without the need of a thermodynamic model of the liquid phase. There were eight ILs in our investigation: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF{sub 4}]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF{sub 4}]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][N(CN){sub 2}]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([emim][N(CN){sub 2}]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([emim][Cl]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][OAc]), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][OAc]). The effect of the ILs on the relative volatility of the volatile components was depicted separately by their effect on the activity coefficients. The results indicated that, among the eight ILs studied, [emim][Cl] has the largest effect on enhancement of the relative volatility. Another IL, [emim][OAc], has also significant effect. Considering the relatively low viscosity and melting point of [emim][OAc], this IL might be favorable candidate as entrainer for potential industrial application.

  13. Nanoporous spongy graphene: Potential applications for hydrogen adsorption and selective gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostoglou, Nikolaos, E-mail: nikolaos.kostoglou@stud.unileoben.ac.at [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Constantinides, Georgios [Research Unit for Nanostructured Materials Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, 3036 Lemesos (Cyprus); Charalambopoulou, Georgia; Steriotis, Theodore [National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Agia Paraskevi Attikis, 15310 Athens (Greece); Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Li, Yuanqing; Liao, Kin [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ryzhkov, Vladislav [Nanotube Production Department, Fibrtec Incorporation, TX, 75551 Atlanta (United States); Mitterer, Christian [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Rebholz, Claus, E-mail: claus@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, a nanoporous (pore width ~ 0.7 nm) graphene-based sponge-like material with large surface area (~ 350 m{sup 2}/g) was synthesized by wet chemical reduction of graphene oxide in combination with freeze-drying. Surface morphology and elemental composition were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Surface chemistry was qualitatively examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, while the respective structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Textural properties, including Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area, micropore volume and surface area as well as pore size distribution, were deduced from nitrogen gas adsorption/desorption data obtained at 77 K and up to 1 bar. Potential use of the spongy graphene for gas storage and separation applications was preliminarily assessed by low-pressure (0–1 bar) H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} sorption measurements at different temperatures (77, 273 and 298 K). The adsorption capacities for each gas were evaluated up to ~ 1 bar, the isosteric enthalpies of adsorption for CO{sub 2} (28–33 kJ/mol) and CH{sub 4} (30–38 kJ/mol) were calculated using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, while the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} gas selectivity (up to 95:1) was estimated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). - Highlights: • Nanoporous sponge produced by chemical reduction of graphene oxide and freeze-drying • Characterization performed using SEM, EDS, TEM, FT-IR, BET and XRD methods • Gas storage performance evaluated towards H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption up to 1 bar • CO{sub 2} over CH{sub 4} gas selectivity estimated between 45 and 95 at 273 K using the IAST model.

  14. Nanoporous spongy graphene: Potential applications for hydrogen adsorption and selective gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglou, Nikolaos; Constantinides, Georgios; Charalambopoulou, Georgia; Steriotis, Theodore; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Li, Yuanqing; Liao, Kin; Ryzhkov, Vladislav; Mitterer, Christian; Rebholz, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, a nanoporous (pore width ~ 0.7 nm) graphene-based sponge-like material with large surface area (~ 350 m"2/g) was synthesized by wet chemical reduction of graphene oxide in combination with freeze-drying. Surface morphology and elemental composition were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Surface chemistry was qualitatively examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, while the respective structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Textural properties, including Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area, micropore volume and surface area as well as pore size distribution, were deduced from nitrogen gas adsorption/desorption data obtained at 77 K and up to 1 bar. Potential use of the spongy graphene for gas storage and separation applications was preliminarily assessed by low-pressure (0–1 bar) H_2, CO_2 and CH_4 sorption measurements at different temperatures (77, 273 and 298 K). The adsorption capacities for each gas were evaluated up to ~ 1 bar, the isosteric enthalpies of adsorption for CO_2 (28–33 kJ/mol) and CH_4 (30–38 kJ/mol) were calculated using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, while the CO_2/CH_4 gas selectivity (up to 95:1) was estimated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). - Highlights: • Nanoporous sponge produced by chemical reduction of graphene oxide and freeze-drying • Characterization performed using SEM, EDS, TEM, FT-IR, BET and XRD methods • Gas storage performance evaluated towards H_2, CO_2 and CH_4 adsorption up to 1 bar • CO_2 over CH_4 gas selectivity estimated between 45 and 95 at 273 K using the IAST model

  15. Selection of number of SG modules per secondary sodium loop for a Prototype SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Yoo, Jae-Woon; Joo, Hyung-Kook; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Steam generator is a vertical counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger with sodium on shell side and water-steam in tubes. The concept of steam generator modularization is discussed and the advantages of large and small steam generator modules are presented. To estimate the economics of the steam generator modularization for the PGSFR, detailed optimization studies were carried out for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 steam generator modules per loop, taking into consideration the effect of capital cost, operating cost, and outage cost. For the economics of the steam generator modularization for a PGSFR, detailed optimization studies were carried out for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 steam generator modules per loop. The effect of capital cost, operating cost, and outage cost were taken into consideration. The studies indicated that the design with less SG modules is found to be more economical, if the weld failure rate is below 2.0x1E-5 failure/year. From the economics of the modularization, thermal rate of SG, reliability, operability considerations, appropriate number of SG modules required for PGSFR will be 1 SG module per loop

  16. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric determination of pantoprazole sodium in pharmaceuticals using permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. VINAY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple visible spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate (PSS. The method is based on the formation of a brown colored product on treating PSS with permanganate in neutral medium, the absorbance being measured at 350 nm. The experimental conditions for the assay were optimized. The absorbance is found to increase linearly with the concentration of PSS and the calibration graph is linear in the range of 2.5-40.0 μg ml-1 with a linear regression coefficient of 0.998. The calculated molar absorptivity value is 1.27x104 l mol-1 cm-1 and the corresponding Sandel sensitivity is 0.0341 µg cm-2. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ are calculated to be 0.49 and 1.47 µg ml-1, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy expressed as relative error were better than 2.0% and the corresponding precision (RSD was less than 2.5 %. The developed and validated method was applied to the determination of the active ingredient in a tablet dosage form and the results obtained agreed well with those of the reference method. The accuracy and reliability of the method were ascertained by performing recovery experiments via standard-addition procedure.

  17. Feature Selection and Blind Source Separation in an EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Thaut

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Most EEG-based BCI systems make use of well-studied patterns of brain activity. However, those systems involve tasks that indirectly map to simple binary commands such as “yes” or “no” or require many weeks of biofeedback training. We hypothesized that signal processing and machine learning methods can be used to discriminate EEG in a direct “yes”/“no” BCI from a single session. Blind source separation (BSS and spectral transformations of the EEG produced a 180-dimensional feature space. We used a modified genetic algorithm (GA wrapped around a support vector machine (SVM classifier to search the space of feature subsets. The GA-based search found feature subsets that outperform full feature sets and random feature subsets. Also, BSS transformations of the EEG outperformed the original time series, particularly in conjunction with a subset search of both spaces. The results suggest that BSS and feature selection can be used to improve the performance of even a “direct,” single-session BCI.

  18. Charge- and Size-Selective Molecular Separation using Ultrathin Cellulose Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2016-08-30

    To date, it is still a challenge to prepare high-flux and highselectivity microporous membranes thinner than 20 nm without introducing defects. In this work, we report for the first time the application of cellulose membranes for selective separation of small molecules. A freestanding cellulose membrane as thin as 10 nm has been prepared through regeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC). The freestanding membrane can be transferred to any desired substrate and shows a normalized flux as high as 700 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 when supported by a porous alumina disc. According to filtration experiments, the membrane exhibits precise size-sieving performances with an estimated pore size between 1.5–3.5 nm depending on the regeneration period and initial TMSC concentration. A perfect discrimination of anionic molecules over neutral species is demonstrated. Moreover, the membrane demonstrates high reproducibility, high scale-up potential, and excellent stability over two months.

  19. Waste Water for Power Generation via Energy Efficient Selective Silica Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sasan, Koroush [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paap, Scott M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Krumhansl, James L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howe, Kerry [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stoll, Zachary [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stomp, James [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Silica is ubiquitous in produced and industrial waters, and plays a major disruptive role in water recycle. Herein we have investigated the use of mixed oxides for the removal of silica from these waters, and their incorporation into a low cost and low energy water purification process. High selectivity hydrotalcite (HTC, (Mg6Al2(OH)16(CO3)•4H2O)), is combined in series with high surface area active alumina (AA, (Al2O3)) as the dissolved silica removal media. Batch test results indicated that combined HTC/AA is a more effective method for removing silica from industrial cooling tower wasters (CTW) than using HTC or AA separately. The silica uptake via ion exchange on the mixed oxides was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Furthermore, HTC/AA effectively removes silica from CTW even in the presence of large concentrations of competing anions, such as Cl-, NO3- HCO3-, CO32- and SO42-. Similar to batch tests, Single Path Flow Through (SPFT) tests with sequential HTC/AA column filtration has very high silica removal too. Technoeconomic Analysis (TEA) was simultaneously performed for cost comparisons to existing silica removal technologies.

  20. Integration of carboxyl modified magnetic particles and aqueous two-phase extraction for selective separation of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Qingqing; Qu, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-07-15

    Both of the magnetic particle adsorption and aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) were simple, fast and low-cost method for protein separation. Selective proteins adsorption by carboxyl modified magnetic particles was investigated according to protein isoelectric point, solution pH and ionic strength. Aqueous two-phase system of PEG/sulphate exhibited selective separation and extraction for proteins before and after magnetic adsorption. The two combination ways, magnetic adsorption followed by ATPE and ATPE followed by magnetic adsorption, for the separation of proteins mixture of lysozyme, bovine serum albumin, trypsin, cytochrome C and myloglobin were discussed and compared. The way of magnetic adsorption followed by ATPE was also applied to human serum separation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Size-selective separation of submicron particles in suspensions with ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Susumu; Oka, Naoyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Aqueous suspensions containing silica or polystyrene latex were ultrasonically atomized for separating particles of a specific size. With the help of a fog involving fine liquid droplets with a narrow size distribution, submicron particles in a limited size-range were successfully separated from suspensions. Performance of the separation was characterized by analyzing the size and the concentration of collected particles with a high resolution method. Irradiation of 2.4MHz ultrasound to sample suspensions allowed the separation of particles of specific size from 90 to 320nm without regarding the type of material. Addition of a small amount of nonionic surfactant, PONPE20 to SiO2 suspensions enhanced the collection of finer particles, and achieved a remarkable increase in the number of collected particles. Degassing of the sample suspension resulted in eliminating the separation performance. Dissolved air in suspensions plays an important role in this separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. From an equilibrium based MOF adsorbent to a kinetic selective carbon molecular sieve for paraffin/iso-paraffin separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan

    2016-11-04

    We unveil a unique kinetic driven separation material for selectively removing linear paraffins from iso-paraffins via a molecular sieving mechanism. Subsequent carbonization and thermal treatment of CD-MOF-2, the cyclodextrin metal-organic framework, afforded a carbon molecular sieve with a uniform and reduced pore size of ca. 5.0 Å, and it exhibited highly selective kinetic separation of n-butane and n-pentane from iso-butane and iso-pentane, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Development of long-lived radionuclide partitioning technology - Preparation of ion exchanges for selective separation of radioactive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Joong; Jeong, Hae In; Shim, Min Sook [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong [Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Ion exchanger contained nitrogen-oxygen donor macrocyclic units was synthesized, and immobilization process was carried out by adsorption of the exchanger to silica gel. The binding constants were measured with acid concentration. From the binding constants, selectivity for Pt(II) ion and acid concentration of eluents were determined. The most optimum conditions for the separation were also determined from investigating the effects of amount of immobile phase and column length. And liarit aza-crown ethers were synthesized and selectively separated Cs/Sr ion from mixed metal solution. 37= refs., 24 tabs., 40 figs. (author)

  4. Mass, charge, and energy separation by selective acceleration with a traveling potential hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, L. Schwager; Barr, W. L.; Lowder, R. S.; Post, R. F.

    1996-10-01

    A traveling electric potential hill has been used to generate an ion beam with an energy distribution that is mass dependent from a monoenergetic ion beam of mixed masses. This effect can be utilized as a novel method for mass separation applied to identification or enrichment of ions (e.g., of elements, isotopes, or molecules). This theory for mass-selective acceleration is presented here and is shown to be confirmed by experiment and by a time-dependent particle-in-cell computer simulation. Results show that monoenergetic ions with the particular mass of choice are accelerated by controlling the hill potential and the hill velocity. The hill velocity is typically 20%-30% faster than the ions to be accelerated. The ability of the hill to pickup a particular mass uses the fact that small kinetic energy differences in the lab frame appear much larger in the moving hill frame. Ions will gain energy from the approaching hill if their relative energy in the moving hill frame is less than the peak potential of the hill. The final energy of these accelerated ions can be several times the source energy, which facilitates energy filtering for mass purification or identification. If the hill potential is chosen to accelerate multiple masses, the heaviest mass will have the greatest final energy. Hence, choosing the appropriate hill potential and collector retarding voltage will isolate ions with the lightest, heaviest, or intermediate mass. In the experimental device, called a Solitron, purified 20Ne and 22Ne are extracted from a ribbon beam of neon that is originally composed of 20Ne:22Ne in the natural ratio of 91:9. The isotopic content of the processed beam is determined by measuring the energy distribution of the detected current. These results agree with the theory. In addition to mass selectivity, our theory can also be applied to the filtration of an ion beam according to charge state or energy. Because of this variety of properties, the Solitron is envisioned to

  5. Ball Milling Treatment of Black Dross for Selective Dissolution of Alumina in Sodium Hydroxide Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Thuy Nhi Nguyen; Man Seung Lee; Thi Hong Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    A process consisting of ball milling followed by NaOH leaching was developed to selectively dissolve alumina from black dross. From the ball milling treatment, it was found that milling speed greatly affected the leaching behavior of silica and the oxides of Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti present in dross. The leaching behavior of the mechanically activated dross was investigated by varying NaOH concentration, leaching temperature and time, and pulp density. In most of the leaching conditions, only alumi...

  6. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  7. Selective separation of uranium and thorium from lanthanides on sulphonic ion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubicki, Z; Hubicka, H; Jusiak, S [Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland)

    1977-01-01

    Separation of uranium and thorium from rare earth elements was studied on sulphonic ion exchangers of various types. Ammonium acetate, ammonium salicylate, aliphatic amine acetates, metaphosphoric acid and others were used as eluants. The most effective separation was attained by using metaphosphoric acid as eluant.

  8. Multi-component transport in polymers: hydrocarbon / hydrogen separation by reverse selectivity membrane; Transport multi-composants dans les polymeres: separation hydrocarbures / hydrogene par membrane a selectivite inverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauviel, G.

    2003-12-15

    Hydrogen separation by reverse selectivity membranes is investigated. The first goal is to develop materials showing an increased selectivity. Silicone membranes loaded with inorganic fillers have been prepared, but the expected enhancement is not observed. The second goal is to model the multi- component transport through rubbers. Indeed the permeability model is not able to predict correctly permeation when a vapour is present. Thus many phenomena have to be considered: diffusional inter-dependency, sorption synergy, membrane swelling and drag effect. The dependence of diffusivities with the local composition is modelled according to free-volume theory. The model resolution allows to predict the permeation flow-rates of mixed species from their pure sorption and diffusion data. For the systems under consideration, the diffusional inter-dependency is shown to be preponderant. Besides, sorption synergy importance is pointed out, whereas it is most often neglected. (author)

  9. Selective intake of down-pit water and separating potable water from water-bearing seams at the Rydultowy mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiolik, H; Sikora, A; Murek, R

    1987-06-01

    Discusses problems of pit water selection. Describes the method of water intake, down-pit transport, pumping the separated potable water and its treatment at the Rydultowy mine. Stresses the usefulness of pit water selection in view of the existing shortage of potable water. Geologic and mining conditions at the mine are described along with the amount of water influx into the mine. Advantages arising from mine water utilization are outlined.

  10. Isobar Separation in a Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer by Mass-Selective Re-Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Timo; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Lippert, Wayne; Lang, Johannes; Yavor, Mikhail I.; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    A novel method for (ultra-)high-resolution spatial mass separation in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is presented. Ions are injected into a time-of-flight analyzer from a radio frequency (rf) trap, dispersed in time-of-flight according to their mass-to-charge ratios and then re-trapped dynamically in the same rf trap. This re-trapping technique is highly mass-selective and after sufficiently long flight times can provide even isobaric separation. A theoretical treatment of the method is presented and the conditions for optimum performance of the method are derived. The method has been implemented in a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer and mass separation powers (FWHM) in excess of 70,000, and re-trapping efficiencies of up to 35% have been obtained for the protonated molecular ion of caffeine. The isobars glutamine and lysine (relative mass difference of 1/4000) have been separated after a flight time of 0.2 ms only. Higher mass separation powers can be achieved using longer flight times. The method will have important applications, including isobar separation in nuclear physics and (ultra-)high-resolution precursor ion selection in multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Gas-Liquid Separator design of SWRPRS in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung; Lee, Tae-ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There is the Sodium-Water Reaction Pressure Relief System (SWRPRS) in PGSFR to prevent the Sodium- Water Reaction (SWR) due to the break of the steam generator tube. The piping to atmosphere includes several components such as gasliquid separator, backpressure rupture disk, and hydrogen igniter. Among these components, gas-liquid separator separates the liquid sodium which is included in gas SWR products not to react sodium and air. In this study, the size of gas-liquid separator, which is based on the hydrogen volume which is exhausted in the sodium dump tank, is determined. To determine the gas-liquid separator for the separation of gas and sodium particle dumped the SDT, Stairmand's model which has high performance among standard cyclone separator models is selected. The body diameter is determined, and other dimensions are determined due to the ratio about the body diameter. Shepherd and Lapple's model is selected as the pressure drop calculation model considering the conservation.

  12. Seleção de plantas com potencial para fitorremediação de solos contaminados com o herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium Plant selection with potential for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with trifloxysulfuron sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar plantas tolerantes ao trifloxysulfuron sodium, visando utilizá-las em programas de fitorremediação. Foram avaliadas dez espécies: Medicago sativa, Avena strigosa, Crotalaria juncea, Canavalia ensiformis, Helianthus annus, Dolichus lablab, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Raphanus sativus e Eleusine indica. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas, sendo utilizadas três repetições. O fator aplicado na parcela principal foram as doses de trifloxysulfuron sodium (0,00; 3,75; 7,50; e 15,00 g ha-1 e, na subparcela, as épocas de avaliação [15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a semeadura (DAS]. Foram avaliados a altura de plantas, os sintomas de toxicidade e, aos 60 DAS, também a biomassa seca da parte aérea, das raízes e total das plantas. Verificou-se que todas as espécies sobreviveram à presença do trifloxysulfuron sodium no solo, mesmo quando aplicado em dose duas vezes maior que a recomendada (15,00 g ha-1, porém M. deeringiana, D. lablab, C. juncea e S. guianenesis foram as espécies que apresentaram maior tolerância ao herbicida, indicando potencial para uso em programas de fitorremediação de trifloxysulfuron sodium em solos.This study aimed to identify trifloxysulfuron sodium-selective plants to be used in phytoremediation programs for this herbicide in soil. Ten plants were evaluated: Medicago sativa, Avena strigosa, Crotalaria juncea, Canavalia ensiformis, Helianthus annus, Dolichus lablab, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Raphanus sativus and Eleusine indica. A randomized block design with split-plots and three replications was used, with the plots being the doses of trifloxysulfuron sodium (0.00; 3.75; 7.50; and 15.00 g ha-1 and the splitplots the evaluation times [15, 30, 45, and 60 days after sowing (DAS]. Plant height and phytotoxicity visual symptoms were evaluated, and, at 60 DAS, dry biomass yield was recorded

  13. Battery Separator Membrane Having a Selectable Thermal Shut-Down Temperature, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II proposal to NASA requests $596,750.96 support for Policell Technologies, Inc. to develop a series of separator...

  14. A Simple Thin Layer Chromatography Method for Separation of Selected Natural Steroid Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowska, J.; Rudnicka-Litka, K.; Ciura, K.; Pikul, P.; Piotrowicz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatographic properties of seven steroids: estrogens (β-estradiol and estrone), androgens (testosterone, methyltestosterone, trans-androsterone), progesterone and cholesterol have been studied by planar chromatography with usage of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plates. Normal, reversed and cyano-bonded silica stationary phases were tested with five binary mobile phases (acetonitrile-water, acetonitrile-DMSO, acetonitrile-methanol, acetone-petroleum ether, acetone-water) in which the concentration of organic modifier varied from 0 to 100 % (v/v). This study reports the optimization of steroid hormones separation. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on calculated molecular descriptors quantitatively differentiating solutes was performed in order to investigate the similarity and dissimilarity between tested compounds. The separation abilities of mobile and stationary phases were compared based on separation factor α. Chromatographic retention data and possible retention mechanisms also were discussed. (author)

  15. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated alumina modified with a new Schiff's base as a uranyl ion selective adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashkhourian, J., E-mail: tashkhourian@susc.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shiraz University, 71454 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi Abdoluosofi, L.; Pakniat, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Montazerozohori, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yasouj University, Yasouj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    A simple and selective method was used for the preconcentration and determination of uranium(VI) by solid-phase extraction (SPE). In this method, a column of alumina modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a new Schiff's base ligand was prepared for the preconcentration of trace uranyl(VI) from water samples. The uranium(VI) was completely eluted with HCl 2 M and determined by a spectrophotometeric method with Arsenazo(III). The preconcentration steps were studied with regard to experimental parameters such as amount of extractant, type, volume and concentration of eluent, pH, flow rate of sample source and tolerance limit of diverse ions on the recovery of uranyl ion. A preconcentration factor more than 200 was achieved and the average recovery of uranyl(VI) was 99.5%. The relative standard deviation was 1.1% for 10 replicate determinations of uranyl(VI) ion in a solution with a concentration of 5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. This method was successfully used for the determination of spiked uranium in natural water samples.

  16. Postsynthesis Modification of a Metallosalen-Containing Metal-Organic Framework for Selective Th(IV)/Ln(III) Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang-Guang; Qiu, Sen; Chen, Xiuting; Gong, Yu; Sun, Xiaoqi

    2017-10-16

    An uncoordinated salen-containing metal-organic framework (MOF) obtained through postsynthesis removal of Mn(III) ions from a metallosalen-containing MOF material has been used for selective separation of Th(IV) ion from Ln(III) ions in methanol solutions for the first time. This material exhibited an adsorption capacity of 46.345 mg of Th/g. The separation factors (β) of Th(IV)/La(III), Th(IV)/Eu(III), and Th(IV)/Lu(III) were 10.7, 16.4, and 10.3, respectively.

  17. Chemical-Reaction-Controlled Phase Separated Drops: Formation, Size Selection, and Coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Jean David; Lee, Chiu Fan

    2018-02-01

    Phase separation under nonequilibrium conditions is exploited by biological cells to organize their cytoplasm but remains poorly understood as a physical phenomenon. Here, we study a ternary fluid model in which phase-separating molecules can be converted into soluble molecules, and vice versa, via chemical reactions. We elucidate using analytical and simulation methods how drop size, formation, and coarsening can be controlled by the chemical reaction rates, and categorize the qualitative behavior of the system into distinct regimes. Ostwald ripening arrest occurs above critical reaction rates, demonstrating that this transition belongs entirely to the nonequilibrium regime. Our model is a minimal representation of the cell cytoplasm.

  18. Separating selection by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in Gymnadenia conopsea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Wimmergren, Carolina; Agren, Jon

    2012-08-01

    Most plants attract multiple flower visitors that may vary widely in their effectiveness as pollinators. Floral evolution is expected to reflect interactions with the most important pollinators, but few studies have quantified the contribution of different pollinators to current selection on floral traits. To compare selection mediated by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in the rewarding orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the environment by conducting supplemental hand-pollinations and selective pollinator exclusions in two populations in central Norway. In both populations, the exclusion of diurnal pollinators significantly reduced seed production compared to open pollination, whereas the exclusion of nocturnal pollinators did not. There was significant selection on traits expected to influence pollinator attraction and pollination efficiency in both the diurnal and nocturnal pollination treatment. The relative strength of selection among plants exposed to diurnal and nocturnal visitors varied among traits and populations, but the direction of selection was consistent. The results suggest that diurnal pollinators are more important than nocturnal pollinators for seed production in the study populations, but that both categories contribute to selection on floral morphology. The study illustrates how experimental manipulations can link specific categories of pollinators to observed selection on floral traits, and thus improve our understanding of how species interactions shape patterns of selection.

  19. Study the Properties of Sodium Silicate Composite as a Barrier Separating Between the Internal Oil Distillation Towers and Chemical Fumes of Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سلام حسين علي

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of surface hardness, wear resistance, adhesion strength, electrochemical corrosion resistance and thermal conductivity of coatings composed from sodium silicate was prepared using graphite micro-size particles and carbon nano particles as fillers respectively of concentration of (1-5%, for the purpose of covering and protecting the oil distillation towers. The results showed that the sodium silicate coating reinforced with carbon nano-powder has higher resistance to stitches, mechanical wear, adhesive and thermal conductivity than graphite/sodium silicate composite especially when the ratio 5% and 1%, the electrochemical corrosion test confirmed that the coating process of stainless steel 304 lead to increasing the corrosion resistance, where the reinforcing of sodium silicate lead to a significant improvement in the corrosion resistance, the corrosion resistance behavior change depending on the type of reinforcement material, this is consistent with the field test results.

  20. ASIC and ENaC type sodium channels: conformational states and the structures of the ion selectivity filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2017-02-01

    The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are members of a superfamily of channels that play critical roles in mechanosensation, chemosensation, nociception, and regulation of blood volume and pressure. These channels look and function like a tripartite funnel that directs the flow of Na + ions into the cytoplasm via the channel pore in the membrane. The subunits that form these channels share a common structure with two transmembrane segments (TM1 and TM2) and a large extracellular part. In most vertebrates, there are five paralogous genes that code for ASICs (ASIC1-ASIC5), and four for ENaC subunits alpha, beta, gamma, and delta (α, β, γ, and δ). While ASICs can form functional channels as a homo- or heterotrimer, ENaC functions as an obligate heterotrimer composed of α-β-γ or β-γ-δ subunits. The structure of ASIC has been determined in several conformations, including desensitized and open states. This review presents a comparison of the structures of these states using easy-to-understand molecular models of the full complex, the central tunnel that includes an outer vestibule, the channel pore, and ion selectivity filter. The differences in the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of the states are summarized to pinpoint the conformational changes responsible for channel opening. Results of site-directed mutagenesis studies of ENaC subunits are examined in light of ASIC1 models. Based on these comparisons, a molecular model for the selectivity filter of ENaC is built by in silico mutagenesis of an ASIC1 structure. These models suggest that Na + ions pass through the filter in a hydrated state. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. Optimization of temperature-programmed GC separations. II. Off-line simplex optimization and column selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, H.M.J.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Sandra, P; Bertsch, W.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a method is described which allows off-line optimization of temperature programmed GC separations. Recently, we described a new numerical method to predict off-line retention times and peak widths of a mixture containing components with known identities in capillary GC. In the present

  2. The Solvent Selection framework: solvents for organic synthesis, separation processes and ionic-organic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sansonetti, Sascha; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic integrated framework for solvent selection and solvent design. The framework is divided into several modules, which can tackle specific problems in various solvent-based applications. In particular, three modules corresponding to the following solvent selection pr...

  3. High-capacity, selective solid sequestrants for innovative chemical separation: Inorganic ion exchange approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of this task is to develop high-capacity, selective solid inorganic ion exchangers for the recovery of cesium and strontium from nuclear alkaline and acid wastes. To achieve this goal, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) is collaborating with industry and university participants to develop high capacity, selective, solid ion exchangers for the removal of specific contaminants from nuclear waste streams

  4. Novel Protic Ionic Liquid Composite Membranes with Fast and Selective Gas Transport Nanochannels for Ethylene/Ethane Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Haozhen; Jiang, Bin; Xiao, Xiaoming; Xu, Mi; Tantai, Xiaowei; Wang, Baoyu; Sun, Yongli; Zhang, Luhong

    2018-04-25

    Protic ionic liquids (PILs) were utilized for the fabrication of composite membranes containing silver salt as the C 2 H 4 transport carrier to perform C 2 H 4 /C 2 H 6 separation for the first time. The intrinsic nanostructures of PILs were adopted to construct fast and selective C 2 H 4 transport nanochannels. The investigation of structure-performance relationships of composite membranes suggested that transport nanochannels (polar domains of PILs) could be tuned by the sizes of cations, which greatly manipulated activity of the carrier and determined the separation performances of membranes. The role of different carriers in the facilitated transport was studied, which revealed that the PILs were good solvents for dissolution and activation of the carrier due to their hydrogen bond networks and waterlike properties. The operating conditions of separation process were investigated systemically and optimized, confirming C 2 H 4 /C 2 H 6 selectivity was enhanced with the increase of silver salt concentration, the flow rate of sweep gas, and the feed ratio of C 2 H 4 to C 2 H 6 , as well as the decrease of the transmembrane pressure and operating temperature. Furthermore, the composite membranes exhibited long-term stability and obtained very competitive separation performances compared with other results. In summary, PIL composite membranes, which possess good long-term stability, high C 2 H 4 /C 2 H 6 selectivity, and excellent C 2 H 4 permeability, may have a good perspective in industrial C 2 H 4 /C 2 H 6 separation.

  5. A novel method for selective separation of {sup 111}In from impurities by ion exchange chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavari, R.; Khanachi, A.R.; Ghannad Maragheh, M.; Bagheri, G. [Jaber Ibn-e Hayan Research Laboratories, A.E.O.I., Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    {sup 111}In is one of the most important cyclotron-produced radionuclides that is prepared from nuclear reactions like Cd (p,xn){sup 111}In and Cd (d,xn) {sup 111}In. It is used in various branches of medicine such as lymphoscintigraphy and cisternography. Several methods have been reported in the literature for the separation of carrier-free {sup 111}In from irradiated cadmium matrix. But there has not been a sufficiently fast method for this purpose until recently. In this work, a new method has been developed for the separation of {sup 111}In from a cadmium target by using Dowex 50W-X8 as an ion exchanger. (orig.)

  6. Highly selective Ba2+ separations with acyclic, lipophilic di-[N-(X)sulfonyl carbamoyl] polyethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshani, Sadik; Chun, Sangki; Amiri-Eliasi, Bijan; Bartsch, Richard A

    2005-01-14

    New lipophilic acyclic polyethers with two N-(X)sulfonyl carbamoyl groups of "tunable" acidity exhibit remarkable selectivity for Ba2+ over other alkaline earth metal ions in competitive solvent extraction and transport across polymer inclusion membranes.

  7. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujolar, J.M.; Jacobsen, M.W.; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae...... into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. Results: We used two sets...... of markers to test for selection: first, we genotyped individuals using a panel of 80 coding-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed in American eel; second, we investigated selection at the genome level using a total of 153,423 RAD-sequencing generated SNPs widely distributed across the genome...

  8. Selected Hanford reactor and separations operating data for 1960--1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gydesen, S.P.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this letter report is to reconstruct from available information that data which can be used to develop daily reactor operating history for 1960--1964. The information needed for source team calculations (as determined by the Source Terms Task Leader) were extracted and included in this report. The data on the amount of uranium dissolved by the separations plants (expressed both as tons and as MW) is also included in this compilation.

  9. Enrichment of Biologically Active Compounds from Selected Plants Using Adsorptive Bubble Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    In this research, foam fractionation a method belonging to the Adsorptive Bubble Separation Methods, was employed to enrich the following active principles contained in medically valuable plants: Faradiol esters from Calendula officinalis, catechins from Camellia sinensis, tryptanthrin from Isatis Tinctoria and cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa. The enrichment methods have been developed in the batch mode for these principles aqueous dilute solutions, based on their physicochemical nature and...

