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Sample records for selective intraarterial dsa

  1. Gadofosveset-enhanced MR angiography of the pedal arteries in patients with diabetes mellitus and comparison with selective intraarterial DSA

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    Roehrl, Boris; Kunz, Rainer Peter; Oberholzer, Katja; Pitton, Michael Bernhard; Dueber, Christoph; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Neufang, Achim [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    To compare gadofosveset-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the pedal vasculature with selective intraarterial DSA. Eighteen patients with PAOD and type II diabetes were prospectively examined at 1.5 T. For contrast enhancement, 0.03 mmol/kg body weight gadofosveset was used. MR imaging consisted of dynamic and of high-resolution steady-state imaging. Selective digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed within 5 days and served as standard of reference. Image analysis was done by two observers. There were no differences between MRA and DSA regarding overall image quality. First-pass MRA detected significantly more patent vessel segments than did DSA (P < 0.001, kappa = 0.46). Interobserver agreement of MRA was very good with respect to the detection of patent vessel segments and the assessment of hemodynamically relevant stenoses (kappa = 0.97 and 0.89, respectively). Steady-state imaging depicted significantly more patent metatarsal arteries than did dynamic imaging, and delineated inflammatory complications including osteomyelitis, soft-tissue abscesses, and fistulas related to the diabetic foot. Gadofosveset-enhanced MRA of the pedal vasculature proved to be superior to DSA. It offered a long imaging time window, and allowed for better depiction of the pedal outflow. Steady-state imaging delineated inflammatory complications associated with the diabetic foot. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension by three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography - comparison with selective intraarterial DSA; Kontrastmittelverstaerkte dreidimensionale MR-Angiographie der Lungenarterien bei Patienten mit chronisch-rezidivierender Lungenembolie - Vergleich mit der selektiven intraarteriellen DSA

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    Kreitner, K.F.; Ley, S.; Kauczor, H.U.; Kalden, P.; Pitton, M.B.; Thelen, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Mayer, E. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie; Laub, G. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Unternehmensbereich Medizinische Technik

    2000-02-01

    Purpose: This study compares contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography (MRA) of the pulmonary arteries with selective intraarterial DSA in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Materials and methods: 20 patients preoperatively underwent a contrast-enhanced 3D-MRA of the pulmonary arteries at 1.5 T using the phased-array body coil. For MRA, we used a 3D-Flash-sequence after bolus timing. 2 radiologists analyzed the acquired image material in consensus with respect to the detection of central thromboembolic material and the visualization of the pulmonary arterial tree. Finally, the MR angiograms were compared with selective DSA images using surgical findings as the definitive standard. Results: MRA demonstrated central thromboembolic material, vessel cut-offs and abnormal proximal-to-distal tapering in all patients. Compared to DSA, MRA depicted the pulmonary vessels up to the segmental level in all cases, it was inferior to DSA in delineation of the subsegmental arteries (sensitivity 87%, specificity 100%). The central beginning of the thromboembolic occlusions seen at MRA corresponded to the beginning of the deobliteration procedure during pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in every case. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bestimmung der Wertigkeit der KM-verstaerkten 3D-MR-Angiographie der Lungenarterien bei Patienten mit thromboembolisch bedingter pulmonalarterieller Hypertonie. Methoden: 20 Patienten wurden praeoperativ mittels einer KM-verstaerkten 3D-MR-Angiographie (MRA) der Lungengefaesse bei 1,5 T unter Verwendung einer Phased-array-Koerperspule untersucht. Zur MRA wurde eine 3D-Flash-Sequenz verwendet, deren Timing durch einen Testbolus optimiert wurde. Es wurden 20 ml Gd-DTPA und nachfolgend 20 ml NaCl mit einem Fluss von jeweils 2 ml/s maschinell appliziert. Das erhaltene Bildmaterial wurde von zwei Radiologen im Konsens und in Unkenntnis angiographischer und operativer Befunde analysiert. Selektive DSA-Untersuchungen und der intraoperative Situs

  3. CT angiography versus intraarterial DSA in abdominal aortic aneurysms; CT-Angiographie versus intraarterielle DSA bei Bauchaortenaneurysmen

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    Rieker, O. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Dueber, C. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Schmiedt, W. [Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Neufang, A. [Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Pittow, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Schweden, F. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    To evaluate if CT angiography is able to image all features necessary for the preoperative planning of abdominal aortic aneurysms (accessory renal arteries, stenoses or occlusions of renal and iliac arteries, patency of inferior mesentric artery). CT angiography and DSA were performed on 27 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. CT angiography was performed using a protocol that covered the abdominal aorta and the pelvic arteries with a single spiral acquisition (contrast dose: 150 ml, collimation: 5 mm, table feed: 7.5 mm/s, increment of reconstruction: 2 mm). Maximum intensity projections (MIP) and axial scans were compared with the results of intraarterial DSA. Using axial scans and subvolume MIP, CTA accurately defined 7/8 accessory renal arteries, 13/13 occlusions and 9/12 high grade stenoses of renal and pelvic arteries. High-grade stenoses of the iliac arteries were underestimated in two cases and overlooked in one case. CT angiography was superior to DSA in imaging the inferior mesenteric artery. CT angiography precisely diagnosed 33 aneurysms of the iliac, renal and coeliac arteries. CT angiography using a single administration of intravenous contrast may replace preoperative DSA in most cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Studie war es zu pruefen, ob mit der CT-Angiographie die fuer die praeoperative Planung von Bauchaortenaneurysmen relevanten Gefaessveraenderungen darstelbar sind (Akzessorische Nierenarterien, Nierenarterienstenosen, A. mesenterica inferior, Beckenarterien). Die CT-Angiographien wurden mit einem Protokoll durchgefuehrt, das die Bauchaorta und die Beckenarterien bis zur Leiste mit einer einzigen Spiralakquisition erfasst (150 ml Kontrastmittel, Kollimation: 5 mm, Tischvorschub: 7,5 mm/s, Rekonstruktionsintervall: 2 mm). Die Befunde aus Maximum-Intensitaets-Projektionen (MIP) und den axialen Schnittbildern wurden mit den Befunden der intraarteriellen DSA bei 27 Patienten verglichen. Bei Hinzuziehung von

  4. Superselective intra-arterial DSA in patients with femoral head necrosis and femoral neck fracture. Superselektive intraarterielle DSA bei Hueftkopfnekrose und Schenkelhalsfraktur

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    Langer, R.; Scholz, A.; Langer, M.; Astinet, F.; Ferstl, F.; Felix, R. (Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik); Schwetlick, G. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik)

    1991-06-01

    The prospective study includes 25 patients without pathology of the femoral head for the evaluation of the normal femoral head perfusion. In addition 34 patients with femoral head necrosis underwent i.a. DSA preoperatively before pedicled pelvic bone grafting. 15 patients after pelvic bone graft operation and 7 patients with medial femoral head fracture were also examined via superselective DSA. In cases with femoral head necrosis a rarefaction or interruption of the rami nutricii proximales, or an occlusion of the medial circumflex femoral artery were observed. Patients with medial femoral neck fracture showed an interruption of the rami nutricii proximales of the femoral head. Postoperative DSA - after pedicled pelvic bone graft - revealed a regular arterial graft perfusion in 82%. (orig.).

  5. Intravenous spiral CT angiography for assessment before orthotopic liver transplantation: Comparison between tomography, MIP, 3-dimensional surface imaging and intraarterial DSA; Intravenoese Spiral-CT-Angiographie zur Evaluation vor orthotoper Lebertransplantation: Vergleiche zwischen Schnittbilddarstellung, MIP, dreidimensionaler Oberflaechendarstellung und intraarterieller DSA

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    Hidajat, N. [Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Vogl, T.J. [Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Moeller, M. [Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Bechstein, W.O. [Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemein- und Transplantationschirurgie; Felix, R. [Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik

    1996-11-01

    Purpose: To analyse the efficacy of intravenous spiral CT angiography (SCTA) for the evaluation before orthotopic liver transplantation (oLT) compared with DSA. Methods: Spiral CT was performed on 31 potential recipients of a liver graft in order to examine hepatic vessels, coeliac axis, splenic artery and superior mesenteric artery. The arterial vessels were reconstructed in `Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP)` and `Shaded Surface Display (SSD)`-technique. The axial images, MIP and SSD were compared in 25 patients with DSA with regard to the visualisation of the vascular anatomy, detectability of stenosis and vascular diameters. Results: The type of arterial liver supply could be determined via SCTA in all patients. Stenosis of the coeliac axis was seen in ten patients on the DSA, MIP and SSD and in eight patients on the axial images. Occlusion of the hepatic artery was clearly visualised in two patients on the DSA, axial images and MIP and in one patient on the SSD. There was no false positive diagnosis with SCTA. SSD was seen as the best technique to visualise the vessels without overshadowing. There were no significant differences between the diamters measured from the axial images, MIP and SSD images in transversal direction and the DSA images (p>0.05). Conclusion: SCTA is a greatly promising method for the imaging of vessels supplying the liver before oLT, and may convey more diagnostic information than DSA. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Bewertung der Einsetzbarkeit in intravenoesen Spiral-CT-Angiographie (SCTA) zur Evaluation vor orthotoper Lebertransplantation (oLT) im Vergleich zur DSA. Methoden: Es wurde bei 31 Patienten vor moeglicher oLT eine SCTA der Lebergefaesse einschliesslich des Truncus coeliacus, der A. lienalis und A. mesenterica superior durchgefuehrt. Die arteriellen Gefaesse wurden mittels `Maximum-Intensitaets-Projektion (MIP)`- und `Oberflaechenschattierungs(SSD)`-Technik rekonstruiert. Die Schnittbilder, MIP und SSD, wurden bei 25 Patienten

  6. Endovascular Hypothermia in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Pilot Study of Selective Intra-Arterial Cold Saline Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Liqiang; Zhang, Hongqi; Geng, Xiaokun; Jiao, Liqun; Li, Guilin; Coutinho, Jonathan M; Ding, Yuchuan; Liebeskind, David S; Ji, Xunming

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a pilot feasibility and safety study of selective brain cooling with intra-arterial infusion of cold saline combined with endovascular reperfusion for acute ischemic stroke. Patients with large-vessel occlusion within 8 hours after symptom onset were enrolled. All patients received intra-arterial recanalization combined with infusion of cold isotonic saline (4°C) in the ischemic territory through the angiographic catheter. Twenty-six patients underwent the procedure, which was technically successful in all. The temperature of ischemic cerebral tissue was decreased by at least 2°C during infusion of the cold solution, and systemic temperature was mildly reduced (maximum 0.3°C). No obvious complications related to intra-arterial hypothermia were observed. Selective brain cooling by intra-arterial infusion of cold saline combined with endovascular recanalization therapy in acute ischemic stroke seems feasible and safe. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. O DSA

    OpenAIRE

    Čadová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with problems of comparing the safety and running time of digital signatures DSA and Schnorr. Digital signature is almost full, legally recognized alternative to physical sign, intended for use in a digital environment. Digital signature uses asymmetric codes and hash functions which are easily described, as well as other basic concepts such as discrete logarithm and cyclic groups. The thesis deals with the analysis of possible attacks on DSA and compares DSA and Schnorr alg...

  8. Endovascular Hypothermia in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Pilot Study of Selective Intra-Arterial Cold Saline Infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Liqiang; Zhang, Hongqi; Geng, Xiaokun; Jiao, Liqun; Li, Guilin; Coutinho, Jonathan M.; Ding, Yuchuan; Liebeskind, David S.; Ji, Xunming

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a pilot feasibility and safety study of selective brain cooling with intra-arterial infusion of cold saline combined with endovascular reperfusion for acute ischemic stroke. Patients with large-vessel occlusion within 8 hours after symptom onset were enrolled. All patients received

  9. Transbrachial selective carotid DSA in outpatients: safety and efficacy; Diagnostische Sicherheit und Effizienz ambulanter transbrachialer selektiver Karotisangiographien

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    Rosen, T.; Poretti, F.; Vorwerk, D. [Klinikum Ingolstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Krawczynski, H. [Klinikum Ingolstadt (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik, Gefaesschirurgie

    2003-02-01

    Purpose: To describe safety and efficacy of transbrachial selective carotid digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in outpatients. Materials and Methods: From July 1999 to November 2001, selective carotid angiography was performed in 141 outpatients preferably using a left brachial arterial approach. The average age of the patients was 68 years (range: 39-89 years). After flush aortography through a 4F-pigtail catheter, bilateral selective common carotid artery (CCA) catheterization was performed with 4F-Sidewinder-1 or Sidewinder-2 catheters. In 49 patients, Doppler-sonography was performed before or after arteriography. A total of 41 patients underwent carotid surgery. Results: Selective catheterization of the CCA was successful in 96% of the cases. The diagnostic quality of the opacified aortra and CCA images was good to excellent. The overall complication rate did not exceed 2.1%, and severe complications were not observed. One patient showed transient neurological symptoms and another mild nausea and agitation, probably as toxic reaction to the contrast medium. A single local hematoma developed after unsuccessful puncture of the brachial artery. Conclusion: Transbrachial selective carotid DSA is safe, reliable and well-tolerated in outpatients and achieves a superimposition-free CCA visualization. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Ziel der Arbeit ist, die Technik der transbrachialen selektiven Karotis-DSA zu beschreiben, und die Sicherheit und Effizienz der Methode bei ambulanten Patienten zu evaluieren. Material und Methodik: Von Juli 1999 bis November 2001 wurden bei insgesamt 141 ambulanten Patienten selektive Karotisangiographien in digitaler Subtraktionstechnik (DSA) durchgefuehrt. Das durchschnittliche Patientenalter betrug 68 Jahre (39-89 Jahre). Vorzugsweise wurde ein transbrachialer Zugangsweg von links gewaehlt und nach Darstellung des Aortenbogens mittels 4F-Pigtailkatheter die A.carotis communis (ACC) beidseits selektiv mit einem 4F-Sidewinder-1- oder

  10. Facial nerve paralysis after super-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, S; Iwai, T; Oguri, S; Koizumi, T; Mitsudo, K; Tohnai, I

    2017-06-01

    Facial nerve paralysis (FNP) after super-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (SSIAC) is a relatively rare local side effect of SSIAC to the maxillary artery (MA) or the middle meningeal artery (MMA). The incidence and prognosis of FNP after SSIAC in 381 patients with oral cancer (133 with catheterization of the MA, 248 without) was investigated retrospectively. Only three patients (two male and one female) had FNP, for an incidence of 0.8%. All patients with FNP had undergone catheterization of the MA, and the incidence of FNP in this group was 2.3% (3/133). One of the three patients with FNP had paralysis of the third branch of the trigeminal nerve. FNP occurred a mean of 8.7 days (range 5-11 days) after initial SSIAC, and the mean total dose of cisplatin was 55.8mg (range 42.5-67.2mg) and of docetaxel was 25.4mg (range 17.0-33.6mg). FNP resolved completely a mean of 12.7 months (range 6-19 months) after onset. Because the administration of anticancer agents via the MA or MMA carries a risk of FNP, this information will be useful when obtaining informed consent from patients before treatment. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the aortoiliac arteries with the blood pool agent Vasovist {sup registered}: initial results in comparison to intra-arterial DSA; Diagnostische Wertigkeit der kontrastverstaerkten Magnetresonanzangiografie der Beckenstrombahn mit dem intravaskulaeren Kontrastmittel Vasovist {sup registered}: Erste klinische Erfahrungen im Vergleich zur i. a. DSA

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    Vogt, F.M. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Uniklinikum Essen (Germany); Herborn, C.U.; Goyen, M. [Medizinische Praeventions Centrum Hamburg (Germany); Parsons, E.C. [Imaging Applications, EPIX Pharmaceuticals (Germany); Kroeger, K. [Klinik fuer Angiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Barkhausen, J. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the aortoiliac arteries using the blood pool agent Vasovist {sup registered} compared to unenhanced time-of-flight MRA. Conventional digital subtraction angiography served as the standard of reference. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with suspected or known peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) were examined by means of contrast-enhanced aortoiliac MR angiography using a dosage of 0.03 mmol/kg bodyweight Vasovist {sup registered}. Unenhanced two-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) MRA of the same anatomic region was performed immediately prior to injection of the contrast agent. This study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Both contrast-enhanced and unenhanced MRA images were compared to conventional angiography with respect to the presence of vascular stenosis. Three independent, blinded readers evaluated vessel stenosis and occlusion on the basis of DSA and MR angiographic image readings. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were analyzed. Correlations between readers of conventional angiograms were calculated and compared to the MR results. Results: In the case of pooled readings, unenhanced TOF MR angiography had a sensitivity of 42.6 %, a specificity of 78.4 % and an accuracy of 74.9 % for detection of clinically significant (> 50 %) stenosis. Vasovist-enhanced MRA showed significant improvement in sensitivity (83.3 %), specificity (88.8 %) and accuracy (88.3 %) compared to TOF MRA (p < 0.01). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for quantitative measurements increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the case of Vasovist-enhanced MRA compared to TOF MRA. All readers found fewer images uninterpretable with Vasovist enhancement and the agreement regarding stenosis location and degree of stenosis between MR

  12. Role of selective intra-arterial embolization in benign liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Puchol, M D; Parra Casado, C La; Cervera Araez, A; Sala López, R; Esteban Hernández, E; Cremades Mira, A; Ramiro Gandia, R

    To present cases of symptomatic benign liver tumors diagnosed and treated with intra-arterial embolization before surgery. We present the cases of 7 patients diagnosed with symptomatic benign liver tumors that required treatment: 1 focal nodular hyperplasia, 2 giant cavernous hemangiomas, 1 hepatic adenomatosis, and 3 hepatic adenomas. Once the feeding arteries were identified, tumors were embolized with polyvinyl alcohol particles (500μm-700μm) and then the feeding artery was plugged with coils if there was an arterial pedicle to ensure the total vascular exclusion of the tumor. The surgical intervention took place 4 to 7 days after embolization. All 7 patients were women (age range, 23-74 years); presurgical intra-arterial embolization was done in 6. In 1 patient with adenomatosis, embolization was done to control intraparenchymal hepatic hemorrhage. In the 6 patients who underwent surgery, the tumor was completely excised and no intraoperative bleeding events or postoperative complications occurred. Provided there is a consensus among the multidisciplinary team, embolization is a useful option in the perioperative management of giant and/or symptomatic benign liver tumors. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of thrombosis in the portal venous system: comparison of contrast-enhanced MR angiography with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, B; Strunk, H; Flacke, S; Wolff, M; Conrad, R; Gieseke, J; Pauleit, D; Bachmann, R; Hirner, A; Schild, H H

    2000-07-01

    To determine whether intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can be replaced by contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in the assessment of patency or thrombosis of the portal venous system in patients with portal hypertension. Thirty-six patients with portal hypertension underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography and intraarterial DSA for assessment of the portal venous system. The images were evaluated for vessel patency or thrombosis of the portal, splenic, or superior mesenteric vein. Of the 101 vessels evaluated, 42 were thrombosed. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of thrombosis were 100%, 98%, and 99%, respectively, for MR angiography and 91%, 100%, and 96%, respectively, for DSA; differences between the imaging methods were not statistically significant. Only in four patients with six vessels (6%) were there discordant findings between MR angiography and DSA. Noninvasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography has the potential to replace intraarterial DSA as the standard method to assess the whole portal venous system.

  14. Regional transfemoral intraarterial chemotherapy by means of selective catheter placement. Method and clinical results

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    Piroth, H.D.; Hoffmanns, H.W.; Heuser, Y.; Weise, W.; Gross, L.

    1986-02-01

    In a retrospective study on 108 arterial transfemoral perfusion treatments with cytostatic drugs, the authors describe the proceding and the response of patients shown by tumor markers, computed tomography, histologic findings, and subjective assessment by the patients. Then follows a critical discussion of the complication rate of a therapy which has proved since 1980 to be a valuable and effective treatment method. The objective remission rate was 67%, and a subjective response was observed in 75% of all cases. Compared to systemic chemotherapy, the tolerance was clearly better. Only in one case we found an arterial embolism which was treated by conservative measures. Intraarterial perfusion of cytostatic drugs is within the scope of palliative measures a very effective and, above all, relatively nonstressful treatment with regard to quality of life and survival time. This interventional therapy method should be offered by the radiologist to the clinical oncologist.

  15. Selective intra-arterial administration of {sup 18}F-FDG to the rat brain - effects on hemispheric uptake

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    Arnberg, Fabian; Samen, Erik; Lundberg, Johan; Grafstroem, Jonas; Soederman, Michael; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Holmin, Staffan [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital-Solna, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lu, Li [Karolinska University Hospital-Solna, KERIC, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the radioligand uptake and iodine contrast distribution in the intra- and extracranial circulation of the rat, after intra-arterial injections to the common carotid artery and different parts of the internal carotid artery. All animal experiments were carried out in accordance with Karolinska Institutet's guidelines and were approved by the local laboratory animal ethics committee. We used clinical neurointerventional systems to place microcatheters in the extra- or intracranial carotid artery of 15 Sprague-Dawley rats. Here, injection dynamics of iodine contrast was assessed using digital subtraction angiography. Maintaining the catheter position, the animals were placed in a micro PET and small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) was used to analyze injections [2-{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG). Microcatheters had to be placed in the intracranial carotid artery (iICA) for the infusate to distribute to the brain. Selective injection via the iICA resulted in a 9-fold higher uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the injected hemisphere (p < 0.005) compared to both intravenous and more proximal carotid artery injections. Furthermore, selective injection gave a dramatically improved contrast between the brain and extracranial tissue. Intra-arterial injection increases the cerebral uptake of a radiotracer dramatically compared to systemic injection. This technique has potential applications for endovascular treatment of malignancies allowing intra-interventional modifications of injection strategy, based on information on tumor perfusion and risk to surrounding normal parenchyma. Furthermore the technique may increase diagnostic sensitivity and avoid problems due to peripheral pharmacological barriers and first passage metabolism of labile tracers. (orig.)

  16. Manufacturability considerations for DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Richard A.; Hosler, Erik R.; Schmid, Gerard M.; Xu, Ji; Preil, Moshe E.; Rastogi, Vinayak; Mohanty, Nihar; Kumar, Kaushik; Cicoria, Michael J.; Hetzer, David R.; DeVilliers, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Implementation of Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) as a viable lithographic technology for high volume manufacturing will require significant efforts to co-optimize the DSA process options and constraints with existing work flows. These work flows include established etch stacks, integration schemes, and design layout principles. The two foremost patterning schemes for DSA, chemoepitaxy and graphoepitaxy, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Chemoepitaxy is well suited for regular repeating patterns, but has challenges when non-periodic design elements are required. As the line-space polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate chemoepitaxy DSA processes mature, considerable progress has been made on reducing the density of topological (dislocation and disclination) defects but little is known about the existence of 3D buried defects and their subsequent pattern transfer to underlayers. In this paper, we highlight the emergence of a specific type of buried bridging defect within our two 28 nm pitch DSA flows and summarize our efforts to characterize and eliminate the buried defects using process, materials, and plasma-etch optimization. We also discuss how the optimization and removal of the buried defects impacts both the process window and pitch multiplication, facilitates measurement of the pattern roughness rectification, and demonstrate hard-mask open within a back-end-of-line integration flow. Finally, since graphoepitaxy has intrinsic benefits in terms of design flexibility when compared to chemoepitaxy, we highlight our initial investigations on implementing high-chi block copolymer patterning using multiple graphoepitaxy flows to realize sub-20 nm pitch line-space patterns and discuss the benefits of using high-chi block copolymers for roughness reduction.

  17. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the pulmonary arteries using a flow-directed balloon catheter in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

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    Rooij, W.J.J. van; Heeten, G.J. den (St. Elisabethziekenhuis Tilburg, Dept. of Radiology (Netherlands))

    1992-04-01

    Selective intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of the pulmonary vessels was performed in 70 patients suspected of acute pulmonary embolism. A flow-directed Swan-Ganz pulmonary angiography catheter was used. The spatial resolution of the equipment used was 3.3 lp/mm for DSA and 6.0 lp/mm for conventional pulmonary angiography (CPA). Image quality of the angiograms was assessed by determining the highest visible branching division of the main pulmonary artery. The mean visible branching division for IA-DSA was 4.71 (range 3-7). In 10 patients where IA-DSA and CPA were performed during the same procedure there was no difference in visualization of peripheral arteries (mean 4.70 visible or for both modalities). IA-DSA makes the procedure rapid, saves on films and contrast material and allows good visualization of areas where exposure is difficult. The spatial resolution of state-of-the-art equipment permits sufficient definition of subsegmental vessels. The use of the flow-directed balloon catheter makes the examination easy to perform and minimizes the risk of catheter induced cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.).

  18. Metrology of DSA process using TEM tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Peretz, Tamar; Winterstein, Jonathan; Ren, Jiaxing; Biswas, Mahua; Liddle, J. Alexander; Elam, Jeffery W.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu N. S.; Zaluzec, Nestor; Nealey, Paul F.

    2015-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) is a rising technique for sub-20 nm patterning. To fully harness DSA capabilities for patterning, a detailed understanding of the three dimensional (3D) structure of BCPs is needed. By combining sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography, we have characterized the 3D structure of self-assembled and DSA BCPs films with high precision and resolution. SIS is an emerging technique for enhancing pattern transfer in BCPs through the selective growth of inorganic material in polar BCP domains. Here, Al2O3 SIS was used to enhance the imaging contrast and enable tomographic characterization of BCPs with high fidelity. Moreover, by utilizing SIS for both 3D characterization and hard mask fabrication, we were able to characterize the BCP morphology as well as the alumina nanostructures that would be used for pattern transfer.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance angiography versus intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography to follow-up patients with coiled intracranial aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Joanna D.; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Buskens, Erik; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Rinkel, Gabriël J.E.

    Background and Purpose-: To follow up patients with coiled intracranial aneurysms, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a promising noninvasive alternative to current standard intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA). MRA test results do not always concord with those of IA-DSA, and

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Magnetic Resonance Angiography Versus Intra-arterial Digital Subtraction Angiography to Follow-Up Patients With Coiled Intracranial Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Joanna D.; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Buskens, Erik; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.

    Background and Purpose-To follow up patients with coiled intracranial aneurysms, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a promising noninvasive alternative to current standard intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA). MRA test results do not always concord with those of IA-DSA, and

  1. Intraoperative Localization of Vascular Malformation of Small Bowel by Selective Intra-arterial Dye Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshpuniyani, Priya B.; Kantharia, Chetan V.; Prabhu, RamKrishna Y.; Supe, Avinash N.

    2010-01-01

    Angiomatous malformation is the most common vascular abnormality, accounting for 30-40% cases of obscure GI bleeding from small bowel. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice in severe or recurrent hemorrhage requiring multiple blood transfusions. However, the diffuse nature of the lesions poses a challenge to localize them accurately preoperatively, for exact resection. We present a case in which we have used selective mesenteric angiography with selective cannulation and exact localization of the lesion by injecting dye such as methylene blue, indigo carmine, and fluorescein, to localize the angiomatous malformation before surgical resection and also to determine the exact resection to be done. PMID:20871200

  2. Continuous Selective Intra-Arterial Application of Nimodipine in Refractory Cerebral Vasospasm due to Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cerebral vasospasm is one of the leading courses for disability in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Effective treatment of vasospasm is therefore one of the main priorities for these patients. We report about a case series of continuous intra-arterial infusion of the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine for 1–5 days on the intensive care unit. Methods. In thirty patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and refractory vasospasm continuous infusion of nimodipine was started on the neurosurgical intensive care unit. The effect of nimodipine on brain perfusion, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and blood flow velocity in cerebral arteries was monitored. Results. Based on Hunt & Hess grades on admission, 83% survived in a good clinical condition and 23% recovered without an apparent neurological deficit. Persistent ischemic areas were seen in 100% of patients with GOS 1–3 and in 69% of GOS 4-5 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow and computed tomography perfusion scanning showed adequate correlation with nimodipine application and angiographic vasospasm. Transcranial Doppler turned out to be unreliable with interexaminer variance and failure of detecting vasospasm or missing the improvement. Conclusion. Local continuous intra-arterial nimodipine treatment for refractory cerebral vasospasm after aSAH can be recommended as a low-risk treatment in addition to established endovascular therapies.

  3. Continuous selective intra-arterial application of nimodipine in refractory cerebral vasospasm due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Stephanie; Jedlicka, Sheila; Wolf, Stefan; Peter, Mozes; Pudenz, Christine; Merker, Patrick; Schürer, Ludwig; Lumenta, Christianto Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm is one of the leading courses for disability in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Effective treatment of vasospasm is therefore one of the main priorities for these patients. We report about a case series of continuous intra-arterial infusion of the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine for 1-5 days on the intensive care unit. In thirty patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and refractory vasospasm continuous infusion of nimodipine was started on the neurosurgical intensive care unit. The effect of nimodipine on brain perfusion, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and blood flow velocity in cerebral arteries was monitored. Based on Hunt & Hess grades on admission, 83% survived in a good clinical condition and 23% recovered without an apparent neurological deficit. Persistent ischemic areas were seen in 100% of patients with GOS 1-3 and in 69% of GOS 4-5 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow and computed tomography perfusion scanning showed adequate correlation with nimodipine application and angiographic vasospasm. Transcranial Doppler turned out to be unreliable with interexaminer variance and failure of detecting vasospasm or missing the improvement. Local continuous intra-arterial nimodipine treatment for refractory cerebral vasospasm after aSAH can be recommended as a low-risk treatment in addition to established endovascular therapies.

  4. [Diagnostic value of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) using Toshiba Digiformer X in the cerebrospinal vascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T; Nakagawa, Y; Sawamura, Y; Kobayashi, N; Nagashima, M; Kitaoka, K; Kitagawa, M; Itoh, T; Ohsato, T

    1987-05-01

    Using TOSHIBA Digiformer X, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 286 patients, in whom 229 patients of cerebro-spinal vascular disease was included. The authors emphasize the usefulness of DSA in cerebro-spinal vascular disease in relation to conventional angiography. DSA taken by single small dose injection of contrast medium into the ascending aorta clearly demonstrates not only aortic arch and thoracic major vessels, but also cervical vessels and all intracranial vessels. Therefore, we could rapidly understand gross dynamics of the circulation and obtain useful informations prior to catheterization to the selective artery. This advantage of DSA was particularly useful for occlusive vascular diseases. Gradual injection of small dose of contrast medium obviously reduced recoiling of the catheter tip, which enabled the selective angiography with setting of the tip of the catheter at the entrance of cervical major vessels without its sufficient insertion into the selective vessels. This advantage is particularly beneficial for the patients with severe arteriosclerosis who was found to be difficult for selective catheterization. In our experience, demonstration of a presence of aneurysm by DSA was possible in almost all cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, although spatial resolution of DSA is said to be inferior to the conventional angiography. Real time display of DSA decreased the time required for examination and enabled repeated angiography. This advantage of DSA is especially useful for the patients with spinal arterio-venous malformation and thoracic outlet syndrome.

  5. Selective boron delivery by intra-arterial injection of BSH-WOW emulsion in hepatic cancer model for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Dewi, Novriana; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Seguchi, Koji; Mizumachi, Ryoji; Murata, Yuji; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Mikado, Shoji; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Fujihara, Mitsuteru; Sakurai, Yuriko; Mouri, Kikue; Yanagawa, Masashi; Iizuka, Tomoya; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Fujino, Takashi; Ogura, Koichi; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Yui, Sho; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Takamoto, Sinichi; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Hasumi, Kenichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) has been used to inhibit the growth of various types of cancers. In this study, we developed a (10)BSH-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion, evaluated it as a selective boron carrier for the possible application of BNCT in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. We prepared the (10)BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion using double emulsification technique and then evaluated the delivery efficacy by performing biodistribution experiment on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour model with comparison to iodized poppy-seed oil mix conventional emulsion. Neutron irradiation was carried out at Kyoto University Research Reactor with an average thermal neutron fluence of 5 × 10(12) n cm(-2). Morphological and pathological analyses were performed on Day 14 after neutron irradiation. Biodistribution results have revealed that (10)B atoms delivery with WOW emulsion was superior compared with those using iodized poppy-seed oil conventional emulsion. There was no dissemination in abdomen or lung metastasis observed after neutron irradiation in the groups treated with (10)BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion, whereas many tumour nodules were recognized in the liver, abdominal cavity, peritoneum and bilateral lobes of the lung in the non-injected group. Tumour growth suppression and cancer-cell-killing effect was observed from the morphological and pathological analyses of the (10)BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion-injected group, indicating its feasibility to be applied as a novel intra-arterial boron carrier for BNCT. Advances in knowledge: The results of the current study have shown that entrapped (10)BSH has the potential to increase the range of therapies available for hepatocellular carcinoma which is considered to be one of the most difficult tumours to cure.

  6. Proactive DSA application and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, T.; Hamilton, V.; Istrail, G.

    1998-05-03

    Data authentication as provided by digital signatures is a well known technique for verifying data sent via untrusted network links. Recent work has extended digital signatures to allow jointly generated signatures using threshold techniques. In addition, new proactive mechanisms have been developed to protect the joint private key over long periods of time and to allow each of the parties involved to verify the actions of the other parties. In this paper, the authors describe an application in which proactive digital signature techniques are a particularly valuable tool. They describe the proactive DSA protocol and discuss the underlying software tools that they found valuable in developing an implementation. Finally, the authors briefly describe the protocol and note difficulties they experienced and continue to experience in implementing this complex cryptographic protocol.

  7. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Takemi; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Fijihara, Mitsuteru; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of (10)B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared (10)BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), (10)BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. The (10)B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that (10)B entrapped WOW emulsion could be applied to novel intra-arterial boron delivery carrier

  8. Transcatheter intraarterial therapies: rationale and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Robert J; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Liapi, Eleni; Salem, Riad

    2011-06-01

    Transcatheter intraarterial therapies have proved valuable in the battle against primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. The unique aspects of all such therapies are their reduced toxicity profiles and highly effective tumor responses. These unique characteristics coupled with their minimally invasive nature provide an attractive therapeutic option in patients who may have previously had few alternatives. The concept of all catheter-based intraarterial therapies is to selectively deliver anticancer treatment to tumor(s). These therapies, which include transarterial embolization, intraarterial chemoinfusion, transarterial chemoembolization with or without drug-eluting beads, and radioembolization with use of yttrium 90, inflict lethal insult to tumors while preserving normal hepatic parenchyma. This is possible because hepatic neoplasms preferentially derive their blood supply from an arterial source while the majority of noncancerous liver is supplied by the portal vein. As part of the interventional oncology review series, in this article we describe the rationale behind each of these transcatheter therapies and provide a review of the existing medical literature. RSNA, 2011

  9. Application of neutron capture autoradiography to Boron Delivery seeking techniques for selective accumulation of boron compounds to tumor with intra-arterial administration of boron entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikado, S.; Yanagie, H.; Yasuda, N.; Higashi, S.; Ikushima, I.; Mizumachi, R.; Murata, Y.; Morishita, Y.; Nishimura, R.; Shinohara, A.; Ogura, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Iikura, H.; Ando, H.; Ishimoto, M.; Takamoto, S.; Eriguchi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Kimura, M.

    2009-06-01

    It is necessary to accumulate the 10B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve an accurate measurement of 10B accumulations in the biological samples, we employed a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of sliced samples of tumor tissues using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 track detectors attached with the biological samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the JRR3 of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We obtained quantitative NCAR images of the samples for VX-2 tumor in rabbit liver after injection of 10BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion by intra-arterial injection via proper hepatic artery. The 10B accumulations and distributions in VX-2 tumor and normal liver of rabbit were investigated by means of alpha-track density measurements. In this study, we showed the selective accumulation of 10B atoms in the VX-2 tumor by intra-arterial injection of 10B entrapped WOW emulsion until 3 days after injection by using digitized NCAR images (i.e. alpha-track mapping).

  10. Application of neutron capture autoradiography to Boron Delivery seeking techniques for selective accumulation of boron compounds to tumor with intra-arterial administration of boron entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikado, S. [Physical Science Laboratories, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: mikado@cit.nihon-u.ac.jp; Yanagie, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yasuda, N. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Higashi, S.; Ikushima, I. [Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Mizumachi, R.; Murata, Y. [Department of Pharmacology, Kumamoto Institute Branch, Mitsubishi Chemical Safety Institute Ltd., Kumamoto (Japan); Morishita, Y. [Department of Human and Molecular Pathology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, R. [Faculty of Agriculture, Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, University of Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, A. [Department of Humanities, The Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Ogura, K. [Physical Science Laboratories, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan); Sugiyama, H. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Iikura, H.; Ando, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishimoto, M. [Department of Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo (Japan); Takamoto, S. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, M. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Syowa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Department of Physics, Toho University, Chiba (Japan)

    2009-06-21

    It is necessary to accumulate the {sup 10}B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve an accurate measurement of {sup 10}B accumulations in the biological samples, we employed a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of sliced samples of tumor tissues using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 track detectors attached with the biological samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the JRR3 of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We obtained quantitative NCAR images of the samples for VX-2 tumor in rabbit liver after injection of {sup 10}BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion by intra-arterial injection via proper hepatic artery. The {sup 10}B accumulations and distributions in VX-2 tumor and normal liver of rabbit were investigated by means of alpha-track density measurements. In this study, we showed the selective accumulation of {sup 10}B atoms in the VX-2 tumor by intra-arterial injection of {sup 10}B entrapped WOW emulsion until 3 days after injection by using digitized NCAR images (i.e. alpha-track mapping)

  11. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu, E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakamura, Takemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, Syushi [Dept of Surgery, Ebihara Memorial Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan)] [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Ikushima, Ichiro [Dept of Radiology, Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Morishita, Yasuyuki [Dept of Human and Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, Atsuko [Dept of Humanities, Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Fijihara, Mitsuteru [SPG Techno Ltd. Co., Miyazaki (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirotaka [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kajiyama, Tetsuya [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Nishimura, Ryohei [Dept of Veternary Surgery, University of Tokyo Veternary Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru [Dept of Cardiothracic Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, Masazumi [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Shin-Yamanote Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between {sup 10}B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of {sup 10}B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared {sup 10}BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), {sup 10}BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The {sup 10}B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that {sup 10}B

  12. What promotes derected self assembly (DSA)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S.T.

    2016-09-01

    A low-energy electron beam (EB) can create self-interstitial atoms (SIA) in a solid and can cause directed self-assembly (DSA), e.g. {3 1 1}{sub SIA} platelets in c-Si. The crystalline structure of this planar defect is known from experiment to be made up of SIAs that form well aligned 〈1 1 0〉 atomic rows on each (3 1 1) plane. To simulate the experiment we distributed Frenkel pairs (FP) randomly in bulk c-Si. Then making use of a molecular dynamic (MD) simulation, we have reproduced the experimental result, where SIAs are trapped at metastable sites in bulk. With increasing pre-doped FP concentration, the number of SIAs that participate in DSA tends to be increased but soon slightly supressed. On the other hand, when the FP concentration is less than 3%, a cooperative motion of target atoms was characterized from the long-range-order (LRO) parameter. Here we investigated the correlation between DSA and that cooperative motion, by adding a case of intrinsic c-Si. We confirmed that the cooperative motion slightly promote DSA by assisting migration of SIAs toward metastable sites as long as the FP concentration is less than 3%, however, it is essentially independent of DSA.

  13. [Intra-arterial fibrinolysis in vertebrobasilar system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Duque, C H; de Juan-Delago, M; Muñoz-Casadevall, J; Martí-Fábregas, J; Franquet, E; Ruscalleda-Nadal, J; Guardia-Mas, E

    The acute vertebrobasilar occlussion is usually a life-treatening disease leading to death or major disability. The treatment with heparin and the selective fibrinolysis no show good results, for this reason the local intra-arterial fibrinolysis appear as the choice treatment in patients with stroke and a agiography with basilar artery occlussion or intracranial vertebral artery occlusion. This tecnique has been proved to be effective treatment for selected patients with acute thromboembolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, ophthalmic artery and vertebrobasilar system, reducing the mortality in the vertebrobasilar system from 90% to 40%. We present a 63 years-old man with a vertebrobasilar thrombosis of a probable cardioembolic origen. He was treated with r-TPA local intra-arterial fibrinolysis, to get a recanalization of vertebrobasilar system. In the control TC we see a haemorragic sufusion in the brain stem. The follow-up see a patient with tetraparesis and palsy of the low cranial nerves and normal superior cerebral functions. The local intra-arterial fibrinolysis is the choise treatment in the vertebrobasilar thrombosis because the high morbimortality of this patology and the inefficacy of the others therapeutics. The result depend of many factors as the thrombo location, the neurologic state, the evolution time, the start of treatment, the colateral circulation, the nervous tissue reserve, etc, that have dificult predict the result, but it is best of the natural history of the disease. Is necesary, change the concept of emergency and the attitude front the isquemic cerebral disease at the sanitary leaders, the doctors, and the general population, for dispose of more means to cofront this pathology, which permit diminish the morbimortality and reduce the grade of incapacity.

  14. Influence of template fill in graphoepitaxy DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Hong, SungEun; Lin, Guanyang; Gronheid, Roel

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) is considered a promising patterning approach for the 7 nm node and beyond. Specifically, a grapho-epitaxy process using a cylindrical phase BCP may offer an efficient solution for patterning randomly distributed contact holes with sub-resolution pitches, such as found in via and cut mask levels. In any grapho-epitaxy process, the pattern density impacts the template fill (local BCP thickness inside the template) and may cause defects due to respectively over- or underfilling of the template. In order to tackle this issue thoroughly, the parameters that determine template fill and the influence of template fill on the resulting pattern should be investigated. In this work, using three process flow variations (with different template surface energy), template fill is experimentally characterized as a function of pattern density and film thickness. The impact of these parameters on template fill is highly dependent on the process flow, and thus pre-pattern surface energy. Template fill has a considerable effect on the pattern transfer of the DSA contact holes into the underlying layer. Higher fill levels give rise to smaller contact holes and worse critical dimension uniformity. These results are important towards DSA-aware design and show that fill is a crucial parameter in grapho-epitaxy DSA.

  15. ECG-triggered non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography (TRANCE) versus digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Sutter, Reto [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M.; Roos, Justus E.; Sautter, Thomas; Schoch, Erik; Giger, Barbara; Weymarn, Constantin von; Binkert, Christoph A. [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Wyss, Michael [University and ETH Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland); Graf, Nicole [University Hospital of Zurich, Clinical Trials Center, Center for Clinical Research, Zurich (Switzerland); Jenelten, Regula [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Angiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Hergan, Klaus [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria)

    2011-09-15

    To prospectively determine the diagnostic value of electrocardiography-triggered non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (TRANCE) of the lower extremities including the feet versus DSA. All 43 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) underwent TRANCE before DSA. Quality of MRA vessel depiction was rated by two independent radiologists on a 3-point scale. Arterial segments were graded for stenoses using a 4-point scale (grade 1: no stenosis; grade 2: moderate stenosis; grade 3: severe stenosis; grade 4: occlusion). Findings were compared with those of DSA. In the 731 vessel segments analysed, intra-arterial DSA revealed 283 stenoses: 33.6% moderate, 16.6% severe and 49.8% occlusions. TRANCE yielded a mean sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy to detect severe stenoses or occlusions of 95.6%, 97.4%, 87.2%, 99.2%, 97.1% for the thigh segments and 95.2%, 87.5%, 83.2%, 96.6%, 90.5% for the calf segments. Excellent overall image quality was observed for TRANCE in 91.4% versus 95.7% (DSA) for the thigh and in 60.7% versus 91.0% for the calves, while diagnostic quality of the pedal arteries was rated as insufficient. TRANCE achieves high diagnostic accuracy in the thigh and calf regions, whereas the pedal arteries showed limited quality. (orig.)

  16. DSA patterning options for logics and memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Chun; Franke, Elliott; Mignot, Yann; LeFevre, Scott; Sieg, Stuart; Chi, Cheng; Meli, Luciana; Parnell, Doni; Schmidt, Kristin; Sanchez, Martha; Singh, Lovejeet; Furukawa, Tsuyoshi; Seshadri, Indira; De Silva, Ekmini Anuja; Tsai, Hsinyu; Lai, Kafai; Truong, Hoa; Farrell, Richard; Bruce, Robert; Somervell, Mark; Sanders, Daniel; Felix, Nelson; Arnold, John; Hetzer, David; Ko, Akiteru; Metz, Andrew; Colburn, Matthew; Corliss, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The progress of three potential DSA applications, i.e. fin formation, via shrink, and pillars, were reviewed in this paper. For fin application, in addition to pattern quality, other important considerations such as customization and design flexibility were discussed. An electrical viachain study verified the DSA rectification effect on CD distribution by showing a tighter current distribution compared to that derived from the guiding pattern direct transfer without using DSA. Finally, a structural demonstration of pillar formation highlights the importance of pattern transfer in retaining both the CD and local CDU improvement from DSA. The learning from these three case studies can provide perspectives that may not have been considered thoroughly in the past. By including more important elements during DSA process development, the DSA maturity can be further advanced and move DSA closer to HVM adoption.

  17. Alternative treatment for retinoblastoma: Intra-arterial chemotherapy with melphalan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freytas, A; Harto-Castaño, M; Barranco, H; Aviño, J; Martinez-Costa, R

    2015-10-01

    A 10-month old infant was referred for the study of a leukocoria of the left eye of one month onset. On examination, a retinoblastoma occupying the macular area was detected. Treatment with intra-arterial chemotherapy (melphalan 6 mg) was performed, with no further intervention required for disease control. Melphalan is an effective chemotherapeutic agent. However, its use is limited by the systemic toxicity that may occur. Intra-arterial chemotherapy allows the selective release of melphalan into the ophthalmic artery, thus limiting its systemic toxicity. This combination of efficiency, safety and accuracy makes it an attractive therapeutic alternative for the management of retinoblastoma. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of acute ischemic brain infarction with the assistance of local intraarterial thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncyljusz, W; Falkowski, A; Kojder, I; Cebula, E; Sagan, L; Czechowski, J; Walecka, A

    2007-09-01

    Cerebral infarction is usually due to arterial occlusion. Prompt treatment with thrombolytic drugs can restore blood flow and improve recovery from an infarct. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of local intraarterial thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) in patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions within 6 hours of the onset of symptoms. Sixteen patients (10 females and six males) aged from 42 to 61 years, with acute MCA territory infarcts were selected for treatment with local i.a. rtPA up to 6 hours after the onset of symptoms. Patient selection was based on clinical examination, computed tomography (CT), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). A clinical evaluation was performed before treatment, at the time of discharge, and 90 days post-procedure on the basis of modified Rankin and NIHSS scores. Controls (n = 16, nine females and seven males) aged from 51 to 70 years were treated only with intravenous anticoagulation using i.v. heparin infusion. The control group was evaluated with multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography performed on entry to the study and at 2-4 hours afterwards. Eight patients (50%) achieved a modified Rankin score of 2 or less as the primary outcome after 90 days follow-up. The secondary clinical outcome at 90-day follow-up was as follows: NIHSS score or =50% decrease, nine (56%) of the patients. A recanalization rate of 75% was achieved in 12 of the 16 treated patients, but only 12.5% in two of the 16 patients in the control group. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in two (12.5%) of the patients in the treatment group, but in only one patient (6%) in the control group. There were no deaths in the treated group after thrombolysis up to the time of discharge; however, during the 90-day follow-up, two patients died compared to three patients in the control group (19% vs. 12.5% mortality rate). Patients with cerebral infarction who were treated within 6 hours of onset using

  19. Advanced surface affinity control for DSA contact hole shrink applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delachat, Florian; Gharbi, Ahmed; Pimenta Barros, Patricia; Argoud, Maxime; Lapeyre, Céline; Bos, Sandra; Hazart, Jérôme; Pain, Laurent; Monget, Cédric; Chevalier, Xavier; Nicolet, Célia; Navarro, Christophe; Cayrefourcq, Ian; Tiron, Raluca

    2017-03-01

    DSA patterning is a promising solution for advanced lithography as a complementary technique to standard and future lithographic technologies. In this work, we focused on DSA grapho-epitaxy process-flow dedicated for contact hole applications using polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymers. We investigated the impact on the DSA performances of the surface affinity of a guiding pattern design by ArF immersion lithography. The objective was to control and reduce the polymer residue at the bottom of the guiding pattern cavities since it can lead to lower a DSA-related defectivity after subsequent transfer of the DSA pattern. For this purpose, the DSA performances were evaluated as a function of the template surface affinity properties. The surface affinities were customized to enhance DSA performances for a PS-b-PMMA block copolymer (intrinsic period 35nm, cylindrical morphology) by monitoring three main key parameters: the hole open yield (HOY), the critical dimension uniformity (CDU-3σ) and the placement error (PE-3σ). Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was conjointly carried out on the optimized wafers to characterize the residual polymer thickness after PMMA removal. The best DSA process performances (i.e., hole open yield: 100%, CDU-3σ: 1.3nm and PE-3σ: 1.3nm) were achieved with a thickness polymer residue of 7 nm. In addition, the DSA-related defectivity investigation performed by review-SEM enabled us to achieve a dense (pitch 120nm) contact area superior to 0.01mm2 free of DSA-related defects. This result represents more than 6x105 SEM-inspected valid contacts, attesting the progress achieved over the last years and witnessing the maturity of the DSA in the case of contact holes shrink application.

  20. The DVI-S: A DSA system for diagnostic and interventional angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, J.W.; Valois, J.C.; Winkels, T.G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The DVI-S is a novel system for DSA that offers significant advantages with regard to selective catheterisation and interventional angiography. All essential functions are controlled direct by the radiologist at the examination table, with extensive automation securing selection of the optimum radiographic parameters. A significant feature is the fluoroscopic representation of the subtraction image, simultaneously reproducing the catheter's pathway in an image covering the entire vascular tree. (orig./MG).

  1. DSA-WDS Common Requirements: Developing a New Core Data Repository Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minster, J. B. H.; Edmunds, R.; L'Hours, H.; Mokrane, M.; Rickards, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Data Seal of Approval (DSA) and the International Council for Science - World Data System (ICSU-WDS) have both developed minimally intensive core certification standards whereby digital repositories supply evidence that they are trustworthy and have a long-term outlook. Both DSA and WDS applicants have found core certification to be beneficial: building stakeholder confidence, enhancing the repository's reputation, and demonstrating that it is following good practices; as well as stimulating the repository to focus on processes and procedures, thereby achieving ever higher levels of professionalism over time.The DSA and WDS core certifications evolved independently serving initially different communities but both initiatives are multidisciplinary with catalogues of criteria and review procedures based on the same principles. Hence, to realize efficiencies, simplify assessment options, stimulate more certifications, and increase impact on the community, the Repository Audit and Certification DSA-WDS Partnership Working Group (WG) was established under the umbrella of the Research Data Alliance (RDA). The WG conducted a side-by-side analysis of both frameworks to unify the wording and criteria, ultimately leading to a harmonized Catalogue of Common Requirements for core certification of repositories—as well as a set of Common Procedures for their assessment.This presentation will focus on the collaborative effort by DSA and WDS to establish (1) a testbed comprising DSA and WDS certified data repositories to validate both the new Catalogue and Procedures, and (2) a joint Certification Board towards their practical implementation. We will describe:• The purpose and methodology of the testbed, including selection of repositories to be assessed against the common standard.• The results of the testbed, with an in-depth look at some of the comments received and issues highlighted.• General insights gained from evaluating the testbed results, the subsequent

  2. Digital subtraction arteriography (DSA) in re-evaluation of angioplasties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.R.; Mason, W.F.; Flemming, B.K.; Fraser, D.B. (Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1983-12-01

    Digital subtraction arteriography (DSA) permits accurate, objective, and relatively pain-free evaluation of the morphology of angioplasty sites. During 1982, we performed DSA on 74 patients who had had 96 angioplasties over the previous three and one-half years. All of the DSA examinations were of diagnostic quality. We were surprised to find that 15 percent of angioplasty sites had undergone restenosis and, in addition, 12 percent of patients had new lesions. Because most of those patients were asymptomatic, such lesions would not have been detected by clinical assessment alone. Our angioplasty results compare favourably with other reported series. It is expected that DSA will play an increasingly important role in re-evaluation following treatment by angioplasty or surgery.

  3. Globe Salvage With Intra-Arterial Topotecan-Melphalan Chemotherapy in Children With a Single Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Leal, Carlos A; Asencio-López, Laura; Higuera-Calleja, Jesús; Bernal-Moreno, Max; Bosch-Canto, Vanessa; Chávez-Pacheco, Juan; Isaac-Otero, Gabriela; Beck-Popovic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a novel therapeutic modality for retinoblastoma patients. Intra-arterial chemotherapy involves the administration of a super-selective drug through the ophthalmic artery, resulting in better ocular penetration and low systemic toxicity. The aim of this report was to evaluate the feasibility of intra-arterial chemotherapy in a large referral center in Mexico City. We included patients with bilateral retinoblastoma, one enucleation, and active disease in the other eye after at least two courses of systemic chemotherapy combined with topical treatments. All patients were treated with three courses of a combination of melphalan 4 mg and topotecan 1 mg. Patients were examined under general anesthesia three weeks after each chemotherapy cycle. From 14 eligible patients, three could not be treated due to inaccessibility of the ophthalmic artery. A complete response was observed in 5/11 patients, three in Stage C according to the International Classification for Intraocular Retinoblastoma, one in Stage D, and one in Stage B. The eyes of three patients were enucleated as a result of active/progressive disease, one in Stage B and two in Stage D. Eye preservation was 55% after a mean follow-up of 171 days (range 21-336). Super-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy is safe and effective for preventing the enucleation of 55% of affected eyes in this group of patients.

  4. Hepatic imaging following intra-arterial embolotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallini, Joseph Ralph; Miller, Frank H; Gabr, Ahmed; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    To discuss guidelines and salient imaging findings of solid tumors treated with common intra-arterial procedures used in interventional oncology. A meticulous literature search of PubMed-indexed articles was conducted. Key words included "imaging + embolization," "imaging + TACE," "imaging + radioembolization," "imaging + Y90," "mRECIST," and "EASL." Representative post-treatment cross-sectional images were obtained from past cases in this institution. Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) in interventional oncology includes bland embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization. Solid tumors of the liver are the primary focus of these procedures. Cross-sectional CT and/or MR are the main modalities used to image tumors after treatment. Traditional size-based response criteria (WHO and RECIST) alone are of limited utility in determining response to IAT; tumoral necrosis and enhancement must be considered. Specifically for HCC, the EASL and mRECIST guidelines are becoming widely adopted response criteria to assess these factors. DWI, FDG-PET, and CEUS are modalities that play an adjunctive but controversial role. Radiologists must be aware that the different forms of intra-arterial therapy yield characteristic findings on cross-sectional imaging. Knowledge of these findings is integral to accurate assessment of tumor response and progression.

  5. DSA to grow electrochemically active biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, Claire; Basseguy, Regine; Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP 1301, 31106 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France)

    2008-02-25

    Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown on graphite and on dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) in medium that did not contain any soluble electron acceptor. Several working electrodes were individually addressed and placed in the same reactor to compare their electrochemical behaviour in exactly the same biochemical conditions. Under constant polarization at 0.20 V versus Ag/AgCl, the electrodes were able progressively to oxidize acetate (5 mM), and average current densities around 5 A m{sup -2} and 8 A m{sup -2} were sustained for days on DSA and graphite, respectively. Removing the biofilm from the electrodes led the current to zero, while changing the medium by fresh one did not disturb the current when contact to air was avoided. This confirmed that the biofilm was fully responsible for the electro-catalysis of acetate oxidation and the current was not due to the accumulation of compounds in the bulk. Cyclic voltammetries performed during chronoamperometry indicated that the oxidation started above 0.05 V versus Ag/AgCl. The difference in maximal current values obtained with DSA and graphite was not linked to the biofilm coverage ratios, which were of the same order of magnitude in the range of 62-78%. On the contrary, the difference in maximal current values matched the ratio of the average surface roughness of the materials, 5.6 {mu}m and 3.2 {mu}m for graphite and DSA, respectively. (author)

  6. Diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism: Comparison between helical CT and DSA in the animal experiment; Diagnostik der akuten Lungenembolie: Vergleich zwischen Spiral-CT und DSA im Tierexperiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz-Rode, T. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Kilbinger, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Adam, G. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1995-10-01

    In 11 dogs, lobar, segmental, and subsegmental occlusions of the pulmonary arteries were produced. Subsequent to selective pulmonary angiography, the animals were examined with contrast-enhanced helical CT. In the main and lobar pulmonary arteries there was a complete correlation between CT and DSA in documentation of total and partial embolic occlusions. Identification of segmental and subsegmental pulmonary emboli by CT required a second run with optimized parameters in 7 of 11 cases. Nevertheless, 18% of the peripheral arteries could not be classified. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] In 11 Hunden wurden embolische Verschluesse lobaerer, segmentaler und subsegmentaler Pulmonalarterien erzeugt. Im Anschluss an die selektive Pulmonalisangiographie wurden die Tiere computertomographisch im Bolus-Spiral-Modus untersucht. Im Bereich der Pulmonalishauptstaemme und der Lobararterien ergab sich eine vollstaendige Uebereinstimmung von CT und DSA in der Darstellung kompletter und partieller embolischer Verschluesse. Der CT-Nachweis von Embolien auf Segment- und Subsegmentebene machte in 7 von 11 Faellen einen zweiten Untersuchungsgang mit optimierten Parametern erforderlich. Dennoch waren 18% der peripheren Arterien nicht sicher beurteilbar. (orig./MG)

  7. Magnetic resonance angiography in the selection of patients suitable for neurosurgical intervention of ruptured intracranial aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerlaan, Henriette E.; Vliet , van der AM; Hew, JM; Metzemaekers, JDM; Mooij, JJA; Oudkerk, M

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at establishing whether magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) can be applied to planning and performing surgery on ruptured intracranial aneurysms, especially in the early phase, without recourse to intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA). From February 1998 to

  8. Local intra-arterial fibrinolysis without arterial occlusion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, M.; Yin, L.; Klisch, J. [Section Neuroradiology, Univ. Hospital, Freiburg (Germany); Hetzel, A. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital, Freiburg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Local intra-arterial fibrinolysis (LIF) is the best choice at present for treatment of acute vessel occlusion in the vertebrobasilar teritory and also, in selected cases, in the carotid territory. In almost all cases angiography demonstrates the site of occlusion exactly and gives information about collateral circulation. Contrary to this common approach, we report five patients with severe acute thromboembolic stroke in whom angiography revealed no occlusion of relevant arteries or their main branches. Under the hypothesis of persisting occlusion of perforating arteries to the brain stem we performed LIF in patients with a clinical basilar artery syndrome. Outcome in all but one of them was good following LIF. The clinical details are described and possible reasons discussed. (orig.)

  9. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    2013-01-01

    of the available spectrum by nodes in a network, without centralized coordination. While proof-of-concept and statistical validation of such algorithms is typically achieved by using system level simulations, experimental activities are valuable contributions for the investigation of particular aspects......The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing...... such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design...

  10. Software development for registration of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images in uterine fibroid embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, L; Levy, E; Choi, J J; Cleary, K; Zeng, J; Lindisch, D

    2000-01-01

    The ISIS Center at Georgetown University Medical Center has developed a comprehensive program for image-guided procedures in the spine. As part of this program, ISIS has developed a software application known as I-SPINE (ISIS's Spine Procedure Imaging Navigation Engine). I-SPINE is a Windows NT application, which is based on the Analyze/AVM libraries. The software architecture follows the Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) single document, multiple view paradigm. This has allowed the developers to add new visualization modules to I-SPINE that aid physicians in procedures outside the spine. One such procedure I-SPINE has been expanded for is uterine fibroid embolization. The idea is that by registering and subtracting post-embolization angiographic images from pre-treatment images the resulting image can be used to quantify the embolization effect on the fibroid circulation and predict the treatment response. The I-SPINE digital subtraction angiography (DSA) module allows the interventional radiologist to open a series of pre and post-embolization DSA images that shows the vascular structures of the uterus and the fibroid or fibroids. From these images, the radiologist selects an appropriate image from each series. The selected images are then hand registered using pixel shifting. Once the images are registered, the pixels are subtracted resulting in an image that shows the embolized arteries that were supplying the fibroids.