  10. Selected Hanford reactor and separations operating data for 1960--1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gydesen, S.P.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this letter report is to reconstruct from available information that data which can be used to develop daily reactor operating history for 1960--1964. The information needed for source team calculations (as determined by the Source Terms Task Leader) were extracted and included in this report. The data on the amount of uranium dissolved by the separations plants (expressed both as tons and as MW) is also included in this compilation

  11. Seletividade de amonio-glufosinate isolado e em mistura com pyrithiobac-sodium em algodoeiro transgênico LL® Selectivity of ammonium-glufosinate applied alone or in mixture with pyrithiobac sodium in transgenic LL® cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B.P. Braz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a recente introdução no Brasil de variedades transgênicas de algodoeiro que apresentam resistência ao amonio-glufosinate (LL®, há escassez de informações tanto a respeito da seletividade de reaplicações desse herbicida, quanto no que se refere a misturas com outros herbicidas. Objetivou-se no presente trabalho avaliar a seletividade de aplicações sequenciais de amonio-glufosinate isolado e em associação com pyrithiobac-sodium em algodão transgênico LL®. Dessa forma, foi instalado um experimento em delineamento de blocos casualizados em arranjo fatorial (3x3+1, empregando-se oito repetições. O primeiro fator correspondeu à aplicação dos tratamentos amonio-glufosinate (500 g ha-1 e amonio-glufosinate + pyrithiobac-sodium (500 + 42 g ha-1 e 500 + 56 g ha-1. O segundo fator foi o número de aplicações sequenciais em pós-emergência do algodoeiro (uma, duas ou três. O tratamento adicional foi composto por testemunha sem aplicação de herbicida. A associação do pyrithiobac-sodium ao amonio-glufosinate causou maiores níveis de fitointoxicação inicial, embora não tenham havido mais sintomas duas semanas após as aplicações. A qualidade de fibra do algodoeiro não foi influenciada por nenhum dos tratamentos herbicidas. O amonio-glufosinate isolado foi seletivo para o algodão LL® em até três aplicações em pós-emergência. O algodoeiro apresentou ainda tolerância a uma aplicação da mistura de amonio-glufosinate + pyrithiobac-sodium, e não se observou qualquer efeito negativo sobre a produtividade de algodão em caroço.Due to the recent introduction of transgenic cotton varities with resistance to ammonium-glufosinate (LL® in Brazil, there is a lack of information related both to the selectivity of sequential reapplications of ammonium-glufosinate and to tank mixture with other herbicides. This work aimed to evaluate the selectivity of sequential applications of ammonium-glufosinate isolated or in

  12. Selective Adsorption and Separation of Organic Dyes with Spherical Polyelectrolyte Brushes and Compressed Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Yu, Zhenchuan; Wang, Lei; Shen, Qizhe; Hou, Xiaoyan; Guo, Xuhong; Wang, Junwei; Zhu, Xuedong; Yao, Yuan

    2017-10-04

    Dye-containing wastewater has caused serious environmental pollution. Herein, rationally designed spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPBs) with cationic charges, polystyrene-poly(2-aminoethylmethacrylate hydrochloride) (PS-PAEMH) as the absorbent, and compressed carbon dioxide as the antisolvent are proposed for the separation of the anionic dye eosin Y (EY) from a solution of mixed dyes. The adsorption behavior of EY onto PS-PAEMH was highly dependent on CO 2 pressure, contact time, and initial concentration. The maximum adsorption capacity of PS-PAEMH was 335.20 mg g -1 . FTIR and UV/Vis measurements proved that the electrostatic interactions between EY and PS-PAEMH played an important role in the absorbance process. The adsorption process fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model very well. The combined dye and polymer brush could be easily separated through ion exchange by adding an aqueous solution of NaCl. Recovered PS-PAEMH retained a high adsorption capacity even after ten cycles of regeneration. This method provides a simple and effective way to separate ionic materials for environmental engineering. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ethane selective IRMOF-8 and its significance in ethane-ethylene separation by adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, João; Pinto, Moisés L; Saini, Vipin K

    2014-08-13

    The separation of ethylene from ethane is one of the most energy-intensive single distillations practiced. This separation could be alternatively made by an adsorption process if the adsorbent would preferentially adsorb ethane over ethylene. Materials that exhibit this feature are scarce. Here, we report the case of a metal-organic framework, the IRMOF-8, for which the adsorption isotherms of ethane and ethylene were measured at 298 and 318 K up to pressures of 1000 kPa. Separation of ethane/ethylene mixtures was achieved in flow experiments using a IRMOF-8 filled column. The interaction of gas molecules with the surface of IRMOF-8 was explored using density functional theory (DFT) methods. We show both experimentally and computationally that, as a result of the difference in the interaction energies of ethane and ethylene in IRMOF-8, this material presents the preferential adsorption of ethane over ethylene. The results obtained in this study suggest that MOFs with ligands exhibiting high aromaticity character are prone to adsorb ethane preferably over ethylene.

  14. Investigation of thermal treatment on selective separation of post consumer plastics prior to froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Ali; Poyraz, M Ibrahim; Kangal, Olgac; Burat, Firat

    2013-09-01

    Plastics have become the widely used materials because of their advantages, such as cheapness, endurance, lightness, and hygiene. However, they cause waste and soil pollution and they do not easily decompose. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. Depending on their surface characteristics, these plastics can be separated from each other by flotation method which is useful mineral processing technique with its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this study is to investigate the flotation characteristics of PET and PVC and determine the effect of plasticizer reagents on efficient plastic separation. For that purpose, various parameters such as pH, plasticizer concentration, plasticizer type, conditioning temperature and thermal conditioning were investigated. As a result, PET particles were floated with 95.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency while PVC particles were obtained with 98.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Constructing robust and highly-selective hydrogel membranes by bioadhesion-inspired method for CO 2 separation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yingzhen

    2018-06-01

    Water-swollen hydrogel membranes are good candidates for CO2 separations due to the favorable solubility of CO2 in water. However, the excessive amount of water often causes the poor mechanical property and low selectivity. Herein, we propose a bioadhesion-inspired method to construct robust and high-performance CO2 separation membranes via in situ generation of polydopamine (PDA) nanoaggregates within poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. PDA nanoaggregates entangled with PVA chains and formed hydrogen bonding with hydroxyl groups from PVA chains. Physical cross-linking occurred between PVA chains and PDA nanoaggregates. Compared with the PVA membrane, the PVA-PDA hybrid membrane with the dopamine content of 0.5mol% exhibited a 1.7-fold increase in tensile strength and a 2.2-fold increase in the tensile modulus. The membranes were used for CO2/CH4 separation. The physical cross-linking resulted in a PVA chain rigidification region around PDA nanoaggregates, which hindered the penetration of larger-size gas molecules and thus enhancing the CO2/CH4 selectivity. Moreover, the abundant amine groups from PDA nanoaggregates could facilitate CO2 transport. The optimized hybrid hydrogel membrane exhibited CO2/CH4 selectivity of 43.2, which was 43.85% higher than that of the PVA membrane. The bioadhesion-inspired method opens up new opportunities to exploit the potential application of hydrogel membranes.

  16. Practically Efficient Blind Speech Separation Using Frequency Band Selection Based on Magnitude Squared Coherence and a Small Dodecahedral Microphone Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunobu Kondo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small agglomerative microphone array systems have been proposed for use with speech communication and recognition systems. Blind source separation methods based on frequency domain independent component analysis have shown significant separation performance, and the microphone arrays are small enough to make them portable. However, the level of computational complexity involved is very high because the conventional signal collection and processing method uses 60 microphones. In this paper, we propose a band selection method based on magnitude squared coherence. Frequency bands are selected based on the spatial and geometric characteristics of the microphone array device which is strongly related to the dodecahedral shape, and the selected bands are nonuniformly spaced. The estimated reduction in the computational complexity is 90% with a 68% reduction in the number of frequency bands. Separation performance achieved during our experimental evaluation was 7.45 (dB (signal-to-noise ratio and 2.30 (dB (cepstral distortion. These results show improvement in performance compared to the use of uniformly spaced frequency band.

  17. The selection of a matrix for the recovery of uranium by wet high-intensity magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.

    1985-01-01

    The proper choice of a suitable matrix for high-intensity magnetic separation is of the utmost importance, since the geometry and size of the matrix play decisive roles in the achievement of optimum separation conditions. In relatively simple filtration applications, the matrix must offer a high efficiency of collision with suspended particles, a high probability of retention of intercepted particles, and high loading capacity. Also, it must be easily cleaned. The results obtained by the use of theoretical models of magnetic separation fail to agree with the experimental results for basic parameters like the ratio of particle size to matrix size, the length of the matrix, and the magnetic properties of the matrix material. Preconceived ideas about the matrix often lead to the erroneous choice of a matrix, and hence to its unsatisfactory performance during magnetic separation. The potential value of high-intensity magnetic separation as applied to the recovery of uranium and gold from leach residues and in association with the development of a large-scale magnetic separator to be used for the same purpose led to the present investigation in which a wide spectrum of matrix shapes and sizes were tested. It was found that the optimum recovery and selectivity of separation are obtained at a ratio of particle size to matrix-element size ranging from 200 to 300. The use of these matrices also results in a low degree of mechanical entrapment, particularly of coarser particles, for which straining plays a significant role for fine matrices. It was also found that the magnetization of a matrix plays a minor role, contrary to the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the effects of matrix height, matrix loading, and scalping of the pulp by paramagnetic matrices were evaluated for various types of matrices

  18. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, J M; Jacobsen, M W; Bekkevold, D; Lobón-Cervià, J; Jónsson, B; Bernatchez, L; Hansen, M M

    2015-08-13

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. We used two sets of markers to test for selection: first, we genotyped individuals using a panel of 80 coding-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed in American eel; second, we investigated selection at the genome level using a total of 153,423 RAD-sequencing generated SNPs widely distributed across the genome. Using the RAD approach, outlier tests identified a total of 2413 (1.57%) potentially selected SNPs. Functional annotation analysis identified signal transduction pathways as the most over-represented group of genes, including MAPK/Erk signalling, calcium signalling and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) signalling. Many of the over-represented pathways were related to growth, while others could result from the different conditions that eels inhabit during their life cycle. The observation of different genes and gene pathways under selection when comparing glass eels vs. silver eels supports the adaptive decoupling hypothesis for the benefits of metamorphosis. Partitioning the life cycle into discrete morphological phases may be overall beneficial since it allows the different life stages to respond independently to their unique selection pressures. This might translate into a more effective use of food and niche resources and/or performance of phase-specific tasks (e.g. feeding in the case of glass eels, migrating and reproducing in the case of silver eels).

  19. Interactions between poly(acrylic acid) and sodium dodecyl sulfate: isothermal titration calorimetric and surfactant ion-selective electrode studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Tam, K C

    2005-03-24

    Interaction between a monodispersed poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (M(W) = 5670 g/mol, M(w)/M(n) = 1.02) with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), ion-selective electrode (ISE), and dynamic light scattering measurements. Contrary to previous studies, we report for the first time evidence of interaction between SDS and PAA when the degree of neutralization (alpha) of PAA is lower than 0.2. Hydrocarbon chains of SDS cooperatively bind to apolar segments of PAA driven by hydrophobic interaction. The interaction is both enthalpy and entropy favored (deltaH is negative but deltaS is positive). In 0.05 wt % PAA solution, the SDS concentration corresponding to the onset of binding (i.e., CAC) is approximately 2.4 mM and the saturation concentration (i.e., C(S)) is approximately 13.3 mM when alpha = 0. When PAA was neutralized and ionized, the binding was hindered by the enhanced electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged SDS and PAA chains and improved solubility of the polymer. With increasing alpha to 0.2, CAC increases to approximately 6.2 mM, C(S) drops to 8.6 mM, and the interaction is significantly weakened where the amount of bound SDS on PAA is reduced considerably. The values of CAC and C(S) derived from different techniques are in good agreement. The binding results in the formation of mixed micelles on apolar PAA coils, which then expands and dissociates into single PAA chains. The majority of unneutralized PAA molecules exist as single polymer chains stabilized by bound SDS micelles in solution after the saturation concentration.

  20. Effects of sodium methyldithiocarbamate on selected parameters of innate immunity and clearance of bacteria in a mouse model of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Pruett, Stephen B

    2015-10-15

    Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD), the third most widely used conventional pesticide in the United States, has been reported to inhibit several parameters associated with inflammation and to decrease resistance to infection. In a previous study, survival time was markedly decreased when mice were treated orally with SMD shortly before challenge with a high dose of Escherichia coli (E. coli) that was lethal to most of the control mice. In the present study, we evaluated selected parameters of the innate immune system using a lower challenge dose of E. coli, to determine which (if any) of these parameters reflected continued changes through 24h. Bacterial clearance from the peritoneal cavity, production of chemokines and cytokines, and body temperature were measured. All these parameters were reduced by SMD up to 12h after bacterial challenge, but the concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased. Even so, mice in the control and SMD-treated groups cleared most bacteria by 24h. Other parameters (cytokine concentrations and body temperature) were also normal or near normal by 24h. The same dosage of SMD administered intranasally also did not significantly decrease survival. Hypothermia from 16 to 28 h correlated with lethal outcome, but SMD significantly increased hypothermia only at 2 and 4h after challenge. In spite of substantial early inhibition by SMD of parameters known to be important for resistance to infection, bacterial clearance and survival were not altered, suggesting immunological reserve and/or rapid recovery after transient effects of SMD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of a closed loop nuclear fuel cycle requires the utilization of Pu-containing MOX fuels with the important side effect of increased production of the transplutonium actinides, most importantly isotopes of Am and Cm. Because the presence of these isotopes significantly impacts the long-term radiotoxicity of high level waste, it is important that effective methods for their isolation and/or transmutation be developed. Furthermore, since transmutation is most efficiently done in the absence of lanthanide fission products (high yield species with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections) it is important to have efficient procedures for the mutual separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanides. The chemistries of these elements are nearly identical, differing only in the slightly stronger strength of interaction of trivalent actinides with ligand donor atoms softer than O (N, Cl-, S). Research being conducted around the world has led to the development of new reagents and processes with considerable potential for this task. However, pilot scale testing of these reagents and processes has demonstrated the susceptibility of the new classes of reagents to radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. In this project, separations of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides have been investigated in studies of (1) the extraction and chemical stability properties of a class of soft-donor extractants that are adapted from water-soluble analogs, (2) the application of water soluble soft-donor complexing agents in tandem with conventional extractant molecules emphasizing fundamental studies of the TALSPEAK Process. This research was conducted principally in radiochemistry laboratories at Washington State University. Collaborators at the Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have contributed their unique facilities and capabilities, and have supported student internships at PNNL to broaden their

  2. Effect of additives on eremomycin sorbent selectivity in separation of salbutamol enantiomers using supercritical fluid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiy, O. I.; Kayda, A. S.; Usovich, O. I.; Parenago, O. O.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    A regime is found in which chiral stationary phase based on macrocyclic glycopeptide eremomycin allows separation of salbutamol sulfate enantiomers in supercritical fluid chromatography. Enantioseparation occurs only when two dynamic modifiers are used simultaneously: isopropylamin + trifluoroacetic acid or isopropylamin + ammonium acetate. Amine molar concentration in mobile phase has to be higher than acid molar concentration, otherwise enantiomers coelute. We suppose that with amine excess a mechanism of enantiorecognition is realized which involves ionic sorbent-sorbate interactions. Such mechanism is well-known for glycopeptide chiral selectors in liquid chromatography, but for supercritical fluid chromatography it is reported for the first time.

  3. Natural Gamma Emitters after a Selective Chemical Separation of a TENORM residue: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves de Freitas, Antonio; Abrao, Alcidio; Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2008-01-01

    An analytical procedure was established in order to obtain selective fractions containing radium isotopes ( 228 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th), and rare earths from RETOTER (REsiduo de TOrio e TErras Raras), a solid residue rich in rare earth elements, thorium isotopes and small amount of natural uranium generated from the operation of a thorium pilot plant for purification and production of pure thorium nitrate at IPEN -CNEN/SP. The paper presents preliminary results of 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 238 U, 210 Pb, and 40 K concentrations in the selective fractions and total residue determined by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, considering radioactive equilibrium of the samples

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and application of Zn(NH 3)(CO3) for selective adsorptive separation of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazeni, Naasser

    This study explores the potential of Zn(NH3)(CO3) for selective CO2 separation. It develops a novel, highly controllable, single-pot synthesis approach based on urea hydrolysis and solvothermal aging to increase the feasibility of synthesizing Zn(NH3)(CO3), determines the structure of Zn(NH3)(CO3) in detail through single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, and performs adsorption analyses for the compound using CO2, N 2, H2, O2, and CH4 as adsorptives. Through adsorptive characterization, a systematic adsorbent selection screening is performed to assess the potential application of Zn(NH3)(CO 3) for adsorptive separation of CO2 from an upstream gas mixture of power generation, hydrogen production, and natural gas industries. Structural analysis shows Zn(NH3)(CO3) to have an inorganic helical framework that consists of a small helix of (ZnOCO) 2 and a large helix of (ZnOCO)4 with two ammines (NH 3) pendant from every other zinc. In terms of adsorption capacity and CO2 selectivity, Zn(NH3)(CO3) adsorbed 0.550 mmole/g CO2 at 293 K and 4500 mmHg, but only 0.047 mmole/g N 2, 0.084 mmole/g H2, 0.207 mmole/g 02, and 0.060 mmole/g CH4 at the same temperature and pressure. This behavior demonstrates considerable equilibrium selectivities - 36, 31, 63, and 11 - for separating CO2 from CH4, CO2 from H 2, CO2 from N2, and CO2 from 02, respectively. During adsorption, the pendant ammines act as the gates of check-valves: applied pressure opens the gates for adsorption; and during desorption, the gates are closed, trapping the adsorbates, until a reduction of pressure to near-atmospheric levels. Therefore, Zn(NH3)(CO3) exhibits low-pressure H3 or H4 hysteresis, indicating that the Zn(NH3)(CO3) framework can achieve gas storage at near-atmospheric pressures. Additionally, the compound proves structurally stable, with an adsorption decrease of 0.8% after 20 adsorption/desorption cycles - a factor that, considered with the other characteristics of Zn

  5. An automated system for selective fission product separations; decays of 113-115Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Gehrke, R.J.; McIsaac, L.D.; Baker, J.D.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer controlled radiochemical separation system has been developed for the isolation and study of fission products with half-lives of approx. >= 10 s. The system is based upon solvent extraction with three centrifugal contactors coupled in series, which provides both rapid and highly efficient separations with large decontamination factors. This automated system was utilized to study the radioactive decays of 113-115 Pd via solvent extraction of the Pd-dimethylglyoxime complex from 252 Cf fission products. As a result of this effort, γ-rays associated with the decay of approx. equal to 90-s sup(113,113m)Pd, 149-s 114 Pd and 47-s 115 Pd have been identified. The isotopic assignments to each of these Pd radioactivities have been confirmed from observation of the growth and decay curves of their respective Ag daughters. In addition, previously unreported Ag γ-rays have been assigned; one to the decay of 69-s 113 Ag, and two to the decay of 19-s 115 Ag. (orig.)

  6. Proposals for in-service inspection and monitoring of selected components located within or part of the primary containment of sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Design and operational experience of CEGB gas cooled reactors and certain overseas reactor plant is reviewed in relation to in-service inspection and monitoring capabilities. Design guidelines and preliminary proposals are given for in-service inspection and monitoring of selected components located within or part of the primary containment of sodium cooled fast reactors. Specific comments are made on the items of further design and development work believed to be necessary

  7. Sustained Selective Attention Skills of Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Separate Attentional Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the performance of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers on sustained selective attention tasks. Method: This study included 23 children diagnosed with SLI and 23 TD children matched for age, gender, and maternal education level.…

  8. Magnetically separable polymer (Mag-MIP) for selective analysis of biotin in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuriaga-Sánchez, Rosario Josefina; Khan, Sabir; Wong, Ademar; Picasso, Gino; Pividori, Maria Isabel; Sotomayor, Maria Del Pilar Taboada

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an efficient method for the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles modified with molecularly imprinted polymers (Mag-MIP) through core-shell method for the determination of biotin in milk food samples. The functional monomer acrylic acid was selected from molecular modeling, EGDMA was used as cross-linking monomer and AIBN as radical initiator. The Mag-MIP and Mag-NIP were characterized by FTIR, magnetic hysteresis, XRD, SEM and N2-sorption measurements. The capacity of Mag-MIP for biotin adsorption, its kinetics and selectivity were studied in detail. The adsorption data was well described by Freundlich isotherm model with adsorption equilibrium constant (KF) of 1.46 mL g(-1). The selectivity experiments revealed that prepared Mag-MIP had higher selectivity toward biotin compared to other molecules with different chemical structure. The material was successfully applied for the determination of biotin in diverse milk samples using HPLC for quantification of the analyte, obtaining the mean value of 87.4% recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cs separation from nitric acid solutions of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, K.; Pieronczyk, W.; Strnad, J.; Feldmaier, F.

    1989-01-01

    It was the objective of this study to selectively separate active caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from acid radioactive waste solutions (especially MAW and HAWC). The following 'strategy' was designed for a separation process: synthesis of reagents which are acid-resistant and selective for caesium; precipitation of Cs + and separation of the precipitates by filtration or centrifugation or precipitation of Cs + and separation of the precipitates by flotation; caesium separation by liquid-liquid extraction. As precipitating agents, sodium tetraphenylborate (kalignost) and several of its fluorine derivatives were examined. (orig./RB) [de

  10. Selection of Shared and Neoantigen-Reactive T Cells for Adoptive Cell Therapy Based on CD137 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Seliktar-Ofir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive cell therapy (ACT of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL is an effective immunotherapy for patients with solid tumors, yielding objective response rates of around 40% in refractory patients with metastatic melanoma. Most clinical centers utilize bulk, randomly isolated TIL from the tumor tissue for ex vivo expansion and infusion. Only a minor fraction of the administered T cells recognizes tumor antigens, such as shared and mutation-derived neoantigens, and consequently eliminates the tumor. Thus, there are many ongoing effects to identify and select tumor-specific TIL for therapy; however, those approaches are very costly and require months, which is unreasonable for most metastatic patients. CD137 (4-1BB has been identified as a co-stimulatory marker, which is induced upon the specific interaction of T cells with their target cell. Therefore, CD137 can be a useful biomarker and an important tool for the selection of tumor-reactive T cells. Here, we developed and validated a simple and time efficient method for the selection of CD137-expressing T cells for therapy based on magnetic bead separation. CD137 selection was performed with clinical grade compliant reagents, and TIL were expanded in a large-scale manner to meet cell numbers required for the patient setting in a GMP facility. For the first time, the methodology was designed to comply with both clinical needs and limitations, and its feasibility was assessed. CD137-selected TIL demonstrated significantly increased antitumor reactivity and were enriched for T cells recognizing neoantigens as well as shared tumor antigens. CD137-based selection enabled the enrichment of tumor-reactive T cells without the necessity of knowing the epitope specificity or the antigen type. The direct implementation of the CD137 separation method to the cell production of TIL may provide a simple way to improve the clinical efficiency of TIL ACT.

  11. Isotopic separation of 235U and 238U in an atomic beam with selective two-step photo-ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.D.V.

    1977-01-01

    The present work gives a report on investigations on isotope separation of 235 U and 238 U by means of selective two-stage photo-ionization on atomic uranium. An atomic beam of sufficient particle density was produced by dissociation of URe 2 in an electron beam heated tungsten furnace at a temperature of 2.500 k. A continuously operated rhodamin-69 dye laser with a maximum output of 120 mW and about 50 mHz band width in one-made operation was used for selective excitation from the ground state. From this state of excitation, ionization resulted achieving a light power of 1.8 W below 3030 A in the reaction volume. The measured separation factors show that the laser method enables the enrichment of uranium to the required valve of three or more percent 235 U for light water reactors in a single separation step. The hyperfine structure could be considerably better resolved compared to earlier investigations, so that it was possible for the first time to identify and measure hitherto unobserved weak components. (orig.) [de

  12. Selective separation of long-lived fission products in nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Masaki; Ikegami, Tetsuo; Asakura, Toshihide; Morita, Yasuji

    2003-01-01

    A catalytic electrolytic extraction (CEE) method has been studied to separate rare metal fission products (Pd, Ru, Rh, Tc, Te and Se). Some of them are long-lived radioactive, but are potentially strategic materials. In CEE process, Pd 2+ cation itself would not only be easily deposited from various nitric acid solutions but also enhance the deposition of RuNO 3+ and ReO 4 by acting as Pd adatom . Monte than 99% of the recovery ratio was attained for RuNo 3+ and Pd 2+ . Fundamental radio-electrochemical property of FPs/TRU in the synthetic and real dissolver solution is being investigated in the new JAERI-JNC collaboration frame. For the extended recycling of such FPs (including Cs/Sr), new precedent research programs are on-going involving universities. (author)

  13. Selective cation-exchange separation of cesium(I) on chromium ferricyanide gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.K.; Agrawal, S.; Singh, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The removal of 137 Cs from liquid streams of nuclear power plants and from processed radioactive waste of nuclear fission has received increasing attention from ion-exchange chemists. A desirable exchanger (adsorbent) for 137 Cs removal is one which can adsorb it significantly and selectively in the presence of appreciable amounts (approx. 2molL -1 ) of Na + , NH 4 + , and H + . This paper deals with the exchange properties of the inorganic exchanger, chromium ferricyanide gel (CFiC). The stability of the gel in both acid and salt solutions and its high specificity for cesium are responsible for its good scavanger properties in removing long lived 137 Cs from radioactive waste. The chromium ferricyanide exchanger is highly selective for monovalent cations, the order being Ag + >Tl + >Cs + >Rb + >K + >Na + . It does not adsorb any bivalent, trivalent, and tetravalent ions even when present in trace amounts. (2 figures, 3 tables)

  14. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V. G.

    1995-12-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Saclay and Cité Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number kz is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the kz spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge-Kutta method. The influence of ion-ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B0, and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer.

  15. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and Cite Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number k z is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the k z spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge--Kutta method. The influence of ion--ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B 0 , and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44 Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  16. Noble gas separation from nuclear reactor effluents using selective adsorption with inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Paplawsky, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive waste gas treatment system utilizing selective adsorption on inorganic adsorbents is described for application to PWRs. The system operates at near ambient pressure, does not require a hydrogen recombiner, has low radioactive gas inventories, and is cost competitive with existing treatment systems. The proposed technique is also applicable for recovery of noble gases from the containment building of a nuclear reactor after an accident. A system design for this application is also presented

  17. Selective enrichment and separation of phosphotyrosine peptides by thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully prepared using the epitope imprinting approach in the presence of the mimic template phenylphosphonic acid, the functional monomer vinylphosphonic acid-Ti(4+) , the temperature-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide and the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. The ratio of the template/thermosensitive monomers/crosslinker was optimized, and when the ratio was 2:2:1, the prepared thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers had the highest imprinting factor. The synthetic thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to reveal the combination and elution processes of the template. Then, the adsorption capacity and thermosensitivity was measured. When the temperature was 28°C, the imprinting factor was the highest. The selectivity and adsorption capacity of the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers for phosphotyrosine peptides from a mixture of three tailor-made peptides were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers have good selectivity for phosphotyrosine peptides. Finally, the imprinted hydrogels were applied to specifically adsorb phosphotyrosine peptides from a sample mixture containing phosphotyrosine and a tryptic digest of β-casein, which demonstrated high selectivity. After four rebinding cycles, 78.9% adsorption efficiency was still retained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Selective separation and concentration of antihypertensive peptides from rapeseed protein hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham T; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent; Ju, Xing-Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-04-15

    Rapeseed protein isolate was subjected to alcalase digestion to obtain a protein hydrolysate that was separated into peptide fractions using electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) technology. The EDUF process (6h duration) led to isolation of three peptide fractions: anionic (recovered in KCl-1 compartment), cationic (recovered in KCl-2 compartment), and those that remained in the feed compartment, which was labeled final rapeseed protein hydrolysate (FRPH). As expected the KCl-1 peptides were enriched in negatively-charged (43.57%) while KCl-2 contained high contents of positively-charged (28.35%) amino acids. All the samples inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities in dose-dependent manner with original rapeseed protein hydrolysate having the least ACE-inhibitory IC50 value of 0.0932±0.0037 mg/mL while FRPH and KCl-2 had least renin-inhibitory IC50 values of 0.47±0.05 and 0.55±0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Six hours after oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats, the FRPH produced the maximum systolic blood pressure reduction of -51 mmHg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective depression mechanism of ferric chromium lignin sulfonate for chalcopyrite-galena flotation separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-sheng; Liu, Run-qing; Wang, Li; Sun, Wei; Peng, Hong; Hu, Yue-hua

    2018-05-01

    Selective recovery of chalcopyrite-galena ore by flotation remains a challenging issue. The development of highly efficient, low-cost, and environmentally friendly depressants for this flotation is necessary because most of available reagents (e.g., K2Cr2O4) are expensive and adversely affect the environment. In this study, ferric chromium lignin sulfonate (FCLS), which is a waste-product from the paper and pulp industry, was introduced as a selective depressant for galena with butyl xanthate (BX) as a collector. Results show that the residue recovery of Pb in Cu concentrate was substantially reduced to 4.73% using FCLS compared with 10.71% using the common depressant K2Cr2O4. The underlying mechanisms were revealed using zeta-potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Zeta-potential measurements revealed that FCLS was more efficiently absorbed onto galena than onto chalcopyrite. XPS measurements further suggested that FCLS enhanced the surface oxidation of galena but prevented that of chalcopyrite. Thus, FCLS could be a potential candidate as a depressant for chalcopyrite-galena flotation because of its low cost and its lack of detrimental effects on the environment.

  20. Preparation of a surface-grafted imprinted ceramic membrane for selective separation of molybdate anion from water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianxian; Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Yuan

    2017-07-05

    A surface-grafted imprinted ceramic membrane (IIP-PVI/CM) for recognizing molybdate (Mo(VI)) anion was prepared by surface-initiated graft-polymerization. Firstly, raw alumina ceramic membrane (CM) was deposited with SiO 2 active layer by situ hydrolysis deposition method. Subsequently, γ-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (MPS) was used as a coupling agent to introduce double bonds onto the SiO 2 layer (MPS-CM). Then, 1-vinylimidazole (VI) was employed as a functional monomer to graft-polymerization onto the MPS-CM (PVI-CM). During the graft-polymerization, the influence factors of grafting degree of PVI were investigated in detail. Under optimum conditions (monomer concentration 20wt%, temperature 70°C, initiator amount 1.1wt% and reaction time 8h), the grafting degree of 20.39g/100g was obtained. Further, Mo(VI) anion was used as a template to imprint in the PVI-CM by employing 1,6-dibromohexane as a cross-linking agent, and then Mo(VI) was removed, obtaining the IIP-PVI/CM with many imprinted cavities for Mo(VI). Thereafter, static adsorption and dynamic separation properties of IIP-PVI/CM for Mo(VI) were studied. Results indicate that IIP-PVI/CM shows a specific selectivity for Mo(VI) with the adsorption capacity of 0.69mmol/100g, and the selectivity coefficient of IIP-PVI/CM is 7.48 for molybdate to tungstate anions. During the dynamic separation, IIP-PVI/CM has also good selectivity for separation of Mo(VI) and W(VI) anions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Autoradiography and density gradient separation of technetium-99m-Exametazime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes reveals selectivity for eosinophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puncher, M.R.B. [Biological Lab., Univ. of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Blower, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., Kent and Canterbury Hospital (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Technetium-99m-Exametazime (HMPAO) is widely used for radiolabelling leucocytes for localization of infection. The subcellular distribution of radionuclide in the labelled cells and the distribution of radioactivity among the leucocyte population are incompletely understood. Frozen section autoradiography was used to determine quantitatively the distribution of {sup 99m}Tc in leucocytes labelled with {sup 99m}Tc-Exametazime. Sections of rapidly frozen suspensions of labelled leucocytes in plasma were autoradiographed on Ilford K2 emulsion and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells were separated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Cell nuclei were isolated by a rapid cell-breakage and fractionation method. In a typical experiment mean grain densities [grains/100 {mu}m{sup 2} (ESD)] over cells were: eosinophils 31.2 (18.4), neutrophils 3.5 (3.5), mononuclear cells 4.2 (5.1). Mean grain numbers per cell (ESD) were: eosinophils 13 (6.8), neutrophils 1.3 (1.3), mononuclear cells 1.1 (1.3). These findings were confirmed by separation of labelled leucocytes on discontinuous density gradients. In four separation experiments, the mean activity-per-cell ratio for eosinophils to neutrophils was 10.1 (4.8):1, and for eosinophils to mononuclear cells, 14.1 (6.7):1. The subcellular distribution of the label was investigated using image analysis of autoradiographs and cell fractionation. This revealed no selectivity for nuclear or extranuclear compartments. It may be concluded that {sup 99m}Tc-Exametazime has strong selectivity for eosinophils over other leucocytes but no selectivity for nuclear/cytoplasmic compartments. (orig.)