  11. New screening system for unruptured cerebral aneurysms; Combination of an expert system and DSA examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samejima, Hirotsugu; Ushikubo, Yukio; Mizokami, Toru (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-08-01

    We have designed a screening system to diagnose unruptured aneurysms, including the use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We surveyed 115 patients who had undergone clipping procedures after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and questioned them with regard to the subjective symptoms. Sixty-eight of 92 patients who returned the questionnaire reported, prior to rupture, headache,eye pain, and neck pain most frequently, and also impairment of extraocular movements, ptosis, visual field defects, and motor and sensory disturbances. Nineteen (47.5%) of 40 patients who had complete pain relief after surgery complained of headache from 1 week to 1 month before SAH. In addition, nine patients (22.5%) complained of headache for several years, and were also pain-free after surgery. For the indication of DSA, we employed an expert system based on fuzzy set theory. Seven groups of parameters are: Group 1, a basic questionnaire concerning age, sex, and past and family histories; Group 2, 15 warning signs selected on the basis of retrospective study; and Groups 3-7, detailed questions concerning each sign. Scoring weights assigned to each condition based on the results of the retrospective study, and threshold values were determined by several neurosurgeons. The certainty factors for intermediate hypotheses were calculated from these weights and threshold values and summed up, from which the conclusion was obtained. Twelve new cases of unruptured cerebral aneurysm were diagnosed using this screening system. This system may improve the ability to diagnose cerebral aneurysms before rupture. (author).

  12. Density driven placement of sub-DSA resolution assistant features (SDRAFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daifeng; Tung, Maryann; Karageorgos, Ioannis; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Wong, Martin D. F.

    2017-03-01

    In the pursuit of alternatives to traditional optical lithography, block copolymer directed self-assembly (DSA) has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput option. However, issues of defectivity have hampered DSA's viability for large-scale patterning. Recent studies have shown copolymer fill level to be a crucial factor in defectivity, as template overfill can result in malformed DSA structures and poor LCDU after etching. For this reason, it is previously demonstrated the use of sub-DSA resolution assist features (SDRAFs) as a method of evening out template density. In this work, we propose an algorithm to place SDRAFs in random logic contact/via layouts. By adopting this SDRAF placement scheme, we can significantly improve the density unevenness and the resources used are also optimized. This is the first work to investigate the placement of SDRAFs in order to mitigate the DSA density variation problem, and it can be adopted for the mass deployment of DSA.

  13. Efficient DSA-DP hybrid lithography conflict detection and guiding template assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jiaojiao; Cline, Brian; Yeric, Greg; Pan, David Z.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, directed self-assembly (DSA) has demonstrated tremendous potential to reduce cost for multiple patterning with fewer masks, especially for via patterning. DSA is considered as one of the next generation lithography candidates or complementary lithography techniques to extend 193i lithography further for the sub- 7 nm nodes. In this work, we focus on the simultaneous DSA guiding template assignment and decomposition with DSA and double patterning (DSA-DP) hybrid lithography for 7nm technology node. We first analyze the placement error of DSA patterns with different shapes and sizes. We then propose a graph-based approach to reduce the problem size and solve the problem more efficiently without affecting the optimality of the results. The experimental results demonstrate that we can achieve a 50% reduction in both the number of variables and constraints compared to previous work, which leads to a 50X speed up in runtime.

  14. Long-Term, Continuous Intra-Arterial Nimodipine Treatment of Severe Vasospasm After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockel, Konstantin; Diedler, Jennifer; Steiner, Jochen; Birkenhauer, Ulrich; Danz, Sören; Ernemann, Ulrike; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2016-04-01

    Secondary vasospasm and disturbances in cerebrovascular autoregulation are associated with the development of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. An intra-arterial application of nimodipine has been shown to increase the vessel diameter, although this effect is transient. The feasibility of long-term, continuous, intra-arterial nimodipine treatment and its effects on macrovasospasm, autoregulation parameters, and outcome were evaluated in patients with refractory severe macrovasospasm. Ten patients were included with refractory macrovasospasm despite bolus nimodipine application (n = 4) or with primary severe vasospasm (n = 6). The patients were assessed with continuous multimodal neuromonitoring (mean arterial pressure, intraceranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, brain tissue oxygen tension probe), daily transcranial Doppler examinations, and computed tomography angiography/perfusion. Autoregulation indices, the pressure reactivity index, and oxygen reactivity index were calculated. Indwelling microcatheters were placed in the extracranial internal carotid arteries and 0.4 mg nimodipine was continuously infused at 50 mL/hour. The duration of continuous, intra-arterial nimodipine ranged from 9 to 15 days. During treatment intracranial pressure remained stable, transcranial Doppler flow velocity decreased, and brain tissue oxygen tension improved by 37%. Macrovasospasm, as assessed via computed tomography angiography, had improved (n = 5) or disappeared (n = 5) at the end of treatment. Cerebrovascular autoregulation according to the pressure reactivity index and oxygen reactivity index significantly worsened during treatment. All patients showed a favorable outcome (median Glasgow Outcome Scale 5) at 3 months. In well-selected patients with prolonged severe macrovasospasm, continuous intra-arterial nimodipine treatment can be applied as a rescue therapy with relative safety for more than 2 weeks to prevent secondary

  15. Intra-Arterial Prostaglandin E1 Infusion in Patients with Rest Pain: Short-Term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chatziioannou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present our results after short-term (1 month intra-arterial infusion therapy of PGE1-alprostadil via a port system implanted in the ipsilateral external iliac artery (EIA in patients with severe rest pain. Methods. Ten patients with severe rest pain were included. All patients showed extensive peripheral vascular disease below the knee. The tip of the catheter was introduced via a retrograde puncture in the ipsilateral external iliac artery (EIA. The patients received intraarterial infusion of PGE1, 20 mgr alprostadil daily, via the port catheter for 1 month. Results. Clinical success was evaluated according to subjective grading of pain (group A significant decrease, group B moderate decrease and group C no response. A significant decrease of rest pain was observed in 8 (group A, 80% patients, a moderate decrease in 2 (Group B, 20%, whereas no patients demonstrated any significant response. Both patients of group B had Buergers' disease and continue to smoke during therapy. No peripheral thrombosis or clinical deterioration was noticed. Conclusion. Intraarterial infusion of PGE1 alprostadil on a daily basis, using a port catheter into the ipsilateral EIA, in selected patients with severe rest pain, seems to be very effective, without any serious complications.

  16. Preoperative imaging in 78 living kidney donors using CE-MRA and DSA; Donor-Evaluation vor Lebendnierenspende: Vergleich von CE-MRA und DSA an 78 Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemke, U.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Kroencke, T.J. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Kluener, C. [Inst. fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Oldenburg (Germany); Giessing, M.; Schoenberger, B. [Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: to evaluate contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in comparison with the intraoperative findings in living kidney donors. Materials and methods: a total of 156 kidneys in 78 potential kidney donors were prospectively examined using CE-MRA (0.2 mmol Gd/kg, voxel size 1.3 x 0.8 x 2.0) and DSA. Two experienced radiologists assessed the images in consensus regarding the renal vascular anatomy and variants. The results for the 67 candidates accepted for donation were compared to the intraoperative findings. In the other kidneys not accepted for donor nephrectomy, MRA and DSA were compared with each other. Results: nineteen arterial variants were identified intraoperatively, of which 11 (58%) were also detected by preoperative CE-MRA and 10 (53%) by preoperative DSA. Of the 10 venous variants found intraoperatively, CE-MRA detected 8 (80%) and DSA 3 (30%). The agreement (kappa test) between MRI and DSA for all 156 evaluated kidneys was 0.7 for arterial variants (McNemar p = 0.12) and 0.3 for venous variants (McNemar p = 0.01). The preoperative choice of kidney (right or left) made on the basis of the renal vascular anatomy seen on CE-MRA and DSA differed in 22% of the 78 potential donors (McNemar P = 0.3). (orig.)

  17. Directed self-assembly (DSA) grapho-epitaxy template generation with immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Torres, J. A.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present an optimization methodology for the template designs of sub-resolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with grapho-epitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of Template Error Enhancement Factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity, and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data shows that SMO is critical to achieve sub-80nm non- L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  18. The Immunogenicity of HLA Class II Mismatches: The Predicted Presentation of Nonself Allo-HLA-Derived Peptide by the HLA-DR Phenotype of the Recipient Is Associated with the Formation of DSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucaud, Vadim

    2017-01-01

    The identification of permissible HLA class II mismatches can prevent DSA in mismatched transplantation. The HLA-DR phenotype of recipients contributes to DSA formation by presenting allo-HLA-derived peptides to T-helper cells, which induces the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. Comparing the binding affinity of self and nonself allo-HLA-derived peptides for recipients' HLA class II antigens may distinguish immunogenic HLA mismatches from nonimmunogenic ones. The binding affinities of allo-HLA-derived peptides to recipients' HLA-DR and HLA-DQ antigens were predicted using the NetMHCIIpan 3.1 server. HLA class II mismatches were classified based on whether they induced DSA and whether self or nonself peptide was predicted to bind with highest affinity to recipients' HLA-DR and HLA-DQ. Other mismatch characteristics (eplet, hydrophobic, electrostatic, and amino acid mismatch scores and PIRCHE-II) were evaluated. A significant association occurred between DSA formation and the predicted HLA-DR presentation of nonself peptides (P = 0.0169; accuracy = 80%; sensitivity = 88%; specificity = 63%). In contrast, mismatch characteristics did not differ significantly between mismatches that induced DSA and the ones that did not, except for PIRCHE-II (P = 0.0094). This methodology predicts DSA formation based on HLA mismatches and recipients' HLA-DR phenotype and may identify permissible HLA mismatches to help optimize HLA matching and guide donor selection.

  19. The Immunogenicity of HLA Class II Mismatches: The Predicted Presentation of Nonself Allo-HLA-Derived Peptide by the HLA-DR Phenotype of the Recipient Is Associated with the Formation of DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The identification of permissible HLA class II mismatches can prevent DSA in mismatched transplantation. The HLA-DR phenotype of recipients contributes to DSA formation by presenting allo-HLA-derived peptides to T-helper cells, which induces the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. Comparing the binding affinity of self and nonself allo-HLA-derived peptides for recipients' HLA class II antigens may distinguish immunogenic HLA mismatches from nonimmunogenic ones. The binding affinities of allo-HLA-derived peptides to recipients' HLA-DR and HLA-DQ antigens were predicted using the NetMHCIIpan 3.1 server. HLA class II mismatches were classified based on whether they induced DSA and whether self or nonself peptide was predicted to bind with highest affinity to recipients' HLA-DR and HLA-DQ. Other mismatch characteristics (eplet, hydrophobic, electrostatic, and amino acid mismatch scores and PIRCHE-II) were evaluated. A significant association occurred between DSA formation and the predicted HLA-DR presentation of nonself peptides (P = 0.0169; accuracy = 80%; sensitivity = 88%; specificity = 63%). In contrast, mismatch characteristics did not differ significantly between mismatches that induced DSA and the ones that did not, except for PIRCHE-II (P = 0.0094). This methodology predicts DSA formation based on HLA mismatches and recipients' HLA-DR phenotype and may identify permissible HLA mismatches to help optimize HLA matching and guide donor selection. PMID:28331856

  20. The Possible Critical Role of T-Cell Help in DSA-Mediated Graft Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süsal, Caner; Slavcev, Antonij; Pham, Lien; Zeier, Martin; Morath, Christian

    2018-02-06

    In the present review, we discuss a possible central role of T cell help in severe forms of graft damage mediated by donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA). Some kidney transplant recipients with pretransplant DSA show a high graft failure rate, whereas in other patients DSA do not harm the transplanted kidney and in most cases disappear shortly after transplantation. Analyzing 80 desensitized highly immunized kidney transplant recipients and another multicenter cohort of 385 patients with pretransplant HLA antibodies, we reported recently that an ongoing T-cell help from an activated immune system, as measured by an increased level of soluble CD30 in serum, might be necessary for the DSA to exert a deleterious effect. Patients positive for both pretransplant DSA and sCD30 appear to require special measures, such as the elimination of DSA from the circulation, potent immunosuppression, good HLA matching and intense posttransplant monitoring, whereas exclusion of DSA-positive patients from transplantation in the absence of high sCD30 may not be justified in all cases, even if the pretransplant DSA are strong and complement activating. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Is local intra-arterial fibrinolysis contraindicated in elderly patients with cerebral artery occlusion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, M.; Kraft, S.; Siekmann, R. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    1998-12-01

    Local intra-arterial fibrinolysis (LIF) is an effective treatment for selected patients in acute thromboembolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, vertebrobasilar system or ophthalmic artery. However, the risk/benefit ratio of thrombolysis in patient subgroups requires classification. Advanced age has been regarded as a prognostic factor for poor clinical outcome. We report our experience with LIF in seven patients with a mean age of 79 years (range 76-83 years) who represented thromboembolic occlusion of the basilar, middle cerebral or pericallosal arteries. We discuss why advanced age need not contraindicate LIF. (orig.) With 3 figs., 20 refs.

  2. Successful Treatment of Two Cases of Squamous Cell Carcinoma on the Ear with Intra-Arterial Administration of Peplomycin through a Superficial Temporal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Haga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer and tends to develop in sun-exposed cosmetic areas, including the ear. In this report, we describe two cases of SCC on the ear successfully treated with intra-arterial administration of peplomycin through a superficial temporal artery. In addition to this selective chemotherapy, we administered oral tegafur, which achieved complete remission of the tumor. These findings suggest that intra-arterial administration of peplomycin with tegafur is one of the optimal therapies for the treatment of SCC developing on the ear.

  3. Quantitative 4D Transcatheter Intraarterial Perfusion MRI for Monitoring Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingxin; Jin, Brian; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Kulik, Laura M.; Miller, Frank H.; Salem, Riad; Li, Debiao; Omary, Reed A.; Larson, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To develop a fully quantitative 4D transcatheter intraarterial perfusion (TRIP) MRI technique and prospectively test the hypothesis that quantitative 4D TRIP-MRI can be used clinically to monitor intra-procedural liver tumor perfusion reductions during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Materials and Methods TACE was performed within an x-ray DSA-MRI procedure suite in 16 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Quantitative 4D TRIP-MRI with targeted radiofrequency field mapping and dynamic longitudinal relaxation rate mapping was used to monitor changes in tumor perfusion during TACE. First-pass perfusion analysis was performed to produce intra-procedural blood flow (Fρ) maps. Mean liver tumor perfusions before and after TACE were compared with a paired t-test (α = 0.05). Results Perfusion reductions were successfully measured with quantitative 4D TRIP-MRI in 22 separate tumors during 18 treatment sessions. Mean tumor perfusion Fρ decreased from 16.3 (95% CI: 10.7–21.9) before TACE to 5.0 (95% CI: 3.5–6.5) (mL/min/100mL) after TACE. Tumor perfusion reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.0005), with a mean absolute perfusion change of 11.4 (95% CI: 5.6–17.1) (mL/min/100mL) and a mean percentage reduction of 61.0% (95% CI: 48.3%–73.6%). Conclusions Quantitative 4D TRIP-MRI can be successfully performed within clinical interventional settings to monitor intra-procedural changes in liver tumor perfusion during TACE. PMID:20432345

  4. Intra-arterial digital angiography of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Palma, L.; Stacul, F.; Maffessanti, M.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.

    1983-08-01

    The authors report the preliminary results of the intraarterial digital angiography of the liver. A series of 30 patients were examined comparing conventional and digital technique following the injection of the coeliac, splenic, hepatic and mesenteric arteries. The results obtained with the digital technique have been of good quality and sometimes even better in spite of significant dilution of the contrast medium. It is concluded that intraarterial digital angiography of the liver gives some advantages compared with the conventional technique, that is the use of a much lower concentrated contrast medium, the better visualization of the portal branches and its collaterals and the very low cost of the film material.

  5. Ultra low radiation dose digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging using low rank constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai; Li, Yinsheng; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Wu, Yijing; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In this work we developed a novel denoising algorithm for DSA image series. This algorithm takes advantage of the low rank nature of the DSA image sequences to enable a dramatic reduction in radiation and/or contrast doses in DSA imaging. Both spatial and temporal regularizers were introduced in the optimization algorithm to further reduce noise. To validate the method, in vivo animal studies were conducted with a Siemens Artis Zee biplane system using different radiation dose levels and contrast concentrations. Both conventionally processed DSA images and the DSA images generated using the novel denoising method were compared using absolute noise standard deviation and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR). With the application of the novel denoising algorithm for DSA, image quality can be maintained with a radiation dose reduction by a factor of 20 and/or a factor of 2 reduction in contrast dose. Image processing is completed on a GPU within a second for a 10s DSA data acquisition.

  6. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: First Indian report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe treatment outcomes and complications of selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC for retinoblastoma (RB in Indian eyes. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective interventional case series of 6 eyes with RB who underwent IAC using Melphalan (3 mg/5 mg/7.5 mg and topetecan (1 mg (n = 4 or melphalan (3 mg/5 mg/7.5 mg alone (n = 2 between December 2013 and June 2014. In all, 17 IAC procedures were performed using selective ophthalmic artery cannulation. Treatment outcomes were evaluated in terms of tumor control, vitreous and subretinal seeds control and globe salvage rates. Results: IAC was employed as primary (n = 1 or secondary (n = 5 modality of treatment. Each eye received mean 3 IAC sessions (median: 3; range: 1-4 sessions. Eyes were classified according to international classification of RB as Group B (n = 1, C (n = 1, D (n = 2 and E (n = 2. Following IAC, complete regression of the main tumor was seen in 3 cases (50%, partial regression in 2 (33%, while 1 case (15% showed no response. Of 4 eyes with subretinal seeds, 1 (25% eye had complete regression while 3 (75% eyes had partial regression. Of 5 eyes with vitreous seeds, 2 (40% eyes had complete regression while 3 (60% eyes had a partial response. Globe salvage was achieved in 5 of 6 eyes (83%. Diffuse choroidal atrophy and vitreous hemorrhage were observed in 1 (17% eye, each. No hematologic toxicity or cerebro-vascular events were observed. Mean follow-up period was 5.5 months (median: 6 months, range: 1-6 months. Conclusion: IAC is an effective therapy for globe preservation in eyes with RB. Larger studies with longer follow-up are required to validate these results.

  7. Fin formation using graphoepitaxy DSA for FinFET device fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Chun; Lie, Fee Li; Rastogi, Vinayak; Franke, Elliott; Mohanty, Nihar; Farrell, Richard; Tsai, Hsinyu; Lai, Kafai; Ozlem, Melih; Cho, Wooyong; Jung, Sung Gon; Strane, Jay; Somervell, Mark; Burns, Sean; Felix, Nelson; Guillorn, Michael; Hetzer, David; Ko, Akiteru; Colburn, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    A 27nm-pitch Graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly (DSA) process targeting fin formation for FinFET device fabrication is studied in a 300mm pilot line environment. The re-designed guiding pattern of graphoepitaxy DSA process determines not only the fine DSA structures but also the fin customization in parallel direction. Consequently, the critical issue of placement error is now resolved with the potential of reduction in lithography steps. However, challenges in subsequent pattern transfer are observed due to insufficient etch budget. The cause of the issues and process optimization are illustrated. Finally, silicon fins with 100nm depth in substrate with pre-determined customization is demonstrated.

  8. DSA patterning options for FinFET formation at 7nm node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Chun C.; Franke, Elliott; Lie, Fee Li; Sieg, Stuart; Tsai, Hsinyu; Lai, Kafai; Truong, Hoa; Farrell, Richard; Somervell, Mark; Sanders, Daniel; Felix, Nelson; Guillorn, Michael; Burns, Sean; Hetzer, David; Ko, Akiteru; Arnold, John; Colburn, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Several 27nm-pitch directed self-assembly (DSA) processes targeting fin formation for FinFET device fabrication are studied in a 300mm pilot line environment, including chemoepitaxy for a conventional Fin arrays, graphoepitaxy for a customization approach and a hybrid approach for self-aligned Fin cut. The trade-off between each DSA flow is discussed in terms of placement error, Fin CD/profile uniformity, and restricted design. Challenges in pattern transfer are observed and process optimization are discussed. Finally, silicon Fins with 100nm depth and on-target CD using different DSA options with either lithographic or self-aligned customization approach are demonstrated.

  9. Impact of sequential infiltration synthesis on pattern fidelity of DSA lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arjun; Knaepen, Werner; Sayan, Safak; el Otell, Ziad; Chan, Boon Teik; Maes, Jan W.; Gronheid, Roel

    2015-03-01

    Numerous block copolymer (BCP) systems can be used in directed self-assembly (DSA) processes to form patterns useful in lithography, especially lines and spaces with lamellar phase systems and vias/pillars with cylindrical phase systems. However, most of these BCP systems with attractive pattern formation capabilities have limited plasma etch contrast between the polymer domains. One potential solution to greatly enhance this etch contrast is a recently developed technique called sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS). SIS is a self-limiting synthesis technique, like atomic layer deposition, where organometallic (OM) precursor vapours and oxidants are introduced into self-assembled block copolymer systems in multiple cycles. In the first half of each cycle the OM precursor selectively reacts with one polymer domain, and in the second half of the cycle the oxidant reacts with the OM groups in the polymer film to selectively form metallic compounds in one of the polymer domains. Thus, the polymer pattern is transformed into a metallic mask with much enhanced plasma etch contrast. We report the effects of such a block-selective SIS process of metallic compounds on the feature sizes, roughness and profiles of patterns formed with BCP systems.

  10. Intra-arterial nimodipine for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Intra-arterial nimodipine (IAN) has shown a promising effect on cerebral vasospasm (CV) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. At our institution, Rigshospitalet, IAN treatment has been used since 2009, but the short- and long-term clinical efficacy of IAN has not yet been assessed. The purpo...

  11. High chi block copolymer DSA to improve pattern quality for FinFET device fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, HsinYu; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Vora, Ankit; Magbitang, Teddie; Arellano, Noel; Liu, Chi-Chun; Maher, Michael J.; Durand, William J.; Dawes, Simon J.; Bucchignano, James J.; Gignac, Lynne; Sanders, Daniel P.; Joseph, Eric A.; Colburn, Matthew E.; Willson, C. Grant; Ellison, Christopher J.; Guillorn, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) with block-copolymers (BCP) is a promising lithography extension technique to scale below 30nm pitch with 193i lithography. Continued scaling toward 20nm pitch or below will require material system improvements from PS-b-PMMA. Pattern quality for DSA features, such as line edge roughness (LER), line width roughness (LWR), size uniformity, and placement, is key to DSA manufacturability. In this work, we demonstrate finFET devices fabricated with DSA-patterned fins and compare several BCP systems for continued pitch scaling. Organic-organic high chi BCPs at 24nm and 21nm pitches show improved low to mid-frequency LER/LWR after pattern transfer.

  12. [2011 Shanghai customer satisfaction report of DSA/X-ray equipment's after-service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Qian, Jianguo; Cao, Shaoping; Zheng, Yunxin; Xu, Zitian; Wang, Lijun

    2012-11-01

    To improve the manufacturer's medical equipment after-sale service, the fifth Shanghai zone customer satisfaction survey was launched by the end of 2011. The DSA/X-ray equipment was setup as an independent category for the first time. From the survey we can show that the DSA/X-ray equipment's CSI is higher than last year, the customer satisfaction scores of preventive maintenance and service contract are lower than others, and CSI of local brand is lower than imported brand.

  13. Electrochemical degradation of reactive dyes at different DSA compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rodrigo G. da; Aquino Neto, Sydney; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de, E-mail: ardandra@ffclrp.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the electrochemical oxidation of the reactive dyes reactive blue 4 (RB-4) and reactive orange 16 (RO-16) on RuO{sub 2} dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Electrolysis was achieved under galvanostatic control as a function of supporting electrolyte and electrode composition. The electrolyses, performed in either the presence or absence of NaCl, were able to promote efficient color removal; moreover, at low chloride concentration (0.01 mol L{sup -1}), total color removal was obtained after just 10 min of electrolysis, and a significant increase in total dye combustion was achieved for all the studied anodes in chloride medium (reaching ca. 80% - chemical oxygen demand - COD removal). No significant enhancement in dye color removal or mineralization was observed upon increasing chloride concentration. The influence of oxide composition on dye elimination seems to be significant in both media (with or without chloride), being Ti/Ru{sub 0.30}Ti{sub 0.70}O{sub 2}, the most active material for organic compound oxidation. The oxygen evolution reaction was shown to be a limiting reaction in both supporting electrolytes; i.e., NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and its competition with organic compound oxidation remained an obstacle. The adsorbable organo halogens formation study revealed that there is slight consumption of the undesirable species formed within the first minutes of the electrolysis, being Ti/(RuO{sub 2}){sub 0.70}(Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 0.30} the most environmentally friendly composition. Both anode composition and chloride concentration affect the formation of these undesirable compounds. (author)

  14. Electrical study of DSA shrink process and CD rectification effect at sub-60nm using EUV test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cheng; Liu, Chi-Chun; Meli, Luciana; Guo, Jing; Parnell, Doni; Mignot, Yann; Schmidt, Kristin; Sanchez, Martha; Farrell, Richard; Singh, Lovejeet; Furukawa, Tsuyoshi; Lai, Kafai; Xu, Yongan; Sanders, Daniel; Hetzer, David; Metz, Andrew; Burns, Sean; Felix, Nelson; Arnold, John; Corliss, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the integrity and the benefits of the DSA shrink process were verified through a via-chain test structure, which was fabricated by either DSA or baseline litho/etch process for via layer formation while metal layer processes remain the same. The nearest distance between the vias in this test structure is below 60nm, therefore, the following process components were included: 1) lamella-forming BCP for forming self-aligned via (SAV), 2) EUV printed guiding pattern, and 3) PS-philic sidewall. The local CDU (LCDU) of minor axis was improved by 30% after DSA shrink process. We compared two DSA Via shrink processes and a DSA_Control process, in which guiding patterns (GP) were directly transferred to the bottom OPL without DSA shrink. The DSA_Control apparently resulted in larger CD, thus, showed much higher open current and shorted the dense via chains. The non-optimized DSA shrink process showed much broader current distribution than the improved DSA shrink process, which we attributed to distortion and dislocation of the vias and ineffective SAV. Furthermore, preliminary defectivity study of our latest DSA process showed that the primary defect mode is likely to be etch-related. The challenges, strategies applied to improve local CD uniformity and electrical current distribution, and potential adjustments were also discussed.

  15. Intra-arterial Ultra-low-Dose CT Angiography of Lower Extremity in Diabetic Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özgen, Ali, E-mail: draliozgen@hotmail.com [Yeditepe University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Sanioğlu, Soner [Yeditepe University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey); Bingöl, Uğur Anıl [Yeditepe University Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery (Turkey)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeTo image lower extremity arteries by CT angiography using a very low-dose intra-arterial contrast medium in patients with high risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN).Materials and MethodsThree cases with long-standing diabetes mellitus and signs of lower extremity atherosclerotic disease were evaluated by CT angiography using 0.1 ml/kg of the body weight of contrast medium given via 10-cm-long 4F introducer by puncturing the CFA. Images were evaluated by an interventional radiologist and a cardiovascular surgeon. Density values of the lower extremity arteries were also calculated. Findings in two cases were compared with digital subtraction angiography images performed for percutaneous revascularization. Blood creatinine levels were followed for possible CIN.ResultsIntra-arterial CT angiography images were considered diagnostic in all patients and optimal in one patient. No patient developed CIN after intra-arterial CT angiography, while one patient developed CIN after percutaneous intervention.ConclusionIntra-arterial CT angiography of lower extremity might be performed in selected patients with high risk of developing CIN. Our limited experience suggests that as low as of 0.1 ml/kg of the body weight of contrast medium may result in adequate diagnostic imaging.

  16. Improved Visibility of Metastatic Disease in the Liver During Intra-Arterial Therapy Using Delayed Arterial Phase Cone-Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schernthaner, Ruediger E., E-mail: ruediger.schernthaner@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Section of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy (Austria); Haroun, Reham R., E-mail: rehamharoun1989@gmail.com; Duran, Rafael, E-mail: rafaelduran.md@gmail.com; Lee, Howard, E-mail: mail2howielee@gmail.com; Sahu, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.p.sahu@gmail.com; Sohn, Jae Ho, E-mail: sohn87@gmail.com; Chapiro, Julius, E-mail: j.chapiro@googlemail.com; Zhao, Yan, E-mail: yanzhao211@163.com; Gorodetski, Boris, E-mail: boris.gorodetski@charite.de; Fleckenstein, Florian, E-mail: florian.fleckenstein@charite.de; Smolka, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.smolka@charite.de [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Radaelli, Alessandro, E-mail: Alessandro.Radaelli@philips.com; Bom, Imramsjah Martijn van der, E-mail: martijn.van.der.bom@philips.com [Philips Healthcare, Image-Guided Therapy Systems (Netherlands); Lin, MingDe, E-mail: ming.lin@philips.com; Geschwind, Jean Francois, E-mail: jeff.geschwind@yale.edu [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    2016-10-15

    PurposeTo compare the visibility of liver metastases on dual-phase cone-beam CT (DP-CBCT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), with reference to preinterventional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) of the liver.MethodsThis IRB-approved, retrospective study included 28 patients with neuroendocrine (NELM), colorectal (CRCLM), or sarcoma (SLM) liver metastases who underwent DP-CBCT during intra-arterial therapy (IAT) between 01/2010 and 10/2014. DP-CBCT was acquired after a single contrast agent injection in the tumor-feeding arteries at early and delayed arterial phases (EAP and DAP). The visibility of each lesion was graded by two radiologists in consensus on a three-rank scale (complete, partial, none) on DP-CBCT and DSA images using CE-MRI as reference.Results47 NELM, 43 CRCLM, and 16 SLM were included. On DSA 85.1, 44.1, and 37.5 % of NELM, CRCLM, and SLM, were at least partially depicted, respectively. EAP-CBCT yielded significantly higher sensitivities of 88.3 and 87.5 % for CRCLM and SLM, respectively (p < 0.01), but not for NELM (89.4 %; p = 1.0). On DAP-CBCT all NELM, CRCLM, and SLM were visible (p < 0.001). Complete depiction was achieved on DSA for 59.6, 16.3, and 18.8 % of NELM, CRCLM, and SLM, respectively. The complete depiction rate on EAP-CBCT was significantly higher for CRCLM (46.5 %; p < 0.001), lower for NELM (40.4 %; p = 0.592), and similar for SLM (25 %, p = 0.399). On DAP-CBCT however, the highest rates of complete depiction were found—NELM (97.8 %; p = 0.008), CRCLM (95.3 %; p = 0.008), and SLM (100 %; p < 0.001).ConclusionDAP-CBCT substantially improved the visibility of liver metastases during IAT. Future studies need to evaluate the clinical impact.

  17. Spontaneously Resolving Periocular Erythema and Ciliary Madarosis Following Intra-arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Brian; Gobin, Pierre Y.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Brodie, Scott E.; Abramson, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose and Design: To describe an unusual clinical finding seen in children undergoing intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 69 eyes of 63 patients receiving intra-arterial chemotherapy over a 3-year period. Charts and photographs of 69 consecutive cases were reviewed, and data were collected on patients with clinical evidence of a hyperemic cutaneous periocular abnormality following the procedure. Results: A blanching erythematous and edematous patch was noted in the periocular region in 16% (11 of 69) of the children who received intraarterial chemotherapy. The plaque extended into the region of the supertrochlear and medial marginal artery distribution on the ipsilateral side of the intra-arterial chemotherapy. All patches of erythema spontaneously resolved within 3 months following completion of the intra-arterial chemotherapy. Conclusion: Periocular erythema and swelling is a self-limited clinical finding associated with intra-arterial chemotherapy in a small number of patients. PMID:20844675

  18. Multifunctional hardmask neutral layer for directed self-assembly (DSA) patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Hockey, Mary Ann; Wang, Yubao; Calderas, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Micro-phase separation for directed self-assembly (DSA) can be executed successfully only when the substrate surface on which the block co-polymer (BCP) is coated has properties that are ideal for attraction to each polymer type. The neutral underlayer (NUL) is an essential and critical component in DSA feasibility. Properties conducive for BCP patterning are primarily dependent on "brush" or "crosslinked" random co-polymer underlayers. Most DSA flows also require a lithography step (reflection control) and pattern transfer schemes at the end of the patterning process. A novel multifunctional hardmask neutral layer (HM NL) was developed to provide reflection control, surface energy matching, and pattern transfer capabilities in a grapho-epitaxy DSA process flow. It was found that the ideal surface energy for the HM NL is in the range of 38-45 dyn/cm. The robustness of the HM NL against exposure to process solvents and developers was identified. Process characteristics of the BCP (thickness, bake time and temperature) on the HM NL were defined. Using the HM NL instead of three distinct layers - bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) and neutral and hardmask layers - in DSA line-space pitch tripling and contact hole shrinking processes was demonstrated. Finally, the capability of the HM NL to transfer a pattern into a 100-nm spin-on carbon (SOC) layer was shown.

  19. Advanced CD-SEM metrology for qualification of DSA patterns using coordinated line epitaxy (COOL) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeshi; Konishi, Junko; Ikota, Masami; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Seino, Yuriko; Sato, Hironobu; Kasahara, Yusuke; Azuma, Tsukasa

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) applying chemical epitaxy is one of the promising lithographic solutions for next generation semiconductor device manufacturing. Especially, DSA lithography using coordinated line epitaxy (COOL) process is obviously one of candidates which could be the first generation of DSA applying PS-b-PMMA block copolymer (BCP) for sub-15nm dense line patterning . DSA can enhance the pitch resolutions, and can mitigate CD errors to the values much smaller than those of the originally exposed guiding patterns. On the other hand, local line placement error often results in a worse value, with distinctive trends depending on the process conditions. To address this issue, we introduce an enhanced measurement technology of DSA line patterns with distinguishing their locations in order to evaluate nature of edge placement and roughness corresponding to individual pattern locations by using images of CD-SEM. Additionally correlations among edge roughness of each line and each space are evaluated and discussed. This method can visualize features of complicated roughness easily to control COOL process. As a result, we found the followings. (1) Line placement error and line placement roughness of DSA were slightly different each other depending on their relative position to the chemical guide patterns. (2) In middle frequency area of PSD (Power Spectral Density) analysis graphs, it was observed that shapes were sensitively changed by process conditions of chemical stripe guide size and anneals temperature. (3) Correlation coefficient analysis using PSD was able to clarify characteristics of latent defect corresponding to physical and chemical property of BCP materials.

  20. Challenges in LER/CDU metrology in DSA: placement error and cross-line correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantoudis, Vassilios; Kuppuswamy, Vijaya-Kumar M.; Gogolides, Evangelos; Pret, Alessandro V.; Pathangi, Hari; Gronheid, Roel

    2016-03-01

    DSA lithography poses new challenges in LER/LWR metrology due to its self-organized and pitch-based nature. To cope with these challenges, a novel characterization approach with new metrics and updating the older ones is required. To this end, we focus on two specific challenges of DSA line patterns: a) the large correlations between the left and right edges of a line (line wiggling, rms(LWR)Generation Lithography techniques and reveal their distinct footprint on the extent of cross-line correlations.

  1. Quantitative flow and velocity measurements of pulsatile blood flow with 4D-DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Gabe; Hoffman, Carson; Schafer, Sebastian; Mistretta, Charles A.; Strother, Charles M.

    2017-03-01

    Time resolved 3D angiographic data from 4D DSA provides a unique environment to explore physical properties of blood flow. Utilizing the pulsatility of the contrast waveform, the Fourier components can be used to track the waveform motion through vessels. Areas of strong pulsatility are determined through the FFT power spectrum. Using this method, we find an accuracy from 4D-DSA flow measurements within 7.6% and 6.8% RMSE of ICA PCVIPR and phantom flow probe validation measurements, respectively. The availability of velocity and flow information with fast acquisition could provide a more quantitative approach to treatment planning and evaluation in interventional radiology.

  2. Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Radiofrequency Ablation of VX2 Liver Tumor: Intraarterial versus Intravenous Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) can be used as a possible pharmaceutical alternative that augments radiofrequency (RF) ablation by reducing tumor blood flow. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intraarterial and intravenous administration of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on RF-induced ablation in an experimentally induced liver tumor. VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of 30 rabbits. As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1 mg/kg) was administered through the hepatic artery (n = 10, group A) or ear vein (n = 10, group B), 30 minutes before RF ablation (125 mA {+-} 35; 90 {+-} 5 degrees Celsius). As a control group, 10 rabbits were treated with RF ablation alone (group C). RF was intentionally applied to the peripheral margin of the tumor so that ablation can cover the tumor and adjacent hepatic parenchyma. Ablation areas of the tumor and adjacent parenchymal changes among three groups were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. The overall ablation areas were 156 {+-} 28.9 mm{sup 2} (group A), 119 {+-} 31.7 (group B), and 92 {+-} 17.4 (group C, p < 0.04). The ablation area of the tumor was significantly larger in group A (73 {+-} 19.7 mm{sup 2}) than both group B (50 {+-} 19.4, p = 0.02) and group C (28 {+-} 2.2, p < 0.01). The ratios of the tumoral ablation area to the overall ablation area were larger in group A (47 {+-} 10.5%) than that of the other groups (42 {+-} 7.3% in group B and 32 {+-} 5.6% in group C) (p < 0.03). Radiofrequency-induced ablation area can be increased with intraarterial or intravenous administration of As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The intraarterial administration of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} seems to be helpful for the selective ablation of the tumor.

  3. Update on Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Zanaty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tools for managing retinoblastoma have been increasing in the past decade. While globe-salvage still relies heavily on intravenous chemotherapy, tumors in advanced stage that failed chemotherapy are now referred for intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC to avoid enucleation. However, IAC still has many obstacles to overcome. We present an update on the indications, complications, limitations, success, and technical aspects of IAC. Given its safety and high efficacy, it is expected that IAC will replace conventional strategies and will become a first-line option even for tumors that are amenable for other strategies.

  4. Advanced CD-SEM metrology for pattern roughness and local placement of lamellar DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Shinji; Tsutsumi, Tomohiko; Kim, JiHoon; Cao, Yi; Lin, Guanyang

    2014-04-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) applying chemical epitaxy is one of the promising lithographic solutions for next generation semiconductor device manufacturing. We introduced Fingerprint Edge Roughness (FER) as an index to evaluate edge roughness of non-guided lamella finger print pattern, and found its correlation with the Line Edge Roughness (LER) of the lines assembled on the chemical guiding patterns. In this work, we have evaluated both FER and LER at each process steps of the LiNe DSA flow utilizing PS-b-PMMA block copolymers (BCP) assembled on chemical template wafers fabricated with Focus Exposure Matrix (FEM). As a result, we found the followings. (1) Line widths and space distances of the DSA patterns slightly differ to each other depending on their relative position against the chemical guide patterns. Appropriate condition that all lines are in the same dimensions exists, but the condition is not always same for the spaces. (2) LER and LWR (Line Width Roughness) of DSA patterns neither depend on width nor LER of the guide patterns. (3) LWR of DSA patterns are proportional to the width roughness of fingerprint pattern. (4) FER is influenced not only by the BCP formulation, but also by its film thickness. We introduced new methods to optimize the BCP formulation and process conditions by using FER measurement and local CD valuation measurement. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 2 April 2014, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 14 May 2014. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  5. [Affine transformation-based automatic registration for peripheral digital subtraction angiography (DSA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Gang; Dai, Dao-Qing; Zou, Lu-Min

    2008-07-01

    In order to remove the artifacts of peripheral digital subtraction angiography (DSA), an affine transformation-based automatic image registration algorithm is introduced here. The whole process is described as follows: First, rectangle feature templates are constructed with their centers of the extracted Harris corners in the mask, and motion vectors of the central feature points are estimated using template matching technology with the similarity measure of maximum histogram energy. And then the optimal parameters of the affine transformation are calculated with the matrix singular value decomposition (SVD) method. Finally, bilinear intensity interpolation is taken to the mask according to the specific affine transformation. More than 30 peripheral DSA registrations are performed with the presented algorithm, and as the result, moving artifacts of the images are removed with sub-pixel precision, and the time consumption is less enough to satisfy the clinical requirements. Experimental results show the efficiency and robustness of the algorithm.

  6. [Significance of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of reconstructive vascular interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, M

    1983-12-01

    The author examined 160 patients by means of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after reconstructive vascular surgery. The checkup aimed to controlling the functional capacity of arterial and venous bypasses, of thrombal endarterectomy (TEA) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The image quality of the examinations was good or very good in 138 cases and satisfactory in 19 cases in respect of the questions to be solved. In 3 cases, no information of diagnostic value was obtained. Vascular wall irregularities, stenoses, occlusions, dissections and aneurysms could be assessed with satisfactory display of anatomic details. Evidently DSA yielded a higher percentage of better results in the assessment of reconstructive vascular surgery than was obtained by pretherapeutic diagnosis in the region of the vessels, head, trunk and body periphery.

  7. Non-contrast-enhanced MRA of renal artery stenosis: validation against DSA in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bley, T.A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Francois, C.J.; Schiebler, M.L. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Wieben, O.; Del Rio, A.M.; Grist, T.M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Takei, N. [GE Healthcare, MR Applied Sciences Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Brittain, J.H. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); GE Healthcare, MR Applied Sciences Laboratory, Madison, WI (United States); Reeder, S.B. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Emergency Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-02-15

    To compare 3D-inversion-recovery balanced steady-state free precession (IR-bSSFP) non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with 3D-contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) for assessment of renal artery stenosis (RAS) using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. Bilateral RAS were surgically created in 12 swine. IR-bSSFP and CE-MRA were acquired at 1.5 T and compared to rotational DSA. Three experienced cardiovascular radiologists evaluated the IR-bSSFP and CE-MRA studies independently. Linear regression models were used to calibrate and assess the accuracy of IR-bSSFP and CE-MRA, separately, against DSA. The coefficient of determination and Cohen's kappa coefficient were also generated. Calibration of the three readers' RAS grading revealed R{sup 2} values of 0.52, 0.37 and 0.59 for NCE-MRA and 0.48, 0.53 and 0.71 for CE-MRA. Inter-rater agreement demonstrated Cohen's kappa values ranging from 0.25 to 0.65. Distal renal artery branch vessels were visible to a significantly higher degree with NCE-MRA compared to CE-MRA (p < 0.001). Image quality was rated excellent for both sequences, although image noise was higher with CE-MRA (p < 0.05). In no cases did noise interfere with image interpretation. In a well-controlled animal model of surgically induced RAS, IR-bSSFP based NCE-MRA and CE-MRA accurately graded RAS with a tendency for stenosis overestimation, compared to DSA. (orig.)

  8. An Efficient Tabu Search DSA Algorithm for Heterogeneous Traffic in Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Hany; Coupechoux, Marceau; Godlewski, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose and analyze a TS (Tabu Search) algorithm for DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Access) in cellular networks. We consider a scenario where cellular operators share a common access band, and we focus on the strategy of one operator providing packet services to the end-users. We consider a soft interference requirement for the algorithm's design that suits the packet traffic context. The operator's objective is to maximize its reward while taking into accoun...

  9. MO-D-213CD-04: 4D X-Ray DSA and 4D Fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, C

    2012-06-01

    During the past decade the use of undersampled acquisition and constrained reconstruction have led to significant increases in data acquisition speed, SNR, spatial resolution and temporal resolution in MR imaging. When a separately acquired constraining image is combined with an angiographic time series the traditional tradeoff between spatial and temporal resolution is greatly reduced. Artifacts and limited resolution that would normally be associated with a rapid highly undersampled temporal image series are mitigated by the constrained reconstruction process which transfers the SNR and spatial resolution of the constraining image to the individual time frames. In rotational C-Arm DSA a 3D image volume is formed from all the projections acquired during the C-Arm rotation. Although the individual projections contain temporal information, the reconstructed 3D image has no temporal information and represents a composite of the vascular filling that has occurred during the iodine injection. However, the 3D cone beam CT reconstruction can be used to constrain the reconstruction of one 3D volume for each of the rotational projections. This extends the traditional DSA time series of 2D images to a series of 3D volumes at rates up to 30 per second. Similar techniques can be used to provide fluoroscopy that can be embedded in the 3D space of the constraining volume and viewed from arbitrary angles without gantry motion. This overcomes the problem of forbidden views and guarantees that an intervention can be done without having to send patients to surgery. Unlike 4D DSA which requires only one source and receptor, 4D Fluoroscopy requires a bi-plane fluoroscopy system. 1. To understand the application of under sampling and constrained reconstruction to 4D DSA and Fluoroscopy. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Minimally Invasive Monitoring of Chronic Central Venous Catheter Patency in Mice Using Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Repetitive administration of medication or contrast agents is frequently performed in mice. The introduction of vascular access mini-ports (VAMP for mice allows long-term vascular catheterization, hereby eliminating the need for repeated vessel puncture. With catheter occlusion being the most commonly reported complication of chronic jugular vein catheterization, we tested whether digital subtraction angiography (DSA can be utilized to evaluate VAMP patency in mice.Twenty-three mice underwent catheterization of the jugular vein and subcutaneous implantation of a VAMP. The VAMP was flushed every second day with 50 μL of heparinized saline solution (25 IU/ml. DSA was performed during injection of 100 μL of an iodine based contrast agent using an industrial X-ray inspection system intraoperatively, as well as 7±2 and 14±2 days post implantation.DSA allowed localization of catheter tip position, to rule out dislocation, kinking or occlusion of a microcatheter, and to evaluate parent vessel patency. In addition, we observed different ante- and retrograde collateral flow patterns in case of jugular vein occlusion. More exactly, 30% of animals showed parent vessel occlusion after 7±2 days in our setting. At this time point, nevertheless, all VAMPs verified intravascular contrast administration. After 14±2 days, intravascular contrast injection was verified in 70% of the implanted VAMPs, whereas at this point of time 5 animals had died or were sacrificed and in 2 mice parent vessel occlusion hampered intravascular contrast injection. Notably, no occlusion of the catheter itself was observed.From our observations we conclude DSA to be a fast and valuable minimally invasive tool for investigation of catheter and parent vessel patency and for anatomical studies of collateral blood flow in animals as small as mice.

  11. Minimally Invasive Monitoring of Chronic Central Venous Catheter Patency in Mice Using Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Giovanna; Fiebig, Teresa; Kirschner, Stefanie; Nikoubashman, Omid; Kabelitz, Lisa; Othman, Ahmed; Nonn, Andrea; Kramer, Martin; Brockmann, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive administration of medication or contrast agents is frequently performed in mice. The introduction of vascular access mini-ports (VAMP) for mice allows long-term vascular catheterization, hereby eliminating the need for repeated vessel puncture. With catheter occlusion being the most commonly reported complication of chronic jugular vein catheterization, we tested whether digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can be utilized to evaluate VAMP patency in mice. Twenty-three mice underwent catheterization of the jugular vein and subcutaneous implantation of a VAMP. The VAMP was flushed every second day with 50 μL of heparinized saline solution (25 IU/ml). DSA was performed during injection of 100 μL of an iodine based contrast agent using an industrial X-ray inspection system intraoperatively, as well as 7±2 and 14±2 days post implantation. DSA allowed localization of catheter tip position, to rule out dislocation, kinking or occlusion of a microcatheter, and to evaluate parent vessel patency. In addition, we observed different ante- and retrograde collateral flow patterns in case of jugular vein occlusion. More exactly, 30% of animals showed parent vessel occlusion after 7±2 days in our setting. At this time point, nevertheless, all VAMPs verified intravascular contrast administration. After 14±2 days, intravascular contrast injection was verified in 70% of the implanted VAMPs, whereas at this point of time 5 animals had died or were sacrificed and in 2 mice parent vessel occlusion hampered intravascular contrast injection. Notably, no occlusion of the catheter itself was observed. From our observations we conclude DSA to be a fast and valuable minimally invasive tool for investigation of catheter and parent vessel patency and for anatomical studies of collateral blood flow in animals as small as mice.

  12. The use of eDR-71xx for DSA defect review and automated classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathangi, Hari; Van Den Heuvel, Dieter; Bayana, Hareen; Bouckou, Loemba; Brown, Jim; Parisi, Paolo; Gosain, Rohan

    2015-03-01

    The Liu-Nealey (LiNe) chemo-epitaxy Directed Self Assembly flow has been screened thoroughly in the past years in terms of defects. Various types of DSA specific defects have been identified and best known methods have been developed to be able to get sufficient S/N for defect inspection to help understand the root causes for the various defect types and to reduce the defect levels to prepare the process for high volume manufacturing. Within this process development, SEM-review and defect classification play a key role. This paper provides an overview of the challenges that DSA brings also in this metrology aspect and we will provide successful solutions in terms of making the automated defect review. In addition, a new Real Time Automated Defect Classification (RT-ADC) will be introduced that can save up to 90% in the time required for manual defect classification. This will enable a much larger sampling for defect review, resulting in a better understanding of signatures and behaviors of various DSA specific defect types, such as dislocations, 1-period bridges and line wiggling.

  13. Process, design rule, and layout co-optimization for DSA based patterning of sub-10nm Finfet devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Joydeep; Torres, Andres; Pan, David Z.

    2017-03-01

    Directed Self Assembly (DSA) has emerged as one of the most compelling next generation patterning techniques for sub-7nm via or contact layers. A key issue in enabling DSA as a mainstream patterning technique is the generation of grapho-epitaxy based guiding pattern (GP) shapes to assemble the contact patterns on target with high fidelity and resolution. Current GP generation is mostly empirical, and limited to a very small number of via configurations. In this paper, we propose the first model-based GP synthesis algorithm and methodology for on-target and robust DSA, on general via pattern configurations. The final post-RET printed GPs derived from our original synthesized GPs are resilient to process variations and continue to maintain the same DSA fidelity in terms of placement error and target shape.

  14. Intra-arterial thrombolysis of digital artery occlusions in a patient with polycythemia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Gary, Thomas; Ghanim, Leyla; Lipp, Rainer; Brodmann, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    There are limited therapeutic options for the resolution of digital artery occlusions. Intra-arterial thrombolysis with anticoagulative and thrombolytic drugs successfully restored the blood flow in the affected digital arteries.

  15. Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moo Sang; Roh, Byung Suk [Dept. of Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    If the appropriate catheterization of the affected vein was not possible because of a narrowed or thrombus-filled venous lumen, successful treatment gets into trouble during catheter directed regional thrombolysis for treatment of deep vein thrombosis. In this situation, intra-arterial thrombolysis can be considered as an alternative treatment, but to the best of our knowledge, only two reports have been described. We present here cases of successful intra-arterial thrombolysis in patients with deep vein thrombosis.

  16. Overview and development of EDA tools for integration of DSA into patterning solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J. Andres; Fenger, Germain; Khaira, Daman; Ma, Yuansheng; Granik, Yuri; Kapral, Chris; Mitra, Joydeep; Krasnova, Polina; Ait-Ferhat, Dehia

    2017-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly is the method by which a self-assembly polymer is forced to follow a desired geometry defined or influenced by a guiding pattern. Such guiding pattern uses surface potentials, confinement or both to achieve polymer configurations that result in circuit-relevant topologies, which can be patterned onto a substrate. Chemo, and grapho epitaxy of lines and space structures are now routinely inspected at full wafer level to understand the defectivity limits of the materials and their maximum resolution. In the same manner, there is a deeper understanding about the formation of cylinders using grapho-epitaxy processes. Academia has also contributed by developing methods that help reduce the number of masks in advanced nodes by "combining" DSA-compatible groups, thus reducing the total cost of the process. From the point of view of EDA, new tools are required when a technology is adopted, and most technologies are adopted when they show a clear cost-benefit over alternative techniques. In addition, years of EDA development have led to the creation of very flexible toolkits that permit rapid prototyping and evaluation of new process alternatives. With the development of high-chi materials, and by moving away of the well characterized PS-PMMA systems, as well as novel integrations in the substrates that work in tandem with diblock copolymer systems, it is necessary to assess any new requirements that may or may not need custom tools to support such processes. Hybrid DSA processes (which contain both chemo and grapho elements), are currently being investigated as possible contenders for sub-5nm process techniques. Because such processes permit the re-distribution of discontinuities in the regular arrays between the substrate and a cut operation, they have the potential to extend the number of applications for DSA. This paper illustrates the reason as to why some DSA processes can be supported by existing rules and technology, while other processes

  17. Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Presence of MICA-DSA and Successful Renal Re-Transplant with Negative-MICA Virtual Crossmatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi Ming

    Full Text Available The presence of donor-specific alloantibodies (DSAs against the MICA antigen results in high risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR of a transplanted kidney, especially in patients receiving a re-transplant. We describe the incidence of acute C4d+ AMR in a patient who had received a first kidney transplant with a zero HLA antigen mismatch. Retrospective analysis of post-transplant T and B cell crossmatches were negative, but a high level of MICA alloantibody was detected in sera collected both before and after transplant. The DSA against the first allograft mismatched MICA*018 was in the recipient. Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity tests with five samples of freshly isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrated the alloantibody nature of patient's MICA-DSA. Prior to the second transplant, a MICA virtual crossmatch and T and B cell crossmatches were used to identify a suitable donor. The patient received a second kidney transplant, and allograft was functioning well at one-year follow-up. Our study indicates that MICA virtual crossmatch is important in selection of a kidney donor if the recipient has been sensitized with MICA antigens.

  18. Experiences from the LNPP-P and DSA review. Lessons learned from RBMK safety studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy (Finland); Marttila, J.; Reponen, H. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-09-01

    RBMK is the Russian acronym for 'Channelized Large Power Reactor'. The Soviet-designed RBMK plants deviate substantially from typical Western BWR or PWR plants. The safety of the RBMK plants has raised severe concerns since the major accident at Chernobyl Unit 4 in 1986. In addition, a fire destroyed the turbine hall of Chernobyl Unit 2 in 1991 resulting in a near-accident: the reactor cooling could only be maintained through improvised measures. Another well-known fire event is the control cable room fire at Ignalina Unit 2 in 1989, which led to a partial loss of the main control room functions. After the collapse of Soviet Union several multilateral safety programs were started to evaluate and improve the safety of the RBMK plants. A Probabilistic and Deterministic Safety Assessment (P and DSA) of the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP) Unit 2 was started in 1996. Phase 2 of the project was completed in January 1999. A Peer Review was performed by Russian and Western experts. This report describes the insights from the RBMK risk studies, especially from the LNPP P and DSA with emphasis on the deeper understanding of the risk-important design factors and identification of possible ways to increase safety. LNPP P and DSA has meant a significant progress in this respect. Despite of its certain limitations P and DSA Phase 2 could point out short-term measures, which substantially reduced the risk of identified weaknesses, mostly related to the reliability of the emergency feedwater function and its support systems. The findings of LNPP P and DSA and the review recommendations emphasise the extensions needed to the analysis scope. The spreading and other influences of fires and floods between connected spaces should be analysed because of incomplete separation and protection in these regards in the 16st generation RBMK plants. High priority should be given to the analysis of external hazards, which were found important at the Loviisa NPP on the Northern

  19. Intra-arterial cisplatin and concurrent radiation for invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyanaga, Naoto; Ohtani, Mikinobu; Noguchi, Ryosuke (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine) (and others)

    1991-10-01

    Fifteen patients with invasive bladder cancer were treated with selective intra-arterial cisplatin and external beam radiotherapy (30.6 Gy over 3 weeks) prior to a planned cystectomy. Cisplatin, in total 200 mg, was administered via bilateral internal iliac artery infusion during the course of radiotherapy. Seven patients were evaluated for local response. Partial response (PR) was revealed in 4, and minor response (MR) in 3. Ten patients received total cystectomy, and pathological effects by the criteria adipted by Japanese Urological Association and The Japanese Society of Pathology, were as follows: Ef.3 in 1 case, Ef.2 in 6. Ef.1b in 1 and Ef.1a in 2. Down staging was observed in 8 patients from the clinical to the pathological stage. Thirteen patients are alive for 21 months. Two patients have died (1 lung infarction, 1 pancreatic cancer). Though nausea and sciatica-like pain were observed in some cases, there were no severe systemic side effects such as bone marrow suppression and renal toxicity. From these results it is concluded that this therapeutic modality could be effective in the preoperative work-up of candidates for total cystectomy, and also that it could be useful in the treatment of patients in whom total cystectomy is contraindicated. (author).

  20. Reassessing the Role of Intra-Arterial Drug Delivery for Glioblastoma Multiforme Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment for glioblastoma (GBM will likely require targeted delivery of several specific pharmacological agents simultaneously. Intra-arterial (IA delivery is one technique for targeting the tumor site with multiple agents. Although IA chemotherapy for glioblastoma (GBM has been attempted since the 1950s, the predicted benefits remain unproven in clinical practice. This review focuses on innovative approaches to IA drug delivery in treating GBM. Guided by novel in vitro and in vivo optical measurements, newer pharmacokinetic models promise to better define the complex relationship between background cerebral blood flow and drug injection parameters. Advanced optical technologies and tracers, unique nanoparticles designs, new cellular targets, and rational drug formulations are continuously modifying the therapeutic landscape for GBM. Personalized treatment approaches are emerging; however, such tailored approaches will largely depend on effective drug delivery techniques and on the ability to simultaneously deliver multidrug regimens. These new paradigms for tumor-selective drug delivery herald dramatic improvements in the effectiveness of IA chemotherapy for GBM. Therefore, within this context of so-called “precision medicine,” the role of IA delivery for GBM is thoroughly reassessed.

  1. Intra-arterial delivery of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyoshi Watanabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While treatments have been developed to combat stroke, such as intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular recanalization therapies, their ability to decrease the long-term disability that accompanies stroke is limited. Currently, stem cell research focused on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. MSCs are multipotent, nonhematopoietic stem cells found in the stromal fraction of the bone marrow, along with the connective tissue of most organs. MSCs are an increasingly appealing cell source due to the relative ease in which they can be retrieved, developed, and handled in vitro. Despite the fact that numerous paths of stem cell transport to the brain in acute ischemic stroke (AIS exist, the intra-arterial (IA route of stem cell transport is most attractive. This is due to its great potential for clinical translation, especially considering the growing clinical application of endovascular treatment for AIS. Here, we evaluate research examining IA delivery of MSCs to the stroke region. The results of the study revealed the maximum tolerated dose and that the optimal time for administration was 24 h, following cerebral ischemia. It is important that future translational studies are performed to establish IA administration of MSCs as a widely used treatment for AIS.

  2. L’ICF-CY per la progettazione inclusiva per gli alunni con DSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Chiaro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro presenta i principali risultati di una ricerca a carattere teorico-esplorativo, finalizzata a valutare quanto lo strumento dell’International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY sia conosciuto ed utilizzato nei diversi contesti educativi per l’osservazione degli allievi e del loro “funzionamento” in senso dinamico-evolutivo, in interazione con i fattori ambientali, e finalizzato ad una progettazione educativo-didattica significativamente orientata alla prospettiva inclusiva. A tal fine sono stati intervistati gli insegnanti delle scuole di ogni ordine e grado del Lazio iscritti al Master in Didattica e Psicopedagogia per gli alunni con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA presso l’Università degli Studi di Roma Tre. La scelta è coerente con la direttiva MIUR del 2012 dove viene considerato rilevante ai fini della individuazione dei Bisogni Educativi Speciali dell’alunno, ed in particolare degli allievi con DSA, l’apporto, anche sul piano culturale del modello diagnostico ICF-CY che considera la persona nella sua totalità, in una prospettiva bio-psico-sociale.