  2. Selective Template Wetting Routes to Hierarchical Polymer Films: Polymer Nanotubes from Phase-Separated Films via Solvent Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hao-Wen; Cheng, Ming-Hsiang; Chi, Mu-Huan; Chang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jiun-Tai

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel wetting method to prepare hierarchical polymer films with polymer nanotubes on selective regions. This strategy is based on the selective wetting abilities of polymer chains, annealed in different solvent vapors, into the nanopores of porous templates. Phase-separated films of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), two commonly used polymers, are prepared as a model system. After anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates are placed on the films, the samples are annealed in vapors of acetic acid, in which the PMMA chains are swollen and wet the nanopores of the AAO templates selectively. As a result, hierarchical polymer films containing PMMA nanotubes can be obtained after the AAO templates are removed. The distribution of the PMMA nanotubes of the hierarchical polymer films can also be controlled by changing the compositions of the polymer blends. This work not only presents a novel method to fabricate hierarchical polymer films with polymer nanotubes on selective regions, but also gives a deeper understanding in the selective wetting ability of polymer chains in solvent vapors.

  3. Effects of boron neutron capture therapy using borocaptate sodium in combination with a tumor-selective vasoactive agent in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Baba, Hideo.

    1998-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) destroys tumor cells by means of α particles and recoil protons emitted by 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction. For BNCT to be effective, the tumor/normal tissue concentration ratio of 10 B must be larger than 1.0, because neutron distribution is not selective. We examined the combination of 10 B-enriched borocaptate sodium (BSH) with flavone acetic acid (FAA) as a model compound which causes vascular collapse in squamous cell carcinoma in mice (SCCVII tumors) and would increase the tumor/normal tissue concentration ratio of 10 B. FAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected, and 5 min later BSH (75 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered, followed 15 to 180 min later by irradiation with thermal neutrons. The 10 B concentrations were measured by prompt gamma ray spectrometry. Without FAA, tumor 10 B concentrations were less than or equal to normal tissue concentrations at all time intervals, except that the concentrations were 1.7- to 2.7-fold greater in tumor than muscle at 15 and 180 min after injection of BSH. With FAA, 10 B concentrations 2.1- to 6.9-fold greater in tumor than in muscle were achieved at all intervals tested. For blood and skin, significant differential accumulations were found in tumors at 120 and 180 min. Tumor/liver ratios were less than 1 at all times. Cell survival was determined by in vivo/in vitro colony assay, and increasing radiosensitization correlated with increasing tumor 10 B concentrations, whether or not they were achieved with FAA. Tumor control rates, determined at 180 days after BNCT, similarly appeared to depend only on 10 B levels at the time of irradiation. Because 10 B levels correlate with the radiation response of tissues, a therapeutic gain would be expected whenever the tumor levels exceed normal tissue levels, such as in tumors located in muscle irradiated at 15-180 min after FAA+BSH, or in those in skin irradiated at 120 and 180 min. (author)

  4. A study of selective spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride and Rabeprazole sodium binary mixture: Resolving sever overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Heba M.

    2015-02-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) are co-formulated together for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Three simple, specific and accurate spectrophotometric methods were applied and validated for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) namely; constant center (CC), ratio difference (RD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) spectrophotometric methods. Linear correlations were obtained in range of 10-110 μg/μL for Itopride hydrochloride and 4-44 μg/mL for Rabeprazole sodium. No preliminary separation steps were required prior the analysis of the two drugs using the proposed methods. Specificity was investigated by analyzing the synthetic mixtures containing the two cited drugs and their capsules dosage form. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the reported method, no significant difference was obtained with respect to accuracy and precision. The three methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and can be used for quality control laboratories for IT and RB.

  5. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  6. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  7. Dispersive admicelle solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles for the selective adsorption of three alkaloids in Gegen-Qinlian oral liquid before high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhihong; Xu, Dan; Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xinghong; Shen, Huimin; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Hongyi

    2017-12-01

    A novel dispersive admicelle solid-phase extraction method based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was developed for the selective adsorption of berberine, coptisine, and palmatine in Gegen-Qinlian oral liquid before high-performance liquid chromatography. Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical coprecipitation method and characterized by using transmission electron microscopy. Under acidic conditions, the surface of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate to form a nano-sized admicelle magnetic sorbent. Owing to electrostatic interaction, the alkaloids were adsorbed onto the oppositely charged admicelle magnetic nanoparticles. The quick separation of the analyte-adsorbed nanoparticles from the sample solution was performed by using Nd-Fe-B magnet. Best extraction efficiency was achieved under the following conditions: 800 μL Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles suspension (20 mg/mL), 150 μL sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (10 mg/mL), pH 2, and vortexing time 2 min for the extraction of alkaloids from 10 mL of diluted sample. Four hundred microliters of methanol was used to desorb the alkaloids by vortexing for 1 min. Satisfactory extraction recoveries were obtained in the range of 85.9-120.3%, relative standard deviations for intra- and interday precisions were less than 6.3 and 10.0%, respectively. Finally, the established method was successfully applied to analyze the alkaloids in two batches of Gegen-Qinlian oral liquids. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Oxygen isotope separation by isotopically selective infrared multiphoton dissociation of 2,3-dihydropyran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ohba, Hironori; Akagi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Saeki, Morihisa; Katsumata, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic selectivity on infrared multiphoton dissociation of 2,3-dihydropyran has been studied by the examination of the effects of excitation frequency, laser fluence, and gas pressure on the dissociation probability of 2,3-dihydropyran and isotopic composition of products. Oxygen-18 was enriched in a dissociation product: 2-propenal. The enrichment factor of 18 O and the dissociation probability were measured at laser frequency between 1033.5 and 1057.3 cm -1 ; the laser fluence of 2.2 - 2.3 J/cm 2 ; and the 2,3-dihydropyran pressure of 0.27 kPa. The dissociation probability decreases as the laser frequency being detuned from the absorption peak of 2,3-dihydropyran around 1081 cm -1 . On the other hand, the enrichment factor increases with detuning the frequency. The enrichment factor of 18 O increases with increasing the 2,3-dihydropyran pressure at the laser fluence below 3 J/cm 2 and the laser frequency of 1033.5 cm -1 , whereas the yield of 2-propenal decreases with increasing the pressure. Very high enrichment factor of 751 was obtained by the irradiation of 0.53 kPa of 2,3-dihydropyran at 2.1 J/cm 2 . (author)

  9. Process and device for the selective excitation and separation of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducas, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    Description is given of a method for selectively populating high-lying excited states of atoms or molecules. It comprises: excitation of atoms or molecules with a first circularly polarized pulsed radiation, the coherent frequency components of first pulsed radiation have frequencies corresponding to the energy difference between a lower energy level and the frequency split levels of an intermediate energy level, the duration of pulse being less than 2π/Δω, where Δω is the frequency difference of the split levels; applying a second circularly polarized pulsed radiation to atoms or molecules for a time subsequent to the termination of first radiation, the coherent frequency components of second pulsed radiation have frequencies corresponding to the energy difference between the split levels of intermediate energy level and an upper energy level, the duration of second pulse being less than 2π/Δω. The first and second radiation have the same handedness of circular polarization, whereby upper energy level has a greater population than prior to excitation by first and second radiation pulses [fr

  10. Size-selective separation of polydisperse gold nanoparticles in supercritical ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dylan P; Satherley, John

    2009-04-09

    The aim of this study was to use supercritical ethane to selectively disperse alkanethiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles of one size from a polydisperse sample in order to recover a monodisperse fraction of the nanoparticles. A disperse sample of metal nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 1-5 nm was prepared using established techniques then further purified by Soxhlet extraction. The purified sample was subjected to supercritical ethane at a temperature of 318 K in the pressure range 50-276 bar. Particles were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, TEM, and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. The results show that with increasing pressure the dispersibility of the nanoparticles increases, this effect is most pronounced for smaller nanoparticles. At the highest pressure investigated a sample of the particles was effectively stripped of all the smaller particles leaving a monodisperse sample. The relationship between dispersibility and supercritical fluid density for two different size samples of alkanethiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles was considered using the Chrastil chemical equilibrium model.

  11. Polyacrylonitrile-Derived Sponge-Like Micro/Macroporous Carbon for Selective CO2 Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Ping; Hu, Qing-Tao; Zhang, Peng; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2018-03-25

    CO 2 capture under a dynamical flow situation requires adsorbents possessing balanced proportion of macropores as diffusion path and micropores as adsorption reservoir. However, the construction of interconnected micro-/macropores structure coupled with abundant nitrogen species into one carbon skeleton remains a challenge. Here, we report a new approach to prepare sponge-like carbon with a well-developed micro-/macroporous structure and enriched nitrogen species through aqueous phase polymerization of acrylonitrile in the presence of graphene oxide. The tension stress caused by the uniform thermal shrinkage of polyacrylonitrile during the pyrolysis together with the favorable flexibility of graphene oxide sheets are responsible for the formation of the sponge-like morphology. The synergistic effect of micro-/macroporous framework and rich CO 2 -philic site enables such carbon to decrease resistance to mass transfer and show high CO 2 dynamic selectivity over N 2 (454) and CH 4 (11), as well as good CO 2 capacity at 298 K under low CO 2 partial pressure (0.17 bar, a typical CO 2 partial pressure in flue gas). The above attributes make this porous carbon a promising candidate for CO 2 capture from flue gas, methane sources and other relevant applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Characterization of a subset of oligodendrocytes separated on the basis of selective adherence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuchet, S; Yim, S H

    1984-01-01

    A subset of oligodendrocytes (B3,f) was isolated by taking advantage of selective cell-substratum interaction. B3,f cells were characterized morphologically, biochemically, and immunocytochemically. Oligodendrocytes were isolated from 4-to-6-month-old lamb brains by a modified version of our published procedure [Szuchet et al, J Neurosci Methods 3:7-19, 1980]. Freshly isolated cells from band III were plated on plastic culture plates at a concentration of 2 X 10(6) cells/ml. Approximately 40% of the cells attached to the plate under these conditions. The remaining cells formed small floating clusters. We refer to the latter as B3,f oligodendrocytes. After 4 to 5 days, the supernatant containing B3,f cells was removed and centrifuged, and the pellet was resuspended in culture medium and replated on polylysine-coated petri dishes. B3,f oligodendrocytes attached to this surface and extended an intricate network of processes. The purity of the cultures, judged by the number of cells staining with a monoclonal antibody against galactocerebroside was 98-99%. This high degree of cell homogeneity was maintained throughout the life of the cultures. B3,f cells appeared to be highly differentiated and remained so in vitro. This is surmised by the expression of oligodendrocytic characteristic functions such as high levels of CNPase activity typically, 5 microM/min/mgP; high incorporation of H2 35SO4 into sulfatides, an overall lipid metabolism that mimics events associated with myelinogenesis [Szuchet et al, PNAS 80:7019-7023, 1983]; the presence, detected immunocytochemically, of myelin-associated glycoprotein and myelin basic proteins. It is concluded that this culture system offers an opportunity for studying the biology of interfascicular oligodendrocytes and their interaction with neurons and/or astrocytes. It also should open up a way of examining the relevance of oligodendrocyte polymorphism.

  13. An improved method for fast and selective separation of carotenoids by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Freund, Dana M; Slovin, Janet P; Hegeman, Adrian D; Cohen, Jerry D

    2017-11-01

    Carotenoids are a large class of compounds that are biosynthesized by condensation of isoprene units in plants, fungi, bacteria, and some animals. They are characteristically highly conjugated through double bonds, which lead to many isomers as well susceptibility to oxidation and other chemical modifications. Carotenoids are important because of their potent antioxidant activity and are the pigments responsible for color in a wide variety of foods. Human consumption is correlated to many health benefits including prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related disease. Extreme hydrophobicity, poor stability, and low concentration in biological samples make these compounds difficult to analyze and difficult to develop analytical methods for aimed towards identification and quantification. Examples in the literature frequently report the use of exotic stationary phases, solvents, and additives, such as ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and methyl tert-butyl ether that are incompatible with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In order to address these issues, we implemented the use of LC-MS friendly conditions using a low-hydrophobicity cyano-propyl column (Agilent Zorbax SB-CN). We successfully differentiated between isomeric carotenoids by optimizing two gradient methods and using a mixture of 11 standards and LC-MS in positive ionization mode. Three complex biological samples from strawberry leaf, chicken feed supplement, and the photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus were analyzed and several carotenoids were resolved in these diverse backgrounds. Our results show this methodology is a significant improvement over other alternatives for analyzing carotenoids because of its ease of use, rapid analysis time, high selectivity, and, most importantly, its compatibility with typical LC-MS conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of determinative methods for sodium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Marcelo; Guido, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose; Ares, Osvaldo

    1988-01-01

    Sodium, universally accepted as heat transfer fluid in fast breeder reactors, requires a special technology for every operation involved in any applicable methodology, due to its well known chemical reactivity. The purpose of this work is: a) to study the sources and effects of chemical species which, as traces, accompany sodium used in the nuclear field; b) to classify, taking into account, the present requirements and resources of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the procedures found in the literature for determination of the most important impurities which exist in experimental liquid sodium systems and c) to describe the principles of the methods and to evaluate them in order to make a selection. It was concluded the convenience to develop, as a first stage, laboratory procedures to determine carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and non-volatile impurities, which besides serving present needs, will be referential for direct methods with undeferred response. The latter are needed in liquid sodium experimental loops and require, primarily, more complex and extended development. Additionally, a description is made of experimental work performed up-to-now in this laboratory, consisting of a transfer device for sodium sampling and a sodium distillation device, adapted from a previous design, with associated vacuum and inert gas systems. It is intended as a separative technique for indirect determination of oxygen and non-volatile impurities. (Author) [es

  15. Permeability and Selectivity of PPO/Graphene Composites as Mixed Matrix Membranes for CO2 Capture and Gas Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated novel composite (mixed matrix membranes based on a permeable glassy polymer, Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide (PPO, and variable loadings of few-layer graphene, to test their potential in gas separation and CO2 capture applications. The permeability, selectivity and diffusivity of different gases as a function of graphene loading, from 0.3 to 15 wt %, was measured at 35 and 65 °C. Samples with small loadings of graphene show a higher permeability and He/CO2 selectivity than pure PPO, due to a favorable effect of the nanofillers on the polymer morphology. Higher amounts of graphene lower the permeability of the polymer, due to the prevailing effect of increased tortuosity of the gas molecules in the membrane. Graphene also allows dramatically reducing the increase of permeability with temperature, acting as a “stabilizer” for the polymer matrix. Such effect reduces the temperature-induced loss of size-selectivity for He/N2 and CO2/N2, and enhances the temperature-induced increase of selectivity for He/CO2. The study confirms that, as observed in the case of other graphene-based mixed matrix glassy membranes, the optimal concentration of graphene in the polymer is below 1 wt %. Below such threshold, the morphology of the nanoscopic filler added in solution affects positively the glassy chains packing, enhancing permeability and selectivity, and improving the selectivity of the membrane at increasing temperatures. These results suggest that small additions of graphene to polymers can enhance their permselectivity and stabilize their properties.

  16. Calixarene receptors in the selective separation of alachlor. Characterization of the separated complexes; Receptores calixarenicos en la separacion selectiva de alaclor. Caracterizacion de los complejos separados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, M C

    2004-07-01

    Pesticides have been necessary in the agriculture since the plagues control have been remedied thanks to them but it has also provoked pollution. Nowadays, there are several methods which help to decrease or remedy such a pollution provoked. Unfortunately, any of them work out the environmental problem totally. Therefore, alternatives have to be found. The organic and tri dimensional characteristics of these macrocycles afford them a high versatility in such a way that these hosts can interact with organic guests selectively. Alachlor is a chlorinated organic herbicide useful in the plagues control of annual grasses and many broad-leave weeds which grow in maize, peanuts and soyabean. The ability of calixarenes to host organic guests with chemical characteristics similar to pesticides let them to be good candidates to compete with others methods which are used presently to separate organic pesticides. In this direction one of the advantages of proposing the use of calixarenes is, its facility of being modified in the lower and/or upper rims, to adapt them to aqueous, organic, gaseous and aqueous-organic media. Once the characteristics of reagents informed in the literature were confirmed and complemented with others found in this work, we studied, in solution, the interaction of the calixarenes with alachlor using 1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -3} M solutions in acetonitrile for calixarenes fitted with phosphinoyl pendant arms in the lower rim, B{sub n}bL{sup n}, n= 4, 6) and in chloroform for parents calixarenes (H{sub n}bL{sup n} n = 4, 6, 8). Meticulous studies monitored by UV-Vis and luminescence were carried out, and the best stoichiometry to be used in further studies resulted to be 1(host): 1(alachlor). Therefore, we chose the 1 x 10{sup -4} M concentration to find how long the host-guest should be interacting in order to guarantee the formation in solution of the calixarene-alachlor species. It was found 168 h for the alachlor-B{sub n}bL{sup n} interaction

  17. Selective complexometric determination of titanium(IV) using sodium potassium tartrate or ascorbic acid as masking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, N.V.; Bhat, N.G.; Narayana, B.; Nazareth, R.A.; Hegde, P.; Manjunatha, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate complexometric method is proposed for the determination of titanium(IV) where sodium potassium tartrate or ascorbic acid were used as masking agents. In the presence of diverse metal ions, titanium is first complexed with excess of EDTA and surplus EDTA is then titrated at pH 5-6 with zinc sulfate, xylenol orange being used as indicator. An excess of 5 % aqueous sodium potassium tartrate is then added to displace the complexed EDTA from the Ti-EDTA complex quantitatively, which is titrated with zinc sulfate. Also, ascorbic acid may be used as the releasing agent. The methods work well in the range 1-53 mg of Ti(IV) for sodium potassium tartrate with relative errors ± 0.28 % and standard deviations 0.16 mg. For ascorbic acid the range is 1.00-30.00 mg of Ti(IV) with relative errors of ± 0.40 % and standard deviations of 0.05 mg. (author)

  18. Composites of ionic liquid and amine-modified SAPO 34 improve CO2 separation of CO2-selective polymer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Leiqing; Cheng, Jun; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-07-01

    Mixed matrix membranes with ionic liquids and molecular sieve particles had high CO2 permeabilities, but CO2 separation from small gas molecules such as H2 was dissatisfied because of bad interfacial interaction between ionic liquid and molecular sieve particles. To solve that, amine groups were introduced to modify surface of molecular sieve particles before loading with ionic liquid. SAPO 34 was adopted as the original filler, and four mixed matrix membranes with different fillers were prepared on the outer surface of ceramic hollow fibers. Both surface voids and hard agglomerations disappeared, and the surface became smooth after SAPO 34 was modified by amine groups and ionic liquid [P66614][2-Op]. Mixed matrix membranes with composites of amine-modified SAPO 34 and ionic liquid exhibited excellent CO2 permeability (408.9 Barrers) and CO2/H2 selectivity (22.1).

  19. Decay Study for the very Neutron-Rich Sn Nuclides, $^{135-140}$Sn Separated by Selective Laser Ionization

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS378 %title\\\\ \\\\ In this investigation, we wish to take advantage of chemically selective laser ionization to separate the very-neutron-rich Sn nuclides and determine their half-lives and delayed-neutron branches (P$_{n}$) using the Mainz $^{3}$He-delayed neutron spectrometer and close-geometry $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy system. The $\\beta$-decay rates are dependent on a number of nuclear structure factors that may not be well described by models of nuclear structure developed for nuclides near stability. Determination of these decay properties will provide direct experimental data for r-process calculations and test the large number of models of nuclear structure for very-neutron rich Sn nuclides now in print.

  20. Design of Smart Ion-Selective Electrode Arrays Based on Source Separation through Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte L.T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of chemical sensor arrays based on Blind Source Separation (BSS provides a promising solution to overcome the interference problem associated with Ion-Selective Electrodes (ISE. The main motivation behind this new approach is to ease the time-demanding calibration stage. While the first works on this problem only considered the case in which the ions under analysis have equal valences, the present work aims at developing a BSS technique that works when the ions have different charges. In this situation, the resulting mixing model belongs to a particular class of nonlinear systems that have never been studied in the BSS literature. In order to tackle this sort of mixing process, we adopted a recurrent network as separating system. Moreover, concerning the BSS learning strategy, we develop a mutual information minimization approach based on the notion of the differential of the mutual information. The method works requires a batch operation, and, thus, can be used to perform off-line analysis. The validity of our approach is supported by experiments where the mixing model parameters were extracted from actual data.

  1. Selective breeding for infant rat separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations: developmental precursors of passive and active coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Susan A; Hofer, Myron A

    2007-09-04

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate "anxious"/"depressed" phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an "aggressive" phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting "coping styles" with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation.

  2. Study on Quality Improvement Effect and Separate Character of Soybean Male Sterile (MS1) Recurrent Selection Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shuang-jin; ZHANG Meng-chen; JIANG Chun-zhi; YANG Chun-yan; LIU Bing-qiang; CUI Jue

    2007-01-01

    To solve the problem that soybean has narrow genetic base, we constructed a series of male sterile recurrent selection populations, and studied the effects of quality improvement and practical value. An LD-base population, which fits to our ecology type was constructed by 6 years' gene enrichment through the introduction of new genes from 23 local varieties and recurrent selection. The LD-base populations were then improved by making crosses with high protein and high oil genotypes. As a result we obtained a high protein sub-population (db) and a high oil sub-population (gy). For the db sub-population, the protein content is 1.18% higher than the base population, 22.38% of the individuals contain 45% or more of protein, which is 10.99% higher than the base population. For the gy sub-population, oil content is 0.24% higher than the base population. Individuals with oil content of 20% or more are 11.05% higher than the base population. The quantitative characters such as flowering date, mature date, pod habit, and hilum color, etc., all showed wide range of separation, and the segregation ratio approached balance. The c.v. of branch number of ms1 recurrent population (72.8%) is higher than general cross-population (57.3%), and the c.v. of 100 seed weight of ms1 (18.1%) is higher than general cross population (16.5%), the coefficient of variation of plant height, pods per plant, and seeds per pod were not significantly different. It was demonstrated in this paper that the quality character of ms1 male sterile recurrent selection population was improved by adding new genes. And the segregation of other characters widened, making the populations suitable for the objective of soybean breeding. In this paper, we also discussed the breeding method, key technology, and selection effect of soybean ms1 population.

  3. SELECTIVE SEPARATION, PRECONCENTRATION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    3Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bayburt University, 69000 ... 5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey ... environmental samples by using a triazole derivative as an organic .... Before applying the method to real samples, analytical conditions for the ...

  4. The salting-out effect and phase separation in aqueous solutions of tri-sodium citrate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Golabiazar, Roonak; Shekaari, Hemayat

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain further evidence about the salting-out effect produced by the addition of tri-sodium citrate to aqueous solutions of water miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C 4 mim][Br]) by evaluating the effect of tri-sodium citrate on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of this ionic liquid. Experimental measurements of density and sound velocity at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K, the refractive index at 308.15 K and the liquid-liquid phase diagram at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 338.15) K for aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C 4 mim][Br]) and tri-sodium citrate (Na 3 Cit) are taken. The apparent molar volume of transfer of [C 4 mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na 3 Cit have positive values and it increases by increasing salt molality. Although at high IL molality, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility shows similar behaviour with that of the apparent molar volume. However at low concentrations of IL, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility of transfer of [C 4 mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na 3 Cit have negative values. The effects of temperature and the addition of Na 3 Cit and [C 4 mim][Br] on the liquid-liquid phase diagram of the investigated system have been studied. It was found that an increase in temperature caused the expansion of the one-phase region. The presence of Na 3 Cit triggers a salting-out effect, leading to significant upward shifts of the liquid-liquid de-mixing temperatures of the system. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability in the system investigated has been studied based on a salting-out coefficient obtained from fitting the binodal values to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. Based on cloud point values, the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated and it was found that both of entropy and enthalpy are the driving forces

  5. The salting-out effect and phase separation in aqueous solutions of tri-sodium citrate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golabiazar, Roonak [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shekaari, Hemayat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this work is to obtain further evidence about the salting-out effect produced by the addition of tri-sodium citrate to aqueous solutions of water miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 4}mim][Br]) by evaluating the effect of tri-sodium citrate on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of this ionic liquid. Experimental measurements of density and sound velocity at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K, the refractive index at 308.15 K and the liquid-liquid phase diagram at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 338.15) K for aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 4}mim][Br]) and tri-sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}Cit) are taken. The apparent molar volume of transfer of [C{sub 4}mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na{sub 3}Cit have positive values and it increases by increasing salt molality. Although at high IL molality, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility shows similar behaviour with that of the apparent molar volume. However at low concentrations of IL, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility of transfer of [C{sub 4}mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na{sub 3}Cit have negative values. The effects of temperature and the addition of Na{sub 3}Cit and [C{sub 4}mim][Br] on the liquid-liquid phase diagram of the investigated system have been studied. It was found that an increase in temperature caused the expansion of the one-phase region. The presence of Na{sub 3}Cit triggers a salting-out effect, leading to significant upward shifts of the liquid-liquid de-mixing temperatures of the system. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability in the system investigated has been studied based on a salting-out coefficient obtained from fitting the binodal values to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. Based on cloud point values, the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated and it was found that both of

  6. Calixarene receptors in the selective separation of alachlor. Characterization of the separated complexes; Receptores calixarenicos en la separacion selectiva de alaclor. Caracterizacion de los complejos separados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, M.C

    2004-07-01

    Pesticides have been necessary in the agriculture since the plagues control have been remedied thanks to them but it has also provoked pollution. Nowadays, there are several methods which help to decrease or remedy such a pollution provoked. Unfortunately, any of them work out the environmental problem totally. Therefore, alternatives have to be found. The organic and tri dimensional characteristics of these macrocycles afford them a high versatility in such a way that these hosts can interact with organic guests selectively. Alachlor is a chlorinated organic herbicide useful in the plagues control of annual grasses and many broad-leave weeds which grow in maize, peanuts and soyabean. The ability of calixarenes to host organic guests with chemical characteristics similar to pesticides let them to be good candidates to compete with others methods which are used presently to separate organic pesticides. In this direction one of the advantages of proposing the use of calixarenes is, its facility of being modified in the lower and/or upper rims, to adapt them to aqueous, organic, gaseous and aqueous-organic media. Once the characteristics of reagents informed in the literature were confirmed and complemented with others found in this work, we studied, in solution, the interaction of the calixarenes with alachlor using 1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -3} M solutions in acetonitrile for calixarenes fitted with phosphinoyl pendant arms in the lower rim, B{sub n}bL{sup n}, n= 4, 6) and in chloroform for parents calixarenes (H{sub n}bL{sup n} n = 4, 6, 8). Meticulous studies monitored by UV-Vis and luminescence were carried out, and the best stoichiometry to be used in further studies resulted to be 1(host): 1(alachlor). Therefore, we chose the 1 x 10{sup -4} M concentration to find how long the host-guest should be interacting in order to guarantee the formation in solution of the calixarene-alachlor species. It was found 168 h for the alachlor-B{sub n}bL{sup n} interaction

  7. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  8. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  9. Selectivity of ammonium-glufosinate applied alone or in mixture with pyrithiobac sodium in transgenic LL® cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Braz, G.B.P.; Oliveira Jr, R.S.; Constantin, J.; Raimondi, M.A.; Franchini, L.H.M.; Biffe, D.F.; Arantes, J.G.Z.; Takano, H.K.

    2012-01-01

    Com a recente introdução no Brasil de variedades transgênicas de algodoeiro que apresentam resistência ao amonio-glufosinate (LL®), há escassez de informações tanto a respeito da seletividade de reaplicações desse herbicida, quanto no que se refere a misturas com outros herbicidas. Objetivou-se no presente trabalho avaliar a seletividade de aplicações sequenciais de amonio-glufosinate isolado e em associação com pyrithiobac-sodium em algodão transgênico LL®. Dessa forma, foi instalado um expe...

  10. Study on selective separation of uranium(VI) by new N,N-dialkyl carboxy-amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Sugo, Yumi; Kimura, Takaumi; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The Feasibility study (FS) on commercialized FR cycle systems has been carried out in Japan. In this Feasibility study, 'Advanced Aqueous' reprocessing was designed as a new reprocessing concept to enhance nuclear non-proliferation by recycling U, Pu and minor actinides (MA) with some fission products (FP). The crystallization and U(VI)/TRU(transuranics) co-extraction technique have been selected as candidate technique in the 'Advanced Aqueous' reprocessing. In JAEA, the result of Feasibility study was received and Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT) was started. In the nuclear spent fuel reprocessing, FBR spent fuels will coexist with LWR spent fuels for several decades until FBR cycle begins to operate. For the treatment of LWR spent fuels, high decontamination factor for FP was required for U(VI) storage, and solvent extraction technique was selected in the nuclear fuel treatment. In our laboratory, N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides have been developed as extractant based on solvent extraction technique for one of a back-up technology of 'Advanced Aqueous' reprocessing in FBR spent fuel treatments. N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides were noted as one of the alternative extractant of tri-butylphosphate (TBP) in the field of nuclear fuel reprocessing. Extraction behavior of U(VI) and Pu(IV) with N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides was almost similar to those with TBP. N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides have some advantages, namely, their complete incinerability (CHON principle) and high stability for hydrolysis and radiolysis. Their main degradation products are carboxylic acids and secondary amines which hardly affect the separation of U(VI) and Pu(IV) from fission products. Further, the synthesis of N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides was relatively easy with reaction of carboxylic chloride and secondary amine. The main purpose of this solvent extraction technique using N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides is selective separation of Uranium(VI) with branched N,N-di-alkyl carboxy

  11. Targeting Type 2 Diabetes with C-Glucosyl Dihydrochalcones as Selective Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Ana R; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Machuqueiro, Miguel; Marques, Ana P; Dore, Timothy M; Rauter, Amélia P

    2017-01-26

    Inhibiting glucose reabsorption by sodium glucose co-transporter proteins (SGLTs) in the kidneys is a relatively new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes. Selective inhibition of SGLT2 over SGLT1 is critical for minimizing adverse side effects associated with SGLT1 inhibition. A library of C-glucosyl dihydrochalcones and their dihydrochalcone and chalcone precursors was synthesized and tested as SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors using a cell-based fluorescence assay of glucose uptake. The most potent inhibitors of SGLT2 (IC 50 = 9-23 nM) were considerably weaker inhibitors of SGLT1 (IC 50 = 10-19 μM). They showed no effect on the sodium independent GLUT family of glucose transporters, and the most potent ones were not acutely toxic to cultured cells. The interaction of a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone with a POPC membrane was modeled computationally, providing evidence that it is not a pan-assay interference compound. These results point toward the discovery of structures that are potent and highly selective inhibitors of SGLT2.

  12. A comparative study between three stability indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of diatrizoate sodium in presence of its cytotoxic degradation product based on two-wavelength selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, Safaa M.; El-Rahman, Mohamed K. Abd; Fawaz, Esraa M.; Shehata, Mostafa A.

    2015-06-01

    Three sensitive, selective, and precise stability indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of the X-ray contrast agent, diatrizoate sodium (DTA) in the presence of its acidic degradation product (highly cytotoxic 3,5-diamino metabolite) and in pharmaceutical formulation, were developed and validated. The first method is ratio difference, the second one is the bivariate method, and the third one is the dual wavelength method. The calibration curves for the three proposed methods are linear over a concentration range of 2-24 μg/mL. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of DTA in pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from other dosage form additives. The results were statistically compared with the official US pharmacopeial method. No significant difference for either accuracy or precision was observed.

  13. Performance Tests of a Mechanical Pump in Sodium Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kim, Byeongyeon; Cho, Youngil; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Water is often selected as a surrogate test fluid because it is not only cheap, easily available and easy to handle but also its important hydraulic properties (density and kinematic viscosity) are very similar to that of the sodium. Nevertheless, to ensure the performance, safety, and operability of major components before its installation in the SFR, a series of demonstration experiments of some components in sodium environment should be positively necessary. So, SFR NSSS System Design Division of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) built various sodium experimental facilities, especially STELLA-1 in 2012. STELLA-1 (Sodium inTegral Effect test Loop for safety simuLation and Assessment) is a large-scale separated effect test facility for demonstrating the thermal-hydraulic performances of major components such as a Sodium-to-Sodium heat exchanger (DHX), Sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (AHX) of the decay heat removal system, and mechanical sodium pump of the primary heat transport system (PHTS). The mechanical pump in-sodium performance test was successfully performed with good reproducibility of the experiment and data to compare hydraulic characteristic of a mechanical pump in-water was collected. In effect of temperature variation on the pump pressure head, reduction of pump pressure head at 250℃ by 0.57% of that of 300℃ maybe the result of an increase in sodium viscosity by 13.6% according to operating temperature decrease by 50℃. Also, we confirmed that the more flywheel weight, the longer halving time and the more initial flow rate when the pump seized, the shorter halving time. The results of the mechanical pump performance test data in sodium environment will be used to compare with that of the in water environment after the evaluation of measurement uncertainty for tests.

  14. Evaluation of the corrosion, reactivity and chemistry control aspects for the selection of an alternative coolant in the secondary circuit of sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissonneau, L.; Simon, N.; Balbaud-Celerier, F.; Courouau, J.L.; Martinelli, L.; Grabon, V.; Capitaine, A.; Conocar, O.; Blat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Sodium Fast Reactors are promising fourth generation reactors as they can contribute to reduce resource demand in uranium and considerably reduce waste level due to their fast spectrum. However, progress can be obtained for these reactors on the investment cost and on safety improvement. To achieve these goals, one of the innovative solutions consists in eliminating the reaction of sodium with water in the steam generators, by replacing the sodium in the secondary circuit by another coolant. A work group composed of experts from CEA, Areva NP and EdF was in charge to evaluate several alternative coolants as Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM), nitrate salts and hydroxide mixtures, through a multi-criteria analysis. Three important criteria for the selection of one coolant are its 'Interactions with the structures', and its 'chemistry control', and 'Reactivity with fluids' which are strongly correlated. The assessment, mainly based on the state-of-art from published literature on these points, is detailed in this paper. The mechanisms of corrosion of steels by the HLM depend on the oxygen content. For Pb-Bi, it has been modelled for oxidation and release domains. The corrosion of steels by nitrate salts presents similarity with the oxidation induced by HLM. The highly corrosive hydroxide mixture requires the use of nickel base alloys, for which oxidation and mass transfer are nevertheless significant. The HLM requires a fine regulation of oxygen content, through measurements and control systems, both to prevent lead oxide precipitation at high level and release corrosion at low level. Nitrate salts decompose into nitrites at sufficiently high temperature, which might induce pressure build-up in the circuit. The hydroxides must be kept under reducing atmosphere to lower the corrosion rate. Though these coolants are relatively inert to air and water, one of the main drawbacks of HLM and nitrate salts are their reactivity with sodium. Bismuth

  15. Selective fluorescence response and magnetic separation probe for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene based on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Ya-Qin; Wang, Feng; Shao, Qun; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jin

    2013-05-01

    Despite the rapid development of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, it is still desirable to develop novel nanoparticle-based techniques which are cost-effective, timesaving, and environment-friendly, and with ease of operation and procedural simplicity, for assay of target analytes. In the work discussed in this paper, the dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was conjugated to 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA)-capped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs), and the product was characterized. HDA ligands on the surface of Fe3O4 MNPs can bind 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to form TNT anions by acid-base pairing interaction. Formation of TNT anions, and captured TNT substantially affect the emission of FITC on the surface of the Fe3O4 MNPs, resulting in quenching of the fluorescence at 519 nm. A novel FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs-based probe featuring chemosensing and magnetic separation has therefore been constructed. i.e. FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs had a highly selective fluorescence response and enabled magnetic separation of TNT from other nitroaromatic compounds by quenching of the emission of FITC and capture of TNT in aqueous solution. Very good linearity was observed for TNT concentrations in the range 0.05-1.5 μmol L(-1), with a detection limit of 37.2 nmol L(-1) and RSD of 4.7 % (n = 7). Approximately 12 % of the total amount of TNT was captured. The proposed methods are well-suited to trace detection and capture of TNT in aqueous solution.

  16. Synthetic ciguatoxins selectively activate Nav1.8-derived chimeric sodium channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro; Kondo, Chie; Kinoshita, Eiji; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Seyama, Issei

    2009-03-20

    The synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C has been shown to activate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels (Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.4, and Na(v)1.5) by accelerating activation kinetics and shifting the activation curve toward hyperpolarization (Yamaoka, K., Inoue, M., Miyahara, H., Miyazaki, K., and Hirama, M. (2004) Br. J. Pharmacol. 142, 879-889). In this study, we further explored the effects of CTX3C on the TTX-resistant sodium channel Na(v)1.8. TTX-resistant channels have been shown to be involved in transducing pain and related sensations (Akopian, A. N., Sivilotti, L., and Wood, J. N. (1996) Nature 379, 257-262). Thus, we hypothesized that ciguatoxin-induced activation of the Na(v)1.8 current would account for the neurological symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. We found that 0.1 mum CTX3C preferentially affected the activation process of the Na(v)1.8 channel compared with those of the Na(v)1.2 and Na(v)1.4 channels. Importantly, without stimulation, 0.1 mum CTX3C induced a large leakage current (I (L)). The conductance of the I (L) calculated relative to the maximum conductance (G (max)) was 10 times larger than that of Na(v)1.2 or Na(v)1.4. To determine the molecular domain of Na(v)1.8 responsible for conferring higher sensitivity to CTX3C, we made two chimeric constructs from Na(v)1.4 and Na(v)1.8. Chimeras containing the N-terminal half of Na(v)1.8 exhibited a large response similar to wild-type Na(v)1.8, indicating that the region conferring high sensitivity to ciguatoxin action is located in the D1 or D2 domains.

  17. Synthetic Ciguatoxins Selectively Activate Nav1.8-derived Chimeric Sodium Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro; Kondo, Chie; Kinoshita, Eiji; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Seyama, Issei

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C has been shown to activate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels (Nav1.2, Nav1.4, and Nav1.5) by accelerating activation kinetics and shifting the activation curve toward hyperpolarization (Yamaoka, K., Inoue, M., Miyahara, H., Miyazaki, K., and Hirama, M. (2004) Br. J. Pharmacol. 142, 879–889). In this study, we further explored the effects of CTX3C on the TTX-resistant sodium channel Nav1.8. TTX-resistant channels have been shown to be involved in transducing pain and related sensations (Akopian, A. N., Sivilotti, L., and Wood, J. N. (1996) Nature 379, 257–262). Thus, we hypothesized that ciguatoxin-induced activation of the Nav1.8 current would account for the neurological symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. We found that 0.1 μm CTX3C preferentially affected the activation process of the Nav1.8 channel compared with those of the Nav1.2 and Nav1.4 channels. Importantly, without stimulation, 0.1 μm CTX3C induced a large leakage current (IL). The conductance of the IL calculated relative to the maximum conductance (Gmax) was 10 times larger than that of Nav1.2 or Nav1.4. To determine the molecular domain of Nav1.8 responsible for conferring higher sensitivity to CTX3C, we made two chimeric constructs from Nav1.4 and Nav1.8. Chimeras containing the N-terminal half of Nav1.8 exhibited a large response similar to wild-type Nav1.8, indicating that the region conferring high sensitivity to ciguatoxin action is located in the D1 or D2 domains. PMID:19164297

  18. Selection of coplanar or noncoplanar beams using three-dimensional optimization based on maximum beam separation and minimized nontarget irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Shiva K.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The design of an appropriate set of multiple fixed fields to achieve a steep dose gradient at the tumor edge, with minimal normal tissue exposure, is a very difficult problem, since a virtually infinite number of possible beam orientations exists. In practice we have selected beams in an iterative and often time-consuming process. This work proposes an optimization method, based on geometric and dose elements, to effectively arrive at a set of beam orientations. Methods and Materials: Beams are selected by minimizing a goal function including an angle function (beam separation for steep dose gradient at target edge) and a length function (related to normal tissue dose volume histogram). The relative importance of these two factors may be adjusted depending on the clinic situation. The model is flexible and can include case specific practical anatomic and physical considerations. Results: In extremely simple situations, the goal function yields results consistent with well-known analytical solutions. When applied to more complex clinical situations, it provides clinically reasonable solutions similar to those empirically developed by the clinician. The optimization process takes approximately 25 min on a UNIX workstation. Conclusion: The optimization scheme provides a practical means for rapidly designing multiple field coplanar or noncoplanar treatments. It overcomes limitations in human three-dimensional visualization such as trying to visualize beam directions and keeping track of the hinge angle between beams while accounting for anatomic/machine constraints. In practice, it has been used as a starting point for physicians to make modifications, based on their clinical judgment

  19. Complexing and analysis of cation selectivity of neutral phosphoryl-containing tripodaud of tris((0-diphenyl-phosphinoylmethyl)phenoxyethyl)amine to lithium sodium and potassium, in acetonitrile. Lithium selectivity and polymeclear compleses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulin, V.E.; Solov'ev, V.P.; Strakhova, N.N.; Kazachenko, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    A new phosphoryl-containing tripodand-tris-[(0-diphenyl-phosphinoylmethyl)phenoxyethyl] amine-was synthesized. Constants of stability, enthalpy and entropy of reactions of tripodond complexing with lithium, sodium, potassium thiocyanates in acetonitrile at 298 k were determined. Investigation of complexing by the methods of calorimetry, 7 Li and 23 Na NMR, mass-spectrometry enabled to conclude that ligand formed polynuclear complexes with lithium thiocyanate of 2/1 and 3/1 composition along with 1/1 complex. High selectivity of podand to lithium cation in acetonitrile was conditioned by formation of polynuclear complexes. Refs. 29, figs. 3

  20. Rapid and selective detection of E. coli O157:H7 combining phagomagnetic separation with enzymatic colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Yan, Chenghui; Yang, Hang; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2017-11-01

    Mammal IgG antibodies are normally used in conventional immunoassays for E. coli O157:H7, which could lead to false positive results from the presence of protein A producing S. aureus. In this study, a natural specific bacteriophage was isolated and then conjugated with magnetic beads as a capture element in a sandwich format for the rapid and selective detection of E. coli O157:H7. To the best of our knowledge, it was the first time to utilize a natural bacteriophage to develop a phagomagnetic separation combined with colorimetric assay for E. coli O157:H7. The method has an overall time less than 2h with a detection limit of 4.9×10 4 CFU/mL. No interference from S. aureus was observed. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied to detect E. coli O157:H7 in spiked skim milk. The proposed detection system provided a potential method for E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic bacteria in food samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rational design of intrinsically ultramicroporous polyimides containing bridgehead-substituted triptycene for highly selective and permeable gas separation membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2014-08-12

    Highly ultramicroporous, solution-processable polyimides bearing 9,10-bridgehead-substituted triptycene demonstrated the highest BET surface area reported for polyimides (840 m2 g-1) and several new highs in gas selectivity and permeability for hydrogen (1630-3980 barrers, H2/CH4 ∼ 38) and air (230-630 barrers, O 2/N2 = 5.5-5.9) separations. Two new dianhydrides bearing 9,10-diethyl- and 9,10-dipropyltriptycenes indicate that the ultramicroporosity is optimized for fast polymeric sieving with the use of short, bulky isopropyl bridgeheads and methyl-substituted diamines (TrMPD, TMPD, and TMBZ) that increase intrachain rigidity. Mechanically, the triptycene-based analogue of a spirobisindane-based polyimide exhibited 50% increases in both tensile strength at break (94 MPa) and elastic modulus (2460 MPa) with corresponding 90% lower elongations at break (6%) likely due to the ability of highly entangled spiro-based chains to unwind. To guide future polyimide design, structure/property relationships are suggested between the geometry of the contortion center, the diamine and bridgehead substituent, and the mechanical, microstructural, and gas transport properties. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. Rational design of intrinsically ultramicroporous polyimides containing bridgehead-substituted triptycene for highly selective and permeable gas separation membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja; Al-Saeedi, Majed; Ghanem, Bader; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Highly ultramicroporous, solution-processable polyimides bearing 9,10-bridgehead-substituted triptycene demonstrated the highest BET surface area reported for polyimides (840 m2 g-1) and several new highs in gas selectivity and permeability for hydrogen (1630-3980 barrers, H2/CH4 ∼ 38) and air (230-630 barrers, O 2/N2 = 5.5-5.9) separations. Two new dianhydrides bearing 9,10-diethyl- and 9,10-dipropyltriptycenes indicate that the ultramicroporosity is optimized for fast polymeric sieving with the use of short, bulky isopropyl bridgeheads and methyl-substituted diamines (TrMPD, TMPD, and TMBZ) that increase intrachain rigidity. Mechanically, the triptycene-based analogue of a spirobisindane-based polyimide exhibited 50% increases in both tensile strength at break (94 MPa) and elastic modulus (2460 MPa) with corresponding 90% lower elongations at break (6%) likely due to the ability of highly entangled spiro-based chains to unwind. To guide future polyimide design, structure/property relationships are suggested between the geometry of the contortion center, the diamine and bridgehead substituent, and the mechanical, microstructural, and gas transport properties. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  3. Study and application of ion chromatography and activation analysis without chemical separation for the determination of sodium and potassium in muscle tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of Na and K in small amounts of muscular tissue by use of two methods, namely activation analysis and ion chromatography, is presented. For the activation analysis the samples were irradiated for 30 minutes in a 5 X 10 11 n cm sup(-) 2 s sup(-) 1 flux. The induced activities of 24 Na and 42 K were determined, without chemical separation, using a Ge(Li) detector equipped with a 4096 channel analyser on-line with a computer. The gamma ray spectra registered from the samples and standards were analysed and compared by the computer. For the ion chromatography analysis the samples and standards in solution were injected into the apparatus. The ions were separated by an ion-exchange system of columns and the concentrations were measured by conductivity. In addition, the two analytical methods were compared in regard to sensitivity, precision and accuracy as well as simplicity, cost and working time involved in the analysis. From the point of view of the reliability of the results, both techniques proved to be excelent and might be of great value in medical research. (Author) [pt

  4. Combining ZnO/microwave treatment for changing wettability of WEEE styrene plastics (ABS and HIPS) and their selective separation by froth flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2017-10-01

    This study reports a simple froth flotation method to separate plastic wastes of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) after initial hydrophilization by coating the plastics with ZnO and microwave treatment. ABS and HIPS are typical styrene-based WEEE plastics having similar density and hydrophobicity, which hinders their separation for recycling. After coating with ZnO, 2-min microwave treatment rearranged the ABS surface and thus changed its molecular mobility and increased its hydrophilicity. The combined ZnO coating/microwave treatment facilitated the selective separation of ABS and HIPS with 100% and 95.2% recovery and 95.4% and 100% purity in froth flotation, respectively. The combination of ZnO coating-microwave treatment and froth flotation can be utilized as a selective ABS/HIPS separation technique for improved recycling of WEEE plastics.

  5. Efficacies of sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium sanitizers for reduction of norovirus and selected bacteria during ware-washing operations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanel Feliciano

    Full Text Available Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1, Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine, quaternary ammonium (QAC and tap water (control. During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua.

  6. Synergistic effects of sodium hypochlorite and ultraviolet radiation in reducing the levels of selected foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Ha, Sang-Do

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatment would produce synergistic effects to facilitate the sterilization of food products during production relative to single treatment. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated the bactericidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and a commercial chemical disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), on Bacillus cereus F4810/72, Cronobacter sakazakii KCTC 2949, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, and Salmonella Typhimurium novobiocin/nalidixic acid in vitro. Various concentrations of NaClO (20, 60, 100, and 200 ppm NaClO) were tested along with exposure to UV radiation at various doses (6, 96, 216, 360, and 504 mW s/cm(2)). The combined NaClO/UV treatments resulted in greater reductions in bacterial counts than either treatment alone. The synergy values against B. cereus, C. sakazakii, S. aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and E. coli were 0.25-1.17, 0.33-1.97, 0.42-1.72, 0.02-1.44, and 0.01-0.85 log(10) CFU/mL, respectively. The results of this study suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combined NaClO/UV processing against food-borne pathogenic bacteria in vitro.

  7. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  8. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  9. A New Platform for Profiling Degradation-Related Impurities Via Exploiting the Opportunities Offered by Ion-Selective Electrodes: Determination of Both Diatrizoate Sodium and Its Cytotoxic Degradation Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, Safaa M; Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed K; Fawaz, Esraa M; Shehata, Mostafa A

    2018-05-01

    Although the ultimate goal of administering active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is to save countless lives, the presence of impurities and/or degradation products in APIs or formulations may cause harmful physiological effects. Today, impurity profiling (i.e., the identity as well as the quantity of impurity in a pharmaceutical) is receiving critical attention from regulatory authorities. Despite the predominant use of spectroscopic and chromatographic methods over electrochemical methods for impurity profiling of APIs, this work investigates the opportunities offered by electroanalytical methods, particularly, ion-selective electrodes (ISEs), for profiling degradation-related impurities (DRIs) compared with conventional spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. For a meaningful comparison, diatrizoate sodium (DTA) was chosen as the anionic X-ray contrast agent based on its susceptibility to deacetylation into its cytotoxic and mutagenic degradation product, 3,5-diamino-2,4,6 triiodobenzoic acid (DTB). This cationic diamino compound can be also detected as an impurity in the final product because it is used as a synthetic precursor for the synthesis of DTA. In this study, four novel sensitive and selective sensors for the determination of both DTA and its cytotoxic degradation products are presented. Sensors I and II were developed for the determination of the anionic drug, DTA, and sensors III and IV were developed for the determination of the cationic cytotoxic impurity. The use of these novel sensors not only provides a stability-indicating method for the selective determination of DTA in the presence of its degradation product, but also permits DRI profiling. Moreover, a great advantage of these proposed ISE systems is their higher sensitivity for the quantification of DTB relative to other spectroscopic and chromatographic methods, so it can measure trace amounts of DTB impurities in DTA bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulation without a need for

  10. Selective binding and magnetic separation of His-tagged proteins using Fe3O4/PAM/NTA-Ni2+ Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiling; Li, Mengyun; Tu, Shu; Sun, Honghao

    2018-03-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with polyacrylamide (PAM) were synthesized. The magnetic core, with an average hydrodynamic size of 235.5 nm, allowed the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) rapid separation from solutions under an external magnetic field. NTA-Ni2+ was modified on the surface of Fe3O4/PAM MNPs to selectively trap his-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP). The results showed that Fe3O4/PAM/NTA-Ni2+ MNPs exhibited remarkable capability of selective binding and separating his-tagged GFP. The adsorption efficiency was 93.37%.

  11. UTSA-74: A MOF-74 Isomer with Two Accessible Binding Sites per Metal Center for Highly Selective Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Feng

    2016-04-26

    A new metal-organic framework Zn2(H2O)-(dobdc)·0.5(H2O) (UTSA-74, H4dobdc = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid), Zn-MOF-74/CPO-27-Zn isomer, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. It has a novel four coordinated fgl topology with one-dimensional channels of about 8.0 Å. Unlike metal sites in the wellestablished MOF-74 with a rod-packing structure in which each of them is in a five coordinate square pyramidal coordination geometry, there are two different Zn2+ sites within the binuclear secondary building units in UTSA-74 in which one of them (Zn1) is in a tetrahedral while another (Zn2) in an octahedral coordination geometry. After activation, the two axial water molecules on Zn2 sites can be removed, generating UTSA-74a with two accessible gas binding sites per Zn2 ion. Accordingly, UTSA-74a takes up a moderately high and comparable amount of acetylene (145 cm3/cm3) to Zn-MOF-74. Interestingly, the accessible Zn2+ sites in UTSA-74a are bridged by carbon dioxide molecules instead of being terminally bound in Zn-MOF-74, so UTSA-74a adsorbs a much smaller amount of carbon dioxide (90 cm3/cm3) than Zn-MOF-74 (146 cm3/cm3) at room temperature and 1 bar, leading to a superior MOF material for highly selective C2H2/CO2 separation. X-ray crystal structures, gas sorption isotherms, molecular modeling, and simulated and experimental breakthroughs comprehensively support this result. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  12. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  13. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) using Cyanex 272 in kerosene from sodium salicylate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Pravin N.; Mohite, Baburao S.; Suryavanshi, Vishal J.; Salunkhe, Suresh T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) from sodium salicylate media using Cyanex 272 in kerosene has been carried out. Uranium (VI) was quantitatively extracted from 1x10 -4 M sodium salicylate with 5x10 -4 M Cyanex 272 in kerosene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 4M HCl and determined spectrophotometrically with arsenazo(III) at 600 nm. The effects of concentrations of sodium salicylate, metal ions and strippants have been studied. Separation of uranium (VI) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately ±2%). (author)

  14. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  15. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  16. A rod-packing microporous hydrogen-bonded organic framework for highly selective separation of C2H2/CO2at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2014-11-13

    Self-assembly of a trigonal building subunit with diaminotriazines (DAT) functional groups leads to a unique rod-packing 3D microporous hydrogen-bonded organic framework (HOF-3). This material shows permanent porosity and demonstrates highly selective separation of C2H2/CO2 at ambient temperature and pressure.

  17. A rod-packing microporous hydrogen-bonded organic framework for highly selective separation of C2H2/CO2at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng; He, Yabing; Zhao, Yunfeng; Weng, Linhong; Wang, Hailong; Krishna, Rajamani A A; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wei; O'Keeffe, Michael A.; Han, Yu; Chen, Banglin

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly of a trigonal building subunit with diaminotriazines (DAT) functional groups leads to a unique rod-packing 3D microporous hydrogen-bonded organic framework (HOF-3). This material shows permanent porosity and demonstrates highly selective separation of C2H2/CO2 at ambient temperature and pressure.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF SODIUM SELENITE AND SELENIZED YEAST SUPPLEMENTATION INTO DIET FOR LAYING HENS ON SELECTED QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENRIETA ARPÁŠOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with sodium selenite (SS or selenized yeast (SY on whole egg and egg shell quality of layers were studied. The chickens of Shaver Starcross 288 strain were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 4 groups (n=12; in each. The birds were fed from Day 1 of life to 9 months of age with diets differing in amounts and/or forms of selenium. Control group received basal diet (BD containing selenium naturally occurring in feeds (0.1 mg Se/kg of dry matter (DM. First and second experimental group of chickens were fed with a same BD enriched with equivalent dose of Se 0.4 mg/kg DM in form of sodium selenite or selenized yeast, respectively. The feed for third experimental group of birds consisted of BD supplemented with selenized yeast to the final amount of selenium 1.0 mg/kg DM. The egg weight was significantly higher in the groups with SY supplementation only. On the contrary the egg shell ratio was significantly lower in the groups with SY supplementation in both amounts. The width of egg was significantly increased in the groups with selenium supplementation in both forms. The value of egg shell strength was significantly decreased in group with SY in the highest amount 0.9 mg/kg DM The average egg shell thickness was the highest in the experimental group with Se-yeast in amount 0.9 mg/kg DM, however different was not significant compared with control group. The results showed that the most of selected parameters of egg quality appeared to be significantly influenced by selenium supplementation into laying hen’s basal diet.

  19. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-An; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-Qiong; Zheng, Chun-Hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-Hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-Wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Salt splitting of sodium-dominated radioactive waste using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Carlson, C.D.; Virkar, A.; Joshi, A.

    1994-08-01

    The potential for salt splitting of sodium dominated radioactive wastes by use of a ceramic membrane is reviewed. The technical basis for considering this processing technology is derived from the technology developed for battery and chlor-alkali chemical industry. Specific comparisons are made with the commercial organic membranes which are the standard in nonradioactive salt splitting. Two features of ceramic membranes are expected to be especially attractive: high tolerance to gamma irradiation and high selectivity between sodium and other ions. The objective of the salt splitting process is to separate nonradioactive sodium from contaminated sodium salts prior to other pretreatment processes in order to: (1) concentrate the waste in order to reduce the volume of subsequent additives and capacity of equipment, (2) decrease the pH of the waste in preparation for further processing, and (3) provide sodium with very low radioactivity levels for caustic washing of sludge or low level and mixed waste vitrification

  1. Method of processing radioactive metallic sodium with recycling alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko; Mitsuzuka, Norimasa.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To employ high safety alcohol procession and decrease the amount of wastes in the procession of radioactive metallic sodium discharged from LMFBR type reactors. Method: Radioactive metallic sodium containing long half-decay period nuclides such as cesium, strontium, barium, cerium, lanthanum or zirconium is dissolved in an alcohol at about 70% purity. After extracting the sodium alcoholate thus formed, gaseous hydrochloride is blown-in to separate the sodium alcoholate into alcohol and sodium chloride, and regenerated alcohol is used again for dissolving sodium metal. The sodium chloride thus separated is processed into solid wastes. (Furukawa, Y.)

  2. Olefins-selective asymmetric carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for hybrid membrane-distillation processes for olefin/paraffin separations

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the development of asymmetric carbon molecular sieve (CMS) hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for olefin/paraffin separations based on the CMS membranes are reported. Membrane-based olefin/paraffin separations have been pursued extensively over the past decades. CMS membranes are promising to exceed the performance upper bound of polymer materials and have demonstrated excellent stability for gas separations. Previously, a substructure collapse phenomenon was found in Matrimid ® precursor derived CMS fiber. To overcome the permeance loss due to the increased separation layer thickness, 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM precursors were selected as potential new precursors for carbon membrane formation. Defect-free asymmetric 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM hollow fibers were successfully fabricated from a dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. Polymer rigidity, glass-rubber transition and asymmetric morphology were correlated. CMS hollow fiber membranes produced from 6FDA-polymer precursors showed significant improvement in permeance for ethylene/ethane and propylene/propane separations. Further studies revealed that the CMS membranes are olefins-selective, which means the membranes are able to effectively separate olefins (ethylene and propylene) from paraffins (ethane and propane). This unique feature of CMS materials enables advanced hybrid membrane-distillation process designs. By using the olefins-selective membranes, these new processes may provide advantages over previously proposed retrofitting concepts. Further applications of the membranes are explored for hydrocarbons processes. Significant energy savings and even reduced footprint may be achieved in olefins production units. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Sodium hydroxide as pretreatment and fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles as sensor for the highly selective detection of cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Pin; Huang, Chia-Chi; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2008-07-15

    A sensor for detecting cysteine (Cys) in a solution of fluorosurfactant (FSN)-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been developed. Under acidic conditions, FSN-capped AuNPs are aggregated in the presence of homocysteine (HCys) and Cys but not in the presence of cysteinylglycine, glutathione, and gamma-glutamycysteine. When adding NaOH to a solution of HCys, the five-membered ring transition state is formed through intramolecular hydrogen abstraction. By contrast, it is difficult for Cys to form a four-membered ring transition state after Cys has been pretreated with NaOH. As a result, the HCys-induced aggregation of the FSN-capped AuNPs is suppressed because the five-membered ring transition state exhibits relatively larger steric hindrance and has stronger interaction with the FSN molecules. Thus, we can discriminate between Cys and HCys on the basis of different aggregation kinetics. Under the optimum condition, the selectivity of the probe for Cys in aqueous solutions is remarkably high over the other aminthiols. Note that HCys and Cys have very similar structure and pK(a) value. We have validated the applicability of our method through the analyses of Cys in urine samples. It is believed that this approach has great potential for the detection of Cys in biological samples.

  4. Ethene/ethane and propene/propane separation via the olefin and paraffin selective metal-organic framework adsorbents CPO-27 and ZIF-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Ulrike; Barth, Benjamin; Paula, Carolin; Kuhnt, Andreas; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Mundstock, Alexander; Caro, Jürgen; Hartmann, Martin

    2013-07-09

    Two types of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized and evaluated in the separation of C2 and C3 olefins and paraffins. Whereas Co2(dhtp) (=Co-CPO-27 = Co-MOF-74) and Mg2(dhtp) show an adsorption selectivity for the olefins ethene and propene over the paraffins ethane and propane, the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 behaves in the opposite way and preferentially adsorbs the alkane. Consequently, in breakthrough experiments, the olefins or paraffins, respectively, can be separated.

  5. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  6. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  7. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  8. Topologically guided tuning of Zr-MOF pore structures for highly selective separation of C6 alkane isomers

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao; Dong, Xinglong; Lin, Junzhong; Teat, Simon J.; Jensen, Stephanie; Cure, Jeremy; Alexandrov, Eugeny V.; Xia, Qibin; Tan, Kui; Wang, Qining; Olson, David H.; Proserpio, Davide M.; Chabal, Yves J.; Thonhauser, Timo; Sun, Junliang; Han, Yu; Li, Jing

    2018-01-01

    As an alternative technology to energy intensive distillations, adsorptive separation by porous solids offers lower energy cost and higher efficiency. Herein we report a topology-directed design and synthesis of a series of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks with optimized pore structure for efficient separation of C6 alkane isomers, a critical step in the petroleum refining process to produce gasoline with high octane rating. Zr6O4(OH)4(bptc)3 adsorbs a large amount of n-hexane but excluding branched isomers. The n-hexane uptake is ~70% higher than that of a benchmark adsorbent, zeolite-5A. A derivative structure, Zr6O4(OH)8(H2O)4(abtc)2, is capable of discriminating all three C6 isomers and yielding a high separation factor for 3-methylpentane over 2,3-dimethylbutane. This property is critical for producing gasoline with further improved quality. Multicomponent breakthrough experiments provide a quantitative measure of the capability of these materials for separation of C6 alkane isomers. A detailed structural analysis reveals the unique topology, connectivity and relationship of these compounds.

  9. Multilayer composite membranes for gas separation based on crosslinked PTMSP gutter layer and partially crosslinked Matrimid R 5218 selective layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peter, Jakub; Peinemann, K.; V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 340, 1-2 (2009), s. 62-72 ISSN 0376-7388 Grant - others:Marie Curie fellowship(XE) HPMT-CT-2001-00220 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : composite membrane * gas separation * PTMSP * Matrimid Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.203, year: 2009

  10. Evaluation of the Lewatit OC 1026 resin for the separation of U(VI) from selected impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledesma, Ariel G.; Servant, Roberto E.; Marrero, Julieta G.

    1999-01-01

    The separation conditions have been studied for Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Si, V, K, Li and Na, using inductive coupling plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The results indicate that the resin can be used to purify uranium for the fabrication of nuclear fuel elements

  11. Topologically guided tuning of Zr-MOF pore structures for highly selective separation of C6 alkane isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Dong, Xinglong [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia). Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division; Lin, Junzhong [Peking University, Beijing (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering; Teat, Simon J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Jensen, Stephanie [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States). Department of Physics; Cure, Jeremy [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Department of Materials Science & Engineering; Alexandrov, Eugeny V. [Samara University (Russia). Samara Center for Theoretical Materials Science (SCTMS; Xia, Qibin [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Tan, Kui [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Department of Materials Science & Engineering; Wang, Qining [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Olson, David H. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Proserpio, Davide M. [Samara University (Russia). Samara Center for Theoretical Materials Science (SCTMS; Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica; Chabal, Yves J. [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Department of Materials Science & Engineering; Thonhauser, Timo [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States). Department of Physics; Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Department of Chemistry; Sun, Junliang [Peking University, Beijing (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering; Han, Yu [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia). Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division; Li, Jing [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2018-05-01

    As an alternative technology to energy intensive distillations, adsorptive separation by porous solids offers lower energy cost and higher efficiency. Herein we report a topology-directed design and synthesis of a series of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks with optimized pore structure for efficient separation of C6 alkane isomers, a critical step in the petroleum refining process to produce gasoline with high octane rating. Zr6O4(OH)4(bptc)3 adsorbs a large amount of n-hexane but excluding branched isomers. The n-hexane uptake is ~70% higher than that of a benchmark adsorbent, zeolite-5A. A derivative structure, Zr6O4(OH)8(H2O)4(abtc)2, is capable of discriminating all three C6 isomers and yielding a high separation factor for 3-methylpentane over 2,3-dimethylbutane. This property is critical for producing gasoline with further improved quality. Multicomponent breakthrough experiments provide a quantitative measure of the capability of these materials for separation of C6 alkane isomers. A detailed structural analysis reveals the unique topology, connectivity and relationship of these compounds.

  12. Topologically guided tuning of Zr-MOF pore structures for highly selective separation of C6 alkane isomers

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2018-04-25

    As an alternative technology to energy intensive distillations, adsorptive separation by porous solids offers lower energy cost and higher efficiency. Herein we report a topology-directed design and synthesis of a series of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks with optimized pore structure for efficient separation of C6 alkane isomers, a critical step in the petroleum refining process to produce gasoline with high octane rating. Zr6O4(OH)4(bptc)3 adsorbs a large amount of n-hexane but excluding branched isomers. The n-hexane uptake is ~70% higher than that of a benchmark adsorbent, zeolite-5A. A derivative structure, Zr6O4(OH)8(H2O)4(abtc)2, is capable of discriminating all three C6 isomers and yielding a high separation factor for 3-methylpentane over 2,3-dimethylbutane. This property is critical for producing gasoline with further improved quality. Multicomponent breakthrough experiments provide a quantitative measure of the capability of these materials for separation of C6 alkane isomers. A detailed structural analysis reveals the unique topology, connectivity and relationship of these compounds.