  3. Curative effects of RF combined with DSA-guided ethanol sclerotherapy in venous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Meng, Jian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Ruihan; Gu, Jianmin; Shao, Cuiling; Han, Kun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical effect of radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-guided anhydrous ethanol injection sclerotherapy in the treatment of high-return flow venous malformation (VM). Forty-one patients who were diagnosed as high-return flow VM with clinical and radiographic evidence were divided into the observation group (n=19) and control group (n=22) by random number table. All the patients received DSA-guided anhydrous ethanol injection sclerotherapy while the patients in the observation group were given RF ablation in addition. The clinical effect, treatment times and adverse effects of the two groups were analyzed. The effectiveness of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (94.7 vs. 81.8%). Facial paralysis occurred in three patients (13.6%) after ethanol injection in the control group, while the observation group had no facial nerve injury after treatment. The patients in the observation group had significantly fewer number of ethanol injections. RF can improve the efficacy of high-return flow VM and reduce the number of ethanol injections. The scheme is safe and effective, which is worth expanding in clinical practice.

  4. MR-angiography of the lower extremities with automatic moving bed (``MobiTrak``) in comparison to i.a.DSA; MR-Angiographie der unteren Extremitaeten mit automatischer Tischverschiebung (``MobiTrak``) im Verglecih zur i.a.DSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, H.P.; Hoffmann, H.G. [Bruederkrankenhaus Trier (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologie; Metzner, C.; Oettinger, W. [Bruederkrankenhaus Trier (Germany). Abt. fuer Allgemeine-, Unfall- und Gefaesschirurgie

    1999-03-01

    Purpose: Comparison of the diagnostic information obtained by MRA using a moving bed (`MobiTrak`) with i.a.DSA for angiography of the lower extremities. Materials and Methods: In 20 patients, i.a.DSA and MRA were performed within a few days. The image quality and diagnostic information were evaluated by two radiologists and two surgeons. Results: The radiologists assessed the quality of MRA higher for 18%, for 79% image quality was equal, for 3% the quality was graded as lower in comparison to i.a.DSA. The surgeons found the quality of MRA higher for 16%, equal for 75% and lower for 9%. In all cases, MRA was sufficient for planning of further treatment. Conclusions: For examinations of the arterial vessels of the lower extremities, MRA with a moving bed (`MobiTrak`) can be used instead of i.a.DSA. The diagnostic information from MRA is sufficient for planning the further treatment. The advantages of MRA (no radiation, no i.a. puncture, no contrast medium with iodine) will lead to an increasing application of this method. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Pruefung der kontrastmittelgestuetzten MRA mit automatischer Tischverschiebung im Vergleich zur i.a.DSA bei der Darstellung der Becken-/Beingefaesse. Material und Methode: Bei 20 Patienten wurden innerhalb von wenigen Tagen eine i.a.DSA und eine MRA durchgefuehrt. Die Bildqualitaet wurde vergleichend von zwei Radiologen und zwei Gefaesschirurgen beurteilt. Ergebnisse: Von den Radiologen wurde in 18% der Gefaessgebiete die diagnostische Bildqualitaet der MRA im Vergleich zur i.a.DSA als besser, in 79% als gleichwertig und in 3% als geringer beurteilt. Unter den Gefaesschirurgen lagen die Werte bei 16% (besser), 75% (gleich), 9% (geringer). In saemtlichen Faellen war die Bildqualitaet der MRA fuer die Planung der weiteren Gefaessbehandlung ausreichend. Schlussfolgerung: Die technische Entwicklung (`MobiTrak`) erlaubt bei der Untersuchung der Becken-/Beingefaesse den Einsatz der MRA anstelle der i.a.DSA im Routinebetrieb. In

  5. WDS/DSA Certification - International collaboration for a trustworthy research data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrane, Mustapha; Hugo, Wim; Harrison, Sandy

    2016-04-01

    , German Institute for Standardization (DIN) standard 31644, Trustworthy Repositories Audit and Certification (TRAC) criteria and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 16363. In addition, the Data Seal of Approval (DSA) and WDS have set up core certification mechanisms for trusted digital repositories in 2009, which are increasingly recognized as de facto standards. While DSA emerged in Europe in the Humanities and Social Sciences, WDS started as an international initiative with historical roots in the Earth and Space Sciences. Their catalogues of requirements and review procedures are based on the same principles of openness, transparency. A unique feature of the DSA and WDS certification is that it strikes a balance between simplicity, robustness and the effort required to complete. A successful international cross-project collaboration was initiated between WDS and DSA under the umbrella of the Research Data Alliance (RDA), an international initiative started in 2013 to promote data interoperability which provided a useful and neutral forum. A joint working group was established in early 2014 to reconcile and simplify the array of certification options and improve and stimulate core certification for scientific data services. The outputs of this collaboration are a Catalogue of Common Requirements (https://goo.gl/LJZqDo) and a Catalogue of Common Procedures (https://goo.gl/vNR0q1) which will be implemented jointly by WDS and DSA.

  6. Localização de insulinoma pela injeção seletiva intra-arterial de cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudêncio Espinosa

    Full Text Available Insulinomas are rare endocrine tumors with an estimated incidence of 1(one per million. Optimal therapy for all islet tumors of the pancreas is curative surgical resection. However, previous reports have show that, in the absence of preoparative localization, insulinoma may not be found intraoperatively in about 20% of patients. With current imaging technology, including serial computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ultrasonography, localization of insulinomas less than 2cm remains inadequate. This case report shows that selective intraarterial calcium injection with hepatic venous sampling for insulin levels measured is a efficient technique for the localization of insulinomas.

  7. Repeated Intra-Arterial Thrombectomy within 72 Hours in a Patient with a Clear Contraindication for Intravenous Thrombolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Laible

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Treating patients with acute ischemic stroke, proximal arterial vessel occlusion, and absolute contraindication for administering intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA poses a therapeutic challenge. Intra-arterial thrombectomy constitutes an alternative treatment option. Materials and Methods. We report a case of a 57-year-old patient with concomitant gastric adenocarcinoma, who received three intra-arterial thrombectomies in 72 hours due to repeated occlusion of the left medial cerebral artery (MCA. Findings. Intra-arterial recanalization of the left medial cerebral artery was performed three times with initially good success. However, two days later, the right medial cerebral artery became occluded. Owing to the overall poor prognosis at that time and knowing the wishes of the patient, we decided not to perform another intra-arterial recanalization procedure. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first case illustrating the use of repeated intra-arterial recanalization in early reocclusion of intracranial vessels.

  8. Intra-arterial infusion of leptin does not affect blood pressure in salt-loaded rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mukhallad A; Talafih, Khalid; Mohamad, Mohamad M J; Khabaz, Mohammad Nidal

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this research is to see the effect of intra-arterial infusion of leptin on blood pressure of salt loaded rabbits in vivo. Increased blood pressure was produced in rabbits by giving diets containing 8% sodium chloride for 5 weeks. Leptin in different concentrations was infused intra-arterially into rabbits fed on high salt diets and the response was compared in rabbits fed with low salt diets. High salt diets produced significant increase in blood pressure. In rabbits fed with low salt diet, leptin infused intra-arterially caused an increase in blood pressure while infusion of leptin into rabbits fed with high salt diets does not affect the blood pressure. In conclusion, salt loading to rabbits abolishes the effect ofleptin on cardiovascular system. This may indicate that leptin effect on sympathetic activity is altered by high salt diets in these animals.

  9. Intra-Arterial Nimodipine Infusion for Cerebral Vasospasm in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, W-S.; Kang, H-S.; Kim, J.E.; Kwon, O-K.; Oh, C.W.; Son, Y.J.; Kwon, B.J.; Jung, C.; Han, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated the efficacy of intra-arterial nimodipine infusion for symptomatic vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Clinical data collected from 42 consecutive patients with symptomatic vasospasm after aSAH were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-two patients underwent 101 sessions of intra-arterial nimodipine infusion. Angiographic response, immediate clinical response, and clinical outcome were evaluated at discharge and six months later. Angiographic improvement was achieved in 82.2% of patients. The immediate clinical improvement rate was 68.3%, while the deterioration rate was 5.0%. A favorable clinical outcome was achieved in 76.2% at discharge and 84.6% six months. Vasospasm-related infarction occurred in 21.4%. There was no drug-related complication. The nimodipine group showed satisfactory outcomes. Nimodipine can be recommended as an effective and safe intra-arterial agent for the treatment of symptomatic vasospasm after aSAH. PMID:21696654

  10. Comparison of noninvasive oscillometric and intra-arterial blood pressure measurements in hyperacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Efstathios; Vemmos, Konstantinos; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Barlas, Gerasimos; Koroboki, Eleni; Eleni, Koroboki; Spengos, Konstantinos; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos

    2007-06-01

    This study aims to compare automatic oscillometric blood pressure recordings with simultaneous direct intra-arterial blood pressure measurements in hyperacute stroke patients to test the accuracy of oscillometric readings. A total of 51 first-ever stroke patients underwent simultaneous noninvasive automatic oscillometric and intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring within 3 h of ictus. Casual blood pressure was measured in both arms using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer on hospital admission. Patients who received antihypertensive medication during the blood pressure monitoring were excluded. The estimation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) using oscillometric recordings underestimated direct radial artery SBP by 9.7 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 6.5-13.0, Pblood pressure (DBP) recordings were compared with intra-arterial DBP recordings. For SBP and DBP, the Pearson correlation coefficients between noninvasive and intra-arterial recordings were 0.854 and 0.832, respectively. When the study population was stratified according to SBP bands (group A: SBP160 mmHg and SBP180 mmHg), higher mean DeltaSBP (intra-arterial SBP-oscillometric SBP) levels were documented in group C (+19.8 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals: 12.2-27.4) when compared with groups B (+8.5 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals: 2.7-14.5; P=0.025) and A (+5.9 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals: 1.8-9.9; P=0.002). Noninvasive automatic oscillometric BP measurements underestimate direct SBP recordings and overestimate direct DBP readings in acute stroke. The magnitude of the discrepancy between intra-arterial and oscillometric SBP recordings is even more prominent in patients with critically elevated SBP levels.

  11. Development and usefulness of intra-arterial digital subtraction portography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaoka, Koichi (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1988-12-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of newly developed intra-arterial digital subtraction portography (IA-DSP), IA-DSP findings were retrospectively reviewed in a total of 430 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (299), metastatic liver tumor (32), liver cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma(32), hepatic hemangioma (14), pancreatic cancer (11), cholangioma (10), cancer of the bile duct (3), or other disorders of the liver and biliary tract (26). The optimum amount of contrast medium was 15 ml, and the optimum speed of injection was 5 ml/sec. In comparing the results of IA-DSP with conventional superior mesenteric arterial portography (SMAP), obtained from 20 patients, IA-DSP was equivalent to SMAP and was equivalent or superior to SMAP in depicting the right branch and left branch of the portal vein, respectively. Side effects (pain and heat sensation) attributable to IA-DSP were mild. The time required for IA-DSP was extremely short. Of 390 IA-DSP images, 310 images (79.5%) were evaluated as good or excellent at the levels of the first- and second-order branches of the portal vein. Image quality of IA-DSP was independent of physical factors, including age, disease, liver function, and portal pressure. In 79 patients undergoing both IA-DSP and percutaneous transhepatic portography (PTP), IA-DSP was capable of identifying the third-order branches in 90%. Unidentified branches were attributable to misregistration artifacts caused by respiration or heart pulsation and to lamina flow of blood from the splenic vein. For 8 patients with PTP-proven abnormality at the second- and third-branches of the portal vein, the abnormality was also depicted on IA-DSP in 7 patients. IA-DSP would replace conventional SMAP, in that it may aid in deciding transarterial embolization, as well as providing information on occlusion, stenosis, and oppression of the hepatic portal branches due to tumors. (N.K.).

  12. Preoperative Localization of Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma with Intra-arterial Methylene Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, Rida; Sebaaly, Mikhael G. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon); Wehbe, Mohammad Rachad; Sfeir, Pierre; Khalife, Mohamad [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of General Surgery (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad, E-mail: mk00@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon)

    2017-06-15

    Ectopic parathyroid is found in 16% of patients with hyperparathyroidism. 2% of ectopic parathyroid adenomas are not accessible to standard cervical excision. In such cases, video-assisted thoracoscopic resection is the recommended definitive treatment. We present a case of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma localized preoperatively by injecting methylene blue within a branch of the internal mammary artery that is supplying the adenoma. Intra-arterial methylene blue injection facilitated visualization and resection of the adenoma. The preoperative intra-arterial infusion of methylene blue appears to be an effective and safe method for localization of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas and allows rapid identification during thoracoscopic resection.

  13. Preoperative Localization of Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma with Intra-arterial Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Rida; Sebaaly, Mikhael G; Wehbe, Mohammad Rachad; Sfeir, Pierre; Khalife, Mohamad; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2017-06-01

    Ectopic parathyroid is found in 16% of patients with hyperparathyroidism. 2% of ectopic parathyroid adenomas are not accessible to standard cervical excision. In such cases, video-assisted thoracoscopic resection is the recommended definitive treatment. We present a case of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma localized preoperatively by injecting methylene blue within a branch of the internal mammary artery that is supplying the adenoma. Intra-arterial methylene blue injection facilitated visualization and resection of the adenoma. The preoperative intra-arterial infusion of methylene blue appears to be an effective and safe method for localization of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas and allows rapid identification during thoracoscopic resection.

  14. Enablement of DSA for VIA layer with a metal SIT process flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L.; Farys, V.; Serret, E.; Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

    2016-03-01

    For technologies beyond 10 nm, 1D gridded designs are commonly used. This practice is common particularly in the case of Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) metal processes where Vertical Interconnect Access (VIA) connecting metal line layers are placed along a discrete grid thus limiting the number of VIA pitches. In order to create a Vertical Interconnect Access (VIA) layer, graphoepitaxy Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) is the prevailing candidate. The technique relies on the creation of a confinement guide using optical microlithography methods, in which the BCP is allowed to separate into distinct regions. The resulting patterns are etched to obtain an ordered VIA layer. Guiding pattern variations impact directly on the placement of the target and one must ensure that it does not interfere with circuit performance. To prevent flaws, design rules are set. In this study, for the first time, an original framework is presented to find a consistent set of design rules for enabling the use of DSA in a production flow using Self Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) for metal line layer printing. In order to meet electrical requirements, the intersecting area between VIA and metal lines must be sufficient to ensure correct electrical connection. The intersecting area is driven by both VIA placement variability and metal line printing variability. Based on multiple process assumptions for a 10 nm node, the Monte Carlo method is used to set a maximum threshold for VIA placement error. In addition, to determine a consistent set of design rules, representative test structures have been created and tested with our in-house placement estimator: the topological skeleton of the guiding pattern [1]. Using this technique, structures with deviation above the maximum tolerated threshold are considered as infeasible and the appropriate set of design rules is extracted. In a final step, the design rules are verified with further test structures that are randomly generated using

  15. FDG uptake after intraarterial chemotherapy in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebert, N. [Univ. Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Gemeinschaftspraxis Nuklearmedizin, Darmstadt (Germany); Kovacs, A.F. [Univ. Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery; Menzel, C.; Kranert, W.T.; Gruenwald, F. [Univ. Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Engels, K. [Senckenberg Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Aim: the intraarterial chemotherapy (i.a.CHT) using high dose cisplatin combined with systemic neutralization in patients with head and neck cancer (HNSCC) is used to reduce the tumor volume preoperatively. Aim of the study is the evaluation of the influence of i.a.CHT on the metabolism of fluor-18-deoxyglucose (FDG) in the primary and lymph nodes (LN). The value of FDG positron emission tomography (PET) preoperative and as follow-up method otter i.a.CHT is examined. Patients, methods: altogether 16 patients with HNSCC underwent two preoperative FDG PET examinations: the baseline examination one week before and the follow-up three weeks after i.a.CHT. The SUVmax values of the primary and the IN and LN metastases were evaluated and compared with each other and the histopathology. Results: the SUVmax value of the primary decreased after i.a.CHT significantly from a median (25{sup th} percentile/ 75{sup th} percentile) of 6.4 (4.1/ 7.8) to 3.6 (2.4/ 6.7) (p = 0.01). In 11 out of 16 patients cervical LN metastases were detected. The cervical LN metastases showed a decrease of the SUVmax value from 3.6 (2.3/ 4.8) in the pretreatment examination to 2.3 (1.7/ 3.6) after i.a.CHT (p = 0,008). Only in one patient with LN metastases the SUVmax of the nodes increased. The histopathologically measured size of the LN metastases ranged from 2 to 30 mm. Non malignant LN did not reveal a significant SUVmax decrease after i.a.CHT (p = 0.13). Conclusions: as expected, primaries of HNSCC showed a significant reduction of SUV after i.a.CHT. Compared to the primary the SUVmax decrease in LN metastases was less, but also significant. Since cytotoxic levels of cisplatin do not occur systemic, postinflammatory reactions of the LN or a lymphatic drainage of the chemotherapeutic drug into the LN could be an explanation. PET for staging of HNSCC must thus be performed prior to i.a.CHT. (orig.)

  16. Feeding Arteries of Primary Tongue Cancers on Intra-arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitani, Takeshi, E-mail: kamitani@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Kawanami, Satoshi, E-mail: kawanami-01@mac.com [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsuo, Yoshio, E-mail: yymatsuo@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yonezawa, Masato, E-mail: ymasato@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yamasaki, Yuzo, E-mail: yyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu, E-mail: minagao@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yamanouchi, Torahiko, E-mail: tora0228@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake, E-mail: h-yabu@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa, E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nakashima, Torahiko, E-mail: nakatora@qent.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi, E-mail: honda@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the frequency and the predictive factor of each feeding artery on intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) in primary tongue cancer.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated 20 patients who received IAIC for primary tongue cancer. The main and accompanying feeding arteries were identified on super-selective angiography of the branches of the external carotid artery. Tumor diameter, and extension to the contralateral side, tongue extrinsic muscles (TEMs), and lateral mesopharyngeal wall were determined based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography findings.ResultsThe main feeding artery was the ipsilateral lingual artery (LA) in 15 of the 20 examined tumors and the contralateral LA in the other 5. Ten cancers had only one feeding artery, and multiple feeding arteries were detected in the remaining 10. Tumors >4 cm (n = 9), those with extension to the contralateral side (n = 13), and those with extension to TEMs (n = 15) were supplied by significantly larger numbers of feeding arteries compared to tumors without these features (P = 0.01, 0.049, and 0.02, respectively). The frequency of feeding from the contralateral LA was 64 % (9/14) and 17 % (1/6) in tumors with and without extension to the contralateral side, respectively. Feeding from a facial artery (FA) was not detected in tumors ≤4 cm, while 5 of the 9 (56 %) tumors >4 cm were supplied by a FA (P = 0.01).ConclusionA careful search for feeding arteries is required, especially in large tumors with extension to the contralateral side or to TEMs.

  17. Intra-arterial nimodipine for the treatment of vasospasm due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral vasospasm is still considered the most devastating complication for the patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of intra-arterial nimodipine administration in cerebral vasospasm diminutions and outcome of the patients.

  18. Local intra-arterial thrombolysis in a 4-year-old male with vertebrobasilar artery thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janmaat, Mirjam; Gravendeel, Joost P; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Vroomen, Patrick C; Brouwer, Oebele F; Luijckx, Gert-Jan

    We report the case of a 4-year-old male with vertebrobasilar artery thrombosis for which he was treated with local intra-arterial urokinase 60 hours after onset of symptoms. Initially the patient had dysarthria and dysphagia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a community hospital showed

  19. In vitro evaluation of the PUCA II intra-arterial LVAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, S; Van Loon, JP; Segers, P; Rakhorst, G; Verdonck, P

    The "pulsatile catheter" (PUCA) pump is a minimally invasive intra-arterial left ventricular assist device intended for acute support of critically ill heart failure patients. To assess the hydrodynamic performance of the PUCA II, driven by an Arrow AutoCat IABP driver, we used a (static) mock

  20. [Hepatic intra-arterial infusion of BAK immune cells to treat metastatic liver cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Takusaburo

    2011-11-01

    Based on the "living with cancer" concept while maintaining a favorable QOL and avoiding side effects and drug resistance, we have developed a new immune cell treatment called BAK (BRM activated killer) therapy, primarily using CD56+ cells for a case of advanced progressive solid cancer. In the present case, we administered BAK cells by hepatic intra-arterial infusion to a patient who happened to be a surgeon and wished to undergo this therapy. The patient was a 52-year- old male surgeon who underwent surgery for rectal cancer in April 2007. Heavy particle radiotherapy was administered when liver metastases were identified in July 2008. Starting in December 2008, 10 billion BAK cells were administered each month by hepatic intra-arterial infusion via a catheter on a total of six different occasions. The 10 billion autologous lymphocytes were suspended in 200 mL of Ringer's solution and returned to the patient by hepatic intra-arterial infusion over a period of one hour. Interactions between the activated lymphocytes and liver cancer cells increased levels of serum α1AG, an inflammation marker, but these levels normalized following the sixth and final administration. Conventional drip-infusion BAK therapy was administered thereafter. Diagnostic imaging, including PET-CT and PET, confirmed a complete disappearance of liver metastases. This case suggests the effectiveness of hepatic intra-arterial infusion BAK cell therapy in treating liver cancer.

  1. Comparison of remnant size in embolized intracranial aneurysms measured at follow-up with DSA and MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, Zbigniew; Strzesniewski, Piotr; Lasek, Wladyslaw [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz (Poland); Beuth, Wojciech [University of Humanities and Economics in Wloclawek, Faculty of Health Sciences, Wloclawek (Poland)

    2012-12-15

    The possibility of recanalization and the need for retreatment are the most important limitations of intracranial aneurysm embolization. The purpose of the study was to compare the size of aneurysm remnants measured at follow-up with three-dimensional digital subtracted angiography (3D-DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Twenty-six aneurysms were found incompletely occluded in 72 consecutively examined patients at a follow-up after 3 months. The diameters and volume of aneurysm remnants were compared between 3D-DSA, time-of-flight MRA (TOF-MRA), contrast-enhanced TOF-MRA (CE-TOF-MRA), and contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) at 1.5 T. There was a significant correlation between remnant volumes calculated based on 3D-DSA and all MRA modalities. The intraobserver variability of the measurements ranged from 3.4 to 4.1 % and the interobserver variability from 5.8 to 7.3 %. There were no significant differences in the variability between the techniques. The mean residual filling volume ranged from 16.3 {+-} 19.0 mm{sup 3} in TOF-MRA to 30.5 {+-} 44.6 mm{sup 3} in 3D-DSA (P < 0.04). Significant differences were found in the volumes measured with 3D-DSA and CE-MRA as compared to TOF-MRA and CE-TOF-MRA (P < 0.01). There was a moderate significant correlation between the residual filling and the relative error of measurement in the case of TOF-MRA and CE-TOF-MRA. TOF-MRA seems to underestimate the size of aneurysm remnants detected at follow-up and should not be used as a sole imaging method to decide on re-embolization. (orig.)

  2. Safety and feasibility of intraarterial eptifibatide as a revascularization tool in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Muhammad Zeeshan; Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Sharma, Jitendra; Mathews, Marlon S; Snyder, Kenneth V; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Hopkins, L Nelson; Levy, Elad I

    2011-04-01

    Experience with the use of platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide in patients with ischemic stroke is limited. The authors report the off-label use of intraarterial eptifibatide during endovascular ischemic stroke revascularization procedures for reocclusion after documented recanalization or formed fresh thrombi in distal vessels that were inaccessible to endovascular devices. Patients who received intraarterial eptifibatide were identified from a prospectively collected database of patients in whom endovascular revascularization for acute ischemic stroke was attempted between 2005 and 2008. Data were analyzed retrospectively. The intraarterial eptifibatide dose was a single-bolus dose of 180 μg/kg body weight. Primary outcome measures were angiographic recanalization (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Grade 2 or 3), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate, overall mortality rate, and favorable 3-month modified Rankin Scale score (≤ 2). The study included 35 patients (mean age 62 years, range 18-85 years). The median presenting National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 13. Two patients received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator before endovascular therapy. The median time from symptom onset to therapy initiation was 230 minutes (range 90-1370 minutes). Twelve patients (34%) received intraarterial tissue plasminogen activator without mechanical measures. Mechanical revascularization measures used were Merci retriever in 19 (54%), Penumbra device in 1 (3%), balloon angioplasty in 15 (43%), and stent placement in 22 (63%) patients. The mean dose of intraarterial eptifibatide was 11.6 mg (range 5-16.6 mg). Partial-to-complete recanalization (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Grade 2 or 3) was achieved in 27 patients (77%). Postprocedure intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 13 patients (37%), causing symptoms in 5 (14%). In the 5 symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage cases, all patients but one presented more than 8 hours

  3. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced cervical carcinoma: which is better, intravenous or intra-arterial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui T

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ting Gui,* Keng Shen,* Yang Xiang, Lingya Pan, Jinghe Lang, Ming Wu, Huifang Huang, Dongyan Cao, Jiaxin YangDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to the work Purpose: The aim of our study is to investigate the differences in therapeutic effects and clinical significance between intravenous systematic chemotherapy and intra-arterial interventional chemotherapy in stage Ib2-IIb cervical carcinomas. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 93 cases of intravenous and 118 cases of intra-arterial neoadjuvant chemotherapy for stage Ib2-IIb cervical carcinomas treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from the year 2001 to 2010. Results: After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the overall response rate was 84.9% versus (vs 88.2% and the operability rate was 77.4% vs 81.4%, for intravenous vs intra-arterial (P>0.05. There were no significant differences in toxicities, surgical duration, perioperative blood loss, and operative complications between these two groups. Postoperative pathological examination revealed a significantly lower parametrial infiltration in the intra-arterial group (12.5% vs 38.1%, P<0.05, while the positive vaginal margin, lymph node metastasis, and intravascular tumor embolus showed no significant differences. The intravenous group and the intra-arterial group had similar recurrence rate (16.0% vs 12.3%, distant metastasis rate (9.1% vs 8.5%, and 5 year survival rate (79.5% vs 84.9%, without significant differences. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil are safe and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinomas. The intravenous and the intra-arterial approaches present with similar chemotherapy efficacy and clinical outcome. Since it is more simple and economical, the intravenous systematic

  4. Intra-Arterial Administration of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promotes Functional Recovery of the Brain After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silachev, D N; Plotnikov, E Yu; Babenko, V A; Danilina, T I; Zorov, L D; Pevzner, I B; Zorov, D B; Sukhikh, G T

    2015-08-01

    We compared the efficiency of delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells into the brain after their intravenous and intra-arterial injection. Analysis of the therapeutic effects of cells after experimental traumatic brain injury revealed improvement of the neurological status and motor functions of the damaged hemisphere, the effect being more pronounced after intraarterial injection of cells. Intra-arterial administration was followed by rapid infiltration of the cells into the brain tissue and their number considerably surpassed that after intravenous infusion. Targeted delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells into the brain after their injection into the carotid arteries substantially potentiated their neuroprotective effects in traumatic brain injury.

  5. Intra-arterial thrombolysis of the middle cerebral artery: an overview; Intraarterielle Lyse der A. cerebri media: ein Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T.; Ruffing, S.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2005-05-01

    Until 1996, treatment of strokes consisted exclusively of efforts to prevent recurrence. The development of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis changed the approach to a causal therapy. This article provides an overview of state-of-the-art intravenous and intra-arterial therapeutic concepts and attempts to define the position of the local intra-arterial fibrinolysis approach. (orig.) [German] Bis 1996 bedeutete Schlaganfalltherapie die Verhinderung weitere ischaemischer Insulte. Durch die Entwicklung der intravenoesen und intraarteriellen Lysetherapie mit rt-PA wurde erstmals eine kausale Therapie moeglich. In diesem Beitrag soll der Stand der intravenoesen Lysetherapie kurz dargestellt werden, um dann den Stellenwert der lokalen intraarteriellen Lysetherapie zu bewerten. (orig.)

  6. Intra-arterial drug and light delivery for photodynamic therapy using Visudyne®: implication for atherosclerotic plaque treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Jain; Matthieu Zellweger; Aurélien Frobert; Jérémy Valentin; Hubert van den Bergh; Georges Wagnières; Stéphane Cook; Marie-Noelle Giraud

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which is based on the activation of photosensitizers with light, can be used to reduce plaque burden. We hypothesized that intra-arterial photosensitizer administration and photo-activation will lead to high and rapid accumulation within the plaque with reduced systemic adverse effects. Thus this intra-arterial PDT would be expected to have less side effects and due to the short time involved would be compatible with percutaneous coronary interventions. Aim: We cha...

  7. Successful daptomycin lock therapy for implantable intra-arterial catheter infection in a patient with liver metastases of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Buret, Jennifer; Camou, Fabrice; Morlat, Philippe; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    There are no data on how to manage implantable intra-arterial catheter (IAC) infections. We report the case of a patient with liver metastases of colon cancer treated by regional intra-arterial chemotherapy who presented a suspected IAC-related infection, in whom daptomycin systemic treatment and lock therapy allowed to cure the IAC infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Higher dose intra-arterial milrinone and intra-arterial combined milrinone-nimodipine infusion as a rescue therapy for refractory cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Enes; Karakoç, Fatma; Pinar, H Ulas; Dogan, Rafi; Fırat, Ali; Yıldırım, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    Background Cerebral vasospasm (CV) is a major cause of delayed morbidity and mortality in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Various cerebral protectants have been tested in patients with aneurysmal SAH. We aimed to research the success rate of treatment of CV via intra-arterial milrinone injection and aggressive pharmacological therapy for refractory CV. Methods A total of 25 consecutive patients who received intra-arterial milrinone and nimodipine treatment for CV following SAH between 2014 and 2017 were included in the study. Patients who underwent surgical clipping were excluded. Refractory vasospasm was defined as patients with CV refractory to therapies requiring ≥3 endovascular interventions. Overall, six patients had refractory CV. Long-term neurological outcome was assessed 6-18 months after SAH using a modified Rankin score and Barthel index. Results The median modified Rankin scores were 1 (min: 0, max: 3) and Barthel index scores were 85 (min: 70, max: 100) From each vasospastic territory maximal 10-16 mg milrinone was given to patients; a maximum of 24 mg milrinone was given to each patient in a session and a maximum of 42 mg milrinone was given to a patient in a day. Both milrinone and nimodipine were given to three patients. There was a large vessel diameter increase after milrinone and nimodipine injections. No patient died due to CV; only one patient had motor dysfunction on the right lower extremity. Conclusion Higher doses of milrinone can be used effectively to control refractory CV. For exceptional patients with refractory CV, high dose intra-arterial nimodipine and milrinone infusion can be used as a rescue therapy.

  9. Efficacy of intra-arterial nimodipine in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm complicating subarachnoid haemorrhage

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    Hui, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Vic. (Australia)]. E-mail: cathryn.hui@southernhealth.org.au; Lau, K.P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Vic. (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy and safety of nimodipine as an alternative to papaverine for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the procedure reports, anaesthetic records, clinical charts and CT and angiographic images of 9 patients who had received intra-arterial nimodipine; 1 of these patients received both nimodipine and papaverine. The difference in arterial luminal diameter before and after treatment was calculated as a percentage change. RESULTS: The average dose of nimodipine administered per vessel was 3.3 mg. The mean increase in arterial diameter was 66.6% in the vasospastic segment. There was no significant change in blood pressure of any of the subjects during endovascular treatment of vasospasm. CONCLUSION: Intra-arterial nimodipine is effective in improving angiographic vasospasm complicating subarachnoid haemorrhage. Further studies aimed at examining the clinical benefits of nimodipine are warranted, particularly in view of the low risk of adverse side effects of nimopidine when compared with papaverine.

  10. Lymphoscintigraphic evaluation of intra-arterial lymphocyte injection in patients with leg lymphedema

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    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Uchisako, Hiroji; Yoneshiro, Shu; Fujita, Takefumi; Nakanishi, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Takafumi; Esato, Kensuke (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-05-01

    Three patients with chronic leg lymphedema were treated by intra-arterial lymphocyte injection and the effect was evaluated by lymphoscintigraphy using intradermal injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HSA. In all of the patients, the followed-up lymphoscintigraphy showed disappearance of the abnormalities of dermal back flow and/or collateral pathways observed before treatment and these findings were thought to indicate reduced load of dermal lymphatics induced by the treatment. These results indicated the usefulness of imaging with intradermal injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HSA for assessing the effect of treatment with intra-arterial lymphocyte injection. In addition, in two patients of them, analysis of lymph flow after treatment was underwent by time-activity curves obtained by lymphoscintigraphy using a load produced by standing. We also described the significance of the load test with standing. (author).

  11. Chemotherapy by superselective intraarterial infusion of nedaplatin combined with radiotherapy for oral cancer

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    Yamashita, Yoshio; Goto, Masaaki; Katsuki, Takeshi [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Nedaplatin (CDGP), which is a CDDP derivative, has been reported to be an effective anticancer agent for head and neck cancer. This study was performed to assess the feasibility of chemotherapy by superselective intraarterial infusion of nedaplatin (CDGP) in patients with oral cancers. Ten patients were treated with chemotherapy by superselective intraarterial infusion of CDGP combined with radiotherapy. The complete and partial response rates were 7/10 (70%) and 3/10 (30%), respectively. Nine patients showed grade 1-2 hematological toxicity including leukocytopenia and anemia. Thrombocytopenia of grade 4 was seen in only one patient. However, all the patients were free from renal dysfunction. From these results, it is suggested that this combination therapy might be quite effective and safe. Further study will be needed to determine its efficacy against oral cancer. (author)

  12. Minimal exposure intra-arterial chemotherapy for children with retinoblastoma and 13q syndrome

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    Alexander B Dillon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two infants with retinoblastoma and 13q syndrome with multiorgan system anomalies were treated with targeted intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC using one-to-three cycles of melphalan 5 mg to avoid systemic chemotherapeutic side effects. Both patients showed good response, with tumor control and no systemic chemotherapy side effects. Of the treatment modalities currently available, IAC may represent an optimal balance between tumor extermination and adverse drug reactions in this patient population with classically reduced multiorgan reserve.

  13. Intra-arterial intervention chemotherapy for sarcoma and cancerous ulcer via an implanted pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Cui, Qiu; Guo, Jun; Li, Dingfeng; Zeng, Yanjun

    2014-04-01

    To observe the efficacy of intra-arterial chemotherapy with subcutaneously implanted pump for soft tissue sarcoma in extremities and cancerous ulcer. 31 patients with ulcerative skin squamous cell carcinoma or sarcoma in extremities who received treatment during the period from July 2003 to November 2011 at our hospital were recruited, including 15 male and 16 female patients, aging between 14 and 83 with average age of 49 years old. 10 patients had tumor in upper extremities and 21 patients in lower extremities. The pathological types of studied cases include 9 cases with skin squamous cell carcinoma, 6 cases with synovial sarcoma, 5 cases with malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 3 cases with liposarcoma, 3 cases with osteosarcoma, 2 cases with malignant melanoma, 2 cases with epidermoid sarcoma, and 1 case with protuberans. The main symptoms of cancerous ulcer were pain, infection and hemorrhage; All the studied patients were administrated with cisplatin and doxorubicin by intra-arterial chemotherapy pump, and the patients with squamous cell carcinoma were additionally applied with bleomycin and patients with malignant melanoma were additionally applied with dacarbazine. The chemotherapy efficiency was observed after at 3 cycles of intra-arterial chemotherapy. The total remission rate of pain (RR) was 87 %, and total remission rate of ulcer cicatrization (RR) was 71 %, with ulcer cicatrizing spontaneously in 9 cases and obvious homeostasis in 5 cases with bleeding ulcers. 19 patients underwent surgery after chemotherapy, in which 16 cases had limb-salvage surgery and 3 cases underwent lower leg amputation after chemotherapy, and 3 patients out of 16 cases had local recurrence (19 %). The subcutaneous intra-arterial targeting chemotherapy could be applied to treat refractory sarcoma and cancerous ulcer in extremities to significantly increase the chemotherapeutic concentration at tumor area so as to effectively constrain the tumor rupture induced main symptoms

  14. Persistent renal enhancement after intra-arterial versus intravenous iodixanol administration

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    Chou, Shinn-Huey; Wang, Zhen J.; Kuo, Jonathan; Cabarrus, Miguel; Fu Yanjun; Aslam, Rizwan; Yee, Judy; Zimmet, Jeffrey M.; Shunk, Kendrick; Elicker, Brett [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Yeh, Benjamin M., E-mail: Benjamin.Yeh@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To examine the clinical significance of persistent renal enhancement after iodixanol administration. Methods: We retrospectively studied 166 consecutive patients who underwent non-enhanced abdominopelvic CT within 7 days after receiving intra-arterial (n = 99) or intravenous (n = 67) iodixanol. Renal attenuation was measured for each non-enhanced CT scan. Persistent renal enhancement was defined as CT attenuation >55 Hounsfield units (HU). Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) was defined as a rise in serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dL within 5 days after contrast administration. Results: While the intensity and frequency of persistent renal enhancement was higher after intra-arterial (mean CT attenuation of 73.7 HU, seen in 54 of 99 patients, or 55%) than intravenous contrast material administration (51.8 HU, seen in 21 of 67, or 31%, p < 0.005), a multivariate regression model showed that the independent predictors of persistent renal enhancement were a shorter time interval until the subsequent non-enhanced CT (p < 0.001); higher contrast dose (p < 0.001); higher baseline serum creatinine (p < 0.01); and older age (p < 0.05). The route of contrast administration was not a predictor of persistent renal enhancement in this model. Contrast-induced nephropathy was noted in 9 patients who received intra-arterial (9%) versus 3 who received intravenous iodixanol (4%), and was more common in patients with persistent renal enhancement (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Persistent renal enhancement at follow-up non-contrast CT suggests a greater risk for contrast-induced nephropathy, but the increased frequency of striking renal enhancement in patients who received intra-arterial rather than intravenous contrast material also reflects the larger doses of contrast and shorter time to subsequent follow-up CT scanning for such patients.

  15. Superselective intra-arterial fibrinolysis for acute cerebral ischemic infarct : usefulness of diffusion weighted MR imaging

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    Byun, Woo Mok; Lee, Se Jin [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Kyongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Sun [Kyungpook National Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gun Soo; Bae, Won Kyong [Chunan Hospital, Soonchunhang Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of superselective intra-arterial fibrinolysis for acute cerebral stroke and the usefulness of pre-and postfibrinolysis diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). In 41 patients with acute ischemic stroke whose treatment involved intra-arterial fibrinolysis, the occlusion site, degree of recanalization, and clinical results were compared. In 12 patients, diffusion weighted MRI was performed before fibrinolysis, and eight of these also underwent diffusion-weighted MRI after fibrinolysis. Using diffusion-weighted MRI, neurological outcomes were compared with signal intensity ratio (SIR, or the average signal intensity within the region of interest divided by that in the contralateral, nonischemic, homologous region). Twenty patients showed complete recanalization, nine partial recanalization, and in twelve there was no recanalization. Fourteen patients (34%) improved neurologically. No relationship existed between occlusion sites, degree of recanalization, and clinical outcome. Among 12 patients who underwent DWI before fibrinolysis, complete recanalization was noted in eight. Neurological improvement was seen in four patients with low SIR(<1.55), while in four with high SIR(>1.7), neurological outcome was poor despite complete recanalization. Although superselective intra-arterial fibrinolysis for acute cerebral stroke is a good therapeutic method for recanalization, the clinical outcome can be disappointing. We therefore suggest that in cases of acute cerebral ischemic infaret, SIR-as seen on DWI-might be useful for predicting the benefits of recanalization. In such cases, further investigation of the use of DWI prior to fibrinolysis is therefore needed.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of intra-arterial sugammadex and dexmedetomidine: an experimental study

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    Volkan Hancı

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Intra-arterial injection of medications may cause acute and severe ischemia and result in morbidity and mortality. There is no information in the literature evaluating the arterial endothelial effects of sugammadex and dexmedetomidine. The hypothesis of our study is that sugammadex and dexmedetomidine will cause histological changes in arterial endothelial structure when administered intra-arterially. Methods: Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group Control (n = 7; no intervention performed. Group Catheter (n = 7; a cannula inserted in the central artery of the ear, no medication was administered. Group Sugammadex (n = 7; rabbits were given 4 mg/kg sugammadex into the central artery of the ear, and Group Dexmedetomidine (n = 7; rabbits were given 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine into the central artery of the ear. After 72 h, the ears were amputated and histologically investigated. Results: There was no significant difference found between the control and catheter groups in histological scores. The endothelial damage, elastic membrane and elastic fiber damage, smooth muscle hypertrophy and connective tissue increase scores in the dexmedetomidine and sugammadex groups were significantly higher than both the control and the catheter groups (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference found between the dexmedetomidine and sugammadex groups in histological scores. Conclusion: Administration of sugammadex and dexmedetomidine to rabbits by intra-arterial routes caused histological arterial damage. To understand the histological changes caused by sugammadex and dexmedetomidine more clearly, more experimental research is needed.

  17. Intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke: Our institutional experience

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    R V Narayana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The standard treatment for acute ischemic stroke is intravenous (IV rtPA for patients who can reach the hospital within 3 to 4.5 h. There are case reports, where IA thrombolysis has helped patients in case an IV thrombolysis has failed. We report 14 cases of acute ischemic stroke treated by intra-arterial (IA thrombolysis. Materials and Methods: We have retrospectively analyzed 14 cases of acute ischemic stroke treated at our department between December 2008 and October 2011 by intra-arterial thrombolysis. The patients with suspected large vessel occlusion (11 patients and patients not responding to IV rtPA (3 patients were considered for the IA thrombolysis. Results: We achieved complete recanalization (TIMI 3 in 11 patients. One patient had a bleed following the procedure but recovered well during the hospital stay. All the patients were followed up to 90 days. Majority of them have good functional outcome. Conclusions: Our study suggests that intra-arterial thrombolysis is a feasible option in the subgroup of patients with large vessel occlusion. However, there is a need for a randomized multi-centric study to support our results.

  18. Risk factors for severe neutropenia following intra-arterial chemotherapy for intra-ocular retinoblastoma.

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    Ira J Dunkel

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a promising strategy for intra-ocular retinoblastoma. Neutropenia is the most commonly encountered systemic toxicity and in this study we aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the development of severe (≥ grade 3 neutropenia. METHODS: Retrospective review of 187 evaluable cycles of melphalan-containing intra-arterial chemotherapy from the first three cycles administered to 106 patients with intra-ocular retinoblastoma from May 2006 to June 2011. Cycles were considered to be evaluable if (1 blood count results were available in the 7 to 14 days post-treatment interval and (2 concurrent intravenous chemotherapy was not administered. Toxicity was assessed via the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. RESULTS: 54 cycles (29% were associated with grade 3 (n = 43 or grade 4 (n = 11 neutropenia. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression revealed that a higher melphalan dose (>0.40 mg/kg was significantly associated with severe neutropenia during all 3 cycles (odds ratio during cycle one 4.11, 95% confidence interval 1.33-12.73, p = 0.01, but the addition of topotecan and/or carboplatin were not. Prior treatment with systemic chemotherapy was not associated with severe neutropenia risk in any analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial melphalan-based chemotherapy can cause severe neutropenia, especially when a dose of greater than 0.40 mg/kg is administered. Further study with a larger sample may be warranted.

  19. [Hepatic intra-arterial infusion of biological response modifier (BRM)-activated killer immune lymphocytes to treat liver cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Takusaburo

    2012-11-01

    To enable "life with cancer" while maintaining quality of life(QOL) and freedom from adverse effects, we have devised biological response modifier (BRM)-activated killer (BAK) therapy, a new immune cell therapy using CD56-positive lymphocytes designed to treat advanced solid cancers. This treatment is yet to be applied to liver cancer, because BAK cells administered by intravenous infusion are unlikely to reach lesions via the complex vascular and lymphatic systems. Here, we report a case in which the patient, a surgeon, requested that we attempt to deliver BAK cells to cancer lesions in the liver via hepatic intra-arterial infusion. In 2005, with the patient's consent, we injected autologous lymphocytes intra-arterially into the liver using a catheter and confirmed the absence of adverse effects. In December 2008, we began injecting BAK cells intra-arterially into the liver of the patient, a male physician aged 52 years at the time, after identifying liver metastases following surgery for rectal cancer. We injected 10 billion cells intra-arterially into the liver via a catheter once a month for 6 months, and then undertook conventional BAK therapy by monthly intravenous infusion. Based on images obtained by positron emission tomography-computed tomography, BAK therapy led to complete remission and disappearance of the liver metastases. This case highlights the effectiveness of hepatic intra-arterial infusion of BAK cells in cases of liver cancer.

  20. Dose comparison of classical 2-plane DSA and 3D rotational angiography for the assessment of intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberina, N; Lechel, U; Forsting, M; Mönninghoff, C; Dietrich, U; Ringelstein, A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this experimental phantom study was to compare radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing classical two-plane digital subtraction angiography (2-plane DSA) and 3D rotational angiography in interventional neuroradiology. Thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) measurements were performed at an anthropomorphic phantom using a digital interventional angiography system. Two-plane DSA included posterior/anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections (frame-rate, 7.6 frames (PA) and 9.8 frames (LAT) for a scan time of approximately 8 s; image intensifier 27 cm (PA) and 25 cm (LAT)). For 3D rotational angiography, 122 images were acquired from one single image run with the imaging system rotating 240° around the phantom's head (image intensifier 37 cm). Effective dose was 0.4 mSv for 2-plane DSA compared to 0.1 mSv for 3D rotational angiography. Organ doses were approximately two to five times higher for classical 2-plane technique compared to the 3D rotational angiography, respectively: brain (11.4 vs. 2.4 mSv), eye lens (4.5 vs.1 mSv), salivary glands (7 vs. 1,7 mSv), oral mucosa (2.7 vs.0.9 mSv), thyroid (0.5 vs. 0.2 mSv), thymus (0.2 vs. 0.05 mSv), bone marrow within imaged region (1 vs. 0.2 mSv), oesophagus (0.07 vs. 0.03 mSv), endotracheal system (2.6 vs. 0.7 mSv) and skeletal components in the imaged region (0.7 vs. 0.2 mSv). Three-dimensional rotational angiography clearly reduces radiation doses compared to the classical 2-plane technique. Replacement of additional 2-plane DSA projections with 3D rotational angiography will lead to a remarkable decrease in patient radiation dose, without loss of image quality. Thus, we recommend routine application of 3D rotational angiography, in particular for diagnostic assessment of aneurysm morphology.

  1. Prognosis of patients with stage IIIb-IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix following intra-arterial neoadjuvant chemotherapy

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    Fujiwaki, R.; Maede, Y.; Ohnishi, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Hata, K.; Miyazaki, K. [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    The aim was to determine the long-term prognosis in patients with stage IIIb-IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated with intra-arterial neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and to analyze factors related to prognostic value. The authors assessed the disease-free survival of 21 patients with FIGO stage IIIb-IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix treated with intra-arterial NAC followed by irradiation therapy. Before chemotherapy, five factors (age, clinical stage, histologic type, parametrial involvement and serum level of SCC) were evaluated for their correlation with disease-free survival. Univariate Cox's proportional hazard model also demonstrated that age was a significant prognostic factor as a continuous variable. Intra-arterial NAC thus appeared to be effective in treating older patients with stage IIIb-IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

  2. Effect of Intra-Arterial and Intravenous Nimodipine Therapy of Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Cerebrovascular Reactivity and Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockel, Konstantin; Diedler, Jennifer; Steiner, Jochen; Birkenhauer, Ulrich; Ernemann, Ulrike; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2017-05-01

    For the treatment and prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the vasodilating agent nimodipine (NDP) is widely employed. This study investigates the effect of NDP on cerebrovascular autoregulation, assessed by pressure reactivity index (PRx), and brain tissue oxygenation (pbrO2) when given continuously intravenously as an intra-arterial bolus or during continuous intra-arterial therapy. Computerized continuous neuromonitoring data (intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP], pbrO2, PRx) of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were retrospectively evaluated. The effect of NDP on all parameters was compared when applied intra-arterially for the treatment of severe macrovasospasm leading to perfusion deficits as either bolus treatment (n = 111 in 37 patients) or continuous infusion (n = 20 patients) to patients without or with only mild macrovasospasm who received either intravenous NDP or no NDP at all. Compared with patients without treatment, the intravenous application of NDP was associated with a significantly higher PRx. Autoregulation was strongly and long lastingly affected (high PRx) in continuous intra-arterial NDP infusion, accompanied by a sustained improvement of pbrO2. Intra-arterial bolus NDP application resulted as well in a significant increase of pbrO2 and PRx; the induced effect, however, was transient and subsided within 6 hours. Intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, and CPP were not affected during the monitoring period. The pharmacologically induced alteration of the cerebrovascular autoregulation by NDP correlates with changes of pbrO2 and indicates a beneficial effect on cerebral blood flow if CPP is maintained. This effect is limited to a few hours after bolus treatment and milder for intravenous compared with intra-arterial application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for gingival carcinoma

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    Mukai, Y.; Hata, M.; Koike, I.; Inoue, T. [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Mitsudo, K.; Koizumi, T.; Oguri, S.; Kioi, M.; Tohnai, I. [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, M. [Shonankamakura General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. In all, 34 patients (21 men and 13 women) with squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva underwent radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy. Treatment consisted of daily external irradiation and concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion with cisplatin and docetaxel. A median total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions was delivered to tumors. Of the 34 patients, 29 (85 %) achieved a complete response (CR) and 5 had residual tumors. Of the 29 patients with a CR, 2 had local recurrences and 1 had distant metastasis 1-15 months after treatment. Twenty-six of the 36 patients had survived at a median follow-up time of 36 months (range 12-79 months); 4 died of cancer and 4 died of non-cancer-related causes. At both 3 and 5 years after treatment, the overall survival rates were 79 % and the cause-specific survival rates were 85 %. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandibular bone only developed in 1 patient after treatment. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy was effective and safe in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. This treatment may be a promising curative and organ-preserving treatment option for gingival carcinoma. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie war die Ueberpruefung der Effizienz und Toxizitaet einer Strahlenbehandlung des Gingivakarzinoms mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Chemotherapie. Insgesamt 34 Patienten (21 Maenner und 13 Frauen) mit Zahnfleischplattenzellkarzinom erhielten eine Strahlenbehandlung mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Chemotherapie. Die Behandlung umfasste eine taegliche externe Bestrahlung mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Infusion von Cisplatin und

  4. Intentional intra-arterial injection of midazolam in a patient with status epilepticus in the intensive care unit

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    Muhammad Asghar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental medical care includes intravenous (IV access which provides prompt resuscitation and reliable delivery of analgesics, antibiotics, and vasoactive medication. Difficult access populations, especially in critical area, continue to challenge providers to consider and utilize alternative means to provide IV access. Potential options under such circumstances include intramuscular, intraosseous, and intratracheal drug administration, but in extreme cases where no other options are available, intra-arterial route might be considered. We present a case where midazolam was intentionally injected intra-arterially to abort seizure activity in a patient with status epilepticus in the Intensive Care Unit.

  5. Comparisons of DSA and MR angiography with digital subtraction angiography in 151 patients with subacute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, George K C; Siu, Deyond Y W; Ahuja, Anil T; King, Ann D; Yu, Simon C H; Zhu, Xian L; Poon, Wai S

    2010-05-01

    To exclude underlying vascular abnormalities in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, the traditional paradigm requires investigation using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in both the acute and subacute phases. We investigated whether MRI and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), in the subacute stage of intracerebral hematoma, had high positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) in screening for vascular abnormality in the routine clinical setting. In a regional neurosurgical center in Hong Kong, we retrospectively reviewed 151 patients investigated with both MRI and DSA for underlying structural vascular abnormalities during the subacute phase. Sensitivity, specificity, and intermodality agreement were assessed. A total of 70/151 (46%) vascular lesions accountable for the hemorrhage were found. Patients with vascular abnormalities tended to be younger (mean age+/-standard deviation [SD], 33+/-15years), less likely to be hypertensive (6.3%), and the lesion was more likely to be accompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage (22%). In terms of cerebral arteriovenous malformation and dural arteriovenous fistulas, MRI/MRA had a PPV of 0.98 and a NPV of 1.00. We concluded that MRI/MRA was able to detect most structural vascular abnormalities in the subacute phase in most patients and, thus, its use is recommended as the screening test.

  6. MRI evaluation of frequent complications after intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namestnikova, D.; Gubskiy, I.; Gabashvili, A.; Sukhinich, K.; Melnikov, P.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Soloveva, A.; Vitushev, E.; Chekhonin, V.; Gubsky, L.; Yarygin, K.

    2017-08-01

    Intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an effective delivery route for treatment of ischemic brain injury. Despite significant therapeutic effects and targeted cells delivery to the brain infraction, serious adverse events such as cerebral embolism have been reported and may restrict potential clinical applications of this method. In current study, we evaluate potential complications of intra-arterial MSCs administration and determine the optimum parameters for cell transplantation. We injected SPIO-labeled human MSCs via internal carotid artery with different infusion parameters and cell dose in intact rats and in rats with the middle cerebral occlusion stroke model. Cerebrovascular complications and labeled cells were visualized in vivo using MRI. We have shown that the incidence of cerebral embolic events depends on such parameters as cell dose, infusion rate and maintenance of blood flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Optimal parameters were considered to be 5×105 hMSC in 1 ml of PBS by syringe pump with velocity 100 μ/min and maintenance of blood flow in the ICA. Obtained data should be considered before planning experiments in rats and, potentially, can help in planning clinical trials in stroke patients.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of leg lymphedema by MR imaging. Estimation of therapeutic effect by intra-arterial injection of lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makimoto, Yumi; Harada, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Kenji; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Nishitani, Hiromu; Yoshizumi, Masanori; Yoshida, Osamu; Katoh, Itsuo [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain characteristic findings of lymphedema and reactions after intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy by MRI and to evaluate quantitatively effect of intra-arterial lymphocytes injection. Five patients were treated by several intra-arterial lymphocytes injections. We measured T{sub 2} value on edematous tissue using triple echo sequence and shot TI IR (STIR) images to assess the extent of lymphedema. MRI was measured before and after each intra-arterial lymphocytes injection. Mean T{sub 2} and standard deviation (SD) of T{sub 2} distribution were obtained from T{sub 2}-calculated images. Characteristic findings of lymphedema were the thickening of subcutaneous, meshed pattern of fluid, thickening of skin, and fluid on the fascia. After therapy, thickness of subcutaneous tissue and meshed pattern were greatly decreased, but thickening of skin and fluid on the fascia still remained. Mean T{sub 2} and SD of T{sub 2} in edematous tissue were much higher than those of normal tissue. Both of them decreased extremely after therapy on improved cases but did not change on less effective cases. STIR could differentiate water from adipose tissue and clearly indicated the distribution of water. Mean T{sub 2} and SD of T{sub 2} distribution were useful to indicate evaluation of lymphedema and assessment of therapy. (author).

  8. High-dose superselective intra-arterial cisplatin and concomitant radiation (RADPLAT) for advanced head and neck cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, A.J.M.; Rasch, C.R.; Schornagel, J.H.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; Keus, R.B.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Ackerstaff, A.H.; Busschers, W.; Tan, I.B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of intensive targeted chemoradiation in a group of patients with head and neck cancer with stage IV inoperable disease. METHODS: We examined 79 patients with inoperable stage IV head and neck cancer receiving intra-arterial infusion of

  9. Laryngeal preservation in advanced piriform sinus squamous cell carcinomas using superselective intra-arterial chemoradiation therapy with three agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusaka, Tohru; Matsuda, Akira; Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Minoru

    2013-03-01

    Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy, which enables local control and laryngeal preservation, is a safe and useful therapy for preservation of nutrition, speech, and swallowing functions. To improve the laryngeal preservation rate in patients with hypopharyngeal piriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma by superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy. Fifty-seven patients received anterograde intra-arterial administration of docetaxel and cisplatin, and two courses of intravenous continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy over 120 h starting on day 2. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was administered from the third course to control the primary cancer. Remaining neck lymph node metastases were treated in principle by neck dissection. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 68.5% and 58.9%, respectively. The 5-year rates by the T classification were 96.0% (10-year rate, 88.6%) in T3, 48.1% in T4a, and 16.7% in T4b. The 5- and 10-year laryngeal preservation rates were 65.2% and 62.4%, respectively. The 5-year rates by the T classification were 92.4% (10-year rate, 87.6%) in T3, 36.2% in T4a, and 16.7% in T4b. No irreversible side effects, complications, or sequelae were reported. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy showed superior laryngeal preservation as well as high survival rates, particularly in T3, and was considered a useful therapy.

  10. Clot Burden Score on Baseline Computerized Tomographic Angiography and Intra-Arterial Treatment Effect in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treurniet, K.M.; Yoo, A.J.; Berkhemer, O.A.; Lingsma, H.F.; Boers, A.M.; Fransen, P.S.; Beumer, D.; Berg, L.A. van den; Sprengers, M.E.; Jenniskens, S.F.M.; Lycklama, A.N.G.J.; Walderveen, M.A. van; Bot, J.C.; Beenen, L.F.; Berg, R. van den; Zwam, W.H. van; Lugt, A. van der; Oostenbrugge, R.J. van; Dippel, D.W.; Roos, Y.B.; Marquering, H.A.; Majoie, C.B.; Dijk, E.J. van; Vries, J. de

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A high clot burden score (CBS) is associated with favorable outcome after intravenous treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The added benefit of intra-arterial treatment might be less in these patients. The aim of this exploratory post hoc analysis was to assess the relation

  11. A cross-validation deletion-substitution-addition model selection algorithm: Application to marginal structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Thaddeus J; Wang, Yue; van der Laan, Mark J; Tager, Ira B

    2010-12-01

    The cross-validation deletion-substitution-addition (cvDSA) algorithm is based on data-adaptive estimation methodology to select and estimate marginal structural models (MSMs) for point treatment studies as well as models for conditional means where the outcome is continuous or binary. The algorithm builds and selects models based on user-defined criteria for model selection, and utilizes a loss function-based estimation procedure to distinguish between different model fits. In addition, the algorithm selects models based on cross-validation methodology to avoid "over-fitting" data. The cvDSA routine is an R software package available for download. An alternative R-package (DSA) based on the same principles as the cvDSA routine (i.e., cross-validation, loss function), but one that is faster and with additional refinements for selection and estimation of conditional means, is also available for download. Analyses of real and simulated data were conducted to demonstrate the use of these algorithms, and to compare MSMs where the causal effects were assumed (i.e., investigator-defined), with MSMs selected by the cvDSA. The package was used also to select models for the nuisance parameter (treatment) model to estimate the MSM parameters with inverse-probability of treatment weight (IPTW) estimation. Other estimation procedures (i.e., G-computation and double robust IPTW) are available also with the package.