  13. Constructing robust and highly-selective hydrogel membranes by bioadhesion-inspired method for CO 2 separation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yingzhen; Zhou, Tiantian; Wu, Hong; Fu, Weixian; Wang, Xinru; Wang, Shaofei; Yang, Leixin; Wu, Xingyu; Ren, Yanxiong; Jiang, Zhongyi; Wang, Baoyi

    2018-01-01

    -size gas molecules and thus enhancing the CO2/CH4 selectivity. Moreover, the abundant amine groups from PDA nanoaggregates could facilitate CO2 transport. The optimized hybrid hydrogel membrane exhibited CO2/CH4 selectivity of 43.2, which was 43.85% higher

  14. Investigation of the particle selectivity of a traveling potential wave; neon isotope separation with the Solitron process. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowder, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The specific goal of this three year effort was to investigate this novel isotope separation process itself: to determine whether isotopes could indeed be separated and, if so, with what limitations--space charge effects, instabilities, and, in particular, with what throughput limitations. Termed the Solitron process, the concept is based on the strong isotopic variation in wave/ion interaction for a potential wave passing through an ion beam when the wave speed is near the ion speed. The ion's charge-to-mass ratio determines not only which ions are picked up by the wave but also the final energy of those ions that are picked up (accelerated to a higher energy); thus, this method can be used for isotope separation. Much progress was made regarding separation and throughput, concluding that separation works well in conjunction with electrostatic focusing used to obtain enough throughput (enough beam current) to make a practical device. The next step would likely be a production device, although development of an appropriate metal ion source would be useful. Funding is an issue; development cost estimates run around two million dollars for a market only several times that cost. Although there is much concern about the future supply of isotopes such as could be produced by the Solitron process, as well as costs, at present the supply from Oak Ridge and Russian sources is adequate for US needs. Should demand grow, these LDRD studies would strongly support proposals for further development of this Solitron process and help assure its likely success. For example, a point design for a magnesium mission was formulated to obtain a consistent set of design numbers that would optimize performance without pushing any constraints seen in these studies. A similar design could be formulated for other missions (magnesium was just a convenient target)

  15. Selective entrapment of the cationic form of norfloxacin within anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles at physiological pH and its effect on the drug photodecomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortino, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    The binding of the photosensitizing fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotic norfloxacin (NX) to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles and the photoreactivity of the NX/SDS complex under physiological pH conditions are investigated by means of absorption and emission spectroscopy, steady-state and laser flash photolysis. It is shown that the photolabile zwitterionic form of NX, which is dominant at physiological pH, is not the most abundant species in the presence of SDS micelles. This medium exhibits a high preference for the cationic form of the drug, which is selectively and successfully entrapped within the micellar cage (K(ass) = 6 x 10(4) M(-1) +/- 3000), becoming the largely dominant species at neutral pH. The effect of this trapping is drastically reflected on both efficiency and nature of the drug photodecomposition. It is observed that the photostability of NX incorporated in the micellar pseudophase increases of more than one order of magnitude if compared to that of the "free" drug. Furthermore, the radical photodecomposition mechanism occurring in phosphate buffered solution is suppressed by the micellar medium and the low photodegradation observed seems to take place preferentially through an ionic pathway. Hopefully, the results presented herein may contribute to a better understanding of the bio-distribution of NX in biological systems and provide helpful and stimulating information in order to get the control of FQ photoreactivity under physiological pH conditions.

  16. Selective extraction of chromium(VI) using a leaching procedure with sodium carbonate from some plant leaves, soil and sediment samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elci, Latif, E-mail: elci@pamukkale.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Pamukkale University, 20017 Denizli (Turkey); Divrikli, Umit; Akdogan, Abdullah; Hol, Aysen; Cetin, Ayse [Department of Chemistry, Pamukkale University, 20017 Denizli (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Speciation of chromium in some plant leaves, soil and sediment samples was carried out by selective leaching of Cr(VI) using a sodium carbonate leaching procedure. Total chromium from the samples was extracted using aqua regia and oxidative acid digestion, respectively. The concentrations of chromium species in the extracts were determined using by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Uncoated graphite furnace tubes were used as an atomizer. Due to the presence of relatively high amounts of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the resulting samples, the possible influences of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the absorbance signals were checked. There is no interference of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the chromium absorbance up to 0.1 mol L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. A limit of detection (LOD) for determination of Cr(VI) in 0.1 Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution by GFAAS was found to be 0.93 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The procedure was applied to environmental samples. The relative standard deviation, R.S.D. as precision for 10 replicate measurements of 20 {mu} L{sup -1} Cr in processed soil sample was 4.2%.

  17. Selective extraction of chromium(VI) using a leaching procedure with sodium carbonate from some plant leaves, soil and sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elci, Latif; Divrikli, Umit; Akdogan, Abdullah; Hol, Aysen; Cetin, Ayse; Soylak, Mustafa

    2010-01-15

    Speciation of chromium in some plant leaves, soil and sediment samples was carried out by selective leaching of Cr(VI) using a sodium carbonate leaching procedure. Total chromium from the samples was extracted using aqua regia and oxidative acid digestion, respectively. The concentrations of chromium species in the extracts were determined using by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Uncoated graphite furnace tubes were used as an atomizer. Due to the presence of relatively high amounts of Na(2)CO(3) in the resulting samples, the possible influences of Na(2)CO(3) on the absorbance signals were checked. There is no interference of Na(2)CO(3) on the chromium absorbance up to 0.1 mol L(-1) Na(2)CO(3). A limit of detection (LOD) for determination of Cr(VI) in 0.1 Na(2)CO(3) solution by GFAAS was found to be 0.93 microg L(-1). The procedure was applied to environmental samples. The relative standard deviation, R.S.D. as precision for 10 replicate measurements of 20 microL(-1) Cr in processed soil sample was 4.2%.

  18. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 600 MW oxy-type coal unit with a pulverized bed boiler and a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator and carbon capture installation was analyzed. A membrane-cryogenic oxygen separation installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. In this system oxygen is produced with the purity equal to 95%. Installation of carbon capture was based on the physical separation method and allows to reduce the CO2 emission by 90%. In this work the influence of the main parameter of the membrane process – the selectivity coefficient, on the efficiency of the coal unit was presented. The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  19. Aspartic acid 397 in subunit B of the Na+-pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae forms part of a sodium-binding site, is involved in cation selectivity, and affects cation-binding site cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Michael E; Juárez, Oscar; Cho, Jonathan; Barquera, Blanca

    2013-10-25

    The Na(+)-pumping NADH:quinone complex is found in Vibrio cholerae and other marine and pathogenic bacteria. NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase oxidizes NADH and reduces ubiquinone, using the free energy released by this reaction to pump sodium ions across the cell membrane. In a previous report, a conserved aspartic acid residue in the NqrB subunit at position 397, located in the cytosolic face of this protein, was proposed to be involved in the capture of sodium. Here, we studied the role of this residue through the characterization of mutant enzymes in which this aspartic acid was substituted by other residues that change charge and size, such as arginine, serine, lysine, glutamic acid, and cysteine. Our results indicate that NqrB-Asp-397 forms part of one of the at least two sodium-binding sites and that both size and charge at this position are critical for the function of the enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that this residue is involved in cation selectivity, has a critical role in the communication between sodium-binding sites, by promoting cooperativity, and controls the electron transfer step involved in sodium uptake (2Fe-2S → FMNC).

  20. Microwave assisted low temperature synthesis of sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) and the leachability of some selected fission products incorporated in its structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharwadkar, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Microwave assisted procedure for low temperature solid state synthesis of sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP), a material with the potential for immobilization and disposal of high level nuclear waste, was developed. Four selected fission products, namely cesium, strontium, tellurium and ruthenium were introduced (substituted) in the NZP matrix during its synthesis at 450 deg C. More than 85% of these elements incorporated at this temperature could be retained in the NZP compacts, sintered in air at 1000 deg C to nearly 90% of the theoretical density of pure sodium zirconium phosphate. Leaching studies were carried out on the fission product substituted sintered NZP compacts in pure de-ionized water and 80% saturated brine solution at the ambient temperatures of 30 deg C and 90 deg C for four weeks. The major part of leaching in all the cases was observed in the first week. The maximum amount of the substituted element leached in the liquid media after four weeks, however did not exceed 12% of the total amount originally present in the sample before leaching. No significant leaching was observed for any of the dopant elements after four weeks. Among the substituted elements maximum leaching was observed for tellurium followed by cesium and strontium. Ruthenium showed virtually no leaching under the conditions employed. Leaching was found to decrease considerably in multiple element substituted NZP. The effect of temperature on the leaching rate was marginal but substantial difference was observed when the leachant was changed from pure de-ionized water to brine solution. Tellurium and strontium exhibited three and two fold decrease in the leaching rate respectively on changing the leachant from pure de-ionized water to 80% saturated brine solution. The leach rate of Cs however remained virtually unaffected by this change. The SEM and EDX analysis of the surfaces of the leached pellets showed virtual absence of the dopants introduced in the NZP matrix

  1. Highly Selective Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Nitrogen and Methane by Nitrile/Glycol-Difunctionalized Ionic Liquids in Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes (SILMs)

    OpenAIRE

    Hojniak, Sandra D.; Silverwood, Ian P.; Laeeq Khan, Asim; Vankelecom, Ivo F.J.; Dehaen, Wim; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Novel difunctionalized ionic liquids (ILs) containing a triethylene glycol monomethyl ether chain and a nitrile group on a pyrrolidinium or imidazolium cation have been synthesized and incorporated into supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs). These ILs exhibit ca. 2.3 times higher CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 gas separation selectivities than analogous ILs functionalized only with a glycol chain. Although the glycol moiety ensures room temperature liquidity of the pyrrolidinium and imidazolium ILs, t...

  2. The determination of iodine in cheese by neutron activation combined with separation of iodine by selective retention on Dowex 2-X8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordbye, P.I.; Augustson, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    Iodine has been determined in Norwegian cheese by combination of neutron activation and subsequent separation of radioiodine ( 128 I) by selective retention on Dowex 2-X8 anion exchange resin. Iodine may be detected down to 5ng in terms of absolute amounts. In terms of concentration the detection limit was 10ppb. Results showed a precision of 5 percent at a concentration level of 1ppm. (Auth.)

  3. Immobilization of Ag(i) into a metal-organic framework with -SO3H sites for highly selective olefin-paraffin separation at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ganggang; Huang, Minhui; Su, Ye; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong; Bao, Zongbi; Chen, Banglin

    2015-02-18

    Introduction of Ag(i) ions into a sulfonic acid functionalized MOF ((Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H) significantly enhances its interactions with olefin double bonds, leading to its much higher selectivities for the separation of C2H4-C2H6 and C3H6-C3H8 at room temperature over the original (Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H and other adsorbents at room temperature.

  4. A Phos-tag-based magnetic-bead method for rapid and selective separation of phosphorylated biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunehiro, Masaya; Meki, Yuma; Matsuoka, Kanako; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru

    2013-04-15

    A simple and efficient method based on magnetic-bead technology has been developed for the separation of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated low-molecular-weight biomolecules, such as nucleotides, phosphorylated amino acids, or phosphopeptides. The phosphate-binding site on the bead is an alkoxide-bridged dinuclear zinc(II) complex with 1,3-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)propan-2-olate (Phos-tag), which is linked to a hydrophilic cross-linked agarose coating on a magnetic core particle. All steps for the phosphate-affinity separation are conducted in buffers of neutral pH with 50 μL of the magnetic beads in a 1.5-mL microtube. The entire separation protocol for phosphomonoester-type compounds, from addition to elution, requires less than 12 min per sample if the buffers and the zinc(II)-bound Phos-tag magnetic beads have been prepared in advance. The phosphate-affinity magnetic beads are reusable at least 15 times without a decrease in their phosphate-binding ability and they are stable for three months in propan-2-ol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent highlights in electro-driven separations- selected applications of alkylthiol gold nanoparticles in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electro-chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihen, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    To date, alkylthiol gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely used in electro-chromatographic separation techniques as a viable alternative to traditional stationary phases. This is mainly due to their stability, chemical inertness, ease of functionality, increased phase ratio, ability to form self-assembled monolayers. They also yield versatile stationary phases with highly specific targeted functionalities. At the nanoscale region, the chemical and physical properties of a molecule display different attributes to that of the parent molecules or material, hence these features can be harnessed in electro-driven chromatographic separations. Application areas illustrating the use of AuNPs in separation science continue to grow and expand to cover many different kinds of analysis. The last decade has witnessed a successful trend in miniaturisation of chemical separation systems toward the micro and nanoscale ranges. Nanoparticle-based stationary phases fit well with performing chemical separations on microfluidic and capillary platforms. In this review the theory of the use of alkylthiol gold nanoparticles in electro-chromatographic driven separation methods will be discussed. This will be followed by details of recent and selected applications showing alkylthiol gold nanoparticles in capillary electrophoretic and open-tubular electro-chromatographic separations. This review will focus solely on alkylthiol based gold nanoparticles, therefore other kinds of chemical moieties bonded to gold nanoparticles are outside the scope of this review. Finally the future outlook of this exciting technology will be outlined in some detail in the final section. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Selection of distinct populations of dentate granule cells in response to inputs as a mechanism for pattern separation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Wei; Mayford, Mark; Gage, Fred H

    2013-01-01

    eLife digest Being able to keep memories of similar events separate in your mind is an essential part of remembering. If you use the same carpark every day, recalling where you left your car this morning is challenging, not because you have to remember an event from long ago, but because you have to distinguish between many similar memories. Keeping memories distinct is one of the functions of a subregion of the hippocampus called the dentate gyrus. The process of taking complex memories and ...

  7. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment significantly enhanced PVC surface hydrophilicity. • The contact angle of PVC significantly decreased compared to other E-waste plastics. • 100% of PVC was selectively separated with 96.4% purity from E-waste plastics. • SEM/XPS results indicated an oxidative degradation of chlorides on the PVC surface. • Hybrid treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO and froth flotation is effective. - Abstract: Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100 rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5 wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics.

  8. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment significantly enhanced PVC surface hydrophilicity. • The contact angle of PVC significantly decreased compared to other E-waste plastics. • 100% of PVC was selectively separated with 96.4% purity from E-waste plastics. • SEM/XPS results indicated an oxidative degradation of chlorides on the PVC surface. • Hybrid treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO and froth flotation is effective. - Abstract: Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100 rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5 wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics.

  9. Separation of heavy metals, in particular uranium, from sea water by use of anchor groups of high selectivity. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieser, K.H.; Gleitsmann, B.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of the trace elements Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and U from sea water in a fluidized bed of Hyphan on bead cellulose and Hyphan on polystyrene is studied in parallel experiments during a period of 8 months. Samples from the incoming water and from the exchangers are taken from time to time for determining the trace element content. The loading curves are presented and discussed. At the beginning the trace elements are taken up quantitatively by Hyphan on bead cellulose whereas about one half or less is fixed on Hyphan on polystyrene. This is due to the fast exchange on bead cellulose and the slow exchange on polystyrene. It is shown that the loading curves of the individual elements can be calculated in the range where loading is proportional to concentration. The loading is restricted by the exchange equilibria. At the end of the experiments loading with the above mentioned trace elements corresponds to about 40% of the capacity. Hyphan on bead cellulose is well suited for separation of U from sea water whereas the network of the polystyrene beads shows pronounced exclusion of the voluminous tris-carbonato complex of U. (orig.) [de

  10. A generic analysis of energy use and solvent selection for CO2 separation from post-combustion flue gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    A thermodynamic calculation was performed to determine the theoretical minimum energy used to separate CO2 from a coal combustion flue gas in a typical adsorption-desorption system. Under ideal conditions, the minimum energy required to separate CO2 from post-combustion flue gas and produce pure CO2 at 1 atmospheric pressure was only about 1183 kJ/kg CO2. This amount could double with the addition of the driving forces of mass and heat transfer and the adverse impacts of absorption heat release on adsorption capacity. Thermodynamic analyses were also performed for the aqueous amine-based absorption process. Two CO2 reaction mechanisms, the carbamate formation reaction with primary/secondary amines and the CO2 hydration reaction with tertiary amines, were included in the absorption reaction. The reaction heat, sensible heat, and stripping heat were all important to the total heat requirement. The heat use of an ideal tertiary amine amounted to 2786 kJ/kg, compared to 3211 kJ/kg for an ideal primary amine. The heat usage of an ideal amine was about 20% lower than that of commercially available amines. Optimizing the absorption process configuration could further reduce energy use. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2008 AIChE Spring National Meeting (New Orleans, LA 4/6-10/2008).

  11. A comparison of methods to separate treatment from self-selection effects in an online banking setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Skiera, B.

    The literature discusses several methods to control for self-selection effects but provides little guidance on which method to use in a setting with a limited number of variables. The authors theoretically compare and empirically assess the performance of different matching methods and instrumental

  12. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  13. Elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.; Chernyak, A.S.; Kostromina, O.N.; Kachur, N.Ya.; Shpeyzer, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate. Thus, the isotherms of sorption of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions with amorphous tin phosphate depending on their concentration, ph of solution, sorbent quantity are obtained. The parameters of extraction of potassium microquantities from sodium salts are defined. Ultra pure sodium chloride, sodium iodide, sodium sulphate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate are synthesized.

  14. An ultrasensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of estrone 3-sulfate sodium salt based on molecularly imprinted polymer modified carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Wang, Yuli; Zhang, Lu; Tian, Liping; Luo, Jun; Zhao, Na; Han, Yajie; Zhao, Feilang; Ying, Xue; Li, Yingchun

    2017-11-01

    A highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor based on carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has been developed for the determination of estrone 3-sulfate sodium salt (ESS). MIPs were prepared in polar medium via bulk polymerization and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry was performed to the study preparation process and binding behavior of the MIP-modified CPE (MIP/CPE) toward ESS. The conditions for preparing MIPs and MIP/CPE as well as ESS detection were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the detection linear range for ESS is 4 × 10 -12 to 6 × 10 -9  M with a limit of detection of 1.18 × 10 -12  M (S/N = 3). In addition, the sensor exhibits high binding affinity toward ESS over its structural analogues with excellent repeatability and stability. The fabricated MIP/CPE was then successfully employed to detect ESS in pregnant mare urine (PMU) without any pretreatment, and the average recoveries were from 99.6 to 104.9% with relative standard deviation less than 3.0%. High-performance liquid chromatography was adopted as a reference to validate the established approach in detecting ESS and their results showed good agreement. The as-prepared sensor has high potential to be a decent tool for on-site determination of ESS in PMU in a fast and convenient manner. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Optimal hydrograph separation using a recursive digital filter constrained by chemical mass balance, with application to selected Chesapeake Bay watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Baker, Anna C.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2017-06-26

    Quantitative estimates of base flow are necessary to address questions concerning the vulnerability and response of the Nation’s water supply to natural and human-induced change in environmental conditions. An objective of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Project is to determine how hydrologic systems are affected by watershed characteristics, including land use, land cover, water use, climate, and natural characteristics (geology, soil type, and topography). An important component of any hydrologic system is base flow, generally described as the part of streamflow that is sustained between precipitation events, fed to stream channels by delayed (usually subsurface) pathways, and more specifically as the volumetric discharge of water, estimated at a measurement site or gage at the watershed scale, which represents groundwater that discharges directly or indirectly to stream reaches and is then routed to the measurement point.Hydrograph separation using a recursive digital filter was applied to 225 sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The recursive digital filter was chosen for the following reasons: it is based in part on the assumption that groundwater acts as a linear reservoir, and so has a physical basis; it has only two adjustable parameters (alpha, obtained directly from recession analysis, and beta, the maximum value of the base-flow index that can be modeled by the filter), which can be determined objectively and with the same physical basis of groundwater reservoir linearity, or that can be optimized by applying a chemical-mass-balance constraint. Base-flow estimates from the recursive digital filter were compared with those from five other hydrograph-separation methods with respect to two metrics: the long-term average fraction of streamflow that is base flow, or base-flow index, and the fraction of days where streamflow is entirely base flow. There was generally good correlation between the methods, with some biased

  16. Highly Selective Fluorescence Determination of the Hematin Level in Human Erythrocytes with No Need for Separation from Bulk Hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lijuan; Chen, Li; Wu, Ping; Gervasio, Dominic F; Cai, Chenxin

    2016-04-05

    Hematin-induced fluorescence quenching of boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) allows for determination of hematin concentration in human erythrocytes with no need for separating hematin from hemoglobin before performing the assay. The BGQDs are made by oxidizing a graphite anode by holding the voltage between a graphite rod and a Pt cathode at 3 V for 2 h in an aqueous borax solution at pH 7; then, the borate solution was filtered with BGQDs, and the borate was dialyzed from the filtrate, leaving a solution of BGQDs in water. The fluorescence intensity of BGQDs is measurable in real time, and its quenching is very sensitive to the concentration of hematin in the system but not to other coexisting biological substances. The analytical signal is defined as ΔF = 1 - F/F0, where F0 and F are the fluorescence intensities of the BGQDs before and after interaction with hematin, respectively. There is a good linear relationship between ΔF and hematin concentration, ranging from 0.01 to 0.92 μM, with the limit of detection (LOD) being ∼0.005 ± 0.001 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. This new method is sensitive, label-free, simple, and inexpensive, and many tedious procedures related to sample separation and preparation can be omitted, implying that this method has potential for applications in clinical examinations and disease diagnoses. For example, the determination of the hematin levels in two kind of red blood cell samples, healthy human and sickle cell erythrocytes, gives average concentrations of hematin of ∼(23.1 ± 4.9) μM (average of five samples) for healthy red cell cytosols and ∼(52.5 ± 9.5) μM (average of two samples) for sickle red cell cytosols.

  17. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    pressure transient transferred to the IHX will be analyzed. The experimental data will be used for the primary verification of SPIKE code. The verified SPIKE code will be applied to the design of KALIMER secondary ststem an used to analyze the safety of equipment in sodium-water reaction. The hydrogen detector showed the characteristics of hydrogen leak detection delay. In the development of acoustic leak detection technology, considering the design conditions of the KALIMER steam generator, we predicted the limitation of water leak detection, the selection of acoustic sensor, and the construction of the DSP instrument. The experimental and simulated results on the frequencies of acoustic signal according to the leak level were compared

  18. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    of pressure propagation and gas flow, and pressure transient transferred to the IHX will be analyzed. The experimental data will be used for the primary verification of SPIKE code. The verified SPIKE code will be applied to the design of KALIMER secondary ststem an used to analyze the safety of equipment in sodium-water reaction. The hydrogen detector showed the characteristics of hydrogen leak detection delay. In the development of acoustic leak detection technology, considering the design conditions of the KALIMER steam generator, we predicted the limitation of water leak detection, the selection of acoustic sensor, and the construction of the DSP instrument. The experimental and simulated results on the frequencies of acoustic signal according to the leak level were compared.

  19. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-05

    Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A method for the manufacture of nuclear-purity sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Paul; Graff, Willy.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for the manufacture of sodium from the amalgam provided by sodium chloride aqueous electrolysis cells, comprising the steps of treating the sodium amalgam by a sodium polysulfide or a mixture of sodium polysulfide in anhydrous alcohol solution, then causing the thus obtained sodium monosulfide to react with a polysulfide or a mixture of polysulfides so as to obtain a mixture of sodium polysulfides with a higher sodium content, and finally separating sodium through the electrolysis of the sodium-rich polysulfides, the electrolysis being carried out in an electrolytic cell with β-alumina solid electrolyte operating at a temperature between 250 and 300 deg C, in which the polysulfide forms the anode compartment and sodium the cathode compartment [fr

  1. Development of an Ionization Scheme for Gold using the Selective Laser Ion Source at the On-Line Isotope Separator ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Fedosseev, V; Marsh, B A; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2006-01-01

    At the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility, the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) can be used to ionize reaction products as they effuse from the target. The RILIS process of laser step-wise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity provides a highly element selective stage in the preparation of the radioactive ion beam. As a result, the ISOLDE mass separators can provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. The number of elements available at RILIS has been extended to 26, with the addition of a new three-step ionization scheme for gold. The optimal ionization scheme was determined during an extensive study of the atomic energy levels and auto-ionizing states of gold, carried out by means of in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy. Details of the ionization scheme and a summary of the spectroscopy study are presented.

  2. Importance of MS selectivity and chromatographic separation in LC-MS/MS-based methods when investigating pharmaceutical metabolites in water. Dipyrone as a case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, M; Gracia-Lor, E; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants of increasing concern because of their presence in the aquatic environment and potential to reach drinking-water sources. After human and/or veterinary consumption, pharmaceuticals can be excreted in unchanged form, as the parent compound, and/or as free or conjugated metabolites. Determination of most pharmaceuticals and metabolites in the environment is commonly made by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). LC coupled to tandem MS is the technique of choice nowadays in this field. The acquisition of two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions together with the retention time is the most widely accepted criterion for a safe quantification and confirmation assay. However, scarce attention is normally paid to the selectivity of the selected transitions as well as to the chromatographic separation. In this work, the importance of full spectrum acquisition high-resolution MS data using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight analyser and/or a suitable chromatographic separation (to reduce the possibility of co-eluting interferences) is highlighted when investigating pharmaceutical metabolites that share common fragment ions. For this purpose, the analytical challenge associated to the determination of metabolites of the widely used analgesic dipyrone (also known as metamizol) in urban wastewater is discussed. Examples are given on the possibilities of reporting false positives of dypirone metabolites by LC-MS/MS under SRM mode due to a wrong assignment of identity of the compounds detected. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Selection of suitable mineral acid and its concentration for biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis of the sodium dithionite delignified Prosopis juliflora to hydrolyze maximum holocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseeruddin, Shaik; Desai, Suseelendra; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2016-02-01

    Two grams of delignified substrate at 10% (w/v) level was subjected to biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis using phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid separately at 110 °C for 10 min in phase-I and 121 °C for 15 min in phase-II. Combinations of acid concentrations in two phases were varied for maximum holocellulose hydrolysis with release of fewer inhibitors, to select the suitable acid and its concentration. Among three acids, sulfuric acid in combination of 1 & 2% (v/v) hydrolyzed maximum holocellulose of 25.44±0.44% releasing 0.51±0.02 g/L of phenolics and 0.12±0.002 g/L of furans, respectively. Further, hydrolysis of delignified substrate using selected acid by varying reaction time and temperature hydrolyzed 55.58±1.78% of holocellulose releasing 2.11±0.07 g/L and 1.37±0.03 g/L of phenolics and furans, respectively at conditions of 110 °C for 45 min in phase-I & 121 °C for 60 min in phase-II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  5. Solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cu(II) by Cu(II)-imprinted polymethacrylic microbeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakova, Ivanka; Karadjova, Irina; Ivanov, Ivo; Georgieva, Ventsislava; Evtimova, Bisera; Georgiev, George

    2007-02-12

    Ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) particles are prepared by copolymerization of methacrylic acid as monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as crosslinking agent and 2,2'-azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as initiator in the presence of Cu(II), a Cu(II)-4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (Cu(II)-PAR) complex, and PAR only. A batch procedure is used for the determination of the characteristics of the Cu(II) solid phase extraction from the IIP produced. The results obtained show that the Cu(II)-PAR IIP has the greatest adsorption capacity (37.4 micromol g(-1) of dry copolymer) among the IIPs investigated. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration is 7, and full desorption is achieved by 1 M HNO(3). The selectivity coefficients (S(Cu/Me)) for Me=Ni(II), Co(II) are 45.0 and 38.5, respectively. It is established that Cu(II)-PAR IIPs can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The determination of Cu(II) ions in seawater shows that the interfering matrix does not influence the preconcentration and selectivity values of the Cu(II)-PAR IIPs. The detection and quantification limits are 0.001 micromol L(-1) (3sigma) and 0.003 micromol L(-1) (6sigma), respectively.

  6. Polystyrene Sulfonate Threaded through a Metal-Organic Framework Membrane for Fast and Selective Lithium-Ion Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Ying, Yulong; Mao, Yiyin; Peng, Xinsheng; Chen, Banglin

    2016-11-21

    Extraction of lithium ions from salt-lake brines is very important to produce lithium compounds. Herein, we report a new approach to construct polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) threaded HKUST-1 metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes through an in situ confinement conversion process. The resulting membrane PSS@HKUST-1-6.7, with unique anchored three-dimensional sulfonate networks, shows a very high Li + conductivity of 5.53×10 -4  S cm -1 at 25 °C, 1.89×10 -3  S cm -1 at 70 °C, and Li + flux of 6.75 mol m -2  h -1 , which are five orders higher than that of the pristine HKUST-1 membrane. Attributed to the different size sieving effects and the affinity differences of the Li + , Na + , K + , and Mg 2+ ions to the sulfonate groups, the PSS@HKUST-1-6.7 membrane exhibits ideal selectivities of 78, 99, and 10296 for Li + /Na + , Li + /K + , Li + /Mg 2+ and real binary ion selectivities of 35, 67, and 1815, respectively, the highest ever reported among ionic conductors and Li + extraction membranes. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Based on SBA-15 for Selective Separation and Determination of Panax notoginseng Saponins Simultaneously in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghong Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasible, reliable and selective multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers (MT-MIPs based on SBA-15 (SBA-15@MT-MIPs for the selective separation and determination of the trace level of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 and notoginsenoside R1 (R1 simultaneously from biological samples were developed. The polymers were constructed by SBA-15 as support, Rb1, Rg1, R1 as multi-template, acrylamide (AM as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as cross-linker. The new synthetic SBA-15@MT-MIPs were satisfactorily applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for the separation and determination of trace Rb1, Rg1 and R1 in plasma samples. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs and quantitation (LOQs of the proposed method for Rb1, Rg1 and R1 were in the range of 0.63–0.75 ng·mL−1 and 2.1–2.5 ng·mL−1, respectively. The recoveries of R1, Rb1 and Rg1 were obtained between 93.4% and 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs in the range of 3.3–4.2%. All results show that the obtained SBA-15@MT-MIPs could be a promising prospect for the practical application in the selective separation and enrichment of trace Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS in the biological samples.

  8. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  9. Use of sodium salt electrolysis in the process of continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents test results concerning the selection of sodium salt for the technology of continuous modification of the EN AC-AlSi12 alloy, which is based on electrolysis of sodium salts, occurring directly in a crucible with liquid alloy. Sodium ions formed as a result of the sodium salt dissociation and the electrolysis are ...

  10. Separation of americium and neodymium by selective stripping and subsequent extraction with HDEHP using DTPA-lactic acid solution in a closed loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svantesson, I.; Hangstroem, I.; Persson, G.; Liljenzin, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the separation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides is proposed. The method is based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1M HDEHP into an aqueous phase containing ammonia, DTPA and lactic acid followed by subsequent extraction into a second organic phase also containing 1M HDEHP. The aqueous phase is recycled in a closed loop, thereby reducing the amounts of secondary waste. Distribution ratios for Am and Nd have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. The distribution of ammonia was also measured. (author)

  11. Selective separation, detection of zotepine and mass spectral characterization of degradants by LC–MS/MS/QTOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.N. Kumar Talluri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, accurate stability-indicating gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP–HPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of zotepine (ZTP in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of its degradation products (DPs. The method was developed using Phenomenex C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvents, A (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, pH=3.0 and B (acetonitrile. The eluted compounds were monitored at 254 nm; the run time was within 20.0 min, in which ZTP and its DPs were well separated, with a resolution of >1.5. The stress testing of ZTP was carried out under acidic, alkaline, neutral hydrolysis, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. ZTP was found to degrade significantly in acidic, photolytic, thermal and oxidative stress conditions and remain stable in basic and neutral conditions. The developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness as per ICH guidelines. This method was also suitable for the assay determination of ZTP in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The DPs were characterized by LC–MS/MS and their fragmentation pathways were proposed. Keywords: Zotepine, Stability-indicating RP–HPLC method, Characterization, ESI-Q-TOF-MS, Bulk drugs and formulations

  12. Direct evidence of charge separation in a metal-organic framework: efficient and selective photocatalytic oxidative coupling of amines via charge and energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Caiyun; Liu, Hang; Li, Dandan; Su, Ji-Hu; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2018-03-28

    The selective aerobic oxidative coupling of amines under mild conditions is an important laboratory and commercial procedure yet a great challenge. In this work, a porphyrinic metal-organic framework, PCN-222, was employed to catalyze the reaction. Upon visible light irradiation, the semiconductor-like behavior of PCN-222 initiates charge separation, evidently generating oxygen-centered active sites in Zr-oxo clusters indicated by enhanced porphyrin π-cation radical signals. The photogenerated electrons and holes further activate oxygen and amines, respectively, to give the corresponding redox products, both of which have been detected for the first time. The porphyrin motifs generate singlet oxygen based on energy transfer to further promote the reaction. As a result, PCN-222 exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity, selectivity and recyclability, far superior to its organic counterpart, for the reaction under ambient conditions via combined energy and charge transfer.

  13. Effects of pH and pulp potential on the selective separation of Molybdenite from the Sungun Cu-Mo concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mehrabani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, selective flotation of Mo from the Sungun Cu-Mo concentrate was evaluated in different operating conditions. It was found that the addition of 16 kg/t Na2S into flotation pulp and aeration decreased rapidly the initial oxidized- reduction potential (ORP of the pulp from +228mV to -597 mV (with reference to standard Ag/AgCl electrode and increasing the amount of Na2S by 50kg/t did not change the pulp potential. The highest metallurgical and selective separation of Mo from Mo-Cu concentrate were achieved at pH= 10.5 and ORP

  14. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  15. Selective ionic liquid ferrofluid based dispersive-solid phase extraction for simultaneous preconcentration/separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasih Ramandi, Negin; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a selective ionic liquid ferrofluid has been used in dispersive solid phase extraction (IL-FF-D-SPE) for simultaneous preconcentration and separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. To improve the selectivity of the ionic liquid ferrofluid, the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles with a magnetic core as sorbent was modified by loading 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol. Due to the rapid injection of an appropriate amount of ionic liquid ferrofluid into the aqueous sample by a syringe, extraction can be achieved within a few seconds. In addition, based on the attraction of the ionic liquid ferrofluid to a magnet, no centrifugation step is needed for phase separation. The experimental parameters of IL-FF-D-SPE were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviations of 2.2% and 2.4% were obtained for lead and cadmium, respectively (n=7). The limit of detections were 1.21 µg L(-1) for Pb(II) and 0.21 µg L(-1) for Cd(II). The preconcentration factors were 250 for lead and 200 for cadmium and the maximum adsorption capacities of the sorbent were 11.18 and 9.34 mg g(-1) for lead and cadmium, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced Selectivity of the Separation of CO2 from N2 during Crystallization of Semi-Clathrates from Quaternary Ammonium Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herri, J.M.; Bouchemoua, A.; Kwaterski, M.; Brantuas, P.; Galfre, A.; Bouillot, B.; Douzet, J.; Ouabbas, Y.; Cameirao, A.

    2014-01-01

    CO 2 mitigation is crucial environmental problem and a societal challenge for this century. CO 2 capture and sequestration is a route to solve a part of the problem, especially for the industries in which the gases to be treated are well localized. CO 2 capture by using hydrate is a process in which the cost of the separation is due to compression of gases to reach the gas hydrate formation conditions. Under pressure, the water and gas forms a solid that encapsulates preferentially CO 2 . The gas hydrate formation requires high pressures and low temperatures, which explains the use of thermodynamic promoters to decrease the operative pressure. Quaternary ammonium salts represent an interesting family of components because of their thermodynamic effect, but also because they can generate crystals that are easily handled. In this work, we have made experiments concerning the equilibrium of (CO 2 , N 2 ) in presence of Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide (TBAB) which form a semi-clathrate hydrate. We propose equilibrium data (pressure, temperature) in presence of TBAB at different concentrations and we compare them to the literature. We have also measured the composition of the hydrate phase in equilibrium with the gas phase at different CO 2 concentrations. We observe that the selectivity of the separation is dramatically increased in comparison to the selectivity of the pure water gas clathrate hydrate. We observe also a benefice on the operative pressure which can be dropped down to the atmospheric pressure. (authors)

  17. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  18. Model investigations for trace analysis of iodine, uranium, and technetium in saturated sodium chloride leaching solutions of stored radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegle, U.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a time and cost saving chromatographic technique, which allows the matrix to be separated and the most important species to be analyzed in a leaching solution of vitrified radioactive waste. Uranium, iodine, and technetium were chosen for the model technique to be elaborated. In a first step, iodide and pertechnetate were separated from the matrix by the strongly basic AG 1X 8 anion exchange resin and then separated from each other by selective elution. The uranyl ions eluted with the sodium chloride matrix were separated from the excess of sodium chloride in a second step, again by adsorption to the strongly basic resin. The ion-selective electrode was found to be a suitable tool for iodide analysis. Pertechnetate was analysed by means of liquid scintillation. Uranium was determined by ICP-AES. (orig./RB) [de

  19. Highly CO2-Selective Gas Separation Membranes Based on Segmented Copolymers of Poly(Ethylene oxide) Reinforced with Pentiptycene-Containing Polyimide Hard Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuangjiang; Stevens, Kevin A; Park, Jae Sung; Moon, Joshua D; Liu, Qiang; Freeman, Benny D; Guo, Ruilan

    2016-01-27

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-containing polymer membranes are attractive for CO2-related gas separations due to their high selectivity toward CO2. However, the development of PEO-rich membranes is frequently challenged by weak mechanical properties and a high crystallization tendency of PEO that hinders gas transport. Here we report a new series of highly CO2-selective, amorphous PEO-containing segmented copolymers prepared from commercial Jeffamine polyetheramines and pentiptycene-based polyimide. The copolymers are much more mechanically robust than the nonpentiptycene containing counterparts due to the molecular reinforcement mechanism of supramolecular chain threading and interlocking interactions induced by the pentiptycene structures, which also effectively suppresses PEO crystallization leading to a completely amorphous structure even at 60% PEO weight content. Membrane transport properties are sensitively affected by both PEO weight content and PEO chain length. A nonlinear correlation between CO2 permeability with PEO weight content was observed due to the competition between solubility and diffusivity contributions, whereby the copolymers change from being size-selective to solubility-selective when PEO content reaches 40%. CO2 selectivities over H2 and N2 increase monotonically with both PEO content and chain length, indicating strong CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The copolymer film with the longest PEO sequence (PEO2000) and highest PEO weight content (60%) showed a measured CO2 pure gas permeability of 39 Barrer, and ideal CO2/H2 and CO2/N2 selectivities of 4.1 and 46, respectively, at 35 °C and 3 atm, making them attractive for hydrogen purification and carbon capture.

  20. Selective Deletion of Sodium Salt Taste during Development Leads to Expanded Terminal Fields of Gustatory Nerves in the Adult Mouse Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengsan; Hummler, Edith; Hill, David L

    2017-01-18

    Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development. We used this model to test the hypothesis that the lack of activity elicited by sodium salt taste impacts the terminal field organization of nerves that carry taste information from taste buds to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in the medulla. The glossopharyngeal, chorda tympani, and greater superficial petrosal nerves were labeled to examine their terminal fields in adult control mice and in adult mice in which the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel was conditionally deleted in taste buds (αENaC knockout). The terminal fields of all three nerves in the NST were up to 2.7 times greater in αENaC knock-out mice compared with the respective field volumes in control mice. The shapes of the fields were similar between the two groups; however, the density and spread of labels were greater in αENaC knock-out mice. Overall, our results show that disruption of the afferent taste signal to sodium salts disrupts the normal age-dependent "pruning" of all terminal fields, which could lead to alterations in sensory coding and taste-related behaviors. Neural activity plays a major role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. To date, there has been no direct test of whether taste-elicited neural activity has a role in shaping central gustatory circuits. However, recently developed genetic tools now allow an assessment of how specific taste stimuli, in this case sodium salt taste, play a role

  1. Development of evaluation methodology to assess the sodium fire suppression performance of leak collection tray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, F.C.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kannan, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Leakage of hot liquid sodium and its subsequent combustion in the form of a pool cannot be completely ruled out in a Fast breeder Reactor (FBR) plant in spite of provision for adequate safety measures. To protect the plant system from the hazardous effects of flame, heat and smoke, one of the passive protection devices used in FBR plants is the Leak Collection Tray (LCT). The design of LCT is based on immediate channeling of burning liquid sodium on the funnel shaped sloping cover tray (SCT) to the bottom sodium hold-up vessel (SHV) in which self-extinction of the fire occurs due to oxygen starvation. The SCT has one or three drain pipes and air vent pipes depending on the type of design. In each experiment, a known amount ranging from 30 to 40 kg of hot liquid sodium at 550 deg. C was discharged on the LCT in the open air. Continuous on-line monitoring of temperature at strategic locations (∼ 28 points) was carried out. Colour video-graphy was employed for taking motion pictures of various time-dependent events like sodium dumping, appearance of flame and release of smoke through vent pipes. After self-extinction of sodium fire, the LCT was allowed to cool overnight in an argon atmosphere. Solid samples of sodium debris in the SCT and SHV were collected by manual core drilling machine. The samples were subjected to chemical analysis for determination of unburnt and burnt sodium. The sodium debris removed from SCT and SHV were separately weighed. To assess the performance of the LCT, two different geometrical configurations of SCT, one made up of stainless steel an the other of carbon steel, were used. Three broad phenomena are identified as the basis of evaluation methodology. These are (a) thermal transients, i.e. heating and cooling of the bulk sodium in SCT and SHV respectively, (b) post test sodium debris distribution between SCT and SHV as well as (c) sodium combustion and smoke release behaviour. Under each category

  2. Development of evaluation methodology to assess the sodium fire suppression performance of leak collection tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, F.C.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kannan, S.E. [Engineering Safety Division, Safety Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Leakage of hot liquid sodium and its subsequent combustion in the form of a pool cannot be completely ruled out in a Fast breeder Reactor (FBR) plant in spite of provision for adequate safety measures. To protect the plant system from the hazardous effects of flame, heat and smoke, one of the passive protection devices used in FBR plants is the Leak Collection Tray (LCT). The design of LCT is based on immediate channeling of burning liquid sodium on the funnel shaped sloping cover tray (SCT) to the bottom sodium hold-up vessel (SHV) in which self-extinction of the fire occurs due to oxygen starvation. The SCT has one or three drain pipes and air vent pipes depending on the type of design. In each experiment, a known amount ranging from 30 to 40 kg of hot liquid sodium at 550 deg. C was discharged on the LCT in the open air. Continuous on-line monitoring of temperature at strategic locations ({approx} 28 points) was carried out. Colour video-graphy was employed for taking motion pictures of various time-dependent events like sodium dumping, appearance of flame and release of smoke through vent pipes. After self-extinction of sodium fire, the LCT was allowed to cool overnight in an argon atmosphere. Solid samples of sodium debris in the SCT and SHV were collected by manual core drilling machine. The samples were subjected to chemical analysis for determination of unburnt and burnt sodium. The sodium debris removed from SCT and SHV were separately weighed. To assess the performance of the LCT, two different geometrical configurations of SCT, one made up of stainless steel an the other of carbon steel, were used. Three broad phenomena are identified as the basis of evaluation methodology. These are (a) thermal transients, i.e. heating and cooling of the bulk sodium in SCT and SHV respectively, (b) post test sodium debris distribution between SCT and SHV as well as (c) sodium combustion and smoke release behaviour. Under each category

  3. Highly selective separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen and methane by nitrile/glycol-difunctionalized ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojniak, Sandra D; Silverwood, Ian P; Khan, Asim Laeeq; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Dehaen, Wim; Kazarian, Sergei G; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-07-03

    Novel difunctionalized ionic liquids (ILs) containing a triethylene glycol monomethyl ether chain and a nitrile group on a pyrrolidinium or imidazolium cation have been synthesized and incorporated into supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs). These ILs exhibit ca. 2.3 times higher CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 gas separation selectivities than analogous ILs functionalized only with a glycol chain. Although the glycol moiety ensures room temperature liquidity of the pyrrolidinium and imidazolium ILs, the two classes of ILs benefit from the presence of a nitrile group in different ways. The difunctionalized pyrrolidinium ILs exhibit an increase in CO2 permeance, whereas the permeances of the contaminant gases rise negligibly, resulting in high gas separation selectivities. In the imidazolium ILs, the presence of a nitrile group does not always increase the CO2 permeance nor does it increase the CO2 solubility, as showed in situ by the ATR-FTIR spectroscopic method. High selectivity of these ILs is caused by the considerably reduced permeances of N2 and CH4, most likely due to the ability of the -CN group to reject the nonpolar contaminant gases. Apart from the CO2 solubility, IL-CO2 interactions and IL swelling were studied with the in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Different strengths of the IL-CO2 interactions were found to be the major difference between the two classes of ILs. The difunctionalized ILs interacted stronger with CO2 than the glycol-functionalized ILs, as manifested in the smaller bandwidths of the bending mode band of CO2 for the latter.

  4. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  5. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  6. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a surface-grafted Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer for selective separation of Cd(II) ion from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Min [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Feng, Changgen, E-mail: cgfeng@cast.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Gan, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Haiyan [Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-IIP) is prepared. • Cd(II)-IIP shows high stability, good selectivity and reusability. • Cd(II)-IIP can be used as a sorbent for selective removal of Cd(II) ion. - Abstract: A novel Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-IIP) was prepared with surface imprinting technology by using cadmium chloride as a template and allyl thiourea (ATU) as a functional monomer for on-line solid-phase extraction of trace Cd(II) ion and selective separation Cd(II) ion in water samples. The Cd(II)-IIP exhibited good chemical performance and thermal stability. Kinetics studies showed that the equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 8.0 min and the adsorption process can be described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Compared to the Cd(II) non-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-NIP), the Cd(II)-IIP had a higher adsorption capacity and selectivity for Cd(II) ion. The maximum adsorption capacities of the Cd(II)-IIP and Cd(II)-NIP for Cd(II) were 38.30 and 13.21 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. The relative selectivity coefficients of the adsorbent for Cd(II) in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} were 2.86, 6.42, 11.50, 9.46 and 3.73, respectively. In addition, the Cd(II) ion adsorbed was easy to remove from sorbent and the Cd(II)-IIP exhibited good stability and reusability. The adsorption capacity had no obvious decrease after being used six times. The accuracy of this method was verified by the standard reference material, it was then applied for cadmium ion determination in different types of water samples.

  8. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  9. Separation properties of the MIL-125(Ti) Metal-Organic Framework in high-performance liquid chromatography revealing cis/trans selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Perre, Stijn; Liekens, Anuschka; Bueken, Bart; De Vos, Dirk E; Baron, Gino V; Denayer, Joeri F M

    2016-10-21

    Monodisperse MIL-125(Ti) Metal-Organic Framework crystals were synthesized and studied as stationary phase in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different pure compounds and model mixtures (including stereoisomer mixtures) were injected from which chromatographic parameters, including selectivities and resolution factors, were determined to evaluate the adsorption properties and separation performance of MIL-125(Ti) in liquid phase. The MIL-125(Ti) framework displayed a trans selectivity for cis/trans difunctionalized cyclohexane molecules with high selectivity and resolution for 1,3-dimethylcyclohexane and 4-ethylcyclohexanol. The slurry-packed column was further characterized via van Deemter analysis. Fitting of the van Deemter equation through the experimental points allowed to define the contributions of the different processes to plate height with a significant proportion of the A-term, reflecting the importance of a good crystal packing. Although high in comparison to commercial HPLC stationary phases, a very good plate height of around 50μm was found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The selective cleanup of complex matrices and simultaneous separation of benzo[a]pyrene by solid-phase extraction with MgO microspheres as sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Li, Yun; Zhang, Zhiping; Su, Fan; Qi, Peipei; Lu, Xianbo; Chen, Jiping

    2011-12-23

    A new method for the selective cleanup of complex matrices and simultaneous separation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was developed in this study. This method was based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) using magnesium oxide microspheres as sorbents, and it eliminated interferences from various impurities, such as lipids, sulphur, pigments, halobenzenes, polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans. Several parameters, including the volume of rinsing and eluting solvents, the type of loading solvents and SPE sorbents, were optimized systematically. The capability for impurity removal was verified by gel permeation chromatography, gas chromatography, and liquid chromatography. Compared to commercial sorbents (silica gel, florisil and alumina), MgO microspheres exhibited excellent performance in the selective isolation of BaP and removal of impurities. The proposed method was applied to detect BaP in complex samples (sediments, soils, fish, and porcine liver). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.04 ngL(-1), and the resulting regression coefficient (r(2)) was greater than 0.999 over a broad concentration range (9.5-7600 ngL(-1)). In contrast to traditional methods, the proposed method can give rise to higher recovery (85.1-100.8%) and better selectivity with simpler operation and less consumption of organic solvents (20-40 mL). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A design and study of the effects of selectivity on binary separation in a four-zone simulated moving bed for systems with linear isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cremasco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The simulated moving bed (SMB is potentially an economical method for the separation and purification of natural products because it is a continuous processes and can achieve higher productivity, higher product recovery, and higher purity than batch chromatographic processes. Despite the advantages of SMB, one of the challenges is to specify its zone flow rates and switching time. In this case it is possible to use the standing wave analysis. In this method, in a binary system, when certain concentration waves are confined to specific zones, high product purity and yield can be assured. Appropriate zone flow rates, zone lengths and step time are chosen to achieve standing waves. In this study the effects of selectivity on yield, throughput, solvent consumption, port switching time, and product purity for a binary system are analyzed. The results show that for a given selectivity the maximum throughput decreases with increasing yield, while solvent consumption and port switching time increase with increasing yield. To achieve the same purity and yield, a system with higher selectivity has a higher throughput and lower solvent consumption.

  12. High storage capacity and separation selectivity for C2hydrocarbons over methane in the metal-organic framework Cu-TDPAT

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Kang

    2014-01-01

    We report on the storage capacity and separation selectivity of an rht-type metal-organic framework, Cu-TDPAT [TDPAT = 2,4,6-tris(3,5-dicarboxylphenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine], for C2hydrocarbons over CH4. Henry\\'s constant, the isosteric heat of adsorption and the ideal adsorbed solution theory selectivity were calculated based on single-component sorption isotherms. Theoretical calculations indicate that both the open metal sites and the Lewis basic sites have strong interactions with the C2molecules. The combination of these two kinds of sites lead to the highest C2H2-CH4selectivity of 127.1 as well as record high values for C2H4adsorption enthalpies. To mimic real-world conditions, breakthrough experiments were conducted on an equimolar four-component mixture containing C2H2, C2H4, C2H6and CH4at room temperature and 1 atm pressure. Our results show that Cu-TDPAT is a promising candidate for CH4capture and purification. This journal is

  13. High storage capacity and separation selectivity for C2hydrocarbons over methane in the metal-organic framework Cu-TDPAT

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Kang; Ma, Dingxuan; Li, Baiyan; Li, Yi; Yao, Kexin; Zhang, Zhijuan; Han, Yu; Shi, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    We report on the storage capacity and separation selectivity of an rht-type metal-organic framework, Cu-TDPAT [TDPAT = 2,4,6-tris(3,5-dicarboxylphenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine], for C2hydrocarbons over CH4. Henry's constant, the isosteric heat of adsorption and the ideal adsorbed solution theory selectivity were calculated based on single-component sorption isotherms. Theoretical calculations indicate that both the open metal sites and the Lewis basic sites have strong interactions with the C2molecules. The combination of these two kinds of sites lead to the highest C2H2-CH4selectivity of 127.1 as well as record high values for C2H4adsorption enthalpies. To mimic real-world conditions, breakthrough experiments were conducted on an equimolar four-component mixture containing C2H2, C2H4, C2H6and CH4at room temperature and 1 atm pressure. Our results show that Cu-TDPAT is a promising candidate for CH4capture and purification. This journal is

  14. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  15. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  16. Functional characterization of a recombinant sodium-dependent nucleoside transporter with selectivity for pyrimidine nucleosides (cNT1rat) by transient expression in cultured mammalian cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, X; Parkinson, F E; Mowles, D A; Young, J D; Cass, C E

    1996-01-01

    We have demonstrated that monkey kidney (COS-1) cells have a single type of nucleoside transport process, which, because it was equilibrative, sodium-independent and could be inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), was identified as the 'equilibrative sensitive' or 'es' transporter. Using NBMPR or dilazep to inhibit the endogenous nucleoside transport activity, we have transiently expressed a cDNA that encodes an inhibitor-insensitive, concentrative nucleoside transporter protein (cNT1ra...

  17. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal

  18. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

  19. Selective alteration of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired spatial pattern separation performance in the RSK2-deficient mouse model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, Charlotte; Lunion, Steeve; Desvignes, Nathalie; Hanauer, André; Laroche, Serge; Poirier, Roseline

    2018-07-01

    Adult neurogenesis is involved in certain hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions and is linked to psychiatric diseases including intellectual disabilities. The Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a developmental disorder caused by mutations in the Rsk2 gene and characterized by intellectual disabilities associated with growth retardation. How RSK2-deficiency leads to cognitive dysfunctions in CLS is however poorly understood. Here, using Rsk2 Knock-Out mice, we characterized the impact of RSK2 deficiency on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. We report that the absence of RSK2 does not affect basal proliferation, differentiation and survival of dentate gyrus adult-born neurons but alters the maturation progression of young immature newborn neurons. Moreover, when RSK2-deficient mice were submitted to spatial learning, in contrast to wild-type mice, proliferation of adult generated neurons was decreased and no pro-survival effect of learning was observed. Thus, learning failed to recruit a selective population of young newborn neurons in association with deficient long-term memory recall. Given the proposed role of the dentate gyrus and of adult-generated newborn neurons in hippocampal-dependent pattern separation function, we explored this function in a delayed non-matching to place task and in an object-place pattern separation task and report severe deficits in spatial pattern separation in Rsk2-KO mice. Together, this study reveals a previously unknown role for RSK2 in the early stages of maturation and learning-dependent involvement of adult-born dentate gyrus neurons. These alterations associated with a deficit in the ability of RSK2-deficient mice to finely discriminate relatively similar spatial configurations, may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in CLS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective separation, preconcentration and determination of Pd(II ions in environmental samples by coprecipitation with a 1,2,4-triazole derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ozdes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, facile and low cost methodology, combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, was employed to evaluate the selective separation and preconcentration of Pd(II ions in environmental samples by using a triazole derivative as an organic coprecipitating agent without a carrier element. The developed method was systematically investigated in different set of experimental parameters that influence the quantitative recovery of Pd(II ions. The accuracy of the method was tested by analyzing certified reference material and spike tests. The developed coprecipitation procedure has been applied to road dust, anodic slime, industrial electronic waste materials and water samples to determine their Pd(II levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.1

  1. Fine-Tuned Intrinsically Ultramicroporous Polymers Redefine the Permeability/Selectivity Upper Bounds of Membrane-Based Air and Hydrogen Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2015-08-20

    Intrinsically ultramicroporous (<7 Å) polymers represent a new paradigm in materials development for membrane-based gas separation. In particular, they demonstrate that uniting intrachain “rigidity”, the traditional design metric of highly permeable polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), with gas-sieving ultramicroporosity yields high-performance gas separation membranes. Highly ultramicroporous PIMs have redefined the state-of-the-art in large-scale air (e.g., O2/N2) and hydrogen recovery (e.g., H2/N2, H2/CH4) applications with unprecedented molecular sieving gas transport properties. Accordingly, presented herein are new 2015 permeability/selectivity “upper bounds” for large-scale commercial membrane-based air and hydrogen applications that accommodate the substantial performance enhancements of recent PIMs over preceding polymers. A subtle balance between intrachain rigidity and interchain spacing has been achieved in the amorphous microstructures of PIMs, fine-tuned using unique bridged-bicyclic building blocks (i.e., triptycene, ethanoanthracene and Tröger’s base) in both ladder and semiladder (e.g., polyimide) structures.

  2. Pure- and Mixed-Gas Permeation Properties of Highly Selective and Plasticization Resistant Hydroxyl-Diamine-Based 6FDA Polyimides for CO2/CH4 Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.; Ghanem, Bader; Alghunaimi, Fahd; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of hydroxyl functionalization on the m-phenylene diamine moiety of 6FDA dianhydride-based polyimides was investigated for gas separation applications. Pure-gas permeability coefficients of He, H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2 were measured at 35 °C and 2 atm. The introduction of hydroxyl groups in the diamine moiety of 6FDA-diaminophenol (DAP) and 6FDA-diamino resorcinol (DAR) polyimides tightened the overall polymer structure due to increased charge transfer complex formation compared to unfunctionalized 6FDA-m-phenylene diamine (mPDA). The BET surface areas based on nitrogen adsorption of 6FDA-DAP (54 m2g−1) and of 6FDA-DAR (45 m2g−1) were ~18% and 32% lower than that of 6FDA-mPDA (66 m2g−1). 6FDA-mPDA had a pure-gas CO2 permeability of 14 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 70. The hydroxyl-functionalized polyimides 6FDA-DAP and 6FDA-DAR exhibited very high pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivities of 92 and 94 with moderate CO2 permeability of 11 and 8 Barrer, respectively. It was demonstrated that hydroxyl-containing polyimide membranes maintained very high CO2/CH4 selectivity (~ 75 at CO2 partial pressure of 10 atm) due to CO2 plasticization resistance when tested under high-pressure mixed-gas conditions. Functionalization with hydroxyl groups may thus be a promising strategy towards attaining highly selective polyimides for economical membrane-based natural gas sweetening.

  3. Towards a selective adsorbent for arsenate and selenite in the presence of phosphate: Assessment of adsorption efficiency, mechanism, and binary separation factors of the chitosan-copper complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Jamila S; Lounsbury, Amanda W; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2016-01-01

    The potential for a chitosan-copper polymer complex to select for the target contaminants in the presence of their respective competitive ions was evaluated by synthesizing chitosan-copper beads (CCB) for the treatment of (arsenate:phosphate), (selenite:phosphate), and (selenate:sulfate). Based on work by Rhazi et al., copper (II) binds to the amine moiety on the chitosan backbone as a monodentate complex (Type I) and as a bidentate complex crosslinking two polymer chains (Type II), depending on pH and copper loading. In general, the Type I complex exists alone; however, beyond threshold conditions of pH 5.5 during synthesis and a copper loading of 0.25 mol Cu(II)/mol chitosan monomer, the Type I and Type II complexes coexist. Subsequent chelation of this chitosan-copper ligand to oxyanions results in enhanced and selective adsorption of the target contaminants in complex matrices with high background ion concentrations. With differing affinities for arsenate, selenite, and phosphate, the Type I complex favors phosphate chelation while the Type II complex favors arsenate chelation due to electrostatic considerations and selenite chelation due to steric effects. No trend was exhibited for the selenate:sulfate system possibly due to the high Ksp of the corresponding copper salts. Binary separation factors, α12, were calculated for the arsenate-phosphate and selenite-phosphate systems, supporting the mechanistic hypothesis. While, further research is needed to develop a synthesis method for the independent formation of the Type II complexes to select for target contaminants in complex matrices, this work can provide initial steps in the development of a selective adsorbent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pure- and Mixed-Gas Permeation Properties of Highly Selective and Plasticization Resistant Hydroxyl-Diamine-Based 6FDA Polyimides for CO2/CH4 Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.

    2016-01-05

    The effect of hydroxyl functionalization on the m-phenylene diamine moiety of 6FDA dianhydride-based polyimides was investigated for gas separation applications. Pure-gas permeability coefficients of He, H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2 were measured at 35 °C and 2 atm. The introduction of hydroxyl groups in the diamine moiety of 6FDA-diaminophenol (DAP) and 6FDA-diamino resorcinol (DAR) polyimides tightened the overall polymer structure due to increased charge transfer complex formation compared to unfunctionalized 6FDA-m-phenylene diamine (mPDA). The BET surface areas based on nitrogen adsorption of 6FDA-DAP (54 m2g−1) and of 6FDA-DAR (45 m2g−1) were ~18% and 32% lower than that of 6FDA-mPDA (66 m2g−1). 6FDA-mPDA had a pure-gas CO2 permeability of 14 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 70. The hydroxyl-functionalized polyimides 6FDA-DAP and 6FDA-DAR exhibited very high pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivities of 92 and 94 with moderate CO2 permeability of 11 and 8 Barrer, respectively. It was demonstrated that hydroxyl-containing polyimide membranes maintained very high CO2/CH4 selectivity (~ 75 at CO2 partial pressure of 10 atm) due to CO2 plasticization resistance when tested under high-pressure mixed-gas conditions. Functionalization with hydroxyl groups may thus be a promising strategy towards attaining highly selective polyimides for economical membrane-based natural gas sweetening.

  5. Restraining Sodium Volatilization in the Ferric Bauxite Direct Reduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct reduction is an emerging utilization technology of ferric bauxite. However, it requires much more sodium carbonate than ordinary bauxite does. The volatilization is one of the most significant parts of sodium carbonate consumption, as reported in previous studies. Based on the new direct reduction method for utilization of ferric bauxite, this paper has systematically investigated factors including heating temperature, heating time, and sodium carbonate dosage influencing sodium volatilization. For the purpose of reducing sodium volatilization, the Box–Benhken design was employed, and the possibility of separating iron and sodium after direct reduction was also investigated.

  6. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  7. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  8. Analytical study of sodium combustion phenomena under sodium leak accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, J. Y.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-12-01

    The rise of temperature and pressure, the release of aerosol in the buildings as a result of sodium fire must be considered for the safety measures of LMR. Therefore for the safety of the LMR, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of sodium fire, resulting from the various type of leakage. ASSCOPS(Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) is the computer code for the analysis of the thermal consequence of sodium leak and fire in LMR that has been developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) in Japan. In this study, a preliminary analysis of sodium leak and fire accidents in S/G building of KALIMER is made by using ASSCOPS code. Various phenomena of interest are spray and pool burning, peak pressure, temperature change, local structure temperature, aerosol behavior, drain system into smothering tank, ventilation characteristics at each cell with the safety venting system and nitrogen injection system. In this calculation, the dimension of the S/G building was chosen in accordance with the selected options of LMR name KALIMER(Korea). As a result of this study, it was shown that subsequent effect of sodium fire depended upon whether the sodium continued to leak from the pipe or not, whether the ventilation system was running, whether the inert gas injection system was provided, whether the sodium on floor was drained into the smothering tank or not, whether the building was sealed or not, etc. Specially the excessive rise of pressure into each cell was prevented by installing the pressure release plates on wall of the building

  9. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  10. Selective separation of uranium using alizarin red S (ARS)-modified anion-exchange resin or by flotation of U-ARS chelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    An alizarin red S (ARS)-modified anion exchange resin was prepared by a simple reaction of ARS with the anion exchange Doulite A101 and used for the efficient sorption of uranium from aqueous media. The effect of various parameters on the sorption of U(VI) (pH effect, sorption kinetics, resin capacity and breakthrough curves) was investigated. The modified resin sorbs U(VI) over a wide range of pH (2.8--5) with a maximum sorption capacity of 0.68 mmol/g at pH 3.2 to 4.0. Iron(III), Zr(IV), Ti(IV), Cu(II), and Th(IV) ions are also sorbed to different extents, but Be(II), Bi(III), Ca(II), Mg(II), Pb(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Al(III), Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) are not sorbed; thus, conditions for separating U(VI) from these metal ions have been identified. For eluting U(VI) from the resin, 0.2 mol/L HCl was used and the recovery recorded was as high as 99.9%. The use of ARS is extended to float uranium quantitatively and selectively from aqueous media at pH ∼ 4 by using oleic acid as a surfactant. The different parameters affecting the flotation process have also been investigated. Uranium(VI) has been effectively separated from natural water samples and certified uranium ores using both procedures

  11. Dual-Channel, Molecular-Sieving Core/Shell ZIF@MOF Architectures as Engineered Fillers in Hybrid Membranes for Highly Selective CO2 Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhuonan; Qiu, Fen; Zaia, Edmond W; Wang, Zhongying; Kunz, Martin; Guo, Jinghua; Brady, Michael; Mi, Baoxia; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2017-11-08

    A novel core/shell porous crystalline structure was prepared using a large pore metal organic framework (MOF, UiO-66-NH 2 , pore size, ∼ 0.6 nm) as core surrounded by a small pore zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF, ZIF-8, pore size, ∼ 0.4 nm) through a layer-by-layer deposition method and subsequently used as an engineered filler to construct hybrid polysulfone (PSF) membranes for CO 2 capture. Compared to traditional fillers utilizing only one type of porous material with rigid channels (either large or small), our custom designed core/shell fillers possess clear advantages via pore engineering: the large internal channels of the UiO-66-NH 2 MOFs create molecular highways to accelerate molecular transport through the membrane, while the thin shells with small pores (ZIF-8) or even smaller pores generated at the interface by the imperfect registry between the overlapping pores of ZIF and MOF enhance molecular sieving thus serving to distinguish slightly larger N 2 molecules (kinetic diameter, 0.364 nm) from smaller CO 2 molecules (kinetic diameter, 0.33 nm). The resultant core/shell ZIF@MOF and as-prepared hybrid PSF membranes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, wide-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and contact angle tests. The dependence of the separation performance of the membranes on the MOF/ZIF ratio was also studied by varying the number of layers of ZIF coatings. The integrated PSF-ZIF@MOF hybrid membrane (40 wt % loading) with optimized ZIF coating cycles showed improved hydrophobicity and excellent CO 2 separation performance by simultaneously increasing CO 2 permeability (CO 2 permeability of 45.2 barrer, 710% higher than PSF membrane) and CO 2 /N 2 selectivity (CO 2 /N 2 selectivity of 39, 50% higher than PSF membrane), which is superior to most reported hybrid PSF membranes. The strategy of using

  12. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R.