  12. External beam radiation plus concurrent intra-arterial chemotherapy with low dose cisplatin for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Matsumoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We aimed to investigate the long-term outcome of trimodality therapy consisting of transurethral resection of bladder tumor, external beam radiation therapy, and concurrent intra-arterial low dose cisplatin for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 37 consecutive patients (28 men and 9 women who underwent trimodality therapy for T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer at our hospital between 1996 and 2011. A total of 60Gy of external beam radiation therapy was administered. A daily low dose of cisplatin was administered intra-arterially through a subcutaneously placed reservoir on the days of radiation therapy. Complete response was defined as no residual cancer in transurethral resection specimens and negative cytology. When a complete response could not be achieved, patients underwent additional intra-arterial chemotherapy. Results: Five-year cause specific, disease free, and overall survival rates were 86.4%, 69.7%, and 69.6%, respectively, with a mean follow-up period of 56.5 ± 6.1 months. Five-year cause specific survivals of the complete response group after the trimodality therapy, the complete response group after additional intra-arterial chemotherapy and the non-complete response group were 100% (n = 21, 85.9% (n = 9 and 0% (n = 7, respectively. Five-year overall survivals of the complete response group after the trimodality therapy, the complete response group after additional intra-arterial chemotherapy and the non-complete response group were 82.8%, 85.3% and 0%, respectively. Conclusions: This trimodality therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer could achieve favorable survival rates with bladder preservation and minimal adverse events. This trimodality therapy can be one of the useful treatment options.

  13. Efficacy of intraarterial chemoinfusion therapy for locally advanced breast cancer patients: a retrospective analysis of 28 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhang,1,* Rong Liu,1,* Yingying Wang,1 Sheng Qian,1 Jianhua Wang,1 Zhiping Yan,1 Hongwei Zhang21Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of image-guided delivery of intraarterially infused chemotherapeutic drugs for patients with locally advanced breast cancer.Methods: Twenty-eight patients with pathologically proven, locally advanced breast cancer received intraarterial chemoinfusion therapy (chemoinfusion with docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and epirubicin 50 mg/m2. Digital subtraction angiography was performed to determine tumor arterial blood supply and to guide chemotherapy infusion. Patients were evaluated for complete remission (CR and partial remission (PR.Results: Twenty-eight patients received a total of 64 intraarterial chemoinfusions, 20 patients (71.4% received two infusions, and eight patients (28.6% received three infusions. One patient (3.6% had CR and 23 (82.1% had PR. The total effectiveness rate (CR and PR was 85.7% (24/28. All stage 3 patients underwent Phase II surgical resection after chemoinfusion, and the surgical resection participation rate was 100% (26/26. The mean time from the first chemoinfusion to surgery was 2 ± 1.2 months. Two patients with stage 4 cancer died of distant metastasis and cachexia, and the remaining 26 patients were still alive.Conclusion: Intraarterial chemoinfusion is a safe and effective therapy, achieving down-staging in a relatively short period for locally advanced breast cancer.Keywords: advanced breast cancer, intraarterial infusion, chemotherapy, therapeutic effect

  14. Evaluation of angiographic delayed vasospasm due to ruptured aneurysm in comparison with cerebral circulation time measured by IA-DSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Yoshikazu; Shima, Takeshi; Nishida, Masahiro; Yamane, Kanji; Okita, Shinji; Hatayama, Takashi; Yoshida, Akira; Naoe, Yasutaka; Shiga, Naoko (Chugoku Rosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    Delayed vasospasm due to ruptured aneurysm has been basically evaluated by angiographic changes in contrast to clinical features such as delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND). However, the discrepancies between angiographic and clinical findings have been pointed out. In this study, angiographic changes and cerebral circulation time in ruptured aneurysms were simultaneously investigated with IA-DSA. Thirty-two patients, who had ruptured aneurysms at the anterior circle of Willis and neck clippings at the acute stage, were investigated. Carotid angiogram was performed with IA-DSA on the 7-13th day after the attack. Angiographic changes were evaluated by Fischer's classification and circulation time was calculated in the following way. A time-density curve was obtained at the two ROI's: the C3-C4 portion and the rolandic vein. Circulation time was defined by the difference between the time showing peak optical density at the carotid and the venous portion. The control value of this circulation time obtained from 20 cases with non-rupture aneurysm and epilepsy was 3.4 sec (53 year old) on the average. X-ray CT scan examination was performed at the same time and clinical features were observed every day. Angiographically, 3 cases were free from vasospasm, 18 cases were found to present slight to moderate vasospasm, and 11 cases showed severe vasospasm. Circulation time in patients with no spasm was 3.6 seconds, in patients with slight to moderate vasospasm it was 4.3 seconds and in patients with severe vasospasm it was 6.8 seconds. Ten patients showing cerebral infarction on CT scans demonstrated significantly long circulation time, 7.0 seconds on the average. And all patients having severe vasospasm with circulation time more than 6 seconds presented DIND such as hemiparesis. (author).

  15. Intra-arterial continuous infusion of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum in untreated head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frustaci, S; Barzan, L; Tumolo, S; Comoretto, R; Quadu, G; Galligioni, E; Lorenzini, M; Crivellari, D; Caruso, G; Piccinin, G

    1986-03-15

    The authors report the final analysis of a prospective phase I-II study in 53 previously untreated patients with squamous cell carcinoma (48 patients) and other histologic classifications (5 patients) of the head and neck region. Treatment consisted of cisplatin 10 mg infused intra-arterially in a 12-hour period, twice a day for 5 to 10 days via an external infusion pump. After a rest period of 5 to 7 days treatment could be restarted, with the same schedule, until a maximal total dose of 400 mg or toxicity. Patients who received at least 200 mg of cisplatin were considered evaluable for response. In 3 patients catheterization was not performed because of technical difficulties, in 9 treatment was stopped before reaching the total dose of 200 mg, (because of catheter-related toxicity in 7 patients, drug toxicity in 1, and both toxicities in 1); therefore, the patients evaluable for response, drug toxicity and catheter toxicity were 41, 43, and 49 respectively. Overall, 8 patients (19.5%) obtained a complete response (CR) and 20 (48.8%) a partial response (PR) with an objective response rate (RR) of 68.3%. Eleven patients obtained a minor response (MR), whereas only 2 (4.8%) developed a progressive disease (PD). The figures, limited only to squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharinx (33 patients), are as follows: CR 8 (24.2%), PR 17 (51.5%), MR 7 (21.2%), and PD 1 (3.0%) for an objective RR of 75.7%. No grade IV and only 5 grade III toxicity were observed; whereas the most frequent grade I and II drug-related toxicities were anemia, transient renal impairment, and thrombocytopenia. Catheter-related toxicity accounted for five central nervous system complications (three transient motor weaknesses, one hemiparesis, one embolism) and six local problems (one coagulation of the catheter, one displacement, and four local extravasations). Intra-arterial cisplatin is, in our experience, an effective treatment and further trials employing cisplatin combination

  16. Mesa redonda: Argentina en proyectos globales de investigaciones espaciales y astronómicas. Uso científico de la Antena de Espacio Profundo DSA 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, M.

    2016-08-01

    Argentine has 10 percent of the operative time available for the DSA 3 Antenna of the European Space Agency, installed in Malargüe, Mendoza. Here we present the history of the project and the current activities for the scientific use of the antenna.

  17. Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Francisca A; Mateo, María N; Aceves, Juan M; Rivero, Eligio P; González, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the behaviour of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. In general, dye degradation reactions are carried out indirectly through active chlorine generated on DSA, whereas in the case of BDD electrodes more oxidizing species are formed, mainly OH radicals, on the electrode surface. The well-characterized geometry, flow pattern and mass transport of the FM01-LC reactor used in macroelectrolysis experiments allowed the evaluation of the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the chlorine-mediated degradation rate. Four values of Reynolds number (Re) (93, 371, 464 and 557) at four current densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 A/m2) were tested. The results show that the degradation rate is independent of Re at low current density (50 A/m2) but becomes dependent on the Re at high current density (200 A/m2). This behaviour shows the central role of mass transport and the reactor parameters and design. The low energy consumption (2.02 and 9.04 kWh/m3 for complete discolouration and chemical oxygen demand elimination at 50 A/m2, respectively) and the low cost of DSA electrodes compared to BDD make DSA electrodes promising for practical application in treating industrial textile effluents. In the present study, chlorinated organic compounds were not detected.

  18. Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome: Treatment with Multiple Sessions of Intra-Arterial Nimodipine and Angioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, I.; Nasis, N.; Agianniotaki, E.; Katsouda, E.; Andreou, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by acute severe headache with or without additional neurological symptoms and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction. Unruptured aneurysms have been reported in some cases with RCVS. We describe a severe case of a 50-year-old woman with RCVS presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiogram demonstrated the typical angiographic findings of RCVS and two very small unruptured aneurysms of the left internal carotid artery. The patient was treated with calcium channel blockers and the two aneurysms were successfully treated endovascularly. On day 16 the patient developed new focal neurological symptoms (severe paraparesis) and was successfully treated with intraarterial nimodipine and angioplasty in multiple sessions. PMID:22958768

  19. [Intra-arterial regional chemotherapy and intensive loco-regional radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cancer of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolato, A

    1990-09-01

    A multimodal treatment combining intra-arterial chemotherapy and intensive loco-regional radiotherapy was administered to 55 patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Adjuvant polychemotherapy followed, and eventually endocrino-therapy. Combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and intensive radiotherapy gave excellent results in both primary and lymph node lesions, with 90.9% and 92.2% complete/partial response rates. Three-year and 5-year actuarial survival rates were 69% and 59%, respectively. Patients showing better local responses to combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and intensive radiotherapy had longer survival and less frequent local recurrences. Combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and intensive loco-regional radiotherapy seems to be an effective modality for the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer.

  20. Intra-arterial tirofiban infusion for thromboembolic complication during coil embolization of ruptured intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Dae, E-mail: aronnn@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 425 Sindaebang-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Young, E-mail: gen78@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jung Hwa, E-mail: jhseo34@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Seung, E-mail: hsk4428@yahoo.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Eun, E-mail: eunkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Keun Hwa, E-mail: jungkh@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee, E-mail: hanmh@snuh.org [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: Intra-arterial (IA) thrombolytic intervention for acute thrombosis has been challenged due to the risk of bleeding during the endovascular treatment of ruptured aneurysms. We present the results of IA tirofiban infusion for thromboembolic complications during coil embolization in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Thromboembolic events requiring thrombolytic intervention occurred in 39 (10.5%) cases during coil embolization of 372 consecutive ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Maximal aneurysm diameters of 39 patients (mean age, 54.7 ± 13.2 years; 23 female, 16 male) ranged from 2.1 to 13.1 mm (mean, 6.6 ± 3.0 mm). The anterior communicating artery was the most common site (n = 13), followed by the middle cerebral artery (n = 9) and the posterior communicating artery (n = 7). In this series, we used intracranial stents in 10 patients during the procedure. Superselective IA tirofiban infusion through a microcatheter was performed to resolve thrombi and emboli. We assessed the efficacy and safety of IA tirofiban infusion in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Results: Intraarterially administered tirofiban doses ranged from 0.25 to 1.25 mg (mean, 0.71 ± 0.26 mg). Effective thrombolysis or recanalization was achieved in 34 patients (87.2%), and three patients (7.7%) suffered distal migration of clots with partial recanalization. The rest (5.1%) had no recanalization. Nonconsequent intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in two patients (5.1%) after the procedure. Thromboemboli-related cerebral infarction developed in eight patients, and only two patients remained infarction related disabilities. Conclusion: IA tirofiban infusion seems to be efficacious and safe for thrombolysis during coil embolization in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

  1. Diagnostic Value of 64-slice CTA in Detection of Intracranial Aneurysm in Patients with SAH and Comparison of the CTA Results with 2D-DSA and Intraoperative Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ergun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of 64-slice CTA in detecting intracranial aneurysms and to compare it with 2D-DSA and/or intra-operative findings.Material and Methods: 37 cases with SAH according to unenhanced cranial CT were included in the study. A 64-slice CTA was performed to all cases immediately after the nonenhanced cranial CT. DSA was performed in 24-48 hours following CTA. CT images were reviewed by two radiologists experienced in CT vascular imaging. The DSA reader was the angiographer who performed the DSA. The results of the CTA were compared with the DSA results and/or intraoperative findings in order to determine the diagnostic efficacy of CTA in detecting intracranial aneurysms. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of CTA in detecting aneurysms were 92.8%, 83.3%, 96.2%, 71.4% and 91.2% respectively. The diagnostic value of CTA in detecting intracranial aneurysms was found to be equal to DSA by Mcnemar test. Conclusion: CTA is invaluable in detecting intracranial aneurysms. It may be used as a first line modality in SAH, and DSA may be reserved for patients with negative or equivocal CTA results.

  2. Trombólise intra-arterial pulmonar no pós-operatório de clipagem de aneurisma cerebral: relato de caso Intra-arterial pulmonary thrombolysis at the postoperative period of brain aneurysm clamping: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Soriano Ordinola Rojas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP é uma importante causa de morbimortalidade nos pacientes submetidos a procedimentos neurocirúrgicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar um caso de trombólise intra-arterial pulmonar em pós-operatório recente de neurocirurgia. Paciente do sexo masculino, sendo submetido a clipagem de aneurisma de artéria comunicante anterior, apresentou como complicação no sétimo dia de pós-operatório, tromboembolismo pulmonar maciço, apresentando instabilidade hemodinâmica, sendo optado pela trombólise intra-arterial pulmonar com alteplase. Apresentou evolução satisfatória, sem complicações hemorrágicas, recebendo alta hospitalar. O tromboembolismo pulmonar é uma condição com alta morbi-mortalidade no pós-operatório de neurocirurgia, devendo ser a trombólise ser uma alternativa terapêutica nos casos refratários ao tratamento clínico.Pulmonary thromboembolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to present a case of intra-arterial pulmonary thrombolysis in recent neurosurgery postoperative period. Male patient, undergoing neurosurgery, presented as a complication on the seventh day of postoperative massive pulmonary embolism with hemodynamic instability and intraarterial pulmonary thrombolysis with alteplase was indicated. Evolution was satisfactory without bleeding complications and patient was discharged. Pulmonary thromboembolism is a high morbidity and mortality condition at neurosurgical postoperative period and thrombolysis should be an alternative therapy in cases refractory to clinical treatment.

  3. Cerebral arteriovenous malformation: Spetzler-Martin classification at subsecond-temporal-resolution four-dimensional MR angiography compared with that at DSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R; von Falkenhausen, Marcus; Gieseke, Jürgen; Meyer, Bernhard; Urbach, Horst; Hoogeveen, Romhild; Schild, Hans H; Willinek, Winfried A

    2008-01-01

    To prospectively test the hypothesis that subsecond-temporal-resolution four-dimensional (4D) contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 3.0 T enables the same Spetzler-Martin classification (nidus size, venous drainage, eloquence) of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) as that at digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Institutional ethics committee approval and written informed consent were obtained. In a prospective intraindividual comparative study, 18 consecutive patients with cerebral AVM (nine men, nine women; mean age, 41.9 years +/- 14.0 [standard deviation]; range, 23-69 years) were examined with 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and DSA. Four-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography combined randomly segmented central k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, sensitivity encoding, and half-Fourier imaging, which yielded a total acceleration factor of 60. Fifty dynamic scans were obtained every 608 msec at an acquired spatial resolution of 1.1 x 1.4 x 1.1 mm. Four-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiograms were independently reviewed by one neuroradiologist and one neurosurgeon according to Spetzler-Martin classification, overall diagnostic quality, and level of confidence. Kendall W coefficients of concordance (K) were computed to compare reader assessment of image quality, level of confidence, and Spetzler-Martin classification by using 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and to compare Spetzler-Martin classification as determined with DSA with that at 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Spetzler-Martin classification of cerebral AVM at 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and at DSA matched in 18 of 18 patients for both readers, which yielded 100% interobserver agreement (K = 1). Image quality of 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography was judged to be at least adequate for diagnosis in all patients by both readers. In three of 18 patients, DSA depicted additional arterial feeders of cerebral AVM. Subsecond-temporal-resolution 4

  4. Clinical Variables Correlated with Numbers of Intra-arterial Nimodipine Infusion in Patients with Medically Refractory Cerebral Vasospasm

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Young; Kim, Ki-Hong; Cho, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Young-Don

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to find out the clinical variables correlated with repeated intra-arterial (IA) nimodipine infusions in patients with medically refractory cerebral vasospasm (CV) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Materials and Methods During the 36 months between January 2011 and December 2013, 275 patients were treated at our institute for SAH due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Of the 275 patients, 26 patients (9.5%) met the inclusion criteria. For each...

  5. Comparison between oscillometric and intra-arterial blood pressure measurements in ill preterm and full-term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalan, Shwetal; Blowey, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Conflicting data exist regarding the accuracy of the oscillometric method of blood pressure (BP) measurement in neonates. There is limited data regarding intra-arterial BP trends in neonates. We aimed to determine the accuracy of oscillometric BP measurements and to evaluate the BP distributions in ill neonates. A total of 1492 simultaneously obtained oscillometric and intra-arterial (umbilical arterial [UAC] or radial arterial) BP measurements were used for comparisons and 125,580 intra-arterial BP readings were used to the evaluate BP distribution. There was a statistically significant difference (P oscillometric and radial mean arterial BP (MAP) 4.8 ± 9.8 mm Hg, systolic BP 8.3 ± 11.6 mm Hg, diastolic BP 4.3 ± 9.3 mm Hg and between the oscillometric and UAC systolic BP 5.2 ± 11.9 mm Hg and diastolic BP -0.8 ± 10.4 mm Hg. The MAP increased with increases in weight (35.3 ± 4.92 mm Hg/kg), post-menstrual age (-0.29 ± 1.41 mm Hg/week) and advanced gestational age at birth (13.12 ± 0.90 mm Hg/week). Oscillometric BP measurements are not equivalent to the intra-arterial (UAC or radial arterial) BP in ill neonates. The BP increases with increase in weight, gestational age at birth, and post-menstrual age in ill neonates. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intra-Arterial Drug and Light Delivery for Photodynamic Therapy Using Visudyne?: Implication for Atherosclerotic Plaque Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Manish; Zellweger, Matthieu; Frobert, Aurélien; Valentin, Jérémy; Bergh, Hubert van den; Wagnières, Georges; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which is based on the activation of photosensitizers with light, can be used to reduce plaque burden. We hypothesized that intra-arterial photosensitizer administration and photo-activation will lead to high and rapid accumulation within the plaque with reduced systemic adverse effects. Thus, this “intra-arterial” PDT would be expected to have less side effects and due to the short time involved would be compatible with percutaneous coronary interventions. Aim: ...

  7. Efficacy of Intra-arterial Norcantharidin in Suppressing Tumour 14C-labelled Glucose Oxidative Metabolism in rat Morris Hepatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mack

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Norcantharidin is the demethylated form of Cantharidin, which is the active ingredient of the blister beetle, Mylabris, a long used Chinese traditional medicine. Though not well publicised outside China, Norcantharidin is known to possess significant anti-hepatoma activity, and is relatively free from side effects. In the present study, glucose oxidation in tumour and liver tissue slices harvested from hepatomabearing animals was quantified by measuring the radioactivity of 14C-labelled CO released from 14C-glucose in oxygen-enriched incubation medium. Results were expressed asa tumour/liver ratio. For comparison, treatments with Norcantharidin, Adriamycin and with hepatic artery ligation were studied. The mean tumour/liver ratio was 4.2+2.2 in untreated controls, but dropped significantly to 2.3+0.5 (p<0.05 with intra-arterial Norcantharidin (0.5 mg/kg and to 2.3+0.7 (p<0.05 with intra-arterial Adriamycin (2.4 mg/kg, and to 2.2+0.7 (p<0.05 with hepatic artery ligation. However, with intravenous Adriamycin at 2.4 mg/kg, the mean tumour/liver ratio was reduced to only 3.5+2.0 and was not significantly different from untreated controls. It is concluded that intra-arterial Norcantharidin is as effective as intraarterial Adriamycin and hepatic artery ligation in suppressing tumour glucose oxidative metabolism. These results imply that Norcantharidin may have a role to play in the chemotherapy ofprimary livercancer.

  8. Comparison of classification methods for voxel-based prediction of acute ischemic stroke outcome following intra-arterial intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Anthony J.; Siemonsen, Susanne; Flottmann, Fabian; Fiehler, Jens; Forkert, Nils D.

    2017-03-01

    Voxel-based tissue outcome prediction in acute ischemic stroke patients is highly relevant for both clinical routine and research. Previous research has shown that features extracted from baseline multi-parametric MRI datasets have a high predictive value and can be used for the training of classifiers, which can generate tissue outcome predictions for both intravenous and conservative treatments. However, with the recent advent and popularization of intra-arterial thrombectomy treatment, novel research specifically addressing the utility of predictive classi- fiers for thrombectomy intervention is necessary for a holistic understanding of current stroke treatment options. The aim of this work was to develop three clinically viable tissue outcome prediction models using approximate nearest-neighbor, generalized linear model, and random decision forest approaches and to evaluate the accuracy of predicting tissue outcome after intra-arterial treatment. Therefore, the three machine learning models were trained, evaluated, and compared using datasets of 42 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intra-arterial thrombectomy. Classifier training utilized eight voxel-based features extracted from baseline MRI datasets and five global features. Evaluation of classifier-based predictions was performed via comparison to the known tissue outcome, which was determined in follow-up imaging, using the Dice coefficient and leave-on-patient-out cross validation. The random decision forest prediction model led to the best tissue outcome predictions with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.37. The approximate nearest-neighbor and generalized linear model performed equally suboptimally with average Dice coefficients of 0.28 and 0.27 respectively, suggesting that both non-linearity and machine learning are desirable properties of a classifier well-suited to the intra-arterial tissue outcome prediction problem.

  9. Intra-Arterially Delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Not Detected in the Brain Parenchyma in an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Kyung Lee

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have a promising role as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. Prior studies suggested that intra-arterially administered MSCs are engrafted into the brain in stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI animal models. However, a controversial standpoint exists in terms of the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB in transgenic AD mice. The primary goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of delivering human umbilical cord-blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs into the brains of non-transgenic WT (C3H/C57 and transgenic AD (APP/PS1 mice through the intra-arterial (IA route. Through two experiments, mice were infused with hUCB-MSCs via the right internal carotid artery and were sacrificed at two different time points: 6 hours (experiment 1 or 5 minutes (experiment 2 after infusion. In both experiments, no cells were detected in the brain parenchyma while MSCs were detected in the cerebrovasculature in experiment 2. The results from this study highlight that intra-arterial delivery of MSCs is not the most favorable route to be implemented as a potential therapeutic approach for AD.

  10. Re-irradiation using proton beam therapy combined with weekly intra-arterial chemotherapy for recurrent oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Mitsudo, Kenji; Kimura, Kanako; Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Ono, Takashi; Azami, Yusuke; Takayama, Kanako; Hirose, Katsumi; Yabuuchi, Tomonori; Suzuki, Motohisa; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Wada, Hitoshi; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Hareyama, Masato; Tohnai, Iwai

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy and toxicities of re-irradiation using proton beam therapy combined with weekly intra-arterial chemotherapy for recurrent oral cancer. Between October 2009 and July 2014, 34 patients who had recurrent oral cancer were treated by proton beam therapy combined with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy at the Southern Tohoku Proton Therapy Center, Japan. For all patients, the median follow-up was 25 months (range, 3-77 months). After treatment, 22 patients (65%) achieved a complete response, and 12 patients (35%) achieved a partial response at the primary tumor site. One-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 62% and 42%, respectively. One-year and 2-year LC rates were 77% and 60%, respectively. No treatment-related deaths were observed during the treatment and follow-up periods. Re-irradiation using proton beam therapy combined with weekly intra-arterial chemotherapy improved OS and local control rates compared with other treatment modalities and could become a new treatment modality for patients with recurrent oral cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Temporal evolution of vasospasm and clinical outcome after intra-arterial vasodilator therapy in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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    Laleh Daftari Besheli

    Full Text Available Intra-arterial (IA vasodilator therapy is one of the recommended treatments to minimize the impact of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm refractory to standard management. However, its usefulness and efficacy is not well established. We evaluated the effect IA vasodilator therapy on middle cerebral artery blood flow and on discharge outcome. We reviewed records for 115 adults admitted to Neurointensive Care Unit to test whether there was a difference in clinical outcome (discharge mRS in those who received IA infusions. In a subset of 19 patients (33 vessels treated using IA therapy, we tested whether therapy was effective in reversing the trends in blood flow. All measures of MCA blood flow increased from day -2 to -1 before infusion (maximum Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV 232.2±9.4 to 262.4±12.5 cm/s [p = 0.02]; average PSV 202.1±8.5 to 229.9±10.9 [p = 0.02]; highest Mean Flow Velocity (MFV 154.3±8.3 to 172.9±10.5 [p = 0.10]; average MFV 125.5±6.3 to 147.8±9.5 cm/s, [p = 0.02] but not post-infusion (maximum PSV 261.2±14.6 cm/s [p = .89]; average PSV 223.4±11.4 [p = 0.56]; highest MFV 182.9±12.4 cm/s [p = 0.38]; average MFV 153.0±10.2 cm/s [p = 0.54]. After IA therapy, flow velocities were consistently reduced (day X infusion interaction p<0.01 for all measures. However, discharge mRS was higher in IA infusion group, even after adjusting for sex, age, and admission grades. Thus, while IA vasodilator therapy was effective in reversing the vasospasm-mediated deterioration in blood flow, clinical outcomes in the treated group were worse than the untreated group. There is need for a prospective randomized controlled trial to avoid potential confounding effect of selection bias.

  12. Intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy for unresectable colorectal liver metastases: a review of medical devices complications in 3172 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bacchetti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Bacchetti, Enricomaria Pasqual, Elena Crozzolo, Alessandra Pellarin, Pier Paolo CagolDepartment of Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Udine, ItalyBackground: Hepatic artery infusion (HAI is indicated to treat unresectable colorectal hepatic metastases, with recent applications as a neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. Traditionally performed with the infusion of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, it has been now tested with oxaliplatin or irinotecan and associated with systemic chemotherapy.Methods: To evaluate the impact of medical devices complications we carried out a search of the published studies on HAI in unresectable colorectal liver metastases. Complications were pooled according to the applied medical system: 1 surgical catheter, 2 radiological catheter, and 3 fully implantable pump. The surgical catheter is inserted into the hepatic artery from the gastro-duodenal artery. The radiological catheter is inserted into the hepatic artery through a percutaneous transfemoral or transaxillar access. The fully implantable pump is a totally internal medical device connected to the arterial hepatic catheter during laparotomy.Results: The selection criteria were met in 47/319 studies. The complications of surgical and radiological medical devices connected to a port were found in 16 and 14 studies respectively. Meanwhile, complications with a fully implantable pump were reported in 17 studies. The total number of complications reported in studies evaluating patients with surgical or radiological catheter were 322 (322/948, 34% and 261 (261/722, 36.1% respectively. In studies evaluating patients with a fully implantable pump, the total number of complications was 237 (237/1502, 15.8%. In 18/319 studies the number of cycles was reported. The median number of cycles with surgically and radiologically implanted catheters was 8 and 6 respectively. The fully implantable pump allows a median number of 12 cycles

  13. Transvenous DSA: ECG-controlled cardial effects and venous complications after pre-atrial injection of nonionic contrast media

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    Arlart, I.P.; Sigel, H.

    1986-09-01

    Transvenous DSA is a diagnostic technique for ambulatory examination that is well tolerated by patients, although it is commonly known that bolus injection of contrast medium for examination of the cardiovascular system may affect the cardiovascular hemodynamic process. The prospective study described was intended to reveal in 100 patients the effects on ECG data, as well as clinical symptoms of non-tolerance of contrast medium (nonionic, with high iodine content, Iopamidol 370), applied by central pre-atrial injection. In addition, catheterization-induced complications in the venous system of the arm were studied in 130 patients. Change of heart rate was the most frequent effect observed (increase in 49% of patients pretreated with Buscopan, decrease in 36% of non-pretreated patients). The second next effects were supraventricular and ventricular ES (20%), minor prolongations of PQ and QRS intervals (14%), and ST lowering (3%), without clinical symptons. In one case, an attack of Angina pectoris was observed, another patient developed a cutane allergy. After catheterization of brachial vein, thromboses were observed in 3% of patients, as well as local inflammations in 6%, short attacks of fever in 2.3%. The complications were observed for the most part in cases where re-sterilised catheters had been used.

  14. The effects of low dose chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma through percutaneously implanted intra-arterial port system

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    Lee, Hyun Seok; Won, Je Hwan; Yoo, Byung Moo; Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Sung Won [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong Won [Suwon Medical Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the effects of low-dose FP (5-Fluorouracil[5FU]+Cispatin[CDDP]) therapy through a percutaneously implanted intra-arterial port system in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty-five patients with advanced HCCs and portal vein thrombosis, or large HCCs which were unresectable or for which transarterial chemoembolization was thought to be ineffective, underwent intra-arterial port implantation. The mean maxinal diameter of these tumors was 13.7 (range, 5-21.5) cm, and they were located at the right lobe (n=18), the left lobe(n=3), or throughout the liver (n=4). Tumor thrombosis was detected in the main (n=14), right (n=3) and left portal vein(n=1), the right portal vein and inferior vena cava(n=2), and the inferior vena cava(n=1). The four others patients had no portal vein thrombosis. All intra-arterial port implantations were performed percutaneously in the angiographic ward through the right or left common femoral artery. The port chamber was implanted in the inguinal area and fixed using histoacryl. For intra-arterial chemotherapy, 5-FU (250 mg/day) and CDDP (10 mg/day) were used for five days every four weeks. In order to observe changes in tumor size, follow-up CT scanning was performed every two months. Implantation of the port system was successful in all cases, and patients underwent between one and eleven (mena, 3.9) sessions of chemotherapy. Port-and catheter-related complications, namely dislodgement of the catheter(n=2), wound infection(n=2), migration of the coil(n=1) and catheter occlusion(n=1) occurred in six patients (24%), and chemotherapy-related complications, namely liver failure(n=3) and gastric ulcer bleeding(n=1), in four (16%). A complete response, i. e. the disappearance of tumor thrombosis of the portal vein, was achieved in one patient (4%), a partial response in three (12%), and a minor response in four (16%); the overall response rate was 32% and the mean survival period was 7.6 months. Low-dose FP

  15. Four-dimensional CT angiography (4D-CTA) in the evaluation of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas: comparison with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and surgical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zebin; Zheng, Yingyan; Li, Jian; Chen, Dehua; Liu, Fang; Cao, Dairong

    2017-10-10

    To explore the value of four-dimensional CT angiography (4D-CTA) in the preoperative evaluation of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNAs) using 320-row volume CT. 4D-CTA and DSA data of 18 patients with histopathologically proven JNAs were retrospectively reviewed. The location, extent, feeding vessels and stage of JNAs were assessed by two radiologists independently and blindly. The agreements between both reviewers and between 4D-CTA and surgical findings for assessing the above indicators were analysed, respectively. The radiation dose and the number of feeding arteries between 4D-CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were also compared. 4D-CTA showed high diagnostic consistency with surgical pathology for JNAs with consistent rates of 96.2 and 100% in both reviewers, respectively. The effective dose of 4D-CTA was significantly less than that of DSA (p 0.05). 4D-CTA can provide a reliable preoperative diagnosis and assessment of JNAs, which is useful for determining the surgical strategy and management of this condition.

  16. Transcatheter intra-arterial infusion of doxorubicin loaded porous magnetic nano-clusters with iodinated oil for the treatment of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Min Jeong; Gordon, Andrew C; Larson, Andrew C; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    A promising strategy for liver cancer treatment is to deliver chemotherapeutic agents with multifunctional carriers into the tumor tissue via intra-arterial (IA) transcatheter infusion. These carriers should release drugs within the target tissue for prolonged periods and permit intra-procedural multi-modal imaging of selective tumor delivery. This targeted transcatheter delivery approach is enabled via the arterial blood supply to liver tumors and utilized in current clinical practice which is called chemoembolization or radioembolization. During our study, we developed Doxorubicin (Dox) loaded porous magnetic nano-clusters (Dox-pMNCs). The porous structure and carboxylic groups on the MNCs achieved high-drug loading efficiency and sustained drug release, along with magnetic properties resulting in high MRI T2-weighted image contrast. Dox-pMNC within iodinated oil, Dox-pMNCs, and Dox within iodinated oil were infused via hepatic arteries to target liver tumors in a rabbit model. MRI and histological evaluations revealed that the long-term drug release and retention of Dox-pMNCs within iodinated oil induced significantly enhanced liver cancer cell death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lack of difference between continuous versus intermittent heparin infusion on maintenance of intra-arterial catheter in postoperative pediatric surgery: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Witkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare two systems of arterial catheters maintenance in postoperative pediatric surgery using intermittent or continuous infusion of heparin solution and to analyze adverse events related to the site of catheter insertion and the volume of infused heparin solution. METHODS: Randomized control trial with 140 patients selected for continuous infusion group (CIG and intermittent infusion group (IIG. The variables analyzed were: type of heart disease, permanence time and size of the catheter, insertion site, technique used, volume of heparin solution and adverse events. The descriptive variables were analyzed by Student's t-test and the categorical variables, by chi-square test, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: The median age was 11 (0-22 months, and 77 (55% were females. No significant differences between studied variables were found, except for the volume used in CIG (12.0±1.2mL/24 hours when compared to IIG (5.3±3.5mL/24 hours with p<0.0003. CONCLUSIONS: The continuous infusion system and the intermittent infusion of heparin solution can be used for intra-arterial catheters maintenance in postoperative pediatric surgery, regardless of patient's clinical and demographic characteristics. Adverse events up to the third postoperative day occurred similarly in both groups. However, the intermittent infusion system usage in underweight children should be considered, due to the lower volume of infused heparin solution [ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01097031].

  18. Intraarterial nimodipine for the treatment of symptomatic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdashti, Amir R; Binaghi, Stefano; Uske, Antoine; Regli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Despite dramatic advances in all medical era, cerebral vasospasm is still the major complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of intraarterial (IA) nimodipine in the treatment of symptomatic vasospasm and in preventing neurological disabilities. We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients of SAH who received IA nimodipine in 15 procedures. The decision to perform angiography and endovascular treatment was based on the neurological examination, brain computed tomography (CT) and CT-angiography. The procedure reports, anesthesia records, neurological examination before and after the procedure, brain imaging and short- and long-term outcome were studied. The average dose of nimodipine was 2 mg. The median change in mean arterial pressure at 10 min was -10 mmHg. No significant change of heart rate was observed at 10 min. There was radiological improvement in 80% of the procedures. Neurological improvement was noted after eight out of 12 procedures when nimodipine was used as the sole treatment and after 10 out of 15, overall. Six patients clinically improved after the treatment and had good outcome. In one patient, an embolus caused fatal anterior and middle cerebral arteries infarction. There was no other neurological deficit or radiological abnormality due to the nimodipine treatment itself. Low-dose IA nimodipine is a valid adjunct for the endovascular treatment of cerebral vasospasm. Beneficial effects are achieved in some patients, prompting a prospective control study.

  19. [Intra-arterial fibrinolysis in acute thrombosis of the basilar artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaz, J; Martínez-Rodrigo, J; Lonjedo, E; Poyatos, C; Vega, M; Palmero, J

    1998-12-01

    Ischemia in the territory of the basilar artery presents with a variable clinical picture of hemiparesia-tetraplegia, progressive deterioration of level of consciousness, irregular respiration and apnea leading to irreversible coma and death in between 75% and 86% of cases. The usual treatment is supportive. We present the case of a 49 year old woman with acute thrombosis of the basilar artery and a progressive course leading to coma. No bulbar lesions were seen on the CT scan done in the Emergency Department. Thrombosis of the basilar artery and permeable bilateral carotid systems were shown on arteriography. There were no contra-indications to fibrinolysis. Following local fibrinolytic treatment with urokinase the patient had full recovery from her neurological disorder and no sequelae. The basilar artery remained permeable six months later. Emergency treatment with cerebral intra-arterial fibrinolysis within the first six hours, in a case of neurological deficit progressing in the basilar artery territory, with persistence of brain-stem functions and no signs of decerebration (provided there are no contra-indications to fibrinolysis and the initial cerebral CT scan shows no bulbar lesions) may save the patient's life, with total or partial recovery of brain-stem function.

  20. Metastatic deaths in retinoblastoma patients treated with intraarterial chemotherapy (ophthalmic artery chemosurgery) worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David H; Shields, Carol L; Jabbour, Pascal; Teixeira, Luiz Fernando; Fonseca, José Roberto Falco; Marques, Marcio Chaves Pedro; Munier, Francis L; Puccinelli, Francesco; Hadjistilianou, Theodora; Bracco, Sandra; Chantada, Guillermo; Ceciliano, Alejandro; Gobin, Y Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery [OAC, intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC)] was introduced in 2006 as treatment modality for intraocular retinoblastoma. The purpose of this commentary is to retrospectively review the incidence of metastatic deaths in retinoblastoma patients treated with OAC worldwide over a 10 year period. Retrospective data regarding metastatic deaths was collected from six international retinoblastoma centers (New York City USA, Philadelphia USA, Sao Paulo Brazil, Siena Italy, Lausanne Switzerland and Buenos Aires Argentina). All retinoblastoma patients from these centers (naive and recurrent, unilateral and bilateral) treated with OAC/IAC since 2006 have been included in this study. Data regarding number of patients, number of OAC/IAC infusions, number unilateral and bilateral, number treated for naive disease or salvage and number of metastatic deaths have been assessed. Over a 10-year period of time 1139 patients received OAC/IAC for 4396 infusions. At last follow-up there were only three metastatic deaths (all treated in Buenos Aires). The current survey assessed the recorded risk of metastatic deaths in six retinoblastoma centers worldwide in children with retinoblastoma (unilateral or bilateral) treated with OAC/IAC as primary or secondary therapy. Overall, the observed risk for metastatic deaths from retinoblastoma was <1% in OAC/IAC treated children.

  1. Local intra-arterial thrombolysis in the carotid territory: does recanalization depend on the thromboembolus type?

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    Urbach, H.; Wilhelm, K.; Flacke, S.; Schild, H.H. [Department of Radiology/Neuroradiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Hartmann, A.; Pohl, C.; Klockgether, T. [Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Omran, H. [Department of Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Little is known about whether recanalization of carotid territory occlusions by local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) depends on the type of the occluding thromboembolus. We retrospectively analysed the records of 62 patients with thromboembolic occlusions of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation or the middle cerebral artery who were undergoing LIT with urokinase within 6 h of symptom onset. We determined the influence of thromboembolus type (according to the TOAST criteria), thromboembolus location, leptomeningeal collaterals, time interval from onset of symptoms to onset of thrombolysis, and patient's age on recanalization. The thromboembolus type was atherosclerotic in six patients, cardioembolic in 29, of other determined etiology in four, and of undetermined etiology in 23 patients. Thirty-three (53%) thromboembolic occlusions were recanalized. The thromboembolus location but not the TOAST stroke type nor other parameters affected recanalization. In the TOAST group of patients with cardioembolic occlusions recanalization occurred significantly less frequently when transoesophageal echocardiography showed cardiac thrombus. The present study underlines the thromboembolus location as being the most important parameter affecting recanalization. The fact that thromboembolic occlusions originating from cardiac thrombi had a lower likelihood of being resolved by thrombolysis indicates the thromboembolus type as another parameter affecting recanalization. (orig.)

  2. Effectiveness of intra-arterial anesthesia for uterine fibroid embolization using dilute lidocaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Songhua; Li, Yi; Wang, Guoliang; Han, Hongjie; Yang, Zhenyan [Tongji Hospital of Tongji University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2005-08-01

    A modified protocol of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) is proposed for alleviating the postinterventional pain. This randomized and double-blinded clinical trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of intra-arterial infusion of dilute lidocaine for postinterventional pain relief in UFE. Forty-six patients who underwent UFE were randomly grouped equally. In the test group, after the poly(vinyl alcohol) embolization was complete, a dilute lidocaine solution with 40 mg in 6.0 ml, 3.0 ml for each side or 4.0 and 2.0 ml for two sides, was given through the catheter. In the control group, the patients received 6.0 ml of saline solution as a placebo. A simple pain degree classification method for patient self-evaluation was developed. A questionnaire was completed by each patient to record the degree of pain during five periods; these were during the procedure, the first 12 h, the second 12 h, between 24 and 48 h, and between 48 and 72 h. The numbers of patients with the same degree of pain in the five time segments from the two groups were statistically compared. Compared with the control group, the patients in the test group experienced less pain within 48 h after the procedure (p<0.01). The results suggest that this improved UFE protocol is a simple approach to prevent the acute postinterventional pain of UFE. (orig.)

  3. Assessment and treatment planning of lateral intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas in 3 T MRI and DSA: A detailed analysis under consideration of time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) and ce-MRA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl, L.; Brueckmann, H.; Patzig, M.; Brem, C.; Forbrig, R.; Fesl, G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Grosshadern Campus, Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kunz, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Grosshadern Campus, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The current gold standard in the assessment of lateral intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (LDAVF) is digital subtraction angiography (DSA). However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive emerging tool for the evaluation of such lesions. The aim of our study was to compare the DSA to our 3 T MR-imaging protocol including a highly spatial resolved (ce-MRA) and a temporal resolved (''time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics'', TRICKS) contrast-enhanced MR angiography to evaluate if solely DSA can remain the gold-standard imaging modality for the treatment planning of LDAVF. We retrospectively reviewed matched pairs of DSA and 3 T MRI examinations of 24 patients with LDAVF (03/2008-04/2014) by the same list of relevant criteria for an endovascular LDAVF treatment planning. In particular, we determined intermodality agreement for the Cognard classification, the identifeication of arterial feeders, and the detailed assessment of each venous drainage pattern. Intermodality agreement for the Cognard classification was excellent (k = 1.0). Whereas MRI failed in identifying small arterial feeders, it was superior to the DSA in the assessment of the sinus and the venous drainage pattern. The combination of MRI and DSA is the new gold standard in LDAVF treatment planning. (orig.)

  4. Clot Burden Score on Baseline Computerized Tomographic Angiography and Intra-Arterial Treatment Effect in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treurniet, Kilian M; Yoo, Albert J; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Lingsma, Hester F; Boers, Anna M M; Fransen, Puck S S; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A; Sprengers, Marieke E S; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F M; Lycklama À Nijeholt, Geert J; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; Bot, Joseph C J; Beenen, Ludo F M; van den Berg, René; van Zwam, Wim H; van der Lugt, Aad; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Dippel, Diederik W J; Roos, Yvo B W E M; Marquering, Henk A; Majoie, Charles B L M

    2016-12-01

    A high clot burden score (CBS) is associated with favorable outcome after intravenous treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The added benefit of intra-arterial treatment might be less in these patients. The aim of this exploratory post hoc analysis was to assess the relation of CBS with neurological improvement and endovascular treatment effect. For 499 of 500 patients in the MR CLEAN study (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands), the CBS was determined. Ordinal logistic regression models with and without main baseline prognostic variables were used to assess the association between CBS (continuous or dichotomized at CBS of 6) and a shift toward better outcome on the modified Rankin Scale. The model without main baseline prognostic variables only included treatment allocation and CBS. Models with and without a multiplicative interaction term of CBS and treatment were compared using the χ2 test to assess treatment effect modification by CBS. Higher CBS was associated with a shift toward better outcome on the modified Rankin Scale; adjusted common odds ratio per point CBS was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.20]. Dichotomized CBS had an adjusted common odds ratio of 1.67 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.51). Both effect estimates were slightly attenuated by adding baseline prognostic variables. The addition of the interaction terms did not significantly improve the fit of the models. There was a small and insignificant increase of intra-arterial treatment efficacy in the high CBS group. A higher CBS is associated with improved outcome and may be used as a prognostic marker. We found no evidence that CBS modifies the effect of intra-arterial treatment. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR1804. URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN10888758. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Outcome of acute ischemic stroke after intra-arterial thrombolysis: A study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Kumar, Randhir; Umamahesh, Matapathi; Mridula, Kandadai Rukmini; Alladi, Suvarnal; Bandaru, Srinivasarao

    2016-10-07

    Background: Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the currently standard treatment of acute ischemic stroke within 4.5 hours of the onset of stroke. Recent studies have looked at the benefits of administration of intra-arterial (IA) rt-PA within 8 hours onset of symptoms. Our objective was to assess the outcome of stroke after administration of IA rt-PA in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We recruited 10 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients with onset of stroke from 4.5 hours to 6.5 hours. The present study was conducted at Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, India, between January 2008 and December 2013. All patients underwent stroke subtyping and were administered rt-PA. We measured the thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) score after thrombolysis and functional outcomes at time of admission, after 24 hours, 30, 60, and 90 days. A good outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤ 2 after 90 days. Results: Out of 10 patients 9 were men, mean age 56.3 ± 1.8 years and age range from 35-68 years. On stroke subtyping, 6 (60%) patients had large artery atherosclerosis, 3 (30%) had a stroke of indeterminate etiology and 1 (10%) had a stroke of other etiologies. Mean time of recanalization was 6.2 ± 0.5 hours, 7 (70%) patients showed major neurological improvement with a mRS score of ≤ 2 at 90 days and one patient was lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Our study established good outcome at 90 days after administration of IA thrombolysis rt-PA in acute ischemic stroke.

  6. Combined, sequential intravenous and intra-arterial chemotherapy (bridge chemotherapy for young infants with retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Pierre Gobin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial (i.a. chemotherapy has more risks of procedural complications in neonates and young infants. For these reasons, we have developed a strategy of bridge intravenous single agent chemotherapy to postpone i.a. chemotherapy in these children PROCEDURE: Neonates and young infants with retinoblastoma who required chemotherapy were treated with systemic carboplatin chemotherapy (18.7 mg/kg i.v. every 3-4 weeks until they reached the age of 3 months and a weight of 6 Kg. If necessary, i.a. chemotherapy was subsequently performed at 4 weeks intervals. Efficacy was judged by tumor regression on ophthalmological examination. Retinal toxicity was judged by electroretinography. RESULTS: Eleven children (19 eyes were treated. All patients are alive and no patient has developed metastatic disease or second malignancies (mean follow-up 27 months, range 9-46 months. Intravenous carboplatin (median 2 cycles, range 1-5 combined with cryotherapy and laser was given to all children. This was effective for five eyes, which did not require i.a. chemotherapy. I.a. chemotherapy was administered to 14 eyes (median 3.5 cycles per eye, range 1 to 6. No radiation therapy was required. The Kaplan Meier estimate of ocular radiation-free survival was 94.7% at one year (95% confidence interval 68.1-99.2%. One eye was enucleated due to tumor progression. ERG showed no deterioration of retinal function. CONCLUSION: Bridge i.v.-i.a. chemotherapy was feasible and safe, and is a promising strategy to treat retinoblastoma in neonates and young infants.

  7. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

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    Pham, Chi-Tuan; Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia [Institut Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France)

    2012-08-15

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  8. Embolização intra-arterial pré-operatória de tumor do corpo carotídeo Preoperative intraarterial embolization of carotid body tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudêncio Espinosa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de tumor de corpo carotídeo (paraganglioma em um paciente de 74 anos de idade, submetido a embolização intra-arterial com micropartículas esféricas, de polivinil acetato, com casca de polivinil álcool (PVAc + PVA, previamente à ressecção do tumor. O estudo angiográfico demonstrou massa altamente vascularizada na bifurcação carotídea esquerda, sendo a embolização pré-operatória utilizada no intuito de diminuir a vascularização e reduzir a perda sangüínea, aumentando a segurança do tratamento cirúrgico. O estudo histopatológico confirmou a presença de trombose e isquemia tecidual.The authors report a case of carotid body tumor (paraganglioma in a 74-year-old male patient, submitted to intraarterial embolization with spherical core/shield polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVAc + PVA microparticles prior to surgical excision. Angiography has demonstrated a highly vascularized mass in the left carotid bifurcation, and preoperative embolization was used in order to decrease vascularity, reduce blood loss and improve safety of surgical treatment. Microscopic study confirmed presence of thrombosis and tissue ischemia.

  9. Clinical experience of intra-arterial therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke from a single institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Young [Dept. Neurology, Seoul National University-Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Han Bin; Kim, Jong Guk; Oh, Seung Hun; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Sang Heum; Kim, Ok Joon [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Keun [Institute for Clinical Research, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To compare the efficacy and safety between intra-arterial therapy (IAT) and intra-venous and intra-arterial combined therapy (IVIACT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation territory. Forty-one patients treated with IAT using Solitaire were retrospectively reviewed. Nineteen patients were treated with IAT, twenty-two patients were treated with IVIACT, and ten patients of the forty-one patients were managed with multimodal treatment like stent, balloon angioplasty etc. We investigated the rate of recanalization and hemorrhage, NIH stroke scale and 3-month modified Rankin Scale. The overall recanalization rate was 93% and symptomatic ICH occurred in 10% of the patients. There was no difference in hemorrhage, recanalization rate, and early improvement between IAT and IVIACT. Good outcome was more frequently observed in 59% of the patients with IVIACT than 36% of the patients treated with IAT without any significant difference. The patients managed with multimodal treatment did not show any significant hemorrhage outcome. IAT using Solitaire is a useful treatment method without high risk in patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation territory. Also, IVIACT and multimodal treatment might be considered as reasonable therapeutic options in these patients.

  10. Comparison of multimodal intra-arterial treatment versus intravenous thrombolysis for hypertensive patients with severe large vessel cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zuojun; Liao, Geng; Li, Shaoming; Shen, Yuechun; Chen, Changbing; Liu, Lei; Li, Yiheng

    2017-10-01

    Since intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is often associated with poor outcomes in hypertensive patients with severe acute cerebral infarction (ACI) due to occlusions of the internal carotid, basilar, or proximal middle cerebral artery, we evaluated whether multimodal intra-arterial treatment (IAT) might improve functional outcomes in this patient population. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of eligible patients who underwent multimodal IAT including intra-arterial thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy, balloon and/or stent angioplasty (IAT group) or IVT alone (IVT group). Outcomes included the revascularization rate 24 hours postprocedure, the frequency of survival at 7, 90, and 180 days postonset, and a measure of functional outcomes using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The IAT group included 62 patients and the IVT group included 31 patients. Multimodal IAT increased the revascularization rate at 24 hours (pmultimodal IAT (HR 0.1; 95% CI 0.0 to 0.4; pmultimodal IAT improved the outcomes, including early revascularization, survival, and functional outcome. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Hyperacute Carotid Stent Thrombosis During Emergent Revascularization Treated with Intraarterial Eptifibatide After Systemic Administration of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Grant C; Dumont, Travis M; Mokin, Maxim; Eller, Jorge L; Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2015-07-01

    A 57-year-old woman with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 26 was found to have an acute left carotid occlusion with tandem left M1 thrombus within 1.5 hours of symptom onset. After no neurologic improvement following standard-dose intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), emergent neuroendovascular revascularization with carotid stenting and intracranial thrombectomy were performed under conscious sedation. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI)-3 flow restoration and symptom resolution were achieved postprocedure; however, complete carotid stent thrombosis was noted on final angiographic runs (25 minutes later), correlating with neurologic decline. Rapid administration of an intraarterial (IA) bolus dose of eptifibatide resulted in TIMI-3 flow restoration, with neurologic improvement. The patient was discharged three days postrevascularization on dual antiplatelet therapy with an NIHSS score of 1. Intraarterial (IA) eptifibatide can be an effective option for acute stent occlusion during emergent neuroendovascular revascularization after IV rtPA administration. CLEARCombined approach to lysis utilizing eptifibatide and RtPACTcomputed tomographicFrFrenchGPglycoproteinIAintraarterialICAinternal carotid arteryIVintravenousMCAmiddle cerebral arteryNIHSSNational Institutes of Health Stroke ScalertPArecombinant tissue plasminogen activatorTIMIthrombolysis in myocardial infarction.

  12. Intra-arterial drug and light delivery for photodynamic therapy using Visudyne®: implication for atherosclerotic plaque treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT, which is based on the activation of photosensitizers with light, can be used to reduce plaque burden. We hypothesized that intra-arterial photosensitizer administration and photo-activation will lead to high and rapid accumulation within the plaque with reduced systemic adverse effects. Thus this intra-arterial PDT would be expected to have less side effects and due to the short time involved would be compatible with percutaneous coronary interventions. Aim: We characterized the dose-dependent uptake and efficacy of intra-arterial PDT using Liposomal Verteporfin (Visudyne®, efficient for cancer-PDT but not tested before for PDT of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: Visudyne® (100, 200 and 500 ng/ml was perfused for 5-30 minutes in atherosclerotic aorta isolated from ApoE-/- mice. The fluorescence Intensity (FI after 15 minutes of Visudyne® perfusion increased with doses of 100 (FI-5.5 ± 1.8, 200 (FI-31.9 ± 1.9 or 500 ng/ml (FI-42.9 ± 1.2. Visudyne® (500 ng/ml uptake also increased with the administration time from 5 minutes (FI-9.8 ± 2.5 to 10 minutes (FI-23.3 ± 3.0 and 15 minutes (FI-42.9 ± 3.4 before reaching saturation at 30 minutes (FI-39.3 ± 2.4 contact. Intra-arterial PDT (Fluence: 100 and 200 J/cm2, irradiance-334 mW/cm2 applied immediately after Visudyne® perfusion (500 ng/ml for 15 minutes using a cylindrical light diffuser coupled to a diode laser (690 nm, led to an increase of ROS (Dihydroethidium (FI-6.9 ± 1.8, 25.3 ± 5.5, 43.4 ± 13.9 and apoptotic cells (TUNEL (2.5 ± 1.6 %, 41.3 ± 15.3 %, 58.9 ± 6 %, mainly plaque macrophages (immunostaining (0.3 ± 0.2 %, 37.6 ± 6.4 %, 45.3 ± 5.4 % at light doses of 0, 100 or 200 J/cm2 respectively. Limited apoptosis was observed in the medial wall (0.5 ± 0.2 %, 8.5 ± 4.7 %, 15.3 ± 12.7 %. Finally, Visudyne®-PDT was found to be associated with reduced vessel functionality (Myogram. Conclusion: We demonstrated that sufficient accumulation of

  13. Computational fluid dynamics study of intra-arterial chemotherapy for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Hiroaki; Oshima, Marie; Iwai, Toshinori; Ohhara, Yoshihito; Yajima, Yasuharu; Mitsudo, Kenji; Tohnai, Iwai

    2017-05-15

    Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for oral cancer can deliver a higher concentration of anticancer agent into a tumor-feeding artery than intravenous systemic chemotherapy. However, distribution of anticancer agent into several branches of the external carotid artery (ECA) in IAC has not demonstrated sufficient treatment efficacy. To improve the effectiveness of IAC, the flow distribution of anticancer agent into the branches of the ECA in several IAC methods was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Patient-specific three-dimensional vessel models were created from CT images of 2 patients with tongue cancer. Catheter models were combined with the vessel models. Thirty-two models were generated with varying vertical and horizontal positions of the catheter tip. With the use of a zero-dimensional resistance model of the peripheral vessel network, conventional IAC and superselective IAC were simulated in 30 and 2 models, respectively. The flow distribution of anticancer agent into the branches of the ECA was investigated in 32 models. Additionally, the blood streamline was traced from the inlet of the common carotid artery toward each outlet to examine the flow of anticancer agent in all models, and the wall shear stress of the vessel was calculated for some models. The CFD simulations could be conducted within a reasonable computational time. In several models, the anticancer agent flowed into the target artery only when the catheter tip was located below the bifurcation of the ECA and each target artery. Furthermore, the anticancer agent tended to flow into the target artery when the catheter tip was shifted toward the target artery. In all ECA branches that had flow of anticancer agent, the blood streamlines to the target arteries contacted the catheter tip. Anticancer agent flowed into only the target artery in patients' models for superselective IAC. However, high wall shear stress was observed at the target artery in one patient's model. This

  14. Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy (Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Group D Retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Abramson

    Full Text Available To report globe salvage rates, patient survival and adverse events of ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC for International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB group D retinoblastoma (naive and after prior failures.Single institution retrospective review of all Group D eyes treated with OAC from 5/2006-12/2012. Patients were treated according to our previously-published techniques. Primary outcome was globe retention without need for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. Demographics, prior treatments, OAC agents used, and adverse events were also recorded.112 group D eyes (103 patients that underwent OAC were included (average follow-up was 34 months, range: 2-110 months. 47 eyes were treatment-naïve, 58 eyes received prior treatments elsewhere, and 7 young infants (7 eyes underwent our published "bridge therapy" (single agent intravenous carboplatin until old enough to undergo OAC. Median number of OAC sessions/eye was 3 (range 1-9. 110/112 eyes received intra-arterial melphalan, but only 31 eyes received melphalan alone. 43 eyes received carboplatin, and 78 eyes received topotecan (never as a single agent. 80/112 eyes received >1 drug over their treatment course, and 39 eyes received all three agents. 24 eyes (16 pretreated, 7 treatment-naïve, 1 bridge failed treatment and required enucleation during the study period. Enucleation and EBRT were avoided in 88/112 eyes (78.6%; including 40/47 [85.1%] treatment-naïve eyes, 42/58 [72.4%] previously-treated eyes, and 6/7 eyes [85.7%] among bridge patients. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, globe salvage rate was 74% at 110 months among all patients, and 85% at 110 months in the treatment-naïve subgroup. Transient grade 3/4 neutropenia was more common in patients receiving OAC bilaterally. No child died of metastatic disease.OAC is effective for curing group D retinoblastoma, achieving rates of globe salvage many times higher than systemic chemotherapy (10-47%, even in eyes that previously

  15. Pretransplant Intra-arterial Liver-Directed Therapy Does Not Increase the Risk of Hepatic Arterial Complications in Liver Transplantation: A Single-Center 10-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallini, Joseph R; Gabr, Ahmed; Ali, Rehan; Abouchaleh, Nadine; Riaz, Ahsun; Baker, Talia; Kulik, Laura; Caicedo, Juan; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2017-09-12

    To investigate the association between pretransplant intra-arterial liver-directed therapy (IAT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic arterial complications (HAC) in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) [namely hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) and/or the need for hepatic arterial conduit]. A total of 175 HCC patients (mean age: 60 years) underwent IAT with either transarterial chemoembolization or yttrium-90 (90Y) transarterial radioembolization prior to OLT between 2003 and 2013. A matched control cohort of 159 HCC patients who underwent OLT without prior IAT was selected. Incidence of HAC in both cohorts was investigated. The categorical differences between both cohorts were calculated by chi-square test. Among the 175 patients (chemoembolization, n = 82; radioembolization, n = 93), 8 (5%) required conduits due to HA disease (chemoembolization, n = 6; radioembolization, n = 2), 3 (2%) developed HAT (chemoembolization, n = 2; radioembolization, n = 1). Eleven of 175 patients (6.7%) had HAC. Of the 159 control patients, 6 (4%) needed conduits for HA disease and 3 (2%) developed HAT. Nine of 159 patients (5.7%) had HAC. Chi-square analysis between the IAT cohort and the control group yielded a p value of 0.810. When comparing chemoembolization to radioembolization, p = 0.076 (not significant at p < 0.05). Although aggressive pretransplant radioembolization and chemoembolization are both utilized in most liver transplant centers, neither appears to increase the risk of peri-transplant hepatic arterial complications in HCC patients.

  16. Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy as Primary Therapy for Retinoblastoma in Infants Less than 3 Months of Age: A Series of 10 Case-Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaojuan Chen

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intra-ocular tumor in children. Although intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC by selectively infusing chemotherapy through the ophthalmic artery has become an essential technique in the treatment of advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma in children, the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for infants less than 3 months of age remains unknown. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age.We retrospectively reviewed ten retinoblastoma patients attending our center from January 2009 to September 2015 and beginning primary IAC before the age of 3 months. The patient characteristics, overall outcomes and therapy-related complications were assessed.The mean patient age at the first IAC treatment was 10.4 weeks (range 4.9-12.9 weeks. These eyes were classified according to the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB as group A (n = 0, B (n = 2, C (n = 0, D (n = 9, or E (n = 2. A total of 28 catheterizations were performed, and the procedure was stopped in one patient because of internal carotid artery spasm. Each eye received a mean of 2.6 cycles of IAC (range 2-4 cycles. After IAC with a mean follow-up of 28.3 months (range 9-65 months, tumor regression was observed in 12 of 13 eyes. One eye was enucleated due to tumor progression. All patients are alive and no patient has developed metastatic disease or other malignancies.Our experience suggests IAC as primary therapy is a feasible and promising treatment for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age.

  17. Intra-arterial tert-Butyl-hydroperoxide infusion induces an exacerbated sensory response in the rat hind limb and is associated with an impaired tissue oxygen uptake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Goor, H. van; Bahrami, S.; Kozlov, A.V.; Leixnering, M.; Redl, H.; Goris, R.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate oxidative stress and oxygen extraction mechanisms in an animal model of continuous intra-arterial infusion of a free radical donor and in an in vitro model using isolated mitochondria. tert-Butyl-hydroperoxide (tert-BuOOH, 25 mM) was infused for 24 h in

  18. Flow modification in canine intracranial aneurysm model by an asymmetric stent: studies using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Yiemeng; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Tranquebar, Rekha V.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Woodward, Scott, H.; Taulbee, Dale B.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    An asymmetric stent with low porosity patch across the intracranial aneurysm neck and high porosity elsewhere is designed to modify the flow to result in thrombogenesis and occlusion of the aneurysm and yet to reduce the possibility of also occluding adjacent perforator vessels. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the flow field induced by an asymmetric stent using both numerical and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) methods and to quantify the flow dynamics of an asymmetric stent in an in vivo aneurysm model. We created a vein-pouch aneurysm model on the canine carotid artery. An asymmetric stent was implanted at the aneurysm, with 25% porosity across the aneurysm neck and 80% porosity elsewhere. The aneurysm geometry, before and after stent implantation, was acquired using cone beam CT and reconstructed for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Both steady-state and pulsatile flow conditions using the measured waveforms from the aneurysm model were studied. To reduce computational costs, we modeled the asymmetric stent effect by specifying a pressure drop over the layer across the aneurysm orifice where the low porosity patch was located. From the CFD results, we found the asymmetric stent reduced the inflow into the aneurysm by 51%, and appeared to create a stasis-like environment which favors thrombus formation. The DSA sequences also showed substantial flow reduction into the aneurysm. Asymmetric stents may be a viable image guided intervention for treating intracranial aneurysms with desired flow modification features. PMID:21666881

  19. Flow modification in canine intracranial aneurysm model by an asymmetric stent: studies using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Yiemeng; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Tranquebar, Rekha V.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Woodward, Scott H.; Taulbee, Dale B.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    An asymmetric stent with low porosity patch across the intracranial aneurysm neck and high porosity elsewhere is designed to modify the flow to result in thrombogenesis and occlusion of the aneurysm and yet to reduce the possibility of also occluding adjacent perforator vessels. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the flow field induced by an asymmetric stent using both numerical and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) methods and to quantify the flow dynamics of an asymmetric stent in an in vivo aneurysm model. We created a vein-pouch aneurysm model on the canine carotid artery. An asymmetric stent was implanted at the aneurysm, with 25% porosity across the aneurysm neck and 80% porosity elsewhere. The aneurysm geometry, before and after stent implantation, was acquired using cone beam CT and reconstructed for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Both steady-state and pulsatile flow conditions using the measured waveforms from the aneurysm model were studied. To reduce computational costs, we modeled the asymmetric stent effect by specifying a pressure drop over the layer across the aneurysm orifice where the low porosity patch was located. From the CFD results, we found the asymmetric stent reduced the inflow into the aneurysm by 51%, and appeared to create a stasis-like environment which favors thrombus formation. The DSA sequences also showed substantial flow reduction into the aneurysm. Asymmetric stents may be a viable image guided intervention for treating intracranial aneurysms with desired flow modification features.

  20. Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion in patients with severe refractory cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a feasibility study and outcome results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Sylvia; Proescholdt, Martin A; Hochreiter, Andreas; Schuierer, Gerhard; Scheitzach, Judith; Wendl, Christina; Kieninger, Martin; Schneiker, Andre; Bründl, Elisabeth; Schödel, Petra; Schebesch, Karl-Michael; Brawanski, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Severe cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of death and disability in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. No causative treatment is yet available and hypertensive hypervolemic therapy (HHT) is often insufficient to avoid delayed cerebral ischemia and neurological deficits. We compared patients receiving continuous intra-arterial infusion of the calcium-antagonist nimodipine with a historical group treated with HHT and oral nimodipine alone. Between 0.5 and 1.2 mg/h of nimodipine were continuously administered by intra-arterial infusion via microcatheters either into the internal carotid or vertebral artery or both, depending on the areas of vasospasm. The effect was controlled via multimodal neuromonitoring and transcranial Doppler sonography. Outcome was determined by means of the Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge and 6 months after the hemorrhage and compared to a historical control group. Twenty-one patients received 28 intra-arterial nimodipine infusions. Six months after discharge, the occurrence of cerebral infarctions was significantly lower (42.6 %) in the nimodipine group than in the control group (75.0 %). This result was reflected by a significantly higher proportion (76.0 %) of patients with good outcome in the nimodipine-treated group, when compared to 10.0 % good outcome in the control group. Median GOS was 4 in the nimodipine group and 2 in the control group (p = 0.001). Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion is an effective treatment for patients with severe cerebral vasospasm who fail to respond to HHT and oral nimodipine alone. Key to the effective administration of continuous intra-arterial nimodipine is multimodal neuromonitoring and the individual adaptation of dosage and time of infusion for each patient.

  1. Intra-Arterial Therapy for Acute Stroke and the Effect of Technological Advances on Recanalization: Findings in a Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jonas H; Denslow, Sheri A; Goldstein, Samuel J; Marx, William F; Short, John G; Taylor, Reid D; Schneider, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    Recent randomized controlled studies have shown improvement in recanalization outcomes when physicians use the latest intra-arterial therapy devices in patients with acute, large-vessel, intracranial occlusions. The goal of this study was to explore how new procedures affected degree of and time to recanalization at a single center over the past 12 years as technology has improved. Patients were included in the study if they had a large or medium intracranial vessel occlusion and had undergone intra-arterial therapy for acute stroke during the period 2002-2013. Therapies were categorized as intra-arterial thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (IA tPA), mechanical thrombectomy using 1st-generation devices (Merci and Penumbra), or mechanical thrombectomy using 2nd-generation devices (stent-trievers). Recanalization was defined using a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) scale. Primary treatment was IA tPA in 24 (12.4%) patients, 1st-generation devices in 128 (66.0%) patients, and 2nd-generation devices in 42 (21.6%) patients. TICI 2b was achieved in 7 (29.2%) patients treated with IA tPA, in 79 (61.7%) patients treated with 1st-generation devices, and in 38 (90.5%) patients treated with 2nd-generation devices. Compared to patients treated with IA tPA, patients treated with 2nd-generation devices were more likely to reach TICI 2b recanalization (odds ratio, 11.66; 95% CI, 1.56-87.01), and they did so in shorter times. Technological advances over 12 years in endovascular stroke treatments significantly improved the chance of and reduced time to achieving TICI 2b recanalization in our community hospital. This shows the importance of adopting new technologies in a rapidly evolving field in order to provide the best-practice standard of care for the people of our region. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  2. Percutaneous implantation of intra-arterial port system for regional drug infusion: results and complications in 110 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Je Hwan; Lee, Jong Hyuk [College of Medicine, Ajou University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Kyung Hee; Won, Jong Yoon; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Mokdong Hospital, College of Medicine, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the feasibility and complications of a percutaneously implantable port system for regional drug infusion. For intra-arterial drug infusion, a 5.8 or 5-F pediatric venous port system was implanted in 110 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n=79), liver metastasis (n=16), gallbladder cancer (n=4), stomach cancer (n=3), pancreatic cancer (n=3), Burger's diseases mellitus (n=2), or lymphoma (n=1). All intra-arterial port implantations were performed percutaneously in an angiographic ward through the common femoral artery (n=98), left subclavian artery (n=10), or left superficial femoral artery (n=2). Complications were evaluated during the follow-up period, which ranged from 21 to 530 (mean, 163) days. The technical success rate for percutaneous implantation of the system was 97.3% (107 of 110 patients). The tips of the port catheter were located in the common hepatic artery (n=34), proper hepatic artery (n=49), right hepatic artery quick resulthepatic artery (n=1), descending aorta at T9 level (n=10), left popliteal artery (n=2), right external iliac artery (n=1), left external iliac artery (n=1), or left deep femoral artery (n=1). Complications were encountered in 24 patients (22.4%), namely chamber site infection (n=7), catheter dislodgement (n=7), catheter occlusion (n=3), migration of coil (n=2), disconnection between chamber and catheter (n=1), kinking of catheter (n=1), arterial occlusion (n=1), necrosis of overlying skin (n=1), and leakage around port chamber (n=1). Outcomes of complications included removal of port systems or cessation of therapy in 12 cases (11.2%), correction of catheter location using a guide wire in five (4.7%), thrombolysis with urokinase in three (2.8%), and straightening using a snare in one (0.9%). In three patients, the port system was used without reintervention. Percutaneous implantation of an intra-arterial port system showed a high technical success rate and a low rate of serious complications. The method

  3. Effects of the intra-arterial injection of bradykinin into the limbs, upon the activity of mesencephalic reticular units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, M C; Guilbaud, G; Besson, J M

    1975-02-01

    The changes in firing rate of mesencephalic reticular units after intra-arterial injection into the limbs of a potent nociceptive agent, bradykinin, were studied in cats (unanesthetized, immobilized with flaxedil and hyperventilated). 30 per cent of the d35 studied cells were affected, 56 per cent were excited, 23 per cent inhibited and 5 per cent had mixed effects. Among the 75 excited cells, the activation of 16 of them seemed to related to the arousa- processes (group A); for 56 cells the increase seemed dire-tly dependent on the nociceptive stimulation itself (group B). The changes of firing rate were repruducible; their latencies and durations were of the same order as the latencies and duration of the nociceptive reactions and painful sensation s, which have been obtained in animals and men after bradykinin injections. The modifications induced by bradykinin administration were suppressed by Ketamin and Thiopental.

  4. Intra-arterial infusion therapy following alteration of pelvic blood flow and concurrent radiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeyama, Tomokazu; Mashimo, Tooru; Nakazato, Haruki; Tokunaga, Takashi; Uehara, Hisao; Shinozaki, Tadatoshi; Kawashima, Miho; Akimoto, Tetsuo [Jomo Urology Memorial Zenshukai Hospital, Maebashi (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    Intra-arterial infusion therapy following alteration of pelvic blood flow and concurrent radiation therapy was performed in 13 patients with muscle invading bladder cancer (T2, 2; T3, 6; T4, 5). The internal iliac artery of the opposite side was embolized and the ipsilateral gluteal and obturator arteries were embolized by metallic coils. A catheter was placed in the ipsilateral internal iliac artery. CDDP was administered daily at a dose of 7-9 mg/body over 1 minute. Radiation was done by Microtron using 10 MV x-ray. Total dose was 4500-7060 cGy. Evaluation was done by cystoscopy, radiography and biopsy. Eight patients achieved complete response (CR) histologically. Others had partial response (PR). All CR patients had no recurrence. The observation period was between 3 and 29 months, with a mean of 11 months. This treatment modality is effective for locally advanced bladder cancer. (author)

  5. Intra-arterial vasodilators to prevent radial artery spasm: a systematic review and pooled analysis of clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Chun Shing, E-mail: shingkwok@doctors.org.uk [Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Rashid, Muhammad [St. Helens & Knowsley Teaching Hospital (NHS) Trust, Whiston Hospital, Prescot (United Kingdom); Fraser, Doug [Manchester Heart Centre, Manchester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom); Nolan, James [University Hospital of North Midlands, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Mamas, Mamas [Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Farr Institute, Institute of Population Health, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to review the available literature on the efficacy and safety of agents used for prevention of RAS. Background: Different vasodilator agents have been used to prevent radial artery spasm (RAS) in patients undergoing transradial cardiac catheterization. Methods: We included studies that evaluated any intra-arterial drug administered in the setting cardiac catheterization that was undertaken through the transradial access site (TRA). We also compared studies for secondary outcomes of major bleeding, procedure time, and procedure failure rate in setting of RAS prevention, patent hemostasis and radial artery occlusion. Results: 22 clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. For placebo, RAS rate was 12% (4 studies, 638 participants), which was similar to 2.5 mg of verapamil 12% (3 studies, 768 participants) but greater than 5 mg of verapamil (4%, 2 studies, 497 participants). For nicorandil, there was a much higher RAS rate compared to placebo (16%, 3 studies, 447 participants). The lowest rates of RAS was found for nitroglycerin at both 100 μg (4%) and 200 μg (2%) doses, isosorbide mononitrate (4%) and nicardipine (3%). We found no information regarding the procedure failure rates, patent hemostasis, and radial artery occlusion in these studies. Conclusions: In this largest and up-to-date review on intra-arterial vasodilators use to reduce RAS, we have found that the verapamil at a dose of 5 mg or verapamil in combination with nitroglycerine are the best combinations to reduce RAS. - Highlights: • Radial artery spasm (RAS) causes procedural failure in transradial catheterization. • RAS may complicate 10–15% procedures undertaken through the radial approach. • We reviewed the efficacy of vasodilators that have been used to minimize RAS. • The pooled RAS rate was lowest with 5 mg of verapamil (4%) compared to placebo (12%). • The best combination of drugs to minimize RAS is nitroglycerine and verapamil.

  6. Brain SPECT and transcranial Doppler (TCD) evaluation of the effects of intra-arterial papaverine for cerebral vasospasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.H.; Newell, D.W.; Eskridge, J.M. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (cv) is a common and serious consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Interventional neuroradiologic techniques for treating cv refractory to medical and hemodynamic measures have included transluminal microballoon angioplasty and intra-arterial papaverine infusion (pap). Eight patients (pts) who had symptomatic cv but were not candidates for microballoon angioplasty received pap via arterial catheter. All 8 pts had brain SPECT with Tc-99m HMPAO and 7 had TCD readings before and after treatment. One pt had 2 separate treatments. Total treatments = 9. Results: Of the total of 9 treatments: 5 demonstrated marked improvement in regional cerebral blood flow on SPECT in the vascular territories that were ischemic, 3 showed mild to moderate improvement of blood flow, and 1 was unchanged. The pt that did not improve on SPECT died due to cardiorespiratory problems but remained comatose without neurologic improvement after the treatment. The other 8 had either prompt clinical improvement or modestly delayed improvement due to concomitant hydrocephalus. infection, recurrent vasospasm or other intervening medical problems. TCD readings in the treated vessels showed improved (lower) velocities that agreed with SPECT improvement after 4 intra-arterial pap treatments. There were 4 discrepancies of SPECT and TCD: 1 with rising TCD velocity in the mild cv range in the treated vessel that demonstrated SPECT improvement; 1 with unchanged velocity in the moderate cv range that showed SPECT improvement; 1 that showed lower velocity in the moderate cv range while the SPECT was unchanged; and 1 that had normal TCD velocities before and after treatment but high pulsatility indices on Doppler (which are characteristic of either elevated intra-cranial pressure or distal vessel disease) who had mild to moderate improvement of blood flow on SPECT after treatment.

  7. Image-Based Analysis of Tumor Localization After Intra-Arterial Delivery of Technetium-99m-Labeled SPIO Using SPECT/CT and MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Joon Lee MD, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the localization of 99mTc-labeled dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles to the liver tumor using image-based analysis. We delivered 99mTc-SPIO intravenously or intra-arterially (IA with/without Lipiodol to compare the tumor localization by gamma scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in a rabbit liver tumor. The gamma and SPECT image-based analysis shows that the uptake ratio of the tumor to the normal liver parenchyma is highest after delivery of 99mTc-SPIO with Lipiodol IA and that well correlates with the trend of the signal decrease in the liver MRIs. Intra-arterial delivery of SPIO with Lipiodol might be a good drug delivery system targeting the hepatic tumors, as confirmed by image-based analysis.

  8. Image-Based Analysis of Tumor Localization After Intra-Arterial Delivery of Technetium-99m-Labeled SPIO Using SPECT/CT and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Joon; Park, Ji Yong; Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Jaeil; Kim, Euishin Edmund; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Seonji; Kim, Eun Jeong; Kim, Young Il; Chung, Jin Wook

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the localization of (99m)Tc-labeled dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles to the liver tumor using image-based analysis. We delivered (99m)Tc-SPIO intravenously or intra-arterially (IA) with/without Lipiodol to compare the tumor localization by gamma scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a rabbit liver tumor. The gamma and SPECT image-based analysis shows that the uptake ratio of the tumor to the normal liver parenchyma is highest after delivery of (99m)Tc-SPIO with Lipiodol IA and that well correlates with the trend of the signal decrease in the liver MRIs. Intra-arterial delivery of SPIO with Lipiodol might be a good drug delivery system targeting the hepatic tumors, as confirmed by image-based analysis.

  9. Ti atoms in Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 mixed oxides form active and selective sites for electrochemical chlorine evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Rasmus K. B.; Hansen, Heine Anton; Bligaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The electrocatalytic properties of the (1 1 0) surface of Ru-doped TiO2, Ti-doped RuO2 and the industrially important Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA) composition Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 have been examined using density functional theory. It is found that the oxygen adsorption energy on a Ti site is strongl....... These results suggest a reason for why DSA shows a higher chlorine selectivity than RuO2 and propose an experimental test of the hypothesis....

  10. Effectiveness of sublingual nitroglycerin before puncture compared with conventional intra-arterial nitroglycerin in transradial procedures: a randomized trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turan, Burak, E-mail: drburakturan@gmail.com; Daşlı, Tolga; Erkol, Ayhan; Erden, İsmail

    2015-10-15

    Aim: Sublingual (SL) nitroglycerin administered before radial artery puncture can improve cannulation success and decrease the incidence of radial artery spasm (RAS) compared with intra-arterial (IA) nitroglycerin in transradial procedures. Methods: Patients undergoing diagnostic transradial angiography were randomized to IA (200 mcg) or SL (400 mcg) nitroglycerin. Primary endpoints were puncture time and puncture attempts. Secondary endpoint was the incidence of RAS. Results: Total of 101 participants (mean age 60 ± 11 years, 53% male) were randomized (51 in IA and 50 in SL groups). Puncture time (50 [36–75] vs 50 [35–90] sec), puncture attempts (1.18 ± 0.48 vs 1.20 ± 0.49), multiple punctures (13.7 vs 16.0%) and RAS (19.6 vs 24.0%) were not statistically different between IA vs SL groups respectively. A composite endpoint of all adverse events related to transradial angiography (multiple punctures, RAS, access site crossover, hypotension/bradycardia associated with nitroglycerin and radial artery occlusion) was very similar in IA vs SL groups (39 vs 40%, respectively). However puncture time was significantly longer with SL nitroglycerin in patients < 1.65 m height (47 [36–66] vs 63 [41–110] sec, p = 0.042). Multiple punctures seemed higher with SL nitroglycerin in patients with diabetes (0 vs 30%, p = 0.028) or in patients < 1.65 m height (7.4 vs 25%, p = 0.085). Likewise, RAS with SL nitroglycerin seemed more frequent in smokers compared to IA nitroglycerin (0 vs 27%, p = 0.089). Conclusions: SL nitroglycerin was not different from IA nitroglycerin in terms of efficiency and safety in overall study population. However it may be inferior to IA nitroglycerin in certain subgroups (shorter individuals, diabetics and smokers). - Highlights: • Improvement in radial artery puncture time and success with subcutaneous nitrate was reported. • Giving nitrate sublingually may have vasodilation along entire length of radial artery and may prevent RAS

  11. Intra-arterial therapy for cardio embolic internal carotid artery terminus occlusion: The past and present status in real practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Guk; Jung, Cheol Kyu; KIm, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Beomn Joon; Han, Moon Ku; Bae, Hee Joon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Bae Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There is little data on the effect of intra-arterial therapy (IAT) in acute cardioembolic internal carotid artery terminus (ICAT) occlusion that has poor prognosis. We determined procedural and clinical outcomes in patients with acute cardioembolic ICAT occlusion treated with different methods of IAT. On retrospective review of our registry, patients with cardioembolic ICAT occlusion were categorized as thrombolytic-based IAT group (TLG) and thrombectomy-based IAT group (TEG) according to the primary endovascular technique. Subsequently, procedural and clinical outcomes were compared. Fifty-five patients had cardioembolic ICAT occlusion and 18 patients were assigned to TLG and 37 patients to TEG. The rate of complete reperfusion was significantly higher and the groin puncture to reperfusion time was significantly shorter in TEG than those in TLG. There was a trend towards functional outcome at 3 months in the TEG group; however, it was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Age, baseline Albert Stroke program early CT score and puncture to reperfusion time were factors affecting unfavorable outcome at 3 months, on multivariable analysis. Thrombectomy-based IAT has advantages over thrombolytic-based IAT in terms of the reduction of groin puncture to reperfusion time and improvement of the rate of complete reperfusion.

  12. Imatinib mesylate induces responses in patients with liver metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumor failing intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorentini Giammaria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imatinib mesylate represents a real major paradigm shift in cancer therapy, targeting the specific molecular abnormalities, crucial in the etiology of tumor. Intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy (IAHC followed by embolization, has been considered an interesting palliative option for patients with liver metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, due to the typically hypervascular pattern of the tumor. Aims: We report our experience with IAHC followed by Imatinib mesylate, in order to show the superiority of the specific molecular approach in liver metastases from GIST. Materials and Methods: Three patients (pts with pretreated massive liver metastases from GIST, received IAHC with Epirubicin 50 mg/mq, every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. At the evidence of progression, they received Imatinib mesylate. Results: We observed progressive diseases in all cases. In 1998, one patient underwent Thalidomide at 150 mg orally, every day for 4 months, with evidence of stable disease and clinical improvement. In 2001, two patients received Imatinib mesylate at 400 mg orally, every day, with evidence of partial response lasting 18+ months and 16 months. One of them had grade 3 neutropenia, with suspension of therapy for 3 weeks. Conclusion: No patient treated with IAHC, reported objective responses, but two of them obtained partial response after the assumption of Imatinib mesylate and one showed temporary stabilization with thalidomide. Imatinib mesylate represents a new opportunity in GIST therapy, targeting the specific molecular alteration. It seems to be superior to conventional intra arterial hepatic chemotherapy.

  13. Oscillometric and intra-arterial blood pressure in preterm and term infants: extent of discrepancy and factors associated with inaccuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokaze, Tomoyuki; Akaba, Kazuhiro; Saito, Emi

    2015-02-01

    Securing an arterial line to monitor continuous blood pressure (BP) is difficult in infants. We aimed to reveal the extent of discrepancies between oscillometric and direct BP. Infants who required continuous BP monitoring were prospectively enrolled. Direct and indirect BP were simultaneously recorded. Disposable BP cuffs matching one-half to two-thirds of the upper arm circumference were used. A total of 74 infants were studied (gestational age [GA], 24-42 weeks). The correlation coefficients of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP of indirect and direct measurements were 0.87, 0.82, and 0.84, respectively (p Oscillometric measurements significantly underestimated systolic BP in light-for-gestational-age infants and diastolic BP in infants without fentanyl administration. There were no significant correlations between discrepant BP measurements and edema, vasopressor administration, arterial line location, GA, postnatal age, body weight, pulse rate, or hemoglobin level. In 4.1% of infants, systolic BP increased by 10 to 15 mm Hg at the time of cuff expansion. We recommend intra-arterial BP measurement when the BP values seriously influence the therapeutic protocol. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Intraarterial route increases the risk of cerebral lesions after mesenchymal cell administration in animal model of ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay, Bárbara; Trekker, Jesse; Himmelreich, Uwe; Beiras, Andrés; Topete, Antonio; Taboada, Pablo; Pérez-Mato, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Iglesias-Rey, Ramón; Rivas, José; Planas, Anna M.; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising clinical therapy for ischemic stroke. However, critical parameters, such as the most effective administration route, remain unclear. Intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) delivery routes have yielded varied outcomes across studies, potentially due to the unknown MSCs distribution. We investigated whether MSCs reached the brain following i.a. or i.v. administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. MSCs were labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistological analysis. MSCs were found in the brain following i.a. but not i.v. administration. However, the i.a. route increased the risk of cerebral lesions and did not improve functional recovery. The i.v. delivery is safe but MCS do not reach the brain tissue, implying that treatment benefits observed for this route are not attributable to brain MCS engrafting after stroke.

  15. Intraarterial route increases the risk of cerebral lesions after mesenchymal cell administration in animal model of ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay, Bárbara; Trekker, Jesse; Himmelreich, Uwe; Beiras, Andrés; Topete, Antonio; Taboada, Pablo; Pérez-Mato, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Iglesias-Rey, Ramón; Rivas, José; Planas, Anna M.; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising clinical therapy for ischemic stroke. However, critical parameters, such as the most effective administration route, remain unclear. Intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) delivery routes have yielded varied outcomes across studies, potentially due to the unknown MSCs distribution. We investigated whether MSCs reached the brain following i.a. or i.v. administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. MSCs were labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistological analysis. MSCs were found in the brain following i.a. but not i.v. administration. However, the i.a. route increased the risk of cerebral lesions and did not improve functional recovery. The i.v. delivery is safe but MCS do not reach the brain tissue, implying that treatment benefits observed for this route are not attributable to brain MCS engrafting after stroke. PMID:28091591

  16. Change apparent diffusion coefficient immediately after recanalization through intra-arterial revascularization therapy in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Ji Eun; Yeom, Joeng A; Kim, Young Soo; Yoon, Chang Hyo; Park, Min Gyu; Park, Kyung Pil; Baik, Seung Kug [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Intra-arterial revascularization therapy (IART) for acute ischemic stroke has become increasingly popular recently. However, early change in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values after full recanalization in human stroke has not received much attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate ADC changes immediately after interventional full-recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke. ADC values of 25 lesions from 18 acute ischemic stroke patients were recorded with both pre- and post-recanalization ADC maps. Measurement was done by placing region of interests over the representative images of the lesion. For analysis, lesions were divided into territorial infarction (TI) and watershed infarction (WI). Mean ADC values of the overall 25 lesions before IART were 415.12 × 10-6 mm{sup 2}/sec, and increased to 619.08 × 10-6 mm{sup 2}/sec after the IART. Average relative ADC (rADC) value for 22 TI increased from 0.59 to 0.92 (p < 0.000), whereas, average rADC value for 3 WI did not change significantly. There was a conspicuous increase of ADC values immediately after full-recanalization in TI lesions. On the other hand, WI lesions did not show significant change in ADC values after recanalization.

  17. Phenol removal from wastewaters by electrochemical oxidation using boron doped diamond (BDD) and Ti/Ti{sub 0.7}Ru{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} DSA Registered-Sign electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto-Costa, P.H.; Ruotolo, L.A.M., E-mail: pluis@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2012-10-15

    Industrial wastewater containing non-biodegradable organic pollutants consists of highly toxic effluents whose treatment is necessary due to environmental and economical restrictions. In order to treat these effluents, an electrochemical process using a dimensionally stable anode (DSA Registered-Sign ) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was studied. The performance of these electrodes for COD removal from aqueous phenol solution was evaluated in the absence and presence of different chloride concentrations. The results showed that DSA Registered-Sign could be successfully used to remove COD when high chloride concentration (3035 mg L{sup -1}Cl{sup -}) and mild current density are employed (50 mA cm{sup -2}). On the other hand, the presence of chloride did not have the same significant effect on the COD depletion rate using BDD; however, under mild conditions (50 mA cm{sup -2}, 0.190 m s{sup -1}), the addition of 607 mg L{sup -1} Cl{sup -} improved the COD removal by approximately 52% after 8 hours of electrolysis. The effect of current density (i) and flow velocity (v) were also studied, and it was verified that they have an important role on the process performance, especially when DSA Registered-Sign is used. (author)

  18. Use of sequential infiltration synthesis to improve the pattern transfer of PS-b-PLA DSA (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelio Araujo, Laura; Fernández-Regúlez, Marta; Chevalier, Xavier; Nicolet, Célia; Cayrefourcq, Ian; Navarro, Christophe; Fleury, Guillaume; Pérez-Murano, Francesc

    2017-03-01

    Directed self-assembly of block copolymers is considered one of the candidates to fulfill the requirements of the next technological nodes [1,2]. Polymer domains are aligned by using a chemical and/or a topographical pre-pattern in which preferential surfaces to one of the two blocks or neutral wetting areas are created. In particular, polystyrene-block-polymetylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) has been extensively studied during the last years showing strong capabilities to define periodic nanostructures. However, the relatively low Flory-Huggins parameter and, the resulting low segregation strength of PS-b-PMMA systems, limit their achievable resolution to around 11 nm [3]. The application of block copolymer on sub-10 nm technologies requires the development of the new block copolymer generation known as high- block copolymers. Additionally, an important requirement for their integration on the lithography roadmap is the capability of selectively remove one of the two blocks. The etch contrast between the two domains is typically low due to their organic chemistry. In this sense, selective sequential infiltration synthesis by ALD into one of the blocks can be used in order to incorporate an inorganic material. The formed organic/inorganic blend sustains better the plasma etching to remove the non-infiltrated organic block. In this contribution, we show the use of high- polystyrene-b-polylactide acid (PS-b-PLA) lamellar block copolymer for line/space applications. PS-b-PLA has a larger Flory-Huggins parameter (=0.218 at room temperature[4]) compared with PS-b-PMMA, allowing the size reduction of the self-assembled domains. The method to control the orientation of the polymer domains is similar to the one typically used for PS-b-PMMA. Chemical contrast and the subsequent alignment of the polymer domains are achieved by the definition of a chemical pre-pattern on a random copolymer PS-r-PMMA (48% of PS) (figure 1). The polymer brush is grafted on the substrate and then

  19. The Antitumor Effect and Hepatotoxicity of a Hexokinase II Inhibitor 3-Bromopyruvate: In Vivo Investigation of Intraarterial Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Hepatoma Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Min Jong; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, He Son [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity of an intraarterial delivery of low-dose and high-dose 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and those of a conventional Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion in a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model. This experiment was approved by the animal care committee at our institution. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 36 rabbits. Transcatheter intraarterial administration was performed using low dose 3- BrPA (25 mL in a 1 mM concentration, n = 10), high dose 3-BrPA (25 mL in a 5 mM concentration, n = 10) and Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion (1.6 mg doxorubicin/ 0.4 mL Lipiodol, n = 10), and six rabbits were treated with normal saline alone as a control group. One week later, the proportion of tumor necrosis was calculated based on histopathologic examination. The hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical analysis. The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with using Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The tumor necrosis rate was significantly higher in the high dose group (93% +- 7.6 [mean +- SD]) than that in the control group (48% +- 21.7) (p = 0.0002), but the tumor necrosis rate was not significantly higher in the low dose group (62% +- 20.0) (p = 0.2780). However, the tumor necrosis rate of the high dose group was significantly lower than that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin treatment group (99% +- 2.7) (p = 0.0015). The hepatotoxicity observed in the 3-BrPA groups was comparable to that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin group. Even though intraarterial delivery of 3-BrPA shows a dose-related antitumor effect, single session treatment seems to have limited efficacy when compared with the conventional method

  20. Patient discomfort associated with the use of intra-arterial iodinated contrast media: a meta-analysis of comparative randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Peter A; Capasso, Patrizio

    2011-05-24

    Discomfort characterized by pain and warmth are common adverse effects associated with the use of intra-arterial iodinated contrast media (CM). The objective of this review was to pool patient-reported outcomes available from head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to compare the discomfort rates associated with iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM; i.e., iodixanol) to those reported with various low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM). A review of the literature published between 1990 and 2009 available through Medline, Medline Preprints, Embase, Biological Abstracts, BioBase, Cab Abstracts, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Life Sciences Collection, Inside Conferences, Energy Database, Engineering Index and Technology Collection was performed to compare rates of discomfort associated with the use of the IOCM (iodixanol) vs. various LOCM agents in head-to-head RCTs. All trials with a Jadad score ≥2 that reported patient discomfort data following intra-arterial administration of CM were reviewed, coded, and extracted. A total of 22 RCTs (n = 8087) were included. Overall discomfort (regardless of severity) was significantly different between patients receiving IOCM and various LOCMs (risk difference [RD] -0.049; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.076, -0.021; p = 0.001). IOCM was favored over all LOCMs combined with a summary RD value of -0.188 (95% CI: -0.265, -0.112; p effect size and age and a negative relationship with increasing proportion of women. The opposite trends were observed with warmth sensation. IOCM was associated with less frequent and severe patient discomfort during intra-arterial administration. These data support differences in osmolality as a possible determinant of CM discomfort.

  1. Patient Discomfort Associated with the Use of Intra-arterial Iodinated Contrast Media: A Meta-Analysis of Comparative Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capasso Patrizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discomfort characterized by pain and warmth are common adverse effects associated with the use of intra-arterial iodinated contrast media (CM. The objective of this review was to pool patient-reported outcomes available from head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs and to compare the discomfort rates associated with iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM; i.e., iodixanol to those reported with various low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM. Methods A review of the literature published between 1990 and 2009 available through Medline, Medline Preprints, Embase, Biological Abstracts, BioBase, Cab Abstracts, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Life Sciences Collection, Inside Conferences, Energy Database, Engineering Index and Technology Collection was performed to compare rates of discomfort associated with the use of the IOCM (iodixanol vs. various LOCM agents in head-to-head RCTs. All trials with a Jadad score ≥2 that reported patient discomfort data following intra-arterial administration of CM were reviewed, coded, and extracted. Results A total of 22 RCTs (n = 8087 were included. Overall discomfort (regardless of severity was significantly different between patients receiving IOCM and various LOCMs (risk difference [RD] -0.049; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.076, -0.021; p = 0.001. IOCM was favored over all LOCMs combined with a summary RD value of -0.188 (95% CI: -0.265, -0.112; p Conclusions IOCM was associated with less frequent and severe patient discomfort during intra-arterial administration. These data support differences in osmolality as a possible determinant of CM discomfort.

  2. Intra-Arterial MR Perfusion Imaging of Meningiomas: Comparison to Digital Subtraction Angiography and Intravenous MR Perfusion Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Lum

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ability of IA MR perfusion to characterize meningioma blood supply.Studies were performed in a suite comprised of an x-ray angiography unit and 1.5T MR scanner that permitted intraprocedural patient movement between the imaging modalities. Patients underwent intra-arterial (IA and intravenous (IV T2* dynamic susceptibility MR perfusion immediately prior to meningioma embolization. Regional tumor arterial supply was characterized by digital subtraction angiography and classified as external carotid artery (ECA dural, internal carotid artery (ICA dural, or pial. MR perfusion data regions of interest (ROIs were analyzed in regions with different vascular supply to extract peak height, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM, relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV, and mean transit time (MTT. Linear mixed modeling was used to identify perfusion curve parameter differences for each ROI for IA and IV MR imaging techniques. IA vs. IV perfusion parameters were also directly compared for each ROI using linear mixed modeling.18 ROIs were analyzed in 12 patients. Arterial supply was identified as ECA dural (n = 11, ICA dural (n = 4, or pial (n = 3. FWHM, rCBV, and rCBF showed statistically significant differences between ROIs for IA MR perfusion. Peak Height and FWHM showed statistically significant differences between ROIs for IV MR perfusion. RCBV and MTT were significantly lower for IA perfusion in the Dural ECA compared to IV perfusion. Relative CBF in IA MR was found to be significantly higher in the Dural ICA region and MTT significantly lower compared to IV perfusion.

  3. Intra-arterial nimodipine for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage: Influence on clinical course and predictors of clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Asma; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri; Cortsen, Marie; Eskesen, Vagn; Wagner, Aase

    2016-02-01

    Intra-arterial nimodipine (IAN) has shown a promising effect on cerebral vasospasm (CV) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. At our institution, Rigshospitalet, IAN treatment has been used since 2009, but the short- and long-term clinical efficacy of IAN has not yet been assessed. The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy and clinical outcome of IAN treatment of symptomatic CV, and to assess the predictors of clinical outcome. Medical records of 25 patients undergoing a total of 41 IAN treatment sessions were retrospectively reviewed. Data on angiographic results, blood-flow velocities and the clinical condition before and after the IAN treatment were recorded. Predictors of the clinical outcome were assessed with a linear regression model. Positive angiographic response was achieved in 95.1% of 41 IAN treatment sessions. Flow-velocity measurements showed no relationship with angiographic responses of IAN. The immediate clinical improvement was observed in three patients (12%). Five patients (20%) had a favourable outcome at discharge and at three-month follow-up; 10 patients (40%) had a moderate to poor outcome; and the rest (40%) died. Increased number of affected vessels and number of procedures carried out per patient, and a trend toward an increased delay time from symptomatic CV to confirming angiographic CV and thus instituting IAN treatment predicted the poor clinical outcome. IAN treatment appears to be effective in reversing angiographic CV. However, it is not always effective in reversing clinical deterioration, as several other factors including treatment delay affect the clinical course. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. In vivo MR imaging of intraarterially delivered magnetically labeled mesenchymal stem cells in a canine stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of intraarterial (IA delivery and in vivo MR imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO-labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in a canine stroke model. METHODOLOGY: MSCs harvested from beagles' bone marrow were labeled with home-synthesized SPIO. Adult beagle dogs (n = 12 were subjected to left proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion by autologous thrombus, followed by two-hour left internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion with 5 French vertebral catheter. One week later, dogs were classified as three groups before transplantation: group A: complete MCA recanalization, group B: incomplete MCA recanalization, group C: no MCA recanalization. 3×10(6 labeled-MSCs were delivered through left ICA. Series in vivo MRI images were obtained before cell grafting, one and 24 hours after transplantation and weekly thereafter until four weeks. MRI findings were compared with histological studies at the time point of 24 hours and four weeks. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Home-synthesized SPIO was useful to label MSCs without cell viability compromise. MSCs scattered widely in the left cerebral hemisphere in group A, while fewer grafted cells were observed in group B and no cell was detected in group C at one hour after transplantation. A larger infarction on the day of cell transplantation was associated with more grafted cells in the brain. Grafted MSCs could be tracked effectively by MRI within four weeks and were found in peri-infarction area by Prussian blue staining. CONCLUSION: It is feasible of IA MSCs transplantation in a canine stroke model. Both the ipsilateral MCA condition and infarction volume before transplantation may affect the amount of grafted cells in target brain. In vivo MR imaging is useful for tracking IA delivered MSCs after SPIO labeling.

  5. Intra-arterial high signals on arterial spin labeling perfusion images predict the occluded internal carotid artery segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, Shu; Satomi, Junichiro; Tada, Yoshiteru; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Kenji; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Mure, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan); Abe, Takashi; Harada, Masafumi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Tokushima (Japan); Yamamoto, Nobuaki; Kaji, Ryuji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Biomedical Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) involves perfusion imaging using the inverted magnetization of arterial water. If the arterial arrival times are longer than the post-labeling delay, labeled spins are visible on ASL images as bright, high intra-arterial signals (IASs); such signals were found within occluded vessels of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The identification of the occluded segment in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is crucial for endovascular treatment. We tested our hypothesis that high IASs on ASL images can predict the occluded segment. Our study included 13 patients with acute ICA occlusion who had undergone angiographic and ASL studies within 48 h of onset. We retrospectively identified the high IAS on ASL images and angiograms and recorded the occluded segment and the number of high IAS-positive slices on ASL images. The ICA segments were classified as cervical (C1), petrous (C2), cavernous (C3), and supraclinoid (C4). Of seven patients with intracranial ICA occlusion, five demonstrated high IASs at C1-C2, suggesting that high IASs could identify stagnant flow proximal to the occluded segment. Among six patients with extracranial ICA occlusion, five presented with high IASs at C3-C4, suggesting that signals could identify the collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery. None had high IASs at C1-C2. The mean number of high IAS-positive slices was significantly higher in patients with intra- than extracranial ICA occlusion. High IASs on ASL images can identify slow stagnant and collateral flow through the ophthalmic artery in patients with acute ICA occlusion and help to predict the occlusion site. (orig.)

  6. Intra-arterial blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise

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    Sandra de Souza Nery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe blood pressure responses during resistance exercise in hypertensive subjects and to determine whether an exercise protocol alters these responses. INTRODUCTION: Resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement for aerobic exercise for hypertensive patients. However, blood pressure changes during this kind of exercise have been poorly investigated in hypertensives, despite multiple studies of normotensives demonstrating significant increases in blood pressure. METHODS: Ten hypertensive and ten normotensive subjects performed, in random order, two different exercise protocols, composed by three sets of the knee extension exercise conducted to exhaustion: 40% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM with a 45-s rest between sets, and 80% of 1RM with a 90-s rest between sets. Radial intra-arterial blood pressure was measured before and throughout each protocol. RESULTS: Compared with normotensives, hypertensives displayed greater increases in systolic BP during exercise at 80% (+80±3 vs. +62±2 mmHg, P<0.05 and at 40% of 1RM (+75±3 vs. +67±3 mmHg, P<0.05. In both exercise protocols, systolic blood pressure returned to baseline during the rest periods between sets in the normotensives; however, in the hypertensives, BP remained slightly elevated at 40% of 1RM. During rest periods, diastolic blood pressure returned to baseline in hypertensives and dropped below baseline in normotensives. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise increased systolic blood pressure considerably more in hypertensives than in normotensives, and this increase was greater when lower-intensity exercise was performed to the point of exhaustion.

  7. Influential factors of clinical outcome of local intra-arterial thrombolysis using urokinase in patients with hyperacute ischemic stroke

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    Song, Jae Min; Yoon, Woong; Kim, Jae Kyu; Seo, Jeong Jin; Heo, Sook Hee; Park, Jin Gyoon; Jeong, Yoon Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonam University Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome and other relevant factors in cases where local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) is used for the treatment of hyperacute ischemic stroke. Forty-eight hyperacute ischemic stroke patients were treated by LIT, using urokinase, within six hours of ictus, and for evaluation of their neurological status, the national institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS) score was used. Angiography recanalization was classified according to Mori recanalization grades. Three months after LIT, the outcome was assessed by clinical examination using the modified rankin scale (good outcome: RS=0-3; poor outcome: RS=4-6). In all patients, the findings of pre- and post- LIT CT, and angiography, as well as neurological status and hemorrhagic complications, were also analysed. Thirty-three patients had occlusions of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), and 15, of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The NIHSS score averaged 16.9 at the onset of therapy and 13.5 at 24 hours later. Successful recanalization (Mori grade 3,4) was achieved in 28 (58.3%) of 48 patients, but in 20 (41.7%) the attempt failed. Twenty-two (45.8%) of the 48 patients had a good outcome, but in (54.2%) the outcome was poor. Thirteen (40.6%) of 32 patients with MCA occlusions and 13 (81.2%) of 16 with ICA occlusions had a poor outcome. Eight patients (16.7%) died. Overall, hemorrhages occured in 20 (41.7%) of 48 patients, with symptomatic hemorrhage in ten. Five (50%) of these ten died. LIT using urokinase for hyperacute ischemic stroke is feasible; patients with MCA occlusions had better outcomes than those with ICA occlusions. Hemorrhagic complications of LIT were frequent, and in cases of symptomatic hemorrhage a fatal outcome may be expected.

  8. Safety and efficacy of intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy with doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Philippe; Camus, Philippe; Abergel, Armand; Pageaux, Georges Philippe; Masliah, Claude; Bronowicki, Jean Pierre; Zarski, Jean Pierre; Pelletier, Gilles; Bouattour, Mohamed; Farloux, Laetitia; Dorval, Etienne; verset, Gilles; Si-Ahmed, Si-Nafa; Doffoel, Michel; Couzigou, Patrice; Taieb, Julien; Vasseur, Bérangère; Attali, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Doxorubicin Transdrug (DT), a nanoformulation of doxorubicin, was demonstrated to overcome the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in preclinical models. Its efficacy and safety were thus investigated in phase I and randomised phase II trials in unresectable HCC. Patients and methods Phase I was a single dose of DT through the hepatic intra-arterial (HIA) route, dose-escalating 3+3 trial, evaluating five-dose levels from 10 to 40 mg/m2 with maximal tolerated dose (MTD) as primary endpoint. The multicentre phase II trial randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) patients to receive either 30 mg/m2 of DT through HIA route every 4 weeks for up to three courses or best standard of care (BSC). Progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 3 months was the primary endpoint. Overall survival (OS) and disease control rate (DCR) were secondary endpoints. Results In phase I, haematological and respiratory limited toxicities were reported at 35 and 40 mg/m2, giving MTD at 30 mg/m2. Partial response rate was 10%, and stable disease 70%. Phase II was discontinued due to three severe acute respiratory distress events in the DT group while 17 patients had received 30 mg/m2 DT and 11 BSC. At 3 months, PFS was 64% (95% CI 31 to 89) vs 75% (95% CI 35 to 97), and DCR 35% vs 27% in DT and BSC, respectively (p=NS). Median OS was 32.6 months (95% CI 8.2 to 34.1) in DT group and 15 months (95% CI 8.0 to 18.8) in BSC group (p<0.05). Conclusion DT increased OS in unresectable HCC but induced severe respiratory distress. Efficacy data deserve further investigation using a safer dosing and schedule regimen. Trial registration number EUDRACT 2006-004088-77; Results. PMID:29104762

  9. Four Dimensional Transcatheter Intraarterial Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (4D TRIP-MRI) for Monitoring Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Ron C.; Wang, Dingxin; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Kulik, Laura M.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Salem, Riad; Larson, Andrew C.; Omary, Reed A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Angiographic endpoints for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are subjective, and optimal endpoints remain unknown. Transcatheter intraarterial perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (TRIP-MRI), when performed in a combined MR-interventional radiology (MR-IR) suite, offers an objective method to quantify intra-procedural tumor perfusion changes, but was previously limited to two spatial dimensions. We prospectively tested the hypothesis that a new volumetric acquisition over time, 4D TRIP-MRI, can measure HCC perfusion changes during TACE. Materials and Methods Seven men (mean age 53 years, range 42-65 years) with eight tumors (mean size 2.5×2.4 cm2, diameter range 1.5-5.2 cm) underwent TACE in an MR-IR suite between 2/2007-12/2007, with intra-procedural tumor perfusion reductions monitored using 4D TRIP-MRI. Microcatheter TACE was performed using 1:1 chemotherapy:emulsifying contrast mixture followed by gelatin microspheres. Pre- and post-TACE time-intensity curves were generated for each tumor. Semi-quantitative measures of tumor perfusion, including area under curve (AUC), peak signal intensity (SI), time to peak SI, and maximum upslope (MUS), were calculated, and mean differences pre- and post-TACE were compared using paired t-tests. Results 4D TRIP-MRI monitored TACE was successful in all cases. Calculated pre- and post-TACE AUC (439 versus 221, P=0.004, 50% reduction), peak SI (32 versus 19, P=0.012, 41% reduction), and MUS (11 versus 3, P=0.028, 73% reduction) showed statistically significant reductions after TACE. Time to peak SI did not significantly change (23 versus 36 seconds, P=0.235, 57% increase). Conclusions 4D TRIP-MRI can successfully measure semi-quantitative changes in HCC perfusion during MR-IR monitored TACE. Future studies may correlate changes in these objective functional parameters with tumor response. PMID:18818097

  10. Intra-Arterial Delivery of AAV Vectors to the Mouse Brain After Mannitol Mediated Blood Brain Barrier Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Alejandro; Sondhi, Dolan; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Ballon, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutics to neural tissue is greatly hindered by the blood brain barrier (BBB). Direct local delivery via diffusive release from degradable implants or direct intra-cerebral injection can bypass the BBB and obtain high concentrations of the therapeutic in the targeted tissue, however the total volume of tissue that can be treated using these techniques is limited. One treatment modality that can potentially access large volumes of neural tissue in a single treatment is intra-arterial (IA) injection after osmotic blood brain barrier disruption. In this technique, the therapeutic of interest is injected directly into the arteries that feed the target tissue after the blood brain barrier has been disrupted by exposure to a hyperosmolar mannitol solution, permitting the transluminal transport of the therapy. In this work we used contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of IA injections in mice to establish parameters that allow for extensive and reproducible BBB disruption. We found that the volume but not the flow rate of the mannitol injection has a significant effect on the degree of disruption. To determine whether the degree of disruption we observed with this method was sufficient for delivery of nanoscale therapeutics, we performed IA injections of an adeno-associated viral vector containing the CLN2 gene (AAVrh.10CLN2), which is mutated in the lysosomal storage disorder Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (LINCL). We demonstrated that IA injection of AAVrh.10CLN2 after BBB disruption can achieve widespread transgene production in the mouse brain after a single administration. Further, we showed that there exists a minimum threshold of BBB disruption necessary to permit the AAV.rh10 vector to pass into the brain parenchyma from the vascular system. These results suggest that IA administration may be used to obtain widespread delivery of nanoscale therapeutics throughout the murine brain after a single

  11. Regional intra-arterial vs. systemic chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of regional intra-arterial chemotherapy (RIAC versus systemic chemotherapy for stage III/IV pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer treated by regional intra-arterial or systemic chemotherapy were identified using PubMed, ISI, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google, Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI electronic databases, for all publications dated between 1960 and December 31, 2010. Data was independently extracted by two reviewers. Odds ratios and relative risks were pooled using either fixed- or random-effects models, depending on I(2 statistic and Q test assessments of heterogeneity. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.0. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials comprised of 298 patients met the standards for inclusion in the meta-analysis, among 492 articles that were identified. Eight patients achieved complete remission (CR with regional intra-arterial chemotherapy (RIAC, whereas no patients achieved CR with systemic chemotherapy. Compared with systemic chemotherapy, patients receiving RIAC had superior partial remissions (RR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.50, 2.65; 58.06% with RIAC and 29.37% with systemic treatment, clinical benefits (RR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.84, 2.97; 78.06% with RAIC and 29.37% with systemic treatment, total complication rates (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.87; 49.03% with RIAC and 71.33% with systemic treatment, and hematological side effects (RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; 60.87% with RIAC and 85.71% with systemic treatment. The median survival time with RIAC (5-21 months was longer than for systemic chemotherapy (2.7-14 months. Similarly, one year survival rates with RIAC (28.6%-41.2% were higher than with systemic chemotherapy (0%-12.9%.. CONCLUSION: Regional intra-arterial chemotherapy is more effective and has fewer complications than

  12. Thermochemoradiation Therapy Using Superselective Intra-arterial Infusion via Superficial Temporal and Occipital Arteries for Oral Cancer With N3 Cervical Lymph Node Metastases

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    Mitsudo, Kenji, E-mail: mitsudo@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Koizumi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Masaki; Iwai, Toshinori; Oguri, Senri [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Yamamoto, Noriyuki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Yoshiyuki [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kioi, Mitomu; Hirota, Makoto; Tohnai, Iwai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results and histopathological effects of treatment with thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion via the superficial temporal and occipital arteries for N3 cervical lymph node metastases of advanced oral cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 2005 and September 2010, 9 patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion with docetaxel (DOC) and cisplatin (CDDP). Treatment consisted of hyperthermia (2-8 sessions), superselective intra-arterial infusions (DOC, total 40-60 mg/m{sup 2}; CDDP, total 100-150 mg/m{sup 2}) and daily concurrent radiation therapy (total, 40-60 Gy) for 4-6 weeks. Results: Six of 9 patients underwent neck dissection 5-8 weeks after treatment. In four of these 6 patients, all metastatic lymph nodes, including those at N3, were grade 3 (non-viable tumor cells present) or grade 4 (no tumor cells present) tumors, as classified by the system by Shimosato et al (Shimosato et al Jpn J Clin Oncol 1971;1:19-35). In 2 of these 6 patients, the metastatic lymph nodes were grade 2b (destruction of tumor structures with a small amount of residual viable tumor cells). The other 3 patients did not undergo neck dissection due to distant metastasis after completion of thermochemoradiation therapy (n=2) and refusal (n=1). The patient who refused neck dissection underwent biopsy of the N3 lymph node and primary sites and showed grade 3 cancer. During follow-up, 5 patients were alive without disease, and 4 patients died due to pulmonary metastasis (n=3) and noncancer-related causes (n=1). Five-year survival and locoregional control rates were 51% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: Thermochemoradiation therapy using intra-arterial infusion provided good histopathologic effects and locoregional control rates in patients with N3 metastatic lymph nodes. However, patients with N3

  13. Successful Recanalization of Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Thromboembolic Occlusion by a Combination of Intraarterial Thrombolysis and Mechanical Thrombectomy with a Carotid Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenak, Kamil, E-mail: zelenak@unm.sk [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Sinak, Igor; Janik, Jan; Mikolajcik, Anton; Mistuna, Dusan [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Slovakia)

    2013-06-15

    Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion is a life-threatening disease, and acute intestinal ischemia develops from the sudden decrease in perfusion to the intestines. The key to saving the patient's life is early diagnosis, and prompt revascularization of the SMA can prevent intestinal infarction and decrease the risk of bowel segment necrosis. Computed tomographic angiography may be useful for rapid diagnosis. We report recanalization of an SMA occlusion in an 80-year-old man with a combination of intraarterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy with a carotid filter.

  14. Hepatic Arterial Configuration in Relation to the Segmental Anatomy of the Liver; Observations on MDCT and DSA Relevant to Radioembolization Treatment

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    Hoven, Andor F. van den, E-mail: a.f.vandenhoven@umcutrecht.nl; Leeuwen, Maarten S. van, E-mail: m.s.vanleeuwen@umcutrecht.nl; Lam, Marnix G. E. H., E-mail: m.lam@umcutrecht.nl; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: mbosch@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeCurrent anatomical classifications do not include all variants relevant for radioembolization (RE). The purpose of this study was to assess the individual hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern and to develop an individualized RE treatment strategy based on an extended classification.MethodsThe hepatic vascular anatomy was assessed on MDCT and DSA in patients who received a workup for RE between February 2009 and November 2012. Reconstructed MDCT studies were assessed to determine the hepatic arterial configuration (origin of every hepatic arterial branch, branching pattern and anatomical course) and the hepatic segmental vascularization territory of all branches. Aberrant hepatic arteries were defined as hepatic arterial branches that did not originate from the celiac axis/CHA/PHA. Early branching patterns were defined as hepatic arterial branches originating from the celiac axis/CHA.ResultsThe hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern could be assessed in 110 of 133 patients. In 59 patients (54 %), no aberrant hepatic arteries or early branching was observed. Fourteen patients without aberrant hepatic arteries (13 %) had an early branching pattern. In the 37 patients (34 %) with aberrant hepatic arteries, five also had an early branching pattern. Sixteen different hepatic arterial segmental vascularization patterns were identified and described, differing by the presence of aberrant hepatic arteries, their respective vascular territory, and origin of the artery vascularizing segment four.ConclusionsThe hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern show marked individual variability beyond well-known classifications of anatomical variants. We developed an individualized RE treatment strategy based on an extended anatomical classification.

  15. Late follow-up of the randomized radiation and concomitant high-dose intra-arterial or intravenous cisplatin (RADPLAT) trial for advanced head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelom, Jolien; Lopez-Yurda, Marta; Balm, Alfons J M; Wijers, Oda B; Buter, Jan; Gregor, Theo; Wiggenraad, Ruud; de Boer, Jan Paul; Tan, I Bing; Verheij, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Rasch, Coen R

    2016-04-01

    The radiation and concomitant high-dose intra-arterial or intravenous cisplatin (RADPLAT) phase III trial compared intra-arterial (IA) to intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemoradiation for head and neck cancer. Long-term efficacy and toxicity are reported after a median follow-up of 7.5 years. Patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx, oral cavity, or hypopharynx, were randomized between radiotherapy (RT) + IA cisplatin 150 mg/m(2) , followed by systemic rescue or RT + I.V. cisplatin 100 mg/m(2) . RT consisted of 46 Gy to the affected and elective areas, followed by a boost of 24 Gy. Among 237 patients, 57 recurred locally, 35 regionally, and 80 locoregionally. There were 32 second primary tumors, 65 distant metastases, and 154 deaths. Locoregional control and overall survival were not different between the treatment arms. Late dysphagia was worse in the I.V. arm (log-rank p = .014). IA cisplatin did not improve tumor control compared to I.V. administered cisplatin, despite the higher dose in IA delivery of the drug. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E488-E493, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessing Intra-arterial Complications of Planning and Treatment Angiograms for Y-90 Radioembolization

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    Ahmed, Osman, E-mail: osman1423@gmail.com [Rush University Medical Center, Section of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Patel, Mikin V. [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology (United States); Masrani, Abdulrahman; Chong, Bradford; Osman, Mohammed; Tasse, Jordan; Soni, Jayesh; Turba, Ulku Cenk; Arslan, Bulent [Rush University Medical Center, Section of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeTo report hepatic arterial-related complications encountered during planning and treatment angiograms for radioembolization and understand any potential-associated risk factors.Materials and Methods518 mapping or treatment angiograms for 180 patients with primary or metastatic disease to the liver treated by Yttrium-90 radioembolization between 2/2010 and 12/2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Intra-procedural complications were recorded per SIR guidelines. Patient demographics, indication for treatment, prior exposure to chemotherapeutic agents, operator experience, and disease burden were reviewed. Technical variables including type of radioembolic (glass vs. resin microspheres), indication for angiography (mapping vs. treatment), variant anatomy, and attempts at coil embolization were also assessed.ResultsThirteen (13/518, 2.5%) arterial-related complications occurred in 13 patients. All but two complications resulted during transcatheter coil embolization to prevent non-target embolization. Complications included coil migration (n = 6), arterial dissection (n = 2), focal vessel perforation (n = 2), arterial thrombus (n = 2), and vasospasm prohibiting further arterial sub-selection (n = 1). Transarterial coiling was identified as a significant risk factor of complications on both univariate and multivariate regression analysis (odds ratio 7.8, P = 0.004). Usage of resin microspheres was also a significant risk factor (odds ratio 9.5, P = 0.042). No other technical parameters or pre-procedural variables were significant after adjusting for confounding on multivariate analysis (P > 0.05).ConclusionIntra-procedural hepatic arterial complications encountered during radioembolization were infrequent but occurred mainly during coil embolization to prevent non-target delivery to extra-hepatic arteries.

  17. Machine learning for outcome prediction of acute ischemic stroke post intra-arterial therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asadi

    datasets, likely further improving prediction. Finally, we propose that a robust machine learning system can potentially optimise the selection process for endovascular versus medical treatment in the management of acute stroke.

  18. Machine learning for outcome prediction of acute ischemic stroke post intra-arterial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Hamed; Dowling, Richard; Yan, Bernard; Mitchell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    propose that a robust machine learning system can potentially optimise the selection process for endovascular versus medical treatment in the management of acute stroke.

  19. Inflammatory aortic arch syndrome: contrast-enhanced, three-dimensional MR - angiography in stenotic lesions; Entzuendliches Aortenbogensyndrom: Stenosediagnostik mittels kontrastmittelverstaerkter 3D-MR-Angiographie im Vergleich mit der DSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, M.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.; Biederer, J.; Heller, M.; Reuter, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Reinhold-Keller, E.; Gross, W.L. [Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt GmbH (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of contrast-enhanced, three-dimensional MR angiography for the evaluation of stenotic and occlusive vascular lesions in inflammatory aortic arch syndrome. Materials and Methods: 14 patients with inflammatory aortic arch syndrome (giant cell arteritis: n = 8, Takayasu arteritis: n = 4, ankylosing spondylitis: n = 1 sarcoidosis: n = 1) underwent MR angiography of the aortic arch and the supra-aortic vessels (n = 15,2 patients were examined twice) and of the abdominal aorta (n = 2). MRA was performed using a 3D-FLASH sequence (TR/TE 4.6/1.8 ms, flip angle 30 ) on a 1.5T system. MRA imaging was compared with the findings of DSA, which served as gold standard. Results: In a total of 467 examined vascular territories, DSA revealed 50 stenoses and 35 occlusions. All lesions were detected by MRA. In 23 segments, the degree of stenosis was overestimated by MRA. Sensitivity and specificity of MRA were 100% and 94,3%, positive and negative predictive values were 73.6 and 100%, and the accuracy was 95,1%. Conclusions: Despite a tendency to overestimate stenoses, contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography is a valid, non-invasive technique in the assessment of inflammatory aortic arch syndrome. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bestimmung der Aussagekraft der kontrastmittelverstaerkten 3D-Magnetresonanzangiographie bei der Bewertung stenosierender und okkludierender Gefaessveraenderungen im Rahmen des entzuendlichen Aortenbogensyndroms. Material und Methoden: Bei 14 Patienten mit entzuendlichem Aortenbogensyndrom (Arteriitis temporalis: n = 8, Takayasu-Arteriitis: n = 4, Morbus Bechterew: n = 1, Sarkoidose: n = 1) erfolgte eine MRA des Aortenbogens und der supraaortalen Aeste (n = 15, darunter zwei Doppeluntersuchungen) sowie der Aorta abdominalis (n = 2). Zur Anwendung kam eine kontrastmittelverstaerkte 3D-FLASH-Sequenz (TR/TE 0,4/1,8 ms, Flipwinkel 30 ) an einem 1,5 Tesla-System. Die Befunde der MRA wurden mit der DSA als Referenzmethode

  20. Randomised Phase I/II trial assessing the safety and efficacy of radiolabelled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen I131 KAb201 antibodies given intra-arterially or intravenously in patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosonnet Lorraine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis, and the current standard of care (gemcitabine based chemotherapy provides a small survival advantage. However the drawback is the accompanying systemic toxicity, which targeted treatments may overcome. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of KAb201, an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody, labelled with I131 in pancreatic cancer (ISRCTN 16857581. Methods Patients with histological/cytological proven inoperable adenocarcinoma of the head of pancreas were randomised to receive KAb 201 via either the intra-arterial or intravenous delivery route. The dose limiting toxicities within each group were determined. Patients were assessed for safety and efficacy and followed up until death. Results Between February 2003 and July 2005, 25 patients were enrolled. Nineteen patients were randomised, 9 to the intravenous and 10 to the intra-arterial arms. In the intra-arterial arm, dose limiting toxicity was seen in 2/6 (33% patients at 50 mCi whereas in the intravenous arm, dose limiting toxicity was noted in 1/6 patients at 50 mCi, but did not occur at 75 mCi (0/3. The overall response rate was 6% (1/18. Median overall survival was 5.2 months (95% confidence interval = 3.3 to 9 months, with no significant difference between the intravenous and intra-arterial arms (log rank test p = 0.79. One patient was still alive at the time of this analysis. Conclusion Dose limiting toxicity for KAb201 with I131 by the intra-arterial route was 50 mCi, while dose limiting toxicity was not reached in the intravenous arm.

  1. Hepatic Intra-arterial Delivery of a "Trojan-horses" Gene Therapy: A Pilot Study on Rabbit VX2 Hepatic Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Olivier; Amara, Ikram; Sapoval, Marc; Méachi, Tchao; Déan, Carole; Beaune, Philippe; de Waziers, Isabelle

    2017-10-31

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is a "Trojan-horses" suicide gene therapy that consists of tumor-targeted gene delivery (vectorized by mesenchymal stem cells MSCs) encoding an enzyme that converts a harmless prodrug into cytotoxic metabolites in situ. Then, cytotoxic metabolites passively diffuse in the neighboring tumor cells and kill them (bystander effect). The goal of our study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of intra-arterial administration of MSCs transduced with an optimized gene (MSC-CYP2B6TM-RED) followed by intravenous administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA) into the VX2 rabbit liver tumor. Nine rabbits with a VX2 liver tumor were randomly assigned into three groups: Control group A (one rabbit) free of any treatment; Control group B (two rabbits) receiving intravenous injection of cyclophosphamide at day 3 and CPA at day 14; and Group C (six rabbits) receiving the GDEPT treatment, consisting of successive intra-arterial injection of transduced-MSCs at days 0 (n = 6) and 11 (n = 3), followed by injection of CPA at days 3 (n = 6) and 14 (n = 3). The tumor response was assessed by ultrasound scan every 7 days and histopathological analysis at sacrifice (D25). There was a significant difference in the tumor volume between control groups (A + B) and group C at D7: 38/19 cm3 (p = 0.024); D11: 51/20 cm3 (p = 0.024), and D25: 121/37 cm3 (p = 0.048). Tumor necrosis was significantly greater and metastatic spread was lower for rabbits who received GDEPT (78% of total tumor surface) than for control animals (A + B) (22% of total tumor surface (p = 0.006). Intra-arterial delivery of transduced-MSCs is feasible and, after CPA injection, resulted in 78% tumor necrosis (p = 0.006) and less metastasis in a VX2 liver tumor model.

  2. Interval between Intra-Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy and Surgery for Locally Advanced Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Impacts on Effectiveness of Chemotherapy and on Overall Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Fung Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interval between intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC and surgery was investigated in terms of its effects on survival in patients with locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed 126 patients who had completed treatment modalities for stage IV OSCC. All patients were followed up for 3 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to determine how survival was affected by general factors, primary tumor volume, TNM stage, and duration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results. In 126 patients treated for locally advanced OSCC by preoperative induction IAIC using methotrexate, multivariate analysis of relevant prognostic factors showed that an IAIC duration longer than 90 days was significantly associated with poor prognosis (hazard ratio, 1.77; P=0.0259. Conclusions. Duration of IAIC is a critical factor in the effectiveness of multimodal treatment for locally advanced OSCC. Limiting the induction course to 90 days improves overall survival.

  3. Surgical and histopathological effects of topical Ankaferd hemostat on major arterial vessel injury related to elevated intra-arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tulga Ulus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the surgical and histopathological hemostatic effects of topical Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS on major arterial vessel injury related to elevated intra-arterial blood pressure in an experimental rabbit model.Materials and Methods: The study included 14 New Zealand rabbits. ABS was used to treat femoral artery puncture on 1 side in each animal and the other untreated side served as the control. Likewise, for abdominal aortic puncture, only 50% of the aortic injuries received topical liquid ABS and the others did not (control. The experiment was performed under conditions of normal arterial blood pressure and was repeated with a 50% increase in blood pressure. Histopathological analysis was performed in all of the studied animals.Results: Mean bleeding time in the control femoral arteries was 105.0±18.3 s, versus 51.4±9.8 s (p<0.05 in those treated with ABS. Mean blood loss from the punctured control femoral arteries was 5.0±1.5 mg and 1.6±0.4 mg from those treated with ABS (p<0.05. Histopathological examination of the damaged arterial structures showed that ABS induced red blood cell aggregates.Conclusion: ABS administered to experimental major arterial vessel injury reduced both bleeding time and blood loss under conditions of normal and elevated intra-arterial blood pressure. ABS-induced erythroid aggregation was prominent at the vascular tissue level. These findings will inform the design of future experimental and clinical studies on the anti-bleeding and vascular repairing effects of the novel hemostatic agent ABS.

  4. Intra-arterial thrombolysis using rt-PA in patients with acute stroke due to vessel occlusion of anterior and/or posterior cerebral circulation

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    Tountopoulou, Argyro; Ahl, Bjoern; Weissenborn, Karin [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Hannover (Germany); Becker, Hartmut; Goetz, Friedrich [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with acute stroke due to occlusion in the anterior or posterior circulation. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiological data of 88 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent emergency cerebral angiography for the purpose of subsequent IA thrombolysis. The neurological deficit on admission and discharge was graded using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Baseline computer tomography (CT) scans were examined for any signs indicative of cerebral ischemia. The angiographic findings were classified according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score for myocardial infarction. Follow-up CT scans were examined for hemorrhagic complication. Of the 88 patients who underwent IA thrombolysis, 63 presented with complete or partial arterial occlusion in the suspected perfusion area. In these 63 patients, the median NIHSS score dropped from 15 points on admission to 10 points at discharge. The recanalization rate was 52.6% for partial and complete reperfusion. In-hospital mortality was 20.6% (9.1% for carotid, 44.4% for basilar territory occlusion). Intracerebral bleeding (ICB) occurred in 38.6% of the patients with occlusion in the anterior circulation, resulting in these patients presenting a worse clinical outcome than those without ICB. Only minor extracranial bleedings occurred in 20.6% of patients. Patients with ICB had a significantly higher frequency of ischemic signs on the baseline CT scan. Occlusion of a cerebral artery is present in about 75% of the patients eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Intra-arterial thrombolysis using rt-PA in patients with acute ischemic stroke can achieve re-vascularization, although ICB remains the major risk factor affecting its efficacy. (orig.)

  5. Young and middle-aged and elderly patients with cerebral infarction DSA analysis of the distribution of cerebral artery stenosis%中青年与老年脑梗死患者脑动脉狭窄分布的 DSA 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德华

    2016-01-01

    Objective to compare the young and middle-aged and elderly patients with cerebral infarction, cerebral artery stenosis of the distribution of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as a result, analyzing the characteristic of the distribution of cerebral artery stenosis. Methods will our hospital 100 cases of cerebral infarction patients, according to the different age groups, divided into young group of 60 cases with elderly group, 40 cases were performed DSA examination, on two groups of patients with cerebral artery disease incidence, degree of stenosis vascular stenosis, distribution and attack part feature compar-ison. Results in patients with elderly group, the procyclic stenosis of extracranial artery disease incidence is significantly higher than in areas such as the young and middle-aged group of patients, and intracranial artery, posterior circulation narrow lesions were significantly lower than in areas such as the young and middle-aged group of patients, there is statistical significance dif-ference; Two groups of patients with vascular stenosis degree is given priority to with severe stenosis or occlusion, were signifi-cantly higher than in the same group the incidence of mild, moderate stenosis, the difference was statistically significant, and the outbreak of the main parts of vertebral artery opening, the incidence of vertebral artery open two groups of patients were signifi-cantly higher than that of group of middle cerebral artery MI incidence, as well as the internal carotid artery, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion middle-aged and young cerebral infarction patients with senile cerebral infarction there was some difference of distribution of cerebral artery stenosis, the former is common with intracranial cerebral artery lesions, the latter is given priority to with cranial outside brain artery vascular lesions, but occurs in vertebral artery opening, and the degree of stenosis were severe or occlusion.%目的:比较中

  6. Embolization of benign and malignant bone and soft tissue tumors of the extremities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seda Börüban; Tanzer Sancak; Yusuf Yildiz; Yener Saglik

    2007-01-01

    .... Among 17 patients who were initially assessed to be appropriate for angiographic embolization, DSA-assisted intra-arterial embolization was performed on 11 pre-operatively, and 6 curatively or palliatively...

  7. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography angiography in peripheral arterial disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Met, Rosemarie; Bipat, Shandra; Legemate, Dink A.; Reekers, Jim A.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is an increasingly attractive imaging modality for assessing lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of CTA compared with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in differentiating extent of

  8. Curative and organ-preserving treatment with intra-arterial carboplatin induction followed by surgery and/or radiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer: single-center five-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinelli Carmine

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the feasibility, toxicity, response rate and survival of neoadjuvant superselective intra-arterial infusion of high dose carboplatin in advanced head and neck cancer. Methods Forty-six patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma received 3 cycles of intra-arterial carboplatin (300 to 350 mg/m2 per cycle every 2 weeks, followed by radiotherapy or surgery plus radiotherapy. Results No complications or severe toxicity occurred. Sixteen patients (35% were complete responders, 20 (43% partial responders while 10 (22% did not respond to treatment. After completion of the multimodality treatment, 38/46 patients (83% were complete responders. After a 5-year follow-up period, 18/46 patients (39% are alive and disease-free, 3 (6,5% have died of a second primary tumor and 25 (54,5% have died of the disease. Conclusion Intra-arterial carboplatin induction chemotherapy is a safe, well-tolerated technique that discriminates between responders and non-responders and so may have prognostic significance in planning further integrated treatments aimed to organ preservation for advanced head and neck carcinomas.

  9. The agreement between oscillometric and intra-arterial technique for blood pressure monitoring in the lower extremities for infants and toddlers undergoing aortic coarctation repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhe-Zhe; Zhang, Ma-Zhong; Sun, Ying; Bai, Jie; Gu, Hong-Bin; Liu, Pei-Pei; Li, Min; Cai, Mei-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Anesthetic management for patients undergoing surgical repair of aortic coarctation (CoA) should include constant blood pressure monitoring of the right upper extremity and a lower extremity. The delayed or absent pulse in the lower limbs often leads to unsuccessful arterial cannulation in infants and the oscillometric technique used for blood pressure measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between the oscillometric method and intra-arterial technique for blood pressure monitoring in the lower limbs of infants undergoing CoA. A total of 45 infants diagnosed with isolated CoA were initially enrolled in this study and five were excluded because of cannulation failure. Thus, 40 patients had their blood pressure measured simultaneously by both oscillometric technique on the thigh and femoral artery catheterization. After induction and intubation, five pairs of blood pressure readings from each patient were collected in an interval of 3 min. Statistical analysis was accomplished by revised Bland-Altman analysis. There was a strong correlation between oscillometric and invasive blood pressure measurements [systolic blood pressure (SBP) r = 0.771, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) r = 0.704 and mean artery pressure (MAP) r = 0.850]. The mean difference and 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA) between oscillometric and femoral artery blood pressure readings was 3.830 mmHg (-19.297, 26.957) for SBP, -8.725 mmHg (-26.236, 8.786) for DBP, and -3.235 mmHg (-18.842, 12.372) for MAP. There were only one pair of MAP (1/40) and two pairs of SBP readings (2/40) out of range (95% LOA), and all of paired DBP readings were within 95% LOA. There was a good agreement between oscillometric and invasive blood pressure measurements of lower extremities in infants with isolated CoA statistically. However, the oscillometry-measured SBP showed a tendency to overestimate the intra-arterial blood pressure reference, while oscillometry-measured DBP underestimated its

  10. Treatment of post-bioptic intrahepatic arteriovenous fistulas. Results in 5 HCC patients treated with intraarterial chemo embolization and percutaneous ethanol injection; Trattamento delle fistole artero venose intraepatiche post bioptiche. Risultati in 5 pazienti con epatocarcinoma candidati a chemioembolizzazione

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    Maspes, Federico; Gandini, Roberto; Pocek, Marco; Montanaro, Martina; Guazzaroni, Manlio; Simonetti, Giovanni [Rome, Univ. ``Tor Vergata`` (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia

    1997-04-01

    They report their experience in the treatment of post-bioptic intrahepatic arterioportal fistulas (HAPF) in 5 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated February, 1993, to May, 1995. In this retrospective study, they reviewed the imaging findings and clinical records of 3 men and 2 women (age range: 49-71 years) with HCC previously diagnosed with US, CT and biopsy. HAPF was detected by angiography (DSA) performed before chemo embolization (TACE). All HAPFs were referrable to biopsy and were treated with platinum coils positioned through coaxial catheters. TACE was performed immediately after or within a week of HAPF embolization. Therapeutic response after TACE was assessed on the basis of clinical and CT findings, while HAPF embolization success was assessed on the basis of DSA and color Doppler US findings. Complete HAPF occlusion was demonstrated in 4 patients during color Doppler follow-up and immediately after and at 13 and 24 months (in 2 patients) at DSA. Two of 5 patients died, one because of liver failure after 15 months` follow-up and the other because of complications related to liver transplantation at 11 months` follow-up. Of the extant 3 patients, one underwent liver transplantation and was followed-up for 25 months, while the other two are alive after 24 and 13 months. Their experience demonstrates that HAPF embolization HCC patients is really useful for hemodynamic redistribution before TACE and to avoid further HAPF progression.

  11. Carotid stenosis measurement on colour Doppler ultrasound: Agreement of ECST, NASCET and CCA methods applied to ultrasound with intra-arterial angiographic stenosis measurement

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    Wardlaw, Joanna M. [Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jmw@skull.dcn.ed.ac.uk; Lewis, Steff [Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Carotid stenosis is usually determined on Doppler ultrasound from velocity readings. We wondered if angiography-style stenosis measurements applied to ultrasound images improved accuracy over velocity readings alone, and if so, which measure correlated best with angiography. Materials and methods: We studied prospectively patients undergoing colour Doppler ultrasound (CDU) for TIA or minor stroke. Those with 50%+ symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis had intra-arterial angiography (IAA). We measured peak systolic ICA velocity, and from the ultrasound image, the minimal residual lumen, the original lumen (ECST), ICA diameter distal (NASCET) and CCA diameter proximal (CCA method) to the stenosis. The IAAs were measured by ECST, NASCET and CCA methods also, blind to CDU. Results: Amongst 164 patients (328 arteries), on CDU the ECST, NASCET and CCA stenosis measures were similarly related to each other (ECST = 0.54 NASCET + 46) as on IAA (ECST = 0.6 NASCET + 40). Agreement between CDU- and IAA-measured stenosis was similar for ECST (r = 0.51), and CCA (r = 0.48) methods, and slightly worse for NASCET (r = 0.41). Adding IAA-style stenosis to the peak systolic ICA velocity did not improve agreement with IAA over peak systolic velocity alone. Conclusion: Angiography-style stenosis measures have similar inter-relationships when applied to CDU, but do not improve accuracy of ultrasound over peak systolic ICA velocity alone.

  12. The incidence of late neck recurrence in N0 maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinomas after superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy without prophylactic neck irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Tomohiro; Homma, Akihiro; Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu; Kano, Satoshi; Mizumachi, Takatsugu; Furusawa, Jun; Yoshida, Daisuke; Fujima, Noriyuki; Onimaru, Rikiya; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Yasuda, Koichi; Shirato, Hiroki; Fukuda, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    The efficacy of elective neck irradiation (ENI) for patients with N0 carcinoma of the maxillary sinus has been controversial. The purpose of our study was to investigate the incidence of late neck recurrence and the mortality rate from regional disease in patients with N0 maxillary sinus cancer after superselective cisplatin infusion and concomitant radiotherapy (RADPLAT) without ENI. We retrospectively analyzed 48 patients with N0 maxillary sinus cancer who underwent RADPLAT. Chemotherapy consisted of 100-120 mg/m(2) superselective intra-arterial cisplatin administered at a median rate of four times weekly. Concurrent radiation therapy was administered at a median dose of 65 Gy without ENI. Late neck recurrence was observed in 8.3% (4/48). Three patients underwent salvage neck dissection and survived without any evidence of disease. The remaining patient did not undergo neck dissection due to coexistence with distant metastasis, and he died of regional disease. The mortality rate from regional disease was calculated to be 2% (1/48). The incidence of late neck recurrence was not frequent, and the mortality rate from regional disease was low. Salvage neck dissection was considered to be feasible for patients with late neck recurrence. When definitive radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy are applied, it is considered that ENI is not required for cases of N0 maxillary sinus cancer.

  13. Outcome after local intra-arterial fibrinolysis compared with the natural course of patients with a dense middle cerebral artery on early CT

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    Bendszus, M.; Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Ries, F. [Department of Neurology, University of Bonn (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Our purpose was to relate the outcome after local intra-arterial fibrinolysis (LIF) to the natural course in middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. We retrospectively studied 40 patients with a dense middle cerebral artery on early CT; 20 were treated with LIF within 6 h of onset of symptoms, 20 received ``conventional`` stroke therapy. The dense middle cerebral artery, which is regarded as a highly specific indicator of thromboembolic MCA occlusion, was chosen as inclusion criterion since patients with ``conventional`` stroke therapy were not exposed to cerebral angiography. Patients treated with LIF had a significantly better outcome using the Barthel index (P = 0.025): there was a 30 % increase in the proportion of patients with minimal or no disability. Mortality, however, did not differ significantly (P = 0.7). Two fatal haemorrhages occurred in the LIF group, and one haemorrhagic transformation in the ``conventional`` group. Leptomeningeal collateralisation correlated significantly with outcome in the LIF group (P = 0.04). Although the relation between outcome and interval from onset of symptoms to LIF was not significant (P = 0.74), all patients treated within 3 h had an excellent outcome. (orig.) With 3 figs., 27 refs.

  14. Professional oral health care reduces oral mucositis pain in patients treated by superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kosei; Kobayashi, Wataru; Sakaki, Hirotaka; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kon, Takao; Mimura, Mayu; Ito, Ryohei; Furudate, Ken; Kimura, Hiroto

    2015-11-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a painful complication of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. OM can compromise nutrition, require opioid analgesics and hospitalization for pain control, and lead to interruption of treatment. Severe oral mucositis appears inevitable in superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy (SSIACRT), requiring management of OM for the patient. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of professional oral health care (POHC) for the management of OM in patients undergoing SSIACRT. Thirty-three patients were enrolled in this study. The first 17 patients underwent SSIACRT before we created an oral management team, and thus did not receive POHC. The remaining 16 patients received POHC. Fever duration, duration of oral feeding difficulty, opioid usage, duration of opioid administration, duration of hospitalization, and number of hospital days from the end of irradiation to discharge were compared between these two groups. Median total dose of morphine during SSIACRT, median number of hospital days from end of irradiation to discharge, and duration of hospitalization all differed significantly between groups (P opioid administration, fever duration, and duration of oral feeding difficulty did not differ significantly between groups. These findings indicate that POHC may reduce opioid use and shorten the hospital stay. Such results might be obtained through infection control by POHC. This report appears to be the first study to evaluate the efficiency of POHC in SSIACRT for oral cancer from the perspective of mucositis pain and opioid use.

  15. Early survival prediction after intra-arterial therapies: a 3D quantitative MRI assessment of tumour response after TACE or radioembolization of colorectal cancer metastases to the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapiro, Julius; Savic, Lynn Jeanette [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Duran, Rafael; Schernthaner, Ruediger; Wang, Zhijun; Geschwind, Jean-Francois [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lin, MingDe [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); U/S Imaging and Interventions (UII), Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States); Lesage, David [Philips Research, Medisys, Suresnes (France)

    2015-07-15

    This study evaluated the predictive role of 1D, 2D and 3D quantitative, enhancement-based MRI regarding overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) following intra-arterial therapies (IAT). This retrospective analysis included 29 patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or radioembolization and received MRI within 6 weeks after therapy. Tumour response was assessed using 1D and 2D criteria (such as European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines [EASL] and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [mRECIST]). In addition, a segmentation-based 3D quantification of overall (volumetric [v] RECIST) and enhancing lesion volume (quantitative [q] EASL) was performed on portal venous phase MRI. Accordingly, patients were classified as responders (R) and non-responders (NR). Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR). Only enhancement-based criteria identified patients as responders. EASL and mRECIST did not predict patient survival (P = 0.27 and P = 0.44, respectively). Using uni- and multivariate analysis, qEASL was identified as the sole predictor of patient survival (9.9 months for R, 6.9 months for NR; P = 0.038; HR 0.4). The ability of qEASL to predict survival early after IAT provides evidence for potential advantages of 3D quantitative tumour analysis. (orig.)

  16. Debulking surgery followed by intraarterial 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy plus subcutaneous interferon alfa for massive hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple intrahepatic metastases: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Yabushita, Y; Nakagawa, K; Kumamoto, T; Matsuo, K; Taguri, M; Endo, I

    2013-12-01

    The prognosis in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with multiple intrahepatic metastases is extremely poor. Combination therapy with subcutaneous interferon (IFN) alfa and intraarterial 5-fluorouracil was reported to be effective against such advanced HCC. We describe results of debulking surgery followed by combination therapy with IFN alfa and 5-FU for massive HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases. In 27 HCC patients with massive tumors and multiple intrahepatic metastases, we performed combination therapy with IFN alfa and 5-FU after maximal liver tumor resection. Mean patient age was 63.3 years. Including intrahepatic metastases, tumors numbered 5 or more in 17 patients (63%). Portal or hepatic vein branches were invaded in 22 (81%). The mean maximum tumor diameter was 102 mm. Among 24 patients whose results were analyzed, an objective response by residual intrahepatic metastases was observed in 13 (54%; complete response in 12, and partial response in 1). Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was 73.2%, 38.7%, and 38.7%, respectively; 1-, 3-, and 5-year progression-free rates were 38.2%, 22.3%, and 22.3%. Debulking surgery followed by IFN alfa and 5-FU combination chemotherapy offers possibility of long-term survival despite massive HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methylene blue intra-arterial staining of resected colorectal cancer specimens improves accuracy of nodal staging: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reima, H; Saar, H; Innos, K; Soplepmann, J

    2016-11-01

    Metastatic involvement of regional lymph nodes is a major prognostic factor of colorectal cancer, which influences also its treatment strategy. International consensus foresees retrieval of ≥12 lymph nodes from colorectal specimens. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of intra-arterial staining of colorectal specimens with methylene blue on lymph node harvest. A total of 266 radically operated colorectal cancer patients were randomized into the methylene blue staining and non-staining groups. In the staining group, methylene blue solution was injected into the colorectal specimen's artery after its removal. The specimens were analysed for lymph node count, diameter and metastatic involvement. The median number of lymph nodes was higher in the staining group, 27 (95% CI 23-31%), compared with the control group, 16 (95% CI 14-19, p Methylene blue staining improves significantly staging accuracy through finding more small-diameter lymph nodes. It enables to detect ≥12 lymph nodes in the majority of cases. We recommend routine use of this technique in all colorectal resections with curative intent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of cerebral circulation in spontaneous hypertension. Abstract. [Intraarterial xanon-133 technique]. Regulacja krazenia mozgowego krwi w genetycznie uwarunkowanym nadcisnieniu tetniczym (streszczenie pracy habilitacyjnej)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozniewska-Kolodziejska, E. (Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw (Poland))

    1991-01-01

    The study was undertaken in order to determine global cerebral blood flow (intraarterial xenon-133 technique), cerebral oxygen utilization and cerebrovascular resistance and to estimate cerebrocortical microcirculation (Clark-type surface microelectrodes, corrosion casts) during normo- and hypoxemia in normotensive, spontaneously hypertensive stroke-resistant and stroke-prone rats. The reactivity of cerebral circulation to the changes in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and to calcium channel blockade was also determined. The results of the study suggest that cerebrovascular resistance in spontaneously hypertensive rats under resting conditions depends, to a great extend, upon the increase of the permeability of cerebral blood vessel to calcium ions and upon the ratification of microvascular bed. Cerebral blood flow in spontaneously hypertensive rats is maintained at a normotensive level during normoxia and normocapnia. The reactivity of cerebral circulation to moderate changes of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide is well preserved in both strains of hypertensive rats in comparison with normotensive ones, but is diminished during severe hypocapnia. (author).

  19. Differential Clearance of Rat and Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells From the Brain After Intra-arterial Infusion in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabbal, Joonas; Kerkelä, Erja; Mitkari, Bhimashankar; Raki, Mari; Nystedt, Johanna; Mikkonen, Ville; Bergström, Kim; Laitinen, Saara; Korhonen, Matti; Jolkkonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Intra-arterial (IA) delivery of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has shown potential as a minimally invasive therapeutic approach for stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine the whole-body biodistribution and clearance of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-labeled rat and human BM-MSCs after IA delivery in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our hypothesis was that xenotransplantation has a major impact on the behavior of cells. Male RccHan:Wistar rats were subjected to sham operation or MCAO. Twenty-four hours after surgery, BM-MSCs (2 × 10(6) cells/animal) labeled with (99m)Tc were infused into the external carotid artery. Whole-body SPECT images were acquired 20 min, 3 h, and 6 h postinjection, after which rats were sacrificed, and organs were collected and weighed for measurement of radioactivity. The results showed that the majority of the cells were located in the brain and especially in the ipsilateral hemisphere immediately after cell infusion both in sham-operated and MCAO rats. This was followed by fast disappearance, particularly in the case of human cells. At the same time, the radioactivity signal increased in the spleen, kidney, and liver, the organs responsible for destroying cells. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether differential cell behavior has any functional impact.

  20. Transbrachial artery approach for selective cerebral angiography

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    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Morisako, Toshitaka; Numazawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Keisuke; Nagai, Shigeki; Shibamoto, Kenji (Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    Transaxillary or transbrachial approaches to the cerebral vessels have been reported, but selective angiography of all four vessels has not been possible through one route. In this report, a new technique for selective cerebral angiography with transbrachial approach is described. One hundred and twenty three patients with cerebral infarction, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, intracerebral hemorrhage, epilepsy, or cerebral tumor were examined. Those patients consisted of 85 outpatients and 38 inpatients whose age ranged from 15 years old to 82 years old. The patients were examined via the transbrachial approach (97 cases via the right brachial, 29 cases via the left). Materials included a DSA system (Digital Fluorikon 5000, General Electric Co.), a 4 French tight J-curved Simmons 80-cm catheter, a 19-gauge extra-thin-wall Seldinger needle, and a J/Straight floppy 125-cm guide-wire. Generally, the volume of the contrast agent (300 mgI/ml iopamidol) used in the common carotid artery angiogram was 6 ml, while that used in the vertebral artery angiogram was 4 ml. If catheterization of the vertebral artery or right common carotid artery was unsuccessful, about 8 ml of the contrast agent was injected into the subclavian or branchiocephalic artery. Definitive diagnosis and a decision on proper treatment of the patients can be easily obtained, and the results were clinically satisfactory. Moreover, no complications were encountered in this study. This new technique making a transbrachial approach to the cerebral vessels using the DSA system is introduced here. Neurosurgeons can use this technique easily, and they will find that it provides them with all the information they need about the patient. (author).

  1. MR selective flow-tracking cartography: a postprocessing procedure applied to four-dimensional flow MR imaging for complete characterization of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjlali, Myriam; Roca, Pauline; Rabrait, Cécile; Trystram, Denis; Rodriguez-Régent, Christine; Johnson, Kevin M; Wieben, Oliver; Turski, Patrick; Meder, Jean-François; Naggara, Olivier; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of a selective flow-tracking cartographic procedure applied to four-dimensional (4D) flow imaging and to demonstrate its usefulness in the characterization of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). Institutional review board approval was obtained, and all patients provided written informed consent. Eight patients (nine DAVFs) underwent 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Imaging examinations were performed within 24 hours of each other. 4D flow MR imaging was performed by using a 4D radial phase-contrast vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction pulse sequence with an isotropic spatial resolution of 0.86 mm (5 minutes 35 seconds). Two radiologists independently reviewed images from MR flow-tracking cartography and reported the location of arterial feeder vessels and the venous drainage type and classified DAVFs according to the risk of rupture (Cognard classification). These results were compared with those at DSA. Quadratic weighted κ statistics with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to test intermodality agreement in the identification of arterial feeder vessels, draining veins, and Cognard classification. Interreader agreement for shunt location on MR images was perfect (κ = 1), with good-to-excellent interreader agreement for arterial feeder vessel identification (κ = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.92, 1.0), and matched in all cases with shunt location defined at DSA. There was good-to-excellent agreement between MR cartography and DSA in the definition of the main feeding arteries (κ = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.83, 1.0), presence of retrograde flow in dural sinuses (κ = 1), presence of retrograde cortical venous drainage (κ = 1), presence of venous ectasia (κ = 1), and final Cognard classification of DAVFs (κ = 1, standard error = 0.35). MR selective flow-tracking cartography enabled the noninvasive characterization of cranial DAVFs. © RSNA, 2013.

  2. Comparison of contrast enhanced MR-angiography-MRI and digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of pancreas and/or kidney transplantation patients : initial experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeve, WJ; Kok, T; Tegzess, Adam; van Son, WJ; Ploeg, RJ; Sluiter, WJ; Kamman, RL

    To evaluate whether combined contrast enhanced MRA and MRI (ce-MRA-MRI) has the potential to replace intra-arterial DSA (i.a.DSA) in patients with impaired graft function or suspected of vascular complications after pancreas and/or kidney transplantation. 7 patients after combined pancreas-kidney

  3. Four-dimensional Transcatheter Intra-arterial Perfusion MR Imaging Before and After Uterine Artery Embolization in the Rabbit VX2 Tumor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Johnathan C.; Wang, Dingxin; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Tang, Richard; Chrisman, Howard B.; Vogelzang, Robert L.; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Larson, Andrew C.; Omary, Reed A.; Ryu, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that four-dimensional (4D) transcatheter intra-arterial perfusion (TRIP) MR imaging can measure uterine fibroid perfusion changes immediately before and after uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the rabbit VX2 tumor model. Materials and Methods Eight VX2 uterine tumors were grown in 6 rabbits. After positioning a catheter within the uterine artery, we performed 4D TRIP-MRI measurements with 3 mL injections of 2.5% gadopentetate dimeglumine. We used a dynamic 3D spoiled-GRE sequence with in vivo B1-field correction for improved accuracy during perfusion quantification. We performed UAE using 1 mL of gelatin microspheres (2×106 particles; diameter 40-120 μm). Two regions-of-interest were drawn within each tumor upon perfusion maps. Functional embolic endpoints were reported as the mean percent reduction in fibroid tumor perfusion. Measurements before and after UAE were compared using paired t-tests (α = 0.05). Results VX2 uterine tumor perfusion decreased significantly from 27.1 at baseline to 7.09 after UAE (mL/min/100 mL tissue, p < 0.0001). Overall perfusion reduction was 76.3% (95% CI: 66.3%-86.3%). Conclusion 4D TRIP MRI can objectively quantify uterine fibroid perfusion reductions during UAE in VX2 rabbits. This technique could be used clinically to potentially determine an optimal embolic endpoint with the long-term goals of improving UAE success rates and minimizing procedure-related ischemic pain. PMID:20432349

  4. Superselective intra-arterial infusion of high-dose cisplatin combined with radiation therapy for head and neck carcinoma. Experience of Yamagata University Hospital

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    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Niino, Keiji; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Koike, Shuji; Hosoya, Takaaki; Aoyagi, Masaru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-03-01

    Local effectiveness and complication of superselective intra-arterial infusion of high-dose cisdiamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) (SIC) combined with radiation therapy (RT) were investigated. Between 1998 and 2000, 18 head and neck carcinomas including 10 maxillary carcinomas (T3; 1, T4; 9), 3 oral cavity carcinomas (T2; 1, T4; 2), and 5 oropharyngeal carcinomas (T2; 2, T4; 3) were treated with SIC and RT with or without surgery. CDDP of 100-150 mg/body was administered weekly in principle for 2-9 weeks (mean: 4.9) with the simultaneous administration of sodium thiosulfate. Radiation doses ranged from 40 Gy to 70 Gy (mean: 56.8 Gy). Complete response was obtained in 7 of 10 maxillary carcinomas, 2 of 3 oral-cavity carcinomas, and 2 of 5 oropharyngeal carcinomas, respectively. When surgical intervention was performed if necessary, 2-year local control rates for maxillary carcinoma, and other carcinoma including oral-cavity carcinoma and oropharyngeal carcinoma were 80% and 63% respectively. Two-year local control rates for T4 maxillary carcinoma, and other T4 carcinoma including oral-cavity carcinoma and oropharyngeal carcinoma were 78% and 40% respectively. Two-year overall survival rates for all cases, maxillary carcinoma, and oral-cavity/oropharyngeal carcinoma were 88%, 90% and 86% respectively. All local recurrences occurred within 6 months from the initiation of treatment. The systemic toxicity of weekly SIC was comparatively mild; however, a total CDDP dose of 1,000 mg or more and/or RT of 70 Gy induced complications of local soft tissue such as mucosal ulcer and fistula. SIC combined with RT is useful to improve the local control/survival rates and to avoid the aggressive surgery for locally advanced head and neck carcinoma. A high total dose of CDDP and/or RT of a comparatively high dose may be risk factors for local soft tissue complications. (author)

  5. Hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy (HIAC) of high dose mitomycin and epirubicin combined with caval chemofiltration versus prolonged low doses in liver metastases from colorectal cancer: a prospective randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, G; Poddie, D B; Cantore, M; Rossi, S; Tumolo, S; Dentico, P; Bernardeschi, P; Guadagni, S; Rossi, G; Valori, V M; De Simone, M

    2004-11-01

    A multicenter randomized study comparing high dose of mitomycin and epirubicin given as hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy (HIAC) combined with caval chemofiltration (CF) versus low doses of the same drugs in unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer showed a significant improvement in the survival rate of the 20 patients treated with high dose compared to the 22 patients treated with low doses with a 1 year survival of 69% vs 39%. The median survival was 17 vs 11 months and the responses were 65% vs 33%. Toxicity was colangitis in 50% of patients considered. The extrahepatic progression was similar in the two groups (7/20 vs 8/22).

  6. Topographic distribution of cerebral infarct probability in patients with acute ischemic stroke: mapping of intra-arterial treatment effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, A M M; Berkhemer, O A; Slump, C H; van Zwam, W H; Roos, Y B W E M; van der Lugt, A; van Oostenbrugge, R J; Yoo, A J; Dippel, D W J; Marquering, H A; Majoie, C B L M

    2017-05-01

    Since proof emerged that IA treatment (IAT) is beneficial for patients with acute ischemic stroke, it has become the standard method of care. Despite these positive results, recovery to functional independence is established in only about one-third of treated patients. The effect of IAT is commonly assessed by functional outcome, whereas its effect on brain tissue salvage is considered a secondary outcome measure (at most). Because patient and treatment selection needs to be improved, understanding the treatment effect on brain tissue salvage is of utmost importance. To introduce infarct probability maps to estimate the location and extent of tissue damage based on patient baseline characteristics and treatment type. Cerebral infarct probability maps were created by combining automatically segmented infarct distributions using follow-up CT images of 281 patients from the MR CLEAN trial. Comparison of infarct probability maps allows visualization and quantification of probable treatment effects. Treatment impact was calculated for 10 Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) and 27 anatomical regions. The insular cortex had the highest infarct probability in both control and IAT populations (47.2% and 42.6%, respectively). Comparison showed significant lower infarct probability in 4 ASPECTS and 17 anatomical regions in favor of IAT. Most salvaged tissue was found within the ASPECTS M2 region, which was 8.5% less likely to infarct. Probability maps intuitively visualize the topographic distribution of infarct probability due to treatment, which makes it a promising tool for estimating the effect of treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Type I interferon receptor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells may predict response to intra-arterial 5-fluorouracil + interferon therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenaga K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyuki Tomiyama1, Naoko Yoshioka1, Yoshiaki Yanai2,3, Tomoya Kawase1, Sohji Nishina1, Yuichi Hara1, Koji Yoshida1, Keiko Korenaga1, Masaaki Korenaga1, Keisuke Hino11Department of Hepatology and Pancreatology, Kawasaki Medical University, Kurashiki, Japan; 2Institute of Fujisaki, Hayashibara Biochemical Lab Inc, Okayama, Japan; 3Pharmaceutical Marketing Division, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Type 1 interferon alpha receptor 2 (IFNAR2 in the liver has been reported to be a predictive factor for the response to intra-arterial 5-fluorouracil (5-FU + systemic interferon (IFN-alpha combination therapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. We tested whether IFNAR2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells could predict the response to 5-FU + IFN.Methods: Predictive factors for survival and response to therapy were determined in 30 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent treatment with 5-FU + IFN. IFNAR2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured in 11 of the 30 patients.Results: With a mean number of 4.2 courses of combination therapy, one patient (3% showed a complete response, eight (27% showed partial responses, 13 (43% had stable disease, and eight (27% showed progressive disease. The median survival time of responders (complete response/partial response was 12.7 months and that of nonresponders (stable disease/progressive disease was 7.5 months. The one-year and two-year cumulative survival rates of responders and nonresponders were 87/69% and 40/11%, respectively (P = 0.019. Multivariate analysis identified response to therapy (P = 0.037 as the sole independent determinant of survival. The expression level of IFNAR2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was significantly (P = 0.012 higher in responders (6.5 ± 2.4 than in nonresponders (2.4 ± 0.6, even though no clinical factors were identified as being associated with the response to the combination

  8. Perfusion reduction at transcatheter intraarterial perfusion MR imaging: a promising intraprocedural biomarker to predict transplant-free survival during chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingxin; Gaba, Ron C; Jin, Brian; Lewandowski, Robert J; Riaz, Ahsun; Memon, Khairuddin; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Kulik, Laura M; Mulcahy, Mary F; Larson, Andrew C; Salem, Riad; Omary, Reed A

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the predictive value of transcatheter intraarterial perfusion (TRIP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-measured tumor perfusion changes during transarterial chemoembolization on transplant-free survival (TFS) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This HIPAA-compliant prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Fifty-one consecutive adult patients with surgically unresectable single or multifocal measurable HCC and adequate laboratory parameters who underwent chemoembolization in a combined MR imaging-interventional radiology suite between February 2006 and June 2010 were studied. Tumor perfusion changes during chemoembolization were measured by using TRIP MR imaging with area under the time-signal intensity curve calculation. The end point of the study was TFS. The authors assessed the correlation between the percentage perfusion reduction in the tumor during chemoembolization and TFS by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Fifty patients (mean age, 61 years; 39 men aged 42-87 years [mean age, 61 years] and 11 women aged 49-83 years [mean age, 62 years]) were eligible for the analysis. Patients with 35%-85% intraprocedural tumor area under the time-signal intensity curve reduction (n = 32) showed significantly improved median TFS compared with patients with an area under the time-signal intensity curve reduction outside this range (n = 18) (16.6 months [95% confidence interval: 11.2, 22.0 months] vs 9.3 months [95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.0 months], respectively; P = .046; hazard ratio: 0.46; 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 1.00). The cumulative TFS rates in the 35%-85% and less than 35% or more than 85% perfusion reduction groups at 1, 2, and 5 years after chemoembolization were 66.4%, 42.2%, and 28.2% versus 33.8%, 16.9%, and 0%, respectively. The study shows evidence of an association between intraprocedural tumor perfusion reduction

  9. Noninvasive evaluation of collateral blood flow through circle of Willis in cervical carotid stenosis using selective magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenji; Sasaki, Makoto; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko; Natori, Tatsunori; Uwano, Ikuko; Yamashita, Fumio; Kudo, Kohsuke

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative assessment of intracranial collateral circulation is helpful in predicting cerebral ischemia during surgical procedures for cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. However, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and other less-invasive techniques cannot evaluate collateral blood flow because these techniques are nonselective. Hence, by using a newly developed selective MRA technique, we attempted to visualize collaterals via the circle of Willis in patients with ICA stenosis. Twelve patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy were prospectively examined with a 1.5-T MR scanner. Both selective and nonselective MRA were obtained using a 3-dimensional time-of-flight technique, with or without a cylindrical saturation pulse that suppresses the flow signal from the region of the target ICA. Maximum intensity projection MRA images were generated and compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images. In all patients, the distal flow signal of the ipsilateral ICA was completely suppressed on selective MRA compared with nonselective MRA. In addition, collateral blood flow through the anterior and posterior communicating arteries was visualized in 5 and 2 patients, respectively. These findings corresponded well with the DSA imaging. Selective MRA techniques can readily suppress signals from the distal blood flow of the target artery and visualize the presence of collateral flows through the circle of Willis in patients with cervical ICA stenosis. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeitos cardiovasculares e renais da injeção intra-arterial de contraste radiológico iônico em cães com restrição hídrica Efectos cardiovasculares y renales de la inyección intra-arterial de contraste radiológico iónico en perros con restricción hídrica Cardiovascular and renal effects of intra-arterial injection of ionic radiological contrast in dogs under fluid restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Lima Verderese

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar os efeitos agudos do contraste radiológico em situações de restrição de volume, avaliando-se os efeitos renais e cardiovasculares após a injeção intra-arterial de contraste radiológico de alta osmolaridade. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 16 cães anestesiados com tiopental sódico (15 mg.kg-1 e fentanil (15 µg.kg-1 em bolus, seguido de infusão contínua nas doses de 40 µg.kg-1.min-1 (tiopental sódico e 0,1 µg.kg-1.min-1 (fentanil. Foi feita hidratação com solução de glicose a 5% (0,03 mL.kg-1.min-1 e a ventilação pulmonar foi controlada mecanicamente com ar comprimido. Foram verificados os seguintes atributos: freqüência cardíaca (FC; pressão arterial média (PAM; pressão da veia cava inferior (PVI; débito cardíaco (DC; hematócrito (Ht; fluxo plasmático efetivo renal (FPER; fluxo sangüíneo renal (FSR; ritmo de filtração glomerular (RFG; fração de filtração; resistência vascular renal (RVR; volume urinário (VU; osmolaridade plasmática e urinária; depuração osmolar, depuração de água livre e depuração de sódio e de potássio; sódio e potássio plasmáticos; excreção urinária e fracionária de sódio e potássio e temperatura retal. Estes atributos foram avaliados em quatro momentos: 30 (M1, 60 (M2, 90 (M3 e 120 (M4 minutos após o início da infusão de para-aminohipurato de sódio e creatinina (início da experiência. No momento 2, no grupo G1 foi feita injeção intra-arterial de solução fisiológica a 0,9% (1,24 mL.kg-1, e no grupo G2 foi injetado contraste radiológico (1,24 mL.kg-1 pela mesma via. RESULTADOS: O grupo G1 apresentou aumento da FC, do FPER, do FSR, da osmolaridade plasmática, da depuração de sódio e da excreção urinária de sódio; apresentou ainda diminuição da osmolaridade urinária, do potássio plasmático, da depuração de potássio e da temperatura retal. No grupo G2 ocorreu aumento da FC, da

  11. Segurança do transplante autólogo, intra-arterial, de células mononucleares da medula óssea na fase aguda do acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico Intra-arterial autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation for acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Furtado de Mendonça

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC é a terceira causa de óbito e a principal causa de incapacidade em indivíduos adultos. Embora a mortalidade do AVC esteja diminuindo em alguns países, a morbidade tem aumentado em razão do envelhecimento da população e do aumento da sobrevida dos pacientes¹. O tratamento com ativador do plasminogênio tissular recombinante (rt-PA é eficaz quando instituído em até 3 horas após o início dos sintomas², porém seu uso está limitado a cerca de 5% dos pacientes na fase aguda do AVC isquêmico. Além disso, nenhum agente para neuroproteção teve sua eficácia comprovada em estudos clínicos em humanos. Portanto, outras estratégias terapêuticas precisam ser desenvolvidas. Em modelos animais, o uso de células-tronco correlacionou-se com melhora funcional após o AVC³. Publicações recentes têm demonstrado a segurança do tratamento com células mononucleares da medula óssea (CMMO injetadas via intracoronária em pacientes portadores de cardiopatia isquêmica aguda ou crônica4,5. Baseado nesses dados iniciais, há crescente interesse no estudo do transplante com CMMO na fase aguda do AVC. Relatamos o primeiro caso de transplante autólogo de CMMO via intra-arterial na fase aguda do AVC isquêmico.Stroke is the third cause of death and the leading cause of disability in adult subjects. Although stroke mortality has been declining in some countries, stroke morbidity has been increasing due to the aging of population and patients improved survival.¹ Treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA is successful provided it is administered within 3 hours of symptoms onset,² but its use is limited to about 5% of the patients with acute ischemic stroke. Furthermore, no neuroprotective agent has yet been proven effective in human clinical trials. The development of other therapeutic strategies is, therefore, warranted. The use of stem cells in animal models has led to functional improvement

  12. Donor selection in pediatric kidney transplantation using DR and DQ eplet mismatching: A new histocompatibility paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Christopher F; Chadha, Vimal; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-11-01

    It is now appreciated that more HLA-DR mismatching at the time of the first renal transplant is associated with higher degrees of sensitization, lower rates and longer times to retransplantation, and worse graft outcomes in children who are subsequently retransplanted. As such, our pediatric renal transplant program preferentially uses 0 or 1 HLA-DR-mismatched kidneys and reserves 2 DR-mismatched kidneys for recipients with an eminent need for a kidney. Based on a new HLA class II epitope matching strategy that is designed to minimize dnDSA production to DR and DQ antigens, we evaluated the prevalence of DR and DQ eplet mismatching for dd offers made to our pediatric wait-listed candidates. Each candidate/dd pair were HLA-DR (β1 and β3 and/or β5) and DQ (α1 and β1) allele typed by rSSO and were then evaluated for eplet mismatches by the HLAMatchmaker program. We evaluated 78 offers made to 16 children on our UNOS waiting list from 27 consecutive dd from 4/14/14 to 3/23/15. The data show that 40% (8/20) of the 1 DR-mismatched dd offers and 64% (37/58) of the 2 DR-mismatched offers were in the high-risk category for both DR and DQ dnDSA development. Whereas only 15% (3/20) of the 1 DR-mismatched offers and 5% (3/58) of the 2 DR-mismatched offers were in the low-risk category for both DR and DQ dnDSA development, 55% and 33% of the 1 DR- and 2 DR-mismatched offers, respectively, had a favorable DQ eplet mismatch threshold. In summary, HLA class II eplet mismatching is common in potential pediatric transplant recipient/donor pairs. Additional study will be necessary to validate the DR and DQ eplet threshold levels in children and to determine whether eplet mismatching strategies in donor selection result in improved transplant outcome and decreased dnDSA production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. First-line intra-arterial versus intravenous chemotherapy in unilateral sporadic group D retinoblastoma: evidence of better visual outcomes, ocular survival and shorter time to success with intra-arterial delivery from retrospective review of 20 years of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Francis L; Mosimann, Pascal; Puccinelli, Francesco; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Stathopoulos, Christina; Houghton, Susan; Bergin, Ciara; Beck-Popovic, Maja

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) as salvage treatment has improved the prognosis for eye conservation in group D retinoblastoma. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of consecutive patients with advanced unilateral disease treated with either first-line intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) or first-line IAC. This is a retrospective mono-centric comparative review of consecutive patients. Sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma group D cases treated conservatively at Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital and CHUV between 1997 and 2014. From January 1997 to August 2008, IVC, combined with focal treatments, was the primary treatment approach. From September 2008 to October 2014, IAC replaced IVC as first-line therapy. 48 patients met the inclusion criteria, receiving only either IAC or IVC as primary treatment modality. Outcomes of 23 patients treated by IVC were compared with those of 25 treated by IAC; mean follow-up was 105.3 months (range 29.2-218.6) and 41.7 months (range 19.6-89.5), respectively. Treatment duration was significantly shorter in the IAC group (p<0.001). Ten eyes in the IVC group underwent enucleation. Recordable visual acuity of the salvaged eyes was significantly better in the IAC group (0.9 vs 1.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, p<0.01). No extraocular disease, metastases or long-term systemic complications were observed in either group. The difference in the time frame between treatment groups had an impact on the availability of intravitreal chemotherapy treatment. Despite this, the results reported here imply that eyes treated with first-line IAC will have shorter treatment period, better ocular survival and visual acuity than first-line IVC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Side Effects of Long-Term Continuous Intra-arterial Nimodipine Infusion in Patients with Severe Refractory Cerebral Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieninger, Martin; Flessa, Julia; Lindenberg, Nicole; Bele, Sylvia; Redel, Andreas; Schneiker, André; Schuierer, Gerhard; Wendl, Christina; Graf, Bernhard; Silbereisen, Vera

    2017-07-06

    Long-term continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion (CIAN) is a rescue therapy option in cases of severe refractory cerebral vasospasm (CV) following acute non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, CIAN therapy can be associated with relevant side effects. Available studies focus on intracerebral complications, whereas extracerebral side effects are rarely examined. Aim of the present study was to generate descriptive data on the clinical course during CIAN therapy and expectable extracerebral side effects. All patients treated with CIAN therapy for at least 5 days between May 2011 and December 2015 were included. We retrospectively extracted data from the patient data management system regarding the period between 2 days before the beginning and 5 days after the termination of CIAN therapy to analyze the course of ventilation parameters and pulmonary gas exchange, hemodynamic support, renal and liver function, integrity of the gastrointestinal tract, and the occurrence of infectious complications. In addition, we recorded the mean daily values of intracranial pressure (ICP) and intracerebral problems associated with CIAN therapy. Data from 28 patients meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed. The mean duration of long-term CIAN therapy was 10.5 ± 4.5 days. Seventeen patients (60.7%) reached a good outcome level (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] 4-5) 6 months after SAH. An impairment of the pulmonary gas exchange occurred only at the very beginning of CIAN therapy. The required vasopressor support with norepinephrine was significantly higher on all days during and the first day after CIAN therapy compared to the situation before starting CIAN therapy. Two patients required short-time resuscitation due to cardiac arrest during CIAN therapy. Acute kidney injury was observed in four patients, and one of them required renal replacement therapy with sustained low-efficiency daily dialysis. During CIAN therapy, 23 patients (82.1%) needed the escalation

  15. POSSIBILITIES OF ORGAN-PRESERVING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPNEOADJUVANT COMBINATION CHEMOTHERAPY IN A PATIENT WITH CERVICAL CANCER IIIB STAGE WITH THE USE OF INTRA-ARTERIAL ADMINISTRATION OF PLATINUM DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Rerberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main treatment for cervical cancer are surgery, radiation and combined (surgery + radiotherapy, the role of chemotherapy in this localization is studied less fully. In recent years the new possibilities of chemotherapy, including neoadjuvant intraarterial chemotherapy, are explored. Theoretical prerequisites for this are the best drug delivery to the tumor by blood vessels, undamaged due to radiation therapy and surgery. This paper describes a clinical case of a patient with primary inoperable cervical cancer. As an alternative to preoperativ e radiotherapy the patient was proposed neoadjuv ant com bination chemotherapy with the use of regional administration of platinum drugs and systemic administration of drugs of taxan series as a stage of preparation for further surgical treatment. According to the prevalence of the tumor process patient underwent 2 courses of neoadjuv ant chemotherapy by a method of superselective intra-arterial administration of cisplatin and paclitaxel intravenously. According to a comprehensive examination after treatment data for the presence of tumor was absent. During the second stage the patient underwent surgical treatment in the volume of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy with appendages. The next step, according to the histological form of the tumor, stage of disease, was the radiotherapy in the postoperative period on the pelv ic area and routes of lym ph drainage. The patient underwent external beam radiotherapy to the pelvic area of FD = 20 Gr, intracavitary gamma-therapy and external beam radiation on the area of parametrial and lymphopenia FD = 50 Gr.The patient passed the control examinations every 3 months. According to a comprehensive survey a year after the start of treatment — there is no data for the presence of recurrence and spread of tumor process.

  16. Patient Selection and Activity Planning Guide for Selective Internal Radiotherapy With Yttrium-90 Resin Microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Wan-Yee, E-mail: josephlau@surgery.cuhk.edu.hk [Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong); Kennedy, Andrew S. [Wake Radiology Oncology, Cary, NC (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Kim, Yun Hwan [Department of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lai, Hee Kit [Nuclear Medicine and PET Centre, Mount Elizabeth Hospital, Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Rheun-Chuan [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Leung, Thomas W.T. [Comprehensive Oncology Centre, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (Hong Kong); Liu, Ching-Sheng [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Salem, Riad [Division of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Sangro, Bruno [Liver Unit, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra and Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas, Pamplona (Spain); Shuter, Borys [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Hospital, Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Shih-Chang [Parker-Hughes Professor of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) resin microspheres can improve the clinical outcomes for selected patients with inoperable liver cancer. This technique involves intra-arterial delivery of {beta}-emitting microspheres into hepatocellular carcinomas or liver metastases while sparing uninvolved structures. Its unique mode of action, including both {sup 90}Y brachytherapy and embolization of neoplastic microvasculature, necessitates activity planning methods specific to SIRT. Methods and Materials: A panel of clinicians experienced in {sup 90}Y resin microsphere SIRT was convened to integrate clinical experience with the published data to propose an activity planning pathway for radioembolization. Results: Accurate planning is essential to minimize potentially fatal sequelae such as radiation-induced liver disease while delivering tumoricidal {sup 90}Y activity. Planning methods have included empiric dosing according to degree of tumor involvement, empiric dosing adjusted for the body surface area, and partition model calculations using Medical Internal Radiation Dose principles. It has been recommended that at least two of these methods be compared when calculating the microsphere activity for each patient. Conclusions: Many factors inform {sup 90}Y resin microsphere SIRT activity planning, including the therapeutic intent, tissue and vasculature imaging, tumor and uninvolved liver characteristics, previous therapies, and localization of the microsphere infusion. The influence of each of these factors has been discussed.

  17. Targeting of liver tumour in rats by selective delivery of holmium-166 loaded microspheres: a biodistribution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijsen, F.; Rook, D.; Zonnenberg, B.; Klerk, J. de; Rijk, P. van; Schip, F. van het [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brandt, C. [Animal Inst., Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Meijer, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Dullens, H. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hennink, W. [Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    2001-06-01

    Intra-arterial administration of beta-emitting particles that become trapped in the vascular bed of a tumour and remain there while delivering high doses, represents a unique approach in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumours. Studies on selective internal radiation therapy of colorectal liver metastases using yttrium-90 glass microspheres have shown encouraging results. This study describes the biodistribution of 40-{mu}m poly lactic acid microspheres loaded with radioactive holmium-166, after intra-arterial administration into the hepatic artery of rats with implanted liver tumours. Radioactivity measurements showed >95% retention of injected activity in the liver and its resident tumour. The average activity detected in other tissues was {<=}0.1%ID/g, with incidental exceptions in the lungs and stomach. Very little {sup 166}Ho activity was detected in kidneys (<0.1%ID/g), thereby indicating the stability of the microspheres in vivo. Tumour targeting was very effective, with a mean tumour to liver ratio of 6.1{+-}2.9 for rats with tumour (n=15) versus 0.7{+-}0.5 for control rats (n=6; P<0.001). These ratios were not significantly affected by the use of adrenaline. Histological analysis showed that five times as many large (>10) and medium-sized (4-9) clusters of microspheres were present within tumour and peritumoural tissue, compared with normal liver. Single microspheres were equally dispersed throughout the tumour, as well as normal liver parenchyma. (orig.)

  18. Clinical result of intra-arterial lymphocyte injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema and the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy. Quantitative analysis by an injection of {sup 111}In-labeled lymphocytes and by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, Masanori; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Hori, Takaki; Katoh, Itsuo; Harada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nishitani, Hiromu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-11-01

    We have employed the intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema of the limbs with various causes. In the present study, we observed the clinical outcome of our therapy in 38 patients with lymphedema of the limbs. Results showed that the therapy was effective in 26 of 38 patients (68% of the total). Moreover, a marked efficacy was obtained in 13 of 38 patients (34% of the total). In the latest 5 patients, to evaluate the efficacy of our therapy, we examined the distribution of the {sup 111}In-oxine labeled lymphocytes injected into the proximal artery of the affected limb. The radioactivities of the affected limbs were apparently higher than that of the healthy limbs in effective cases. Moreover, MR imaging showed that the reduction of STIR ratio and T{sub 2} ratio well correlate with the results of clinical course. Thus, the efficacy of the lymphocyte injection therapy is able to be evaluated by radiolabeled lymphocytes and MR imaging. (author).

  19. Baseline Blood Pressure Effect on the Benefit and Safety of Intra-Arterial Treatment in MR CLEAN (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Maxim J H L; Ergezen, Saliha; Lingsma, Hester F; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Fransen, Puck S S; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A; Lycklama À Nijeholt, Geert; Emmer, Bart J; van der Worp, H Bart; Nederkoorn, Paul J; Roos, Yvo B W E M; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; van Zwam, Wim H; Majoie, Charles B L M; van der Lugt, Aad; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2017-07-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is associated with poor outcome and the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke. Whether BP influences the benefit or safety of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) is not known. We aimed to assess the relation of BP with functional outcome, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and effect of IAT. This is a post hoc analysis of the MR CLEAN (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands). BP was measured at baseline, before IAT or stroke unit admission. We estimated the association of baseline BP with the score on the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days and safety parameters with ordinal and logistic regression analysis. Effect of BP on the effect of IAT was tested with multiplicative interaction terms. Systolic BP (SBP) had the best correlation with functional outcome. This correlation was U-shaped; both low and high baseline SBP were associated with poor functional outcome. Higher SBP was associated with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio, 1.25 for every 10 mm Hg higher SBP [95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.44]). Between SBP and IAT, there was no interaction for functional outcome, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, or other safety parameters; the absolute benefit of IAT was evident for the whole SBP range. The same was found for diastolic BP. BP does not affect the benefit or safety of IAT in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by proximal intracranial vessel occlusion. Our data provide no arguments to withhold or delay IAT based on BP. URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN10888758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Safe and easy method with little modification in technique is useful for successful internal jugular vein cannulation on the same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Thosani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The modification in technique is useful for successful right-sided internal jugular vein (IJV cannulation on the same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult patients. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in total 160 adult patient from American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade II to III patients male (n = 95 and female (n = 65 who underwent cardiac surgery where cannulation was done on right sided by triple lumen catheter (7 French using Seldinger technique. Results: Majority of patients were cannulated successfully by Seldinger technique with single or double attempt except for five patients in which arterial puncture occurred. All five patients were cannulated successfully on the same side with this modified technique without any significant major complications. They were managed by application of blocker at the end of arterial needle puncture without removing it. In our routine practice, we were used to removing this needle and applying compression for few minutes to prevent hematoma formation after an arterial puncture. In this study, cannula was used as a marker or guideline for the relocation of IJV on the same side and recannulation was performed by changing the direction of needle on same side lateral to the previous one and without going towards the same direction to prevent the arterial puncture again. Conclusion: Most simple and useful modified technique for institutes where the complications are most common with trainee doctors and in hospitals where there is no advanced facility like ultrasound-guided cannulation available. By this modification, it will be time saving, very comfortable, and user-friendly technique with high success rate.

  1. Results of digital subtraction angiography in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triller, J.; Fritschy, P.; Tschaeppeler, H.; Stocker, F.

    1986-07-01

    In 43 children and adolescents, DSA was carried out, in 29 cases by the intravenous and in 17 cases by the intra-arterial route. IV-DSA was usually performed by putting a cannula (14 to 18 G) into the antecubital vein (bolus injection of 5 to 40 ml. of contrast and 5 to 20 ml. saline at 2 to 12 ml./sec.). The indication for IV-DSA is the investigation of cogenital cardio-vascular abnormalities (stenosis or atresia of the pulmonary artery, anomalies of the pulmonary veins or the aortic arch and following vascular surgery). In these cases the more invasive heart catheter examinations can be avoided. IA-DSA is performed with a catheter with a fine lumen (4 to 5 F), diluting the contrast with an equal amount of saline. The advantage of IA-DSA is that it is less invasive, uses less contrast and provides better contrast and detail.

  2. Overestimation of carotid artery stenosis with magnetic resonance angiography compared with digital subtraction angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Elgersma, Otto E. H.; Mali, Willem P. Th M.; Eikelboom, Bert C.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; van der Graaf, Yolanda

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is generally considered to overestimate the degree of stenosis in the internal carotid artery (ICA) in comparison with the reference standard intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We

  3. Outcome Differences between Intra-Arterial Iso- and Low-Osmolality Iodinated Radiographic Contrast Media in the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, T A; Foster, L D; Liebeskind, D S; Hill, M D; Carrozella, J; Goyal, M; von Kummer, R; Demchuk, A M; Dzialowski, I; Puetz, V; Jovin, T; Morales, H; Palesch, Y Y; Broderick, J; Khatri, P; Yeatts, S D

    2015-11-01

    Intracarotid arterial infusion of nonionic, low-osmolal iohexol contrast medium has been associated with increased intracranial hemorrhage in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model compared with saline infusion. Iso-osmolal iodixanol (290 mOsm/kg H2O) infusion demonstrated smaller infarcts and less intracranial hemorrhage compared with low-osmolal iopamidol and saline. No studies comparing iodinated radiographic contrast media in human stroke have been performed, to our knowledge. We hypothesized that low-osmolal contrast media may be associated with worse outcomes compared with iodixanol in the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial (IMS III). We reviewed prospective iodinated radiographic contrast media data for 133 M1 occlusions treated with endovascular therapy. We compared 5 prespecified efficacy and safety end points (mRS 0-2 outcome, modified TICI 2b-3 reperfusion, asymptomatic and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality) between those receiving iodixanol (n = 31) or low-osmolal contrast media (n = 102). Variables imbalanced between iodinated radiographic contrast media types or associated with outcome were considered potential covariates for the adjusted models. In addition to the iodinated radiographic contrast media type, final covariates were those selected by using the stepwise method in a logistic regression model. Adjusted relative risks were then estimated by using a log-link regression model. Of baseline or endovascular therapy variables potentially linked to outcome, prior antiplatelet agent use was more common and microcatheter iodinated radiographic contrast media injections were fewer with iodixanol. Relative risk point estimates are in favor of iodixanol for the 5 prespecified end points with M1 occlusion. The percentage of risk differences are numerically greater for microcatheter injections with iodixanol. While data favoring the use of iso-osmolal iodixanol for reperfusion of M1 occlusion following IV rtPA are

  4. Early detection and intervention using neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL may improve renal outcome of acute contrast media induced nephropathy: A randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing intra-arterial angiography (ANTI-CIN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiegler Philipp

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with pre-existing impaired renal function are prone to develop acute contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, a new biomarker predictive for acute kidney injury (AKI, has been shown to be useful for earlier diagnosis of CIN; however, urinary NGAL values may be markedly increased in chronic renal failure at baseline. Results from those studies suggested that urinary NGAL values may not be helpful for the clinician. An intravenous volume load is a widely accepted prophylactic measure and possibly a reasonable intervention to prevent deterioration of renal function. The aim of our study is to evaluate NGAL as an early predictor of CIN and to investigate the clinical benefit of early post-procedural i.v. hydration. Methods/Design The study will follow a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled design. Patients requiring intra-arterial contrast media (CM application will be included and receive standardized, weight-based, intravenous hydration before investigation. Subjects with markedly increased urinary NGAL values after CM application will be randomized into one of two study groups. Group A will receive 3-4 ml/kg BW/h 0.9% saline intravenously for 6 hours. Group B will undergo only standard treatment consisting of unrestricted oral fluid intake. The primary outcome measure will be CIN defined by an increase greater than 25% of baseline serum creatinine. Secondary outcomes will include urinary NGAL values, cystatin C values, contrast media associated changes in cardiac parameters such as NT-pro-BNP/troponin T, changes in urinary cytology, need for renal replacement treatment, length of stay in hospital and death. We assume that 20% of the included patients will show a definite rise in urinary NGAL. Prospective statistical power calculations indicate that the study will have 80% statistical power to detect a clinically significant decrease of CIN of 40% in the

  5. Early Anticipation of Candidacy for Intra-Arterial Reperfusion Therapy Based on Baseline Clinical Stroke Subtypes: Comparison with Multiparametric MRI Taken within 4.5 Hours from Stroke Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Won Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The decision to proceed with intra-arterial (IA reperfusion therapy is typically made late in the course of in-hospital treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Early anticipation of candidacy for IA reperfusion therapy based on clinical stroke subtypes would be useful for guiding stroke management. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the clinical Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP classification and MRI results taken within a 4.5-hour time window from stroke onset, with the hypothesis that the persistence of major arterial occlusion and extended ischemic penumbra, key criteria for proceeding with IA reperfusion therapy, would be distinctive between the clinical stroke subtypes. Methods: A total of 161 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation were included in this study. All patients were treated with intravenous alteplase, and MRI scans were performed following alteplase initiation. Prior to treatment, the patients were categorized, based on the OCSP classification scheme, as having total anterior circulation infarcts (TACI, partial anterior circulation infarcts (PACI, or lacunar infarcts (LACI. The relationship between OCSP subtypes, MRI parameters, and clinical variables was analyzed. Results: Overall, 40/161 patients (24.8% were candidates for IA rescue reperfusion. With respect to the classification, 30/69 TACI (43.5%, 6/33 PACI (18.2%, and 4/59 LACI patients (6.8% were candidates (p DWI-PWI ≥2 (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score were classified as TACI patients (p DWI-PWI ≥3, 74.3% were classified as TACI patients (p Conclusions: In this study, patients classified as having clinical TACI were significantly more likely to be candidates for IA rescue reperfusion. Additionally, they incurred a higher incidence of persistent major arterial occlusion and had a penumbra area that was significantly larger than normal. Therefore, clinical OCSP can be used as an

  6. Selective Fatalism.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R

    1998-01-01

    Human beings are selectively fatalistic. Some risks appear as "background noise," whereas other, quantitatively identical risks cause enormous concern. This essay explores the reasons for selective fatalism and possible legal responses. Sometimes selective fatalism is a product of distributional issues, as people focus especially on risks that face particular groups; sometimes people adapt their preferences and beliefs so as to reduce concern with risks that they perceive themselves unable to...

  7. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added...... in order to obtain a unique selection...

  8. Myopic Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Geroski, P. A.; Mazzucato, M.

    2002-01-01

    The severity of selection mechanisms and the myopia of selection are explored through a duopoly model where one firm tries to move down a learning curve in which costs are initially higher than its rival's but ultimately much lower. A trade-off is found between catch-up time and asymptotic market share: the more severe are selection pressures, the less likely is it that the learning technology will survive; however, if it does survive, the learning technology will in the limit be more competi...

  9. Myopic selection

    OpenAIRE

    Geroski, P.A.; Mazzucato, M.

    2002-01-01

    The severity of selection mechanisms and the myopia of selection are explored through a duopoly model where one firm tries to move down a learning curve in which costs are initially higher than its rival's but ultimately much lower. A trade-off is found between catch-up time and asymptotic market share: the more severe are selection pressures, the less likely is it that the learning technology will survive; however, if it does survive, the learning technology will in the limit be more competi...

  10. Selective mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a family history of selective mutism, extreme shyness, or anxiety disorders, which may increase their risk ... well Inability to speak in certain social situations Shyness This pattern must be seen for at least ...

  11. Selective Enumeration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damon, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Selective enumeration is an approach to pruning search trees with the goal of preventing the generation of extraneous paths in the search tree, rather than generating paths that will later be pruned...

  12. Direct search coding algorithm with reduction in computing time by simultaneous selection rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    An optimized encoding algorithm is required to produce high-quality computer-generated holograms (CGHs). For such a purpose, I have proposed that the use of the direct search algorithm (DSA) is effective for encoding the amplitude and phase in the Lohmann-type CGH. However, it takes much computation time to obtain an optimum solution by the DSA. To solve this problem, I have newly found that the simultaneous direct search algorithm (SDSA) is greatly effective for shortening the computation time for encoding the Lohmann-type CGH. As a result, the evaluation value of the reconstructed image for the SDSA is the same as that of 0.992 for the DSA. The computation time for the SDSA is drastically shortened from 3575 to 55 s for the DSA.

  13. Selective Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dubovik (Andrei); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a dynamic (differential) game with three players competing against each other. Each period each player can allocate his resources so as to direct his competition towards particular rivals -- we call such competition selective. The setting can be applied to a wide variety of

  14. Selective ex vivo photothermal nano-therapy of solid liver tumors mediated by albumin conjugated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Lucian; Matea, Cristian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Pop, Teodora; Puia, Cosmin; Agoston-Coldea, Lucia; Zaharie, Gabriela; Mocan, Teodora; Buzoianu, Anca Dana; Iancu, Cornel

    2017-03-01

    We have used albumin (BSA) bound to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as active vectors to target liver cells. Our incentive to develop an original model of living liver cancer sprang from the ethical drawbacks that hindered the assessment of the selective character and the therapeutic capacity of these nano-biosystems in cancer patients. Ex vivo-perfused liver specimens were obtained from hepatocellular carcinoma patients similarly to the surgical technique of transplantation. Albumin bound to GNPs was inoculated intra-arterially onto the resulting specimen and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the malignant tissue by means of the capillary bed. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy and at the same time surrounding parenchyma was not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the malignant liver tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of BSA bound to GNPs into tumor cells following ex-vivo intra-vascular perfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrochemical oxidation of stabilized landfill leachate on DSA electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turro, Elisabetta [Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Padua, 35100 Padua (Italy); Giannis, Apostolos [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Cossu, Raffaello [Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Padua, 35100 Padua (Italy); Gidarakos, Evangelos; Mantzavinos, Dionissios [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Katsaounis, Alexandros, E-mail: alex.katsaounis@chemeng.upatras.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2011-06-15

    The electrochemical oxidation of stabilized landfill leachate with 2960 mg L{sup -1} chemical oxygen demand (COD) over a Ti/IrO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2} anode was investigated in the presence of HClO{sub 4} as the supporting electrolyte. Emphasis was given on the effect of electrolysis time (up to 240 min) and temperature (30, 60 and 80{sup Degree-Sign }C ), current density (8, 16 and 32 mA cm{sup -2}), initial effluent's pH (0.25, 3, 5 and 6), HClO{sub 4} concentration (0.25 and 1 M) and the addition of NaCl (20 and 100 mM) or Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (20 mM) as source of extra electrogenerated oxidants on performance; the latter was evaluated regarding COD, total carbon (TC), total phenols (TPh) and color removal. Moreover, the anode was studied by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The main parameters affecting the process were the effluent's pH and the addition of salts. Treatment for 240 min at 32 mA cm{sup -2} current density, 80 {sup Degree-Sign }C and the pH adjusted from its inherent value of 0.25 (i.e. after the addition of HClO{sub 4}) to 3 yielded 90% COD, 65% TC and complete color and TPh removal at an electricity consumption of 35 kWh kg{sup -1} COD removed. Comparable performance (i.e. 75% COD reduction) could be achieved without pH adjustment but with the addition of 100 mM NaCl consuming 20 kWh kg{sup -1} COD removed.

  16. A road map for wireless mesh routing with DSA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maliwatu, R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available infrastructure in rural areas impractical. Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) is capable of covering remote areas but the required initial and recurring costs are prohibitive. Therefore, open spectrum wireless access technology offers the most hope...

  17. Selective photoantisepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David M; Reinisch, Lou

    2016-10-01

    Selective killing of pathogens by laser is possible due to the difference in absorption of photon energy by pathogens and host tissues. The optical properties of pathogenic microorganisms are used along with the known optical properties of soft tissues in calculations of the laser-induced thermal response of pathogen colonies embedded in a tissue model. The objective is to define the laser parameters that optimize pathogen destruction and depth of the bactericidal effect. The virtual periodontium is a computational model of the optical and time-dependent thermal properties of infected periodontal tissues. The model simulates the periodontal procedure: Laser Sulcular Debridement. 1 Virtual pathogen colonies are placed at different depths in the virtual periodontium to determine the depth for effective bactericidal effects given various laser parameters (wavelength, peak power, pulse duration, scan rate, fluence rate) and differences in pathogen sensitivities. Accumulated background heat from multiple passes increases the depth of the bactericidal effect. In visible and near-IR wavelengths the large difference in absorption between normal soft tissue and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) results in selective destruction. Diode laser (810 nm) efficacy and depth of the bactericidal effect are variable and dependent on hemin availability. Both pulsed-Nd:YAG and the 810 nm diode lasers achieve a 2-3 mm deep damage zone for pigmented Pg and Pi in soft tissue without surface damage (selective photoantisepsis). The model predicts no selectivity for the Er:YAG laser (2,940 nm). Depth of the bactericidal effect is highly dependent on pathogen absorption coefficient. Highly sensitive pathogens may be destroyed as deep as 5-6 mm in soft tissue. Short pulse durations enable confinement of the thermal event to the target. Temporal selectivity is achieved by adjusting pulse duration based on target size. The scatter-limited phototherapy model

  18. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Tamm, I E; Frenkel, V Ya

    1991-01-01

    I.E. Tamm is one of the great figures of 20th-century physics and the mentor of the late A.D. Sakharov. Together with I.M. Frank, he received the Nobel Prize in 1958 for the explanation of the Cherenkov effect. This book contains an annotated selection of his most important contributions to physics literature and essays on his contemporaries - Mandelstam, Einstein, Landau and Bohr as well as his contributions to the Pugwash conferences. About a third of the selections originally appeared in Russian and are now available to Western readers. This volume includes a preface by Sir Rudolf Peierls, a biography compiled by Tamm's former students, V.Ya. Frenkel and B.M. Bolotovskii, and a complete bibliography. This monograph on quantum theory, science history, particles and fields and the Cherenkov effect is intended for students, researchers, mathematicians and natural scientists in general.

  19. Friendship Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Javier

    2007-01-01

    We model the formation of friendships as repeated cooperation within a set of heterogeneous players. The model builds around three of the most important facts about friendship: friends help each other, there is reciprocity in the relationship and people usually have few friends. In our results we explain how similarity between people affects the friendship selection. We also characterize when the friendship network won’t depend on the random process by which people meet each other. Finally, w...

  20. Diffusion-weighted MRI and selection of patients for fibrinolytic therapy of acute cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, M. [Department of Neuroendovascular Therapy, Kohnan Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Takahashi, A. [Department of Neuroendovascular Therapy, Kohnan Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Division of Neuroendovascular Therapy, Department of Neuroscience, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku (Japan); Shimizu, H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Kohnan Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Yoshimoto, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Tohoku (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Treatment of patients with acute cerebral ischaemic events remains controversial. We investigated the reversibility of high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI after acute local intra-arterial fibrinolysis (LIF) and the feasibility of DW MRI for selecting patients for acute LIF. Nine patients with acute middle cerebral artery embolic occlusion underwent single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and DW MRI followed by acute LIF using tissue plasminogen activator. Recanalisation was observed in all patients, and eight improved clinically. The area of high signal intensity on pretreatment DW MRI was smaller than the low-uptake area on SPECT in all patients, and went on to infarction, as detected by MRI or CT 3 days after onset in all patients. It appears to correlate, at least clinically, with irreversible brain damage. Therefore, acute LIF should not be performed in patients with areas of high signal intensity in the cortex responsible for the symptoms. SPECT remains important, because areas normal on DW MRI with low uptake on SPECT often contribute to functional prognosis. (orig.)

  1. Nanotechnological selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-18

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach-combining therapy and diagnosis-to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of California

  2. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  3. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach—combining therapy and diagnosis—to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of

  4. Selected writings

    CERN Document Server

    Galilei, Galileo

    2012-01-01

    'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

  5. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Elgot, Calvin C

    1982-01-01

    Cal Elgot was a very serious and thoughtful researcher, who with great determi­ nation attempted to find basic explanations for certain mathematical phenomena­ as the selection of papers in this volume well illustrate. His approach was, for the most part, rather finitist and constructivist, and he was inevitably drawn to studies of the process of computation. It seems to me that his early work on decision problems relating automata and logic, starting with his thesis under Roger Lyndon and continuing with joint work with Biichi, Wright, Copi, Rutledge, Mezei, and then later with Rabin, set the stage for his attack on the theory of computation through the abstract treatment of the notion of a machine. This is also apparent in his joint work with A. Robinson reproduced here and in his joint papers with John Shepherdson. Of course in the light of subsequent work on decision problems by Biichi, Rabin, Shelah, and many, many others, the subject has been placed on a completely different plane from what it was whe...

  6. A Robust Spectrum Sensing Method Based on Maximum Cyclic Autocorrelation Selection for Dynamic Spectrum Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Kazushi; Ariyoshi, Masayuki; Fujii, Takeo

    Spectrum sensing is an important function for dynamic spectrum access (DSA) type cognitive radio systems to detect opportunities for sharing the spectrum with a primary system. The key requirements for spectrum sensing are stability in controlling the probability of false alarm as well as detection performance of the primary signals. However, false alarms can be triggered by noise uncertainty at the secondary devices or unknown interference signals from other secondary systems in realistic radio environments. This paper proposes a robust spectrum sensing method against such uncertainties; it is a kind of cyclostationary feature detection (CFD) approaches. Our proposed method, referred to as maximum cyclic autocorrelation selection (MCAS), compares the peak and non-peak values of the cyclic autocorrelation function (CAF) to detect primary signals, where the non-peak value is the CAF value calculated at cyclic frequencies between the peaks. In MCAS, the desired probability of false alarm can be obtained by setting the number of the non-peak values. In addition, the multiple peak values are combined in MCAS to obtain noise reduction effect and coherent combining gain. Through computer simulations, we show that MCAS can control the probability of false alarm under the condition of noise uncertainty and interference. Furthermore, our method achieves better performance with much less computational complexity in comparison to conventional CFD methods.

  7. Participatory Barley Variety Selection and Farmers' Selection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory Barley Variety Selection and Farmers' Selection Criteria in the Bale Highlands of Southeastern Ethiopia. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... The aim of the study was to identify farmers' selection criteria, preferences and generate baseline information on the importance of participatory barley ...

  8. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  9. Refined balloon pulmonary angioplasty driven by combined assessment of intra-arterial anatomy and physiology--Multimodal approach to treated lesions in patients with non-operable distal chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension--Technique, safety and efficacy of 50 consecutive angioplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Marek; Wretowski, Dominik; Łabyk, Andrzej; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Irzyk, Katarzyna; Dzikowska-Diduch, Olga; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Ciurzyński, Michał; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-15

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is an emerging therapeutic method in CTEPH. We aimed to prove the safety and efficacy of refined BPA driven by combined assessment of intra-arterial anatomy (IVUS/OCT) and physiology (pulmonary pressure ratio, PPR) in non-operable distal CTEPH. 11 pts (mean age 76, 59–84, 7 males) were enrolled in the BPA program according to the following inclusion criteria: 1. Non-operable CTEPH; 2. RHC with mPAP > 30 mm Hg; 3. At least one segmental perfusion defect at lung scintigraphy; 4. WHO class > II. Overall, 9 pts underwent 27 BPA sessions (mean 3 sessions per patient, range 1–5), 50 pulmonary arteries were dilated (mean 6 vessels per patient, range 3–9; 2.03 dilated arteries per session). All the angioplasties were performed according to an algorithm, which incorporated anatomical and functional assessment of targeted lesions. We performed BPA of 32 web lesions, 5 ring-like stenosis and 13 complete obstructions. BPA resulted in clinical and hemodynamic improvement. WHO class improved from pre-BPA to post-BPA (p = 0.018), and 6 MWD increased from 304 m to 384 m (p = 0.03), NT-proBNP dropped from 1248 pg/ml to 730 pg/ml (p < 0.001). Mean PAP and PVR decreased (p = 0.01), while CO and CI increased (p = 0.01). All dilated arteries were patent at angiographic reassessment. No significant complications occurred and all treated patients are still alive. Insignificant transient reperfusion pulmonary oedema occurred in only 2 patients, who responded well to supplemental oxygen. Refined BPA with assessment of intrapulmonary physiology using a pressure wire and precise evaluation of anatomy with IVUS and OCT provides hemodynamic and functional improvement, with minimal complications in distal non-operable CTEPH. This observation requires further validation in a large prospective study.

  10. Two-dimensional thick-slice MR digital subtraction angiography for assessment of cerebrovascular occlusive diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hori, M.; Ishigame, K.; Nambu, A.; Kumagai, H.; Araki, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Univ. (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    Although spatial resolution of current MR angiography is excellent, temporal resolution has remained unsatisfactory. We evaluated clinical applicability of 2D thick-slice, contrast-enhanced subtraction MR angiography (2D-MR digital subtraction angiography) with sub-second temporal resolution in cerebrovascular occlusive diseases. Twenty-five patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases (8 moyamoya diseases, 10 proximal internal carotid occlusions, and 2 sinus thromboses) were studied with a 1.5-T MR unit. The MR digital subtraction angiography (MRDSA) was performed per 0.97 s continuously just after a bolus injection of 15 ml of gadolinium chelates up to 40 s in sagittal (covering hemisphere) or coronal planes. Subtraction images were generated at a workstation. We evaluated imaging quality and hemodynamic information of MRDSA in comparison with those of routine MR imaging, non-contrast MR angiography, and X-ray intra-arterial DSA. Major cerebral arteries, all of the venous sinuses, and most tributaries were clearly visualized with 2D MRDSA. Also, pure arterial phases were obtained in all cases. The MRDSA technique demonstrated prolonged circulation in sinus thromboses, distal patent lumen of proximal occlusion, and some collateral circulation. Such hemodynamic information was comparable to that of intra-arterial DSA. Two-dimensional thick-slice MRDSA with high temporal resolution has a unique ability to demonstrate cerebral hemodynamics equivalent to that of intra-arterial DSA and may play an important role for evaluation of cerebrovascular occlusive diseases. (orig.)

  11. The social selection alternative to sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughgarden, Joan

    2012-08-19

    Social selection offers an alternative to sexual selection by reversing its logic. Social selection starts with offspring production and works back to mating, and starts with behavioural dynamics and works up to gene pool dynamics. In social selection, courtship can potentially be deduced as a negotiation, leading to an optimal allocation of tasks during offspring rearing. Ornaments facilitate this negotiation and also comprise 'admission tickets' to cliques. Mating pairs may form 'teams' based on the reciprocal sharing of pleasure. The parent-offspring relation can be managed by the parent considered as the owner of a 'family firm' whose product is offspring. The cooperation in reproductive social behaviour evolves as a mutual direct benefit through individual selection rather than as some form of altruism requiring kin or multi-level selection.

  12. Multidetector-Row CT Angiography of Cerebral Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Comparison of Bone Subtraction and Standard CT Angiography with Digital Subtraction Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; You, Jin Jong; Choi, Ho Cheol; Kim, Ji Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dae Seob [Gyeongsang Institue of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Jae Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of multidetector-row CT angiography (MDCTA) for the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by comparison of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and to compare the bone subtraction CT angiography (BS-CTA) and standard CT angiography (S-CTA). Thirty-three patients who were treated with intraarterial nimodipine infusion for the cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH were evaluated with MDCTA and DSA. BS-CTA images were reconstructed from the S-CTA and unenhanced CT source images. A total of 207 vascular segments were evaluated. A four-step scale for the degree of stenosis was applied for each segment. With DSA as the standard images, BS-CTA and S-CTA images were comparied. On DSA, 56 segments (27%) presented vasospasm. Concordance between the DSA and S-CTA and between DSA and BS-CTA were 94.7% and 82.1%, respectively. Overestimation for the degree of stenosis was shown in 37 segments on BS-CTA and in 8 segments on S-CTA, but underestimated segments were only shown on S-CTA (n = 4). MDCTA with standard technique seems to be a useful imaging tool for the evaluation of the cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH. However, BS-CTA is not needed because of additional radiation and overestimation of the degree of stenosis.

  13. Selection for postgraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, Gominda G

    2010-12-01

    Selection for an educational programme requires meticulous planning and the adoption of sound educational principles to decide on how and what should be assessed. This article provides a step-wise guide for developing a selection process for postgraduate specialty training, based on the best practice in the literature. The literature on selecting applicants for educational programmes was reviewed to categorise the selection methods according to their purpose, and their relative strengths and weaknesses. A step-wise guide that encapsulated the best practice for designing a selection process for postgraduate specialty training was then developed. The steps of developing a selection process for postgraduate specialty training are: determining the competencies required for the training programme; selecting the competencies that can be assessed at selection; identifying content for selection; blueprinting; choice of selection tests; development of test material; piloting; and implementation and evaluation of the selection process. There are robust tests to assess applicants' knowledge at the lower two levels of Miller's pyramid. Scenario-based testing holds promise for assessing at 'shows-how' level. Assessing at 'does' level during selection is difficult, but not impossible. There is no one test that can be used to select an applicant for a postgraduate training programme. Rather a battery of tests that assesses all the competencies, sampled according to a blueprint, should be used. The eight-step guide proposed in this article provides an educationally sound and defensible procedure to develop a selection process. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  14. SELECTION IN SPORT - FOOTBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Vukajlović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative system children and youth sports’ training in most of the countries contain well defined procedure of selection top-level sportsman. In developed countries basis of prestige include well organized football schools in which selected groups of potential top/level football players are treated with very re- strictive training programs. Selection of football players is multiple activity which contains download and selectivity. Using organized selection incidental is avoided and first precondition for quali- tative work of football school is ensured. Selections in schools should be conducted at least two times per year, basic selec- tions once per year after ending competing season

  15. Behaviorism and Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    consequences resistance to selectionist thinking for as long as the evidence Thomas J. Gamble permits. [Cf. Chomsk.. "Rules and Representations" BBS 3(1...years befbre the similarity to natural 7 " Probem Solving.") Input-output suggests a stimulus- selection suggested itself. Selection is not a metaphor... Gamble implies, that selected and what are the selecting consequences. With- experimental behavior analysts wsere the first to suggest a * ~it givenm

  16. Case Selection via Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    This article shows how statistical matching methods can be used to select "most similar" cases for qualitative analysis. I first offer a methodological justification for research designs based on selecting most similar cases. I then discuss the applicability of existing matching methods to the task of selecting most similar cases and…

  17. Strategic Sample Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Tillio, Alfredo; Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2017-01-01

    is double logconvex, as with normal noise. The results are applied to the analysis of strategic sample selection by a biased researcher and extended to the case of uncertain and unanticipated selection. Our theoretical analysis offers applied research a new angle on the problem of selection in empirical......What is the impact of sample selection on the inference payoff of an evaluator testing a simple hypothesis based on the outcome of a location experiment? We show that anticipated selection locally reduces noise dispersion and thus increases informativeness if and only if the noise distribution...

  18. Economic Selection Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2003-01-01

    principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of economic evolution, Alchian's and Nelson and Winter's, are used to illustrate how this could be achieved.......The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian...

  19. Selective Stopping? Maybe not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2013-01-01

    Selective stopping paradigms address selectivity in controlled behavior, as subjects stop certain responses or responses to certain stimuli. The literature has discussed two strategies for selective stopping. First, selective stopping may prolong the stop process by adding a discrimination stage (Independent Discriminate then Stop). Second, selective stopping may involve stopping non-selectively and then restarting the response if the signal is an ignore signal (Stop then Discriminate). We discovered a variant of the first strategy that occurred often in our experiments and previously published experiments: the requirement to discriminate stop and ignore signals may interact with the go process, invalidating the independent race model (Dependent Discriminate then Stop). Our experiments focused on stimulus selective stopping, in which subjects stop to one signal and ignore another. When stop and ignore signals were equally likely, some subjects used the Stop then Discriminate strategy and others used the Dependent Discriminate then Stop strategy. When stop signals were more frequent than ignore signals, most subjects used the Stop then Discriminate strategy; when ignore signals were more frequent than stop signals, most subjects used the Dependent Discriminate then Stop strategy. The commonly accepted Independent Discriminate then Stop strategy was seldom implemented. Selective stopping was either not selective (Stop then Discriminate), or interacted with going (Dependent Discriminate then Stop). Implications for the cognitive science, lifespan development, clinical science, and neuroscience of selective stopping are discussed. PMID:23477668

  20. IT Project Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the right IT projects is increasingly important for many organizations. Project portfolio managers play a key role during project selection, but even though they have a great impact on the selection process, we have little knowledge about how they decide which projects to recommend...... for initiation. Most of the research on project selection is normative, suggesting new methods, but available empirical studies indicate that many methods are seldom used in practice. This paper addresses the issue by providing increased understanding of IT project selection practice, thereby facilitating...... the development of methods that better fit current practice. The study is based on naturalistic decision-making theory and interviews with experienced project portfolio managers who, when selecting projects, primarily rely on political skills, experience and personal networks rather than on formal IT project...

  1. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  2. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  3. Development of a VX2 pancreatic cancer model in rabbits: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, Aaron C; Lewandowski, Robert J; Virmani, Sumeet; Chung, Johnathan C; Wang, Dingxin; Tang, Richard L; Szolc-Kowalska, Barbara; Woloschak, Gayle E; Yang, Guang-Yu; Ryu, Robert K; Salem, Riad; Larson, Andrew C; Cheon, Eric; Strouch, Matthew; Bentrem, David J; Omary, Reed A

    2009-08-01

    An animal model of pancreatic cancer that is large enough to permit imaging and catheterization would be desirable for interventional radiologists to develop novel therapies for pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the VX2 rabbit model of pancreatic cancer could be developed as a suitable platform to test future interventional therapies. The authors implanted and grew three pancreatic VX2 tumors per rabbit in six rabbits. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed at 2 weeks to confirm tumor growth. At 3 weeks, the authors selectively catheterized the gastroduodenal artery under guidance of x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA). T2-weighted anatomic imaging, diffusion-weighted MR imaging, and transcatheter intraarterial perfusion (TRIP) MR imaging were then performed. After imaging, tumors were confirmed at necropsy and histopathologically. Tumor sizes at 2 and 3 weeks were compared with a paired t test (P = .05). VX2 pancreatic tumors were grown in all six rabbits. The difference between tumor sizes at 2 and 3 weeks (1.29 cm +/- 0.39 vs 1.91 cm +/- 0.50, respectively) was significant (P rabbits. Diffusion-weighted and anatomic MR imaging were successful in all six rabbits. The VX2 rabbit model of pancreatic cancer is feasible, as verified by imaging and pathologic correlation, and may be a suitable platform to test future interventional therapies.

  4. Development of the VX2 Pancreatic Cancer Model in Rabbits: A Platform to Test Future Interventional Radiology Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, Aaron C.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Virmani, Sumeet; Chung, Johnathan C.; Wang, Dingxin; Tang, Richard L.; Szolc-Kowalska, Barbara; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Yang, Guang-Yu; Ryu, Robert K.; Salem, Riad; Larson, Andrew C.; Cheon, Eric; Strouch, Matthew; Bentrem, David J.; Omary, Reed A.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE An animal model of pancreatic cancer that is large enough to permit imaging and catheterization would be desirable for interventional radiologists to develop novel therapies for pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the VX2 rabbit model of pancreatic cancer could be developed as a suitable platform to test future interventional therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS The authors implanted and grew three pancreatic VX2 tumors per rabbit in six rabbits. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed at two weeks to confirm tumor growth. At three weeks, the authors selectively catheterized the gastroduodenal artery under guidance of x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA). T2-weighted anatomic, diffusion-weighted (DWI), and transcatheter intraarterial perfusion (TRIP) MR imaging were then performed. Following imaging, tumors were confirmed at necropsy and histopathology. Size of tumors at two and three weeks was compared using a paired t-test (P = .05). RESULTS VX2 pancreatic tumors were grown in 6/6 rabbits. The difference between tumor size at two and three weeks, 1.29 cm (± 0.39) and 1.91 cm (±0.50) respectively, was statistically significant (p rabbits. DWI and anatomic MR imaging was successful in 6/6 rabbits. CONCLUSION The VX2 rabbit model of pancreatic cancer is feasible, as verified by imaging and pathologic correlation, and may be a suitable platform to test future interventional therapies. PMID:19560941

  5. Mucocutaneous complications of intraarterial 5-bromodeoxyuridine and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCuaig, C.C.; Ellis, C.N.; Greenberg, H.S.; Hegarty, T.J.; Page, M.A. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1989-12-01

    5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BUDR), a halopyrimidine thymidine analogue, is incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells and causes photoradiosensitization. Twenty-five patients with malignant astrocytomas were treated with continuous intracarotid BUDR radiosensitization and radiotherapy for 8 1/2 weeks. Unique dose-limiting mucocutaneous complications were encountered. Ipsilateral facial dermatitis with epilation of eyebrows and eyelashes, ocular irritation, and bilateral nail dystrophy developed in all patients. Less common reactions included oral ulceration in six patients, body exanthem on the trunk in five, and atypical erythema multiforme major in one.

  6. Sexual selection in Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is an important factor that drives evolution, in which fitness is increased, not by increasing survival or viability, but by acquiring more or better mates. Sexual selection favours traits that increase the ability of an individual to obtain more matings than other individuals that

  7. Selecting Schizosaccharomyces pombe diploids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe procedures for the selection of diploid Schizosaccharomyces pombe. ade6-M210/ade6-M216 heteroallelic complementation is widely used to select for Ade+ diploids. Such diploids will readily sporulate when starved of nitrogen. For some investigations, stable diploids are preferable (e...

  8. Designing Menu Selection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Ben

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the multiple design issues involved in creating successful menu selection systems: semantic organization, response time, display rates, shortcuts for frequent users, titles, phrasing of menu items, graphic layout, and selection mechanisms. Pop-up and embedded menus, experimental results, and design guidelines are also covered.…

  9. Potentiometric anion selective sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David

    1999-01-01

    In comparison with selective receptors (and sensors) for cationic species, work on the selective complexation and detection of anions is of more recent date. There are three important components for a sensor, a transducer element, a membrane material that separates the transducer element and the

  10. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  11. Use of Selection Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Thomas K., Comp.

    In December 1973, questionnaires were sent to academic libraries of varying size to discover which book and materials selection aids were used in the library's acquisition process. Aids under consideration included book reviews in library journals, professional subject journals, and publisher's selection/promotional material. The highlights of the…

  12. Selected areas in cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oorschot, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  13. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…

  14. Review of Aviator Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    achieved by a battery that reliably and accurately measures general intelligence: psychomotor skills; selective and divided attention; working memory ...aviator selection, including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Caldwell, O’Hara, Caldwell, Stephens, & Krueger, 1993), Eysenck Personality...administered tests measuring psychomotor skills, short-term memory , time- sharing ability, and attitudes toward risk-taking. Across several studies, the

  15. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades...... selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  16. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  17. Phenotypic selection in natural populations: what limits directional selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Diamond, Sarah E

    2011-03-01

    Studies of phenotypic selection document directional selection in many natural populations. What factors reduce total directional selection and the cumulative evolutionary responses to selection? We combine two data sets for phenotypic selection, representing more than 4,600 distinct estimates of selection from 143 studies, to evaluate the potential roles of fitness trade-offs, indirect (correlated) selection, temporally varying selection, and stabilizing selection for reducing net directional selection and cumulative responses to selection. We detected little evidence that trade-offs among different fitness components reduced total directional selection in most study systems. Comparisons of selection gradients and selection differentials suggest that correlated selection frequently reduced total selection on size but not on other types of traits. The direction of selection on a trait often changes over time in many temporally replicated studies, but these fluctuations have limited impact in reducing cumulative directional selection in most study systems. Analyses of quadratic selection gradients indicated stabilizing selection on body size in at least some studies but provided little evidence that stabilizing selection is more common than disruptive selection for most traits or study systems. Our analyses provide little evidence that fitness trade-offs, correlated selection, or stabilizing selection strongly constrains the directional selection reported for most quantitative traits.

  18. The costs and effects of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and digital substraction angiography on quality of life in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Jan; Dijksman, Lea M; Lam, Kayan; Wisselink, Willem; van Swijndregt, Alexander D Montauban; Vahl, Anco

    2014-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) both have a high diagnostic performance in the imaging of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). However, little is known about the effects of initial, preoperative imaging using MRA or DSA on quality of life (QoL) in relation to costs (cost-utility). To compare cost-utility of treatment strategies using either MRA or DSA as the principal imaging tool, related to QoL, in patients with PAOD. In a prospective subgroup analysis of patients randomized between MRA and DSA (n = 79) for preoperative imaging, QoL questionnaires (SF-36) were obtained at randomization and at 4-month follow-up. Cost-effectiveness from hospital perspective was subsequently compared between groups and the difference in gained or lost QoL per € spent assessed using bootstrap analysis. No difference in quality of life was found. A treatment trajectory employing MRA as the principal imaging modality was almost 20% cheaper, leading to a better cost-utility ratio in favor of MRA. A treatment plan for peripheral arterial occlusive disease employing MRA versus DSA as the principal imaging modality yields a better cost/QoL ratio for MRA.

  19. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.

  20. Embryo selection in IVF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; van der Veen, Fulco; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Shapiro, Bruce; Bossuyt, Patrick; Repping, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    To optimize success rates of IVF, selection of the most viable embryo(s) for transfer has always been essential, as embryos that are cryopreserved are thought to have a reduced chance of implanting after thawing...

  1. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Social conflict, in the form of intraspecific selfish "cheating" has been observed in a number of natural systems. However, a formal, evolutionary genetic theory of social cheating that provides an explanatory, predictive framework for these observations is lacking. Here we derive the kin...... selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...... lineages are transient and do not invade. Instead, cheating lineages are eliminated by kin selection but are constantly reintroduced by mutation, maintaining a stable equilibrium frequency of cheaters. The presence of cheaters at equilibrium creates a "cheater load" that selects for mechanisms of cheater...

  2. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor mode selection laser, particularly to a VCSEL laser (200) having mode selection properties. The mode selection capability of the laser is achieved by configuring one of the reflectors (15,51) in the resonance cavity so that a reflectivity of the reflector...... (15) varies spatially in one dimension or two dimensions. Accordingly, the reflector (15) with spatially varying reflectivity is part both of the resonance cavity and the mode selection functionality of the laser. A plurality of the lasers configured with different mode selectors, i.e. different...... spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33...

  3. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  4. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  5. Entrepreneurs and Economic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk

    model for competition in service sectors is seen as particularly interesting, as the Mark I model thus provides a framework for future analysis of competition in sectors that are very poorly described by the focus on production, goods and quantities of most traditional theory. The selection aspect...... of Schumpeter's models is also mapped and it is shown that the traditional interpretation of selection as a source of allocative efficiency is at most applicable to input markets in manufacturing sectors. In output markets and in service sectors in general selection is a more dynamic phenomenon where resources......The paper discusses Schumpeter's models of competition and then attempts to identify the Mark I model empirically. The results are that entrepreneurial activity is important in young sectors, as expected, but also often in high-tech sectors and in many service sectors. The relevance of the Mark I...

  6. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  7. Antecedent Selection for Sluicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Pranav; Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sluicing is an elliptical process where the majority of a question can go unpronounced as long as there is a salient antecedent in previous discourse. This paper considers the task of antecedent selection: finding the correct antecedent for a given case of sluicing. We argue that both syntactic...... and discourse relationships are important in antecedent selection, and we construct linguistically sophisticated features that describe the relevant relationships. We also define features that describe the relation of the content of the antecedent and the sluice type. We develop a linear model which achieves...... accuracy of 72.4%, a substantial improvement over a strong manually constructed baseline. Feature analysis confirms that both syntactic and discourse features are important in antecedent selection....

  8. Improving staff selection processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerinus, Marie; Shannon, Marina

    2014-11-11

    This article, the second in a series of articles on Leading Better Care, describes the actions undertaken in recent years in NHS Lanarkshire to improve selection processes for nursing, midwifery and allied health professional (NMAHP) posts. This is an area of significant interest to these professions, management colleagues and patients given the pivotal importance of NMAHPs to patient care and experience. In recent times the importance of selecting staff not only with the right qualifications but also with the right attributes has been highlighted to ensure patients are well cared for in a safe, effective and compassionate manner. The article focuses on NMAHP selection processes, tracking local, collaborative development work undertaken to date. It presents an overview of some of the work being implemented, highlights a range of important factors, outlines how evaluation is progressing and concludes by recommending further empirical research.

  9. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. [Farr Co., El Segundo, CA (United States)]|[Farr Co., Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-04-01

    A thorough analysis of the dust to be captured and determination of specific application requirements are necessary when designing a baghouse collection system. Independent consultants specializing in pollution control equipment and manufacturers with experience in several types of collectors are possible sources of assistance. These experts typically have testing facilities to analyze the dust characteristics. This final article of a two-part series on baghouse design and selection concentrates on application considerations created by the type of dust handled, selecting the best filtration media, selecting the best filtration media, and determining the air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio. The first article discussed bag sizing and cleaning methods and housing and hopper designs.

  10. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  11. A Selective CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    The CPS transformation makes all functions continuation-passing, uniformly. Not all functions, however, need continuations: they only do if their evaluation includes computational effects. In this paper we focus on control operations, in particular "call with current continuation" and "throw". We...... characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  12. SHRS RRCL selection methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, J E; Delaney, H M

    1980-05-01

    The CRBRP Safety Related Reliability Program requires a listing of those design items whose failure would impact the ability of the plant for a safe shutdown or shutdown heat removal mission. This listing is referred to as the Reliability Related Components List (RRCL) and heretofore, has been based on sound engineering judgement. As a check for completeness and as a means of providing a probabilistic-based rationale for component selection, this report presents a methodology by which this selection can be made for each of the decay heat removal loops comprising the Shutdown Heat Removal System (SHRS) using existing EG and G fault tree models.

  13. Solar selective surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buskirk, O.R.

    1982-01-12

    Postformable solar selective coatings are disclosed for use on substrates such as aluminum. The coatings use a finely divided black inherently selective spinel pigment such as Co3O4, CuCr2O4 or CuxCo3-xO4 where X is 0.03 to 0.3 and preferably 0.10 to 0.30. The binders are soluble copolymers of vinylidene fluoride or blends thereof or vinylidene fluoride with a copolymer of methyl methacrylate.

  14. Selecting and evoking innovators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    prepared for and conducted selection of and collaboration with innovators. The outcome was successful in the sense that the innovators produced excellent foundation for conceptual interaction design by creating mock-ups and explanations incarnating their preferences, attitudes and habits. By referring...... to theories of learning we try to explain how our way of working with selection and evoking of innovators has contributed to this positive result and how our approach to user-driven innovation can be regarded as a way to combine democracy and creativity in design....

  15. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  16. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  17. Frequency selective terahertz retroreflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard James

    The use of novel optical structures operating at terahertz frequencies in industrial and military applications continues to grow. Some of these novel structures include gratings, frequency selective surfaces, metamaterials and metasurfaces, and retroreflectors. A retroreflector is a device that exhibits enhanced backscatter by concentrating the reflected wave in the direction of the source. Retroreflectors have applications in a variety of diverse fields such as aviation, radar systems, antenna technology, communications, navigation, passive identification, and metrology due to their large acceptance angles and frequency bandwidth. This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of a retroreflector designed for terahertz frequencies and the incorporation of a frequency selective surface in order to endow the retroreflector with narrow-band frequency performance. The radar cross section of several spherical lens reflectors operating at terahertz frequencies was investigated. Spherical lens reflectors with diameters ranging from 2 mm to 8 mm were fabricated from fused silica ball lenses and their radar cross section was measured at 100 GHz, 160 GHz, and 350 GHz. Crossed-dipole frequency selective surfaces exhibiting band-pass characteristics at 350 GHz fabricated from 12 um-thick Nickel screens were applied to the apertures of the spherical lens reflectors. The radar cross section of the frequency selective retroreflectors was measured at 160 GHz and 350 GHz to demonstrate proof-of-concept of narrow-band terahertz performance.

  18. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  19. Man and Natural Selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Man and Natural Selection. Theodosius Dobzhansky. Reflections Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 92-100. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/10/0092-0100 ...

  20. Reinventing Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2006-01-01

    Although many research studies report students' Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15-16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is…

  1. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  2. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  3. Whole Genome Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole genome selection (WGS) is an approach to using DNA markers that are distributed throughout the entire genome. Genes affecting most economically-important traits are distributed throughout the genome and there are relatively few that have large effects with many more genes with progressively sm...

  4. A Darwin Selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 7. A Darwin Selection A Comprehensive Darwin Anthology. Shailesh Deshpande Milind Watve. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 7 July 1997 pp 91-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  6. Selfish spermatogonial selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Jasmine; Maher, Geoffrey J; Turner, Gareth D H

    2012-01-01

    frequencies in the sperm of older men. Previous analyses of DNA from randomly selected cadaveric testes showed that the levels of the corresponding FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET mutations exhibit very uneven spatial distributions, with localised hotspots surrounded by large mutation-negative areas. These studies imply...

  7. Selected Outdoor Recreation Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    In this recreational information report, 96 tables are compiled from Bureau of Outdoor Recreation programs and surveys, other governmental agencies, and private sources. Eight sections comprise the document: (1) The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, (2) Federal Assistance to Recreation, (3) Recreation Surveys for Planning, (4) Selected Statistics of…

  8. selective herbicide glyphosate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... This study examined the phyto-toxic effects of a commonly named non-selective herbicide glyphosate. (Roundup™) on ... balance of onions (A. cepa) and similar plants and subsequent effect on human, the major end user. Key words: ..... potential role in the epidemiology of Iris yellow spot virus in an onion.

  9. SELECTIONS IN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population B3 is the most advanced source of horizontal resistance available at the International Potato Centre. (CIP). In this population, testing and selection for horizontal resistance to late blight, unlike those previously ... succumbed to late blight, recording substantial ...... Kalengyere 2002A, for example, late blight.

  10. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  11. Mass selection in maize composites by means of selection indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, de F.

    1972-01-01

    General considerations

    A selection index may be applied to selection based either upon the performance of single plants or upon the performance of progenies. In the latter case however, index selection should only result in a modest gain in selection efficiency, when

  12. Natural Selection as Coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerlak, Matteo

    2017-11-01

    Analogies between evolutionary dynamics and statistical mechanics, such as Fisher's second-law-like "fundamental theorem of natural selection" and Wright's "fitness landscapes", have had a deep and fruitful influence on the development of evolutionary theory. Here I discuss a new conceptual link between evolution and statistical physics. I argue that natural selection can be viewed as a coarsening phenomenon, similar to the growth of domain size in quenched magnets or to Ostwald ripening in alloys and emulsions. In particular, I show that the most remarkable features of coarsening—scaling and self-similarity—have strict equivalents in evolutionary dynamics. This analogy has three main virtues: it brings a set of well-developed mathematical tools to bear on evolutionary dynamics; it suggests new problems in theoretical evolution; and it provides coarsening physics with a new exactly soluble model.

  13. Selecting a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghovanlou, A.H. (MITRE Corp., McLean, VA); Ettlinger, L.; Cotton, T.; Barnard, W.; Siever, R.

    1982-01-01

    Present knowledge about the regional and local geologic predictions as it relates to waste repository sites and some related knowledge gained from oil and mining explorations are summarized. The types of geologic testing involved in selecting a repository site are described, and a simple analytic scheme for estimating the costs of such a program is discussed. This scheme is based on the sequential accumulation of knowledge throughout the process of siting. It is concluded that several sites should be investigated simultaneously since there is a trade-off to be made between the economic costs of carrying forward all the sites that pass the screening process and the political costs of selecting from a limited number of qualified sites. This would help to insure that a qualified site would be publicly acceptable at some point in the future. (BLM)

  14. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  15. Selection of Military Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    biases, or racism against a particular group of people should be an advisor. However all people generalize and stereotype to a degree. There are...Personal observation of author and commonly discussed in Vietnam-era documents. In this case, “ racism ” is defined as “[t]he belief that race...have been successfully transferred from Coalition to Iraqi Security Forces. However, to make selection sufficiently attractive, no negative stigma

  16. Senegal; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes Senegal’s real effective exchange rate (REER) and external competitiveness. A REER significantly above its equilibrium, as determined by economic fundamentals, can impede a country’s external competitiveness, calling for corrective macroeconomic measures. This paper finds no conclusive evidence of a REER overvaluation, implying that structural reforms are key to improving Senegal’s external competitiveness. The paper also describes Senegal’s export performa...

  17. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmanspacher, Harald [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Haven, Emmanuel [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Management; Kitto, Kirsty [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Raine, Derek (ed.) [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Interdisciplinary Science

    2014-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  18. Algeria; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper explores the monetary policy transmission channels in Algeria and analyzes available options to strengthen monetary policy effectiveness. High liquidity has been the hallmark of the Algerian monetary policy framework for most of the 2000s. The paper assesses the impact of monetary policy changes on its final targets—growth and inflation, and outlines policy options to strengthen the efficacy of monetary policy. It takes stock of Algeria’s current fiscal framewor...

  19. Nigeria; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper discusses promotion of economic transformation in Nigeria. Nigeria’s long-term potential is keyed on promoting economic transformation. This implies taking stock of initial conditions, assessing long-term financing capacity, and evaluating the policies and reforms to be implemented to meet the long term vision. The recent fall in prices has highlighted the challenging but compelling need to address remaining development challenges. This paper discusses some of these...

  20. Bhutan; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper describes the current tax system in Bhutan and suggests options for tax policy reform. Though significant hydropower revenues are expected in the medium term as major projects come on-stream, reforms to the existing tax system in the interim will generate fiscal room and prevent recourse to domestic debt to finance development needs. Key reforms include reducing tax exemptions in the near term and introduction of value-added tax in the medium term. The paper also an...

  1. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  2. Malaysia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3 percent of GDP by 2015, down from 4.0 percent in 2013, and to balance the budget by 2020. It suggests that ranking fiscal instruments under different fiscal policy goals can help policymakers identify the composition of fiscal adjustment based on their preferences. By combining ran...

  3. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  4. Selective leptin resistance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In addition to effects on appetite and metabolism, leptin influences many neuroendocrine and physiological systems, including the sympathetic nervous system. Building on my Carl Ludwig Lecture of the American Physiological Society, I review the sympathetic and cardiovascular actions of leptin. The review focuses on a critical analysis of the concept of selective leptin resistance (SLR) and the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension in both experimental animals and humans. We introduced the concept of SLR in 2002 to explain how leptin might increase blood pressure (BP) in obese states, such as diet-induced obesity (DIO), that are accompanied by partial leptin resistance. This concept, analogous to selective insulin resistance in the metabolic syndrome, holds that in several genetic and acquired models of obesity, there is preservation of the renal sympathetic and pressor actions of leptin despite attenuation of the appetite and weight-reducing actions. Two potential overlapping mechanisms of SLR are reviewed: 1) differential leptin molecular signaling pathways that mediate selective as opposed to universal leptin action and 2) brain site-specific leptin action and resistance. Although the phenomenon of SLR in DIO has so far focused on preservation of sympathetic and BP actions of leptin, consideration should be given to the possibility that this concept may extend to preservation of other actions of leptin. Finally, I review perplexing data on the effects of leptin on sympathetic activity and BP in humans and its role in human obesity-induced hypertension. PMID:23883674

  5. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  6. Selection of Celebrity Endorsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting....... Practical implications – Conducted case studies indicate that there are various avenues how brands come to their endorser. We could not find evidence of a best practice strategy.......Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting...... several candidates by means of subtle evaluation procedures. Design/methodology/approach – A case study research has been carried out among companies experienced in celebrity endorsements to learn more about the endorser selection process in practise. Based on these cases theory is inductively developed...

  7. Selected DOE headquarters publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    Selected DOE Headquarters Publications provides cumulative listings, from October 1, 1977 onward, of two groups of publications issued by headquarters organizations of the Department of Energy, and an index to their title keywords. The two groups consist of publications assigned a DOE/XXX-type report number code and headquarters contractor publications, prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department. Publications such as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories, are omitted, as are publications issued under the DOE-tr, CONF, DOE/JPL, and DOE/NASA codes. (RWR)

  8. Reprint of: Electrochemical oxidation of stabilized landfill leachate on DSA electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turro, Elisabetta [Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Padua, 35100 Padua (Italy); Giannis, Apostolos [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Cossu, Raffaello [Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Padua, 35100 Padua (Italy); Gidarakos, Evangelos; Mantzavinos, Dionissios [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Katsaounis, Alexandros, E-mail: alex.katsaounis@chemeng.upatras.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2012-03-15

    The electrochemical oxidation of stabilized landfill leachate with 2960 mg L{sup -1} chemical oxygen demand (COD) over a Ti/IrO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2} anode was investigated in the presence of HClO{sub 4} as the supporting electrolyte. Emphasis was given on the effect of electrolysis time (up to 240 min) and temperature (30, 60 and 80 Degree-Sign C), current density (8, 16 and 32 mA cm{sup -2}), initial effluent's pH (0.25, 3, 5 and 6), HClO{sub 4} concentration (0.25 and 1 M) and the addition of NaCl (20 and 100 mM) or Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (20 mM) as source of extra electrogenerated oxidants on performance; the latter was evaluated regarding COD, total carbon (TC), total phenols (TPh) and color removal. Moreover, the anode was studied by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The main parameters affecting the process were the effluent's pH and the addition of salts. Treatment for 240 min at 32 mA cm{sup -2} current density, 80 Degree-Sign C and the pH adjusted from its inherent value of 0.25 (i.e. after the addition of HClO{sub 4}) to 3 yielded 90% COD, 65% TC and complete color and TPh removal at an electricity consumption of 35 kWh kg{sup -1} COD removed. Comparable performance (i.e. 75% COD reduction) could be achieved without pH adjustment but with the addition of 100 mM NaCl consuming 20 kWh kg{sup -1} COD removed.

  9. Experimental studies on effect of Date Seed Ash (DSA) on strength properties of cement sand mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunarani, G. I.; Chakkravarthy, S. P.

    2017-07-01

    The need for alternative material for the cement is arising and being compromised by many engineering researchers. However, the growing demand and surging prices of raw materials challenges the constructional field. India, being one of the largest agricultural economy, produces a quantitative volume of agro-waste that is being dumped. In the conventional concrete production, coarse aggregate (CA) plays an important filler material. The initial study on date seed as a replacement for CA was not successful. This study primarily focuses on Date seed ash as a replacement material for ordinary Portland cement. OPC was replaced by Date Palm Seed Ash (DPSA) in the ratio up to 10% in terms of 2% interval. The main objective of this paper was to study the variation of strength properties of mortar by DPSA in specified ratio along with curing period of 3,7,14 and 28 days. The stress strain behavior has indicated a significant improvement. The overall results indicated the increase in replacing ratio, decreases the strength properties. However the physical, chemical and mechanical properties increased gradually in strength in minimal ratio.

  10. Reprint of: Electrochemical oxidation of stabilized landfill leachate on DSA electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turro, Elisabetta; Giannis, Apostolos; Cossu, Raffaello; Gidarakos, Evangelos; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Katsaounis, Alexandros

    2012-03-15

    The electrochemical oxidation of stabilized landfill leachate with 2960 mgL(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD) over a Ti/IrO2-RuO2 anode was investigated in the presence of HClO4 as the supporting electrolyte. Emphasis was given on the effect of electrolysis time (up to 240 min) and temperature (30, 60 and 80 °C), current density (8, 16 and 32 mAcm(-2)), initial effluent's pH (0.25, 3, 5 and 6), HClO4 concentration (0.25 and 1M) and the addition of NaCl (20 and 100 mM) or Na2SO4 (20 mM) as source of extra electrogenerated oxidants on performance; the latter was evaluated regarding COD, total carbon (TC), total phenols (TPh) and color removal. Moreover, the anode was studied by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The main parameters affecting the process were the effluent's pH and the addition of salts. Treatment for 240 min at 32 mAcm(-2) current density, 80 °C and the pH adjusted from its inherent value of 0.25 (i.e., after the addition of HClO4) to 3 yielded 90% COD, 65% TC and complete color and TPh removal at an electricity consumption of 35kWhkg(-1) COD removed. Comparable performance (i.e. 75% COD reduction) could be achieved without pH adjustment but with the addition of 100mM NaCl consuming 20 kWhkg(-1) COD removed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrochemical degradation of diuron in chloride medium using DSA Registered-Sign based anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipi, Angelo R. F.; Aquino Neto, Sidney; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de, E-mail: ardandra@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    This work presents a study of the electrochemical degradation of the herbicide diuron using Ti/Ru{sub x}Ti{sub (1-x)}O{sub 2} and Ti/Ir{sub x}Ti{sub (1-x)}O{sub 2} (x 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7) anodes. The investigation of the degradation was conducted in the presence and in the absence of chloride. The study of the herbicide removal as a function of the current density in the absence of chloride yielded 41 and 49% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removals and 10 and 14% TOC (total organic carbon) removal at 100 mA cm{sup -2}, respectively. By keeping the electrolysis time constant (4 h), Ti/Ru{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} anode composition was determined as the most active for removal of diuron and its byproduct. The maximum removal value achieved after 4 h was 58%. Addition of chloride doubled the removal ratio, and 100% COD removal was obtained for Ti/Ru{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 2} . High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the total removal of the herbicide in chloride medium and indicated the formation of byproducts. The generated byproducts presented as function of the applied current density and the anode composition. Ir-based anodes promoted milder oxidation and furnished more byproducts in aqueous medium. (author)

  12. Nanoimprint, DSA, and multi-beam lithography: patterning technologies with new integration challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, S.; Teyssedre, H.; Claveau, G.; Servin, I.; Delachat, F.; Pourteau, M. L.; Gharbi, A.; Pimenta Barros, P.; Tiron, R.; Nouri, L.; Possemé, N.; May, M.; Brianceau, P.; Barnola, S.; Blancquaert, Y.; Pradelles, J.; Essomba, P.; Bernadac, A.; Dal'zotto, B.; Bos, S.; Argoud, M.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Sarrazin, A.; Tallaron, C.; Lapeyre, C.; Pain, L.

    2017-04-01

    In the lithography landscape, EUV technology recovered some credibility recently. However, its large adoption remains uncertain. Meanwhile, 193nm immersion lithography, with multiple-patterning strategies, supports the industry preference for advanced-node developments. In this landscape, lithography alternatives maintain promise for continued R&D. Massively parallel electron-beam and nano-imprint lithography techniques remain highly attractive, as they can provide noteworthy cost-of-ownership benefits. Directed self-assembly lithography shows promising resolution capabilities and appears to be an option to reduce multi-patterning strategies. Even if large amount of efforts are dedicated to overcome the lithography side issues, these solutions introduce also new challenges and opportunities for the integration schemes.

  13. Prevalence of venous sinus stenosis in Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC using digital subtraction angiography (DSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hamdy Ibrahim

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Studying the intracranial venous system in patients with PTC is an important step in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. Detection of venous sinus stenosis opens the way to a novel therapeutic option for refractory patients like venous sinus stenting.

  14. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bosscher, Karolien

    2010-05-31

    The ancient two-faced Roman god Janus is often used as a metaphor to describe the characteristics of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1), which exhibits both a beneficial side, that serves to halt inflammation, and a detrimental side responsible for undesirable effects. However, recent developments suggest that the Glucocorticoid Receptor has many more faces with the potential to express a range of different functionalities, depending on factors that include the tissue type, ligand type, receptor variants, cofactor surroundings and target gene promoters. This behavior of the receptor has made the development of safer ligands, that trigger the expression program of only a desirable subset of genes, a real challenge. Thus more knowledge-based fundamental research is needed to ensure the design and development of selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators capable of reaching the clinic. Recent advances in the characterization of novel selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators, specifically in the context of anti-inflammatory strategies, will be described in this review. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic imaging of pulmonary embolism; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Lungenembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, A. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Ulm (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    1999-07-01

    There is a wide range of underlying causes to be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: Coronary infarction, pneumothorax, pneumonia, acute cardiac insufficiency, symptomatic aortic aneurysma, or acute dissection of the aorta. The modalities available for radiological examination are plain X-ray radiography of the chest, ventilation/perfusion scintiscanning, spiral CT, MRT and primarily MR angiography, and intra-arterial DSA. (orig./MG) [German] Die differentialdiagnostische Palette zur Lungenembolie ist weit: Genannt werden als Differentialdiagnosen der Herzinfarkt, der Pneumothorax, die Pneumonie, das akute Herzversagen, das symptomatische Aortenaneurysma oder die akute Aortendissektion. An radiologischen diagnostischen Verfahren stehen die Roentgen-Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme, die Ventilations-/Perfusionsszintigraphie, das Spiral-CT, die MRT, insbesondere die MR-Angiographie und die intraarterielle DSA zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  16. The application of synchrotron radiation to non-invasive angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. B.; Zeman, H. D.; Campbell, L. E.; Hofstadter, R.; Meyer-Berkhout, U.; Otis, J. N.; Rolfe, J.; Stone, J. P.; Wilson, S.; Rubenstein, E.; Harrison, D. C.; Kernoff, R. S.; Thompson, A. C.; Brown, G. S.

    1983-04-01

    Synchrotron radiation provides a new source of X-rays highly-suited to iodine K-edge Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA). The use of such beams provides maximum sensitivity to intra-arterial iodine and virtually eliminates image contrast due to non-vascular body structures. The intensity of the beams permits short exposure times and allows images to be recorded, in line-scan fashion, in sharp focus despite arterial motions. The sensitivity of this method offers the prospect of visualizing arteries, and in particular the coronary arteries, by peripheral venous injection. The principles of DSA have been demonstrated using phantoms and excised animal hearts, and in vivo studies in animals have begun. The instrumentation developed for this purpose and the results obtained to date are summarized.

  17. The diagnosis and treatment of non-occlusive gut ischaemia. Aktueller Stand der Diagnostik und Therapie der nicht-okklusiven Darmischaemie (NOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, G.; Bruch, H.P. (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik)

    1991-08-01

    Non-occlusive gut ischaemia is a disease of advanced age. Its causes are reduced cardiac output or shock, facilitated by digitalis, adrenaline, ergotamine and diuretics. The persisting microcirculation and development of gut necrois leads to an increase in certain serum enzymes, such as lactate, LDH and CK-NB. The early application of mesenteric angiography using a DSA technique reveals four grades of under-perfusion. Early and correct diagnosis of the disease should lead to intra-arterial treatment with prostaglandin. In 10 out of 42 cases, conservative therapy led to re-perfusion of the gut. (orig.).

  18. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Detection of Intracranial Aneurysms in Patients with Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; A Comparison to Digital Subtraction Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Mohammad; Farahangiz, Siamak; Yadollahi, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) compared to intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in detection of intracranial aneurysms in those suffering from acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: This observational diagnostic study was performed at a tertiary teaching hospital and reference center in Shiraz, Iran. We included 55 patients who presented to our center with the diagnosis of acute SAH. All the patients underwent MRA and DSA during their hospital course in order to detect the intracranial aneurysms. The time-of-flight MRA protocol was used and the results were compared to the results of DSA as the gold standard test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for MRA. Results: The mean age of the patients was 46.3 ± 7.9 including 26 (47.3%%) men and 29 (52.7%) women. In 46 patients, 51 intracranial aneurysms were diagnosed by DSA (5 patients had two aneurysms). No evidence of intracranial aneurysm was found in 9 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. MRA correctly identified 42 of the 51 aneurysms (sensitivity 82%) and missed 9 small aneurysms (less than 10 mm). MRA revealed one false- positive finding, resulting in a specificity of 88.8%. The PPC and NPV for MRA were 97% and 47%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy per aneurysm was 0.83 for MRA. Conclusion: High sensitivity and specificity of MRA compared to DSA in diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms in those with acute SAH indicate that MRA could be reliably used as a diagnostic tool for this purpose. However we cannot recommend it as a routine substitute for DSA before surgery. PMID:27162847

  20. Sexual selection and natural selection in bird speciation

    OpenAIRE

    Price, T.

    1998-01-01

    The role of sexual selection in speciation is investigated, addressing two main issues. First, how do sexually selected traits become species recognition traits? Theory and empirical evidence suggest that female preferences often do not evolve as a correlated response to evolution of male traits. This implies that, contrary to runaway (Fisherian) models of sexual selection, premating isolation will not arise as an automatic side effect of divergence between populations in sexually selected tr...

  1. Pittsburgh Response to Endovascular therapy (PRE) score: optimizing patient selection for endovascular therapy for large vessel occlusion strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Aghaebrahim, Amin; Streib, Christopher; Sun, Chung-Huan; Ribo, Marc; Muchada, Marion; Nogueira, Raul; Frankel, Michael; Gupta, Rishi; Jadhav, Ashutosh; Jovin, Tudor G

    2015-11-01

    Endovascular therapy seems to benefit a subset of patients with large vessel occlusion strokes. We aimed to develop a clinically useful tool to identify patients who are likely to benefit from endovascular therapy. In a derivation cohort of consecutively treated patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (Grady Memorial Hospital, N=247), independent predictors (pPittsburgh Response to Endovascular therapy (PRE) score as a predictor of good outcome. The PRE score was validated in two institutional cohorts (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC): N=393; Unitat d'Ictus Vall d'Hebron: N=204) and its discriminative power for good outcome was compared with other validated tools. Benefit of successful recanalization was assessed in PRE score groups. Independent predictors of good outcome in the derivation cohort (age, baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS)) were used in the model: PRE score=age (years)+2×NIHSS-10 × ASPECTS. PRE score was highly predictive of good outcome in the derivation cohort (area under the curve (AUC)=0.79) and validation cohorts (UPMC: AUC=0.79; UIVH: AUC=0.72) with comparable rates of good outcome in all PRE risk quartiles. PRE was superior to Totaled Health Risks In Vascular Events (THRIVE) (p=0.03) and Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIHSS (SPAN) (p=0.007), with a trend towards superiority to Houston Intra-Arterial Therapy 2 (HIAT2) (p=0.06) and iSCORE (p=0.051) in predicting good outcomes. Better outcomes were associated with successful recanalization in patients with PRE scores -24 to +49 but not in patients with PRE scores <-24 or ≥ 50. The PRE score is a validated tool that predicts outcomes and may facilitate patient selection for endovascular therapy in anterior circulation large vessel occlusions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Frequency selective bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowitt, M.S.; Fixsen, D.J.; Goldin, A.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a concept for radiometry in the millimeter, the submillimeter, and the far-IR spectral regions, the frequency selective bolometer (FSB). This system uses a bolometer as a coupled element of a tuned quasi-optical interference filter in which the absorption, the transmission......-dimensional transmission-line model. Instruments based on FSB technology should have several advantages over current multiband bolometric radiometers including smaller and more compact cryogenic optics; reduced demands on cryostat size and weight, high coupling efficiency, minimum constraints on the geometry in the focal...... plane. An FSB system can be configured as a multiband, close-packed focal-plane array, permitting efficient use of the throughput of a telescope....

  3. Apoptins: selective anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollano Peñaloza, Oscar M; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Stetefeld, Joerg; Ossysek, Karolina; Madej, Mariusz; Bereta, Joanna; Sobczak, Mateusz; Shojaei, Shahla; Ghavami, Saeid; Łos, Marek J

    2014-09-01

    Therapies that selectively target cancer cells for death have been the center of intense research recently. One potential therapy may involve apoptin proteins, which are able to induce apoptosis in cancer cells leaving normal cells unharmed. Apoptin was originally discovered in the Chicken anemia virus (CAV); however, human gyroviruses (HGyV) have recently been found that also harbor apoptin-like proteins. Although the cancer cell specific activity of these apoptins appears to be well conserved, the precise functions and mechanisms of action are yet to be fully elucidated. Strategies for both delivering apoptin to treat tumors and disseminating the protein inside the tumor body are now being developed, and have shown promise in preclinical animal studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Participation and selection effects of a voluntary selection process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Lucieer, Susanna M; Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Themmen, Axel P N; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Many different medical school selection processes are used worldwide. In this paper, we examine the effect of (1) participation, and (2) selection in a voluntary selection process on study performance. We included data from two cohorts of medical students admitted to Erasmus MC, Rotterdam and VUmc,

  5. Fluctuating Selection in the Moran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Antony M; Lehman, Clarence; Yi, Xiao

    2017-03-01

    Contrary to classical population genetics theory, experiments demonstrate that fluctuating selection can protect a haploid polymorphism in the absence of frequency dependent effects on fitness. Using forward simulations with the Moran model, we confirm our analytical results showing that a fluctuating selection regime, with a mean selection coefficient of zero, promotes polymorphism. We find that increases in heterozygosity over neutral expectations are especially pronounced when fluctuations are rapid, mutation is weak, the population size is large, and the variance in selection is big. Lowering the frequency of fluctuations makes selection more directional, and so heterozygosity declines. We also show that fluctuating selection raises dn /ds ratios for polymorphism, not only by sweeping selected alleles into the population, but also by purging the neutral variants of selected alleles as they undergo repeated bottlenecks. Our analysis shows that randomly fluctuating selection increases the rate of evolution by increasing the probability of fixation. The impact is especially noticeable when the selection is strong and mutation is weak. Simulations show the increase in the rate of evolution declines as the rate of new mutations entering the population increases, an effect attributable to clonal interference. Intriguingly, fluctuating selection increases the dn /ds ratios for divergence more than for polymorphism, a pattern commonly seen in comparative genomics. Our model, which extends the classical neutral model of molecular evolution by incorporating random fluctuations in selection, accommodates a wide variety of observations, both neutral and selected, with economy. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Angiographic CT with intravenous contrast agent application for monitoring of intracranial flow diverting stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saake, Marc; Struffert, Tobias; Goelitz, Philipp; Ott, Sabine; Doerfler, Arnd [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Seifert, Frank [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurology, Erlangen (Germany); Ganslandt, Oliver [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Intracranial flow diverting devices are increasingly used to treat cerebral aneurysms. A reliable, non-invasive follow-up modality would be desirable. Our aim was to compare intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (ia DSA) to angiographic computed tomography with intravenous contrast agent application (iv ACT) in the visualisation of flow diverting devices and aneurysm lumina. Follow-up monitoring by iv ACT (n = 36) and ia DSA (n = 25) in 14 patients treated with flow diverting devices for intracranial aneurysms was evaluated retrospectively. Images were evaluated by two neuroradiologists in anonymous consensus reading regarding the device deployment, wall apposition, neck coverage of the aneurysm, opacification of the vessel and device lumen, as well as the degree of aneurysm occlusion. Corresponding ia DSA and iv ACT images were scored identically in all patients regarding the stent deployment, wall apposition and neck coverage, as well as the degree of aneurysm occlusion and patency status of the device and parent artery. Opacification of the parent vessel lumen and perfused parts of the aneurysm was considered slightly inferior for iv ACT in comparison with ia DSA (seven of 36 cases), without impact on diagnosis. We demonstrated the feasibility and diagnostic value of iv ACT in follow-up imaging of intracranial flow diverting devices. Due to its high spatial resolution and non-invasive character, this novel technique might become a valuable imaging modality in these patients. (orig.)

  7. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  8. How to Select Children's Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Select Children's Shoes How to Select Children's Shoes Page Content Most children learn to walk at ... or not properly fitted for your child's foot. Shoe Construction Shoes consist of four parts: the upper, ...

  9. Selectivity in capillary electrokinetic separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, R.A; de Jong, G.J.; Ensing, K

    1999-01-01

    This review gives a survey of selectivity modes in capillary electrophoresis separations in pharmaceutical analysis and bioanalysis. Despite the high efficiencies of these separation techniques, good selectivity is required to allow quantitation or identification of a Chemistry and Toxicology,

  10. Materials selection for CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Fredriksson, J

    1992-01-01

    Materials requirements of CMS tracker are studied to select a group of material candidates. Materials selection from this group is made for defined purposes concerning mechanics and cooling of CMS tracker, especially silicon part of it.

  11. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  12. Sex selective feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Swapan

    2007-05-01

    Regarding sex selective abortion in India, all are aware of exclusive female disadvantage. And yet few study reported sizeable selective male feticide as such. This exercise reveals that: (1) the age-old son-preference has slightly declined on the end of the twentieth century, and (2) a substantial selective male feticide are also being committed annually, of course, along with larger selective female feticide.

  13. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  14. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. [Farr Co., El Segundo, CA (United States)]|[Farr Co., Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  15. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  16. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  17. Sexual selection is a form of social selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bruce E; Montgomerie, Robert

    2012-08-19

    Social selection influences the evolution of weapons, ornaments and behaviour in both males and females. Thus, social interactions in both sexual and non-sexual contexts can have a powerful influence on the evolution of traits that would otherwise appear to be detrimental to survival. Although clearly outlined by West-Eberhard in the early 1980s, the idea that social selection is a comprehensive framework for the study of ornaments and weapons has largely been ignored. In West-Eberhard's view, sexual selection is a form of social selection-a concept supported by several lines of evidence. Darwin's distinction between natural and sexual selection has been useful, but recent confusion about the limits of sexual selection suggests that some traits are not easily categorized as naturally or sexually selected. Because social selection theory has much to offer the current debates about both sexual selection and reproductive competition in females, it is sometimes viewed, narrowly, to be most useful when considering female roles. However, social selection theory encompasses much more than female reproductive competition. Our goal here was to provide that broader perspective.

  18. Sexual selection in complex environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christine W; Svensson, Erik I

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection has resulted in some of the most captivating features of insects, including flashy colors, bizarre structures, and complex pheromones. These features evolve in dynamic environments, where conditions can change rapidly over space and time. However, only recently has ecological complexity been embraced by theory and practice in sexual selection. We review replicated selection studies as well as studies on variation in the agents of selection to delineate gaps in current knowledge and clarify exciting new directions for research. Existing work suggests that fluctuations in sexual selection may be extremely common, though work on the ecological factors influencing these fluctuations is scarce. We suggest that deeper ecological perspectives on sexual selection may alter some of the fundamental assumptions of sexual selection theory and rapidly lead to new discoveries.

  19. Seleção de doador não aparentado HLA antibodies and donor selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Torres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da presença de anticorpos anti-HLA em transplantes de órgãos sólidos estar associada à rejeição, essa correlação não havia sido pesquisada em transplante alogênico de células progenitoras hematopoéticas (TCPH. Estudos mais recentes na literatura têm demonstrado que a falência da enxertia no TCPH pode ser mediada por aloanticorpos anti-HLA doador especifico (DSA. A especificidade desses anticorpos pode ser evidenciada pelas técnicas de fase sólida, onde os antígenos HLA únicos são aderidos a pérolas de poliestireno, que permite a realização da prova cruzada virtual. Na presença de DSA, é recomendável selecionar outro doador ou realizar as estratégias de remoção dos anticorpos.In spite of Anti-HLA antibodies being associated to rejection in solid organs transplantation, this correlation has not been well established yet in allogenic bone marrow transplantation.Recent studies in the literature have demonstrated that engraftment failure in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT can be mediated by donor specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA. These antibodies specificity can be detected by solid-phase techniques, where single HLA antigens are adhered to microbeads, which allows the interpretation of host reactivity by "virtual crossmatch". In the presence of DSA, it is advisable to either search for another donor or remove the antibodies prior to transplantation.

  20. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Why was sexual selection so important to Darwin? And why was it de-emphasized by almost all of Darwin's followers until the second half of the 20th century? These two questions shed light on the complexity of the scientific tradition named "Darwinism". Darwin's interest in sexual selection was almost as old as his discovery of the principle of natural selection. From the beginning, sexual selection was just another "natural means of selection", although different from standard "natural selection" in its mechanism. But it took Darwin 30 years to fully develop his theory, from the early notebooks to the 1871 book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Although there is a remarkable continuity in his basic ideas about sexual selection, he emphasized increasingly the idea that sexual selection could oppose the action of natural selection and be non adaptive. In time, he also gave more weight to mate choice (especially female choice), giving explicit arguments in favor of psychological notions such as "choice" and "aesthetic sense". But he also argued that there was no strict demarcation line between natural and sexual selection, a major difficulty of the theory from the beginning. Female choice was the main reason why Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, engaged in a major controversy with Darwin about sexual selection. Wallace was suspicious about sexual selection in general, trying to minimize it by all sorts of arguments. And he denied entirely the existence of female choice, because he thought that it was both unnecessary and an anthropomorphic notion. This had something to do with his spiritualist convictions, but also with his conception of natural selection as a sufficient principle for the evolutionary explanation of all biological phenomena (except for the origin of mind). This is why Wallace proposed to redefine Darwinism in a way that excluded Darwin's principle of sexual selection. The main result of

  1. Adaptation and Natural Selection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, E; Wilson, D S

    2011-02-01

    In Adaptation and Natural Selection, George C. Williams linked the distinction between group and individual adaptation with the distinction between group and individual selection. Williams' Principle, as we will call it, says that adaptation at a level requires selection at that level. This is a necessary but not a sufficient condition; for example, group adaptation requires group selection, but the fact that group selection influences a trait's evolution does not suffice for the resulting trait frequency to be a group adaptation. What more is required? In this paper, we describe an answer to this question that has been developed in multilevel selection theory. We also discuss an alternative framework for defining units of adaptation that violates Williams' Principle. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Universal statistics of selected values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerlak, Matteo; Youssef, Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Selection, the tendency of some traits to become more frequent than others under the influence of some (natural or artificial) agency, is a key component of Darwinian evolution and countless other natural and social phenomena. Yet a general theory of selection, analogous to the Fisher-Tippett-Gnedenko theory of extreme events, is lacking. Here we introduce a probabilistic definition of selection and show that selected values are attracted to a universal family of limiting distributions which generalize the log-normal distribution. The universality classes and scaling exponents are determined by the tail thickness of the random variable under selection. Our results provide a possible explanation for skewed distributions observed in diverse contexts where selection plays a key role, from molecular biology to agriculture and sport.

  3. Opportunity structures for selective exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Shehata, Adam; Strömbäck, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    is to investigate the two types of selective exposure in a country—Sweden—where the opportunity structures for selective exposure differ from the American context. This study investigates both types of selective exposure in relation to televised party-leader interviews. Based on panel survey data, the findings show...... interest. Evidence for both has been found primarily in an American context, while there is less research on European countries. This is problematic, as the opportunity structures for different forms of selectivity vary across media environments. Against this background, the purpose of this study...... that selective exposure based on political interest is substantially more important than selective exposure based on ideological preferences in explaining exposure to party-leader interviews. To substantiate this finding, the results are replicated with partisan learning as the dependent variable....

  4. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  5. Detecting selection needs comparative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Hubisz, Melissa J.

    2005-01-01

    Positive selection at the molecular level is usually indicated by an increase in the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) in comparative data. However, Plotkin et al. 1 describe a new method for detecting positive selection based on a single nucleotide sequence. We show here...... that this method is particularly sensitive to assumptions regarding the underlying mutational processes and does not provide a reliable way to identify positive selection....

  6. Multicriteria evaluation and window selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražić Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of windows that joins and fulfils demands by the building's users, designers and contractors implies the multicriteria analysis. The paper presents the multicriteria decision making methodology for achieving the most optimal variation (type of window. The optimization model is defined with seven criterion functions and the adequate optimization method is selected. The methodology is confirmed on an example of a selection of one out of eight window variations. The adopted method, by selecting the weight coefficients, proposes to the decision maker several different output results and offers the possibility to adopt the final (optimal solution that is in accordance with the optimization goal.

  7. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  8. Reasons for being selective when choosing personnel selection procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, C.J.; Klehe, U.-C.; Berchtold, M.; Kleinmann, M.

    2010-01-01

    The scientist-practitioner gap in personnel selection is large. Thus, it is important to gain a better understanding of the reasons that make organizations use or not use certain selection procedures. Based on institutional theory, we predicted that six variables should determine the use of

  9. Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruth, J.P.; Mercelis, P.; Van Vaerenbergh, J.; van Vaerenbergh, J.; Froyen, L.; Rombouts, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper provides an overview of the different binding mechanisms in selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM), thus improving the understanding of these processes. Design/methodology/approach – A classification of SLS/SLM processes was developed, based on the

  10. Sexual selection in marine plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte

    Copepods are among the most abundant metazoans on the planet and play an important role in the marine food web. Many aspects of their ecology have consequently been studied, including details of their reproductive biology and mating behaviour. Sexual selection, the part of evolution which selects...

  11. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  12. Individual Influence on Model Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterba, Sonya K.; Pek, Jolynn

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in psychology are increasingly using model selection strategies to decide among competing models, rather than evaluating the fit of a given model in isolation. However, such interest in model selection outpaces an awareness that one or a few cases can have disproportionate impact on the model ranking. Though case influence on the fit…

  13. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  14. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit

    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in

  15. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  16. Advertising media selection and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Neijens, P.C.; Smit, E.G.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Reach, frequency, and timing are key concepts in selecting TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, out-of-home, direct mail, Internet, and other media for advertising campaigns. We discuss these concepts and their role in media selection and media planning processes. We also describe media and audience

  17. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection Across Species Using Selective Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric J.; Shapiro, B. Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-18

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 gamma-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the 'selective signature' of a gene. Selective signatures represent a profile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example, glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  18. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-01

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 c-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the"selective signature" of a gene. Selective signatures represent aprofile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example,glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  19. Feature selection for portfolio optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Thomas Trier; Ross, Omri; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Most portfolio selection rules based on the sample mean and covariance matrix perform poorly out-of-sample. Moreover, there is a growing body of evidence that such optimization rules are not able to beat simple rules of thumb, such as 1/N. Parameter uncertainty has been identified as one major...... reason for these findings. A strand of literature addresses this problem by improving the parameter estimation and/or by relying on more robust portfolio selection methods. Independent of the chosen portfolio selection rule, we propose using feature selection first in order to reduce the asset menu....... While most of the diversification benefits are preserved, the parameter estimation problem is alleviated. We conduct out-of-sample back-tests to show that in most cases different well-established portfolio selection rules applied on the reduced asset universe are able to improve alpha relative...

  20. Selection Method for COTS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Andersson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    requires new skills and methods supporting the process of evaluating and selecting information systems. This paper presents a method for selecting COTS systems. The method includes the following phases: problem framing, requirements and appraisal, and selection of systems. The idea and distinguishing...... feature behind the method is that improved understanding of organizational ‘ends’ or goals should govern the selection of a COTS system. This can also be expressed as a match or fit between ‘ends’ (e.g. improved organizational effectiveness) and ‘means’ (e.g. implementing COTS systems). This way...... of approaching the selection of COTS systems as viewing them as a ‘means’ to reach organizational ‘ends’ is different from the mainstream views of information systems development, namely the view that sees information systems development as a problem-solving process, and the underlying ontological view in other...

  1. Lines of Descent Under Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, Ellen; Wakolbinger, Anton

    2017-11-01

    We review recent progress on ancestral processes related to mutation-selection models, both in the deterministic and the stochastic setting. We mainly rely on two concepts, namely, the killed ancestral selection graph and the pruned lookdown ancestral selection graph. The killed ancestral selection graph gives a representation of the type of a random individual from a stationary population, based upon the individual's potential ancestry back until the mutations that define the individual's type. The pruned lookdown ancestral selection graph allows one to trace the ancestry of individuals from a stationary distribution back into the distant past, thus leading to the stationary distribution of ancestral types. We illustrate the results by applying them to a prototype model for the error threshold phenomenon.

  2. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Wu, Zhibiao; Palmer, Martha

    1994-01-01

    This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments. A novel representation scheme is suggested, and is compared to representations with selection restrictions used in transfer-based MT. We see our approach as closely aligned with knowledge-based MT approaches (KBMT), and as a separate component that could be incorporated into existing systems. Examples and experimental results will show that, using this scheme, inexact matches can achieve correct lexical selection.

  3. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Treatment of Selective Mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlum Çöpür

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Some authors suggest that selective mutism should be considered as a variant of social phobia or a disorder in the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Recent studies indicate that pharmacological treatments may be effective in the treatment of selective mutism. In this article, four cases who were treated with citalopram and escitalopram are presented. The results indicate that the drugs were well tolerated, and the level of social and verbal interactions improved significantly. These findings have shown that citalopram and escitalopram can be considered in medication of selective mutism; nevertheless, it is essential that research be done with more cases than previous ones, in order to prove their accuracy

  4. Concave 1-norm group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingfeng; Huang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Grouping structures arise naturally in many high-dimensional problems. Incorporation of such information can improve model fitting and variable selection. Existing group selection methods, such as the group Lasso, require correct membership. However, in practice it can be difficult to correctly specify group membership of all variables. Thus, it is important to develop group selection methods that are robust against group mis-specification. Also, it is desirable to select groups as well as individual variables in many applications. We propose a class of concave [Formula: see text]-norm group penalties that is robust to grouping structure and can perform bi-level selection. A coordinate descent algorithm is developed to calculate solutions of the proposed group selection method. Theoretical convergence of the algorithm is proved under certain regularity conditions. Comparison with other methods suggests the proposed method is the most robust approach under membership mis-specification. Simulation studies and real data application indicate that the [Formula: see text]-norm concave group selection approach achieves better control of false discovery rates. An R package grppenalty implementing the proposed method is available at CRAN. © Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Contemporary views on selective mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoski Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review contemporary literature on selective mutism (SM, available in our language. The paper includes a contemporary definition of the disorder, previous studies of selective mutism, theories about its origin, and treatment. SM is a disorder that occurs in childhood, when a child's speech is selectively lacking in certain social situations. School is the context in which the disorder is typically manifested, which is why SM is often diagnosed only after children start school. The paper gives a historical account of changes in views on this disorder. Modern conceptions emphasize selective inability of children to spontaneously and successfully express themselves verbally. In researching SM, case studies on children who have selective mutism are most commonly published. Etiological factors are not precisely defined, and different conceptions give their interpretations depending on various theoretical frameworks. Some studies consistently indicate a relation between SM and social anxiety, and some with opposing behavior and delays in language development. Based on theoretical explanations of SM, psychological interventions (behavioral and cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and projective techniques, counseling and family therapy are created. Modern treatment of selective mutism includes an eclectic approach and emphasizes the role of teachers and school in general. Future studies should deepen the knowledge about selective mutism, specify the methodological procedure and stimulate the individualized treatment of children with SM.

  6. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  7. Reaction Selectivity in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2009-02-02

    The understanding of selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is of paramount importance to our society today. In this review we outline the current state of the art in research on selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Current in-situ surface science techniques have revealed several important features of catalytic selectivity. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy has shown us the importance of understanding the reaction intermediates and mechanism of a heterogeneous reaction, and can readily yield information as to the effect of temperature, pressure, catalyst geometry, surface promoters, and catalyst composition on the reaction mechanism. DFT calculations are quickly approaching the ability to assist in the interpretation of observed surface spectra, thereby making surface spectroscopy an even more powerful tool. HP-STM has revealed three vitally important parameters in heterogeneous selectivity: adsorbate mobility, catalyst mobility, and selective site-blocking. The development of size controlled nanoparticles from 0.8 to 10 nm, of controlled shape, and of controlled bimetallic composition has revealed several important variables for catalytic selectivity. Lastly, DFT calculations may be paving the way to guiding the composition choice for multi-metallic heterogeneous catalysis for the intelligent design of catalysts incorporating the many factors of selectivity we have learned.

  8. Molecular Signatures of Natural Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in detecting genes, or genomic regions, that have been targeted by natural selection. The interest stems from a basic desire to learn more about evolutionary processes in humans and other organisms, and from the realization that inferences regarding selection may...... provide important functional information. This review provides a nonmathematical description of the issues involved in detecting selection from DNA sequences and SNP data and is intended for readers who are not familiar with population genetic theory. Particular attention is placed on issues relating...

  9. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules....... With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection...

  10. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  11. Selection Process of ERP Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bálint Molnár; Gyula Szabó; András Benczúr

    2013-01-01

    .... The primary task of ERP systems is to achieve the before-mentioned objectives. The selection of a particular ERP system has a decisive effect on the future operation and profitability of the enterprise...

  12. Selective Functionalization of Tailored Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingenbergh, Winand; Boer, Sanne K. de; Cordes, Thorben; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.; Hosson, Jeff Th.M. De; Dorp, Willem F. van

    2012-01-01

    The controlled positioning of nanostructures with active molecular components is of importance throughout nanoscience and nanotechnology. We present a novel three-step method to produce nanostructures that are selectively decorated with functional molecules. We use fluorophores and nanoparticles to

  13. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Pharmacology, administration, and side effects. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 2, 2016. Mental health medications. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www. ...

  14. Performance of variable selection methods using stability-based selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Danny; Weljie, Aalim; de Leon, Alexander R; McConnell, Yarrow; Bathe, Oliver F; Kopciuk, Karen

    2017-04-04

    Variable selection is frequently carried out during the analysis of many types of high-dimensional data, including those in metabolomics. This study compared the predictive performance of four variable selection methods using stability-based selection, a new secondary selection method that is implemented in the R package BioMark. Two of these methods were evaluated using the more well-known false discovery rate (FDR) as well. Simulation studies varied factors relevant to biological data studies, with results based on the median values of 200 partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. There was no single top performing method across all factor settings, but the student t test based on stability selection or with FDR adjustment and the variable importance in projection (VIP) scores from partial least squares regression models obtained using a stability-based approach tended to perform well in most settings. Similar results were found with a real spiked-in metabolomics dataset. Group sample size, group effect size, number of significant variables and correlation structure were the most important factors whereas the percentage of significant variables was the least important. Researchers can improve prediction scores for their study data by choosing VIP scores based on stability variable selection over the other approaches when the number of variables is small to modest and by increasing the number of samples even moderately. When the number of variables is high and there is block correlation amongst the significant variables (i.e., true biomarkers), the FDR-adjusted student t test performed best. The R package BioMark is an easy-to-use open-source program for variable selection that had excellent performance characteristics for the purposes of this study.

  15. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  16. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  17. The power of natural selection

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, F.

    2002-01-01

    In a recent paper, Steven Horst argued that if traditional physicalist accounts of consciousness cannot explain why there are conscious phenomena in the world then teleological accounts of consciousness that appeal to the notion of natural selection cannot do so either. I agree with Horst's conclusion but his reasoning fails to address a rebuttal to his argument made by the major proponent of such theories, namely, Fred Dretske. Dretske argues that artificial selection can create new features...

  18. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  19. A Heckman Selection- t Model

    KAUST Repository

    Marchenko, Yulia V.

    2012-03-01

    Sample selection arises often in practice as a result of the partial observability of the outcome of interest in a study. In the presence of sample selection, the observed data do not represent a random sample from the population, even after controlling for explanatory variables. That is, data are missing not at random. Thus, standard analysis using only complete cases will lead to biased results. Heckman introduced a sample selection model to analyze such data and proposed a full maximum likelihood estimation method under the assumption of normality. The method was criticized in the literature because of its sensitivity to the normality assumption. In practice, data, such as income or expenditure data, often violate the normality assumption because of heavier tails. We first establish a new link between sample selection models and recently studied families of extended skew-elliptical distributions. Then, this allows us to introduce a selection-t (SLt) model, which models the error distribution using a Student\\'s t distribution. We study its properties and investigate the finite-sample performance of the maximum likelihood estimators for this model. We compare the performance of the SLt model to the conventional Heckman selection-normal (SLN) model and apply it to analyze ambulatory expenditures. Unlike the SLNmodel, our analysis using the SLt model provides statistical evidence for the existence of sample selection bias in these data. We also investigate the performance of the test for sample selection bias based on the SLt model and compare it with the performances of several tests used with the SLN model. Our findings indicate that the latter tests can be misleading in the presence of heavy-tailed data. © 2012 American Statistical Association.

  20. Global Sourcing and Firm Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Wilhelm; Smolka, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the sourcing strategies of firms active in the Spanish manufacturing sector. We show that firms that select strategies of vertical integration and of foreign sourcing ex post tend to have been more productive, ex ante, than other firms.......We analyze the sourcing strategies of firms active in the Spanish manufacturing sector. We show that firms that select strategies of vertical integration and of foreign sourcing ex post tend to have been more productive, ex ante, than other firms....

  1. Hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of various grades of selective adenosine transport inhibition in humans. Implications for its future role in cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, G A; Smits, P; Ver Donck, K; Willemsen, J J; De Abreu, R A; Van Belle, H; Thien, T

    1995-02-01

    In 12 healthy male volunteers (27-53 yr), a placebo-controlled randomized double blind cross-over trial was performed to study the effect of the intravenous injection of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 mg draflazine (a selective nucleoside transport inhibitor) on hemodynamic and neurohumoral parameters and ex vivo nucleoside transport inhibition. We hypothesized that an intravenous draflazine dosage without effect on hemodynamic and neurohumoral parameters would still be able to augment the forearm vasodilator response to intraarterially infused adenosine. Heart rate (electrocardiography), systolic blood pressure (Dinamap 1846 SX; Critikon, Portanje Electronica BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands) plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine increased dose-dependently and could almost totally be abolished by caffeine pretreatment indicating the involvement of adenosine receptors. Draflazine did not affect forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography). Intravenous injection of 0.5 mg draflazine did not affect any of the measured hemodynamic parameters but still induced a significant ex vivo nucleoside-transport inhibition of 31.5 +/- 4.1% (P < 0.05 vs placebo). In a subgroup of 10 subjects the brachial artery was cannulated to infuse adenosine (0.15, 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, and 50 micrograms/100 ml forearm per min) before and after intravenous injection of 0.5 mg draflazine. Forearm blood flow amounted 1.9 +/- 0.3 ml/100 ml forearm per min for placebo and 1.8 +/- 0.2, 2.0 +/- 0.3, 3.8 +/- 0.9, 6.3 +/- 1.2, 11.3 +/- 2.2, and 19.3 +/- 3.9 ml/100 ml forearm per min for the six incremental adenosine dosages, respectively. After the intravenous draflazine infusion, these values were 1.6 +/- 0.2 ml/100 ml forearm per min for placebo and 2.1 +/- 0.3, 3.3 +/- 0.6, 5.8 +/- 1.1, 6.9 +/- 1.4, 14.4 +/- 2.9, and 23.5 +/- 4.0 ml/100 ml forearm per min, respectively (Friedman ANOVA: P < 0.05 before vs after draflazine infusion). In conclusion, a 30-50% inhibition of adenosine transport significantly

  2. Accelerating Select Where And Select Join Queries On A Gpu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Pietron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents implementations of a few selected SQL operations using theCUDA programming framework on the GPU platform. Nowadays, the GPU’sparallel architectures give a high speed-up on certain problems. Therefore, thenumber of non-graphical problems that can be run and sped-up on the GPUstill increases. Especially, there has been a lot of research in data mining onGPUs. In many cases it proves the advantage of offloading processing fromthe CPU to the GPU. At the beginning of our project we chose the set ofSELECT WHERE and SELECT JOIN instructions as the most common op-erations used in databases. We parallelized these SQL operations using threemain mechanisms in CUDA: thread group hierarchy, shared memories, andbarrier synchronization. Our results show that the implemented highly parallelSELECT WHERE and SELECT JOIN operations on the GPU platform canbe significantly faster than the sequential one in a database system run on theCPU.

  3. The ancestral selection graph under strong directional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokalyuk, Cornelia; Pfaffelhuber, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The ancestral selection graph (ASG) was introduced by  Neuhauser and Krone (1997) in order to study populations of constant size which evolve under selection. Coalescence events, which occur at rate 1 for every pair of lines, lead to joint ancestry. In addition, splitting events in the ASG at rate α, the scaled selection coefficient, produce possible ancestors, such that the real ancestor depends on the ancestral alleles. Here, we use the ASG in the case without mutation in order to study fixation of a beneficial mutant. Using our main tool, a reversibility property of the ASG, we provide a new proof of the fact that a beneficial allele fixes roughly in time (2logα)/α if α is large. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of dual selection in grid based selectivity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sistiaga, Manu; Herrmann, Bent; Grimaldo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Herein we propose a method to assess dual selection in grid based selectivity systems. This method takes into account the parameter “grid contact likelihood” (Cgrid), which can be interpreted as the proportion of fish that actually makes an attempt to escape through the grid. In a case study...... of the Barents Sea cod and haddock trawl fishery, we demonstrate that our model describes the experimental data better than the models previously used to fit similar data. For both cod and haddock, Cgrid was significantly smaller than 1.0, which demonstrated the relevance of the proposed model. Cgrid was higher......-compartment setup to avoid imprecise estimates of Cgrid, L50grid, SRgrid, L50codend, and SRcodend. In general, only the combined selectivity of the grid and the codend could be estimated with acceptable precision using a standard two-compartment sampling approach....

  5. Modeling of selective laser sintering/selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Connor; Wang, Xuan

    2017-02-01

    Selective laser sintering and selective laser melting are powder based additive manufacturing (AM) process that can rapidly manufacture parts with comparable mechanical properties to conventional manufacturing methods directly from digital files. However, the processing recipe development and design optimization of AM parts are often based on trial and error which erodes the benefit of AM. Modeling is a powerful tool to enable faster development cycle by significantly reducing the experimental efforts. In this paper we discussed the current status of selective laser sintering/melting modeling, in which the laser and powder interaction was studied to understand and predict the process and the properties of fabricated parts. A review of the current approach as well as future directions are presented.

  6. Fisheries-induced disruptive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Pietro; Hui, Cang; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-21

    Commercial harvesting is recognized to induce adaptive responses of life-history traits in fish populations, in particular by shifting the age and size at maturation through directional selection. In addition to such evolution of a target stock, the corresponding fishery itself may adapt, in terms of fishing policy, technological progress, fleet dynamics, and adaptive harvest. The aim of this study is to assess how the interplay between natural and artificial selection, in the simplest setting in which a fishery and a target stock coevolve, can lead to disruptive selection, which in turn may cause trait diversification. To this end, we build an eco-evolutionary model for a size-structured population, in which both the stock׳s maturation schedule and the fishery׳s harvest rate are adaptive, while fishing may be subject to a selective policy based on fish size and/or maturity stage. Using numerical bifurcation analysis, we study how the potential for disruptive selection changes with fishing policy, fishing mortality, harvest specialization, life-history tradeoffs associated with early maturation, and other demographic and environmental parameters. We report the following findings. First, fisheries-induced disruptive selection is readily caused by commonly used fishing policies, and occurs even for policies that are not specific for fish size or maturity, provided that the harvest is sufficiently adaptive and large individuals are targeted intensively. Second, disruptive selection is more likely in stocks in which the selective pressure for early maturation is naturally strong, provided life-history tradeoffs are sufficiently consequential. Third, when a fish stock is overexploited, fisheries targeting only large individuals might slightly increase sustainable yield by causing trait diversification (even though the resultant yield always remains lower than the maximum sustainable yield that could be obtained under low fishing mortality, without causing disruptive

  7. Improving methods of resident selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Jeremy D; Myer, Charles M; Hayes, Kay M; Myer, Charles M; Pensak, Myles L

    2010-12-01

    Applying the concept of the ACGME general competencies, it is possible to define the essential job objectives and competencies of a junior otolaryngology resident. The objective of this study is to incorporate commercially available tools of business in the identification of competencies specific to the junior otolaryngology resident and develop behavioral-based interview questions and techniques designed to identify these qualities in candidates for residency. Institution of a pilot program involving a focus group within an otolaryngology department, a professional development consultant, commercial business software for occupational analysis and personnel selection, and an interview technique training seminar for faculty and residents. In coordination with a university-based professional development consultant, a formal job analysis was conducted to define the job objectives and competencies of a junior otolaryngology resident. These results were used to generate behavioral-based interview questions for use in the resident selection process. All interviewing faculty and residents were trained in behavioral-based interviewing. Occupational objectives for the junior resident position specific to a particular university department of otolaryngology were identified. Additionally, the essential skills, areas of knowledge, and competencies were identified. Behavioral-based questions specific to the competencies were created and incorporated into the current resident selection interview. Using tools of occupational analysis and personnel selection, a list of job objectives and competencies for the junior otolaryngology resident can be created. Using these results, behavioral-based interviews may be implemented to complement traditional interviews with the ultimate goal of improving candidate selection.

  8. Natural selection and mechanistic regularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesAutels, Lane

    2016-06-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether natural selection operates regularly enough to qualify as a mechanism of the sort characterized by Machamer, Darden, and Craver (2000). Contrary to an influential critique by Skipper and Millstein (2005), I argue that natural selection can be seen to be regular enough to qualify as an MDC mechanism just fine-as long as we pay careful attention to some important distinctions regarding mechanistic regularity and abstraction. Specifically, I suggest that when we distinguish between process vs. product regularity, mechanism-internal vs. mechanism-external sources of irregularity, and abstract vs. concrete regularity, we can see that natural selection is only irregular in senses that are unthreatening to its status as an MDC mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective Induction of Optical Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Uttam; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Deng, Tian-Song; Parker, John; Shepherd, Nolan; Weizmann, Yossi; Scherer, Norbert F

    2017-12-13

    An extension of the Maxwell-Faraday law of electromagnetic induction to optical frequencies requires spatially appropriate materials and optical beams to create resonances and excitations with curl. Here we employ cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal polarization to create electric fields that selectively drive magnetic responses in dielectric core-metal nanoparticle "satellite" nanostructures. These optical frequency magnetic resonances are induced in materials that do not possess spin or orbital angular momentum. Multipole expansion analysis of the scattered fields obtained from electrodynamics simulations show that the excitation with azimuthally polarized beams selectively enhances magnetic vs electric dipole resonances by nearly 100-fold in experiments. Multipolar resonances (e.g., quadrupole and octupole) are enhanced 5-fold by focused azimuthally versus linearly polarized beams. We also selectively excite electric multipolar resonances in the same identical nanostructures with radially polarized light. This work opens new opportunities for spectroscopic investigation and control of "dark modes", Fano resonances, and magnetic modes in nanomaterials and engineered metamaterials.

  10. Selective formation of tungsten nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bien Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a process for fabricating self-aligned tungsten (W nanowires with polycrystalline silicon core. Tungsten nanowires as thin as 10 nm were formed by utilizing polysilicon sidewall transfer technology followed by selective deposition of tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD using WF6 as the precursor. With selective CVD, the process is self-limiting whereby the tungsten formation is confined to the polysilicon regions; hence, the nanowires are formed without the need for lithography or for additional processing. The fabricated tungsten nanowires were observed to be perfectly aligned, showing 100% selectivity to polysilicon and can be made to be electrically isolated from one another. The electrical conductivity of the nanowires was characterized to determine the effect of its physical dimensions. The conductivity for the tungsten nanowires were found to be 40% higher when compared to doped polysilicon nanowires of similar dimensions.

  11. Visual Selective Attention in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lupeng; Krauzlis, Richard J

    2018-02-08

    Visual selective attention is a fundamental cognitive ability that allows us to process relevant visual stimuli while ignoring irrelevant distracters and has been extensively studied in human and non-human primate subjects. Mice have emerged as a powerful animal model for studying aspects of the visual system but have not yet been shown to exhibit visual selective attention. Differences in the organization of the visual systems of primates and mice raise the possibility that selective visual attention might not be present in mice, at least not in the forms that are well established in primates. Here, we tested for selective visual attention in mice by using three behavioral paradigms adapted from classic studies of attention. In a Posner-style cueing task, a spatial cue indicated the probable location of the relevant visual event, and we found that accuracy was higher and reaction times were shorter on validly cued trials. In a cue versus no-cue task, an informative spatial cue was provided on half the trials, and mice had higher accuracy and shorter reaction times with spatial cues and also lower detection thresholds measured from psychometric curves. In a filter task, the spatial cue indicated the location of the relevant visual event, and we found that mice could be trained to ignore irrelevant but otherwise identical visual events at uncued locations. Together, these results demonstrate that mice exhibit visual selective attention, paving the way to use classic attention paradigms in mice to study the genetic and neuronal circuit mechanisms of selective attention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The physiology of follicle selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleznik Anthony J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the follicular phase of the primate menstrual cycle, a single follicle usually matures to the preovulatory stage and releases its oocyte for fertilization and the potential establishment of pregnancy. In assisted reproductive technology procedures, it is desirable to override the natural process of follicle selection to produce many oocytes that are capable of being fertilized and undergoing normal embryo development. The goal of this chapter is to summarize the current views regarding the natural process of follicle selection in primates and to discuss how this process may be amplified to produce a greater number of oocytes.

  13. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  14. Probabilistic approach to pattern selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.

    2001-03-01

    The problem of pattern selection arises when the evolution equations have many solutions, whereas observed patterns constitute a much more restricted set. An approach is advanced for treating the problem of pattern selection by defining the probability distribution of patterns. Then the most probable pattern naturally corresponds to the largest probability weight. This approach provides the ordering principle for the multiplicity of solutions explaining why some of them are more preferable than others. The approach is applied to solving the problem of turbulent photon filamentation in resonant media.

  15. Wavelength selection in directional solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karma, A.

    1986-08-18

    Cell-spacing selection in directional solidification is investigated. An integral equation describing steady-state cells in the limit where the solute diffusion length is much larger than the cell spacing is derived and solved numerically by Newton's method. With surface tension and no crystalline anisotropy present the spatial periodicity of a one-dimensional array of cells with cusp singularities is found to be determined uniquely by a solvability condition. The inclusion of crystalline anisotropy has no other effect than to shift the value of the selected spacing.

  16. Unnatural selection in chemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Leslie E.

    1995-01-01

    The theory of evolution through natural selection was proposed by Darwin and Wallace to explain how the characteristics of populations of animals change with time. An examination of their assumptions shows that the theory has much broader application than they originally envisaged. We now know that in appropriate environments RNA molecules or computer viruses, for example, can evolve. The adventure with which we are concerned is the quest for chemical systems that undergo processes analogous to Darwinian selection in the test tube. The search is not restricted to systems that are closely related to nucleic acids, although most of the available experimental evidence concerns such systems. A population of molecules satisfies all the requirements of the theory is there are different kinds of molecules in the population and if each individual molecule can direct the formation of copies of itself, then a population of molecules will adapt to a varying environment by changing its composition so as to maintain as high as possible a rate of replication. Sol Spiegelman is the inventor of 'unnatural selection'. He showed clearly that populations of RNA molecules evolve when replicated repeatedly by Q beta RNA polymerase under a chosen set of adverse reaction conditions. In the systems that he studied, the initial population was fairly homogeneous and much of the variation was created during the course of the experiment by mutation, that is, error of replication. The term 'unnatural selection' will be used loosely to describe evolution of nucleic acids or other replicatable polymers in vitro. The term 'Natural Selection' will be reserved for the evolution of living organisms and their viruses. Natural Section usually involves the coevolution of nucleic acids and proteins, while 'unnatural selection', as practiced so far, allows replicating nucleic acids to evolve but hold constant the enzymes that catalyze replication. It is widely believed that biology based on DNA, RNA, and

  17. Haldane's view of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Veena

    2017-11-01

    Among many things, J. B. S. Haldane is known for demonstrating how the principle of natural selection can be used to build a mathematical, and in particular quantitative, theory of evolution. However, to the end, he remained open to the idea of other evolutionary mechanisms. In his late writings, he repeatedly drew attention to situations in which natural selection did not operate, was hemmed in by constraints, or worked in a surprising manner. In this respect Haldane stands out among the architects of the Modern Synthesis.

  18. Selectivity in early prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmeier, Valerie A; Dunfield, Kristen A; O'Neill, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Prosocial behavior requires expenditure of personal resources for the benefit of others, a fact that creates a "problem" when considering the evolution of prosociality. Models that address this problem have been developed, with emphasis typically placed on reciprocity. One model considers the advantages of being selective in terms of one's allocation of prosocial behavior so as to improve the chance that one will be benefitted in return. In this review paper, we first summarize this "partner choice" model and then focus on prosocial development in the preschool years, where we make the case for selective partner choice in early instances of human prosocial behavior.

  19. Selectivity in Early Prosocial Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eKuhlmeier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prosocial behavior requires expenditure of personal resources for the benefit of others, a fact that creates a ‘problem’ when considering the evolution of prosociality. Models that address this problem have been developed, with emphasis typically placed on reciprocity. One model considers the advantages of being selective in terms of one’s allocation of prosocial behavior so as to improve the chance that one will be benefitted in return. In this review paper, we first summarize this partner choice model and then focus on prosocial development in the preschool years, where we make the case for selective partner choice in early instances of human prosocial behavior.

  20. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  1. Darwinian selection leads to Gaia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Mark

    2002-09-07

    The Gaia hypothesis, in its strongest form, states that the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and biota form a tightly coupled system that maintains environmental conditions close to optimal for life. According to Gaia theory, optimal conditions are intrinsic, immutable properties of living organisms. It is assumed that the role of Darwinian selection is to favor organisms that act to stabilize environmental conditions at these optimal levels. In this paper, an alternative form of Gaia theory based on more traditional Darwinian principles is proposed. In the new approach, environmental regulation is a consequence of population dynamics, not Darwinian selection. The role of selection is to favor organisms that are best adapted to prevailing environmental conditions. However, the environment is not a static backdrop for evolution, but is heavily influenced by the presence of living organisms. The resulting co-evolving dynamical process eventually leads to the convergence of equilibrium and optimal conditions. A simple Daisyworld model is used to illustrate this convergence phenomenon. Sensitivity analysis of the Daisyworld model suggests that in stable ecosystems, the convergence of equilibrium and optimal conditions is inevitable, provided there are no externally driven shocks to the system. The end result may appear to be the product of a cooperative venture, but is in fact the outcome of Darwinian selection acting upon "selfish" organisms.

  2. Efficient data selection for ASR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, NT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available the deployment of ASR systems in the developing world is severely inhibited. One approach to assist with resource-scarce ASR system development, is to select ‘‘useful’’ training samples which could reduce the resources needed to collect new corpora. In this work...

  3. OPTIMUM RESOURCE ALLOCATION AMONG SELECTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr kayce

    This study examined optimum cropping patterns for selected root and tuber crop based production and resource .... period, Pk is marketing expense per unit of the kth crop sold, Yk is quantity of the kth crop sold, Fk is yield of the kth ... depending on whether such activity is sole crop or mixed crop. Restrictions in the model: ...

  4. Wallace and Natural Selection, 1858

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 3. Wallace and Natural Selection, 1858. Sahotra Sarkar. General Article Volume 13 Issue 3 March 2008 pp 236-244. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/03/0236-0244. Keywords.

  5. Social Mobility and Educational Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zefang; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Wenjiao

    2009-01-01

    There is a close interactive relationship between social mobility and educational selection. On one side, the character, direction, speed, level, methods and trends of social mobility affect the aims, goals, functions, scope, strategy, content and methods of choice in education. On the other side, the goals, basis and means of choosing education…

  6. Selected papers on classical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nomizu, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains papers that originally appeared in Japanese in the journal Sūgaku. Ordinarily the papers would appear in the AMS translation of that journal, but to expedite publication, the Society has chosen to publish them as a volume of selected papers. The papers here are in the general area of mathematical analysis as it pertains to free probability theory.

  7. Towards selective lysophospholipid GPCR modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, Julia K; Martin, Jennifer L; Sweet, Matthew J

    2014-05-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that recognize the lysophospholipids (LPLs) are grouped into two phylogenetically distinct families: the endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) and non-Edg GPCRs. Owing to their more recent identification, and hindered by a lack of selective pharmacological tools, our understanding of the functions and signaling pathways of the non-Edg GPCRs is still in its infancy. Targeting the non-conserved allosteric binding sites of the LPL GPCRs shows particular promise for the development of selective modulators by structure-based drug design. However, only one Edg GPCR (S1PR1) structure has been determined to date, and it has low sequence identity with the non-Edg GPCRs (structure of a non-Edg GPCR remains a pressing objective for selective structure-based drug design. Obtaining selective modulators targeting the non-Edg receptors would help to unravel the biology behind these novel GPCRs and potentially will support therapeutic treatment of diseases such as cancer, inflammation, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Model selection for forecast combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper it is advocated to select a model only if it significantly contributes to the accuracy of a combined forecast. Using hold-out-data forecasts of individual models and of the combined forecast, a useful test for equal forecast accuracy can be designed. An illustration for

  9. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes-a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants-can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. As a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called

  10. Directional Darwinian Selection in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, David A

    2013-01-01

    Molecular evolution is a very active field of research, with several complementary approaches, including dN/dS, HON90, MM01, and others. Each has documented strengths and weaknesses, and no one approach provides a clear picture of how natural selection works at the molecular level. The purpose of this work is to present a simple new method that uses quantitative amino acid properties to identify and characterize directional selection in proteins. Inferred amino acid replacements are viewed through the prism of a single physicochemical property to determine the amount and direction of change caused by each replacement. This allows the calculation of the probability that the mean change in the single property associated with the amino acid replacements is equal to zero (H0: μ = 0; i.e., no net change) using a simple two-tailed t-test. Example data from calanoid and cyclopoid copepod cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence pairs are presented to demonstrate how directional selection may be linked to major shifts in adaptive zones, and that convergent evolution at the whole organism level may be the result of convergent protein adaptations. Rather than replace previous methods, this new method further complements existing methods to provide a holistic glimpse of how natural selection shapes protein structure and function over evolutionary time.

  11. Optimal selection for direct mail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, [No Value; Wansbeek, T

    1995-01-01

    Direct marketing (mail) is a growing area of marketing practice, yet the academic journals contain very little research on this topic. The most important issue for direct marketers is how to sample targets from a population for a direct mail campaign. Although some selection methods are described in

  12. Select Papyri from Danish Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas

    The thesis, Select Papyri from Danish Collections: Philological and Archaeometric Studies, consists of an introduction, a book, four articles and a rapport on a scientific experiment at EuropeanRadiation Synchrotron Facility(ESRF), Grenoble, France, together with an application for another...

  13. TEACHING TECHNIQUES--SELECTED READINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    A DIVERSIFIED SELECTION OF ARTICLES CONTAINING DESCRIPTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS OF TEACHING TECHNIQUES, PUBLISHED FROM 1961 TO 1967, IS PROVIDED IN THIS PACKET. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "TOWARD BETTER CLASSROOM TEACHING" (GREW), (2) "GOOD TEACHING PRACTICES--A SURVEY OF HIGH SCHOOL FL CLASSES" (HAMLIN AND OTHERS), (3) "LISTENING COMPREHENSION" (RIVERS), (4)…

  14. Orientation selective deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri J.; Slopsema, Julia P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Shatillo, Artem; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Mangia, Silvia; Sierra, Alejandra; Low, Walter C.; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS. Approach. This concept, which involves orienting the electric field along an axonal pathway, was tested in the corpus callosum of the rat brain by freely controlling the direction of the electric field on a plane using a three-electrode bundle, and monitoring the response of the neurons using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Computational models were developed to further analyze axonal excitability for varied electric field orientation. Main results. Our results demonstrated that the strongest fMRI response was observed when the electric field was oriented parallel to the axons, while almost no response was detected with the perpendicular orientation of the electric field relative to the primary fiber tract. These results were confirmed by computational models of the experimental paradigm quantifying the activation of radially distributed axons while varying the primary direction of the electric field. Significance. The described strategies identify a new course for selective neuromodulation paradigms in DBS based on axonal fiber orientation.

  15. Dynamic Insurance and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe take a dynamic perspective on insurance markets under adverse selection and study a generalized Rothschild and Stiglitz model where agents may differ with respect to the accidental probability and their expenditure levels in case an accident occurs. We investigate the nature of

  16. Selecting materials in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kesteren, I.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis exists of several studies and design steps that resulted in a new material selection technique for user-centred design, which is supported by tools. The tools use examples of materials in products and stimulate the discussions about the user-interaction aspects of those materials desired

  17. Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of steroidal dimers: Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization. SHAMSUZZAMANa,∗, MOHD GULFAM ALAMa,b and TABASSUM SIDDIQUIa. aDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, India. bSchool of Distance Education (Chemical Science Programme), ...

  18. EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEARCE, FRANK C.

    THE NEW HOPE PROJECT WAS AN EFFORT TO TRAIN THE UNEMPLOYED AND THE EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. AN ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYMENT TRENDS WAS MADE OF THOSE GROUPS WHO HAD COMPLETED THEIR TRAINING IN SELECTED SERVICE OCCUPATIONS SUCH AS CUSTODIAN, NURSE AIDE, WAITRESS, SALES, AND SERVICE STATION. WITH THE EXCEPTION OF SERVICE STATION AND CUSTODIAN TRAINEES,…

  19. Selectivity in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, S; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Honoré Hansen, S

    2000-01-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is a most promising separation technique providing good selectivity and high separation efficiency of anionic, cationic as well as neutral solutes. In MEEKC lipophilic organic solvents dispersed as tiny droplets in an aqueous buffer by the use...

  20. Selected advances and future perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdelaziz Ghanemi

    2014-10-18

    Oct 18, 2014 ... Alzheimer's disease therapies: Selected advances and future perspectives. Abdelaziz Ghanemi *. Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences & Yunnan Province,. Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China. University of ...