    1996-01-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects

  13. Selective separation of uranium from nuclear waste solution by bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic) acid in ionic liquid and molecular diluents: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Sengupta, Arijit; Murali, M.S.; Adya, V.C.; Kadam, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquid has been world-wide considered as the potential 'green' alternatives to the molecular diluents. A comparative study was carried out for studying selective separation of uranium from radioactive waste solution using Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic) acid in molecular diluent (xylene) and ionic liquid (C 8 mimNTf 2 ). For ionic liquid based system, the extraction kinetics was found to be slower compared to the molecular diluents. This was attributed to the higher viscosity of ionic liquid. In ionic liquid the extraction occurs with the predominance of 'ion exchange' mechanism through (UO 2 (NO 3 ). 2L) + species, while for xylene based system 'solvation' mechanism predominates at higher feed acidity. The extraction process in ionic liquid was found to be thermodynamically more favoured than in xylene. The nature of the extracted species was found to be different in ionic liquid and xylene as obtained from difference in luminescence emission profiles and lifetime of the extracted complex. Ionic liquid based system was found to be radiolytically more stable than the molecular diluents based solvent system. Na 2 CO 3 solution was found to back extract the uranyl ion almost quantitatively (99.9 %) from the loaded organic phase but overall stripping from ionic liquid phase is comparatively poorer than that of xylene phase. The processing of Simulated High Level Waste (SHLW) of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) or Research Reactor (RR) origin revealed that bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic) acid can effectively be used for the preferential extraction of U with better selectivity for ionic liquid phase. But the ion exchange mechanism is one of the disadvantages for its plant scale application. (author)

  14. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  15. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  16. Continuous method for refining sodium. [for use in LMFBR type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batoux, B; Laurent-Atthalin, A; Salmon, M

    1973-11-16

    The invention relates to a refining method according to which commercial sodium provides a high purity sodium with, in particular, a very small calcium content. The method consists in continuously feeding a predetermined amount of sodium peroxide into a sodium stream, mixing and causing said sodium peroxide to reach with sodium at an appropriate temperature, and, finally, separating the reaction products from sodium by decanting and filtering same. The thus obtained high purity sodium meets the requirements of atomic industries in particular, in view of its possible use as coolant in nuclear reactors of the ''breeder'' type.

  17. Progress in selection for sodium chloride, 2,4-D dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and streptomycin tolerance in Citrus sinensis ovular callus lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochba, J.; Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Citrus sinensis (cultivar Shamouti) nucellar embryogenic callus lines with greatly increased tolerance to salinity (NaCl), 2,4-D and streptomycin were selected. Selected lines were found stable after removal of selection pressure. Gamma irradiation at 8-16 kR was also employed and found to speed up selections. Embryos from NaCl and 2,4-D tolerant lines also showed increased tolerance. Embryogenesis in selected lines, suppressed during selection procedures, was regained by growing cultures in the presence of galactose or lactose as the sole carbon source. A schedule was worked out furthering development of embryos into plantlets. Conditions for adventive shoot formation from embryonic shoot segments were established, thus allowing cloning of embryos. A procedure was worked out for suspension culture and agar plating of cell groups. (author)

  18. Preparation of bio-based keratin-derived magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the facile and selective separation of bisphenol A from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Marjan; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2018-02-21

    In this study, new bio-based magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (∼23 nm) were synthesized from keratin extracted from chicken feathers and methacrylate-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles for its potential application in separation and removal of bisphenol A from water. The prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, alternative gradient field magnetometry, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The sorption of bisphenol A was investigated by changing the influencing factors such as pH, immersion time, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles dosage, and the initial concentration of bisphenol A. Results illustrated that sorption was very fast and efficient (Q m  = 600 mg/g) having a removal efficiency of ∼98% in 40 min of immersion. The adsorption process showed better conformity with the Weber-Morris kinetics and the Freundlich isotherm model. The selectivity of bisphenol A by adsorbent was checked in the presence of hydroquinone, phenol, tetrabromobisphenol, and 4,4'-biphenol as interferences. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Combination of size selective binding ability of 18-crown-6 dissolved in aqueous phase and extractive properties of an amic acid; toward enhancement of rare earths separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarbali, Reyhaneh; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbanloo, Massomeh [Zanjan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). PhaseEquilibria Research Lab.; Zamani, Abbasali [Zanjan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Science Research Lab.

    2016-11-15

    The separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions by an amic acid, N,N-dioctyldiglycolamic acid (HL), dissolved in carbon tetrachloride has been improved in the presence of 18-crown-6 (18C6) in aqueous phase as a selective masking agent. The interaction between the studied metal ions and 18C6 resulted a shift in the extraction curve of the studied metal ions versus pH toward higher pH region. The displacement of the extraction curves was more pronounced for lanthanum ions and was varied as La(III) > Eu(III) > Er(III). This order of complexing ability of 18C6 toward the studied ions was attributed to the size adaptation of the ions and that of the crown ether cavity. The stability constants of the lanthanide-crown ether complexes in aqueous phase were evaluated. The influence of temperature on the extraction of studied metal ions from aqueous phase in the absence and the presence of 18C6 was tested in the range 298-308 K. This investigation allowed evaluating the thermodynamic parameters associated with the extraction process and those of the complexation of cations by 18C6 in the aqueous phase.

  20. Selective separation of cesium from simulated high level liquid waste solution using 1,3-dioctyloxy calix[4]arene-benzo-crown-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas Kumar; Sharma, J.N.; Hubli, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    The 25,27-di(octyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 (CBC) in 1,3-alternate conformation was synthesized indigenously starting from its intermediates in good yield and purity. The extraction studies of CBC were carried out by using two different phase modifiers namely isodecyl alcohol and ortho-nitrophenyl hexyl ether. Detailed investigations on the effect of various parameters like, concentration of phase modifiers, aqueous phase acidity, ligand concentration, nitrate ion concentration and effect of temperature on extraction of cesium have been carried out. The concentration of phase modifiers was optimized to be 30 % in n-dodecane to ensure optimum extraction of cesium. Stoichiometry of the extracted complex determined by slope analysis method reveals 1:1:1 molar ratio for CsNO 3 :CBC:HNO 3 . The extraction process was found to be exothermic as determined from the plot of log K ex versus 1/T. The solvent system with a composition 0.01 M CBC/30 % phase modifier/n-dodecane was found to be effective for selective separation of cesium from simulated high level liquid waste solution. (author)

  1. Liquid-liquid extraction of beryllium (II) using Cyanex 923 in kerosene from sodium acetate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Pravin N.; Madane, Namdev S.; Mohite, Baburao S.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of beryllium(II) from sodium acetate media using cyanex 923 in kerosene has been carried out. Beryllium(II) was quantitatively extracted from 1x10 -1 M sodium acetate with 1x10 -2 M cyanex 923 in kerosene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 1M H 2 SO 4 and determined spectrophotometrically with eriochrome cyanine R at 525 nm. The effect of concentrations of sodium acetate, metal ions and strippants have been studied. Separation of beryllium(II) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately±2%). (author)

  2. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  3. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  4. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  5. Extraction of 2-Phenylethanol (PEA) from Aqueous Solution Using Ionic Liquids: Synthesis, Phase Equilibrium Investigation, Selectivity in Separation, and Thermodynamic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Okuniewska, Patrycja; Paduszyński, Kamil; Królikowska, Marta; Zawadzki, Maciej; Więckowski, Mikołaj

    2017-08-17

    This study assessed the effect of ionic liquids (ILs) on extraction of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) from aqueous phase. It consists the synthesis of four new ILs, their physicochemical properties, and experimental solubility measurements in water as well as liquid-liquid phase equilibrium in ternary systems. ILs are an important new media for imaging and sensing applications because of their solvation property, thermal stability, and negligible vapor pressure. However, complex procedures and nonmiscibility with water are often required in PEA extraction. Herein, a facile and general strategy using four ILs as extraction media including the synthesis of new bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide-based ILs, 1-hexyl-methylmorpholinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, [HMMOR][FSI], N-octylisoquinolinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, [OiQuin][FSI], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, [BMPYR][FSI], and N-triethyl-N-octylammonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, [N 2228 ][FSI], were investigated. The thermal properties, density, viscosity, and surface tension of new ILs were measured. Calorimetric measurements (DSC) were used to determine the melting point and the enthalpy of melting as well as the glass transition temperature and heat capacity at glass transition of the ILs. The phase equilibrium in binary systems (IL + PEA, or water) and in ternary systems {IL (1) + PEA (2) + water (3)} at temperature T = 308.15 K and ambient pressure are reported. All systems present liquid-liquid equilibrium with the upper critical solution temperature (UCST). All ILs revealed complete miscibility with PEA. In all ternary systems immiscibility gap was observed, which classified measured systems as Treybal's type II. The two partially miscible binaries (IL + water) and (PEA + water) exist in these systems. The discussion contains the specific selectivity and the solute distribution ratio of separation for the used ILs. The commonly used NRTL model was used for the correlation of the experimental binary

  6. Species selective resistance of cardiac muscle voltage gated sodium channels: characterization of brevetoxin and ciguatoxin binding sites in rats and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine Bottein; Wacksman, Jeremy J; Ramsdell, John S

    2006-11-01

    Brevetoxins (PbTxs) and ciguatoxins (CTXs) are two suites of dinoflagellate derived marine polyether neurotoxins that target the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC). PbTxs are commonly responsible for massive fish kills and unusual mortalities in marine mammals. CTXs, more often noted for human intoxication, are suspected causes of fish and marine mammal intoxication, although this has never been reported in the field. VGSCs, present in the membrane of all excitable cells including those found in skeletal muscle, nervous and heart tissues, are found as isoforms with differential expression within species and tissues. To investigate the tissue and species susceptibility to these biotoxins, we determined the relative affinity of PbTx-2 and -3 and P-CTX-1 to native VGSCs in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle of rat and the marine teleost fish Centropristis striata by competitive binding in the presence of [(3)H]PbTx-3. No differences between rat and fish were observed in the binding of PbTxs and CTX to either brain or skeletal muscle. However, [(3)H]PbTx-3 showed substantial lower affinity to rat heart tissue while in the fish it bound with the same affinity to heart than to brain or skeletal muscle. These new insights into PbTxs and CTXs binding in fish and mammalian excitable tissues indicate a species related resistance of heart VGSC in the rat; yet, with comparable sensitivity between the species for brain and skeletal muscle.

  7. Surface and interface engineering of anatase TiO2 anode for sodium-ion batteries through Al2O3 surface modification and wise electrolyte selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Gulzar, Umair; Bai, Xue; Monaco, Simone; Longoni, Gianluca; Prato, Mirko; Marras, Sergio; Dang, Zhiya; Capiglia, Claudio; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, Al2O3 is utilized for the first time as coating agent on nanostructured anatase TiO2 in order to investigate its effect on sodium-ion batteries performance. Our results show that the Al2O3 coating, introduced by a facile two-step approach, provides beneficial effects to the TiO2-based anodes. However, the coated TiO2 still suffers of capacity fading upon cycling when using 1.0 M of NaClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC) as electrolyte. To address this issue, the influence of different electrolytes (NaClO4 salt in various solvents) is further studied. It is found that the modified TiO2 exhibits significant improvements in cycling performance using binary ethylene carbonate (EC) and PC solvent mixture without the need of the commonly used fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive. Under the best configuration, our battery could deliver a high reversible capacity of 188.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1C after 50 cycles, good rate capability up to 5C, and remarkable long-term cycling stability at 1C rate for 650 cycles. This excellent performance can be ascribed to the synergistic effects of surface and interface engineering enabling the formation of a stable and highly ionic conductive interface layer in EC:PC based electrolyte which combines the native SEI film and an 'artificial' SEI layer of irreversibly formed Na-Al-O.

  8. A simple gel electrophoresis method for separating polyhedral gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhee; Lee, Hye Jin

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a simple approach to separate differently shaped and sized polyhedral gold nanoparticles (NPs) within colloidal solutions via gel electrophoresis is described. Gel running parameters for separating efficiently gold NPs including gel composition, added surfactant types and applied voltage were investigated. The plasmonic properties and physical structure of the separated NPs extracted from the gel matrix were then investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry respectively. Data analysis revealed that gel electrophoresis conditions of a 1.5 % agarose gel with 0.1 % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant under an applied voltage of 100 V resulted in the selective isolation of ~ 50 nm polyhedral shaped gold nanoparticles. Further efforts are underway to apply the method to purify biomolecule-conjugated polyhedral Au NPs that can be readily used for NP-enhanced biosensing platforms.

  9. THE UVJ SELECTION OF QUIESCENT AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: SEPARATING EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE GALAXIES AND ISOLATING EDGE-ON SPIRALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Holden, Bradford P.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    We utilize for the first time Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging to examine the structural properties of galaxies in the rest-frame U – V versus V – J diagram (i.e., the UVJ diagram) using a sample at 0.6 ☉ >10.25). The use of the UVJ diagram as a tool to distinguish quiescent galaxies from star-forming galaxies (SFGs) is becoming more common due to its ability to separate red quiescent galaxies from reddened SFGs. Quiescent galaxies occupy a small and distinct region of UVJ color space and we find most of them to have concentrated profiles with high Sérsic indices (n > 2.5) and smooth structure characteristic of early-type systems. SFGs populate a broad but well-defined sequence of UVJ colors and are comprised of objects with a mix of Sérsic indices. Interestingly, most UVJ-selected SFGs with high Sérsic indices also display structure due to dust and star formation typical of the n < 2.5 SFGs and late-type systems. Finally, we find that the position of an SFG on the sequence of UVJ colors is determined to a large degree by the mass of the galaxy and its inclination. Systems that are closer to edge-on generally display redder colors and lower [O II]λ3727 luminosity per unit mass as a consequence of the reddening due to dust within the disks. We conclude that the two main features seen in UVJ color space correspond closely to the traditional morphological classes of early- and late-type galaxies.

  10. EFECTO DE LA REDUCCIÓN DE CLORURO DE SODIO SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CALIDAD DE UNA SALCHICHA TIPO SELECCIONADA EFFECT OF REDUCTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF A SAUSAGE TYPE SELECTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Augusto Pacheco Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Una propuesta para reducir los niveles de sodio en productos cárnicos, y desarrollar productos más saludables, es disminuir la cantidad de cloruro de sodio (NaCl en las formulaciones. En este estudio fue evaluado el efecto de disminuir y sustituir NaCl por KCl modificado, sobre los niveles de sodio y las características sensoriales y microbiológicas en una salchicha tipo Seleccionada. El porcentaje de reducción y sustitución de NaCl por KCl modificado con relación a un control fue de 50 y 75%, respectivamente. La reducción de NaCl en estos niveles, causó efectos significativos (P≤0,05 sobre el contenido de sodio en el producto final en relación al control, lo que implicaría beneficios nutricionales. De otro lado, diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en las propiedades de textura, tanto a nivel instrumental como sensorial, fueron detectadas en la formulación con reducción del 75% de NaCl. En cuanto a la estabilidad microbiológica, y demás atributos sensoriales, no se detectaron diferencias entre los tratamientos y el control. Este estudio sugiere que es posible reducir la concentración de NaCl en un 50% en salchichas tipo Seleccionada mediante el uso de KCl modificado, sin cambios desfavorables en las características sensoriales y microbiológicas. Esta reducción permitiría una disminución en los niveles de sodio del 24% en el producto final.Abstract. A proposal to reduce the sodium levels in meat products to develop healthier products is to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl in the formulations. In this study, the effect of reducing NaCl and its substituting by modified KCl on sodium levels, sensory and microbiological characteristics in a selected type sausage was evaluated. The percentage of reduction and substitution of NaCl by modified KCl compared to control was 50 and 75%, respectively. The reduction of NaCl caused significant effects (P≤0.05 on the sodium content in the end product relative to the

  11. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  12. Simultaneous HPLC method for determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangkaew Lakkanatinaporn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPLC method has been developed for the separation and determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary preparations. Both drugs were separated well on a Kromasil C18 column (5 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.5% triethylamine in 1% acetic acid, pH 3 (18:82, v/v as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.5 ml/ min. The presence of both substances was monitored by UV absorption detection at 271 nm. The retention times of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline were 3.2 and 16.0 min, respectively. The performance of the developed method was tested. Linear responses of both drugs were achieved between 48-145% of labeled amount over the concentration ranges of 35-101 µg/ml and 102-306 µg/ ml for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.9980 and 0.9998, respectively. Accuracy expressed in term of recoveries were 101.4± 1.21% (n=6 for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and 99.7±0.92% (n=6 for sodium sulfaquinoxaline. Precision of the method in terms of the relative standard deviation is not more than 2% in all cases. These figures of merit indicated the validity of the developed method.

  13. Modelling the liquid-liquid extraction of nitric acid and lanthanide nitrates by tributylphosphate. Study of the influence of the aqueous phase composition on the selectivity of rare earth separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokili, Bandombele

    1992-01-01

    This research thesis reports the application of advances in the modelling of liquid-liquid extraction to a quantitative processing of the selectivity of separations. It is here applied to the extraction-based separation of lanthanide nitrates by using the tributylphosphate (TBP) in nitric environment as this system is interesting for industrial applications in hydro-metallurgy of rare earths as well as in the processing of irradiated nuclear fuels. Experimental data are acquired and then used in the Mikulin-Sergievskii-Dannus model. Complete modelling is thus obtained which allowed the complex problem of extraction of nitric acid and of lanthanide to be addressed, and the existence of a hybrid solvate to be supported. A mathematical expression of the separation factor of two lanthanides is proposed and used to highlight its influencing parameters, i.e. water activity in the aqueous phase, and the rate of the effective extraction constants of the two elements to be separated. Experimental observations are thus interpreted. The selection of optimal separation conditions is thus justified, and, in some cases, the system selectivity can be predicted [fr

  14. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  15. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  16. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  17. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  18. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  19. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  20. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  1. pH triggered superior selective adsorption and separation of both cationic and anionic dyes and photocatalytic activity on a fully exfoliated titanate layer-natural polymer based nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Saha, Arka; Panda, Asit Baran; Pal, Sagar

    2015-11-18

    A fully exfoliated titanate layer-natural polymer amylopectin based nanocomposite, with pH responsive superior selective adsorption, separation of both cationic (MB: 599 mg g(-1) at pH 9) and anionic (MO: 558 mg g(-1) at pH 3) dyes and photodegradation properties, has been realized through simultaneous in situ layered titanate formation, exfoliation and polymerization.

  2. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  3. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  4. Adsorption of a novel reagent scheme on scheelite and calcite causing an effective flotation separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuesheng; Gao, Zhiyong; Sun, Wei; Yin, Zhigang; Wang, Jianjun; Hu, Yuehua

    2018-02-15

    The efficient separation of scheelite from calcium-bearing minerals, especially calcite, remains a challenge in practice. In this work, a novel reagent scheme incorporating a depressant of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) and a collector mixture of octyl hydroxamic acid (HXMA-8) and sodium oleate (NaOl) was employed in both single and mixed binary mineral flotation, and it proved to be highly effective for the separation. Furthermore, the role of the pH value in the separation was evaluated. Additionally, the mechanism of the selective separation was investigated systemically via zeta potential measurements, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy analysis and crystal chemistry calculations. It turns out that the selective chemisorption of SHMP on calcite (in the form of complexation between H 2 PO 4 - /HPO 4 2- and Ca 2+ ) over scheelite is ascribed to the stronger reactivity and higher density of Ca ions on the commonly exposed surfaces of calcite minerals. The intense adsorption of HXMA-8 on scheelite over calcite due to the match of the OO distances in WO 4 2- of scheelite and CONHOH of HXMA-8 holds the key to the successful separation. We were also interested in warranting the previous claim that NaOl is readily adsorbed on both minerals via chemisorption. Our results provided valuable insights into the application of mixed collectors and an effective depressant for flotation separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fine-Tuned Intrinsically Ultramicroporous Polymers Redefine the Permeability/Selectivity Upper Bounds of Membrane-Based Air and Hydrogen Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja; Ghanem, Bader; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically ultramicroporous (<7 Å) polymers represent a new paradigm in materials development for membrane-based gas separation. In particular, they demonstrate that uniting intrachain “rigidity”, the traditional design metric of highly permeable

  6. New solid phase extractors for selective separation and preconcentration of mercury (II) based on silica gel immobilized aliphatic amines 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde Schiff's bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, Ezzat M.; Saleh, Mohamed B.; Ahmed, Salwa A.

    2004-01-01

    2-Thiophenecarboxaldhyde is chemically bonded to silica gel surface immobilized monoamine, ethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine by a simple Schiff's base reaction to produce three new SP-extractors, phases (I-III). The selectivity properties of these phases toward Hg(II) uptake as well as eight other metal ions: Ca(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) were extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH of metal ion solution and equilibrium shaking time by the batch equilibrium technique. The data obtained clearly indicate that the new SP-extractors have the highest affinity for retention of Hg(II) ion. Their Hg(II) uptake in mmol g -1 and distribution coefficient as log K d values are always higher than the uptake of any other metal ion along the range of pH used (pH 1.0-10.0). The uptake of Hg(II) using phase I was 2.0 mmol g -1 (log K d 6.6) at pH 1.0 and 2.0. 1.8 mmol g -1 (log K d 4.25), 1.6 mmol g -1 (log K d 3.90) and 1.08 mmol g -1 (log K d 3.37) at pH 3.0, 5.0 and 8.0, respectively. Selective separation of Hg(II) from the other eight coexisting metal ions under investigation was achieved successfully using phase I at pH 2.0 either under static or dynamic conditions. Hg(II) was completely retained while Ca(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) ions were not retained. Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Fe(III) showed very low percentage retention values to be 0.74, 0.97, 3.5 and 6.3%, respectively. Moreover, the high recovery values (95.5 ± 0.5, 95.8 ± 0.5 and 99.0% ± 1.0) of percolating two liters of doubly distilled water, drinking tap water and Nile river water spiked with 5 ng/l of Hg(II) over 100 mg of phase I packed in a minicolumn and used as a thin layer enrichment bed demonstrate the accuracy and validity of the new SP-extractors for preconcentration of the ultratrace amount of spiked Hg(II) prior to the determination by borohydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with no matrix interference. The detection

  7. Safe disposal of radioactive iodide ions from solutions by Ag2O grafted sodium niobate nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanjun; Li, Xingliang; Liu, Guoping; Yu, Qianhong; Xie, Xiang; Wei, Hongyuan; Jian, Yuan

    2016-01-14

    Radioactive iodine isotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials, and have negative effects on organisms living within the ecosystem. Thus, safe disposal of radioactive iodine is necessary and crucial. For this reason, the uptake of iodide ions was investigated in Ag2O nanocrystal grafted sodium niobate nanofibers, which were prepared by forming a well-matched phase coherent interface between them. The resulting composite was applied as an efficient adsorbent for I(-) anions by forming an AgI precipitate, which also remained firmly attached to the substrates. Due to their one-dimensional morphology, the new adsorbents can be easily dispersed in liquids and readily separated after purification. This significantly enhances the adsorption efficiency and reduces the separation costs. The change in structure from the pristine sodium niobate to Ag2O anchored sodium niobate and to the used adsorbent was examined by using various characterization techniques. The effects of Ag(+) concentration, pH, equilibration time, ionic strength and competing ions on the iodide ion removal ability of the composite were studied. The Ag2O nanocrystal grafted sodium niobate adsorbent showed a high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity for I(-) anions in basic solutions. Our results are useful for the further development of improved adsorbents for removing I(-) anions from basic wastewater.

  8. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  9. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  10. Experimental study o the sodium-concrete reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Torres, A.R.; Brito Aghina, L.O. de; Messere e Castro, P.

    1986-01-01

    Effects and aspects of security are verified during a sodium leakage in high temperatures on liners of contention cells and directly on the concrete. As this kinetic process involves reactions between materials in solid state (such as oxides and carbonates) vapors and gases (such as water and CO 2 )) with liquid sodium, effects of each phase of the heterogeneous mixture are separately analysed. Are still analysed produced products and briefly discussed the kinetic of the sodium-concrete reaction. (Author) [pt

  11. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  12. The selective conversion of glutamic acid in amino acid mixtures using glutamate decarboxylase--a means of separating amino acids for synthesizing biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yinglai; Scott, Elinor L; Sanders, Johan P M

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids (AAs) derived from hydrolysis of protein rest streams are interesting feedstocks for the chemical industry due to their functionality. However, separation of AAs is required before they can be used for further applications. Electrodialysis may be applied to separate AAs, but its efficiency is limited when separating AAs with similar isoelectric points. To aid the separation, specific conversion of an AA to a useful product with different charge behavior to the remaining compounds is desired. Here the separation of L-aspartic acid (Asp) and L-glutamic acid (Glu) was studied. L-Glutamate α-decarboxylase (GAD, Type I, EC 4.1.1.15) was applied to specifically convert Glu into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA has a different charge behavior from Asp therefore allowing a potential separation by electrodialysis. Competitive inhibition and reduced operational stability caused by Asp could be eliminated by maintaining a sufficiently high concentration of Glu. Immobilization of GAD does not reduce the enzyme's initial activity. However, the operational stability was slightly reduced. An initial study on the reaction operating in a continuous mode was performed using a column reactor packed with immobilized GAD. As the reaction mixture was only passed once through the reactor, the conversion of Glu was lower than expected. To complete the conversion of Glu, the stream containing Asp and unreacted Glu might be recirculated back to the reactor after GABA has been removed. Overall, the reaction by GAD is specific to Glu and can be applied to aid the electrodialysis separation of Asp and Glu. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  14. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  15. Measurements of the viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 liquid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

    1983-01-01

    Adding UO 2 produces an increase of viscosity of borax and sodium metaborate. For temperatures below 920 0 C the measurements with the borax-UO 2 solution show a phase separation. Contrary to borax the sodium metaborate solutions indicate a well defined melting point. At temperatures slightly below the melting point a solid phase is formed. The tested sodium-borates-UO 2 mixtures are in liquid form. (DG)

  16. Comparing the selectivity and chiral separation of d- and l- fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride protected amino acids in analytical high performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography; evaluating throughput, economic and environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, C M; Shock, D; Dennis, G R; Farrell, W; Shalliker, R A

    2017-04-14

    The chiral separation of d- and l- FMOC amino acids was undertaken using the Lux Cellulose-1 polysaccharide based chiral column in HPLC (normal phase and reverse phase) and SFC conditions. This was done to compare the relative selectivity and separation between the three separation modes and to evaluate the potential benefits of SFC separations with regards to resolution, throughput, economic and environmental impact. It was established that the separation of d- and l- FMOC amino acids in SFC displayed behaviours that were similar to both normal phase and reversed phase, rather than distinctly one or the other. Additionally, although reversed phase conditions yielded significantly higher resolution values between enantiomers across the range of amino acids studied, improvements in selectivity in SFC via the introduction of higher concentrations of formic acid in the mobile phase allowed for better resolution per unit of time. Moreover since the SFC mobile phase is composed mostly of recyclable CO 2 , there is a reduction in organic solvent consumption, which minimises the economic and environmental costs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Overflow type sodium sampler for FBTR circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Ganesan, V.; Chandran, K.; Periaswami, G.

    1996-01-01

    Obtaining a representative sample is crucial for getting reliable results in sodium analysis. Sampling liquid sodium reliability is complicated since impurities segregate while cooling. Selective sorption of certain elements calls for use of different crucible materials for various sodium impurities. Sampling methods currently in use such as flow through sampling and dip sampling are not the proper methods as they can not take care of the above problems. An overflow type sampler where the entire sample contained in a crucible can be used for analysis thus obviating problems due to segregation has been developed for use in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). This report describes the construction and operation of this sampler. (author)

  18. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of reliable analytical method for extraction and separation of thorium(IV) by Cyanex 272 in kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madane, N.S.; Mohite, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the extraction and separation of thorium(IV) from sodium salicylate media using Cyanex 272 in kerosene. Thorium(IV) was quantitatively extracted by 5 x 10 -4 M Cyanex 272 in kerosene from 1 x 10 -5 M sodium salicylate medium. The extracted thorium(IV) was stripped out quantitatively from the organic phase with 4.0 M hydrochloric acid and determined spectrophotometrically with arsenazo(III) at 620 nm. The effect of concentrations of sodium salicylate, extractant, diluents, metal ion and strippants has been studied. Separation of thorium(IV) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as multicomponent mixtures such as uranium(VI), strontium(II), rubidium(I), cesium(I), potassium(I), Sodium(I), lithium(I), lead(II), barium(II), beryllium(II) etc. Using this method separation and determination of thorium(IV) in geological and real samples has been carried out. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately ±2%). (author)

  20. Iptycene-based stationary phase with three-dimensional aromatic structure for highly selective separation of H-bonding analytes and aromatic isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Han, Ying; Qi, Meiling; Chen, Chuanfeng

    2016-05-06

    Unique structures and molecular recognition ability endow iptycene derivatives with great potential as stationary phases in chromatography, which, however, has not been explored yet. Herein, we report the first example of utilizing a pentiptycene quinone (PQ) for gas chromatographic (GC) separations. Remarkably, the statically coated capillary column with the stationary phase achieved extremely high column efficiency of 4800 plates/m. It exhibited preferential retention and high resolving capability for H-bonding and aromatic analytes and positional isomers, showing advantages over the ordinary polysiloxane phase. Moreover, the fabricated iptycene column showed excellent separation repeatability with RSD values of 0.02-0.06% for intra-day, 0.20-0.35% for inter-day and 3.1-5.5% for between-column, respectively. In conclusion, iptycene derivatives as a new class of stationary phases show promising future for their use in GC separations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans’ sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort. PMID:24456646

  2. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  3. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  4. Hydrophilic 2,9-bis-triazolyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligands enable selective Am(iii) separation: a step further towards sustainable nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alyn C; Mocilac, Pavle; Geist, Andreas; Harwood, Laurence M; Sharrad, Clint A; Burton, Neil A; Whitehead, Roger C; Denecke, Melissa A

    2017-05-02

    The first hydrophilic, 1,10-phenanthroline derived ligands consisting of only C, H, O and N atoms for the selective extraction of Am(iii) from spent nuclear fuel are reported herein. One of these 2,9-bis-triazolyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BTrzPhen) ligands combined with a non-selective extracting agent, was found to exhibit process-suitable selectivity for Am(iii) over Eu(iii) and Cm(iii), providing a clear step forward.

  5. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for separating a given material into two or more parts, in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in the said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase UF 6 by infrared photon absorption followed by selective reaction of said excited UF 6 with atomic chlorine, bromine, or iodine to form a product which may be separated by means known in the art

  6. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by selective dissociation of said excited molecules by the absorption of a single photon of visible or ultraviolet light. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 11 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  7. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  8. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  9. Stability and Selectivity of a Multiphase Membrane, Consisting of a Dimethylpolysiloxane on Ionic Liquid, Used in the Separation of Solutes from Aqueous Mixtures by Pervaporation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Köckerling, M.; Kragl, U.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, 11 (2006) , s. 947-948 ISSN 1463-9262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : separation * pervaporation * pervaporation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.192, year: 2006

  10. Amides with nitrogenous heterocyclic substituent, their manufacturing process and their use to draw out selectively Actinium series (III) and to separate them in particular from Lanthanides (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.

    1993-01-01

    Present invention is concerned with new amides with nitrogenous heterocyclic substituent utilizable to separate trivalent actinium series from trivalent lanthanides. In these molecules, it is possible to obtain particularly covalent liaison which has more affinity with 5f series, that is to say actinium series; included a manufacturing process for these amides with nitrogenous heterocyclic substituent

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) using Cyanex 272 in toluene from sodium salicylate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madane, Namdev S.; Nikam, Gurunath H.; Jadhav, Deepali V.; Mohite, Baburao S.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of U(VI) from sodium salicylate media using Cyanex 272 in toluene has been carried out. Uranium(VI) was quantitatively extracted from 1 x 10 -3 M sodium salicylate with 5 x 10 -4 M Cyanex 272 in toluene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 1M HCl and determined spectrophotometrically with arsenazo(III) at 660 nm. The effect of concentrations of sodium salicylate, extractant, diluents, metal ion and strippants have been studied. Separation of uranium(VI) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method was extended to determination of uranium(VI) in geological samples. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately ± 2%). (author)

  12. Gram-scale solution-phase synthesis of selective sodium bicarbonate co-transport inhibitor S0859: in vitro efficacy studies in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann M; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Lauritzen, Gitte; Olesen, Christina W; Honoré Hansen, Steen; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Pedersen, Stine F; Bunch, Lennart

    2012-10-01

    Na(+)-coupled HCO(3)(-) transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer, a malignant and widespread cancer with no targeted treatment options, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NBCn1 genetically link to breast cancer development and hypertension. The N-cyanosulfonamide S0859 has been shown to selectively inhibit NBCs, and its availability on the gram scale is therefore of significant interest to the scientific community. Herein we describe a short and efficient synthesis of S0859 with an overall yield of 45 % from commercially available starting materials. The inhibitory effect of S0859 on recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load was verified in human and murine cancer cell lines in Ringer solutions. However, S0859 binds very strongly to components in plasma, and accordingly, measurements on isolated murine tissues showed no effect of S0859 at concentrations up to 50 μM. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Development of method for determination of Sodium monochloroacetate and sodium dichloroacetate in Cocoamido Propyl Betaine by gas chromatography: FID, ECD and MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo Miyada; Amaral, Priscila Oliveira; Bustillos, Oscar Vega

    2015-01-01

    Cocoamide Propyl Betaine is a feedstock for consumer products of cosmetic and household segments. Sodium monochloroacetate and sodium dichloroacetate impurities are toxic, irritating and harmful to the environment and lower concentrations - parts per million level - are required in process control of producers and regulatory affairs. Regarding analytical test method, two conditions should be met: quantification limit, precision and accuracy should be appropriate; different techniques for gas chromatography - ECD, FID and MS - should be available, since for manufacturer is not so easy to keep electron capture detector by radioactive source Ni 63 due to government control and need of qualified radiological protection. The samples are obtained at manufacturers; for the analyte separation, treatment methodologies are employed by liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction. Alternative detectors used in this study are: Flame Ionization and Mass Spectrometer with Electron Ionization. The validation process will be applied to methodology to ensure a selective, robust, accurate and reproducible analytical determination. (author)

  14. Development of method for determination of Sodium monochloroacetate and sodium dichloroacetate in Cocoamido Propyl Betaine by gas chromatography: FID, ECD and MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo Miyada; Amaral, Priscila Oliveira; Bustillos, Oscar Vega, E-mail: claudio.leao@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Cocoamide Propyl Betaine is a feedstock for consumer products of cosmetic and household segments. Sodium monochloroacetate and sodium dichloroacetate impurities are toxic, irritating and harmful to the environment and lower concentrations - parts per million level - are required in process control of producers and regulatory affairs. Regarding analytical test method, two conditions should be met: quantification limit, precision and accuracy should be appropriate; different techniques for gas chromatography - ECD, FID and MS - should be available, since for manufacturer is not so easy to keep electron capture detector by radioactive source Ni 63 due to government control and need of qualified radiological protection. The samples are obtained at manufacturers; for the analyte separation, treatment methodologies are employed by liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction. Alternative detectors used in this study are: Flame Ionization and Mass Spectrometer with Electron Ionization. The validation process will be applied to methodology to ensure a selective, robust, accurate and reproducible analytical determination. (author)

  15. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  16. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  17. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  18. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  19. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  20. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  1. Laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re and Tc

  2. Laser isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re, and Tc. 9 claims, 1 drawing figure

  3. An equilibrium model for ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration. Selective separation of metal ions using iminoacetic substituted polyamines and a theoretical model for the titration behavior of polyamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmawardana, Udeni Rajaratna [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters. Chapter 1, An equilibrium model for ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration, describes a theoretical model and experimental investigations which used the semi-equilibrium-dialysis method with N-n-dodecyl iminodiacetic acid as the ligand. In Chapter 2, Selective separation of metal ions using iminoacetic substituted polyamines, polyamines with a substituted ligand group are synthesized and used in investigating selective separation of copper ions from aqueous solution. In Chapter 3, A theoretical model for the titration behavior of polyamines, a novel approach to explain the titration behavior of polymeric amines based on the binding behavior of counterions is described. The application of this study is to the investigation of inexpensive and efficient methods of industrial waste water treatment.

  4. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the isotope separation art and, more particularly, to a selectively photon-induced energy level transition of an isotopic molecule containing the isotope to be separated and a chemical reaction with a chemically reactive agent to provide a chemical compound containing atoms of the isotope desired. In particular a description is given of a method of laser isotope separation applied to the separation of 235 UF 6 from 238 UF 6 . (U.K.)

  5. Muzzle secretion electrolytes as a possible indicator of sodium status in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves: effects of sodium depletion and aldosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Singh, S P

    1981-01-01

    In two separate experiments, the effects of sodium depletion and aldosterone administration on sodium and potassium concentrations in muzzle secretion, saliva and urine were studied in buffalo calves. Sodium deficiency in the animals was experimentally produced by unilateral parotid saliva deprivation for 18 days. During sodium depletion, the sodium levels in saliva and muzzle secretion gradually fell while the potassium level gradually rose. The concentrations of both of these cations in urine gradually fell during the course of sodium depletion. Aldosterone administration in normal (sodium-replete) animals simulated the effects of sodium depletion as far as cationic changes in saliva were concerned. However, aldosterone did not affect sodium and potassium concentration in the urine and in muzzle secretion in a manner similar to that caused by sodium depletion. Though the hormone decreased urinary sodium without affecting urinary potassium, it did not affect the muzzle sodium or potassium. Results suggest that aldosterone affects the composition of saliva and urine in buffaloes as it does in sheep and other ruminants. Similar changes in composition of muzzle secretion and saliva during sodium depletion indicate that the concentration of sodium in muzzle secretion could possibly be used to evaluate the sodium status of animals.

  6. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  7. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  8. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  10. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  11. Highly efficient extraction and selective separation of uranium (VI) from transition metals using new class of undiluted ionic liquids based on H-phosphonate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrougui, Ramzi; Mdimagh, Raouf; Raouafi, Nourreddine

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we report the development of an environmental friendly process to decontaminate uranium-containing ores and nuclear wastes by using non-fluorinated ionic liquids (ILs). The main advantages of this extraction process are the absence of any organic diluent and extra extraction agents added to the organic phase. Moreover, the process is cost-effective and maybe applied as a sustainable hydrometallurgical method to recover uranium. The distribution ratio (D U ) and the extraction efficiency (%E) of uranium(VI) (UO 2 2+ ) were found to be dependent on the acidity of the aqueous phase, the extraction time, the alkyl chain length in the ILs, the concentration of the aqueous feed and molar quantity of ILs. The D U value is higher than 600 and the %E is equal to 98.6% when [HNO 3 ]=7M. The extraction reactions follows a neutral partition or ionic exchange mechanism depending on nitric acid concentration. The nature of bonding in the extracted complexes was investigated by spectroscopic techniques. The potential use of Mor 1-8 -OP for the separation of UO 2 2+ from a mixture containing transition metal ions M n+ was also examined. The UO 2 2+ ions were separated and extracted efficiently. These ILs are promising candidates for the recovery and separation of uranium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. First principle study of sodium decorated graphyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Utpal, E-mail: utpalchemiitkgp@yahoo.com [Assam University, Silchar (India); Bhattacharya, Barnali [Assam University, Silchar (India); Seriani, Nicola [The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-05

    Highlights: • Presence of Na decreases the stability of the system. • Na-decorated graphyne compounds are metallic and might be used in electronics. • The sodium-adsorbed graphyne can be used as electrodes in Na-ion battery. - Abstract: We present first-principles calculations of the electronic properties of Na-decorated graphyne. This structure of the graphyne family is a direct band gap semiconductor with a band gap of 0.44 eV in absence of sodium, but Na-decorated graphyne compounds are metallic, and can then be employed as carbon-based conductors. Metallization is due to charge donation from sodium to carbon. Pristine graphyne is more stable than Na-decorated graphyne, therefore is seems probable that, if this material should be employed as electrode in Na-ion batteries, it would lead to the formation of metallic sodium rather than well dispersed sodium ions. On the other side, this property might be useful if graphyne is employed in water desalination. Finally, the abrupt change from a semiconducting to a metallic state in presence of a small amount of sodium might be exploited in electronics, e.g. for the production of smooth metal–semiconductor interfaces through spatially selective deposition of sodium.

  13. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  14. Flotation separation of arsenopyrite from several sulphide minerals with organic depressants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fuliang; Wang Ligang; Sun Chuanyao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the separation of arsenopyrite from chalcopyrite,pyrite,galena with organic depressants (guergum and sodium humic)was discussed,and the functioning mechanism of those organic depressants was dis-cussed.The experimental results of monomineral flotation indicated that both guergum and sodium humic have depress-ing effect on arsenopyrite in the presence of ethyl xanthate.Guergum and sodium humic showed different depressing a-bility to pyrite,chalcopyrite and galena,and the higher the pH value in pulp,the stronger the depressing ability.Ultra-violet-Visible Spectrophotometric study showed that the adsorption layer of xanthate on surface of minerals had been de-sorbed by the two organic depressants,and the selective desorption of the collector layer was found from different miner-als.The xanthate cover on minerals surface was set free when dosage of the organic depressants was high enough.For artificially-mixed minerals,the separation of arsenopyrite from other sulphides was successfully realized by controlling dosage of the organic depressants.And sodium humic had been used successfully to decrease arsenic content in sulphide concentr ates in a commercial Lead-Zinc concentrator.

  15. Annual report 1974. Sodium technology development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The sodium technology development program comprises a number of separate research programs in the field of designing and testing parts and components for the SNR-300 reactor. Design studies and theoretical studies on cold trapping and the behavior of hydrogen in sodium circuits are reported. A preliminary test program for fighting sodium fires is completed. Results of research done on vibration measurements and counter-current mixing in a dummy tube bundle of a S.N.R. spiralized steam generator with counter-current flow are reported briefly. Research done in the field of heat transfer, pressure drop and bubble dynamics of a straight pipe steam generator are also briefly reported. To determine the influence of spiral diameter of the spiralized pipe on heat transfer in a spiralized pipe heat exchanger, a second testsection will be built in 1975. Research was reported on pump viscoseals, bearing stability, rotordynamics and bearing materials for sodium pumps. Research done on the properties of SNR-construction materials at high temperature and long time exposure and corrosion in sodium are reported. Fundamental research on corrosion accompanied this research. The report closes with results of weldability, mechanized-welding and remote welding of sodium-wetted surfaces

  16. Separation and Concentration of Succinic Adic from Multicomponent Aqueous Solutions by Nanofiltration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the determined suitability of nanofiltration (NF membrane separation for selective isolation and concentration of succinic acid from aqueous solutions which are post-fermentation multicomponent fluids. The study analyzed the influence of concentration and the pH of the separated solutions on the efficiency and selectivity of NF process that runs in a module equipped with a ceramic membrane. Moreover, the effect of applied trans-membrane pressure on the retention of succinic acid and sodium succinate has been studied. The investigations have shown that in the used NF module the retention of succinic acid salt is equal almost 50% in the case of a three-component model solution, although the degree of retention depends on both the transmembrane pressure and the initial concentration of separated salt.

  17. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  18. The sodium process facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    regulated waste. It was decided to convert the hydroxide to sodium carbonate, a substance that is not RCRA regulated. ANL-W undertook the task of upgrading the SPF, and designing and constructing the additional carbonate process. At the time of preparation of this paper, the facilities were undergoing testing and startup activities. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters (13,000 gallons) of the EBR-II secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters (87,000 gallons) of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-levels of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter (71 gallon) barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal. (author)

  19. Separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Sauer, N.; Chamberlin, R.M.; Gottesfeld, S.; Mattes, B.R.; Li, D.Q.; Swanson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO 2 thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO 2 films in reaction with chlorophenol

  20. Estimating the population distribution of usual 24-hour sodium excretion from timed urine void specimens using a statistical approach accounting for correlated measurement errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Chen, Te-Ching; Loria, Catherine M; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Liu, Kiang; Sempos, Christopher T; Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    High US sodium intake and national reduction efforts necessitate developing a feasible and valid monitoring method across the distribution of low-to-high sodium intake. We examined a statistical approach using timed urine voids to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. A sample of 407 adults, aged 18-39 y (54% female, 48% black), collected each void in a separate container for 24 h; 133 repeated the procedure 4-11 d later. Four timed voids (morning, afternoon, evening, overnight) were selected from each 24-h collection. We developed gender-specific equations to calibrate total sodium excreted in each of the one-void (e.g., morning) and combined two-void (e.g., morning + afternoon) urines to 24-h sodium excretion. The calibrated sodium excretions were used to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. Participants were then randomly assigned to modeling (n = 160) or validation (n = 247) groups to examine the bias in estimated population percentiles. Median bias in predicting selected percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th) of usual 24-h sodium excretion with one-void urines ranged from -367 to 284 mg (-7.7 to 12.2% of the observed usual excretions) for men and -604 to 486 mg (-14.6 to 23.7%) for women, and with two-void urines from -338 to 263 mg (-6.9 to 10.4%) and -166 to 153 mg (-4.1 to 8.1%), respectively. Four of the 6 two-void urine combinations produced no significant bias in predicting selected percentiles. Our approach to estimate the population usual 24-h sodium excretion, which uses calibrated timed-void sodium to account for day-to-day variation and covariance between measurement errors, produced percentile estimates with relatively low biases across low-to-high sodium excretions. This may provide a low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-h collections in monitoring population sodium intake among healthy young adults and merits further investigation in other population subgroups. © 2015 American

  1. Separation of chemical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzepis, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Isotopic separation is accomplished by (1) a second photon irradiation step for selective ionization of a first isotopic species and (2) selective precipitation of a generally immiscible liquid from the saturating vapor phase on the ionized species. The first photon corresponds with a sharply defined spectral portion of the irradiation which exclusively excites the first species to a vibrational level. The second photon further excites this species to its ionization level. Selective precipitation is by coulombic attraction between the ionized species and the vapor. The procedure is applicable to any vapor phase ionizable material

  2. Selective separation of iron from uranium in quantitative determination of traces of uranium by alpha spectrometry in soil/sediment sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, R K; Narayanan, Usha; Karpe, Rupali; Kumar, Ajay; Ranade, A; Ramachandran, V

    2009-04-01

    During this work, controlled redox potential methodology was adopted for the complete separation of traces of uranium from the host matrix of mixed hydroxide of Iron. Precipitates of Fe(+2) and Fe(+3) along with other transuranic elements were obtained from acid leached solution of soil by raising the pH to 9 with 14N ammonia solution. The concentration of the uranium observed in the soil samples was 200-600 ppb, whereas in sediment samples, the concentration range was 61-400 ppb.

  3. System design study of a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Y.; Konomura, M.; Hori, T.; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor was designed as one of promising concepts. In the membrane reformer, methane and steam are reformed into carbon dioxide and hydrogen with sodium heat at a temperature 500 deg-C. In the equilibrium condition, steam reforming proceeds with catalyst at a temperature more than 800 deg-C. Using membrane reformers, the steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 to 500 deg-C because the hydrogen separation membrane removes hydrogen selectively from catalyst area and the partial pressure of hydrogen is kept much lower than equilibrium condition. In this study, a hydrogen and electric co-production plant has been designed. The reactor thermal output is 375 MW and 25% of the thermal output is used for hydrogen production (70000 Nm 3 /h). The hydrogen production cost is estimated to 21 yen/Nm 3 but it is still higher than the economical goal (17 yen/Nm 3 ). The major reason of the high cost comes from the large size of hydrogen separation reformers because of the limit of hydrogen separation efficiency of palladium membrane. A new highly efficient hydrogen separation membrane is needed to reduce the cost of hydrogen production using membrane reformers. There is possibility of multi-tube failure in the membrane reformers. In future study, a design of measures against tube failure and elemental experiments of reaction between sodium and reforming gas will be needed. (authors)

  4. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  5. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  6. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.C.; Brewer, J.; Forster, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  7. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Meyer, Dirk C. [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Leipziger Str. 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Schilm, Jochen [Fraunhofer-Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Leisegang, Tilmann [Fraunhofer-Technologiezentrum Halbleitermaterialien THM, Am St.-Niclas-Schacht 13, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    -based separators. Two prominent examples, the lithium-ion and sodium-sulfur battery, are described to show the current stage of development. New routes are presented as promising technologies for safe and long-life electrochemical storage cells.

  8. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2014-06-01

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ("Energiewende") was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators

  9. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  10. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  11. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    regression coefficient value of above 0.99. ... The powdered pattern of the sample was determined by X-ray ... brines and supplied by the Qinghai Lithium Co. ... Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (GBC-932 AAS, Australia).

  12. Ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolites from sodium salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takuji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohtani, Tozo.

    1978-01-01

    The ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution has been studied in zeolite A, zeolite X, zeolite Y, mordenite and clinoptilolite. The distribution of cesium into mordenite from about 1 -- 2 M sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide solutions is considerably larger than that into zeolite A. The distribution coefficient for 2 M solution of sodium salts was about 300. Therefore, the separation of cesium from sodium salt solution is possible by using mordenite. The distribution of strontium into zeolites form 1 -- 2 M solutions of sodium chloride and sodium nitrate were in the order of zeolite A>zeolite X>zeolite Y asymptoticaly equals mordenite. The distribution coefficient of 230 was obtained for 1 M solutions of sodium salts. The anion in solutions had no effect on the distribution of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution. (author)

  13. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  14. Advances in laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, I.P.; Bernhardt, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The physical and chemical concepts required to understand laser isotope separation are presented and discussed. The numerous successful demonstrations of separating isotopes using lasers are reviewed to 1983. Emphasis is placed on the separation of 235-U from 238-U by multi-step selective ioniation of uranium atomic vapor, and on the separation of D and H and of T from D, by pulsed infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation of fluoroform and chloroform, respectively, because they are among the most successful and important examples of laser isotope separation to date. 161 refs.; 7 figs

  15. A novel, environmentally friendly sodium lauryl ether sulfate-, cocamidopropyl betaine-, cocamide monoethanolamine-containing buffer for MEKC on microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeman, Kurt W; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2008-12-01

    A new buffer has been developed for fast, high-efficiency separations of amino acids by MEKC. This buffer was more environmentally friendly than the most commonly used surfactant-containing buffers for MEKC separations. It used a commercially available dishwashing soap by Seventh Generation (Burlington, VT, USA), which contained three micelle-forming agents. The mixed micelles were composed of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (anionic), cocamidopropyl betaine (zwitterionic), and cocamide monoethanolamine (non-ionic). The optimized buffer contained 5.0% w/w Seventh Generation Free & Clear dishwashing soap, 10 mM sodium borate, and was completely void of organics. The lack of organics and the biodegradability of the surfactant molecules made this buffer more environmentally friendly than typical SDS-containing buffers. This new buffer also had a different selectivity and provided faster separations with higher separation efficiencies than SDS-based buffers. Fast separations of BODIPY FL labeled amino acids yielded peaks with separation efficiencies greater than 100,000 in less than 20 s.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of the selective phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, cilostazol, and antioxidants, enzymatically-modified isoquercitrin and α-lipoic acid, reduce dextran sulphate sodium-induced colorectal mucosal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangawa, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Abe, Hajime; Seto, Yoshiki; Miyashita, Taishi; Nakamura, Michi; Kihara, Tohru; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-04-04

    Developing effective treatments and preventing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are urgent challenges in improving patients' health. It has been suggested that platelet activation and reactive oxidative species generation are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. We examined the inhibitory effects of a selective phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor, cilostazol (CZ), and two antioxidants, enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) and α-lipoic acid (ALA), against dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. BALB/c mice were treated with 0.3% CZ, 1.5% EMIQ, and 0.2% ALA in their feed. Colitis was induced by administering 5% DSS in drinking water for 8days. The inhibitory effects of these substances were evaluated by measuring relevant clinical symptoms (faecal blood, diarrhoea, and body weight loss), colon length, plasma cytokine and chemokine levels, whole genome gene expression, and histopathology. Diarrhoea was suppressed by each treatment, while CZ prevented shortening of the colon length. All treatment groups exhibited decreased plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α compared with the DSS group. Microarray analysis showed that cell adhesion, cytoskeleton regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, which might be related to inflammatory cell infiltration and mucosal healing, were affected in all the groups. DSS-induced mucosal injuries such as mucosal loss, submucosal oedema, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the distal colon were prevented by CZ or antioxidant treatment. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of these agents reduced DSS-induced mucosal injuries in mice and, therefore, may provide therapeutic benefits in IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Adding sodium information to casual dining restaurant menus: Beneficial or detrimental for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Karen; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard F; Behnke, Carl; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2018-06-01

    High sodium levels in restaurant food have prompted Philadelphia and New York City to require inclusion of sodium content in addition to calories on menus to "nudge" consumers toward lower sodium foods. However, taste perceptions may impact the effectiveness of this intervention. An online survey tested whether sodium and calorie menu nutrition information (MNI) influenced consumer choices from a casual dining restaurant menu, accounting for consumers' intuition about taste of food relative to sodium, calories, and healthiness. Consumer choices were assessed based on calorie and sodium content of the menu items they selected. Participants were randomized to a menu with (1) calorie MNI only, (2) calorie plus numeric sodium MNI, (3) calorie MNI plus a sodium warning symbol for foods with 2300 mg of sodium or more, or (4) no MNI. Calorie plus numeric sodium MNI was associated with selection of meals lower in sodium compared to meals from the calorie MNI only menu or no MNI menu, but only for consumers with a taste intuition that (relatively) lower sodium, lower calorie, healthy foods were tasty. Consumers with the opposite taste intuition *(foods with these characteristics are not tasty) ordered meals higher in sodium. Inclusion of the sodium warning symbol did not result in a significantly different meal sodium content compared to the other menu conditions, regardless of taste intuition. However, differing levels of taste intuition alone, without consideration of MNI, was associated with ordering meals of significantly different calorie content. Overall, findings suggest adding calorie plus numeric sodium MNI may lead to beneficial outcomes (i.e., selecting meals lower in sodium) for some consumers and detrimental outcomes (i.e., selecting meals higher in sodium) for others, depending on their taste intuition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pseudo-stationary separation materials for highly parallel separations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anup K.; Palmer, Christopher (University of Montana, Missoula, MT)

    2005-05-01

    Goal of this study was to develop and characterize novel polymeric materials as pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography. Fundamental studies have characterized the chromatographic selectivity of the materials as a function of chemical structure and molecular conformation. The selectivities of the polymers has been studied extensively, resulting in a large body of fundamental knowledge regarding the performance and selectivity of polymeric pseudostationary phases. Two polymers have also been used for amino acid and peptide separations, and with laser induced fluorescence detection. The polymers performed well for the separation of derivatized amino acids, and provided some significant differences in selectivity relative to a commonly used micellar pseudostationary phase. The polymers did not perform well for peptide separations. The polymers were compatible with laser induced fluorescence detection, indicating that they should also be compatible with chip-based separations.

  19. Method of removing bulk sodium from metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffei, H.P.; Borisch, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    A process of removing sodium from an article, particularly one made of stainless steel, by treating it with a mixture of water vapor and a gas which is inert to sodium is described. By selecting combinations of temperature and water vapor-to-gas ratio, the reaction temperature is controlled to prevent damage to the articles

  20. Design study on simplification of secondary sodium cooling system for sodium cooled FBRs. Study result from JFY2000 to JFY2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Toru; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Konomura, Mamoru

    2002-09-01

    For the 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor System' , various concepts with the simplified secondary sodium cooling system were designed, and the feasibility of technical issues was evaluated by focusing on improvement of economy and safety, especially elimination or mitigation of sodium-water direct interaction on heat transfer tube failure accident. In JFY 2000, 8 concepts with inert intermediate media were evaluated from standpoints of economy, safety, and structure integrity. And as promising candidates, the Pb-Bi pool type SG and the Pb-Bi tube type SG (concentric triple-walled tube) were selected, which had low cost compared with conventional IHX and SG system, and had potential of eliminating sodium-water direct interaction by separation of sodium and water tube zone. In JFY 2001, for the Pb-Bi tube type SG, important technical issues on 'Pb-Bi triple-walled tube specification suitable for safety demand', 'safety frame work corresponded to tube failure accident', and 'measures for Pb-Bi leakage into primary sodium loop' were studied, and the SG concept was constructed. In order to eliminate the design supposition of guillotine failure, available design measures for tube specification were tried to extract. But based on vibration characteristics of Pb-Bi triple-walled tube, the time required difference between outer and inner tube failure could not increase largely compared with known double-walled tube. The Pb-Bi tube type SG had potential of cost reduction (81% of cooling system, and 97% of plant), compared with conventional IHX and SG. But finally it was judged that design study on this type SG would not be executed after JFY 2002, due to impossibility of eliminating the design supposition of guillotine failure. (author)

  1. A comparative study of economical separation and aggregation properties of biologically capped and thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles: selecting the eco-friendly trojan horses for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sunil; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Shah, Ritu; Oza, Goldie; Mewada, Ashmi; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-09-01

    We are presenting facile bio-fabrication of extremely stable gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (commonly called Neem) and its comparison with most commonly used glutathione (GSH) protected GNPs in terms of stability under physiological conditions, seperation using density gradient centrifugation and aggregation properties in the solution. There was dual peak at 536 and 662 nm indicating the presence of non-spherical GNPs including triangles, rods and hexagons in case of A. indica mediated GNPs unlike citrate stabilized GNPs which exhibited single sharp peak. Spherical GNPs were separated from the consortium of uniquely shaped nanoparticles bio-fabricated using A. indica leaf extract using sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC).To comprehend the anti-agglomeration potentials of A. indica leaf mediated GNPs and GSH-GNPs under physiological conditions, flocculation parameters (FP) were calculated and found to be least for A. indica leaf mediated GNPs, indicating their exceptional stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermo- and pH-responsive poly(A-ProOMe)-graft-poly(AAc) membrane for selective separation of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shin; Maekawa, Yasunari; Yoshida, Masaru; Ohashi, Hitoshi; Katakai, Ryoichi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the permeation behavior of Li, Co, and Ni ions through thermo- and pH-responsive gel membranes, which were prepared by γ-ray grafting of pH-responsive poly(acrylic acid) (poly(AAc)) onto a thermo-responsive polymer gel of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester (A-ProOMe). Using 15% AAc grafted membranes, the permeation constants of Li ions are 2.8 and 3.5 times higher than those of Co and Ni ions in a pH 6.0 buffer solution at 30degC. These ratios are two and three times higher than those of 5 and 43% grafted gel membranes, respectively. By comparison with the permeation of metal ions through the non-thermo-responsive porous polyethylene membranes grafted with AAc chains or random copolymer gel membranes (poly(A-ProOMe-co-AAc)), it is clear that the structure in which adjacent carboxyl groups of poly(AAc) are surrounded by thermo-responsive A-ProOMe matrix causes selective permeability of Li ion over Co and Ni ions. The distributions of Co and Ni ions in the microscopic structures clearly show that the structure consisting of flexible chains of the carboxyl groups grafted onto the thermo-response gel membrane plays a decisive role in the superior selective permeation of a Li ion. (author)

  3. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  4. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 15 claims, 1 figure

  5. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The instant invention relates to an improved process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same element in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than non-excited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  6. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  7. Adsorption property of Br-PADAP-impregnated multiwall carbon nanotubes towards uranium and its performance in the selective separation and determination of uranium in different environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamirchi, Ramzanali; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Alahabadi, Ahmad; Sivamani, Selvaraju; Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl; Shahryari, Taher; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Miri, Mohammad; Tran, Hai Nguyen

    2018-04-15

    A newer efficient U(VI) ion adsorbent was synthesized by impregnating Br-PADAP [2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)phenol] onto multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The effects of various operation conditions on uranium adsorption (i.e., pH contact time, temperature, and initial uranium concentration) were systematically evaluated using batch experiments. The results indicated that the uranium adsorption on modified MWNCTs (5.571 × 10 -3 g/mg × min) reached faster equilibrium than that on pristine MWNCTs (4.832 × 10 -3 g/mg × min), reflecting the involvement of appropriate functional groups of Br-PADAP on the chelating ion-exchange mechanism of U(VI) adsorption. Modified MWNCTs (83.4mg/g) exhibited significantly higher maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity than pristine MWNCTs (15.1mg/g). Approximately 99% of uranium adsorbed onto modified MWNCTs can be desorbed by 2.5mL of 1M HNO 3 solution. Therefore, Br-PADAP-modified MWNCTs can server as a promising adsorbent for efficient uranium adsorption applications in water treatment. Subsequently, the proposed solid-phase extraction (using a mini-column packed with Br-PADAP/MWCNT) was successfully utilized for analysing trace uranium levels by the ICP-AES method in different environmental samples with a pre-concentration factor of 300-fold. The coexistence of other ions demonstrated an insignificant interference on the separative pre-concentration of uranium. the detection limit was recognized as 0.14μg/L, and the relative standard deviation was approximately 3.3% (n = 7). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  9. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  10. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  11. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  12. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emile, B.F.M.

    1983-11-01

    A process is claimed for isotopic separation applied to isotopes of elements that can be placed in at least a physicochemical form in which the isotopic atoms or the molecules containing these atoms can be easily displaced and for which there are selective radiations preferentially absorbed by the isotopes of a certain type or by the molecules containing them, said absorption substantially increasing the probability of ionization of said atoms or molecules relative to the atoms or molecules that did not absorb the radiation. The process consists of placing the isotopic mixture in such a form, subjecting it in a separation zone to selective radiations and to an electrical field that produces migration of positive ions toward the negative electrodes and negative ions toward the positive electrodes, and withdrawing from certain such zones the fractions thus enriched in certain isotopes

  13. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  14. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  15. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  16. Isotope separation using tunable lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snavely, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Various processes for laser isotope separation based upon the use of the spectroscopic isotope effect in atomic and molecular vapors are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon processes which are suitable for uranium enrichment. A demonstration process for the separation of uranium isotopes using selective photoionization is described. (U.S.)

  17. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.

    1962-04-17

    A method of separating uranium oxides from PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and other actinide oxides is described. The oxide mixture is suspended in a fused salt melt and a chlorinating agent such as chlorine gas or phosgene is sparged through the suspension. Uranium oxides are selectively chlorinated and dissolve in the melt, which may then be filtered to remove the unchlorinated oxides of the other actinides. (AEC)

  18. Sodium removal by alcohol process: Basic tests and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have various methods for sodium removal; an alcohol cleaning process, a steam cleaning process and a direct burning process. Sodium removal by the alcohol process has a lot of advantages, such as causing no alkali corrosion to steel, short processing time and easy operation. Therefore the alcohol process was selected for the 1MWt double wall tube straight type steam generator. We have already had some experiences of the alcohol process, while still needed to confirm the sodium removal rate in the crevice and to develop an on-line sodium concentration monitoring method in alcohol during sodium removal. We have conducted the small scale sodium removal test with flowing alcohol where the sodium removal rate in the crevice and the alcohol conductivity were measured as functions of sodium concentration in alcohol and alcohol temperature. The sodium removal of the DWTSG was conducted by the devised alcohol process safely and efficiently. The process hour was about 1 day. Visual inspection during dismantling of the DWTSG showed no evidence of any un-reacted sodium. (author)

  19. Laser separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for separating uranium isotopes are claimed. The method comprises the steps of irradiating a uranyl source material at a wavelength selective to a desired isotope and at an effective temperature for isotope spectral line splitting below about 77 deg.K., further irradiating the source material within the fluorescent lifetime of the source material to selectively photochemically reduce the excited isotopic species, and chemically separating the reduced isotope species from the remaining uranyl salt compound

  20. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensafi, Ali A. [College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir; Ghaderi, Ali R. [College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-09-05

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 {mu}g of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ng mL{sup -1} Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ng mL{sup -1} Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments.