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Sample records for selective breeding program

  1. Optimisation of selective breeding program for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to optimise the selective breeding program for Nile tilapia in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. Two breeding schemes, the “classic” BLUP scheme following the GIFT method (with pair mating) and a rotational mating scheme with own performance selection and

  2. ADAM: A computer program to simulate selective-breeding schemes for animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L D; Sørensen, A C; Henryon, M

    2009-01-01

    ADAM is a computer program that models selective breeding schemes for animals using stochastic simulation. The program simulates a population of animals and traces the genetic changes in the population under different selective breeding scenarios. It caters to different population structures......, genetic models, selection strategies, and mating designs. ADAM can be used to evaluate breeding schemes and generate genetic data to test statistical tools...

  3. Genomic selection accuracy using multi-family prediction models in a wheat breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide molecular marker data to predict the genetic value of selection candidates in breeding programs. In plant breeding, the ability to produce large numbers of progeny per cross allows GS to be conducted within each family. However, this approach requires phenotyp...

  4. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    Mariafe N. Calingacion

    Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits

  5. Genomic selection needs to be carefully assessed to meet specific requirements in livestock breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies. It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating genomic selection into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in

  6. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; Phocas, F; Gourdine, J-L; Bijma, P; Mandonnet, N

    2013-02-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasite resistance and resilience traits. The overall breeding goal included traits for production, reproduction, and parasite resilience and resistance to ensure a balanced selection outcome. The production traits were BW and dressing percentage (DP). The reproduction trait was fertility (FER), which was the number of doe kiddings per mating. The resistance trait was worm fecal egg count (FEC), which is a measurement of the number of gastro-intestinal parasite eggs found in the feces. The resilience trait was the packed cell volume (PCV), which is a measurement of the volume of red blood cells in the blood. Dressing percentage, BW, and FEC were measured at 11 mo of age, which is the mating or selling age. Fertility and PCV were measured on females at each kidding period. The breeding program accounting for the overall breeding goal and a selection index including all traits gave annual selection responses of 800 g for BW, 3.75% for FER, 0.08% for DP, -0.005 ln(eggs/g) for FEC, and 0.28% for PCV. The expected selection responses for BW and DP in this breeding program were reduced by 2% and 6%, respectively, compared with a breeding program not accounting for FEC and PCV. The overall breeding program, proposed for the Creole breed, offers the best breeding strategy in terms of expected selection responses, making it possible to improve all traits together. It offers a good balance between production and adaptation traits and may present some interest for the selection of other goat breeds in the tropics.

  7. Genomic selection needs to be carefully assessed to meet specific requirements in livestock breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection (GS) in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies). It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating GS into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken, and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in breeding scenarios.

  8. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  9. Novel optimum contribution selection methods accounting for conflicting objectives in breeding programs for livestock breeds with historical migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bennewitz, Jörn; Wellmann, Robin

    2017-05-12

    Optimum contribution selection (OCS) is effective for increasing genetic gain, controlling the rate of inbreeding and enables maintenance of genetic diversity. However, this diversity may be caused by high migrant contributions (MC) in the population due to introgression of genetic material from other breeds, which can threaten the conservation of small local populations. Therefore, breeding objectives should not only focus on increasing genetic gains but also on maintaining genetic originality and diversity of native alleles. This study aimed at investigating whether OCS was improved by including MC and modified kinships that account for breed origin of alleles. Three objective functions were considered for minimizing kinship, minimizing MC and maximizing genetic gain in the offspring generation, and we investigated their effects on German Angler and Vorderwald cattle. In most scenarios, the results were similar for Angler and Vorderwald cattle. A significant positive correlation between MC and estimated breeding values of the selection candidates was observed for both breeds, thus traditional OCS would increase MC. Optimization was performed under the condition that the rate of inbreeding did not exceed 1% and at least 30% of the maximum progress was achieved for all other criteria. Although traditional OCS provided the highest breeding values under restriction of classical kinship, the magnitude of MC in the progeny generation was not controlled. When MC were constrained or minimized, the kinship at native alleles increased compared to the reference scenario. Thus, in addition to constraining MC, constraining kinship at native alleles is required to ensure that native genetic diversity is maintained. When kinship at native alleles was constrained, the classical kinship was automatically lowered in most cases and more sires were selected. However, the average breeding value in the next generation was also lower than that obtained with traditional OCS. For local

  10. Integration of genomic information into sport horse breeding programs for optimization of accuracy of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, A M; König von Borstel, U; Simianer, H; König, S

    2012-09-01

    Reliable selection criteria are required for young riding horses to increase genetic gain by increasing accuracy of selection and decreasing generation intervals. In this study, selection strategies incorporating genomic breeding values (GEBVs) were evaluated. Relevant stages of selection in sport horse breeding programs were analyzed by applying selection index theory. Results in terms of accuracies of indices (r(TI) ) and relative selection response indicated that information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes considerably increases the accuracy of breeding values estimated for young horses without own or progeny performance. In a first scenario, the correlation between the breeding value estimated from the SNP genotype and the true breeding value (= accuracy of GEBV) was fixed to a relatively low value of r(mg) = 0.5. For a low heritability trait (h(2) = 0.15), and an index for a young horse based only on information from both parents, additional genomic information doubles r(TI) from 0.27 to 0.54. Including the conventional information source 'own performance' into the before mentioned index, additional SNP information increases r(TI) by 40%. Thus, particularly with regard to traits of low heritability, genomic information can provide a tool for well-founded selection decisions early in life. In a further approach, different sources of breeding values (e.g. GEBV and estimated breeding values (EBVs) from different countries) were combined into an overall index when altering accuracies of EBVs and correlations between traits. In summary, we showed that genomic selection strategies have the potential to contribute to a substantial reduction in generation intervals in horse breeding programs.

  11. Fruit Phenolic Profiling: A New Selection Criterion in Olive Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos; de la Rosa, Raúl

    2018-01-01

    Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO) although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs. This is mainly due to the difficulties for evaluating oil phenolic composition in large number of samples and the limited knowledge on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence phenolic composition. In the present work, we propose a high throughput methodology to include the phenolic composition as a selection criterion in olive breeding programs. For that purpose, the phenolic profile has been determined in fruits and oils of several breeding selections and two varieties ("Picual" and "Arbequina") used as control. The effect of three different environments, typical for olive growing in Andalusia, Southern Spain, was also evaluated. A high genetic effect was observed on both fruit and oil phenolic profile. In particular, the breeding selection UCI2-68 showed an optimum phenolic profile, which sums up to a good agronomic performance previously reported. A high correlation was found between fruit and oil total phenolic content as well as some individual phenols from the two different matrices. The environmental effect on phenolic compounds was also significant in both fruit and oil, although the low genotype × environment interaction allowed similar ranking of genotypes on the different environments. In summary, the high genotypic variance and the simplified procedure of the

  12. Genomic Selection Accuracy using Multifamily Prediction Models in a Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot L. Heffner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS uses genome-wide molecular marker data to predict the genetic value of selection candidates in breeding programs. In plant breeding, the ability to produce large numbers of progeny per cross allows GS to be conducted within each family. However, this approach requires phenotypes of lines from each cross before conducting GS. This will prolong the selection cycle and may result in lower gains per year than approaches that estimate marker-effects with multiple families from previous selection cycles. In this study, phenotypic selection (PS, conventional marker-assisted selection (MAS, and GS prediction accuracy were compared for 13 agronomic traits in a population of 374 winter wheat ( L. advanced-cycle breeding lines. A cross-validation approach that trained and validated prediction accuracy across years was used to evaluate effects of model selection, training population size, and marker density in the presence of genotype × environment interactions (G×E. The average prediction accuracies using GS were 28% greater than with MAS and were 95% as accurate as PS. For net merit, the average accuracy across six selection indices for GS was 14% greater than for PS. These results provide empirical evidence that multifamily GS could increase genetic gain per unit time and cost in plant breeding.

  13. Genetic Gain and Inbreeding from Genomic Selection in a Simulated Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zibei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS provides an attractive option for accelerating genetic gain in perennial ryegrass ( improvement given the long cycle times of most current breeding programs. The present study used simulation to investigate the level of genetic gain and inbreeding obtained from GS breeding strategies compared with traditional breeding strategies for key traits (persistency, yield, and flowering time. Base population genomes were simulated through random mating for 60,000 generations at an effective population size of 10,000. The degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD in the resulting population was compared with that obtained from empirical studies. Initial parental varieties were simulated to match diversity of current commercial cultivars. Genomic selection was designed to fit into a company breeding program at two selection points in the breeding cycle (spaced plants and miniplot. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs for productivity traits were trained with phenotypes and genotypes from plots. Accuracy of GEBVs was 0.24 for persistency and 0.36 for yield for single plants, while for plots it was lower (0.17 and 0.19, respectively. Higher accuracy of GEBVs was obtained for flowering time (up to 0.7, partially as a result of the larger reference population size that was available from the clonal row stage. The availability of GEBVs permit a 4-yr reduction in cycle time, which led to at least a doubling and trebling genetic gain for persistency and yield, respectively, than the traditional program. However, a higher rate of inbreeding per cycle among varieties was also observed for the GS strategy.

  14. Genetic Gain and Inbreeding from Genomic Selection in a Simulated Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zibei; Cogan, Noel O I; Pembleton, Luke W; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W; Hayes, Ben J; Daetwyler, Hans D

    2016-03-01

    Genomic selection (GS) provides an attractive option for accelerating genetic gain in perennial ryegrass () improvement given the long cycle times of most current breeding programs. The present study used simulation to investigate the level of genetic gain and inbreeding obtained from GS breeding strategies compared with traditional breeding strategies for key traits (persistency, yield, and flowering time). Base population genomes were simulated through random mating for 60,000 generations at an effective population size of 10,000. The degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the resulting population was compared with that obtained from empirical studies. Initial parental varieties were simulated to match diversity of current commercial cultivars. Genomic selection was designed to fit into a company breeding program at two selection points in the breeding cycle (spaced plants and miniplot). Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for productivity traits were trained with phenotypes and genotypes from plots. Accuracy of GEBVs was 0.24 for persistency and 0.36 for yield for single plants, while for plots it was lower (0.17 and 0.19, respectively). Higher accuracy of GEBVs was obtained for flowering time (up to 0.7), partially as a result of the larger reference population size that was available from the clonal row stage. The availability of GEBVs permit a 4-yr reduction in cycle time, which led to at least a doubling and trebling genetic gain for persistency and yield, respectively, than the traditional program. However, a higher rate of inbreeding per cycle among varieties was also observed for the GS strategy. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  15. Review. Promises, pitfalls and challenges of genomic selection in breeding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Escriche, N.; Gonzalez-Recio, O.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to review the main challenges and pitfalls of the implementation of genomic selection in the breeding programs of different livestock species. Genomic selection is now one of the main challenges in animal breeding and genetics. Its application could considerably increase the genetic gain in traits of interest. However, the success of its practical implementation depends on the selection scheme characteristics, and these must be studied for each particular case. In dairy cattle, especially in Holsteins, genomic selection is a reality. However, in other livestock species (beef cattle, small ruminants, monogastrics and fish) genomic selection has mainly been used experimentally. The main limitation for its implementation in the mentioned livestock species is the high geno typing costs compared to the low selection value of the candidate. Nevertheless, nowadays the possibility of using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips of low density to make genomic selection applications economically feasible is under study. Economic studies may optimize the benefits of genomic selection (GS) to include new traits in the breeding goals. It is evident that genomic selection offers great potential; however, a suitable geno typing strategy and recording system for each case is needed in order to properly exploit it. (Author) 50 refs.

  16. Fruit Phenolic Profiling: A New Selection Criterion in Olive Breeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Pérez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs. This is mainly due to the difficulties for evaluating oil phenolic composition in large number of samples and the limited knowledge on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence phenolic composition. In the present work, we propose a high throughput methodology to include the phenolic composition as a selection criterion in olive breeding programs. For that purpose, the phenolic profile has been determined in fruits and oils of several breeding selections and two varieties (“Picual” and “Arbequina” used as control. The effect of three different environments, typical for olive growing in Andalusia, Southern Spain, was also evaluated. A high genetic effect was observed on both fruit and oil phenolic profile. In particular, the breeding selection UCI2-68 showed an optimum phenolic profile, which sums up to a good agronomic performance previously reported. A high correlation was found between fruit and oil total phenolic content as well as some individual phenols from the two different matrices. The environmental effect on phenolic compounds was also significant in both fruit and oil, although the low genotype × environment interaction allowed similar ranking of genotypes on the different environments. In summary, the high genotypic variance and the

  17. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann

    2016-01-01

    –50 % market share. Only part of the European fish aquaculture industry today fully exploits selective breeding to the best advantage. A larger impact assessment still needs to be made by the remainder, particularly on the market share of fish seed (eggs, larvae or juveniles) and its consequences for hatchery...... of molecular tools is now common in all programs, mainly for pedigree traceability. An increasing number of programs use either genomic or marker-assisted selection. Results related to the seed production market confirmed that for Atlantic salmon there are a few dominant players at the European level, with 30...

  18. Strategies for Selecting Crosses Using Genomic Prediction in Two Wheat Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Bettina; Battenfield, Sarah; Guzmán, Carlos; Quincke, Martín; Singh, Ravi P; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Peña, R Javier; Fritz, Allan; Silva, Paula; Poland, Jesse; Gutiérrez, Lucía

    2017-07-01

    The single most important decision in plant breeding programs is the selection of appropriate crosses. The ideal cross would provide superior predicted progeny performance and enough diversity to maintain genetic gain. The aim of this study was to compare the best crosses predicted using combinations of mid-parent value and variance prediction accounting for linkage disequilibrium (V) or assuming linkage equilibrium (V). After predicting the mean and the variance of each cross, we selected crosses based on mid-parent value, the top 10% of the progeny, and weighted mean and variance within progenies for grain yield, grain protein content, mixing time, and loaf volume in two applied wheat ( L.) breeding programs: Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA) Uruguay and CIMMYT Mexico. Although the variance of the progeny is important to increase the chances of finding superior individuals from transgressive segregation, we observed that the mid-parent values of the crosses drove the genetic gain but the variance of the progeny had a small impact on genetic gain for grain yield. However, the relative importance of the variance of the progeny was larger for quality traits. Overall, the genomic resources and the statistical models are now available to plant breeders to predict both the performance of breeding lines per se as well as the value of progeny from any potential crosses. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  19. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, K.P.E.; Hofherr, Johann; Contini, Franca; Haffray, P.; Komen, J.; Nielsen, E.E.; Bargelloni, L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of selective breeding is still relatively limited in aquaculture species. Information on such activities is sparse, hindering an overall evaluation of their success. Here, we report on the results of an online survey of the major aqua-culture breeding companies operating in Europe. Six main

  20. Do traditional sheep breeders perform conscious selection? An example from a participatory breeding program of Morada Nova sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandas, Janaina Kelli Gomes; Alves, Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves; Facó, Olivardo; Belchior, Ernandes Barboza; Shiotsuki, Luciana; de Arruda Leite, Paulo Márcio Barbosa; Ribeiro, Maria Norma

    2017-10-01

    The implementation of sustainable breeding programs requires genetic breeding strategies that are appropriate for the reality production systems. It is also essential that the choice of animal selection criteria be based on breeders' knowledge and objectives. This work is an ethno-zootechnical study of the Morada Nova sheep breed and its crossbreeds. The goals of this study were to register and analyze indigenous breeders' knowledge and practices regarding animal selection criteria and to generate technical information to support a participatory breeding program of the breed. This study was conducted in the Morada Nova municipality in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were evaluated using two groups of individuals, purebred Morada Nova sheep breeders (RMN, n = 13) and breeders of Morada Nova crossbreeds (MMN, n = 48). Interview questions were used to identify local selection criteria adopted by each group in the choice of animals for breeding. Data from the interviews were submitted to frequency distribution analysis and the Shapiro-Wilk test to verify their distribution. Later, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the two groups of farmers based on that information, in addition to multivariate statistical analysis and evaluation of Smith salience index. Breeders in the RMN group used selection criteria related to breed standards, such as pelage color. In contrast, breeders of the MMN group used criteria related to productivity, such as body conformation and milk production. Breeders should be engaged in the development of breeding programs, and it is important to consider their preferences and objectives when evaluating breeding animals.

  1. Genomic prediction in early selection stages using multi-year data in a hybrid rye breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vasquez, Angela-Maria; Gordillo, Andres; Schmidt, Malthe; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-05-31

    The use of multiple genetic backgrounds across years is appealing for genomic prediction (GP) because past years' data provide valuable information on marker effects. Nonetheless, single-year GP models are less complex and computationally less demanding than multi-year GP models. In devising a suitable analysis strategy for multi-year data, we may exploit the fact that even if there is no replication of genotypes across years, there is plenty of replication at the level of marker loci. Our principal aim was to evaluate different GP approaches to simultaneously model genotype-by-year (GY) effects and breeding values using multi-year data in terms of predictive ability. The models were evaluated under different scenarios reflecting common practice in plant breeding programs, such as different degrees of relatedness between training and validation sets, and using a selected fraction of genotypes in the training set. We used empirical grain yield data of a rye hybrid breeding program. A detailed description of the prediction approaches highlighting the use of kinship for modeling GY is presented. Using the kinship to model GY was advantageous in particular for datasets disconnected across years. On average, predictive abilities were 5% higher for models using kinship to model GY over models without kinship. We confirmed that using data from multiple selection stages provides valuable GY information and helps increasing predictive ability. This increase is on average 30% higher when the predicted genotypes are closely related with the genotypes in the training set. A selection of top-yielding genotypes together with the use of kinship to model GY improves the predictive ability in datasets composed of single years of several selection cycles. Our results clearly demonstrate that the use of multi-year data and appropriate modeling is beneficial for GP because it allows dissecting GY effects from genomic estimated breeding values. The model choice, as well as ensuring

  2. Genomic Selection for Predicting Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in a Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio P. Arruda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a breeding method that uses marker–trait models to predict unobserved phenotypes. This study developed GS models for predicting traits associated with resistance to head blight (FHB in wheat ( L.. We used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS to identify 5054 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, which were then treated as predictor variables in GS analysis. We compared how the prediction accuracy of the genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBVs was affected by (i five genotypic imputation methods (random forest imputation [RFI], expectation maximization imputation [EMI], -nearest neighbor imputation [kNNI], singular value decomposition imputation [SVDI], and the mean imputation [MNI]; (ii three statistical models (ridge-regression best linear unbiased predictor [RR-BLUP], least absolute shrinkage and operator selector [LASSO], and elastic net; (iii marker density ( = 500, 1500, 3000, and 4500 SNPs; (iv training population (TP size ( = 96, 144, 192, and 218; (v marker-based and pedigree-based relationship matrices; and (vi control for relatedness in TPs and validation populations (VPs. No discernable differences in prediction accuracy were observed among imputation methods. The RR-BLUP outperformed other models in nearly all scenarios. Accuracies decreased substantially when marker number decreased to 3000 or 1500 SNPs, depending on the trait; when sample size of the training set was less than 192; when using pedigree-based instead of marker-based matrix; or when no control for relatedness was implemented. Overall, moderate to high prediction accuracies were observed in this study, suggesting that GS is a very promising breeding strategy for FHB resistance in wheat.

  3. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  4. Genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor and major marker effects. Thus, the GEBV may capture more of the genetic variation for the particular trait under selection.

  5. A natural variant of NAL1, selected in high-yield rice breeding programs, pleiotropically increases photosynthesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Sanoh-Arai, Yumiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Hirose, Sakiko; Taniguchi, Yojiro; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Ikka, Takashi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kono, Izumi; Ito, Sachie; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This allele increased mesophyll cell number between vascular bundles, which led to thickened leaves, and it pleiotropically enhanced photosynthesis rate without the detrimental side effects observed in previously identified nal1 mutants, such as dwarf plant stature. Furthermore, pedigree analysis suggested that rice breeders have repeatedly selected the high-photosynthesis allele in high-yield breeding programs. The identification and utilization of NAL1 (GPS) can enhance future high-yield breeding and provides a new strategy for increasing rice productivity. PMID:23985993

  6. Accuracy of genomic selection in European maize elite breeding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Liu, Wenxin; Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans P; Longin, Friedrich H; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-03-01

    Genomic selection is a promising breeding strategy for rapid improvement of complex traits. The objective of our study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values through cross validation. The study was based on experimental data of six segregating populations from a half-diallel mating design with 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The plants were intensively phenotyped in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 960 SNP markers. We used random regression best linear unbiased prediction in combination with fivefold cross validation. The prediction accuracy across populations was higher for grain moisture (0.90) than for grain yield (0.58). The accuracy of genomic selection realized for grain yield corresponds to the precision of phenotyping at unreplicated field trials in 3-4 locations. As for maize up to three generations are feasible per year, selection gain per unit time is high and, consequently, genomic selection holds great promise for maize breeding programs.

  7. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.

  8. Using breed composition, breed differences, selection tools, and new technologies to optimize commercial cattle production and allocation of beef cattle in research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicators of breed composition such as hair color and ear length often result in increased or decreased prices of young calves marketed into feedlots. Similarly, feedlot research trials are often initiated with blended cattle from multiple sources with little more than coat color used as a blockin...

  9. Genomic selection strategies in breeding programs: Strong positive interaction between application of genotypic information and intensive use of young bulls on genetic gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) breeding schemes with genomic selection are superior to breeding schemes without genomic selection regarding annual genetic gain of the aggregate genotype (ΔGAG), annual genetic gain of the functional traits and rate of inbreeding per generation (ΔF), (ii......) a positive interaction exists between the use of genotypic information and a short generation interval on ΔGAG and (iii) the inclusion of an indicator trait in the selection index will only result in a negligible increase in ΔGAG if genotypic information about the breeding goal trait is known. We examined......, greater contributions of the functional trait to ΔGAG and lower ΔF than the two breeding schemes without genomic selection. Thus, the use of genotypic information may lead to more sustainable breeding schemes. In addition, a short generation interval increases the effect of using genotypic information...

  10. Plant breeding with marker-assisted selection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Sussumu Sakiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, molecular marker studies reached extraordinary advances, especially for sequencing and bioinformatics techniques. Marker-assisted selection became part of the breeding program routines of important seed companies, in order to accelerate and optimize the cultivar developing processes. Private seed companies increasingly use marker-assisted selection, especially for the species of great importance to the seed market, e.g. corn, soybean, cotton, and sunflower. In the Brazilian public institutions few breeding programs use it efficiently. The possible reasons are: lack of know-how, lack of appropriate laboratories, few validated markers, high cost, and lack of urgency in obtaining cultivars. In this article we analyze the use and the constraints of marker-assisted selection in plant breeding programs of Brazilian public institutes

  11. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  12. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  13. On statistical selection in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dourleijn, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is the development of new varieties. An important phase in the development process is testing and selecting potential new varieties. The varieties are tested by means of experiments at various sites, (sometimes) in several years. The observations from the

  14. Prospects for genomic selection in cassava breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop in the tropics. Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented at three breeding institutions in Africa in order to reduce cycle times. Initial studies provided promising estimates of predictive abilities. Here, we expand on p...

  15. Usefulness of portable near infrared spectroscopy in olive breeding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Moreno, L.

    2012-11-01

    The usefulness of portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a simple and efficient method to determine some of the main selection traits in olive breeding is evaluated in this work. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression from samples collected in different selection steps of the breeding work and under different experimental conditions. The results showed that accurate enough models (values of correlation between actual and predicted constituent higher than 0.9) were obtained for oil and moisture content in both cross validation and prediction results. Portable NIR spectroscopy could be used for selection of genotypes on the basis of these characters, providing similar ranking of genotypes than reference methods both in different selection steps of the breeding process (progenies and selection plots) and different experimental conditions (on-tree or under laboratory conditions). The advantages of this technique to improve the efficiency of the evaluation process in olive breeding programs are discussed. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. Genomic Selection in Plant Breeding: Methods, Models, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossa, José; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Cuevas, Jaime; Montesinos-López, Osval; Jarquín, Diego; de Los Campos, Gustavo; Burgueño, Juan; González-Camacho, Juan M; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Beyene, Yoseph; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Singh, Ravi; Zhang, Xuecai; Gowda, Manje; Roorkiwal, Manish; Rutkoski, Jessica; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2017-11-01

    Genomic selection (GS) facilitates the rapid selection of superior genotypes and accelerates the breeding cycle. In this review, we discuss the history, principles, and basis of GS and genomic-enabled prediction (GP) as well as the genetics and statistical complexities of GP models, including genomic genotype×environment (G×E) interactions. We also examine the accuracy of GP models and methods for two cereal crops and two legume crops based on random cross-validation. GS applied to maize breeding has shown tangible genetic gains. Based on GP results, we speculate how GS in germplasm enhancement (i.e., prebreeding) programs could accelerate the flow of genes from gene bank accessions to elite lines. Recent advances in hyperspectral image technology could be combined with GS and pedigree-assisted breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Selection problems and objectives in mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Key, J.

    1984-01-01

    In plant breeding, major genes are preferably handled by inbreeding, back-crosses and selection through the family/pedigree method. Polygenic systems need gene accumulation, i.e. handling in bulk allowing natural/recurrent selection to operate. The two types of genetic control normally occur together irrespective of whether the variation is created by crossing or by mutagenesis. Cross-breeding can conveniently work with both types of variation and offers a range of genetic backgrounds. Problems are the often enormous recombination potential risking the break-down of already accomplished genic constellations or undesirable linkages. Mutation induction implies a scattered mono- to oligo-factorial variation mostly functioning as a negative load. As a result, it will be difficult and unrealistic to try to explore micromutations, as defined by Gaul, in vegetatively propagated and autogamous crop plants. Quantitative analyses have not been able to give guidance since the induced variation includes disturbed vitality and main or side-effects of events that are possible to define as macro-mutations. The possibility of better exhausting the variation induced will mainly depend on the precision in selection techniques, i.e. by dividing complex traits into their components, by improving environmental conditions for selection, and/or by sharpening the screening technique. Contrary to recombination breeding, mutation-induced variation does not fit a plan encompassing overall agronomic traits simultaneously. The progress has to go step by step. Thus, even more than in cross-breeding, it is important that accurately outlined objectives be set. Some characters, such as flower colour, can easily be defined while others, such as yield, may be more interdependent, calling for compromises difficult to foresee. The complexity of the latter category of traits is illustrated by the interaction pattern in relation to grain yield in cereals where both shoot and root are considered

  18. Recurrent selection as breeding strategy for heat tolerance in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Campolina Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of heat-tolerant varieties is an important goal of wheat breeding programs, requiringefficient selection methods. In the present study the use of recurrent selection was evaluated as a strategy to improve heatstress tolerance in wheat. Two cycles of recurrent selection were performed in experiments conducted in research areas of theUniversidade Federal de Viçosa, located in Coimbra-MG and Viçosa-MG, in 2004 and 2007, in two growing seasons (summerand winter. The genetic gain and the existence of variability show the possibility of successful recurrent selection for heattolerancein wheat.

  19. Recurrent selection as breeding strategy for heat tolerance in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Campolina Machado; Moacil Alves de Souza; Davi Melo de Oliveira; Adeliano Cargnin; Aderico Júnior Badaró Pimentel; Josiane Cristina de Assis

    2010-01-01

    The development of heat-tolerant varieties is an important goal of wheat breeding programs, requiringefficient selection methods. In the present study the use of recurrent selection was evaluated as a strategy to improve heatstress tolerance in wheat. Two cycles of recurrent selection were performed in experiments conducted in research areas of theUniversidade Federal de Viçosa, located in Coimbra-MG and Viçosa-MG, in 2004 and 2007, in two growing seasons (summerand winter). The genetic gain ...

  20. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  1. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.A. [AAFC Brandon Research Centre, Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB, R7A 5Y3 (Canada)], E-mail: cgrant@agr.gc.ca; Clarke, J.M. [AAFC Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2 (Canada); Duguid, S. [AAFC Morden Research Station, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5 (Canada); Chaney, R.L. [USDA, ARS, Animal Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Room 013, Building 007, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  2. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  3. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq TM (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  4. Breeding strategies for north central tree improvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald P. Overton; Hyun Kang

    1985-01-01

    The rationales and concepts of long-term tree breeding are discussed and compared with those for short-term breeding. A model breeding program is reviewed which maximizes short-term genetic gain for currently important traits and provides genetic resources that can be used effectively in future short-term breeding. The resources of the north-central region are examined...

  5. Will genomic selection be a practical method for plant breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Akihiro; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2012-11-01

    Genomic selection or genome-wide selection (GS) has been highlighted as a new approach for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in recent years. GS is a form of MAS that selects favourable individuals based on genomic estimated breeding values. Previous studies have suggested the utility of GS, especially for capturing small-effect quantitative trait loci, but GS has not become a popular methodology in the field of plant breeding, possibly because there is insufficient information available on GS for practical use. In this review, GS is discussed from a practical breeding viewpoint. Statistical approaches employed in GS are briefly described, before the recent progress in GS studies is surveyed. GS practices in plant breeding are then reviewed before future prospects are discussed. Statistical concepts used in GS are discussed with genetic models and variance decomposition, heritability, breeding value and linear model. Recent progress in GS studies is reviewed with a focus on empirical studies. For the practice of GS in plant breeding, several specific points are discussed including linkage disequilibrium, feature of populations and genotyped markers and breeding scheme. Currently, GS is not perfect, but it is a potent, attractive and valuable approach for plant breeding. This method will be integrated into many practical breeding programmes in the near future with further advances and the maturing of its theory.

  6. Will genomic selection be a practical method for plant breeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Nakaya, Akihiro; Isobe, Sachiko N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic selection or genome-wide selection (GS) has been highlighted as a new approach for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in recent years. GS is a form of MAS that selects favourable individuals based on genomic estimated breeding values. Previous studies have suggested the utility of GS, especially for capturing small-effect quantitative trait loci, but GS has not become a popular methodology in the field of plant breeding, possibly because there is insufficient information avail...

  7. Tracing the breeding farm of domesticated pig using feature selection (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyung Kwon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Increasing food safety demands in the animal product market have created a need for a system to trace the food distribution process, from the manufacturer to the retailer, and genetic traceability is an effective method to trace the origin of animal products. In this study, we successfully achieved the farm tracing of 6,018 multi-breed pigs, using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers strictly selected through least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO feature selection. Methods We performed farm tracing of domesticated pig (Sus scrofa from SNP markers and selected the most relevant features for accurate prediction. Considering multi-breed composition of our data, we performed feature selection using LASSO penalization on 4,002 SNPs that are shared between breeds, which also includes 179 SNPs with small between-breed difference. The 100 highest-scored features were extracted from iterative simulations and then evaluated using machine-leaning based classifiers. Results We selected 1,341 SNPs from over 45,000 SNPs through iterative LASSO feature selection, to minimize between-breed differences. We subsequently selected 100 highest-scored SNPs from iterative scoring, and observed high statistical measures in classification of breeding farms by cross-validation only using these SNPs. Conclusion The study represents a successful application of LASSO feature selection on multi-breed pig SNP data to trace the farm information, which provides a valuable method and possibility for further researches on genetic traceability.

  8. Strategies for selecting and breeding EAB-resistant ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; David W. Carey; Daniel A. Herms; Mary E. Mason

    2011-01-01

    Breeding for pest resistance in forest trees is a proven approach for managing both native and nonnative insects and diseases. A recent study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports 255 forest tree breeding programs for insect or disease resistance in 33 diff erent countries (http://www.fao.org/forestry/26445/en/). Advantages to...

  9. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2017-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi , or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  10. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2018-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  11. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Dimitrijevic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare

  12. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  13. Challenges of captive breeding and re-introduction of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -introduction of selected primate species in the wild using Centre for Education, Research and Conservation of Primates and Nature (CERCOPAN) and Drill Rehabilitation and Breeding Center (PANDRILLUS) of Cross Rivers State as case ...

  14. Does genomic selection have a future in plant breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection in plots and only for some, often disease-resistance-related traits, uses genetic markers. The more recently developed concept of genomic selection, using a black box approach with no need of prior knowledge about the effect or function of individual markers, has also been proposed as a great opportunity for plant breeding. Several empirical and theoretical studies have focused on the possibility to implement this as a novel molecular method across various species. Although we do not question the potential of genomic selection in general, in this Opinion, we emphasize that genomic selection approaches from dairy cattle breeding cannot be easily applied to complex plant breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. NOTE - Program R: applications in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the demand for so-called free, or open source software for data analysis as well as the appeal to use it isgreat. An public domain software that has become extremely well-known, with ever-increasing numbers of fans and even coworkers, is Environment R, or simply R. R is extremely useful for data analysis and manipulation in view of a range of tools alreadyimplemented. Also, R is not simply a statistical program, because, by its easy on using internal functions and also creating new ones,statistical procedures applied to data can also be created, manipulated, evaluated and interpreted. R contains numerous libraries(or packages, some already included in the default setting. This course will focus on the application of R in statistical analyses inplant breeding. Explanations on the use of various commands and functions will be illustrated with examples, to facilitate theinterpretation and adaptation to other similar problems.

  16. Genomic prediction in a breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We present a genomic selection study performed on 1918 rye grass families (Lolium perenne L.), which were derived from a commercial breeding program at DLF-Trifolium, Denmark. Phenotypes were recorded on standard plots, across 13 years and in 6 different countries. Variants were identified...... this set. Estimated Breeding Value and prediction accuracies were calculated trough two different cross-validation schemes: (i) k-fold (k=10); (ii) leaving out one parent combination at the time, in order to test for accuracy of predicting new families. Accuracies ranged between 0.56 and 0.97 for scheme (i....... A larger set of 1791 F2s were used as training set to predict EBVs of 127 synthetic families (originated from poly-crosses between 5-11 single plants) for heading date and crown rust resistance. Prediction accuracies were 0.93 and 0.57 respectively. Results clearly demonstrate considerable potential...

  17. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Wang

    Full Text Available Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed.We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality and EDAR (associated with hair thickness were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9 were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study.Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  18. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Zhang, Li; Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  19. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication.

  20. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability...... of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....

  1. Possibilities for marker-assisted selection in aquaculture breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesson, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    FAO estimates that there are around 200 species in aquaculture. However, only a few species have ongoing selective breeding programmes. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is not used in any aquaculture breeding scheme today. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to review briefly the current status of aquaculture breeding schemes and to evaluate the possibilities for MAS of aquaculture species. Genetic marker maps have been published for some species in culture. The marker density of these maps is, in general, rather low and the maps are composed of many amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers anchored to few microsatellites. Some quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for economically important traits, but they are not yet mapped at a high density. Computer simulations of within-family MAS schemes show a very high increase in genetic gain compared with conventional family-based breeding schemes, mainly due to the large family sizes that are typical for aquaculture breeding schemes. The use of genetic markers to identify individuals and their implications for breeding schemes with control of inbreeding are discussed. (author)

  2. Considering genetic characteristics in German Holstein breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, D; Täubert, H; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several research groups have demonstrated that several haplotypes may cause embryonic loss in the homozygous state. Up to now, carriers of genetic disorders were often excluded from mating, resulting in a decrease of genetic gain and a reduced number of sires available for the breeding program. Ongoing research is very likely to identify additional genetic defects causing embryonic loss and calf mortality by genotyping a large proportion of the female cattle population and sequencing key ancestors. Hence, a clear demand is present to develop a method combining selection against recessive defects (e.g., Holstein haplotypes HH1-HH5) with selection for economically beneficial traits (e.g., polled) for mating decisions. Our proposed method is a genetic index that accounts for the allele frequencies in the population and the economic value of the genetic characteristic without excluding carriers from breeding schemes. Fertility phenotypes from routine genetic evaluations were used to determine the economic value per embryo lost. Previous research has shown that embryo loss caused by HH1 and HH2 occurs later than the loss for HH3, HH4, and HH5. Therefore, an economic value of € 97 was used against HH1 and HH2 and € 70 against HH3, HH4, and HH5. For polled, € 7 per polled calf was considered. Minor allele frequencies of the defects ranged between 0.8 and 3.3%. The polled allele has a frequency of 4.1% in the German Holstein population. A genomic breeding program was simulated to study the effect of changing the selection criteria from assortative mating based on breeding values to selecting the females using the genetic index. Selection for a genetic index on the female path is a useful method to control the allele frequencies by reducing undesirable alleles and simultaneously increasing economical beneficial characteristics maintaining most of the genetic gain in production and functional traits. Additionally, we applied the genetic index to real data and

  3. Marker-assisted selection in fish and shellfish breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The main goals of breeding programmes for fish and shellfish are to increase the profitability and sustainability of aquaculture. Traditionally, these have been carried out successfully using pedigree information by selecting individuals based on breeding values predicted for traits measured on candidates using an 'animal model'. This methodology assumes that phenotypes are explained by a large number of genes with small effects and random environmental deviations. However, information on individual genes with medium or large effects cannot be used in this manner. In selective breeding programmes using pedigree information, molecular markers have been used primarily for parentage assignment when tagging individual fish is difficult and to avoid causing common environmental effects from rearing families in separate tanks. The use of these techniques in such conventional breeding programmes is discussed in detail. Exploiting the great biological diversity of many fish and shellfish species, different experimental designs may use either chromosomal manipulations or large family sizes to increase the likelihood of finding the loci affecting quantitative traits, the so-called QTL, by screening the segregation of molecular markers. Using information on identified loci in breeding schemes in aquaculture is expected to be cost-effective compared with traditional breeding methods only when the accuracy of predicting breeding values is rather low, e.g. for traits with low heritability such as disease resistance or carcass quality. One of the problems facing aquaculture is that some of the resources required to locate QTL accurately, such as dense linkage maps, are not yet available for the many species. Recently, however, information from expressed sequence tag (EST) databases has been used for developing molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome-wide marker-assisted selection (G-MAS) using

  4. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically superior sires in the herds. A major objective of QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and candidate genes is to find genes and markers that can be implemented in breeding programs across marker assisted selection (MAS. In Zebu dairy cattle MAS could be used to pre-select young candidate bulls to progeny testing, thus increasing selection differentials, shortening generation interval and increasing genetic gain

  5. Mitigation of inbreeding while preserving genetic gain in genomic breeding programs for outbred plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zibei; Shi, Fan; Hayes, Ben J; Daetwyler, Hans D

    2017-05-01

    Heuristic genomic inbreeding controls reduce inbreeding in genomic breeding schemes without reducing genetic gain. Genomic selection is increasingly being implemented in plant breeding programs to accelerate genetic gain of economically important traits. However, it may cause significant loss of genetic diversity when compared with traditional schemes using phenotypic selection. We propose heuristic strategies to control the rate of inbreeding in outbred plants, which can be categorised into three types: controls during mate allocation, during selection, and simultaneous selection and mate allocation. The proposed mate allocation measure GminF allocates two or more parents for mating in mating groups that minimise coancestry using a genomic relationship matrix. Two types of relationship-adjusted genomic breeding values for parent selection candidates ([Formula: see text]) and potential offspring ([Formula: see text]) are devised to control inbreeding during selection and even enabling simultaneous selection and mate allocation. These strategies were tested in a case study using a simulated perennial ryegrass breeding scheme. As compared to the genomic selection scheme without controls, all proposed strategies could significantly decrease inbreeding while achieving comparable genetic gain. In particular, the scenario using [Formula: see text] in simultaneous selection and mate allocation reduced inbreeding to one-third of the original genomic selection scheme. The proposed strategies are readily applicable in any outbred plant breeding program.

  6. Breeding schemes for the implementation of genomic selection in wheat (Triticum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Filippo M; Bentley, Alison R; Charmet, Gilles; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Crossa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the breeding technology referred to as 'genomic selection' (GS) has been implemented in a variety of species, with particular success in animal breeding. Recent research shows the potential of GS to reshape wheat breeding. Many authors have concluded that the estimated genetic gain per year applying GS is several times that of conventional breeding. GS is, however, a new technology for wheat breeding and many programs worldwide are still struggling to identify the best strategy for its implementation. This article provides practical guidelines on the key considerations when implementing GS. A review of the existing GS literature for a range of species is provided and used to prime breeder-oriented considerations on the practical applications of GS. Furthermore, this article discusses potential breeding schemes for GS, genotyping considerations, and methods for effective training population design. The components of selection intensity, progress toward inbreeding in half- or full-sibs recurrent schemes, and the generation of selection are also presented. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The Standardization of the Honeybee Colonies Evaluation Methodology, with Application in Honeybee Breeding Programs, in Romanian Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza Cauia; Adrian Siceanu; Silvia Patruica; Marian Bura; Agripina Sapcaliu; Maria Magdici

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that breeding is based on phenotypic and behavioural performance assessed at the level of each honeybee colony. By selection, the genes responsible for the desired characters have to be favoured, by evaluation and classification of all colonies involved in a breeding program. Generally, in the beekeeping practice, the most applied method of selection is the mass selection regarding the main objective- honey production. Some more elaborated programs use selection simultaneous ...

  8. Accuracy of Genomic Selection in a Rice Synthetic Population Developed for Recurrent Selection Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Grenier

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a promising strategy for enhancing genetic gain. We investigated the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV in four inter-related synthetic populations that underwent several cycles of recurrent selection in an upland rice-breeding program. A total of 343 S2:4 lines extracted from those populations were phenotyped for flowering time, plant height, grain yield and panicle weight, and genotyped with an average density of one marker per 44.8 kb. The relative effect of the linkage disequilibrium (LD and minor allele frequency (MAF thresholds for selecting markers, the relative size of the training population (TP and of the validation population (VP, the selected trait and the genomic prediction models (frequentist and Bayesian on the accuracy of GEBVs was investigated in 540 cross validation experiments with 100 replicates. The effect of kinship between the training and validation populations was tested in an additional set of 840 cross validation experiments with a single genomic prediction model. LD was high (average r2 = 0.59 at 25 kb and decreased slowly, distribution of allele frequencies at individual loci was markedly skewed toward unbalanced frequencies (MAF average value 15.2% and median 9.6%, and differentiation between the four synthetic populations was low (FST ≤0.06. The accuracy of GEBV across all cross validation experiments ranged from 0.12 to 0.54 with an average of 0.30. Significant differences in accuracy were observed among the different levels of each factor investigated. Phenotypic traits had the biggest effect, and the size of the incidence matrix had the smallest. Significant first degree interaction was observed for GEBV accuracy between traits and all the other factors studied, and between prediction models and LD, MAF and composition of the TP. The potential of GS to accelerate genetic gain and breeding options to increase the accuracy of predictions are discussed.

  9. Accuracy of Genomic Selection in a Rice Synthetic Population Developed for Recurrent Selection Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Cécile; Cao, Tuong-Vi; Ospina, Yolima; Quintero, Constanza; Châtel, Marc Henri; Tohme, Joe; Courtois, Brigitte; Ahmadi, Nourollah

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising strategy for enhancing genetic gain. We investigated the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in four inter-related synthetic populations that underwent several cycles of recurrent selection in an upland rice-breeding program. A total of 343 S2:4 lines extracted from those populations were phenotyped for flowering time, plant height, grain yield and panicle weight, and genotyped with an average density of one marker per 44.8 kb. The relative effect of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and minor allele frequency (MAF) thresholds for selecting markers, the relative size of the training population (TP) and of the validation population (VP), the selected trait and the genomic prediction models (frequentist and Bayesian) on the accuracy of GEBVs was investigated in 540 cross validation experiments with 100 replicates. The effect of kinship between the training and validation populations was tested in an additional set of 840 cross validation experiments with a single genomic prediction model. LD was high (average r2 = 0.59 at 25 kb) and decreased slowly, distribution of allele frequencies at individual loci was markedly skewed toward unbalanced frequencies (MAF average value 15.2% and median 9.6%), and differentiation between the four synthetic populations was low (FST ≤0.06). The accuracy of GEBV across all cross validation experiments ranged from 0.12 to 0.54 with an average of 0.30. Significant differences in accuracy were observed among the different levels of each factor investigated. Phenotypic traits had the biggest effect, and the size of the incidence matrix had the smallest. Significant first degree interaction was observed for GEBV accuracy between traits and all the other factors studied, and between prediction models and LD, MAF and composition of the TP. The potential of GS to accelerate genetic gain and breeding options to increase the accuracy of predictions are discussed.

  10. Peptide biomarkers used for the selective breeding of a complex polygenic trait in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarna, M Marta; Hoover, Shelley E; Huxter, Elizabeth; Higo, Heather; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Domanski, Dominik; Bixby, Miriam E F; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Ibrahim, Abdullah; Peirson, Michael; Desai, Suresh; Micholson, Derek; White, Rick; Borchers, Christoph H; Currie, Robert W; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-08-21

    We present a novel way to select for highly polygenic traits. For millennia, humans have used observable phenotypes to selectively breed stronger or more productive livestock and crops. Selection on genotype, using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome profiling, is also now applied broadly in livestock breeding programs; however, selection on protein/peptide or mRNA expression markers has not yet been proven useful. Here we demonstrate the utility of protein markers to select for disease-resistant hygienic behavior in the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Robust, mechanistically-linked protein expression markers, by integrating cis- and trans- effects from many genomic loci, may overcome limitations of genomic markers to allow for selection. After three generations of selection, the resulting marker-selected stock outperformed an unselected benchmark stock in terms of hygienic behavior, and had improved survival when challenged with a bacterial disease or a parasitic mite, similar to bees selected using a phenotype-based assessment for this trait. This is the first demonstration of the efficacy of protein markers for industrial selective breeding in any agricultural species, plant or animal.

  11. Selective breeding for increased pheromone production in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.R.; Wright, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The male boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, uses an aggregating pheromone to attract females, after which mating often occurs. Sterile boll weevil release programs depend upon this phenomenon to produce sterile matings with feral females. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the individual sterile male and thereby reduce the number of sterile males required per hectare, a selective-breeding system was used to increase the total pheromone produced by individual male boll weevils. This breeding program increased the total pheromone production by individual male boll weevils to 4.5 times that of the parent population. After irradiation-induced sterilization, there remained 2.2 times more pheromone produced by the selected strain. Therefore, these sterile weevils should be about 2.2 times more attractive to feral females than the parent weevils now in use, and they have the potential to reduce the number of sterile males required in a sterile release program

  12. Microbiome Selection Could Spur Next-Generation Plant Breeding Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Murali; Gupta, Alka

    2016-01-01

    " No plant is an island too …" Plants, though sessile, have developed a unique strategy to counter biotic and abiotic stresses by symbiotically co-evolving with microorganisms and tapping into their genome for this purpose. Soil is the bank of microbial diversity from which a plant selectively sources its microbiome to suit its needs. Besides soil, seeds, which carry the genetic blueprint of plants during trans-generational propagation, are home to diverse microbiota that acts as the principal source of microbial inoculum in crop cultivation. Overall, a plant is ensconced both on the outside and inside with a diverse assemblage of microbiota. Together, the plant genome and the genes of the microbiota that the plant harbors in different plant tissues, i.e., the 'plant microbiome,' form the holobiome which is now considered as unit of selection: 'the holobiont.' The 'plant microbiome' not only helps plants to remain fit but also offers critical genetic variability, hitherto, not employed in the breeding strategy by plant breeders, who traditionally have exploited the genetic variability of the host for developing high yielding or disease tolerant or drought resistant varieties. This fresh knowledge of the microbiome, particularly of the rhizosphere, offering genetic variability to plants, opens up new horizons for breeding that could usher in cultivation of next-generation crops depending less on inorganic inputs, resistant to insect pest and diseases and resilient to climatic perturbations. We surmise, from ever increasing evidences, that plants and their microbial symbionts need to be co-propagated as life-long partners in future strategies for plant breeding. In this perspective, we propose bottom-up approach to co-propagate the co-evolved, the plant along with the target microbiome, through - (i) reciprocal soil transplantation method, or (ii) artificial ecosystem selection method of synthetic microbiome inocula, or (iii) by exploration of microRNA transfer

  13. Technological innovation of induced breeding of space and selection of new variety on pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yahua; Xie Libo; Wang Xue; Deng Liping

    2004-01-01

    New pepper variety Yujiao No.1 and new pepper lines with different horticultural characters are obtained by new breeding technique: combination of space inducement and regular breeding, field selection and inherited marker

  14. The basic concept of honey bee breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzunov, A.; Brascamp, Pim; Büchler, R.

    2017-01-01

    Selective honey bee breeding is a phenomenon that fascinates beekeepers around the world. They often regard it as one of the most enigmatic and complex aspects of beekeeping. Indeed, according to our experiences participating in many international projects, both beekeepers and bee experts without a

  15. Microbiome selection could spur next-generation plant breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Gopal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants, though sessile, have developed a unique strategy to counter biotic and abiotic stresses by symbiotically co-evolving with microorganisms and tapping into their genome for this purpose. Soil is the bank of microbial diversity from which a plant selectively sources its microbiome to suit its needs. Besides soil, seeds, which carry the genetic blueprint of plants during trans-generational propagation, are home to diverse microbiota that acts as the principal source of microbial inoculum in crop cultivation. Overall, a plant is ensconced both on the outside and inside with a diverse assemblage of microbiota. Together, the plant genome and the genes of the microbiota that the plant harbours in different plant tissues i.e the ‘plant microbiome’, form the holobiome which is now considered as unit of selection: ‘the holobiont’. The ‘plant microbiome’ not only helps plants to remain fit but also offers critical genetic variability, hitherto, not employed in the breeding strategy by plant breeders, who traditionally have exploited the genetic variability of the host for developing high yielding or disease tolerant or drought resistant varieties. This fresh knowledge of the microbiome, particularly of the rhizosphere, offering genetic variability to plants, opens up new horizons for breeding that could usher in cultivation of next-generation crops depending less on inorganic inputs, resistant to insect pest and diseases and resilient to climatic perturbations. We surmise, from ever increasing evidences, that plants and their microbial symbionts need to be co-propagated as life-long partners in future strategies for plant breeding.

  16. Signatures of Selection in the Genomes of Commercial and Non-Commercial Chicken Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferink, Martin G.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Vereijken, Addie; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Groenen, Martien A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying genomics regions that are affected by selection is important to understand the domestication and selection history of the domesticated chicken, as well as understanding molecular pathways underlying phenotypic traits and breeding goals. While whole-genome approaches, either high-density SNP chips or massively parallel sequencing, have been successfully applied to identify evidence for selective sweeps in chicken, it has been difficult to distinguish patterns of selection and stochastic and breed specific effects. Here we present a study to identify selective sweeps in a large number of chicken breeds (67 in total) using a high-density (58 K) SNP chip. We analyzed commercial chickens representing all major breeding goals. In addition, we analyzed non-commercial chicken diversity for almost all recognized traditional Dutch breeds and a selection of representative breeds from China. Based on their shared history or breeding goal we in silico grouped the breeds into 14 breed groups. We identified 396 chromosomal regions that show suggestive evidence of selection in at least one breed group with 26 of these regions showing strong evidence of selection. Of these 26 regions, 13 were previously described and 13 yield new candidate genes for performance traits in chicken. Our approach demonstrates the strength of including many different populations with similar, and breed groups with different selection histories to reduce stochastic effects based on single populations. PMID:22384281

  17. Selective breeding: the future of TB management in African buffalo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roex, N; Berrington, C M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in regions of southern African has a negative economic impact on the trade of animals and animal products, represents an ecological threat to biodiversity, and poses a health risk to local communities through the wildlife-cattle-human interface. Test and cull methods may not be logistically feasible in many free-range wildlife systems, and with the presence of co-existing BTB hosts and the limited effectiveness of the BCG vaccine in buffalo, there is a need for alternative methods of BTB management. Selective breeding for increased resistance to BTB in buffalo may be a viable method of BTB management in the future, particularly if genetic information can be incorporated into these schemes. To explore this possibility, we discuss the different strategies that can be employed in selective breeding programmes, and consider the implementation of genetic improvement schemes. We reflect on the suitability of applying this strategy for enhanced BTB resistance in African buffalo, and address the challenges of this approach that must be taken into account. Conclusions and the implications for management are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diversifying Selection Between Pure-Breed and Free-Breeding Dogs Inferred from Genome-Wide SNP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pilot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated species are often composed of distinct populations differing in the character and strength of artificial and natural selection pressures, providing a valuable model to study adaptation. In contrast to pure-breed dogs that constitute artificially maintained inbred lines, free-ranging dogs are typically free-breeding, i.e., unrestrained in mate choice. Many traits in free-breeding dogs (FBDs may be under similar natural and sexual selection conditions to wild canids, while relaxation of sexual selection is expected in pure-breed dogs. We used a Bayesian approach with strict false-positive control criteria to identify FST-outlier SNPs between FBDs and either European or East Asian breeds, based on 167,989 autosomal SNPs. By identifying outlier SNPs located within coding genes, we found four candidate genes under diversifying selection shared by these two comparisons. Three of them are associated with the Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway regulating vertebrate morphogenesis. A comparison between FBDs and East Asian breeds also revealed diversifying selection on the BBS6 gene, which was earlier shown to cause snout shortening and dental crowding via disrupted HH signaling. Our results suggest that relaxation of natural and sexual selection in pure-breed dogs as opposed to FBDs could have led to mild changes in regulation of the HH signaling pathway. HH inhibits adhesion and the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube, and minor deficits of these cells during embryonic development have been proposed as the underlying cause of “domestication syndrome.” This suggests that the process of breed formation involved the same genetic and developmental pathways as the process of domestication.

  19. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  20. Genomic tools in cowpea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane eBoukar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of

  1. Multiscale habitat use and selection in cooperatively breeding Micronesian kingfishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, D.C.; Haig, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Information about the interaction between behavior and landscape resources is key to directing conservation management for endangered species. We studied multi-scale occurrence, habitat use, and selection in a cooperatively breeding population of Micronesian kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus) on the island of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. At the landscape level, point-transect surveys resulted in kingfisher detection frequencies that were higher than those reported in 1994, although they remained 15-40% lower than 1983 indices. Integration of spatially explicit vegetation information with survey results indicated that kingfisher detections were positively associated with the amount of wet forest and grass-urban vegetative cover, and they were negatively associated with agricultural forest, secondary vegetation, and upland forest cover types. We used radiotelemetry and remote sensing to evaluate habitat use by individual kingfishers at the home-range scale. A comparison of habitats in Micronesian kingfisher home ranges with those in randomly placed polygons illustrated that birds used more forested areas than were randomly available in the immediate surrounding area. Further, members of cooperatively breeding groups included more forest in their home ranges than birds in pair-breeding territories, and forested portions of study areas appeared to be saturated with territories. Together, these results suggested that forest habitats were limited for Micronesian kingfishers. Thus, protecting and managing forests is important for the restoration of Micronesian kingfishers to the island of Guam (United States Territory), where they are currently extirpated, as well as to maintaining kingfisher populations on the islands of Pohnpei and Palau. Results further indicated that limited forest resources may restrict dispersal opportunities and, therefore, play a role in delayed dispersal and cooperative behaviors in Micronesian kingfishers.

  2. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

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    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  3. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats. © 2015

  4. Genomic selection in plant breeding: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannink, Jean-Luc; Lorenz, Aaron J; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2010-03-01

    We intuitively believe that the dramatic drop in the cost of DNA marker information we have experienced should have immediate benefits in accelerating the delivery of crop varieties with improved yield, quality and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. But these traits are complex and affected by many genes, each with small effect. Traditional marker-assisted selection has been ineffective for such traits. The introduction of genomic selection (GS), however, has shifted that paradigm. Rather than seeking to identify individual loci significantly associated with a trait, GS uses all marker data as predictors of performance and consequently delivers more accurate predictions. Selection can be based on GS predictions, potentially leading to more rapid and lower cost gains from breeding. The objectives of this article are to review essential aspects of GS and summarize the important take-home messages from recent theoretical, simulation and empirical studies. We then look forward and consider research needs surrounding methodological questions and the implications of GS for long-term selection.

  5. Estimation of breeding values using selected pedigree records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Richard; Howarth, Jordan M

    2005-06-01

    Fish bred in tanks or ponds cannot be easily tagged individually. The parentage of any individual may be determined by DNA fingerprinting, but is sufficiently expensive that large numbers cannot be so finger-printed. The measurement of the objective trait can be made on a much larger sample relatively cheaply. This article deals with experimental designs for selecting individuals to be finger-printed and for the estimation of the individual and family breeding values. The general setup provides estimates for both genetic effects regarded as fixed or random and for fixed effects due to known regressors. The family effects can be well estimated when even very small numbers are finger-printed, provided that they are the individuals with the most extreme phenotypes.

  6. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  7. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  8. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS, an ultimate marker-assisted selection (MAS tool to accelerate plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng eHe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted selection (MAS refers to the use of molecular markers to assist phenotypic selections in crop improvement. Several types of molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, have been identified and effectively used in plant breeding. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies has led to remarkable advances in whole genome sequencing, which provides ultra-throughput sequences to revolutionize plant genotyping and breeding. To further broaden NGS usages to large crop genomes such as maize and wheat, genotyping by sequencing (GBS has been developed and applied in sequencing multiplexed samples that combine molecular marker discovery and genotyping. GBS is a novel application of NGS protocols for discovering and genotyping SNPs in crop genomes and populations. The GBS approach includes the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes followed by the ligation of barcode adapter, PCR amplification and sequencing of the amplified DNA pool on a single lane of flow cells. Bioinformatic pipelines are needed to analyze and interpret GBS datasets. As an ultimate MAS tool and a cost-effective technique, GBS has been successfully used in implementing genome-wide association study (GWAS, genomic diversity study, genetic linkage analysis, molecular marker discovery and genomic selection (GS under a large scale of plant breeding programs.

  9. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

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    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  10. Goals and hurdles for a successful implementation of genomic selection in breeding programme for selected annual and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk Jan

    Genomic Selection is an important topic in quantitative genetics and breeding. Not only does it allow the full use of current molecular genetic technologies, it stimulates also the development of new methods and models. Genomic selection, if fully implemented in commercial farming, should have a major impact on the productivity of various agricultural systems. But suggested approaches need to be applicable in commercial breeding populations. Many of the published research studies focus on methodologies. We conclude from the reviewed publications, that a stronger focus on strategies for the implementation of genomic selection in advanced breeding lines, introduction of new varieties, hybrids or multi-line crosses is needed. Efforts to find solutions for a better prediction and integration of environmental influences need to continue within applied breeding schemes. Goals of the implementation of genomic selection into crop breeding should be carefully defined and crop breeders in the private sector will play a substantial part in the decision-making process. However, the lack of published results from studies within, or in collaboration with, private companies diminishes the knowledge on the status of genomic selection within applied breeding programmes. Studies on the implementation of genomic selection in plant breeding need to evaluate models and methods with an enhanced emphasis on population-specific requirements and production environments. Adaptation of methods to breeding schemes or changes to breeding programmes for a better integration of genomic selection strategies are needed across species. More openness with a continuous exchange will contribute to successes.

  11. Breeding and Selection of New Switchgrass Varieties for Increased Biomass Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taliaferro, C.M.

    2003-05-27

    Switchgrass breeding and genetics research was conducted from 1992-2002 at the Oklahoma State University as part of the national DOE-Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) effort to develop the species as a bioenergy feedstock crop. The fundamental objective of the program was to implement and conduct a breeding program to increase biomass yield capability in switchgrass and develop cultivars for the central and southern United States. Supporting research objectives included: (1) switchgrass germplasm collection, characterization, and enhancement; (2) elucidation of cytogenetic and breeding behavior; and (3) identification of best breeding procedures.

  12. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea.

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    Dajeong Lim

    Full Text Available Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle and in China (Yanbian. These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN. We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes, reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes, coat color (2 genes, and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes. We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene.

  13. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dajeong; Strucken, Eva M; Choi, Bong Hwan; Chai, Han Ha; Cho, Yong Min; Jang, Gul Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Gondro, Cedric; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle) and in China (Yanbian). These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN). We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected) in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes), reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes), coat color (2 genes), and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes). We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform) 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val) and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene.

  14. THE USE THE GENETICALLY DIFFICULTLY INHERITED TRAIT OF PURPLE ROOT COLOR IN BREEDING PROGRAM FOR THE COMPLICATED TRAIT IN RADISH

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    S. V. Ugarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding the nature of trait inheritance in any crops is that determines the quality of results in breeding program. According to reference on previous publication, it is known that phenotypic manifestation of purple root color in radish was caused by regulatory interrelationship mechanisms of genetic control that is difficult to be used directly in breeding program. From literature sources and on the basis of their own research work the authors have proven the practice to maintain the trait in generations, and implementations of development of purple radish breeding accessions have been presented. At first stage of breeding program the selection of initial breeding accessions was carried out, where 14 varieties (red x white were regarded on the basis of top-crosses to obtain F1 and F2 progenies to be analyzed. Thus, four best combinations from crossing were chosen with 100% of hybridity. Through analysis of hybrids for individual progenies the hybrid population F1 of radish ‘Konfeti’ with different root colors was developed. As result of the individual inbreeding selection on seed plants with pigmented stems and the colored flower rim, the stable breeding accession with purple root was obtained. Thus, in breeding practice in radish it was succeeded to obtain the stably inheriting purple root color in radish accessions, variety ‘Siniiy Iniey’. 

  15. Twenty years of artificial directional selection have shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, G; Galimberti, G; Calò, D G; Samorè, A B; Bertolini, F; Russo, V; Gallo, M; Buttazzoni, L; Fontanesi, L

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated at the genome-wide level if 20 years of artificial directional selection based on boar genetic evaluation obtained with a classical BLUP animal model shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed. The most influential boars of this breed (n = 192), born from 1992 (the beginning of the selection program of this breed) to 2012, with an estimated breeding value reliability of >0.85, were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. After grouping the boars in eight classes according to their year of birth, filtered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to evaluate the effects of time on genotype frequency changes using multinomial logistic regression models. Of these markers, 493 had a PBonferroni  selection program. The obtained results indicated that the genome of the Italian Large White pigs was shaped by a directional selection program derived by the application of methodologies assuming the infinitesimal model that captured a continuous trend of allele frequency changes in the boar population. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

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    Veronika Czerwinski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76% reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams

  17. Adaptive breeding habitat selection: Is it for the birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals choose particular habitats has important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of organisms in the wild and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. Habitats chosen by animals can influence fitness outcomes via the costs (e.g., predation risk) and benefits (e.g., food availability) of habitat use. Habitat preferences should therefore be under selection to favor those that confer fitness advantages (Clark and Shutler 1999). Indeed, prevailing theory suggests that the habitat preferences of animals should be adaptive, such that fitness is higher in preferred habitats (Hildén 1965, Southwood 1977, Martin 1998). However, studies have often identified apparent mismatches between observed habitat preferences and fitness outcomes across a wide variety of taxa (Valladares and Lawton 1991, Mayhew 1997, Kolbe and Janzen 2002, Arlt and Pärt 2007, Mägi et al. 2009). Certainly, one limitation of studies may be that assessment of “fitness” is typically constrained to fitness surrogates such as nest success rather than lifetime reproductive success or classic Fisherian fitness (Endler 1986). Nevertheless, important habitat choices such as nest sites influence the probability that temporarily sedentary, dependent young are discovered by enemies such as predators and parasites. We therefore expect, on average, to see congruence between evolved habitat preferences and relevant components of fitness (e.g., nest success). Here, we (1) review the prevalence of apparent mismatches between avian breeding-habitat preferences and fitness outcomes using nest-site selection as a focus; (2) describe several potential mechanisms for such mismatches, including anthropogenic, methodological, and ecological–evolutionary; and (3) suggest a framework for understanding the contexts in which habitat preferences represent adaptive decisions, with a primary focus on ecological information

  18. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

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    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  19. Genomic Selection in the Era of Next Generation Sequencing for Complex Traits in Plant Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Javaid A; Ali, Sajad; Salgotra, Romesh K; Mir, Zahoor A; Dutta, Sutapa; Jadon, Vasudha; Tyagi, Anshika; Mushtaq, Muntazir; Jain, Neelu; Singh, Pradeep K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Prabhu, K V

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising approach exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. In plant breeding, it provides opportunities to increase genetic gain of complex traits per unit time and cost. The cost-benefit balance was an important consideration for GS to work in crop plants. Availability of genome-wide high-throughput, cost-effective and flexible markers, having low ascertainment bias, suitable for large population size as well for both model and non-model crop species with or without the reference genome sequence was the most important factor for its successful and effective implementation in crop species. These factors were the major limitations to earlier marker systems viz., SSR and array-based, and was unimaginable before the availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies which have provided novel SNP genotyping platforms especially the genotyping by sequencing. These marker technologies have changed the entire scenario of marker applications and made the use of GS a routine work for crop improvement in both model and non-model crop species. The NGS-based genotyping have increased genomic-estimated breeding value prediction accuracies over other established marker platform in cereals and other crop species, and made the dream of GS true in crop breeding. But to harness the true benefits from GS, these marker technologies will be combined with high-throughput phenotyping for achieving the valuable genetic gain from complex traits. Moreover, the continuous decline in sequencing cost will make the WGS feasible and cost effective for GS in near future. Till that time matures the targeted sequencing seems to be more cost-effective option for large scale marker discovery and GS, particularly in case of large and un-decoded genomes.

  20. Assessing Genomic Selection Prediction Accuracy in a Dynamic Barley Breeding Population

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    A. H. Sallam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prediction accuracy of genomic selection (GS has been previously evaluated through simulation and cross-validation; however, validation based on progeny performance in a plant breeding program has not been investigated thoroughly. We evaluated several prediction models in a dynamic barley breeding population comprised of 647 six-row lines using four traits differing in genetic architecture and 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. The breeding lines were divided into six sets designated as one parent set and five consecutive progeny sets comprised of representative samples of breeding lines over a 5-yr period. We used these data sets to investigate the effect of model and training population composition on prediction accuracy over time. We found little difference in prediction accuracy among the models confirming prior studies that found the simplest model, random regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP, to be accurate across a range of situations. In general, we found that using the parent set was sufficient to predict progeny sets with little to no gain in accuracy from generating larger training populations by combining the parent set with subsequent progeny sets. The prediction accuracy ranged from 0.03 to 0.99 across the four traits and five progeny sets. We explored characteristics of the training and validation populations (marker allele frequency, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium, LD as well as characteristics of the trait (genetic architecture and heritability, . Fixation of markers associated with a trait over time was most clearly associated with reduced prediction accuracy for the mycotoxin trait DON. Higher trait in the training population and simpler trait architecture were associated with greater prediction accuracy.

  1. How can we increase the production, quality and health of our forests by selective breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanson, A

    1981-01-01

    Selective breeding programmes in Belgium are discussed, and a number of seed plantations are listed. Descriptions are given of the performance of European provenances of spruce and larch and American and Canadian Douglas fir, at 3 plantations in Belgium. An account is given of Belgian success in breeding varieties of spruce with late-opening buds resistant to late frosts. (Refs. 8).

  2. Genomic resources in mungbean for future breeding programs

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    Sue K Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the legume family, mungbean (Vigna radiata has become one of the important crops in Asia, showing a steady increase in global production. It provides a good source of protein and contains most notably folate and iron. Beyond the nutritional value of mungbean, certain features make it a well-suited model organism among legume plants because of its small genome size, short life-cycle, self-pollinating, and close genetic relationship to other legumes. In the past, there have been several efforts to develop molecular markers and linkage maps associated with agronomic traits for the genetic improvement of mungbean and, ultimately, breeding for cultivar development to increase the average yields of mungbean. The recent release of a reference genome of the cultivated mungbean (V. radiata var. radiata VC1973A and an additional de novo sequencing of a wild relative mungbean (V. radiata var. sublobata has provided a framework for mungbean genetic and genome research, that can further be used for genome-wide association and functional studies to identify genes related to specific agronomic traits. Moreover, the diverse gene pool of wild mungbean comprises valuable genetic resources of beneficial genes that may be helpful in widening the genetic diversity of cultivated mungbean. This review paper covers the research progress on molecular and genomics approaches and the current status of breeding programs that have developed to move toward the ultimate goal of mungbean improvement.

  3. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

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    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  4. Accuracy of Genomic Prediction in a Commercial Perennial Ryegrass Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Fè

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of genomic selection (GS in plant breeding, so far, has been mainly evaluated in crops farmed as homogeneous varieties, and the results have been generally positive. Fewer results are available for species, such as forage grasses, that are grown as heterogenous families (developed from multiparent crosses in which the control of the genetic variation is far more complex. Here we test the potential for implementing GS in the breeding of perennial ryegrass ( L. using empirical data from a commercial forage breeding program. Biparental F and multiparental synthetic (SYN families of diploid perennial ryegrass were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing, and phenotypes for five different traits were analyzed. Genotypes were expressed as family allele frequencies, and phenotypes were recorded as family means. Different models for genomic prediction were compared by using practically relevant cross-validation strategies. All traits showed a highly significant level of genetic variance, which could be traced using the genotyping assay. While there was significant genotype × environment (G × E interaction for some traits, accuracies were high among F families and between biparental F and multiparental SYN families. We have demonstrated that the implementation of GS in grass breeding is now possible and presents an opportunity to make significant gains for various traits.

  5. Effect of Group-Selection Opening Size on Breeding Bird Habitat Use in a Bottomland Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, C.E.; D.C. Guynn, Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Research on the effects of creating group-selection openings of various sizes on breeding birds habitat use in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Creation of 0.5-ha group selection openings in southern bottomland forests should provide breeding habitat for some field-edge species in gaps and habitat for forest-interior species and canopy-dwelling forest-edge species between gaps provided that enough mature forest is made available.

  6. Selective containment in EBIS for charge breeding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variale, Vincenzo; Valentino, Vincenzo; Bak, Petr A.; Kuznetsov, Gennady I.; Skarbo, Boris; Tiunov, Michael A.; Clauser, Tarcisio; Boggia, Antonio; Raino, Antonio C.

    2008-01-01

    The production of radioactive ion beam (RIB) with the ISOL technique could require a charge breeder device to increase the ion acceleration efficiency and reduce greatly the production cost. The 'charge breeder' is a device designed to accept radioactive 1+ ions in order to increase their charge state up to n+. In the framework of the SPES project, proposed at the INFN-LNL (Padua) for RIB production, an R and D experiment of a charge breeder device, BRIC, has been carried out at LNL. BRIC is an EBIS-type ion charge state breeder in which a radio frequency (RF) quadrupolar field has been superimposed in the trapped ion region to introduce a selective containment with the aim of increasing the ion trapping efficiency. In this paper, the device and the test measurements that demonstrate the selective containment effect due to the RF quadrupolar field are presented. Furthermore, some comments on the possibility of using that device as charge state breeder for RIB production has been also discussed in the conclusions. This experiment has been also considered as R and D program of the RIB European project EURISOL D S

  7. Optimizing the allocation of resources for genomic selection in one breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedelsheimer, Christian; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2013-11-01

    We developed a universally applicable planning tool for optimizing the allocation of resources for one cycle of genomic selection in a biparental population. The framework combines selection theory with constraint numerical optimization and considers genotype  ×  environment interactions. Genomic selection (GS) is increasingly implemented in plant breeding programs to increase selection gain but little is known how to optimally allocate the resources under a given budget. We investigated this problem with model calculations by combining quantitative genetic selection theory with constraint numerical optimization. We assumed one selection cycle where both the training and prediction sets comprised double haploid (DH) lines from the same biparental population. Grain yield for testcrosses of maize DH lines was used as a model trait but all parameters can be adjusted in a freely available software implementation. An extension of the expected selection accuracy given by Daetwyler et al. (2008) was developed to correctly balance between the number of environments for phenotyping the training set and its population size in the presence of genotype × environment interactions. Under small budget, genotyping costs mainly determine whether GS is superior over phenotypic selection. With increasing budget, flexibility in resource allocation increases greatly but selection gain leveled off quickly requiring balancing the number of populations with the budget spent for each population. The use of an index combining phenotypic and GS predicted values in the training set was especially beneficial under limited resources and large genotype × environment interactions. Once a sufficiently high selection accuracy is achieved in the prediction set, further selection gain can be achieved most efficiently by massively expanding its size. Thus, with increasing budget, reducing the costs for producing a DH line becomes increasingly crucial for successfully exploiting the

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW FORMS OF TREE-SHAPED TOMATO AND THEIR USE IN BREEDING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Rotari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree-shaped plants of tomato have many useful traits, which gain them advantages over common tomato forms. In world plant collection there are over 200 accessions, cultivars and hybrids of tree-shaped tomato. The aim of the study was to develop new initial tomato accessions for breeding program for tree-shaped cultivars and hybrids that are distinguished by a shape, fruit weight and color, improved by interspecific hybridization chemical composition and resistance to the major diseases. The tree-shaped breeding lines: ‘196/12’, ‘374/08’, ‘909/14’, ‘911/14’ and other were observed with the use of interspecific hybridization and selection in the population F2-F4. The selected lines passed the trial in artificially infected condition with Alternaria, viral diseases (MToV, TSWV and phytoplasmas. Among breeding lines assessed the ‘911/14’, ‘374/08’ and‘40/11’ were less affected by complex of pathogens. The lines ‘196/12’ and ‘909/14’ passed an assessment in the nursery for variety trial in naturally and  provocatively infected conditions with major pathogens. Both breeding lines had an advantage over standard accession ‘Laguna’ and ‘Maraphon’ for total yield capacity and standard fruit harvest; it was more by 9.6% and 52.2% and 9.5% and 53.4% respectively. Fruits of lines 196/12 and 909/14 had good taste quality with high content of dry matter (5.8% and 6.8%, sugars (3.3% and 3.1%, vitamin C (22.2 and 24.8 mg/100 grams. The selected tree-shaped accessions have been used to develop heterotic hybrids and to be sources of economically valuable traits.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of positively selected genes in seasonal and non-seasonal breeding species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Meng

    Full Text Available Some mammals breed throughout the year, while others breed only at certain times of year. These differences in reproductive behavior can be explained by evolution. We identified positively-selected genes in two sets of species with different degrees of relatedness including seasonal and non-seasonal breeding species, using branch-site models. After stringent filtering by sum of pairs scoring, we revealed that more genes underwent positive selection in seasonal compared with non-seasonal breeding species. Positively-selected genes were verified by cDNA mapping of the positive sites with the corresponding cDNA sequences. The design of the evolutionary analysis can effectively lower the false-positive rate and thus identify valid positive genes. Validated, positively-selected genes, including CGA, DNAH1, INVS, and CD151, were related to reproductive behaviors such as spermatogenesis and cell proliferation in non-seasonal breeding species. Genes in seasonal breeding species, including THRAP3, TH1L, and CMTM6, may be related to the evolution of sperm and the circadian rhythm system. Identification of these positively-selected genes might help to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying seasonal and non-seasonal reproductive behaviors.

  10. Accuracy and responses of genomic selection on key traits in apple breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muranty, Hélène; Troggio, Michela; Sadok, Ben Inès; Rifaï, Al Mehdi; Auwerkerken, Annemarie; Banchi, E.; Velasco, Riccardo; Stevanato, P.; Weg, van de W.E.; Guardo, Di M.; Kumar, S.; Laurens, François; Bink, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The application of genomic selection in fruit tree crops is expected to enhance breeding efficiency by increasing prediction accuracy, increasing selection intensity and decreasing generation interval. The objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of prediction and selection response in

  11. Experimental alternatives for evaluation of progenies and clones in eucalyptus breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Elaine Aparecida de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using augmented block designs and spatial analysis methods for early stage selection in eucalyptus breeding programs was tested. A total of 113 half-sib progenies of Eucalyptus urophylla and eight clones were evaluated in an 11 x 11 triple lattice experiment at two locations: Posto da Mata (Bahia, Brazil and São Mateus (Minas Gerais, Brazil. Four checks were randomly allocated within each block. Plots consisted of 15 m long rows containing 6 plants spaced 3 m apart. The girth at breast height (cm/plant was evaluated at 19 and 26 months of age. Variance analyses were performed according to the following methods: lattice design, randomized complete block design, augmented block design, Papadakis method, moving means method, and check plots. Comparisons among different methods were based on the magnitude of experimental errors and precision of the estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters. General results indicated that augmented block design is useful to evaluate progenies and clones in early selection in eucalyptus breeding programs using moderate and low selection intensities. However, this design is not suitable for estimating genetic and phenotypic parameters due to its low precision. Check plots, nearest neighbour, Papadakis (1937, and moving means methods were efficient in removing the heterogeneity within blocks. These efficiencies were compared to that in lattice analysis for estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters.

  12. Identification of genomic regions associated with phenotypic variation between dog breeds using selection mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Vaysse

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array consisting of >170,000 evenly spaced SNPs. We first identify 44 genomic regions exhibiting extreme differentiation across multiple breeds. Genetic variation in these regions correlates with variation in several phenotypic traits that vary between breeds, and we identify novel associations with both morphological and behavioral traits. We next scan the genome for signatures of selective sweeps in single breeds, characterized by long regions of reduced heterozygosity and fixation of extended haplotypes. These scans identify hundreds of regions, including 22 blocks of homozygosity longer than one megabase in certain breeds. Candidate selection loci are strongly enriched for developmental genes. We chose one highly differentiated region, associated with body size and ear morphology, and characterized it using high-throughput sequencing to provide a list of variants that may directly affect these traits. This study provides a catalogue of genomic regions showing extreme reduction in genetic variation or population differentiation in dogs, including many linked to phenotypic variation. The many blocks of reduced haplotype diversity observed across the genome in dog breeds are the result of both selection and genetic drift, but extended blocks of homozygosity on a megabase scale appear to be best explained by selection. Further elucidation of the variants under selection will help to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits and disease.

  13. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth traits in a breeding program for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Gu, W; Bai, Q L; Wang, B Q

    2013-04-26

    Genetic parameters and breeding values for growth traits were estimated in the first and, currently, the only family selective breeding program for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in China. Genetic and phenotypic data were collected for growth traits from 75 full-sibling families with a 2-generation pedigree. Genetic parameters and breeding values for growth traits of rainbow trout were estimated using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method. The goodness-of-fit of the models was tested using Akaike and Bayesian information criteria. Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated using the best-fit model for each trait. The values for heritability estimating body weight and length ranged from 0.20 to 0.45 and from 0.27 to 0.60, respectively, and the heritability of condition factor was 0.34. Our results showed a moderate degree of heritability for growth traits in this breeding program and suggested that the genetic and phenotypic tendency of body length, body weight, and condition factor were similar. Therefore, the selection of phenotypic values based on pedigree information was also suitable in this research population.

  14. CLASSICAL AND MOLECULAR CYTOGENETIC STUDIES FOR BREEDING AND SELECTION OF TULIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their extreme popularity as fresh cut flowers and garden plants, and being used extensively for landscaping, tulips undergone a continuous process of selective breeding. For almost nine decades, classical cytogenetic studies, mainly the chromosome counts, have been an important part in the breeding programme for polyploid tulips. The efficiency of breeding is greatly aided by a thorough knowledge of the occurrence of polyploidy in the plant material. While the traditional cytogenetic approaches are still highly useful in selecting polyploids and aneuploids arising from crosses involving (most often parents of different ploidy or from the material subjected to ploidy manipulation, the new strategies for inducing polyploidy in tulips, either in vivo or in vitro, and advances in molecular cytogenetics are expected to allow a significant increase in breeding efficiency. Together with the shortening of breeding cycle, major genetic improvements could be made for specific traits. In this we review the development of cytogenetic studies in tulips, and the most relevant achievements so far, providing an overview of what we consider to be valuable tools for the processes of selective breeding .

  15. Identification of genomic regions associated with phenotypic variation between dog breeds using selection mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaysse, Amaury; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Derrien, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse br...

  16. Species-specific variation in nesting and postfledging resource selection for two forest breeding migrant songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianna M. A. Jenkins; Frank R. Thompson; John Faaborg; Andrew J. Kroll

    2017-01-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental component of community ecology, population ecology, and evolutionary biology and can be especially important to species with complex annual habitat requirements, such as migratory birds. Resource preferences on the breeding grounds may change during the postfledging period for migrant songbirds, however, the degree to which selection...

  17. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Batnini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian and a modern (Spanish apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening.

  18. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batnini, M.A.; Krichen, L.; Bourguiba, H.; Trifi-Farah, N.; Ruiz, D.; Martínez-Gómez, P.; Rubio, M.

    2016-11-01

    Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian) and a modern (Spanish) apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening. (Author)

  19. Optimization of dairy cattle breeding programs for different environment with genotype by environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dairy cattle breeding organizations tend to sell semen to breeders operating in different environments and genotype × environment interaction may play a role. The objective of this study was to investigate optimization of dairy cattle breeding programs for 2 environments with genotype × environment

  20. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), an ultimate marker-assisted selection (MAS) tool to accelerate plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Laroche, André; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Liu, HongKui; Li, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) refers to the use of molecular markers to assist phenotypic selections in crop improvement. Several types of molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), have been identified and effectively used in plant breeding. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has led to remarkable advances in whole genome sequencing, which provides ultra-throughput sequences to revolutionize plant genotyping and breeding. To further broaden NGS usages to large crop genomes such as maize and wheat, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been developed and applied in sequencing multiplexed samples that combine molecular marker discovery and genotyping. GBS is a novel application of NGS protocols for discovering and genotyping SNPs in crop genomes and populations. The GBS approach includes the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes followed by the ligation of barcode adapter, PCR amplification and sequencing of the amplified DNA pool on a single lane of flow cells. Bioinformatic pipelines are needed to analyze and interpret GBS datasets. As an ultimate MAS tool and a cost-effective technique, GBS has been successfully used in implementing genome-wide association study (GWAS), genomic diversity study, genetic linkage analysis, molecular marker discovery and genomic selection under a large scale of plant breeding programs.

  1. Breeding common bean populations for traits using selection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A common bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL. cultivar must combine desirable genotypes for several traits in order to be accepted by producers and consumers. This study aimed to evaluate selection efficiency when segregating bean populations for traits, by means of a selection index, in order to obtain superior progenies for traits considered. A total of 16 populations from the F4 and F5generations were evaluated in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, plant disease, grain type and yield. Using standard scores (Z, the sum of the four traits (∑Z was obtained and, based on this information, the best populations were identified. The evaluation of selection effectiveness was performed on 31 progenies from each population. The 496 progenies plus eight controls were evaluated in the F5:6and F5:7 generations for the same traits in July and November 2012, respectively. The selection, using the index based on the sum of standardized variables (∑Z, was efficient for identifying populations with superior progenies for all the traits considered.

  2. Natural selection and inheritance of breeding time and clutch size in the collared flycatcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, B C; Kruuk, L E B; Merilä, J

    2003-02-01

    Many characteristics of organisms in free-living populations appear to be under directional selection, possess additive genetic variance, and yet show no evolutionary response to selection. Avian breeding time and clutch size are often-cited examples of such characters. We report analyses of inheritance of, and selection on, these traits in a long-term study of a wild population of the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. We used mixed model analysis with REML estimation ("animal models") to make full use of the information in complex multigenerational pedigrees. Heritability of laying date, but not clutch size, was lower than that estimated previously using parent-offspring regressions, although for both traits there was evidence of substantial additive genetic variance (h2 = 0.19 and 0.29, respectively). Laying date and clutch size were negatively genetically correlated (rA = -0.41 +/- 0.09), implying that selection on one of the traits would cause a correlated response in the other, but there was little evidence to suggest that evolution of either trait would be constrained by correlations with other phenotypic characters. Analysis of selection on these traits in females revealed consistent strong directional fecundity selection for earlier breeding at the level of the phenotype (beta = -0.28 +/- 0.03), but little evidence for stabilising selection on breeding time. We found no evidence that clutch size was independently under selection. Analysis of fecundity selection on breeding values for laying date, estimated from an animal model, indicated that selection acts directly on additive genetic variance underlying breeding time (beta = -0.20 +/- 0.04), but not on clutch size (beta = 0.03 +/- 0.05). In contrast, selection on laying date via adult female survival fluctuated in sign between years, and was opposite in sign for selection on phenotypes (negative) and breeding values (positive). Our data thus suggest that any evolutionary response to selection on

  3. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, John M.; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human...... that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying...... use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform...

  4. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, John M; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian; Powell, Wayne

    2017-08-30

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying approach to deliver innovative 'step changes' in the rate of genetic gain at scale.

  5. Genetic Parameters and the Impact of Off-Types for Theobroma cacao L. in a Breeding Program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, Ashley; Gezan, Salvador A.; Mustiga, Guiliana; Stack, Conrad; Marelli, Jean-Philippe; Chaparro, José; Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Motamayor, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding programs of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) trees share the many challenges of breeding long-living perennial crops, and genetic progress is further constrained by both the limited understanding of the inheritance of complex traits and the prevalence of technical issues, such as mislabeled individuals (off-types). To better understand the genetic architecture of cacao, in this study, 13 years of phenotypic data collected from four progeny trials in Bahia, Brazil were analyzed jointly in a multisite analysis. Three separate analyses (multisite, single site with and without off-types) were performed to estimate genetic parameters from statistical models fitted on nine important agronomic traits (yield, seed index, pod index, % healthy pods, % pods infected with witches broom, % of pods other loss, vegetative brooms, diameter, and tree height). Genetic parameters were estimated along with variance components and heritabilities from the multisite analysis, and a trial was fingerprinted with low-density SNP markers to determine the impact of off-types on estimations. Heritabilities ranged from 0.37 to 0.64 for yield and its components and from 0.03 to 0.16 for disease resistance traits. A weighted index was used to make selections for clonal evaluation, and breeding values estimated for the parental selection and estimation of genetic gain. The impact of off-types to breeding progress in cacao was assessed for the first time. Even when present at <5% of the total population, off-types altered selections by 48%, and impacted heritability estimations for all nine of the traits analyzed, including a 41% difference in estimated heritability for yield. These results show that in a mixed model analysis, even a low level of pedigree error can significantly alter estimations of genetic parameters and selections in a breeding program. PMID:29250097

  6. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  7. Species-specific variation in nesting and postfledging resource selection for two forest breeding migrant songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna M A Jenkins

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is a fundamental component of community ecology, population ecology, and evolutionary biology and can be especially important to species with complex annual habitat requirements, such as migratory birds. Resource preferences on the breeding grounds may change during the postfledging period for migrant songbirds, however, the degree to which selection changes, timing of change, and whether all or only a few species alter their resource use is unclear. We compared resource selection for nest sites and resource selection by postfledging juvenile ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla and Acadian flycatchers (Empidonax virescens followed with radio telemetry in Missouri mature forest fragments from 2012-2015. We used Bayesian discrete choice modeling to evaluate support for local vegetation characteristics on the probability of selection for nest sites and locations utilized by different ages of postfledging juveniles. Patterns of resource selection variation were species-specific. Resource selection models indicated that Acadian flycatcher habitat selection criteria were similar for nesting and dependent postfledging juveniles and selection criteria diverged when juveniles became independent from adults. After independence, flycatcher resource selection was more associated with understory foliage density. Ovenbirds differed in selection criteria between the nesting and postfledging periods. Fledgling ovenbirds selected areas with higher densities of understory structure compared to nest sites, and the effect of foliage density on selection increased as juveniles aged and gained independence. The differences observed between two sympatric forest nesting species, in both the timing and degree of change in resource selection criteria over the course of the breeding season, illustrates the importance of considering species-specific traits and postfledging requirements when developing conservation efforts, especially when foraging guilds or

  8. Nest site selection and breeding success in three Turdus thrush species coexisting in an urban environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, P.; Hromada, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-92 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding success * coexistence * nest-habitat partitioning * nest site selection * predation * synurbization * urban habitat * thrushes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  9. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  10. Genomic selection for crossbred performance accounting for breed-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marcos S; Bovenhuis, Henk; Hidalgo, André M; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Knol, Egbert F; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2017-06-26

    Breed-specific effects are observed when the same allele of a given genetic marker has a different effect depending on its breed origin, which results in different allele substitution effects across breeds. In such a case, single-breed breeding values may not be the most accurate predictors of crossbred performance. Our aim was to estimate the contribution of alleles from each parental breed to the genetic variance of traits that are measured in crossbred offspring, and to compare the prediction accuracies of estimated direct genomic values (DGV) from a traditional genomic selection model (GS) that are trained on purebred or crossbred data, with accuracies of DGV from a model that accounts for breed-specific effects (BS), trained on purebred or crossbred data. The final dataset was composed of 924 Large White, 924 Landrace and 924 two-way cross (F1) genotyped and phenotyped animals. The traits evaluated were litter size (LS) and gestation length (GL) in pigs. The genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred performance was higher than 0.88 for both LS and GL. For both traits, the additive genetic variance was larger for alleles inherited from the Large White breed compared to alleles inherited from the Landrace breed (0.74 and 0.56 for LS, and 0.42 and 0.40 for GL, respectively). The highest prediction accuracies of crossbred performance were obtained when training was done on crossbred data. For LS, prediction accuracies were the same for GS and BS DGV (0.23), while for GL, prediction accuracy for BS DGV was similar to the accuracy of GS DGV (0.53 and 0.52, respectively). In this study, training on crossbred data resulted in higher prediction accuracy than training on purebred data and evidence of breed-specific effects for LS and GL was demonstrated. However, when training was done on crossbred data, both GS and BS models resulted in similar prediction accuracies. In future studies, traits with a lower genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred

  11. Conspecific reproductive success and breeding habitat selection: Implications for the study of coloniality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, E.; Boulinier, T.; Massot, M.

    1998-01-01

    Habitat selection is a crucial process in the life cycle of animals because it can affect most components of fitness. It has been proposed that some animals cue on the reproductive success of conspecifics to select breeding habitats. We tested this hypothesis with demographic and behavioral data from a 17-yr study of the Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a cliff-nesting seabird. As the hypothesis assumes, the Black-legged Kittiwake nesting environment was patchy, and the relative quality of the different patches (i.e., breeding cliffs) varied in time. The average reproductive success of the breeders of a given cliff was predictable from one year to the next, but this predictability faded after several years. The dynamic nature of cliff quality in the long term is partly explained by the autocorrelation of the prevalence of an ectoparasite that influences reproductive success. As predicted by the performance-based conspecific attraction hypothesis, the reproductive success of current breeders on a given cliff was predictive of the reproductive success of new recruits on the cliff in the following year. Breeders tended to recruit to the previous year's most productive cliffs and to emigrate from the least productive ones. Consequently, the dynamics of breeder numbers on the cliffs were explained by local reproductive success on a year-to-year basis. Because, on average, young Black-legged Kittiwakes first breed when 4 yr old, such a relationship probably results from individual choices based on the assessment of previous-year local quality. When breeders changed breeding cliffs between years, they selected cliffs of per capita higher reproductive success. Furthermore, after accounting for the potential effects of age and sex as well as between-year variations, the effect of individual breeding performance on breeding dispersal was strongly influenced by the average reproductive success of other breeders on the same cliff. Individual breeding performance did

  12. Wetland selection by breeding and foraging black terns in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie A.; Powell, Abby N.

    2012-01-01

    We examined wetland selection by the Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), a species that breeds primarily in the prairie pothole region, has experienced population declines, and is difficult to manage because of low site fidelity. To characterize its selection of wetlands in this region, we surveyed 589 wetlands throughout North and South Dakota. We documented breeding at 5% and foraging at 17% of wetlands. We created predictive habitat models with a machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, to explore the relative role of local wetland characteristics and those of the surrounding landscape and to evaluate which characteristics were important to predicting breeding versus foraging. We also examined area-dependent wetland selection while addressing the passive sampling bias by replacing occurrence of terns in the models with an index of density. Local wetland variables were more important than landscape variables in predictions of occurrence of breeding and foraging. Wetland size was more important to prediction of foraging than of breeding locations, while floating matted vegetation was more important to prediction of breeding than of foraging locations. The amount of seasonal wetland in the landscape was the only landscape variable important to prediction of both foraging and breeding. Models based on a density index indicated that wetland selection by foraging terns may be more area dependent than that by breeding terns. Our study provides some of the first evidence for differential breeding and foraging wetland selection by Black Terns and for a more limited role of landscape effects and area sensitivity than has been previously shown.

  13. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-01-01

    In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus) are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically...

  14. Accelerating the Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Breeding Cycle Using Genomic Selection Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Alexander E.; Lu, Fei; Cherney, Jerome H.; Buckler, Edward S.; Casler, Michael D.; Costich, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial grass undergoing development as a biofuel feedstock. One of the most important factors hindering breeding efforts in this species is the need for accurate measurement of biomass yield on a per-hectare basis. Genomic selection on simple-to-measure traits that approximate biomass yield has the potential to significantly speed up the breeding cycle. Recent advances in switchgrass genomic and phenotypic resources are now making it possible to evaluate the potential of genomic selection of such traits. We leveraged these resources to study the ability of three widely-used genomic selection models to predict phenotypic values of morphological and biomass quality traits in an association panel consisting of predominantly northern adapted upland germplasm. High prediction accuracies were obtained for most of the traits, with standability having the highest ten-fold cross validation prediction accuracy (0.52). Moreover, the morphological traits generally had higher prediction accuracies than the biomass quality traits. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the quality of current genomic and phenotypic resources available for switchgrass is sufficiently high for genomic selection to significantly impact breeding efforts for biomass yield. PMID:25390940

  15. Selective Breeding under Saline Stressed Conditions of Canola Mutations Induced by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.; Moustafa, H.A.M.; Mansour, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation breeding program has been initiated for inducing canola mutations tolerance to saline stressed conditions for growing at harsh land in Egypt. Therefore, seed lots of three cultivars and exotic variety (Bactol, Serow 4, Serow 6 and Evita) were subjected to 100,400 and 600 Gy of gamma rays. Mass selection with 20 % intensity for high number of pods per plant has been done in each treatment in M2 generation. However, individually plants with high number of pods / plant were selected from each variety in M3 generation for test under saline stressed conditions at Ras Sudr region in M4 (8600 and 8300 ppm salinity for soil and irrigation, respectively). The obtained results revealed that eight mutated families from 12- test families in M4 generation surpassed their parents in seed yield / plant and related characters ( plant height ,fruiting zone length , No. of branches , No. of pods / plant ). In addition, the mutant F93 characterized by fast growing and non shuttering pods reflecting 50.4% over Evita control in seed yield/ plant. Twelve mutant lines in M5 represented the mutant families were grown in sandy-loam soil at Inshas region. The three mutant lines (L 22, L 38 and L 45) continuously surpassed their parents in seed yield and related characters, but the increases were less than the previous generation. The increase was 22.3 %, 38.7 % and 36.7 % over seed yield of respective parents. Moreover, mutant L66 exhibited an increase in its yield components in M5 at Inshas only, suggesting that gene expression and genomic structure extremely influenced by environmental factors. Genetic stability for the obtained mutations could be done at different environmental conditions in further studies

  16. Detection of selection signatures for ear carriage in Maltese goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Talenti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection and breeding practices in goats have led to the fixation of several traits. This is probably due to the standardization of several peculiar morphological characteristics that have always been one of the major exclusion criteria of individuals from selection. Among these, ear carriage is one of the most ancient and considered a signature of domestication in several species, such as the dog, pig, sheep and goat (Boyko et al., 2010. The availability of improved genomic analyses tools for goats may provide useful information on genes involved in this trait. By studying, for example, the homozygosity decay of haplotypes (contiguous length of alleles such information can be detected. In the current study, we focused on the Maltese goat, a breed showing floppy ears, in comparison with other Italian breeds using a goat medium density SNP chip (Nicoloso et al., 2015. A total 48,767 SNP markers for 369 animals belonging to 16 breeds or populations were analyzed. Genotypes were imputed within population excluding markers without known position on the current genome assembly (ARS1, Bickhart et al., 2017. Population analysis using MDS, ADMIXTURE and fastSTRUCTURE confirmed the good differentiation among the populations. Integrated Haplotype Score (iHS, Sabeti et al., 2007 was performed for each population, comparing the regions detected on the Maltese breed with the others considered to detect genes that may be involved into shaping  ear morphology. These results may provide new insights into ear carriage phenotype by detecting genes that play a pivotal role in shaping the goat phenotypic diversity. Acknowledgement The research was funded by INNOVAGEN project.

  17. Habitat selection of two Acrocephalus warblers breeding in reed beds near Malacky (Western Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Kocian, Ľ.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2004), s. 637-644 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/7197/20; VEGA(SK) 1/0017/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : reed warblers * breeding * habitat selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.207, year: 2004 http://biologia.savba.sk/59_5_04/Prokesova_J.pdf

  18. Study on differentiation during embryonic development across selective and ancestral breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengli; Wang, Jianlin

    2017-06-01

    In order to explore the effect of strain on diverging post-hatch muscle properties, muscle regulation during embryo development was investigated in selected and unselected breeds. Four broiler strains were used: JingNing (JN) chicken (a Chinese native chicken), HuangYu (HY) broiler, BaiYu (BY) broiler and Hyline layer (commercial crossbred chickens). Results showed that the four breeds had almost the same characteristic during different incubation periods. BY broilers moved more than JN and Hyline layers from Hamburger & Hamilton stage (HH)24 to HH31 (P layers from HH27 to HH31 (P layers (P > 0.05); broilers presented smaller fiber diameter than JN chickens before HH31 (P > 0.05). From then on, JN chicken exhibited smaller fiber diameter compared to the broilers (P > 0.05). Western blotting indicated all the breeds had continuous insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) expression, with the highest expression level in broilers from HH19 to HH24 and highest expression level in JN chicks from HH27 to HH31. The results indicated that the diverging growth among breeds was already shown in embryonic stages; the different expression patterns of IGF-I may be involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Screening for Sugarcane Brown Rust in the First Clonal Stage of the Canal Point Sugarcane Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duli Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd. was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of the great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Brown rust ratings were scaled from non-infection (0 to severe infection (4 with intervals of 0.5 and routinely recorded for genotypes in the first clonal selection stage of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding program in Florida. Data were collected from 14,272 and 12,661 genotypes and replicated check cultivars in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Mean rust rating, % infection, and severity in each family and progeny of female parent were determined, and their coefficients of variation (CV within and among families (females were estimated. Considerable variation exists in rust ratings among families or females. The families and female parents with high susceptibility or resistance to brown rust were identified and ranked. The findings of this study can help scientists to evaluate sugarcane crosses and parents for brown rust disease, to use desirable parents for crossing, and to improve genetic resistance to brown rust in breeding programs.

  20. Effect of vegetation structure on breeding territory selection by red-winged blackbirds in a floodplain forest restoration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria A. Furey; Dirk E. Burhans; Hong He; Michael A. Gold; Bruce E. Cutter

    2003-01-01

    Our research investigates the role of vegetation structure in the selection of breeding territories by red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) in two floodplain oak-restoration sites. Perches are used extensively by red-winged blackbirds in territorial display during the spring (Yasukawa and Searcy 1995). We hypothesized that breeding territory...

  1. Trait-based model development to support breeding programs. A case study for salt tolerance and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Livia; Movedi, Ermes; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Eco-physiological models are increasingly used to analyze G × E × M interactions to support breeding programs via the design of ideotypes for specific contexts. However, available crop models are only partly suitable for this purpose, since they often lack clear relationships between parameters and traits breeders are working on. Taking salt stress tolerance and rice as a case study, we propose a paradigm shift towards the building of ideotyping-specific models explicitly around traits involved in breeding programs. Salt tolerance is a complex trait relying on different physiological processes that can be alternatively selected to improve the overall crop tolerance. We developed a new model explicitly accounting for these traits and we evaluated its performance using data from growth chamber experiments (e.g., R 2 ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for the biomass of different plant organs). Using the model, we were able to show how an increase in the overall tolerance can derive from completely different physiological mechanisms according to soil/water salinity dynamics. The study demonstrated that a trait-based approach can increase the usefulness of mathematical models for supporting breeding programs.

  2. Production objectives, trait and breed preferences of farmers keeping N'Dama, Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle and implications for breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, S A; Markemann, A; Reiber, C; Piepho, H P; Valle Zárate, A

    2017-04-01

    Many local livestock breeds in developing countries are being replaced by exotic breeds, leading to a loss of genetic resources. In southern Mali, for the past two decades, a trend towards increasing crossbreeding between the trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle and the trypano-susceptible Fulani Zebu cattle has been taking place. A survey with 160 farmers owning a cattle herd was carried out in southern Mali to investigate their production objectives, as well as trait and breed preferences and correlated socio-economic determinants in order to understand farmers' breeding decisions and to identify comparative advantages of three breed groups (N'Dama, Fulani Zebu and crossbreds) raised in the study area. Data were analyzed using an exploded logit model. The reasons for raising cattle, as well as trait and breed preferences reflected the multiple objectives of the farmers. Draught power and savings were the most important production objectives. Productive traits were ranked highest; farmers reported large body size as the most preferred trait, followed by fertility, draught ability and milk yield. Crossbreds were the favored breed group. Breed preferences were mainly explained by 'resistance to disease' for N'Dama cattle and 'high market price' for Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle. Production objectives, trait and breed preferences were mainly influenced by farmer group (local farmers and settled transhumants). Local farmers put comparatively more emphasis on livestock functions linked to crop production such as draught power. They had a higher preference for traction ability as a selection trait and preferred N'Dama over Fulani Zebu cattle. Settled transhumants emphasized milk yield as a selection trait and preferred Fulani Zebu over N'Dama. The results indicate that the trend towards more crossbreeding will continue putting the N'Dama breed under high risk of genetic dilution in southern Mali. The N'Dama cattle remain a valuable breed due to their adaptive traits such as

  3. Genomic selection and association mapping in rice (Oryza sativa): effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number and statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Jennifer; Begum, Hasina; Akdemir, Deniz; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; Redoña, Edilberto; Atlin, Gary; Jannink, Jean-Luc; McCouch, Susan R

    2015-02-01

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI) irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline.

  4. Genomic selection and association mapping in rice (Oryza sativa: effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number and statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Spindel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic Selection (GS is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline.

  5. Genomic Selection and Association Mapping in Rice (Oryza sativa): Effect of Trait Genetic Architecture, Training Population Composition, Marker Number and Statistical Model on Accuracy of Rice Genomic Selection in Elite, Tropical Rice Breeding Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Jennifer; Begum, Hasina; Akdemir, Deniz; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; Redoña, Edilberto; Atlin, Gary; Jannink, Jean-Luc; McCouch, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI) irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline. PMID:25689273

  6. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  7. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P. Knowles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

  8. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), an ultimate marker-assisted selection (MAS) tool to accelerate plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Laroche, André; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Liu, HongKui; Li, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) refers to the use of molecular markers to assist phenotypic selections in crop improvement. Several types of molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), have been identified and effectively used in plant breeding. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has led to remarkable advances in whole genome sequencing, which provides ultra-throughput sequences to revolutionize plant genotyping and breeding. To further broad...

  10. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  11. Selection of arboreal termitaria for nesting by cooperatively breeding Micronesian Kingfishers Todiramphus cinnamominus reichenbachii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Haig, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Limited nest-site availability appears to be an important factor in the evolution of delayed dispersal and cooperative breeding in some cavity-nesting species. The cooperatively breeding Pohnpei subspecies of Micronesian Kingfisher Todiramphus cinnamominus reichenbachii excavates nest cavities from the nests of arboreal termites Nasutitermes spp., or termitaria. In this first published description of nest-sites for this subspecies, we used surveys, remote sensing and radiotelemetry to evaluate the relationship between nest-site availability and co-operation. Results illustrate that nest termitaria are higher in the forest canopy, larger in volume and occur in areas with more contiguous canopy cover than unused termitaria. Nest termitaria were selected independently of the proximity to forest edges and territory boundaries, and we found no difference in characteristics of termitaria used by cooperative groups and breeding pairs. Logistic regression modelling indicated that termitaria with nest-like characteristics were not limited in abundance, suggesting that neither the prospects of inheriting nesting resources nor limited nest-site abundance are probable explanations for delayed dispersal in the Pohnpei subspecies of Micronesian Kingfisher.

  12. Effect of breeding protocols and reproductive tract score on reproductive performance of dairy heifers and economic outcome of breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J L; Rodrigues, J A; Braga, F A; Bitente, S; Dalton, J C; Santos, J E P; Chebel, R C

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of reproductive protocols and reproductive tract score on reproductive performance of dairy heifers and economic outcomes of breeding programs. Holstein heifers (n = 534), 13 +/- 1 mo of age, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 reproductive protocols. On the day of enrollment (d 0), heifers were palpated per rectum and received a score according to the maturity of their reproductive tract (1 = prepubertal; 2 = peripubertal; and 3 = puber-tal). Estrous detection-control heifers (CON, n = 146) received no treatment and were inseminated on detection of estrus for 28 d. Prostaglandin F(2alpha)-treated heifers (PGED, n = 137) received 1 injection of PGF(2alpha) on d 0 and were inseminated on detection of estrus; heifers not in-seminated by d 14 received a second injection of PGF(2alpha) and were observed for estrus and artificial insemination (AI) for an additional 14 d. Heifers enrolled in the estrous detection-timed AI (EDTAI, n = 140) treatment received a controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert on d 0, and 7 d later, the CIDR was removed and all heifers received an injection of PGF(2alpha), heifers received AI on detection of estrus, and those not inseminated by 72 h after PGF(2alpha) received an injection of GnRH concurrent with AI. Heifers in the GnRH-timed AI (GTAI, n = 111) treatment received 1 injection of GnRH on d 0, on d 6 heifers received a CIDR insert and injections of GnRH and PGF(2alpha), on d 13 the CIDR was removed and heifers received an injection of PGF(2alpha), and 48 h later all heifers received an injection of GnRH and AI. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 32 +/- 3 and 62 +/- 3 d after AI. Cost of reproductive protocols and their economic outcomes were calculated for a 28 d period beginning at enrollment. Heifers in the PGED treatment were inseminated at a faster rate than CON heifers. A smaller proportion of prepubertal and peripubertal heifers were inseminated within 14 d of enrollment

  13. High-throughput phenotyping and genomic selection: the frontiers of crop breeding converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Crossa, José; von Zitzewitz, Jarislav; Serret, María Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2012-05-01

    Genomic selection (GS) and high-throughput phenotyping have recently been captivating the interest of the crop breeding community from both the public and private sectors world-wide. Both approaches promise to revolutionize the prediction of complex traits, including growth, yield and adaptation to stress. Whereas high-throughput phenotyping may help to improve understanding of crop physiology, most powerful techniques for high-throughput field phenotyping are empirical rather than analytical and comparable to genomic selection. Despite the fact that the two methodological approaches represent the extremes of what is understood as the breeding process (phenotype versus genome), they both consider the targeted traits (e.g. grain yield, growth, phenology, plant adaptation to stress) as a black box instead of dissecting them as a set of secondary traits (i.e. physiological) putatively related to the target trait. Both GS and high-throughput phenotyping have in common their empirical approach enabling breeders to use genome profile or phenotype without understanding the underlying biology. This short review discusses the main aspects of both approaches and focuses on the case of genomic selection of maize flowering traits and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and plant spectral reflectance as high-throughput field phenotyping methods for complex traits such as crop growth and yield. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Breeding Jatropha curcas by genomic selection: A pilot assessment of the accuracy of predictive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Peixoto, Leonardo de; Laviola, Bruno Galvêas; Alves, Alexandre Alonso; Rosado, Tatiana Barbosa; Bhering, Leonardo Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Genomic wide selection is a promising approach for improving the selection accuracy in plant breeding, particularly in species with long life cycles, such as Jatropha. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters for grain yield (GY) and the weight of 100 seeds (W100S) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML); to compare the performance of GWS methods to predict GY and W100S; and to estimate how many markers are needed to train the GWS model to obtain the maximum accuracy. Eight GWS models were compared in terms of predictive ability. The impact that the marker density had on the predictive ability was investigated using a varying number of markers, from 2 to 1,248. Because the genetic variance between evaluated genotypes was significant, it was possible to obtain selection gain. All of the GWS methods tested in this study can be used to predict GY and W100S in Jatropha. A training model fitted using 1,000 and 800 markers is sufficient to capture the maximum genetic variance and, consequently, maximum prediction ability of GY and W100S, respectively. This study demonstrated the applicability of genome-wide prediction to identify useful genetic sources of GY and W100S for Jatropha breeding. Further research is needed to confirm the applicability of the proposed approach to other complex traits.

  15. Breeding of fungal resistant varieties derived from Grüner Veltliner by chromosomal selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regner Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cultivar Grüner Veltliner is the most appreciated vine in Austrian viticulture. Due to organic growing the demand for mildew resistance within the same wine profile has increased. Cross breeding can provide such new genotypes which combine traits from different sources by parenthood. Linkage of traits with chromosomes or markers allows to predict some aspects of the phenotype. Equipped with chromosomal assisted selection the development of new varieties could be much easier and faster. On the base of two segregating populations derived from crosses of Grüner Veltliner with Malverina and Seyval blanc we could define correlation of chromosomes with some traits. Mainly ampelographic descriptors and resistance against mildew could be aligned. As a quality parameter of the wine Rotundone analyses were performed and could be attributed to chromosome 5 and 9. Selection supported by the composition of the parental chromosomes enables breeding with some arguments of design. The limits for free choice were the availability of sufficient different genotypes with a broad spectrum of chromosomal combinations. Recently released descendent cultivar Donauveltliner was selected due to the high rate of Traminer alleles.

  16. Breeding Jatropha curcas by genomic selection: A pilot assessment of the accuracy of predictive models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Azevedo Peixoto

    Full Text Available Genomic wide selection is a promising approach for improving the selection accuracy in plant breeding, particularly in species with long life cycles, such as Jatropha. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters for grain yield (GY and the weight of 100 seeds (W100S using restricted maximum likelihood (REML; to compare the performance of GWS methods to predict GY and W100S; and to estimate how many markers are needed to train the GWS model to obtain the maximum accuracy. Eight GWS models were compared in terms of predictive ability. The impact that the marker density had on the predictive ability was investigated using a varying number of markers, from 2 to 1,248. Because the genetic variance between evaluated genotypes was significant, it was possible to obtain selection gain. All of the GWS methods tested in this study can be used to predict GY and W100S in Jatropha. A training model fitted using 1,000 and 800 markers is sufficient to capture the maximum genetic variance and, consequently, maximum prediction ability of GY and W100S, respectively. This study demonstrated the applicability of genome-wide prediction to identify useful genetic sources of GY and W100S for Jatropha breeding. Further research is needed to confirm the applicability of the proposed approach to other complex traits.

  17. Investigation of selection methods im mutation breeding of barley for protein quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulonska, E.; Gaul, H.; Baumer, M.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Gruenbach

    1975-01-01

    This mutation breeding programme is investigating the qualification of micro-mutations for the selection of improved protein quality and quantity. Normally, improvement of protein content in micro-mutations is rather small. Therefore, it is important to develop methods and conditions of selection being (a) capable of measuring these small deviations in protein content and quality, and (b) simple to use. In two experiments carried out in 1971 and 1972 nitrogen fertilization was found to be the most important factor in the improvement of selection conditions. There is a highly significant negative correlation between crude protein content and the standard deviation; i.e. the higher the content of crude protein, the lower the variation coefficient. This in turn leads to an increase of genetic variation necessary for better selection progress. Nitrogen fertilization, especially during ear emergence, covers environmental influences - e.g., planting space, sowing rate, growing in different plots (6, 3, 2, 1 rows or in half-ear hills) - to a great extent. Thus, by applying high doses of nitrogen dressings comparable results can be achieved. In an overall selection experiment (testing the entire crossing and mutation material available at Weihenstephan in a stepwise selection from 1971 to 1973) and two selection experiments conducted in 1971 to 1973 with micro-mutants - variety Nota, 4 times X-rayed and the naked barley strain 1606 treated once with EMS - significant selection results were found. (author)

  18. The Effects of Both Recent and Long-Term Selection and Genetic Drift Are Readily Evident in North American Barley Breeding Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Poets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley was introduced to North America ∼400 yr ago but adaptation to modern production environments is more recent. Comparisons of allele frequencies among growth habits and spike (inflorescence types in North America indicate that significant genetic differentiation has accumulated in a relatively short evolutionary time span. Allele frequency differentiation is greatest among barley with two-row vs. six-row spikes, followed by spring vs. winter growth habit. Large changes in allele frequency among breeding programs suggest a major contribution of genetic drift and linked selection on genetic variation. Despite this, comparisons of 3613 modern North American cultivated barley breeding lines that differ for spike-type and growth habit permit the discovery of 142 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP outliers putatively linked to targets of selection. For example, SNPs within the Cbf4, Ppd-H1, and Vrn-H1 loci, which have previously been associated with agronomically adaptive phenotypes, are identified as outliers. Analysis of extended haplotype sharing identifies genomic regions shared within and among breeding populations, suggestive of a number of genomic regions subject to recent selection. Finally, we are able to identify recent bouts of gene flow between breeding populations that could point to the sharing of agronomically adaptive variation. These results are supported by pedigrees and breeders’ understanding of germplasm sharing.

  19. Tracking the Genetic Stability of a Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Breeding Program With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Beaman, Lorraine

    2017-08-01

    A genetic stock identification (GSI) assay was developed in 2008 to distinguish Russian honey bees from other honey bee stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. Probability of assignment (POA) values have been collected and maintained since the stock release in 2008 to the Russian Honey Bee Breeders Association. These data were used to assess stability of the breeding program and the diversity levels of the contemporary breeding stock through comparison of POA values and genetic diversity parameters from the initial release to current values. POA values fluctuated throughout 2010-2016, but have recovered to statistically similar levels in 2016 (POA(2010) = 0.82, POA(2016) = 0.74; P = 0.33). Genetic diversity parameters (i.e., allelic richness and gene diversity) in 2016 also remained at similar levels when compared to those in 2010. Estimates of genetic structure revealed stability (FST(2009/2016) = 0.0058) with a small increase in the estimate of the inbreeding coefficient (FIS(2010) = 0.078, FIS(2016) = 0.149). The relationship among breeding lines, based on genetic distance measurement, was similar in 2008 and 2016 populations, but with increased homogeneity among lines (i.e., decreased genetic distance). This was expected based on the closed breeding system used for Russian honey bees. The successful application of the GSI assay in a commercial breeding program demonstrates the utility and stability of such technology to contribute to and monitor the genetic integrity of a breeding stock of an insect species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR METHODS IN SOYBEAN BREEDING PROGRAM AT THE AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTE OSIJEK (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The soybean breeding work at the Agricultural Institute Osijek has focused on the permanently development of high-yielding cultivars with genetic yield potential of 5-6 t/ha, satisfactory grain quality (protein and oil content, high tolerance to the principal diseases (Peronospora manshurica, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex, high resistance to lodging, stress conditions over vegetation and pod shattering as well as satisfactory stability in level and quality of grain and wide adaptability. Results of this continued and intensive breeding work are 36 registered cultivars which significantly contributed and contribute to the development, improving and increasing of soybean production in Republic of Croatia. Further genetic improvement of soybean cultivars is based on the modern breeding strategies including combination of conventional breeding methods and recent chemical, biochemical, phytopathology and molecular analyses. Regarding to molecular analyses, in recent years, in the frame of the soybean breeding program has initiated by application of molecular markers technology as criterion for estimation genetic diversity for both soybean germplasm and pathogens from Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex on soybean, as well. The initial fingerprinting of several OS soybean genotypes has performed in collaboration with the University of Guelph (Canada in their biomolecular laboratory using simple sequence repeats (SSR. The obtained results enabled new access in choosing parental pairs. Combining molecular markers technique with pedigree information, phenotypic markers and statistical procedure has provided a useful tool for more accurate and complete evaluation of genetic diversity and its more effective utilization into current soybean breeding program. The detection of pathogens from Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex on soybean on molecular level has performed in collaboration with the Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale (Rome

  1. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes: Rethinking “intensification” for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2015-06-01

    expression of rice plants' genetic potential, thereby creating more productive and robust phenotypes from given rice genotypes. Data indicate that increased plant density does not necessarily enhance crop yield potential, as classical breeding methods suggest. Developing cultivars that can achieve their higher productivity under a wide range of plant densities—breeding for density-neutral cultivars using alternative selection strategies—will enable more effective exploitation of available crop growth resources. Density-neutral cultivars that achieve high productivity under ample environmental growth resources can also achieve optimal productivity under limited resources, where lower densities can avert crop failure due to overcrowding. This will become more important to the extent that climatic and other factors become more adverse to crop production. Focusing more on which management practices can evoke the most productive and robust phenotypes from given genotypes is important for rice breeding and improvement programs since it is phenotypes that feed our human populations.

  2. A review of microsatellite markers and their applications in rice breeding programs to improve blast disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Islam, Kh Nurul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2013-11-14

    Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), and they are typically composed of 1-6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS in rice breeding

  3. A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Latif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR, and they are typically composed of 1–6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS

  4. Using Wild Olives in Breeding Programs: Implications on Oil Quality Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo León

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A wide genetic diversity has been reported for wild olives, which could be particularly interesting for the introgression of some agronomic traits and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in breeding programs. However, the introgression of some beneficial wild traits may be paralleled by negative effects on some other important agronomic and quality traits. From the quality point of view, virgin olive oil (VOO from olive cultivars is highly appreciated for its fatty acid composition (high monounsaturated oleic acid content and the presence of several minor components. However, the composition of VOO from wild origin and its comparison with VOO from olive cultivars has been scarcely studied. In this work, the variability for fruit characters (fruit weight and oil content, OC, fatty acid composition, and minor quality components (squalene, sterols and tocopherols content and composition was studied in a set of plant materials involving three different origins: wild genotypes (n = 32, cultivars (n = 62 and genotypes belonging to cultivar × wild progenies (n = 62. As expected, values for fruit size and OC in wild olives were lower than those obtained in cultivated materials, with intermediate values for cultivar × wild progenies. Wild olives showed a remarkably higher C16:0 percentage and tocopherol content in comparison to the cultivars. Contrarily, lower C18:1 percentage, squalene and sterol content were found in the wild genotypes, while no clear differences were found among the different plant materials regarding composition of the tocopherol and phytosterol fractions. Some common highly significant correlations among components of the same chemical family were found in all groups of plant materials. However, some other correlations were specific for one of the groups. The results of the study suggested that the use of wild germplasm in olive breeding programs will not have a negative impact on fatty acid composition, tocopherol content

  5. Economic selection index development for Beefmaster cattle II: General-purpose breeding objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, K P; MacNeil, M D; Lewis, R M; Spangler, M L

    2017-05-01

    An economic selection index was developed for Beefmaster cattle in a general-purpose production system in which bulls are mated to a combination of heifers and mature cows, with resulting progeny retained as replacements or sold at weaning. National average prices from 2010 to 2014 were used to establish income and expenses for the system. Genetic parameters were obtained from the literature. Economic values were estimated by simulating 100,000 animals and approximating the partial derivatives of the profit function by perturbing traits 1 at a time, by 1 unit, while holding the other traits constant at their respective means. Relative economic values for the objective traits calving difficultly direct (CDd), calving difficulty maternal (CDm), weaning weight direct (WWd), weaning weight maternal (WWm), mature cow weight (MW), and heifer pregnancy (HP) were -2.11, -1.53, 18.49, 11.28, -33.46, and 1.19, respectively. Consequently, under the scenario assumed herein, the greatest improvements in profitability could be made by decreasing maintenance energy costs associated with MW followed by improvements in weaning weight. The accuracy of the index lies between 0.218 (phenotypic-based index selection) and 0.428 (breeding values known without error). Implementation of this index would facilitate genetic improvement and increase profitability of Beefmaster cattle operations with a general-purpose breeding objective when replacement females are retained and with weaned calves as the sale end point.

  6. Doctoral Program Selection Using Pairwise Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadisina, Suresh K.; Bhasin, Vijay

    1989-01-01

    The application of a pairwise comparison methodology (Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process) to the doctoral program selection process is illustrated. A hierarchy for structuring and facilitating the doctoral program selection decision is described. (Author/MLW)

  7. BREED: a CDC-7600 computer program for the automation of breeder reactor design analysis (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelore, N.R.; Maher, C.M.

    1985-03-01

    BREED is an executive CDC-7600 program which was developed to facilitate the sequence of calculations and movement of data through a prescribed series of breeder reactor design computer programs in an uninterrupted single-job mode. It provides the capability to interface different application programs into a single computer run to provide a complete design function. The automation that can be achieved as a result of using BREED significantly reduces not only the time required for data preparation and hand transfer of data, but also the time required to complete an iteration of the total design effort. Data processing within a technical discipline and data transfer between technical disciplines can be accommodated. The input/output data processing is achieved with BREED by using a set of simple, easily understood user commands, usually short descriptive words, which the user inserts in his input deck. The input deck completely identifies and controls the calculational sequence needed to produce a desired end product. This report has been prepared to provide instructional material on the use of BREED and its user-oriented procedures to facilitate computer automation of design calculations

  8. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population.

  9. Factors affecting the accuracy of genomic selection for growth and wood quality traits in an advanced-breeding population of black spruce (Picea mariana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Patrick R N; Beaulieu, Jean; Mansfield, Shawn D; Clément, Sébastien; Desponts, Mireille; Bousquet, Jean

    2017-04-28

    identified to carry large effects, indicating a minor role for short-range LD in this population. This study supports the integration of GS models in advanced-generation tree breeding programs, given that high genomic prediction accuracy was obtained with a relatively small number of markers due to high relatedness and family structure in the population. In boreal spruce breeding programs and similar ones with long breeding cycles, much larger gain per unit of time can be obtained from genomic selection at an early age than by the conventional approach. GS thus appears highly profitable, especially in the context of forward selection in species which are amenable to mass vegetative propagation of selected stock, such as spruces.

  10. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  11. One size fits all? : optimization of rainbow trout breeding program under diverse preferences and genotype-by-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.

    2013-01-01

    Global fish breeders distribute improved animal material to several continents to be farmed under diverse environments, and for very different market conditions. When establishing a global breeding program, there is a need to assess whether or not a single breeding objective satisfies the

  12. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, John M; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian; Powell, Wayne; Implementing Genomic Selection in CGIAR Breeding Programs Workshop Participants

    2017-01-01

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic pre...

  13. Sort of agricultural species introducing in production resulting of mutation breeding programs in cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Talavera, Susana

    1999-01-01

    Radiomutant varieties of important species used in the Cuban agricultural productions are shown. They were obtained by INIFAT specialists as authors or co-author with the aid of radiomutation techniques in plant breeding programs. Several dates concerning the procedure and some of the features rendering varieties more useful are given. The introduction and acceptability by farmers are also commented. The information was collected from members of the scientific staff involving in the results and from the available literature

  14. There is room for selection in a small local pig breed when using optimum contribution selction: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourdine, Jean-Luc; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Rydhmer, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    at random. With optimum contribution selection, genetic progress can be achieved that is almost as great as that with truncation selection based on BLUP breeding values (0.2 to 0.5 vs. 0.3 to 0.5 genetic SD, P

  15. Optimizing the creation of base populations for aquaculture breeding programs using phenotypic and genomic data and its consequences on genetic progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Á; Sonesson, Anna K; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The success of an aquaculture breeding program critically depends on the way in which the base population of breeders is constructed since all the genetic variability for the traits included originally in the breeding goal as well as those to be included in the future is contained in the initial founders. Traditionally, base populations were created from a number of wild strains by sampling equal numbers from each strain. However, for some aquaculture species improved strains are already available and, therefore, mean phenotypic values for economically important traits can be used as a criterion to optimize the sampling when creating base populations. Also, the increasing availability of genome-wide genotype information in aquaculture species could help to refine the estimation of relationships within and between candidate strains and, thus, to optimize the percentage of individuals to be sampled from each strain. This study explores the advantages of using phenotypic and genome-wide information when constructing base populations for aquaculture breeding programs in terms of initial and subsequent trait performance and genetic diversity level. Results show that a compromise solution between diversity and performance can be found when creating base populations. Up to 6% higher levels of phenotypic performance can be achieved at the same level of global diversity in the base population by optimizing the selection of breeders instead of sampling equal numbers from each strain. The higher performance observed in the base population persisted during 10 generations of phenotypic selection applied in the subsequent breeding program.

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of the World's Sheep Breeds Reveals High Levels of Historic Mixture and Strong Recent Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijas, James W.; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R.; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species. PMID:22346734

  17. Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Kijas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species.

  18. Selection for adaptation to dietary shifts: towards sustainable breeding of carnivorous fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Le Boucher

    Full Text Available Genetic adaptation to dietary environments is a key process in the evolution of natural populations and is of great interest in animal breeding. In fish farming, the use of fish meal and fish oil has been widely challenged, leading to the rapidly increasing use of plant-based products in feed. However, high substitution rates impair fish health and growth in carnivorous species. We demonstrated that survival rate, mean body weight and biomass can be improved in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss after a single generation of selection for the ability to adapt to a totally plant-based diet (15.1%, 35.3% and 54.4%, respectively. Individual variability in the ability to adapt to major diet changes can be effectively used to promote fish welfare and a more sustainable aquaculture.

  19. Breeding approaches in simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance of maize in tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. However, due to the influence of abiotic and biotic stress factors, maize production faces serious constraints. Among the agro-ecological conditions, the main constraints are: lack and poor distribution of rainfall; low soil fertility; diseases (maize streak virus, downy mildew, leaf blights, rusts, gray leaf spot, stem/cob rots and pests (borers and storage pests. Among the socio-economic production constraints are: poor economy, serious shortage of trained manpower; insufficient management expertise, lack of use of improved varieties and poor cultivation practices. To develop desirable varieties, and thus consequently alleviate some of these constraints, appropriate breeding approaches and field-based methodologies in selection for multiple stress tolerance, were implemented. These approaches are mainly based on: a Crossing selected genotypes with more desirable stress tolerant and other agronomic traits; b Using the disease/pest spreader row method, combined with testing and selection of created progenies under strong to intermediate pressure of drought and low soil fertility in nurseries; and c Evaluation of the varieties developed in multi-location trials under low and "normal" inputs. These approaches provide testing and selection of large number of progenies, which is required for simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance. Data obtained revealed that remarkable improvement of the traits under selection was achieved. Biggest progress was obtained in selection for maize streak virus and downy mildew resistance, flintiness and earliness. In the case of drought stress, statistical analyses revealed significant negative correlation between yield and anthesis-silking interval, and between yield and days to silk, but positive correlation between yield and grain weight per ear.

  20. SNP Polymorphism Survey of the Parental Lines of ISRA Sorghum Breeding Program as Part of the Feed the Future

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Polymorphism of SNP Markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) was assessed on 24 parental lines of the ISRA sorghum breeding program . About 1300 SNP have been used...

  1. [Selective breeding research on new cultivar "ChuanPeng 1" of Curcuma phaeocaulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qin; Yang, Zhao-wu; Li, Min; Xia, Dong-mei

    2014-11-01

    To breed a new good cultivar of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Three rounds of selection were systematically made for screening the new cultivar using biological technology. Firstly, individual plant selection. Promising individual plant selection was made based on the thousands of Curcuma phaeocaulis resources collected from all over the country. Secondly, strain selection. The promising strain was selected continually from the superior individuals on basis of specificities such as biological characteristics, yield, content of volatile oil and resistance. Thirdly, strain comparison test. The superior strain was selected through strain trial and regional trial. For the new cultivar "ChuanPeng 1" , its main rhizome was in ovoid or spindle shape, and it was fleshy and corpulent. Average amount of rhizome was 4, with 6. 27 cm in length and 3. 37 cm in diameter, while the secondary roots were cylindrical-like, with a yellow green cross section as the main rhizome. Slender root ends were inflated into the fleshy spindle shape, average amount of whose was 25, 3. 20 cm in length and 1. 33 cm in diameter with a yellow green or near white cross section. Average yield of rhizome is 5 314. 5 kg/hm2, while the root is 1 942. 5 kg/hm2, which was 32. 9% and 22. 7% higher than the local main cultivar respectively. The average extract content of rhizome was 15. 41% and content of volatile oil was 2. 82%, which was 15. 60% and 9. 30% higher than the local cultivar respectively. " ChuanPeng 1" has good stability and strong adaptability with high yield and superior internal quality. It can be cultivated and promoted in Jinma River Valley,Sichuan.

  2. Development of meat cattle breeding under respecialization programs in the Gomel area [Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, A.F.; Mostovenko, A.L.; Radchikov, V.F.; Tsaj, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was studied scientific management of introduction of 8 programmes of meat cattle breeding in regions of radioactive pollution in Gomel region. In course of the realized study there were analyzed land areas of the local farms, degree of soil contamination with radionuclides, coefficients of radionuclide transfer into plants and animal husbandry products, rate of production volumes, structure of arable lands and main herds, economic indexes of realized activities, etc. Introduction of programs of development of meat cattle breeding in the polluted areas made it possible to increase both the total and pedigree stock in the Gomel area, to create industrial base for reproduction of livestock and a wide circulation of specialized meat livestock in other farms of the polluted regions

  3. A proposed selection index for feedlot profitability based on estimated breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, R R; van der Westhuizen, J

    2009-04-22

    It is generally accepted that feed intake and growth (gain) are the most important economic components when calculating profitability in a growth test or feedlot. We developed a single post-weaning growth (feedlot) index based on the economic values of different components. Variance components, heritabilities and genetic correlations for and between initial weight (IW), final weight (FW), feed intake (FI), and shoulder height (SHD) were estimated by multitrait restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The estimated breeding values (EBVs) and the economic values for IW, FW and FI were used in a selection index to estimate a post-weaning or feedlot profitability value. Heritabilities for IW, FW, FI, and SHD were 0.41, 0.40, 0.33, and 0.51, respectively. The highest genetic correlations were 0.78 (between IW and FW) and 0.70 (between FI and FW). EBVs were used in a selection index to calculate a single economical value for each animal. This economic value is an indication of the gross profitability value or the gross test value (GTV) of the animal in a post-weaning growth test. GTVs varied between -R192.17 and R231.38 with an average of R9.31 and a standard deviation of R39.96. The Pearson correlations between EBVs (for production and efficiency traits) and GTV ranged from -0.51 to 0.68. The lowest correlation (closest to zero) was 0.26 between the Kleiber ratio and GTV. Correlations of 0.68 and -0.51 were estimated between average daily gain and GTV and feed conversion ratio and GTV, respectively. These results showed that it is possible to select for GTV. The selection index can benefit feedlotting in selecting offspring of bulls with high GTVs to maximize profitability.

  4. The potential of aspen clonal forestry in Alberta: breeding regions and estimates of genetic gain from selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gylander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspen naturally grows in large, single-species, even-aged stands that regenerate clonally after fire disturbance. This offers an opportunity for an intensive clonal forestry system that closely emulates the natural life history of the species. In this paper, we assess the potential of genetic tree improvement and clonal deployment to enhance the productivity of aspen forests in Alberta. We further investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in aspen and infer forest management strategies under uncertain future climates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic variation among 242 clones from Alberta was evaluated in 13 common garden trials after 5-8 growing seasons in the field. Broad-sense heritabilities for height and diameter at breast height (DBH ranged from 0.36 to 0.64, allowing 5-15% genetic gains in height and 9-34% genetic gains in DBH. Geographic partitioning of genetic variance revealed predominant latitudinal genetic differentiation. We further observed that northward movement of clones almost always resulted in increased growth relative to local planting material, while southward movement had a strong opposite effect. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Aspen forests are an important natural resource in western Canada that is used for pulp and oriented strandboard production, accounting for ~40% of the total forest harvest. Moderate to high broad-sense heritabilities in growth traits suggest good potential for a genetic tree improvement program with aspen. Significant productivity gains appear possible through clonal selection from existing trials. We propose two breeding regions for Alberta, and suggest that well-tested southern clones may be used in the northern breeding region, accounting for a general warming trend observed over the last several decades in Alberta.

  5. The Potential of Aspen Clonal Forestry in Alberta: Breeding Regions and Estimates of Genetic Gain from Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylander, Tim; Hamann, Andreas; Brouard, Jean S.; Thomas, Barb R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspen naturally grows in large, single-species, even-aged stands that regenerate clonally after fire disturbance. This offers an opportunity for an intensive clonal forestry system that closely emulates the natural life history of the species. In this paper, we assess the potential of genetic tree improvement and clonal deployment to enhance the productivity of aspen forests in Alberta. We further investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in aspen and infer forest management strategies under uncertain future climates. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic variation among 242 clones from Alberta was evaluated in 13 common garden trials after 5–8 growing seasons in the field. Broad-sense heritabilities for height and diameter at breast height (DBH) ranged from 0.36 to 0.64, allowing 5–15% genetic gains in height and 9–34% genetic gains in DBH. Geographic partitioning of genetic variance revealed predominant latitudinal genetic differentiation. We further observed that northward movement of clones almost always resulted in increased growth relative to local planting material, while southward movement had a strong opposite effect. Conclusion/Significance Aspen forests are an important natural resource in western Canada that is used for pulp and oriented strandboard production, accounting for ∼40% of the total forest harvest. Moderate to high broad-sense heritabilities in growth traits suggest good potential for a genetic tree improvement program with aspen. Significant productivity gains appear possible through clonal selection from existing trials. We propose two breeding regions for Alberta, and suggest that well-tested southern clones may be used in the northern breeding region, accounting for a general warming trend observed over the last several decades in Alberta. PMID:22957006

  6. The Architecture of the Pollen Hoarding Syndrome in Honey Bees: Implications for Understanding Social Evolution, Behavioral Syndromes, and Selective Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav

    2014-05-01

    Social evolution has influenced every aspect of contemporary honey bee biology, but the details are difficult to reconstruct. The reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution proposes that central regulators of the gonotropic cycle of solitary insects have been coopted to coordinate social complexity in honey bees, such as the division of labor among workers. The predicted trait associations between reproductive physiology and social behavior have been identified in the context of the pollen hoarding syndrome, a larger suite of interrelated traits. The genetic architecture of this syndrome is characterized by a partially overlapping genetic architecture with several consistent, pleiotropic QTL. Despite these central QTL and an integrated hormonal regulation, separate aspects of the pollen hoarding syndrome may evolve independently due to peripheral QTL and additionally segregating genetic variance. The characterization of the pollen hoarding syndrome has also demonstrated that this syndrome involves many non-behavioral traits, which may be the case for numerous "behavioral" syndromes. Furthermore, the genetic architecture of the pollen hoarding syndrome has implications for breeding programs for improving honey health and other desirable traits: If these traits are comparable to the pollen hoarding syndrome, consistent pleiotropic QTL will enable marker assisted selection, while sufficient additional genetic variation may permit the dissociation of trade-offs for efficient multiple trait selection.

  7. Optimization of a genomic breeding program for a moderately sized dairy cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner-Benaim, A; Ezra, E; Weller, J I

    2017-04-01

    Although it now standard practice to genotype thousands of female calves, genotyping of bull calves is generally limited to progeny of elite cows. In addition to genotyping costs, increasing the pool of candidate sires requires purchase, isolation, and identification of calves until selection decisions are made. We economically optimized via simulation a genomic breeding program for a population of approximately 120,000 milk-recorded cows, corresponding to the Israeli Holstein population. All 30,000 heifers and 60,000 older cows of parities 1 to 3 were potential bull dams. Animals were assumed to have genetic evaluations for a trait with heritability of 0.25 derived by an animal model evaluation of the population. Only bull calves were assumed to be genotyped. A pseudo-phenotype corresponding to each animal's genetic evaluation was generated, consisting of the animal's genetic value plus a residual with variance set to obtain the assumed reliability for each group of animals. Between 4 and 15 bulls and between 200 and 27,000 cows with the highest pseudo-phenotypes were selected as candidate bull parents. For all progeny of the founder animals, genetic values were simulated as the mean of the parental values plus a Mendelian sampling effect with variance of 0.5. A probability of 0.3 for a healthy bull calf per mating, and a genomic reliability of 0.43 were assumed. The 40 bull calves with the highest genomic evaluations were selected for general service for 1 yr. Costs included genotyping of candidate bulls and their dams, purchase of the calves from the farmers, and identification. Costs of raising culled calves were partially recovered by resale for beef. Annual costs were estimated as $10,922 + $305 × candidate bulls. Nominal profit per cow per genetic standard deviation was $106. Economic optimum with a discount rate of 5%, first returns after 4 yr, and a profit horizon of 15 yr were obtained with genotyping 1,620 to 1,750 calves for all numbers of bull sires

  8. Implications of the difference between true and predicted breeding values for the study of natural selection and micro-evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to predict individual breeding values in natural populations with known pedigrees has provided a powerful tool to separate phenotypic values into their genetic and environmental components in a nonexperimental setting. This has allowed sophisticated analyses of selection, as well as

  9. Natural selection for earlier male arrival to breeding grounds through direct and indirect effects in a migratory songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velmala, William; Helle, Samuli; Ahola, Markus P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Lehikoinen, Esa; Rainio, Kalle; Sirkia, Paivi M.; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    For migratory birds, the earlier arrival of males to breeding grounds is often expected to have fitness benefits. However, the selection differential on male arrival time has rarely been decomposed into the direct effect of male arrival and potential indirect effects through female traits. We

  10. Tandem selection for fusiform rust sisease resistance to develop a clonal elite breeding population of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McKeand; Saul Garcia; Josh Steiger; Jim Grissom; Ross Whetten; Fikret. Isik

    2012-01-01

    The elite breeding populations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the North Carolina State University Cooperative Tree Improvement Program are intensively managed for short-term genetic gain. Fusiform rust disease, caused by the fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme, is the most economically...

  11. CASSAVA BREEDING II: PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS THROUGH THE DIFFERENT STAGES OF SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Joaqui Barandica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on a phenotypic recurrent selection that takes advantage of the vegetative propagation of this crop. Successive stages of selection (single row trial- SRT; preliminary yield trial – PYT; advanced yield trial – AYT; and uniform yield trials UYT, gradually reduce the number of genotypes as the plot size, number of replications and locations increase. An important feature of this scheme is that, because of the clonal, reproduction of cassava, the same identical genotypes are evaluated throughout these four successive stages of selection. For this study data, from 14 years (more than 30,000 data points of evaluation in a sub-humid tropical environment was consolidated for a meta-analysis. Correlation coefficients for fresh root yield (FRY, dry matter content (DMC, harvest index (HIN and plant type score (PTS along the different stages of selection were estimated. DMC and PTS measured in different trials showed the highest correlation coefficients, indicating a relatively good repeatability. HIN had an intermediate repeatability, whereas FRY had the lowest value. The association between HIN and FRY was lower than expected, suggesting that HIN in early stages was not reliable as indirect selection for FRY in later stages. There was a consistent decrease in the average performance of clones grown in PYTs compared with the earlier evaluation of the same genotypes at SRTs. A feasible explanation for this trend is the impact of the environment on the physiological and nutritional status of the planting material and/or epigenetic effects. The usefulness of HIN is questioned. Measuring this variable takes considerable efforts at harvest time. DMC and FRY showed a weak positive association in SRT (r= 0.21 but a clearly negative one at UYT (r= -0.42. The change if the relationship between these variables is the result of selection. In later stages of selection, the plant is forced to maximize productivity on a dry weight basis

  12. Genetic and environmental variation in a commercial breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Pedersen, Morten Greve; Jensen, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    on forage yield (green and dry matter) and six traits scored by visual inspection (i.e., rust resistance, aftermath heading, spring growth, density, winter hardiness, and heading date). Data were analyzed with linear mixed models, including fixed effects (trial and control varieties, within year...... for future GSbased breeding programs. Forage yield showed family heritabilities of up to 0.30 across locations and up to 0.60 within a location. Similar or moderately lower values were found for the other traits. In particular, the heritabilities of rust resistance and aftermath heading were very promising...

  13. Selection for scrapie resistance and simultaneous restriction of inbreeding in the rare sheep breed "Mergellander"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Meuleman, H.; Lansbergen, L.M.T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Scrapie is a fatal infectious neurodegenerative disease for which susceptibility is associated with polymorphisms in the ovine prion protein (PrP) gene. Scrapie-eradication programmes are based on eliminating the susceptible VRQ allele and/or breeding for the resistant ARR allele. In rare breeds or

  14. Breeding seasons, molt patterns, and gender and age criteria for selected northeastern Costa Rican resident landbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Peter Pyle; C. John. Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Detailed accounts of molt and breeding cycles remain elusive for the majority of resident tropical bird species. We used data derived from a museum review and 12 years of banding data to infer breeding seasonality, molt patterns, and age and gender criteria for 27 common landbird species in northeastern Costa Rica. Prealternate molts appear to be rare, only occurring...

  15. Foraging site choice and diet selection of Meadow Pipits Anthus pratensis breeding on grazed salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klink, Roel; Mandema, Freek S.; Bakker, Jan P.; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2014-01-01

    Capsule Breeding Meadow Pipits foraged for caterpillars and large spiders in vegetation that was less heterogeneous than vegetation at random locations.Aims To gain a better understanding of the foraging ecology of breeding Meadow Pipits on grazed coastal salt marshes, we tested three hypotheses:

  16. Application Of Database Program in selecting Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Soeranto

    2000-01-01

    Computer database software namely MSTAT and paradox have been exercised in the field of mutation breeding especially in the process of selecting plant mutant lines of sorghum. In MSTAT, selecting mutant lines can be done by activating the SELECTION function and then followed by entering mathematical formulas for the selection criterion. Another alternative is by defining the desired selection intensity to the analysis results of subprogram SORT. Including the selected plant mutant lines in BRSERIES program, it will make their progenies be easier to be traced in subsequent generations. In paradox, an application program for selecting mutant lines can be made by combining facilities of Table, form and report. Selecting mutant lines with defined selection criterion can easily be done through filtering data. As a relation database, paradox ensures that the application program for selecting mutant lines and progeny trachings, can be made easier, efficient and interactive

  17. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.

    1984-01-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented. (Author)

  18. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  19. Selection and breeding of robust rootstocks as a tool to improve nutrient-use efficiency and abiotic stress tolerance in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, J.H.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, the research program ‘Green Breeding’ started in the Netherlands, which is subsidized by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV) and several private breeding companies. With this program, the Dutch government stimulates breeding research, which contributes to

  20. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  1. Selection and breeding of grain legumes in Australia for enhanced nodulation and N2 fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herridge, D.F.; Holland, J.F.; Rose, I.A.; Redden, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    During the period 1980-87, the areas sown to grain legumes in Australia increased dramatically, from 0.25 Mha to 1.65 Mha. These increases occurred in the western and southern cereal belts, but not in the north which N continued to be supplied by the mineralization of soil organic matter. Therefore, there was a need to promote the use of N 2 -fixing legumes in the cereal-dominated northern cropping belt. Certain problems had to be addressed before farmers would accept legumes and change established patterns of cropping. Here we describe our efforts to improve N 2 fixation by soybean, common bean and pigeon pea. Selection and breeding for enhanced N 2 fixation of soybean commenced at Tamworth in 1980 after surveys of commercial crops indicated that nodulation was sometimes inadequate, particularly on new land, and that the levels of fixed-N inputs were variable and often low. Similar programmes were established in 1985 (common bean) and 1988 (pigeon bean). Progress was made in increasing N 2 fixation by these legumes towards obtaining economic yields without fertilizer N and contributing organic N for the benefit of subsequent cereal crops

  2. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz Topcu; Mehmet Toparlak; Muhlis Macit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Reg...

  3. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Figure 17: Examples of Knowledge Scorecards 61 Page vi GAO-17-333SP Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs...programs. Page 61 GAO-17-333SP Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs Figure 17: Examples of Knowledge Scorecards Pursuant to a...had direct access to the USD AT&L and other senior acquisition officials, and some approval authorities were delegated to lower levels. For example

  4. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Backes, G.; de Vriend, H.

    2010-01-01

    markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input farming conditions require breeding for robust and flexible varieties, which may be hampered by too much focus on the molecular level. Pros and contras for application of molecular markers in breeding for organic agriculture...... was the topic of a recent European plant breeding workshop. The participants evaluated strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the use of molecular markers and we formalized their inputs into breeder’s perspectives and perspectives seen from the organic sector’s standpoint. Clear strengths were...

  5. Counselor Education Abroad: Selected Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, Patsy A.; Hollis, Joseph W.

    1972-01-01

    This article discusses the current status of counselor education programs being operated for the benefit of military personnel and military dependents abroad. A major issue examined is the apparent inaccuracy of the stereotype of the professional military man as an individual unable to learn or present facilitative dimensions. (Author)

  6. KASPTM genotyping technology and its use in gene­tic-breeding programs (a study of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Е. Волкова

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review publications relating to the key point of the genotyping technology that is competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (which is called now Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR, KASPTM and its use in various genetic-breeding researching (a study of maize. Results. The essence of KASP-genotyping, its advantages are highlighted. The requirements for matrix DNA are presented, since the success of the KASP-analysis depends on its qua­lity and quantity. Examples of global projects of plant breeding for increasing crop yields using the KASP genoty­ping technology are given. The results of KASP genotyping and their introduction into breeding and seed production, in particular, for determining genetic identity, genetic purity, origin check, marker-assisted selection, etc. are presented using maize as an example. It is demonstrated how geno­mic selection according to KASP genotyping technology can lead to rapid genetic enhancement of drought resistance in maize. Comparison of the effectiveness of creating lines with certain traits (for example, combination of high grain yield and drought resistance using traditional breeding approaches (phenotype selection and molecular genetic methods (selection by markers was proved that it takes four seasons (two years in case of greenhouses in order to unlock the potential of the plant genotype using traditional self-pollination, test-crossing and definitions, while using markers, the population was enriched with target alleles during one season. At the same time, there was no need for a stress factor. Conclusions. KASP genotyping technology is a high-precision and effective tool for modern genetics and breeding, which is successfully used to study genetic diversity, genetic relationship, population structure, gene­tic identity, genetic purity, origin check, quantitative locus mapping, allele mapping, marker-assisted selection, marker-assisted breeding. It is expedient and timely to

  7. Cereal Crop Proteomics: Systemic Analysis of Crop Drought Stress Responses Towards Marker-Assisted Selection Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Ghatak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production is the major challenge in the current global climate change scenario. Drought stress is one of the most critical abiotic factors which negatively impact crop productivity. In recent years, knowledge about molecular regulation has been generated to understand drought stress responses. For example, information obtained by transcriptome analysis has enhanced our knowledge and facilitated the identification of candidate genes which can be utilized for plant breeding. On the other hand, it becomes more and more evident that the translational and post-translational machinery plays a major role in stress adaptation, especially for immediate molecular processes during stress adaptation. Therefore, it is essential to measure protein levels and post-translational protein modifications to reveal information about stress inducible signal perception and transduction, translational activity and induced protein levels. This information cannot be revealed by genomic or transcriptomic analysis. Eventually, these processes will provide more direct insight into stress perception then genetic markers and might build a complementary basis for future marker-assisted selection of drought resistance. In this review, we survey the role of proteomic studies to illustrate their applications in crop stress adaptation analysis with respect to productivity. Cereal crops such as wheat, rice, maize, barley, sorghum and pearl millet are discussed in detail. We provide a comprehensive and comparative overview of all detected protein changes involved in drought stress in these crops and have summarized existing knowledge into a proposed scheme of drought response. Based on a recent proteome study of pearl millet under drought stress we compare our findings with wheat proteomes and another recent study which defined genetic marker in pearl millet.

  8. Selective Placement Program Coordinator (SPPC) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — List of the Selective Placement Program Coordinators (SPPC) in Federal agencies, updated as needed. Users can filter the list by choosing a state and/or agency name.

  9. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiori Yabe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS, a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598–50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  10. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS), a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS) was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598-50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  11. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig

    2013-01-01

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental variance in the training set composed of F2 families selected from a ten year breeding period. Variance components were estimated on 1193 of those families, sown in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in five locations around Europe. Families were tested together...

  12. Comparison of deterministically predicted genetic gains with those realised in a South African Eucalyptus grandis breeding program

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verryn, SD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available breeding endeavours, are essential for modelling and predicting the economic impact of further genetic improvement. Materials and Methods The “South African Population” (plantation origin) breeding lines with the F1 generation (‘SSO’-series), F2 (‘A... trials SSO1 and SSO4, as representatives of the improvement. It was assumed that selective thinning of the ‘male families’ took place at 50%. (Male families are trees which contribute towards the pollen cloud. These families may be selectively thinned...

  13. Epidemiologic research program: Selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This bibliography is a current listing of scientific reports from epidemiologic and related activities sponsored by the Department of Energy. The Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance now is the departmental focal point for these activities and any others relating to the study of human health effects. The Office's mission is evolving to encompass the new role of the Department in environmental restoration, weapons dismantlement and nuclear material storage, and development of new energy technologies. Publications in these areas will be included in future editions of the bibliography. The present edition brings the listing up to date, and should facilitate access to specific reports. The program has been divided into several general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers; studies on internally deposited alpha emitters; medical/histologic studies; studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage; community health surveillance studies; and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible

  14. The importance of scale-dependent ravine characteristics on breeding-site selection by the Burrowing Parrot, Cyanoliseus patagonus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ramirez-Herranz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In birds, the environmental variables and intrinsic characteristics of the nest have important fitness consequences through its influence on the selection of nesting sites. However, the extent to which these variables interact with variables that operate at the landscape scale, and whether there is a hierarchy among the different scales that influences nest-site selection, is unknown. This interaction could be crucial in burrowing birds, which depend heavily on the availability of suitable nesting locations. One representative of this group is the burrowing parrot, Cyanoliseus patagonus that breeds on specific ravines and forms large breeding colonies. At a particular site, breeding aggregations require the concentration of adequate environmental elements for cavity nesting, which are provided by within ravine characteristics. Therefore, intrinsic ravine characteristics should be more important in determining nest site selection compared to landscape level characteristics. Here, we assess this hypothesis by comparing the importance of ravine characteristics operating at different scales on nest-site selection and their interrelation with reproductive success. We quantified 12 characteristics of 105 ravines in their reproductive habitat. For each ravine we quantified morphological variables, distance to resources and disturbance as well as nest number and egg production in order to compare selected and non-selected ravines and determine the interrelationship among variables in explaining ravine differences. In addition, the number of nests and egg production for each reproductive ravine was related to ravine characteristics to assess their relation to reproductive success. We found significant differences between non-reproductive and reproductive ravines in both intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics. The multidimensional environmental gradient of variation between ravines, however, shows that differences are mainly related to intrinsic

  15. Selection of maintaining, method for keeping of biologial purity, patternship and health, regarding viruses infection of distinguished potato breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza MIKE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A large number of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines disappeared as an effect of nonfavourable climatically conditions and especially by viruses diseases, as well as other biological and viruses degeneration. To avoid the negative effect of degeneration on potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines, the method of selection for maintaining and multiplication of potato is applying in Romania in the frame of National Center for Maintaining of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines Apa Rosie, Covasna County, which belong to the Station for Research and Development of Potato, Targu Secuiesc, Covasna County.In this center are maintained and multiplied all distinguished varieties and breeding centers from Romania (National Institute for research and Development of Potato and Sugar beet Brasov, Research and Development Station for Agriculture Suceava, Research and Development Station for Potato Targu Secuiesc, Research and development Station for Potato Miercurea Ciuc.Using the method of selection for maintaining it is possible an early identification of somatic mutations, disease (especially viruses infection by visual elimination or by serological testing.The viruses’ infection of potato leads to disturbed the metabolism of plants and produces anatomical – morphological alters as: mosaic, crinkle, rolling, browning of leaves and plants deformation.The disturbing of plant metabolism has as negative effect the reduction of vegetation period, decreasing the yield capacity, depreciation of physical and chemical quality of tubers.The genetically complex structure of cultivated potato (2n = 4x = 48 and strong segregation of long – expected characters in the obtained future progeny by sexual hybridization, complicated many times by nonfavourable linkage, are the backgrounds for initiation of maintain selection.

  16. Trends in genome-wide and region-specific genetic diversity in the Dutch-Flemish Holstein-Friesian breeding program from 1986 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doekes, Harmen P; Veerkamp, Roel F; Bijma, Piter; Hiemstra, Sipke J; Windig, Jack J

    2018-04-11

    In recent decades, Holstein-Friesian (HF) selection schemes have undergone profound changes, including the introduction of optimal contribution selection (OCS; around 2000), a major shift in breeding goal composition (around 2000) and the implementation of genomic selection (GS; around 2010). These changes are expected to have influenced genetic diversity trends. Our aim was to evaluate genome-wide and region-specific diversity in HF artificial insemination (AI) bulls in the Dutch-Flemish breeding program from 1986 to 2015. Pedigree and genotype data (~ 75.5 k) of 6280 AI-bulls were used to estimate rates of genome-wide inbreeding and kinship and corresponding effective population sizes. Region-specific inbreeding trends were evaluated using regions of homozygosity (ROH). Changes in observed allele frequencies were compared to those expected under pure drift to identify putative regions under selection. We also investigated the direction of changes in allele frequency over time. Effective population size estimates for the 1986-2015 period ranged from 69 to 102. Two major breakpoints were observed in genome-wide inbreeding and kinship trends. Around 2000, inbreeding and kinship levels temporarily dropped. From 2010 onwards, they steeply increased, with pedigree-based, ROH-based and marker-based inbreeding rates as high as 1.8, 2.1 and 2.8% per generation, respectively. Accumulation of inbreeding varied substantially across the genome. A considerable fraction of markers showed changes in allele frequency that were greater than expected under pure drift. Putative selected regions harboured many quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated to a wide range of traits. In consecutive 5-year periods, allele frequencies changed more often in the same direction than in opposite directions, except when comparing the 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 periods. Genome-wide and region-specific diversity trends reflect major changes in the Dutch-Flemish HF breeding program. Introduction of

  17. Phenology, nest-site selection and breeding success of a North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gulls are good biological models to investigate anthropogenic changes affecting the environment. We studied the breeding ecology of a monospecific colony of yellow-legged gulls, Larus michahellis on the Algerian island of Srigina, during three consecutive years (2009–2011) and attempted to identify factors influencing ...

  18. Increasing litter size in a sheep breed by marker-assisted selection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China ... breed population (1.76±0.03) was significantly greater than ... BMPR1B gene slightly acted on the growth trait of the 12-.

  19. Setting Up Decision-Making Tools toward a Quality-Oriented Participatory Maize Breeding Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mara L.; Brites, Cláudia; Paulo, Manuel; Carbas, Bruna; Belo, Maria; Mendes-Moreira, Pedro M. R.; Brites, Carla; Bronze, Maria do Rosário; Gunjača, Jerko; Šatović, Zlatko; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported promising differences in the quality of kernels from farmers' maize populations collected in a Portuguese region known to produce maize-based bread. However, several limitations have been identified in the previous characterizations of those populations, such as a limited set of quality traits accessed and a missing accurate agronomic performance evaluation. The objectives of this study were to perform a more detailed quality characterization of Portuguese farmers' maize populations; to estimate their agronomic performance in a broader range of environments; and to integrate quality, agronomic, and molecular data in the setting up of decision-making tools for the establishment of a quality-oriented participatory maize breeding program. Sixteen farmers' maize populations, together with 10 other maize populations chosen for comparison purposes, were multiplied in a common-garden experiment for quality evaluation. Flour obtained from each population was used to study kernel composition (protein, fat, fiber), flour's pasting behavior, and bioactive compound levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds). These maize populations were evaluated for grain yield and ear weight in nine locations across Portugal; the populations' adaptability and stability were evaluated using additive main effects and multiplication interaction (AMMI) model analysis. The phenotypic characterization of each population was complemented with a molecular characterization, in which 30 individuals per population were genotyped with 20 microsatellites. Almost all farmers' populations were clustered into the same quality-group characterized by high levels of protein and fiber, low levels of carotenoids, volatile aldehydes, α- and δ-tocopherols, and breakdown viscosity. Within this quality-group, variability on particular quality traits (color and some bioactive compounds) could still be found. Regarding the agronomic performance, farmers' maize populations

  20. Setting Up Decision-Making Tools toward a Quality-Oriented Participatory Maize Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara L. Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported promising differences in the quality of kernels from farmers' maize populations collected in a Portuguese region known to produce maize-based bread. However, several limitations have been identified in the previous characterizations of those populations, such as a limited set of quality traits accessed and a missing accurate agronomic performance evaluation. The objectives of this study were to perform a more detailed quality characterization of Portuguese farmers' maize populations; to estimate their agronomic performance in a broader range of environments; and to integrate quality, agronomic, and molecular data in the setting up of decision-making tools for the establishment of a quality-oriented participatory maize breeding program. Sixteen farmers' maize populations, together with 10 other maize populations chosen for comparison purposes, were multiplied in a common-garden experiment for quality evaluation. Flour obtained from each population was used to study kernel composition (protein, fat, fiber, flour's pasting behavior, and bioactive compound levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds. These maize populations were evaluated for grain yield and ear weight in nine locations across Portugal; the populations' adaptability and stability were evaluated using additive main effects and multiplication interaction (AMMI model analysis. The phenotypic characterization of each population was complemented with a molecular characterization, in which 30 individuals per population were genotyped with 20 microsatellites. Almost all farmers' populations were clustered into the same quality-group characterized by high levels of protein and fiber, low levels of carotenoids, volatile aldehydes, α- and δ-tocopherols, and breakdown viscosity. Within this quality-group, variability on particular quality traits (color and some bioactive compounds could still be found. Regarding the agronomic performance, farmers

  1. Nest-site selection and nest success of an Arctic-breeding passerine, Smith's Longspur, in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Heather R.; Kendall, Steve J.; Powell, Abby

    2017-01-01

    Despite changes in shrub cover and weather patterns associated with climate change in the Arctic, little is known about the breeding requirements of most passerines tied to northern regions. We investigated the nesting biology and nest habitat characteristics of Smith's Longspurs (Calcarius pictus) in 2 study areas in the Brooks Range of Alaska, USA. First, we examined variation in nesting phenology in relation to local temperatures. We then characterized nesting habitat and analyzed nest-site selection for a subset of nests (n = 86) in comparison with paired random points. Finally, we estimated the daily survival rate of 257 nests found in 2007–2013 with respect to both habitat characteristics and weather variables. Nest initiation was delayed in years with snow events, heavy rain, and freezing temperatures early in the breeding season. Nests were typically found in open, low-shrub tundra, and never among tall shrubs (mean shrub height at nests = 26.8 ± 6.7 cm). We observed weak nest-site selection patterns. Considering the similarity between nest sites and paired random points, coupled with the unique social mating system of Smith's Longspurs, we suggest that habitat selection may occur at the neighborhood scale and not at the nest-site scale. The best approximating model explaining nest survival suggested a positive relationship with the numbers of days above 21°C that an individual nest experienced; there was little support for models containing habitat variables. The daily nest survival rate was high (0.972–0.982) compared with that of most passerines in forested or grassland habitats, but similar to that of passerines nesting on tundra. Considering their high nesting success and ability to delay nest initiation during inclement weather, Smith's Longspurs may be resilient to predicted changes in weather regimes on the breeding grounds. Thus, the greatest threat to breeding Smith's Longspurs associated with climate change may be the loss of low

  2. Model-assisted phenotyping by digital images in papaya breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Marmolejo Cortes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Manual phenotyping for papaya Carica papaya (L breeding purposes limits the evaluation of a great number of plants and hampers selection of superior genotypes. This study aimed to validate two methodologies for the phenotyping of morpho-agronomic plant traits using image analysis and fruit traits through image processing. In plants of the ‘THB’ variety and ‘UENF/Caliman-01’ hybrid two images (A and B were analyzed to estimate commercial and irregularly shaped fruits. Image A was also used in the estimation of plant height, stem diameter and the first fruit insertion height. In ‘THB’ fruits, largest and smallest diameters, length, and volume were estimated by using a caliper and image processing (IP. Volume was obtained by water column displacement (WCD and by the expression of ellipsoid approximation (EA. Correlations above 0.85 between manual and image measurements were obtained for all traits. The averages of the morpho-agronomic traits, estimated by using images, were similar when compared to the averages measured manually. In addition, the errors of the proposed methodologies were low compared to manual phenotyping. Bland-Altman's approach indicated agreement between the volume estimated by WCD and EA using caliper and IP. The strong association obtained between volume and fruit weight suggests the use of regression to estimate this trait. Thus, the expectation is that image-based phenotyping can be used to expand the experiments, thereby maintaining accuracy and providing greater genetic gains in the selection of superior genotypes.

  3. Sound settlement: noise surpasses land cover in explaining breeding habitat selection of secondary cavity-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleist, Nathan J; Guralnick, Robert P; Cruz, Alexander; Francis, Clinton D

    2017-01-01

    Birds breeding in heterogeneous landscapes select nest sites by cueing in on a variety of factors from landscape features and social information to the presence of natural enemies. We focus on determining the relative impact of anthropogenic noise on nest site occupancy, compared to amount of forest cover, which is known to strongly influence the selection process. We examine chronic, industrial noise from natural gas wells directly measured at the nest box as well as site-averaged noise, using a well-established field experimental system in northwestern New Mexico. We hypothesized that high levels of noise, both at the nest site and in the environment, would decrease nest box occupancy. We set up nest boxes using a geospatially paired control and experimental site design and analyzed four years of occupancy data from four secondary cavity-nesting birds common to the Colorado Plateau. We found different effects of noise and landscape features depending on species, with strong effects of noise observed in breeding habitat selection of Myiarchus cinerascens, the Ash-throated Flycatcher, and Sialia currucoides, the Mountain Bluebird. In contrast, the amount of forest cover less frequently explained habitat selection for those species or had a smaller standardized effect than the acoustic environment. Although forest cover characterization and management is commonly employed by natural resource managers, our results show that characterizing and managing the acoustic environment should be an important tool in protected area management. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Selection and use of microsatellite markers for individual identification and meat traceability of six swine breeds in the Chinese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Tingting; Zhu, Chao; Jiang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Zhenzhen; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2018-06-01

    Meat traceability based on molecular markers is exerting a great influence on food safety and will enhance its key role in the future. This study aimed to investigate and verify the polymorphism of 23 microsatellite markers and select the most suitable markers for individual identification and meat traceability of six swine breeds in the Chinese market. The mean polymorphism information content value of these 23 loci was 0.7851, and each locus exhibited high polymorphism in the pooled population. There were 10 loci showing good polymorphism in each breed, namely, Sw632, S0155, Sw2406, Sw830, Sw2525, Sw72, Sw2448, Sw911, Sw122 and CGA. When six highly polymorphic loci were combined, the match probability value for two random individual genotypes among the pig breeds (Beijing Black, Sanyuan and Taihu) was lower than 1.151 E-06. An increasing number of loci indicated a gradually decreasing match probability value and therefore enhanced traceability accuracy. The validation results of tracing 18 blood and corresponding meat samples based on five highly polymorphic loci (Sw2525, S0005, Sw0107, Sw911 and Sw857) were successful, with 100% conformation probability, which provided a foundation for establishing a traceability system for pork in the Chinese market.

  5. Prediction of Genes Related to Positive Selection Using Whole-Genome Resequencing in Three Commercial Pig Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyoYoung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Selective sweep can cause genetic differentiation across populations, which allows for the identification of possible causative regions/genes underlying important traits. The pig has experienced a long history of allele frequency changes through artificial selection in the domestication process. We obtained an average of 329,482,871 sequence reads for 24 pigs from three pig breeds: Yorkshire (n = 5, Landrace (n = 13, and Duroc (n = 6. An average read depth of 11.7 was obtained using whole-genome resequencing on an Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. In this study, cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity and cross-population composite likelihood ratio tests were implemented to detect genes experiencing positive selection for the genome-wide resequencing data generated from three commercial pig breeds. In our results, 26, 7, and 14 genes from Yorkshire, Landrace, and Duroc, respectively were detected by two kinds of statistical tests. Significant evidence for positive selection was identified on genes ST6GALNAC2 and EPHX1 in Yorkshire, PARK2 in Landrace, and BMP6, SLA-DQA1, and PRKG1 in Duroc.These genes are reportedly relevant to lactation, reproduction, meat quality, and growth traits. To understand how these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs related positive selection affect protein function, we analyzed the effect of non-synonymous SNPs. Three SNPs (rs324509622, rs80931851, and rs80937718 in the SLA-DQA1 gene were significant in the enrichment tests, indicating strong evidence for positive selection in Duroc. Our analyses identified genes under positive selection for lactation, reproduction, and meat-quality and growth traits in Yorkshire, Landrace, and Duroc, respectively.

  6. Zoos through the Lens of the IUCN Red List: A Global Metapopulation Approach to Support Conservation Breeding Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A.; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K.; Jones, Owen R.

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful. PMID:24348999

  7. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  8. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia A Conde

    Full Text Available Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23% terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  9. RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN A MAIZE BREEDING PROGRAM FOR NATIVE RESISTANCE TO WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Brkić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum allocation of the number of plants sampled per plot and number of locations and years required for screening maize genotypes for reduced root damage caused by western corn rootworm (WCR larvae, major pest of maize in Croatia, Europe and in the USA. Field trials were conducted on two locations Eastern Croatia, a major maize production area with natural WCR occurrence under continuous maize growing conditions. The trials were set as an incomplete lattice block design in two replications in 2007, 2008 and 2009 including 128 genotypes from various maize gene-pools. Our results suggest that the effect of year and respective interactions including year were the most important factors in maize breeding programs for native resistance to WCR. Thus, screening germplasm for WCR resistance should be made in a multi-year experiment, but not necessarily as a multi-location experiment. Resource optimization should be done by reducing number of roots per plot to minimum 4 sampled plants due to small within-plot environmental variance.

  10. Physiological values of some blood indicators in selected dwarf rabbit breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šimek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of breed on haematological and biochemical indicators in 3 dwarf rabbit breeds. In the experiment, 30 sexually intact dwarf rabbit females aged 6 mo were used. With the sole exception of white blood cells and haematocrit value, breed had the most significant effect on the majority of haematological indicators monitored. The red blood cell count was higher in the Dwarf Lop compared to the Netherland Dwarf (+1.91×1012 cells/L; P<0.05 and also the Teddy Dwarf (+1.32×1012 cells/L; P<0.05. For haemoglobin concentration, a higher value was found in the Netherland Dwarf than in the Teddy Dwarf (+39.29 g/L; P<0.05 and the Dwarf Lop (+26.36 g/L; P<0.05. For erythrocytic indicators, the highest values of mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were found in the Netherland Dwarf. The breed had a significant effect on the urea and potassium values. A higher value of urea was recorded in the Dwarf Lop compared to the Teddy Dwarf (+1.56 mmol/L; P<0.05. For potassium, a higher value was found in the Netherland Dwarf compared to the Teddy Dwarf (+0.85 mmol/L; P<0.05. In addition, a significantly positive correlation (P<0.05 was found between the live weight of dwarf females and values of haematocrit (0.49, albumin (0.54, alanine aminotransferase (0.51, and aspartate aminotransferase (0.41, while a significantly negative correlation (P<0.05 was found between their live weight and values of triacylglycerols (–0.44, alkaline phosphatase (–0.38 and inorganic phosphorus (–0.52.

  11. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.

  12. Landscape genomics and biased FST approaches reveal single nucleotide polymorphisms under selection in goat breeds of North-East Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Stephane

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we compare outlier loci detected using a FST based method with those identified by a recently described method based on spatial analysis (SAM. We tested a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs previously genotyped in individuals of goat breeds of southern areas of the Mediterranean basin (Italy, Greece and Albania. We evaluate how the SAM method performs with SNPs, which are increasingly employed due to their high number, low cost and easy of scoring. Results The combined use of the two outlier detection approaches, never tested before using SNP polymorphisms, resulted in the identification of the same three loci involved in milk and meat quality data by using the two methods, while the FST based method identified 3 more loci as under selection sweep in the breeds examined. Conclusion Data appear congruent by using the two methods for FST values exceeding the 99% confidence limits. The methods of FST and SAM can independently detect signatures of selection and therefore can reduce the probability of finding false positives if employed together. The outlier loci identified in this study could indicate adaptive variation in the analysed species, characterized by a large range of climatic conditions in the rearing areas and by a history of intense trade, that implies plasticity in adapting to new environments.

  13. Program Characteristics Influencing Allopathic Students' Residency Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Michael D; Miller, Karen Hughes; Ziegler, Craig H; Upadhyay, Ashish; Mitchell, Charlene K

    2016-04-01

    Medical students must consider many overt variables when entering the National Resident Matching Program. However, changes with the single graduate medical education accreditation system have caused a gap in knowledge about more subtle considerations, including what, if any, influence the presence of osteopathic physician (ie, DO) and international medical graduate (IMG) house officers has on allopathic students' residency program preferences. Program directors and selection committee members may assume students' implicit bias without substantiating evidence. To reexamine which program characteristics affect US-trained allopathic medical students' residency selection, and to determine whether the presence of DO and IMG house officers affects the program choices of allopathic medical students. Fourth-year medical students from 4 allopathic medical schools completed an online survey. The Pearson χ(2) statistic was used to compare demographic and program-specific traits that influence ranking decisions and to determine whether school type (private vs public), valuing a residency program's prestige, or interest in a competitive specialty dictated results. Qualitative data were analyzed using the Pandit variation of the Glaser and Strauss constant comparison. Surveys were completed by 323 of 577 students (56%). Students from private vs public institutions were more likely to value a program's prestige (160 [93%] vs 99 [72%]; P<.001) and research opportunities (114 [66%] vs 57 [42%]; P<.001), and they were less likely to consider their prospects of being accepted (98 [57%] vs 111 [81%]; P<.001). A total of 33 (10%) and 52 (16%) students reported that the presence of DO or IMG trainees, respectively, would influence their final residency selection, and these percentages were largely unchanged among students interested in programs' prestige or in entering a competitive specialty. Open-ended comments were generally optimistic about diversification of the physician

  14. Review: importance of establishing and running a breeding program in the developing fish farming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Agim Rexhepi; Kurtesh Sherifi; Hysen Bytyqi; Behlul Behluli

    2013-01-01

    Fish farming in developing countries including the Republic of Kosova is largely based on unimproved fish strains. In aquaculture research the main focus has been on increasing productivity through improvements in management, technology, disease control etc. Anyhow, is accepted worldwide that the full benefits can be obtained thorough genetically improved fish. In many countries are given evidence indicating the potential of genetic improvement programs and a range of selection methods may be...

  15. Strategies for implementing genomic selection in family-based aquaculture breeding schemes: double haploid sib test populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation studies have shown that accuracy and genetic gain are increased in genomic selection schemes compared to traditional aquaculture sib-based schemes. In genomic selection, accuracy of selection can be maximized by increasing the precision of the estimation of SNP effects and by maximizing the relationships between test sibs and candidate sibs. Another means of increasing the accuracy of the estimation of SNP effects is to create individuals in the test population with extreme genotypes. The latter approach was studied here with creation of double haploids and use of non-random mating designs. Methods Six alternative breeding schemes were simulated in which the design of the test population was varied: test sibs inherited maternal (Mat, paternal (Pat or a mixture of maternal and paternal (MatPat double haploid genomes or test sibs were obtained by maximum coancestry mating (MaxC, minimum coancestry mating (MinC, or random (RAND mating. Three thousand test sibs and 3000 candidate sibs were genotyped. The test sibs were recorded for a trait that could not be measured on the candidates and were used to estimate SNP effects. Selection was done by truncation on genome-wide estimated breeding values and 100 individuals were selected as parents each generation, equally divided between both sexes. Results Results showed a 7 to 19% increase in selection accuracy and a 6 to 22% increase in genetic gain in the MatPat scheme compared to the RAND scheme. These increases were greater with lower heritabilities. Among all other scenarios, i.e. Mat, Pat, MaxC, and MinC, no substantial differences in selection accuracy and genetic gain were observed. Conclusions In conclusion, a test population designed with a mixture of paternal and maternal double haploids, i.e. the MatPat scheme, increases substantially the accuracy of selection and genetic gain. This will be particularly interesting for traits that cannot be recorded on the

  16. Zoos through the Lens of the IUCN Red List: A Global Metapopulation Approach to Support Conservation Breeding Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Dalia A.; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K.; Jones, Owen R.

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threate...

  17. Behavioral Traits are Affected by Selective Breeding for Increased Wheel-Running Behavior in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, I.; Schubert, K. A.; Reijne, A. C.; Scholte, J.; Garland, T.; Gerkema, M. P.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.; Maxson, Stephen

    Voluntary physical activity may be related to personality traits. Here, we investigated these relations in two mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior and in one non-selected control line. Selection lines were more explorative and "information gathering" in the

  18. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes: I-selection goals and criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses natural processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to ensure production while limiting the environmental footprint of livestock and crop production systems. Selecting to achieve a maximization of target production criteria has long proved detrimental to fitness traits. However, since the 1990s, developments in animal breeding have also focussed on animal robustness by balancing production and functional traits within overall breeding goals. We discuss here how an agroecological perspective should further shift breeding goals towards functional traits rather than production traits. Breeding for robustness aims to promote individual adaptive capacities by considering diverse selection criteria which include reproduction, animal health and welfare, and adaptation to rough feed resources, a warm climate or fluctuating environmental conditions. It requires the consideration of genotype×environment interactions in the prediction of breeding values. Animal performance must be evaluated in low-input systems in order to select those animals that are adapted to limiting conditions, including feed and water availability, climate variations and diseases. Finally, we argue that there is no single agroecological animal type, but animals with a variety of profiles that can meet the expectations of agroecology. The standardization of both animals and breeding conditions indeed appears contradictory to the agroecological paradigm that calls for an adaptation of animals to local opportunities and constraints in weakly artificialized systems tied to their physical environment.

  19. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Topcu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analyses. The results of the study highlighted that while there were linear positive relationships among liquid assets of farms value, concentrate feed and fodder intake of dairy cattle, milk sale price, forage crop support, additional feeding and their types at pasture and milk yields per dairy cattle at the dairy farms; there were inverse relationships among hay intake of dairy cattle, lactation period, pasture planning, culture breed cattle support and those. The farmers could increase the successes of the dairy farms by increasing the technical and economic effectiveness under the integrated management pattern approaches at those with culture breed cattle.

  20. POD NUMBER AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS AS PHYSIOLOGICAL SELECTION CRITERIA IN SOYBEAN (Glycine max L. Merrill BREEDING FOR HIGH YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Sitompul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in two years using 638 F2 and 1185 F3 lines of selected 16 F1 and 15 F2 parent lines (³80 pods plant-1 to evaluate pod number and CO2 exchange rate (CER as selection criteria. Pod and seed number, and seed weight of individual lines were observed during harvesting time, and CER of randomly selected 32 F2 and 30 F3 lines was measured at initial seed filling stage. The selection of F2 lines based on pod number to generate F3 lines increased the average of seed yield by 39%, and pod number by 77% in F3 lines compared with F2 lines. A close relationships was found between seed weight and pod or seed number per plant. Net CER responded sensitively to a reduction of light in a short-term and showed 78% of F2 lines and all F3 lines with maximum CER (Pmax³20 mmolCO2.m-2.s-1. The ratio of pod number per plant and Pmax varied between lines and were used to group lines resulting in close relationships between Pmax and pod number. It is concluded that the use of pod number and CER (Pmax as selection criteria offers an alternative approach in soybean breeding for high yield.

  1. Effects of cold selective breeding on the body length, fatty acid content, and productivity of the tropical copepod Apocyclops royi (Cyclopoida, Copepoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yen-Ju; Souissi, Anissa; Sadovskaya, Irina

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a novel approach of selective breeding by using temperature acclimation to enhance the aquaculture potential of the tropical cyclopoid copepod Apocyclops royi. Two copepod culture strains were acclimated separately at high (28°C, control strain) and low (18°C, selective...

  2. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    to facilitate gene flow between wheat and related species. Since the environment at the center of origin of wheat in Southern Asia is quite different from subtropical environments, Brazilian breeding programs overcome more challenges to adapt wheat crop to biotic and abiotic stresses than some other countries. The germplasm bank of Embrapa Trigo has about 1000 registered entries of Triticum relatives, Aegilops, Secale and Agropyron species supplied from several germplasm banks distributed over the world which were multiplied and/or selected for naturally occurring or artificially inoculated fungal diseases. Since Aegilops squarrosa L. entries showed very good performance, the genetic variability observed in this species was firstly exploited. It is reported here the strategy used for transferring useful genes from Ae. squarrosa (DD, 2n = 14: crossing with tetraploid species (AABB, 2n = 28, rescue and in vitro culture of immature embryos for regeneration of the trihaploid (ABD, 2n = 21 hybrid, and colchicine treatment for genome duplication resulting in the artificial synthesis of hexaploid wheat lines (AABBDD, 2n = 42. Results of 10,739 artificial pollinations involving 28 cross combinations amongst eight T. durum L., T. dicoccum and T. cartlicum tetraploid entries used as female parents and ten selected Ae. squarrosa sources of resistance as male parents are presented here. Immature embryos from 18 cross combinations were recovered and cultured in vitro. Green plantlets from 13 combinations were regenerated. Fertile amphiploids were recovered only from crosses among entries of tetraploid T. durum and diploid Ae. squarrosa. They originated 11 fertile synthetic amphiploid lines from seven different combinations. Useful stem and leaf rust as well as powdery mildew resistance for future use in breeding programs were obtained.

  3. Selectie tegen gevoeligheid voor scrapie met behoud van genetische variatie = Selection against scrapie susceptibility while maintaining within breed genetic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Hoving, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    National legislation to breed for scrapie resistence was changed in 2007. The obligatory use of ARR/ARR rams was suspended in that year. Breeding for scrapie resistance is, however, still stimulated and not suspended. In this report a general advice on how to continue breeding for scrapie resistance

  4. Selection and Breeding of Cattle in Asia: Strategies and Criteria for Improved Breeding. Prepared under the Framework of an RCA Project with the Technical Support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with the technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment (RAS/5/044). The 23 project counterparts and the IAEA technical officer, based on the lack of standard practices in the region with regard to selection of cattle for breeding purposes, and the need to properly manage the genetic resources within each country for improving the productivity of the existing stock while maintaining the unique and beneficial genetic characteristics of the indigenous breeds, agreed during the first meeting to request the IAEA to recruit a group of experts with the task of preparing guidelines for the selection and breeding of cattle and buffalo on the Asian continent. To address these recommendations, an experts meeting on Selection Criteria for Breeding Heifers was organized and held in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The meeting was hosted by the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) from 6 to 10 February 2006. It was attended by six foreign experts and two local experts, and was supported by the technical officer of RAS/5/044. The experts from countries participating in RAS/5/044 gave presentations on the current state of cattle breeding in their countries and two experts working in industrialized countries within the region (New Zealand and Australia) informed the participants about the existing cattle breeding programmes in their respective countries and offered their perspectives on how similar approaches could be transferred to the Member States participating in RAS/5/044. All experts also made a field visit to a prominent dairy-producing region, to experience at first-hand some of the current programmes

  5. Two generations of selection on restricted best linear unbiased prediction breeding values for income minus feed cost in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, C

    1992-07-01

    Two generations of selection on restricted BLUP breeding values were applied in an experiment with laying hens. Selection had been on phenotype of income minus feed cost (IFC) between 21 and 40 wk of age in the previous five generations. The restriction of no genetic change in egg weight was included in the EBV for power-transformed IFC (i.e., IFCt, with t-values of 3.7 and 3.6 in the two generations, respectively). The experiment consisted of two selection lines plus a randomly bred control of 20 male and 80 female breeders each. Observations on 8,844 survivors to 40 wk were available. Relative to the base population average, the restriction reduced genetic gain in IFC from 4.1 and 3.9% to 2.0 and 2.2% per generation in the two selection lines, respectively. Average EBV for egg weight remained nearly constant after a strong increase in the previous five generations. Rates of genetic gain for egg number, body weight, and feed conversion (feed/egg mass) were not affected significantly. In the seventh generation, a genetic gain in feed conversion of 10.3% relative to the phenotypic mean of the base population was obtained.

  6. Review of major sweetpotato pests in Japan, with information on resistance breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Akira; Tabuchi, Hiroaki; Kuranouchi, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Sweetpotato ( Ipomoeae batatas (L.) Lam.) is an important food crop affected by several pests throughout the world, especially in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. Although Japan is relatively free from many serious sweetpotato pests, some pests, especially soil-borne pathogens, viruses, and insects such as plant-parasitic nematodes and weevils, cause severe damage in Japan. In this review, we describe the current status and management options for sweetpotato pests and diseases in Japan and review research related to sweetpotato breeding that can promote resistance to these problems. Furthermore, we describe methods to evaluate resistance to pests and disease used in sweetpotato breeding at the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO).

  7. Application of artificial neural networks in indirect selection: a case study on the breeding of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcinei Mistico Azevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of artificial neural networks (ANN to model complex problems may enable the prediction of characteristics that are hard to measure, providing better results than the traditional indirect selection. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential of using artificial neural networks (ANN for indirect selection against early flowering in lettuce, identify the influence of genotype by environment interaction in this strategy and compare your results with the traditional indirect selection. The number of days to anthesis were used as the desired output and the information of six characteristics (fresh weight of shoots, mass of marketable fresh matter of shoots, commercial dry matter of shoots, average diameter of the head, head circumference and leaf number as input file for the training of the ANN-MLP (Perceptron Multi-Layer. The use of ANN has great potential adjustment for indirect selection for genetic improvement of lettuce against early flowering. The selection based on the predicted values by network provided estimates of gain selection largest that traditional indirect selection. The ANN trained with data from an experiment have low power extrapolation to another experiment, due to effect of interaction genotype by environment. The ANNs trained simultaneously with data from different experiments presented greater predictive power and extrapolation.

  8. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2008-01-01

    We reasoned that by challenging large numbers of Atlantic salmon families with the causative agents of furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), we could show unequivocally that resistance to these diseases expresses moderate-to-high levels of additive...... genetic variation, and that the resistances are weakly correlated genetically. We tested this reasoning by challenging Atlantic salmon from 920 (approximately) full-sib families with the causative agents of furunculosis and ISA, and fish from 265 of these families with the causative agent of IPN. Additive...... indicate that it should be relatively easy to improve resistance to the diseases simultaneously. We believe that there is now strong evidence that selectively breeding Atlantic salmon for resistance can be highly successful...

  9. Overview of ONWI'S Salt site selection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madia, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    In the past year, activities in the salt site selection program of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) have focused on narrowing the number and size of areas under consideration as candidate repository sites. The progressive focusing is illustrated. Bedded salt, in the Permian Basin of West Texas and the Paradox Basin of Utah, and salt domes in the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Region (including parts of East Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi) have been the subjects of geologic, environmental, and socioeconomic characterization of progressively greater detail as the screening process has proceeded. Detailed, field-oriented research and testing have superceded broad-based studies relying heavily on literature and other existing data. Coinciding with the increased field activities has been the publication of results and recommendations resulting from earlier program efforts

  10. New strategy for evaluating grain cooking quality of progenies in dry bean breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Line Carvalho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The methodology available for evaluating the cooking quality of dry beans is impractical for assessing a large number of progenies. The aims of this study were to propose a new strategy for evaluating cooking quality of grains and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using a selection index. A total of 256 progenies of the 13thcycle of a recurrent selection program were evaluated at three locations for yield, grain type, and cooked grains. Samples of grains from each progeny were placing in a cooker and the percentage of cooked grains was assessed. The new strategy for evaluating cooking quality was efficient because it allowed a nine-fold increase in the number of progenies evaluated per unit time in comparison to available methods. The absence of association between grain yield and percentage of cooked grains or grain type indicated that it is possible to select high yielding lines with excellent grain aspect and good cooking properties using a selection index.

  11. Selective breeding of two lines of guinea pigs differing in bronchial sensitivity to acetylcholine and histamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, H; Nishibata, R; Kawamoto, Y; Ino, T

    1991-04-01

    We developed two lines of guinea pigs, one as model animals for bronchial asthma with bronchial hypersensitivity and the other with hyposensitivity as a control. In the last four years, the bronchial hypersensitive line (BHS) and hyposensitive line (BHR), both derived from Hartley strain guinea pigs, have been selected by using bronchial reactivity to acetylcholine and to histamine as parameters. Both lines have reached the F6 generation. The following results were obtained with the two lines: 1) Sib and cous in matings, and mating of selected consanguineous individuals were adopted in breeding BHS and BHR. The breeding started with six families, each, but in the F6 generation the number of families decreased to two in each line. 2) Appearance rates of hyper- or hyposensitivity to acetylcholine and histamine increased with successive generations in both lines, which had been completely separated by the F6 generation. 3) Coefficients of inbreeding in BHS and BHR in the F6 generation ranged from 42% to 45% in the former and 42% in the latter. 4) Heritabilities (h2) of BHS and BHR for the appearance rates of sensitivity to acetylcholine were presumed to be 0.54 in the former and 0.69 in the latter. 5) No difference in the body weight of 0, 20, and 40 day-old BHS was observed in any generation. On the other hand, the body weight of 20 and 40 day-old BHR tended to decrease with successive generations. 6) Mean litter sizes of BHS and BHR in each of the generations ranged from 2.24 to 3.47 animals in the former and from 2.63 to 3.38 animals in the latter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Genetic evaluation of the captive breeding program of the Persian wild ass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.K.; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    During the last century, many species have become endangered and conservation in terms of captive breeding has been crucial for their survival. Classical management of captive species is based on recorded genealogies. However, if pedigrees are incomplete or inaccurate, it can bias...

  13. Development and integration of an SSR-based molecular identity database into sugarcane breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints incl...

  14. Comparison of methods used to identify superior individuals in genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, L L; Junqueira, V S; Peixoto, L A; Cruz, C D; Laviola, B G

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods used in genomic selection, and to verify those that select a higher proportion of individuals with superior genotypes. Thus, F2 populations of different sizes were simulated (100, 200, 500, and 1000 individuals) with 10 replications each. These consisted of 10 linkage groups (LG) of 100 cM each, containing 100 equally spaced markers per linkage group, of which 200 controlled the characteristics, defined as the 20 initials of each LG. Genetic and phenotypic values were simulated assuming binomial distribution of effects for each LG, and the absence of dominance. For phenotypic values, heritabilities of 20, 50, and 80% were considered. To compare methodologies, the analysis processing time, coefficient of coincidence (selection of 5, 10, and 20% of superior individuals), and Spearman correlation between true genetic values, and the genomic values predicted by each methodology were determined. Considering the processing time, the three methodologies were statistically different, rrBLUP was the fastest, and Bayesian LASSO was the slowest. Spearman correlation revealed that the rrBLUP and GBLUP methodologies were equivalent, and Bayesian LASSO provided the lowest correlation values. Similar results were obtained in coincidence variables among the individuals selected, in which Bayesian LASSO differed statistically and presented a lower value than the other methodologies. Therefore, for the scenarios evaluated, rrBLUP is the best methodology for the selection of genetically superior individuals.

  15. Screen for Footprints of Selection during Domestication/Captive Breeding of Atlantic Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anti Vasemägi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated animals provide a unique opportunity to identify genomic targets of artificial selection to the captive environment. Here, we screened three independent domesticated/captive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar strains and their wild progenitor populations in an effort to detect potential signals of domestication selection by typing of 261 SNPs and 70 microsatellite loci. By combining information from four different neutrality tests, in total ten genomic regions showed signs of directional selection based on multiple sources of evidence. Most of the identified candidate regions were rather small ranging from zero to a few centimorgans (cM in the female Atlantic salmon linkage map. We also evaluated how adaptation from standing variation affects adjacent SNP and microsatellite variation along the chromosomes and, by using forward simulations with strong selection, we were able to generate genetic differentiation patterns comparable to the observed data. This study highlights the significance of standing genetic variation during the early stages of adaptation and represents a useful step towards identifying functional variants involved in domestication of Atlantic salmon.

  16. Status of selected air pollution control programs, February 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The collection of status reports has been prepared in order to provide a timely summary of selected EPA air pollution control activities to those individuals who are involved with the implementation of these programs. The report contains ozone/carbon monoxide (CO) programs; mobile sources programs; particulate matter nominally 10M and less (PM-10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and lead programs; New Source Review (NSR); economics programs; emission standards programs; Indian activity programs; mobile sources programs; air toxics programs; acid rain programs; permits programs; chlorofluorocarbons programs; enforcement programs; and other programs

  17. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  18. Trends in genome-wide and region-specific genetic diversity in the Dutch-Flemish Holstein-Friesian breeding program from 1986 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekes, Harmen P.; Veerkamp, Roel F.; Bijma, Piter; Hiemstra, Sipke J.; Windig, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, Holstein-Friesian (HF) selection schemes have undergone profound changes, including the introduction of optimal contribution selection (OCS; around 2000), a major shift in breeding goal composition (around 2000) and the implementation of genomic selection (GS;

  19. Improving Breeding Selection of Seed Quality Traits for Food-Grade Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla Sanchez, Diana Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Natto and sprout soybeans are produced using small-seeded soybeans and their production is a high value alternative to grow grain soybeans for food in U.S. The development of soybean cultivars with improved natto and sprout quality is crucial for maintaining and increasing the soyfood market. However, there is insufficient information on sprout soybean characteristics. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate seed and sprout traits as potential selection criteria and study...

  20. Selection and breeding of honey bees for higher or lower collection of avocado nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afik, Ohad; Dag, Arnon; Yeselson, Yelena; Schaffer, Arthur; Shafir, Sharoni

    2010-04-01

    Intensive activity of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., is essential for high fruit set in avocado, Persea americana Mill., orchards, but even when hives are located inside the orchard, many bees still search for alternative blooms. We tested for a possible genetic component for a preference of avocado bloom relative to competing bloom. The honey from each hive was extracted at the end of the avocado bloom and the concentration of perseitol, a carbohydrate that is unique to avocado, was analyzed as a measure for avocado foraging. During the first year, five bee strains were compared in three different sites in Israel. Significant differences were found between strains in honey perseitol concentrations, suggesting differences in their efficiency as avocado pollinators, although these differences were site dependent. At two sites, colonies with the highest and lowest perseitol concentrations were selected as parental "high" and "low" lines. Queens were raised from the selected colonies and were instrumentally inseminated by drones from other colonies of this line. During the second and third years, colonies with inseminated queens were introduced to the avocado orchards, together with the selected colonies still surviving from the previous year. Colonies of the high line had greater perseitol concentrations than those of the low line. Selected colonies that survived from the previous year performed consistently vis-à-vis perseitol concentration, in the second year of testing. Heritability value of 0.22 was estimated based on regression of offspring on midparent. The results reveal a heritable component for willingness of honey bees to collect avocado nectar.

  1. When congruence breeds preference: the influence of selective attention processes on evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blask, Katarina; Walther, Eva; Frings, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We investigated in two experiments whether selective attention processes modulate evaluative conditioning (EC). Based on the fact that the typical stimuli in an EC paradigm involve an affect-laden unconditioned stimulus (US) and a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), we started from the assumption that learning might depend in part upon selective attention to the US. Attention to the US was manipulated by including a variant of the Eriksen flanker task in the EC paradigm. Similarly to the original Flanker paradigm, we implemented a target-distracter logic by introducing the CS as the task-relevant stimulus (i.e. the target) to which the participants had to respond and the US as a task-irrelevant distracter. Experiment 1 showed that CS-US congruence modulated EC if the CS had to be selected against the US. Specifically, EC was more pronounced for congruent CS-US pairs as compared to incongruent CS-US pairs. Experiment 2 disentangled CS-US congruence and CS-US compatibility and suggested that it is indeed CS-US stimulus congruence rather than CS-US response compatibility that modulates EC.

  2. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    However, to solve the simultaneous equations the ... The aggregate breeding value represents a fundamental concept, the breeding objective, which is ..... Two properties characterise a linear programming problem. The first is additivity, ...

  3. Predictive ability of genomic selection models for breeding value estimation on growth traits of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanchao; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-09-01

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to accelerate genetic improvement by shortening the selection interval. The successful application of GS depends largely on the accuracy of the prediction of genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). This study is a first attempt to understand the practicality of GS in Litopenaeus vannamei and aims to evaluate models for GS on growth traits. The performance of GS models in L. vannamei was evaluated in a population consisting of 205 individuals, which were genotyped for 6 359 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) and phenotyped for body length and body weight. Three GS models (RR-BLUP, BayesA, and Bayesian LASSO) were used to obtain the GEBV, and their predictive ability was assessed by the reliability of the GEBV and the bias of the predicted phenotypes. The mean reliability of the GEBVs for body length and body weight predicted by the different models was 0.296 and 0.411, respectively. For each trait, the performances of the three models were very similar to each other with respect to predictability. The regression coefficients estimated by the three models were close to one, suggesting near to zero bias for the predictions. Therefore, when GS was applied in a L. vannamei population for the studied scenarios, all three models appeared practicable. Further analyses suggested that improved estimation of the genomic prediction could be realized by increasing the size of the training population as well as the density of SNPs.

  4. Mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions generates less inbreeding without compromising genetic gain in breeding schemes with truncation selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, M; Berg, P; Sørensen, A C

    2009-01-01

    We reasoned that mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions (MCAC mating) will generate less inbreeding and at least as much genetic gain as minimum-coancestry mating in breeding schemes where the animals are truncation-selected. We tested this hypothesis by stoch...

  5. Nodulation and nitrogen uptake characteristics as selection indices for promiscuous soybean breeding in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababio, R.C.; Sanginga, K.E.; Dashiell, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Selection for atmospheric dinitrogen fixation in promiscuous soybeans by indigenous rhizobia populations is usually determined indirectly based on visual assessment of nodulation. As the method has been criticized extensively, we have examined this assay in relation to other N 2 fixation indices by evaluating growth of promiscuous soybeans in four ecological zones of Nigeria. Nodulation was affected considerably by rainfall indigenous, rhizobia populations and soil P. The N 2 fixation indices measured, nodule development, apparent effectiveness, total N accumulation and N derived from fixation, varied among soybean genotypes. The visual nodule assessment index correlated with nodule weight (r = 0.74; P = 0.01), but had no significant correlation (r = 0.13) with proportion of apparent effective nodules. All nodule parameters, however, correlated significantly (r = 0.16-0.71; P=0.05) with total N accumulation and seed yield. The percent apparent effectiveness of nodules was a superior index to nodule score and nodule number but inferior to nodule mass. Total N accumulation patterns in the genotypes indicated that N 2 fixation in some genotypes could be substantial during the reproductive growth phase and may serve as suitable criteria for selection. Therefore, in low N soils, percent nodule effectiveness and total N accumulation may be used to augment the visual scores particularly for genotypes, which seem to nodulate profusely with indigenous rhizohia populations (author)

  6. CASSAVA BREEDING I: THE VALUE OF BREEDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials - UYT. This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g. high number of their progenies reaching the UYT, suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05. Breeding value (e.g. average SIN at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g. S1 or S2 genotypes would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0 parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  8. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  9. Increased prediction accuracy in wheat breeding trials using a marker × environment interaction genomic selection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Cruz, Marco; Crossa, Jose; Bonnett, David; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Poland, Jesse; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Singh, Ravi P; Autrique, Enrique; de los Campos, Gustavo

    2015-02-06

    Genomic selection (GS) models use genome-wide genetic information to predict genetic values of candidates of selection. Originally, these models were developed without considering genotype × environment interaction(G×E). Several authors have proposed extensions of the single-environment GS model that accommodate G×E using either covariance functions or environmental covariates. In this study, we model G×E using a marker × environment interaction (M×E) GS model; the approach is conceptually simple and can be implemented with existing GS software. We discuss how the model can be implemented by using an explicit regression of phenotypes on markers or using co-variance structures (a genomic best linear unbiased prediction-type model). We used the M×E model to analyze three CIMMYT wheat data sets (W1, W2, and W3), where more than 1000 lines were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and evaluated at CIMMYT's research station in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico, under simulated environmental conditions that covered different irrigation levels, sowing dates and planting systems. We compared the M×E model with a stratified (i.e., within-environment) analysis and with a standard (across-environment) GS model that assumes that effects are constant across environments (i.e., ignoring G×E). The prediction accuracy of the M×E model was substantially greater of that of an across-environment analysis that ignores G×E. Depending on the prediction problem, the M×E model had either similar or greater levels of prediction accuracy than the stratified analyses. The M×E model decomposes marker effects and genomic values into components that are stable across environments (main effects) and others that are environment-specific (interactions). Therefore, in principle, the interaction model could shed light over which variants have effects that are stable across environments and which ones are responsible for G×E. The data set and the scripts required to reproduce the analysis are

  10. Large-Scale Selection and Breeding To Generate Industrial Yeasts with Superior Aroma Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Meersman, Esther; Snoek, Tim; Saels, Veerle

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations and relative ratios of various aroma compounds produced by fermenting yeast cells are essential for the sensory quality of many fermented foods, including beer, bread, wine, and sake. Since the production of these aroma-active compounds varies highly among different yeast strains, careful selection of variants with optimal aromatic profiles is of crucial importance for a high-quality end product. This study evaluates the production of different aroma-active compounds in 301 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast strains. Our results show that the production of key aroma compounds like isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate varies by an order of magnitude between natural yeasts, with the concentrations of some compounds showing significant positive correlation, whereas others vary independently. Targeted hybridization of some of the best aroma-producing strains yielded 46 intraspecific hybrids, of which some show a distinct heterosis (hybrid vigor) effect and produce up to 45% more isoamyl acetate than the best parental strains while retaining their overall fermentation performance. Together, our results demonstrate the potential of large-scale outbreeding to obtain superior industrial yeasts that are directly applicable for commercial use. PMID:25192996

  11. Mutation Breeding and Selection for Phenotypic Mutants in Standard Rice Varieties by Ion Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puddhanon, Prawit; Pintanon, Prateep; Chaithep, Waree; Songjuntuke, Ksan

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Effects of 80 keV ion beam (10 16 ion/cm 2 on mutations of RD6 and Sanpatong 1 rice varieties were studied in 2006. In order to obtain the phenotypic mutants, each variety was sown in the laboratory and under field conditions at Maejo University in 2007 dry season. Seed germination noticeably declined. For RD6, only 45.1% germinated in the laboratory, and 18.1% were established under the field condition. Similarly, 62.3% of Sanpatong 1 germinated in the laboratory and 31.4% established in the field. No phenotypic mutants were observed in the first generation (M 1 ). The M2 seeds were harvested separately from 3 panicles of each M plant in RD6 and Sanpatong1, totaling 810 and 1,878 lines, respectively. In 2007 rainy season, they were planted on a panicle to row basis. It was found that more phenotypic mutants were observed in the M 2 for Sanpatong 1 than for RD6. The mutant characters included dwarf plants, early maturity, male sterility and larger panicle sizes. As a result, about 420 within line selections were collected and the M 3 seeds were harvested for further field condition and gene markers evaluations

  12. Diversity and genetic stability in banana genotypes in a breeding program using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A V C; Nascimento, A L S; Vitória, M F; Rabbani, A R C; Soares, A N R; Lédo, A S

    2017-02-23

    Banana (Musa spp) is a fruit species frequently cultivated and consumed worldwide. Molecular markers are important for estimating genetic diversity in germplasm and between genotypes in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of 21 banana genotypes (FHIA 23, PA42-44, Maçã, Pacovan Ken, Bucaneiro, YB42-47, Grand Naine, Tropical, FHIA 18, PA94-01, YB42-17, Enxerto, Japira, Pacovã, Prata-Anã, Maravilha, PV79-34, Caipira, Princesa, Garantida, and Thap Maeo), by using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Material was generated from the banana breeding program of Embrapa Cassava & Fruits and evaluated at Embrapa Coastal Tablelands. The 12 primers used in this study generated 97.5% polymorphism. Four clusters were identified among the different genotypes studied, and the sum of the first two principal components was 48.91%. From the Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram, it was possible to identify two main clusters and subclusters. Two genotypes (Garantida and Thap Maeo) remained isolated from the others, both in the UPGMA clustering and in the principal cordinate analysis (PCoA). Using ISSR markers, we could analyze the genetic diversity of the studied material and state that these markers were efficient at detecting sufficient polymorphism to estimate the genetic variability in banana genotypes.

  13. Application of a high-speed breeding technology to apple (Malus × domestica) based on transgenic early flowering plants and marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Le Roux, Pierre-Marie; Peil, Andreas; Patocchi, Andrea; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2011-10-01

    Breeding of apple (Malus × domestica) remains a slow process because of protracted generation cycles. Shortening the juvenile phase to achieve the introgression of traits from wild species into prebreeding material within a reasonable time frame is a great challenge. In this study, we evaluated early flowering transgenic apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of silver birch with regard to tree morphology in glasshouse conditions. Based on the results obtained, line T1190 was selected for further analysis and application to fast breeding. The DNA sequences flanking the T-DNA were isolated and the T-DNA integration site was mapped on linkage group 4. The inheritance and correctness of the T-DNA integration were confirmed after meiosis. A crossbred breeding programme was initiated by crossing T1190 with the fire blight-resistant wild species Malus fusca. Transgenic early flowering F(1) seedlings were selected and backcrossed with 'Regia' and 98/6-10 in order to introgress the apple scab Rvi2, Rvi4 and powdery mildew Pl-1, Pl-2 resistance genes and the fire blight resistance quantitative trait locus FB-F7 present in 'Regia'. Three transgenic BC'1 seedlings pyramiding Rvi2, Rvi4 and FB-F7, as well as three other BC'1 seedlings combining Pl-1 and Pl-2, were identified. Thus, the first transgenic early flowering-based apple breeding programme combined with marker-assisted selection was established. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Application of genotyping by sequencing technology to a variety of crop breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Guo, Hui; Kong, Wenqian; Chandnani, Rahul; Shuang, Lan-Shuan; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    Since the Arabidopsis genome was completed, draft sequences or pseudomolecules have been published for more than 100 plant genomes including green algae, in large part due to advances in sequencing technologies. Advanced DNA sequencing technologies have also conferred new opportunities for high-throughput low-cost crop genotyping, based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, a recurring complication in crop genotyping that differs from other taxa is a higher level of DNA sequence duplication, noting that all angiosperms are thought to have polyploidy in their evolutionary history. In the current article, we briefly review current genotyping methods using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. We also explore case studies of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) applications to several crops differing in genome size, organization and breeding system (paleopolyploids, neo-allopolyploids, neo-autopolyploids). GBS typically shows good results when it is applied to an inbred diploid species with a well-established reference genome. However, we have also made some progress toward GBS of outcrossing species lacking reference genomes and of polyploid populations, which still need much improvement. Regardless of some limitations, low-cost and multiplexed genotyping offered by GBS will be beneficial to breed superior cultivars in many crop species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inter-disciplinary approach to selection in mutation breeding in local sorghums for adaptation and disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, B.R.; Taborda, F.; Reinoso, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present report of Mutational rectifications in local Sorghums involved improvement in adaptation and disease resistance. After seed treatment at 20, 30 and 40 kr the material now in the M 6 generation has given promising response to the above selection. Similarly, chemical mutagens with Na Azide + 5 kr γ-radiation of seeds also gave valuable mutants now in M 4 generation. More than 20 promising mutants are isolated with dwarf habit (100-125 cms), good head size, resistance to charcoal rot, good seed size and root development, more heads/unit area and yield increases (40%-100%) over the parents and much higher than the hybrids under cultivation. The mutants were also superior or equal to the parent in micronutrient uptake (Zn), protein content, nutrient uptake, light interception, photo-synthetic rate, and transfer to grain for N and P, root activities, regeneration capacity and disease resistance under artificial inoculation with better yield potential under close spacing (50 cm x 10 cm vs 75 cm x 10 cm). The multilocation test for wide adaptation in 3 locations revealed that at least 4 of the mutants have a wide range of adaptation. Biochemical studies of seed proteins by gel electrophoresis revealed distinct differences between the mutants and also the parents. Similar results were obtained for tannin content, Zn, phosphate (p 32 tracer) N uptake, indicating the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation and yield. Differences between the mutants in tillering, regeneration capacity rooting pattern, panicle no. and size, grain size and threshing % were observed. The integrated selection for the above attributes from M 3 to M 6 involved both field and laboratory testing demonstrating the utility of interdisciplinary approach in mutation breeding for effective selection in problem areas with complex ecological conditions and cropping patterns. The results of these studies are discussed with emphasis on selection methodology for the multiple traits involving

  16. Selection for milk coagulation properties predicted by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the Italian Holstein-Friesian breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, S; Bulgari, O; Rizzi, R; Calamari, L; Bani, P; Biffani, S; Caroli, A M

    2014-07-01

    Milk coagulation is based on a series of physicochemical changes at the casein micelle level, resulting in formation of a gel. Milk coagulation properties (MCP) are relevant for cheese quality and yield, important factors for the dairy industry. They are also evaluated in herd bulk milk to reward or penalize producers of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. The economic importance of improving MCP justifies the need to account for this trait in the selection process. A pilot study was carried out to determine the feasibility of including MCP in the selection schemes of the Italian Holstein. The MCP were predicted in 1,055 individual milk samples collected in 16 herds (66 ± 24 cows per herd) located in Brescia province (northeastern Italy) by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The coefficient of determination of prediction models indicated moderate predictions for milk rennet coagulation time (RCT=0.65) and curd firmness (a₃₀=0.68), and poor predictions for curd-firming time (k₂₀=0.49), whereas the range error ratio (8.9, 6.9, and 9.5 for RCT, k₂₀, and a₃₀, respectively) indicated good practical utility of the predictive models for all parameters. Milk proteins were genotyped and casein haplotypes (αS₁-, β-, αS₂-, and κ-casein) were reconstructed. Data from 51 half-sib families (19.9 ± 16.4 daughters per sire) were analyzed by an animal model to estimate (1) the genetic parameters of predicted RCT, k₂₀, and a₃₀; (2) the breeding values for these predicted clotting variables; and (3) the effect of milk protein genotypes and casein haplotypes on predicted MCP (pMCP). This is the first study to estimate both genetic parameters and breeding values of pMCP, together with the effects of milk protein genotypes and casein haplotypes, that also considered k₂₀, probably the most important parameter for the dairy industry (because it indicates the time for the beginning of curd-cutting). Heritability of predicted

  17. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  18. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich

    2001-01-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN 3 ). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  19. Multidisciplinary training program to create new breed of radiation monitor: the health and safety technician

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, W.F.

    1979-01-01

    A multidiscipline training program established to create a new monitor, theHealth and Safety Technician, is described. The training program includes instruction in fire safety, explosives safety, industrial hygiene, industrial safety, health physics, and general safety practices

  20. Selective Breeding and Short-Term Access to a Running Wheel Alter Stride Characteristics in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Kay, Jarren C; Ordonez, Genesis; Hampton, Thomas G; Garland, Theodore

    stride characteristics of house mice are adaptable in response to both selective breeding and changes in daily locomotor behavior (activity levels) that occur during as few as 6 d. These results have important implications for understanding the evolution and coadaptation of locomotor behavior and performance.

  1. WIN Energy: A case study in using MultiSpeak to enable best of breed software selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolven, G. [WIN Energy REMC, Vincennes, IN (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Automation of a small 16,000 member rural electric cooperative covering approximately 2,500 miles of distribution lines in Indiana, is described. The project was undertaken in an effort to meet the challenge of annual load growth of 15 per cent over the last several years, and to keep rates low by investing in technological solutions. To ensure the best possible computer software in each area of operation, WIN Energy decided to use the Best Breed approach (in place of the 'single vendor' approach) to select software for accounting, staking, mapping, automated mater reading and customer information systems. This decision was taken despite the obvious difficulties involved in getting software vendors to communicate willingly among themselves, and to come up with the custom interfaces or integration between the various systems. Based on the success of their participation in a cooperative study to test the viability of interfacing different software systems using a software specification called MultiSpeak, WIN Energy decided to focus on MultiSpeak compliant products. This article describes the implementation of the following software packages: Minimax Stakeout for field design and automation, Lookout for utility-wide map viewing, the ArcGIS geographic information system, Hunt Technologies' AMR for automated meter reading, NISC's CAPsXL+ financial accounting and Milsoft's Windmill for use in engineering analysis. To date, implementation is proceeding smoothly. Plans include the addition of Milsoft's DisSPatch Outage package at a future date.

  2. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Pearce-Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates......Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List...... that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos...

  3. Simulation for Nurse Anesthesia Program Selection: Redesigned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, John Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This project is meant to answer the research question: What applicant character traits do Nurse Anesthesia Program Directors and Faculty identify as favorable predictors for successful completion of a nurse anesthesia program, and what evaluation methods are best to evaluate these traits in prospective students? Methods: A prospective…

  4. Evaluating and Selecting Sport Management Undergraduate Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneen, Jacquelyn; Sidwell, M. Joy

    1998-01-01

    States that the accelerated growth of sport management undergraduate programs that began in the 1980s has continued into the current decade. There are currently 180 sport management major programs in American colleges and universities. Describes the sports management approval process and suggests useful strategies to evaluate sport management…

  5. Recombinants from the crosses between amphidiploid and cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea for pest-resistance breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Ferreira de Paula

    Full Text Available Peanut is a major oilseed crop worldwide. In the Brazilian peanut production, silvering thrips and red necked peanut worm are the most threatening pests. Resistant varieties are considered an alternative to pest control. Many wild diploid Arachis species have shown resistance to these pests, and these can be used in peanut breeding by obtaining hybrid of A and B genomes and subsequent polyploidization with colchicine, resulting in an AABB amphidiploid. This amphidiploid can be crossed with cultivated peanut (AABB to provide genes of interest to the cultivar. In this study, the sterile diploid hybrids from A. magna V 13751 and A. kempff-mercadoi V 13250 were treated with colchicine for polyploidization, and the amphidiploids were crossed with A. hypogaea cv. IAC OL 4 to initiate the introgression of the wild genes into the cultivated peanut. The confirmation of the hybridity of the progenies was obtained by: (1 reproductive characterization through viability of pollen, (2 molecular characterization using microsatellite markers and (3 morphological characterization using 61 morphological traits with principal component analysis. The diploid hybrid individual was polyploidized, generating the amphidiploid An 13 (A. magna V 13751 x A. kempff-mercadoi V 132504x. Four F1 hybrid plants were obtained from IAC OL 4 × An 13, and 51 F2 seeds were obtained from these F1 plants. Using reproductive, molecular and morphological characterizations, it was possible to distinguish hybrid plants from selfed plants. In the cross between A. hypogaea and the amphidiploid, as the two parents are polyploid, the hybrid progeny and selves had the viability of the pollen grains as high as the parents. This fact turns the use of reproductive characteristics impossible for discriminating, in this case, the hybrid individuals from selfing. The hybrids between A. hypogaea and An 13 will be used in breeding programs seeking pest resistance, being subjected to successive

  6. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  7. Hybrid recreation by reverse breeding in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, Erik; Deurhof, Laurens; van de Belt, Jose; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Blankestijn, Hetty; Becker, Frank; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Chan, Simon W L; van Dun, Kees; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; de Jong, Hans; Dirks, Rob; Keurentjes, Joost J B

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid crop varieties are traditionally produced by selecting and crossing parental lines to evaluate hybrid performance. Reverse breeding allows doing the opposite: selecting uncharacterized heterozygotes and generating parental lines from them. With these, the selected heterozygotes can be recreated as F1 hybrids, greatly increasing the number of hybrids that can be screened in breeding programs. Key to reverse breeding is the suppression of meiotic crossovers in a hybrid plant to ensure the transmission of nonrecombinant chromosomes to haploid gametes. These gametes are subsequently regenerated as doubled-haploid (DH) offspring. Each DH carries combinations of its parental chromosomes, and complementing pairs can be crossed to reconstitute the initial hybrid. Achiasmatic meiosis and haploid generation result in uncommon phenotypes among offspring owing to chromosome number variation. We describe how these features can be dealt with during a reverse-breeding experiment, which can be completed in six generations (∼1 year).

  8. EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES AND LINES OF SOYBEAN FOR BREEDING FOR VALUABLE TRAITS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Shafigullin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans is the most important source of high quality protein using as food and oil. Soybean protein is balanced for amino acid composition that is advantage in comparison with other legumes, oil crops, and cereals. Soybean protein contains all the essential amino acids in a ratio close to the animal protein. Due to the acute deficiency of protein, the interest in soybean production and breeding of new varieties are constantly growing worldwide. The early ripening lines for the duration of the vegetation period and interphase periods of development were selected. The soybean samples with a maximum seed weight per a plant, thousand-seed weight and the largest number of seeds in a bean were revealed. The genotypes with the optimal displays of these traits for the breeding in the different directions were identified.

  9. Selected charts: National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Staff members of the Office of Waste Isolation on October 21, 1977 reviewed the status of the OWI Waste Management Program for Commissioner E.E. Varanini III, State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, and members of his staff. Copies of the viewgraphs and 35-mm slides shown at the briefing are compiled

  10. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    is designed to detect, acquire, intercept , and destroy a range of airborne threats. Block II includes hardware and software upgrades intended to... moisture intrusion and degraded performance. Additionally, the program has made changes to the Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, due to a...preliminary design review in fiscal year 2017. An Independent Review Team identified three critical technologies, advanced inlet particle separator

  11. Parentage of overlapping offspring of an arboreal-breeding frog with no nest defense: implications for nest site selection and reproductive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Wan-Ping; Chen, Yi-Huey; Cheng, Wei-Chun; Chuang, Ming-Feng; Hsu, Wan-Tso; Kam, Yeong-Choy; Lehtinen, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping offspring occurs when eggs are laid in a nest containing offspring from earlier reproduction. Earlier studies showed that the parentage is not always obvious due to difficulties in field observation and/or alternative breeding tactics. To unveil the parentage between overlapping offspring and parents is critical in understanding oviposition site selection and the reproductive strategies of parents. Amplectant pairs of an arboreal-breeding frog, Kurixalus eiffingeri, lay eggs in tadpole-occupied nests where offspring of different life stages (embryos and tadpoles) coexist. We used five microsatellite DNA markers to assess the parentage between parents and overlapping offspring. We also tested the hypothesis that the male or female frog would breed in the same breeding site because of the scarcity of nest sites. Results showed varied parentage patterns, which may differ from the phenomenon of overlapping egg clutches reported earlier. Parentage analyses showed that only 58 and 25% of the tadpole-occupied stumps were reused by the same male and female respectively, partially confirming our prediction. Re-nesting by the same individual was more common in males than females, which is most likely related to the cost of tadpole feeding and/or feeding schemes of females. On the other hand, results of parentage analyses showed that about 42 and 75% of male and female respectively bred in tadpole-occupied stumps where tadpoles were genetically unrelated. Results of a nest-choice experiment revealed that 40% of frogs chose tadpole-occupied bamboo cups when we presented identical stumps, without or with tadpoles, suggesting that the habitat saturation hypothesis does not fully explain why frogs used the tadpole-occupied stumps. Several possible benefits of overlapping offspring with different life stages were proposed. Our study highlights the importance of integrating molecular data with field observations to better understand the reproductive biology and nest

  12. Pricing Strategy Selection Using Fuzzy Linear Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Alaybeyoğlu; Y. Esra Albayrak

    2013-01-01

    Marketing establishes a communication network between producers and consumers. Nowadays, marketing approach is customer-focused and products are directly oriented to meet customer needs. Marketing, which is a long process, needs organization and management. Therefore strategic marketing planning becomes more and more important in today’s competitive conditions. Main focus of this paper is to evaluate pricing strategies and select the best pricing strategy solution while considering internal a...

  13. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    decision out to the third quarter of fiscal year 2018. In the fiscal year 2017 budget , the Marine Corps funded ACV Increment 1.1 to the level identified...option. The program noted the Air Force will need to make a preliminary decision on an Increment 2 by summer 2017 for budgeting purposes, though the...Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) 67 Common Infrared Countermeasure (CIRCM) 69 Indirect Fire Protection Capability Increment 2-Intercept Block 1

  14. Medicaid program choice, inertia and adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, James; Yelowitz, Aaron; Talbert, Jeffery C

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, Kentucky implemented Medicaid managed care statewide, auto-assigned enrollees to three plans, and allowed switching. Using administrative data, we find that the state's auto-assignment algorithm most heavily weighted cost-minimization and plan balancing, and placed little weight on the quality of the enrollee-plan match. Immobility - apparently driven by health plan inertia - contributed to the success of the cost-minimization strategy, as more than half of enrollees auto-assigned to even the lowest quality plans did not opt-out. High-cost enrollees were more likely to opt-out of their auto-assigned plan, creating adverse selection. The plan with arguably the highest quality incurred the largest initial profit margin reduction due to adverse selection prior to risk adjustment, as it attracted a disproportionate share of high-cost enrollees. The presence of such selection, caused by differential degrees of mobility, raises concerns about the long run viability of the Medicaid managed care market without such risk adjustment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of a breeding program pedigree examines gene expression diversity and reveals target genes for malting quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced cycle breeding utilizes crosses among elite lines and is a successful method to develop new inbreds. However, it results in a reduction in genetic diversity within the breeding population. The development of malting barley varieties requires the adherence to a narrow malting quality profile...

  16. Postdoctoral periodontal program directors' perspectives of resident selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saba; Carmosino, Andrew J; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Lucchiari, Newton; Kawar, Nadia; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2015-02-01

    Applications for postdoctoral periodontal programs have recently increased. The National Board Dental Examinations (NBDE) has adopted a pass/fail format. The purpose of this study is to examine the criteria used by accredited postdoctoral periodontal programs in the United States to evaluate potential applicants. A secondary purpose was to determine whether the absence of NBDE scores would change program directors' selection process. Basic demographic information of the program directors was also collected. A questionnaire was sent to all 54 program directors of accredited postdoctoral periodontal programs in the United States. The raw data were compiled, descriptive analyses were performed, and results were tabulated and ranked when applicable. Thirty-five of 54 program directors (64.8%) responded to the survey. The five most important factors in selecting residents were: 1) interview ratings; 2) dental school clinical grades; 3) dental school periodontics grades; 4) personal statement; and 5) letters of recommendation. The majority of the programs (94%; n = 33) require an interview, and many (86%; n = 30) have a committee that makes the final decision on candidate acceptance. More than half of the respondents (56%; n = 17) stated that the pass/fail format of the NBDE would affect the decision-making process. This study describes the criteria used by postdoctoral periodontal programs to help select applicants. Interview ratings, dental school grades, personal statements, and letters of recommendation were found to be the most important factors. Results from this study may be helpful for prospective postdoctoral periodontal program applicants in the United States.

  17. Fetal programming of schizophrenia: select mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Monojit; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Berk, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with adverse intrauterine experiences. An adverse or suboptimal fetal environment can cause irreversible changes in brain that can subsequently exert long-lasting effects through resetting a diverse array of biological systems including endocrine, immune and nervous. It is evident from animal and imaging studies that subtle variations in the intrauterine environment can cause recognizable differences in brain structure and cognitive functions in the offspring. A wide variety of environmental factors may play a role in precipitating the emergent developmental dysregulation and the consequent evolution of psychiatric traits in early adulthood by inducing inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and epigenetic dysregulation. However, the precise mechanisms behind such relationships and the specificity of the risk factors for schizophrenia remain exploratory. Considering the paucity of knowledge on fetal programming of schizophrenia, it is timely to consolidate the recent advances in the field and put forward an integrated overview of the mechanisms associated with fetal origin of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Programming in the Zone: Repertoire Selection for the Large Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    One of the great challenges ensemble directors face is selecting high-quality repertoire that matches the musical and technical levels of their ensembles. Thoughtful repertoire selection can lead to increased student motivation as well as greater enthusiasm for the music program from parents, administrators, teachers, and community members. Common…

  19. Project Selection for NASA's R&D Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of NASA s Research and Development (R&D) programs is to provide advanced human support technologies for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). The new technologies must be sufficiently attractive and proven to be selectable for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are likely options for flight. The R&D programs must select an array of technology development projects, manage them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the delivered number of potentially usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project selection methodology to help manage NASA R&D project portfolios.

  20. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  1. The making of giant pumpkins: how selective breeding changed the phloem of Cucurbita maxima from source to sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica A; Haines, Dustin F; Holbrook, N Michele

    2015-08-01

    Despite the success of breeding programmes focused on increasing fruit size, relatively little is known about the anatomical and physiological changes required to increase reproductive allocation. To address this gap in knowledge, we compared fruit/ovary anatomy, vascular structure and phloem transport of two varieties of giant pumpkins, and their smaller fruited progenitor under controlled environmental conditions. We also modelled carbon transport into the fruit of competitively grown plants using data collected in the field. There was no evidence that changes in leaf area or photosynthetic capacity impacted fruit size. Instead, giant varieties differed in their ovary morphology and contained more phloem on a cross-sectional area basis in their petioles and pedicels than the ancestral variety. These results suggest that sink activity is important in determining fruit size and that giant pumpkins have an enhanced capacity to transport carbon. The strong connection observed between carbon fixation, phloem structure and fruit growth in field-grown plants indicates that breeding for large fruit has led to changes throughout the carbon transport system that could have important implications for how we think about phloem transport velocity and carbon allocation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  3. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  4. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  5. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  6. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  7. Selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs in health care systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Hayden B Bosworth1–4 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Practitioners and researchers often design behavioral programs that are effective for a specific population or problem. Despite their success in a controlled setting, relatively few programs are scaled up and implemented in health care systems. Planning for scale-up is a critical, yet often overlooked, element in the process of program design. Equally as important is understanding how to select a program that has already been developed, and adapt and implement the program to meet specific organizational goals. This adaptation and implementation requires attention to organizational goals, available resources, and program cost. We assert that translational behavioral medicine necessitates expanding successful programs beyond a stand-alone research study. This paper describes key factors to consider when selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs for scale-up in large health care systems and applies the Knowledge to Action (KTA Framework to a case study, illustrating knowledge creation and an action cycle of implementation and evaluation activities. Keywords: program sustainability, diffusion of innovation, information dissemination, health services research, intervention studies 

  8. Meat tenderness genetic polymorphisms occurrence and distribution in five Zebu breeds in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Although the relatively low occurrence of favorable alleles in assessed loci may limit their use in selection programs, genotyping availability might be a practical and comprehensive tool for introgression programs by marker assisted selection and management as to improve meat tenderness of Zebu breeds.

  9. Impact of the breeding region and the season on the content of the selected mineral elements in the hair of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyze the effect of the season and the breeding region on the content of selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of dairy cows. The research material was made up of 114 polish Holstein-Friesians breed cows from three breeding centres in Poland: Kombinat Rolny Sp. z o. o. - Kietrz (the opolskie province, Hodowla Zarodowa Zwierząt Sp. z o.o. - Knyszyn (the podlaskie province and Ośrodek Hodowli Zarodowej Sp. z o.o. - Osięciny (the kujawsko-pomorskie province. The cows were kept in freestanding cowsheds with den boxes. The animal nutrition involved the use of the TMR system, considering the division into nutrition groups. The hair was sampled in summer and in the period of winter and spring from the side of the body, right behind the coastal arch. Determination of Ca, Mg, Na and K was performed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The study revealed seasonal variations in the content of mineral elements in the hair of dry cows and a region-dependent differentiation. The highest content of the quantity elements in question was found in the hair of the cows from Osięciny. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of cows from Osięciny was statistically significantly higher than in the hair collected in winter from the animals from Knyszyn and Kietrz. The lowest values of the determined elements were noted in the hair of cows bred in Knyszyn. The investigation of the correlation between the amounts of the elements, based on an analysis of all samples of hair, revealed a positive correlation between Na and K cations, as well as between Mg and Ca cations.

  10. Characters analysis of genetic improvement at the males population from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed

    OpenAIRE

    Dorel Dronca; Nicolae Pacala; Lavinia Stef; Ioan Pet; Ioan Bencsik; Marian Bura; Gabi Dumitrescu; Eliza Simiz; Marioara Nicula; Adela Marcu; Liliana Ciochina Petculescu; Mirela Ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze, within a group of 26 males from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed, 13 characters of genetically improved, characters stipulated in, „Selection sheet and body measurements for Romanian shepherds".The animals were registered with the Romanian Mioritic Association Club fromRomania.  Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog, was selected from a natural population breed inCarpathian Mountains. In order to develop a genetic improvement program at this effective of 26 ...

  11. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  12. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E.; Currie, Rob W.; Melathopoulos, Andony P.; Pernal, Stephen F.; Foster, Leonard J.; Guarna, M. Marta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper’s profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance. PMID:28334400

  13. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixby, Miriam; Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E; Currie, Rob W; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J; Guarna, M Marta

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper's profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. Breeding for Welfare in outdoor pig production : simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdine, J.L.; Greef, de K.H.; Rydhmer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the societal and market attention, to our knowledge, there is no breeding program for outdoor pig production in which improvement in animal welfare is emphasized. In this study, a dam-line selected for an outdoor production system was simulated. The purpose was to investigate the

  15. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  16. Genomic regions under selection in crop-wild hybrids of lettuce: implications for crop breeding and environmental risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The results of this thesis show that the probability of introgression of a putative transgene to wild relatives indeed depends strongly on the insertion location of the transgene. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection in multiple

  17. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, I; Vaanholt, L M; Doornbos, M; Garland, T; Scheurink, A J W; Nyakas, C; van Dijk, G

    2010-04-19

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, either when feeding a carbohydrate-rich/low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet. Housed without wheels, selected mice, and in particular the females, exhibited higher cage activity than their non-selected controls during the dark phase and at the onset of the light phase, irrespective of diet. This was associated with increases in energy expenditure in both sexes of the selection line. In selected males, carbohydrate oxidation appeared to be increased compared to controls. In contrast, selected females had profound increases in fat oxidation above the levels in control females to cover the increased energy expenditure during the dark phase. This is remarkable in light of the finding that the selected mice, and in particular the females showed higher preference for the LF diet relative to controls. It is likely that hormonal and/or metabolic signals increase carbohydrate preference in the selected females, which may serve optimal maintenance of cellular metabolism in the presence of augmented fat oxidation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Program management aid for redundancy selection and operational guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, P. W.; Davis, W. L.; Frumkin, B.

    1972-01-01

    Although this criterion was developed specifically for use on the shuttle program, it has application to many other multi-missions programs (i.e. aircraft or mechanisms). The methodology employed is directly applicable even if the tools (nomographs and equations) are for mission peculiar cases. The redundancy selection criterion was developed to insure that both the design and operational cost impacts (life cycle costs) were considered in the selection of the quantity of operational redundancy. These tools were developed as aids in expediting the decision process and not intended as the automatic decision maker. This approach to redundancy selection is unique in that it enables a pseudo systems analysis to be performed on an equipment basis without waiting for all designs to be hardened.

  19. The health impact of selective breeding in poultry: A probable case of 'creeper' chicken (Gallus gallus) from 16th-century Chester, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rebecca; Thomas, Richard; Foster, Alison

    2015-06-01

    Two articulating chicken bones from a feast deposit, dated to the 16th century, from Chester, exhibit lesions consistent with the skeletal disorder chondrodystrophy. While this form of dwarfism has many potential causes, it is also consistent with the presentation of the 'creeper' mutation. In this paper we describe and undertake a differential diagnosis of the two articulating chicken bones, and consider the wider significance of this find in 16th-century Britain. The appearance of these lesions, along with the widespread size increase in chickens, the rise of early modern publications concerning chicken husbandry, and contemporary observations that dwarf fowl were luxury foods, provide indirect support for this diagnosis and adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding the unintended health impact of selective breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Resource allocation for maximizing prediction accuracy and genetic gain of genomic selection in plant breeding: a simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Aaron J

    2013-03-01

    Allocating resources between population size and replication affects both genetic gain through phenotypic selection and quantitative trait loci detection power and effect estimation accuracy for marker-assisted selection (MAS). It is well known that because alleles are replicated across individuals in quantitative trait loci mapping and MAS, more resources should be allocated to increasing population size compared with phenotypic selection. Genomic selection is a form of MAS using all marker information simultaneously to predict individual genetic values for complex traits and has widely been found superior to MAS. No studies have explicitly investigated how resource allocation decisions affect success of genomic selection. My objective was to study the effect of resource allocation on response to MAS and genomic selection in a single biparental population of doubled haploid lines by using computer simulation. Simulation results were compared with previously derived formulas for the calculation of prediction accuracy under different levels of heritability and population size. Response of prediction accuracy to resource allocation strategies differed between genomic selection models (ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction [RR-BLUP], BayesCπ) and multiple linear regression using ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS), leading to different optimal resource allocation choices between OLS and RR-BLUP. For OLS, it was always advantageous to maximize population size at the expense of replication, but a high degree of flexibility was observed for RR-BLUP. Prediction accuracy of doubled haploid lines included in the training set was much greater than of those excluded from the training set, so there was little benefit to phenotyping only a subset of the lines genotyped. Finally, observed prediction accuracies in the simulation compared well to calculated prediction accuracies, indicating these theoretical formulas are useful for making resource allocation

  3. The sequence relay selection strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Chen, Xihao; Huang, Yangchao

    2017-07-01

    Relay-assisted (RA) network with relay node selection is a kind of effective method to improve the channel capacity and convergence performance. However, most of the existing researches about the relay selection did not consider the statically channel state information and the selection cost. This shortage limited the performance and application of RA network in practical scenarios. In order to overcome this drawback, a sequence relay selection strategy (SRSS) was proposed. And the performance upper bound of SRSS was also analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, in order to make SRSS more practical, a novel threshold determination algorithm based on the stochastic dynamic program (SDP) was given to work with SRSS. Numerical results are also presented to exhibit the performance of SRSS with SDP.

  4. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  5. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1996-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  6. SELECTION OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR OILY WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Díaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When selecting a chemical treatment program for wastewater to achieve an effective flocculation and coagulation is crucial to understand how individual colloids interact. The coagulation process requires a rapid mixing while flocculation process needs a slow mixing. The behavior of colloids in water is strongly influenced by the electrokinetic charge, where each colloidal particle carries its own charge, which in its nature is usually negative. Polymers, which are long chains of high molecular weight and high charge, when added to water begin to form longer chains, allowing removing numerous particles of suspended matter. A study of physico-chemical treatment by addition of coagulant and flocculant was carried out in order to determine a chemical program for oily wastewater coming from the gravity separation process in a crude oil refinery. The tests were carried out in a Jar Test equipment, where commercial products: aluminum polychloride (PAC, aluminum sulfate and Sintec D50 were evaluated with five different flocculants. The selected chemical program was evaluated with fluids at three temperatures to know its sensitivity to this parameter and the mixing energy in the coagulation and flocculation. The chemical program and operational characteristics for physico-chemical treatment with PAC were determined, obtaining a removal of more than 93% for suspended matter and 96% for total hydrocarbons for the selected coagulant / flocculant combination.

  7. Breeding of tomorrow's chickens to improve well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H-W

    2010-04-01

    Chickens, as well as other animals, have the ability to change their behavior (behavioral plasticity) and physiology (physiological plasticity) based on the costs and benefits to fit their environment (adaptation). Through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rejects those that are detrimental in their prevailing environments. The surviving populations are able to contribute more genes associated with beneficial traits for increased fitness to subsequent generations. Natural selection is slow but constant; working over multiple generations, the changes to the population often appear silent or undetectable at a given point in history. Chickens were domesticated from the wild red jungle fowl. The principle of domestication of chickens, as well as other farm animals, by humans is similar to that of natural selection: selecting the best animals with the highest survivability and reproducibility (artificial selection). Compared with natural selection, the process of artificial selection is motivated by human needs and acts more rapidly with more visible results over a short time period. This process has been further accelerated following the development of current breeding programs and the emergence of specialized breeding companies. A laying hen, for example, produces more than 300 hundred eggs a year, whereas a jungle fowl lays 4 to 6 eggs in a year. During the domestication process, chickens retained their capability to adapt to their housing environments, which is usually achieved by genetic changes occurring with each subsequent generation. Genes control the behavioral, physiological, immunological, and psychological responses of animals to stressors, including environmental stimulations. With advances in understanding of genetic mediation of animal physiology and behavior and the discovery of the genome sequences of many species, animal production breeding programs can be improved in both speed and efficiency

  8. Farmers’ desired traits and selection criteria for maize varieties and their implications for maize breeding: A case study from KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sibiya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of hybrids and improved varieties has remained low in the smallholder farming sector of South Africa, despite maize being the staple food crop for the majority of households. The objective of this study was to establish preferred maize characteristics by farmers which can be used as selection criteria by maize breeders in crop improvement. Data were collected from three villages of a selected smallholder farming area in South Africa using a survey covering 300 households and participatory rural appraisal methodology. Results indicated a limited selection of maize varieties grown by farmers in the area compared to other communities in Africa. More than 97% of the farmers grew a local landrace called Natal-8-row or IsiZulu. Hybrids and improved open pollinated varieties were planted by less than 40% of the farmers. The Natal-8-row landrace had characteristics similar to landraces from eastern and southern Africa and closely resembled Hickory King, a landrace still popular in Southern Africa. The local landrace was preferred for its taste, recycled seed, tolerance to abiotic stresses and yield stability. Preferred characteristics of maize varieties were high yield and prolificacy, disease resistance, early maturity, white grain colour, and drying and shelling qualities. Farmers were willing to grow hybrids if the cost of seed and other inputs were affordable and their preferences were considered. Our results show that breeding opportunities exist for improving the farmers’ local varieties and maize breeders can take advantage of these preferred traits and incorporate them into existing high yielding varieties.

  9. Composite selection signals can localize the trait specific genomic regions in multi-breed populations of cattle and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Discerning the traits evolving under neutral conditions from those traits evolving rapidly because of various selection pressures is a great challenge. We propose a new method, composite selection signals (CSS), which unifies the multiple pieces of selection evidence from the rank distribution of its diverse constituent tests. The extreme CSS scores capture highly differentiated loci and underlying common variants hauling excess haplotype homozygosity in the samples of a target population. Results The data on high-density genotypes were analyzed for evidence of an association with either polledness or double muscling in various cohorts of cattle and sheep. In cattle, extreme CSS scores were found in the candidate regions on autosome BTA-1 and BTA-2, flanking the POLL locus and MSTN gene, for polledness and double muscling, respectively. In sheep, the regions with extreme scores were localized on autosome OAR-2 harbouring the MSTN gene for double muscling and on OAR-10 harbouring the RXFP2 gene for polledness. In comparison to the constituent tests, there was a partial agreement between the signals at the four candidate loci; however, they consistently identified additional genomic regions harbouring no known genes. Persuasively, our list of all the additional significant CSS regions contains genes that have been successfully implicated to secondary phenotypic diversity among several subpopulations in our data. For example, the method identified a strong selection signature for stature in cattle capturing selective sweeps harbouring UQCC-GDF5 and PLAG1-CHCHD7 gene regions on BTA-13 and BTA-14, respectively. Both gene pairs have been previously associated with height in humans, while PLAG1-CHCHD7 has also been reported for stature in cattle. In the additional analysis, CSS identified significant regions harbouring multiple genes for various traits under selection in European cattle including polledness, adaptation, metabolism, growth rate, stature

  10. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the pl...

  11. Combinatorial algebraic geometry selected papers from the 2016 apprenticeship program

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    This volume consolidates selected articles from the 2016 Apprenticeship Program at the Fields Institute, part of the larger program on Combinatorial Algebraic Geometry that ran from July through December of 2016. Written primarily by junior mathematicians, the articles cover a range of topics in combinatorial algebraic geometry including curves, surfaces, Grassmannians, convexity, abelian varieties, and moduli spaces. This book bridges the gap between graduate courses and cutting-edge research by connecting historical sources, computation, explicit examples, and new results.

  12. Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods Program. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuffie, H.F.; Smith, D.H.; Owen, P.T.

    1979-03-01

    This selected bibliography with abstracts was compiled to provide information support to the Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods (PDPM) Program sponsored by DOE and administered by the Argonne National Laboratory. Objectives of the PDPM Program are to evaluate nonaqueous methods of reprocessing spent fuel as a route to the development of proliferation-resistant and diversion-resistant methods for widespread use in the nuclear industry. Emphasis was placed on the literature indexed in the ERDA--DOE Energy Data Base (EDB). The bibliography includes indexes to authors, subject descriptors, EDB subject categories, and titles

  13. Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods Program. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDuffie, H.F.; Smith, D.H.; Owen, P.T.

    1979-03-01

    This selected bibliography with abstracts was compiled to provide information support to the Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods (PDPM) Program sponsored by DOE and administered by the Argonne National Laboratory. Objectives of the PDPM Program are to evaluate nonaqueous methods of reprocessing spent fuel as a route to the development of proliferation-resistant and diversion-resistant methods for widespread use in the nuclear industry. Emphasis was placed on the literature indexed in the ERDA--DOE Energy Data Base (EDB). The bibliography includes indexes to authors, subject descriptors, EDB subject categories, and titles.

  14. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, I.; Vaanholt, L. M.; Doornbos, M.; Garland, T.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running

  15. Dermatology Residency Selection Criteria with an Emphasis on Program Characteristics: A National Program Director Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzam Gorouhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermatology residency programs are relatively diverse in their resident selection process. The authors investigated the importance of 25 dermatology residency selection criteria focusing on differences in program directors’ (PDs’ perception based on specific program demographics. Methods. This cross-sectional nationwide observational survey utilized a 41-item questionnaire that was developed by literature search, brainstorming sessions, and online expert reviews. The data were analyzed utilizing the reliability test, two-step clustering, and K-means methods as well as other methods. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in PDs’ perception regarding the importance of the selection criteria based on program demographics. Results. Ninety-five out of 114 PDs (83.3% responded to the survey. The top five criteria for dermatology residency selection were interview, letters of recommendation, United States Medical Licensing Examination Step I scores, medical school transcripts, and clinical rotations. The following criteria were preferentially ranked based on different program characteristics: “advanced degrees,” “interest in academics,” “reputation of undergraduate and medical school,” “prior unsuccessful attempts to match,” and “number of publications.” Conclusions. Our survey provides up-to-date factual data on dermatology PDs’ perception in this regard. Dermatology residency programs may find the reported data useful in further optimizing their residency selection process.

  16. Extracellular dopamine, acetylcholine, and activation of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors after selective breeding for cocaine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyang; Das, Sasmita; Sturgill, Marc; Hodgkinson, Colin; Yuan, Qiaoping; Goldman, David; Grasing, Kenneth

    2017-08-01

    The low self-administration (LS)/Kgras (LS) and high self-administration (HS)/Kgras (HS) rat lines were generated by selective breeding for low- and high-intravenous cocaine self-administration, respectively, from a common outbred Wistar stock (Crl:WI). This trait has remained stable after 13 generations of breeding. The objective of the present study is to compare cocaine preference, neurotransmitter release, and dopamine receptor activation in LS and HS rats. Levels of dopamine, acetylcholine, and cocaine were measured in the nucleus accumbens (NA) shell of HS and LS rats by tandem mass spectrometry of microdialysates. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity and conditioned-place preference were compared between LS and HS rats. HS rats displayed greater conditioned-place preference scores compared to LS and reduced basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine and acetylcholine. However, patterns of neurotransmitter release did not differ between strains. Low-dose cocaine increased locomotor activity in LS rats, but not in HS animals, while high-dose cocaine augmented activity only in HS rats. Either dose of cocaine increased immunoreactivity for c-Fos in the NA shell of both strains, with greater elevations observed in HS rats. Activation identified by cells expressing both c-Fos and dopamine receptors was generally greater in the HS strain, with a similar pattern for both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Diminished levels of dopamine and acetylcholine in the NA shell, with enhanced cocaine-induced expression of D1 and D2 receptors, are associated with greater rewarding effects of cocaine in HS rats and an altered dose-effect relationship for cocaine-induced locomotor activity.

  17. Advances and Challenges in Genomic Selection for Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse; Rutkoski, Jessica

    2016-08-04

    Breeding for disease resistance is a central focus of plant breeding programs, as any successful variety must have the complete package of high yield, disease resistance, agronomic performance, and end-use quality. With the need to accelerate the development of improved varieties, genomics-assisted breeding is becoming an important tool in breeding programs. With marker-assisted selection, there has been success in breeding for disease resistance; however, much of this work and research has focused on identifying, mapping, and selecting for major resistance genes that tend to be highly effective but vulnerable to breakdown with rapid changes in pathogen races. In contrast, breeding for minor-gene quantitative resistance tends to produce more durable varieties but is a more challenging breeding objective. As the genetic architecture of resistance shifts from single major R genes to a diffused architecture of many minor genes, the best approach for molecular breeding will shift from marker-assisted selection to genomic selection. Genomics-assisted breeding for quantitative resistance will therefore necessitate whole-genome prediction models and selection methodology as implemented for classical complex traits such as yield. Here, we examine multiple case studies testing whole-genome prediction models and genomic selection for disease resistance. In general, whole-genome models for disease resistance can produce prediction accuracy suitable for application in breeding. These models also largely outperform multiple linear regression as would be applied in marker-assisted selection. With the implementation of genomic selection for yield and other agronomic traits, whole-genome marker profiles will be available for the entire set of breeding lines, enabling genomic selection for disease at no additional direct cost. In this context, the scope of implementing genomics selection for disease resistance, and specifically for quantitative resistance and quarantined pathogens

  18. Testes de capacidade de expansão em programas de melhoramento de milho pipoca Popping expansion tests in popcorn breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Pina Matta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available No desenvolvimento de populações melhoradas de milho pipoca é fundamental selecionar com base em qualidade, normalmente expressa pela relação volume de pipoca/peso de grãos, denominada capacidade de expansão (CE. Na seleção de indivíduos e progênies diversos sistemas de avaliação de qualidade devem ser considerados, por serem utilizados pelos consumidores. O propósito deste trabalho foi avaliar dois sistemas de determinação de CE em programas de melhoramento, sendo o primeiro uma pipoqueira de ar quente e o segundo um forno de microondas. Para avaliar a pipoqueira de ar quente foi instalado um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, envolvendo três tratamentos e nove níveis de peso de grãos, com cinco repetições. Para o microondas, buscando definir uma embalagem alternativa, foi instalado um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, seguindo um esquema fatorial, com três repetições, envolvendo dois tempos e cinco embalagens. Foi realizado um outro experimento, buscando verificar a qualidade do aparelho para obtenção de CE a partir de pequena quantidade de grãos e qual o melhor tempo a ser utilizado. A pipoqueira de ar quente é um sistema eficiente, podendo ser empregados 10 g na avaliação de plantas e até 90 g para avaliações experimentais de famílias. O forno de microondas é também um sistema eficiente, equivalente à pipoqueira de ar quente. No aparelho de microondas, pode-se empregar saco de papel kraft. Para avaliação de plantas, podem ser empregados 10 gramas e 140 segundos, e 30 a 90 gramas com tempo de 220 segundos para a avaliação de progênies.Quality, normally expressed by the relation volume of popcorn/weight of grains (volume expansion, is an important characteristic in popcorn breeding. Different systems of assessing popcorn expansion should be used in individual and family selections, since they are common to consumers. The purpose of this work was to evaluate two

  19. Genetic progress in multistage dairy cattle breeding schemes using genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, C; Bovenhuis, H; van Arendonk, J A M; Bijma, P

    2005-04-01

    QTL explaining 5% of the additive genetic variance allowed a 35% reduction in the number of progeny tested bulls, while maintaining genetic response at the level of the base scheme. Genetic progress was up to 31.3% higher for schemes with increased embryo production and selection of embryos based on QTL information. The challenge for breeding organizations is to find the optimum breeding program with regard to additional genetic progress and additional (or reduced) cost.

  20. Temporal Dynamics and Spatial Patterns of Aedes aegypti Breeding Sites, in the Context of a Dengue Control Program in Tartagal (Salta Province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Manuel; Weinberg, Diego; Rotela, Camilo H.; Polop, Francisco; Abril, Marcelo; Scavuzzo, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, Fundación Mundo Sano has implemented an Aedes aegypti Surveillance and Control Program in Tartagal city (Salta Province, Argentina). The purpose of this study was to analyze temporal dynamics of Ae. aegypti breeding sites spatial distribution, during five years of samplings, and the effect of control actions over vector population dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings Seasonal entomological (larval) samplings were conducted in 17,815 fixed sites in Tartagal urban area between 2009 and 2014. Based on information of breeding sites abundance, from satellite remote sensing data (RS), and by the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), spatial analysis (hotspots and cluster analysis) and predictive model (MaxEnt) were performed. Spatial analysis showed a distribution pattern with the highest breeding densities registered in city outskirts. The model indicated that 75% of Ae. aegypti distribution is explained by 3 variables: bare soil coverage percentage (44.9%), urbanization coverage percentage(13.5%) and water distribution (11.6%). Conclusions/Significance This results have called attention to the way entomological field data and information from geospatial origin (RS/GIS) are used to infer scenarios which could then be applied in epidemiological surveillance programs and in the determination of dengue control strategies. Predictive maps development constructed with Ae. aegypti systematic spatiotemporal data, in Tartagal city, would allow public health workers to identify and target high-risk areas with appropriate and timely control measures. These tools could help decision-makers to improve health system responses and preventive measures related to vector control. PMID:27223693

  1. Selection criteria of residents for residency programs in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Yousef; Ayed, Adel

    2013-01-19

    In Kuwait, 21 residency training programs were offered in the year 2011; however, no data is available regarding the criteria of selecting residents for these programs. This study aims to provide information about the importance of these criteria. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from members (e.g. chairmen, directors, assistants …etc.) of residency programs in Kuwait. A total of 108 members were invited to participate. They were asked to rate the importance level (scale from 1 to 5) of criteria that may affect the acceptance of an applicant to their residency programs. Average scores were calculated for each criterion. Of the 108 members invited to participate, only 12 (11.1%) declined to participate. Interview performance was ranked as the most important criteria for selecting residents (average score: 4.63/5.00), followed by grade point average (average score: 3.78/5.00) and honors during medical school (average score: 3.67/5.00). On the other hand, receiving disciplinary action during medical school and failure in a required clerkship were considered as the most concerning among other criteria used to reject applicants (average scores: 3.83/5.00 and 3.54/5.00 respectively). Minor differences regarding the importance level of each criterion were noted across different programs. This study provided general information about the criteria that are used to accept/reject applicants to residency programs in Kuwait. Future studies should be conducted to investigate each criterion individually, and to assess if these criteria are related to residents' success during their training.

  2. The Naples High- and Low-Excitability rats: selective breeding, behavioral profile, morphometry, and molecular biology of the mesocortical dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Davide; Vallone, Daniela; Welzl, Hans; Sadile, Adolfo G

    2002-09-01

    The Naples High- (NHE) and Low-Excitability (NLE) rat lines have been selected since 1976 on the basis of behavioral arousal to novelty (Làt-maze). Selective breeding has been conducted under continuous genetic pressure, with no brother-sister mating. The behavioral analyses presented here deal with (1) activity in environments of different complexity, i.e., holeboard and Làt maze; (2) maze learning in hexagonal tunnel, Olton, and Morris water mazes and; (3) two-way active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion tests. Morphometric analyses deal with central dopaminergic systems at their origin and target sites, as well as the density of dopamine transporter immunoreactivity. Molecular biology analyses are also presented, dealing with recent experiments on the prefrontal cortex (PFc), cloning and identifying differentially expressed genes using subtractive libraries and RNAase protection. The divergence between NLE and NHE rats varies as a function of the complexity level of the environment, with an impaired working and reference memory in both lines compared to random bred (NRB) controls. Moreover, data from the PFc of NHE rats show a hyperdopaminergic innervation, with overexpression of mRNA species involved in basal metabolism, and down-regulation of dopamine D1 receptors. Altogether, the evidence gathered so far supports a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system that makes NHE rats a useful tool for the study of hyperactivity and attention deficit, learning and memory disabilities, and drug abuse.

  3. Melhoramento do limoeiro-taiti por seleção de clones Tahiti lime breeding through clonal selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Figueiredo

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são relatados os resultados de produção e vigor das plantas em um experimento de competição de seis clones de limoeiro-taiti (Citrus latifolia Tanaka enxertados no porta-enxerto limoeiro-cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck. Os resultados de seis anos consecutivos mostraram que o clone IAC 5 foi o mais produtivo superando, em média, todos os outros nas colheitas de janeiro, julho e outubro. Em segundo lugar colocou-se o IAC 2, cuja produção máxima se localizou, porém, no mês de abril, quando os preços do mercado são os mais baixos. O IAC 6 foi inferior a todos. Os clones IAC 1, IAC 3 e IAC 4, comportaram-se de maneira intermediária e a distribuição da produção do IAC 1 foi a mais favorável. O clone IAC 5 foi também o mais vigoroso e não apresentou fissuras na casca do tronco e dos ramos. IAC 2 foi o clone de menor vigor e juntamente com IAC 1 e IAC 6, o mais suscetível à incidência de fissuras.Six selected clones of Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka were evaluated in a field trial at the Estação Experimental de Limeira for fruit production and plant vigor, during six consecutive years. All six clones had the Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck as rootstock. The relationship between monthly fruit price and seasonal yield data was also investigated. The clone IAC 5 showed the highest yield in January, July, and October when Tahiti lime price is maximum. This selection had the most vigorous plants with absence of cracks in the bark of the trunk and branches. The least vigorous material was the IAC 2 selection with a top yield in April, when fruit price is minimum. The clones IAC 1, IAC 3, and IAC 4 showed intermediate production while IAC 6 revealed the lowest yield.

  4. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  5. A potential new selection criterion for breeding winter barley optimal protein and amino acid profiles for liquid pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    The hypothesis is that cereal proteases in liquid feed degrade and convert water insoluble storage protein into water soluble protein, which may improve the digestibility of protein in pigs compared with dry feeding. Protein utilization is increased by matching the amino acid (AAs) content...... of the diet as close as possible to the pigs’ requirement. By improving the availability of isoleucine, leucine, histidine and phenylalanine, which are limiting and commercial unavailable, the amount of crude protein in the pig feed can be reduced, resulting in a decreased excretion of nitrogen. The aim...... of glutamic acid revealed differences between the cultivars and the solubilised protein at all three times. These preliminary results may indicate that improvements of the nitrogen utilization in pigs fed soaked winter barley depends on the choice of cultivar and soaking time, and may serve as a new selection...

  6. Selective breeding for infant rat separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations: developmental precursors of passive and active coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Susan A; Hofer, Myron A

    2007-09-04

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate "anxious"/"depressed" phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an "aggressive" phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting "coping styles" with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation.

  7. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  8. Enhancing genetic gain in the era of molecular breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi; Li, Ping; Zou, Cheng; Lu, Yanli; Xie, Chuanxiao; Zhang, Xuecai; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Olsen, Michael S

    2017-05-17

    As one of the important concepts in conventional quantitative genetics and breeding, genetic gain can be defined as the amount of increase in performance that is achieved annually through artificial selection. To develop pro ducts that meet the increasing demand of mankind, especially for food and feed, in addition to various industrial uses, breeders are challenged to enhance the potential of genetic gain continuously, at ever higher rates, while they close the gaps that remain between the yield potential in breeders' demonstration trials and the actual yield in farmers' fields. Factors affecting genetic gain include genetic variation available in breeding materials, heritability for traits of interest, selection intensity, and the time required to complete a breeding cycle. Genetic gain can be improved through enhancing the potential and closing the gaps, which has been evolving and complemented with modern breeding techniques and platforms, mainly driven by molecular and genomic tools, combined with improved agronomic practice. Several key strategies are reviewed in this article. Favorable genetic variation can be unlocked and created through molecular and genomic approaches including mutation, gene mapping and discovery, and transgene and genome editing. Estimation of heritability can be improved by refining field experiments through well-controlled and precisely assayed environmental factors or envirotyping, particularly for understanding and controlling spatial heterogeneity at the field level. Selection intensity can be significantly heightened through improvements in the scale and precision of genotyping and phenotyping. The breeding cycle time can be shortened by accelerating breeding procedures through integrated breeding approaches such as marker-assisted selection and doubled haploid development. All the strategies can be integrated with other widely used conventional approaches in breeding programs to enhance genetic gain. More transdisciplinary

  9. Impact of selective genotyping in the training population on accuracy and bias of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Longin, Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-08-01

    Estimating marker effects based on routinely generated phenotypic data of breeding programs is a cost-effective strategy to implement genomic selection. Truncation selection in breeding populations, however, could have a strong impact on the accuracy to predict genomic breeding values. The main objective of our study was to investigate the influence of phenotypic selection on the accuracy and bias of genomic selection. We used experimental data of 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The testcross progenies were evaluated in unreplicated field trials in ten environments and fingerprinted with 857 SNP markers. Random regression best linear unbiased prediction method was used in combination with fivefold cross-validation based on genotypic sampling. We observed a substantial loss in the accuracy to predict genomic breeding values in unidirectional selected populations. In contrast, estimating marker effects based on bidirectional selected populations led to only a marginal decrease in the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values. We concluded that bidirectional selection is a valuable approach to efficiently implement genomic selection in applied plant breeding programs.

  10. Uncertain programming models for portfolio selection with uncertain returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Jin; Li, Shengguo

    2015-10-01

    In an indeterminacy economic environment, experts' knowledge about the returns of securities consists of much uncertainty instead of randomness. This paper discusses portfolio selection problem in uncertain environment in which security returns cannot be well reflected by historical data, but can be evaluated by the experts. In the paper, returns of securities are assumed to be given by uncertain variables. According to various decision criteria, the portfolio selection problem in uncertain environment is formulated as expected-variance-chance model and chance-expected-variance model by using the uncertainty programming. Within the framework of uncertainty theory, for the convenience of solving the models, some crisp equivalents are discussed under different conditions. In addition, a hybrid intelligent algorithm is designed in the paper to provide a general method for solving the new models in general cases. At last, two numerical examples are provided to show the performance and applications of the models and algorithm.

  11. Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis using breeding seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis is commercially important in Zimbabwe and a breeding program has been in progress since 1962. A classical breeding strategy was used initially but, in 1981, the Multiple Population Breeding Strategy (MPBS) was implemented and the concept of the Breeding Seedling Orchard (BSO) became central to ...

  12. Radiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

  13. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  14. Selection and Breeding of Suitable Crop Genotypes for Drought and Heat Periods in a Changing Climate: Which Morphological and Physiological Properties Should Be Considered?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Simova-Stoilova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection and breeding of genotypes with improved drought/heat tolerance become key issues in the course of global change with predicted increased frequency of droughts or heat waves. Several morphological and physiological plant traits must be considered. Rooting depth, root branching, nutrient acquisition, mycorrhization, nodulation in legumes and the release of nutrients, assimilates or phytohormones to the shoot are relevant in root systems. Xylem embolism and its repair after a drought, development of axillary buds and solute channeling via xylem (acropetal and phloem (basipetal and acropetal are key processes in the stem. The photosynthetically active biomass depends on leaf expansion and senescence. Cuticle thickness and properties, epicuticular waxes, stomatal regulation including responses to phytohormones, stomatal plugs and mesophyll resistance are involved in optimizing leaf water relations. Aquaporins, dehydrins, enzymes involved in the metabolism of compatible solutes (e.g., proline and Rubisco activase are examples for proteins involved in heat or drought susceptibility. Assimilate redistribution from leaves to maturing fruits via the phloem influences yield quantity and quality. Proteomic analyses allow a deeper insight into the network of stress responses and may serve as a basis to identify suitable genotypes, although improved stress tolerance will have its price (often lowered productivity under optimal conditions.

  15. Factors that influence medical student selection of an emergency medicine residency program: implications for training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey N; Howell, John M; Hegarty, Cullen B; McLaughlin, Steven A; Coates, Wendy C; Hopson, Laura R; Hern, Gene H; Rosen, Carlo L; Fisher, Jonathan; Santen, Sally A

    2012-04-01

    An understanding of student decision-making when selecting an emergency medicine (EM) training program is essential for program directors as they enter interview season. To build upon preexisting knowledge, a survey was created to identify and prioritize the factors influencing candidate decision-making of U.S. medical graduates. This was a cross-sectional, multi-institutional study that anonymously surveyed U.S. allopathic applicants to EM training programs. It took place in the 3-week period between the 2011 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) rank list submission deadline and the announcement of match results. Of 1,525 invitations to participate, 870 candidates (57%) completed the survey. Overall, 96% of respondents stated that both geographic location and individual program characteristics were important to decision-making, with approximately equal numbers favoring location when compared to those who favored program characteristics. The most important factors in this regard were preference for a particular geographic location (74.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 72% to 78%) and to be close to spouse, significant other, or family (59.7%, 95% CI = 56% to 63%). Factors pertaining to geographic location tend to be out of the control of the program leadership. The most important program factors include the interview experience (48.9%, 95% CI = 46% to 52%), personal experience with the residents (48.5%, 95% CI = 45% to 52%), and academic reputation (44.9%, 95% CI = 42% to 48%). Unlike location, individual program factors are often either directly or somewhat under the control of the program leadership. Several other factors were ranked as the most important factor a disproportionate number of times, including a rotation in that emergency department (ED), orientation (academic vs. community), and duration of training (3-year vs. 4-year programs). For a subset of applicants, these factors had particular importance in overall decision-making. The vast majority

  16. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  17. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  18. [Prevention of cardiovascular diseases - Prophylactic program in a selected enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szyjkowska, Agata; Siedlecki, Patryk; Szymczak, Wiesław; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-10-17

    In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD), classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents' expectations concerning the prevention program. The study group comprised 407 multi-profile company employees aged (mean) 46.7 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), including 330 men (81.1%), mean age = 46.9 (SD = 9.2) and 77 women (18.9%), mean age = 45.9 (SD = 8.2) The study was performed using the method of auditorium survey. Employees declared the need for actions related to physical activity: use of gym, swimming pool, tennis (56.5%), smoking habits - education sessions on quitting smoking (24.6%). A few people were interested in activities related to healthy diet. According to the majority of the study group, the scope of preventive examinations should be expanded. Based on our own findings and literature data CVD- -oriented preventive program, addressed to the analyzed enterprise was prepared. The program will be presented in another paper. The results showed significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the classic and occupational CVD risk factors between men and women, as well as in preferences for participation in prevention programs. Therefore, gender differences should be taken into account when planning prevention programs. Med Pr 2017;68(6):757-769. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals. © 2015, Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  1. Application of molecular markers in wheat breeding: Reality or delusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobiljski Borislav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional plant breeding use morphological and phenotypic markers for the identification of important agronomic traits. Plant breeders and scientists continuously seek to develop new techniques, which can be used for faster and more accurate introgression of desirable traits into plants. Over the last several years there has been significant increase in the application of molecular markers in the breeding programmes of different species. So far, detected level of polymorphism and informatitivnes of different molecular marker methods applied in MAS (Marker Assisted Selection studies (RFLP, AFLP, etc. were insufficient either to validate their further use or there were very expensive and of huge healthy risk. Fortunately for wheat (and other crops breeders, the new class of molecular markers - microsatellites have prove recently to be most powerful for MAS. But, due to lack of the knowledge, experience, valid informations and even tradition and habits, many breeders have either negative or repulsive attitude towards implementation of MAS in breeding programes. In this paper the relevant facts regarding implementation of MAS in breeding are discussed in general, and for wheat breeding in particular, in order to summarize merits and limitations in application of microsatellites in MAS selection. .

  2. Breeding new improved clones for strawberry production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gonçalves Galvão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Breeding different strawberry genotypes and plant selection in Brazil could result in new cultivars with better environmental adaptations. The aim was to develop and select new F1 strawberry plants with higher potential yields. Twelve hybrid populations were obtained from breeding the cultivars Aromas, Camarosa, Dover, Festival, Oso Grande, Sweet Charlie and Tudla, and 42 F1 hybrids were obtained from each population. An augmented randomized block design was used. Productive traits were measured and heterosis was calculated for all traits. The breedings Dover x Aromas and Camarosa x Aromas both showed 28.6% of their hybrids with a total fruit mass that was higher than that of cv. Aromas, and 9.5 and 14.3% were higher than that of cv. Camarosa, respectively. The breeding of Camarosa x Aromas produced hybrids with high potential yields and a large average fruit mass that reached the commercial standard. Hybrids MCA12-93, MFA12-443 and MCA12-89 showed high potential yields and can be used as parents in strawberry breeding programs.

  3. Fuzzy Goal Programming Approach in Selective Maintenance Reliability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In the present paper, we have considered the allocation problem of repairable components for a parallel-series system as a multi-objective optimization problem and have discussed two different models. In first model the reliability of subsystems are considered as different objectives. In second model the cost and time spent on repairing the components are considered as two different objectives. These two models is formulated as multi-objective Nonlinear Programming Problem (MONLPP and a Fuzzy goal programming method is used to work out the compromise allocation in multi-objective selective maintenance reliability model in which we define the membership functions of each objective function and then transform membership functions into equivalent linear membership functions by first order Taylor series and finally by forming a fuzzy goal programming model obtain a desired compromise allocation of maintenance components. A numerical example is also worked out to illustrate the computational details of the method.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  4. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  5. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  6. An Examination of Program Selection Criteria for Part-Time MBA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Michael; Fox, Daniel E.; Westerfelt, Debra Kay

    2011-01-01

    Prospective graduate students select a graduate program as a result of a multifaceted decision-making process. This study examines the selection criteria that part-time MBA students used in selecting a program at a private university. Further, it analyzes the methods by which the students first learned of the MBA program. The authors posed the…

  7. Uso prático de marcadores moleculares para seleção assistida no melhoramento de uvas de mesa apirênicas Practical use of molecular markers for seedlessness assisted selection in grapevine breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Revers

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A hipótese mais bem aceita atualmente para explicar a genética complexa da estenoespermocarpia, observada na videira, indica que a expressão deste fenótipo é controlada por três genes recessivos, independentemente herdados e controlados por um gene regulador dominante (sdI. Em estudo anterior, Lahogue et al. (1998 identificaram um marcador RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA ligado ao gene sdI e utilizaram-no para desenvolver um SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region co-dominante denominado SCC8, que pode distinguir, em uma progênie, indivíduos com semente como também selecionar indivíduos apirênicos. Neste trabalho, são apresentados resultados da avaliação do potencial de aplicação do marcador molecular SCAR SCC8 para seleção assistida do caráter da apirenia no melhoramento de uvas de mesa sem sementes. A utilização deste marcador na seleção assistida para apirenia em uvas de mesa mostrou-se viável, e as conseqüências da sua utilização no programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Uva e Vinho são discutidas.The inheritance of seedlessness in grapevine is based on a complex genetic system, where the expression of three independently inherited recessive genes is controlled by a dominant regulator gene (sdI. In a previous study, Lahogue et al. (1998 identified a random amplified polymorphic DNA marker, tightly linked to the sdI gene and developed a codominant SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region marker named SCC8, that allows the distinction of seeded and seedless plants in a segregating progeny. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the usefullness of the SCAR marker SCC8 for assisted selection of the seedlessness character in grape breeding. According to our results, the use of the SCC8 marker is economically viable and the consequences of its use in the grapevine breeding program at Embrapa Uva e Vinho are discussed.

  8. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  9. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blasco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that, and genetic variability within breeds is large. We need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. A breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction, it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be. We can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.

  10. Genomic selection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and

  11. Nest-site selection and population trend of Collared Pratincoles (Glareola pratincola breeding in agricultural habitats of the Nagykunság region (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Ádám

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Collared Pratincole (Glareola pratincola, which was once a typical breeding species of the sodic grasslands of the Great Plain, has become threatened with extinction from Hungary. It disappeared from the traditional grassland breeding sites before the 2000 and is currently breeding only in three sites in agricultural environments in Hungary. The objectives of our research were to find links between the use of shallow wetlands and the breeding behaviour of the species and to identify the characteristics of its breeding on ploughed fields. Data were collected between 2008 and 2016 as part of preparations for the conservation of the largest population which is found in the Nagykunság. We found a positive correlation between colony size and the area of the nearby wetland. We calculated the proportion of habitat-types used for nesting, and found that cultivated fields and fallow lands were the most important. Additionally, we also found that colony sizes were substantially smaller during the research period than those found earlier in the traditional grassland habitats. Finally, we found a positive trend in the size of the population during the research period.

  12. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  13. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS : APPLICATIONS IN SELECTING BREEDING STOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, J K

    1936-09-30

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested.

  14. Genetic diversity analysis of two commercial breeds of pigs using genomic and pedigree data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Ricardo; Peixoto, Jane O; Cardoso, Fernando F; Cardoso, Leandro L; Biegelmeyer, Patrícia; Cantão, Maurício E; Otaviano, Antonio; Freitas, Marcelo S; Caetano, Alexandre R; Ledur, Mônica C

    2016-03-30

    Genetic improvement in livestock populations can be achieved without significantly affecting genetic diversity if mating systems and selection decisions take genetic relationships among individuals into consideration. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity of two commercial breeds of pigs. Genotypes from 1168 Landrace (LA) and 1094 Large White (LW) animals from a commercial breeding program in Brazil were obtained using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchip. Inbreeding estimates based on pedigree (F x) and genomic information using runs of homozygosity (F ROH) and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) by SNP inbreeding coefficient (F SNP) were obtained. Linkage disequilibrium (LD), correlation of linkage phase (r) and effective population size (N e ) were also estimated. Estimates of inbreeding obtained with pedigree information were lower than those obtained with genomic data in both breeds. We observed that the extent of LD was slightly larger at shorter distances between SNPs in the LW population than in the LA population, which indicates that the LW population was derived from a smaller N e . Estimates of N e based on genomic data were equal to 53 and 40 for the current populations of LA and LW, respectively. The correlation of linkage phase between the two breeds was equal to 0.77 at distances up to 50 kb, which suggests that genome-wide association and selection should be performed within breed. Although selection intensities have been stronger in the LA breed than in the LW breed, levels of genomic and pedigree inbreeding were lower for the LA than for the LW breed. The use of genomic data to evaluate population diversity in livestock animals can provide new and more precise insights about the effects of intense selection for production traits. Resulting information and knowledge can be used to effectively increase response to selection by appropriately managing the rate of inbreeding, minimizing negative effects of inbreeding

  15. Induced mutations in pomoid trees breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Faysal

    1986-01-01

    Induction of mutations in fruit trees by ionizing radiation complements a cross-breeding program. The objectives are: 1) the improvements of methods of induction, identification and selection of useful mutations, and 2) the initiation of useful mutations either for immediate use as improved cultivars or as a parent material for conventional cross-breeding. The induction of mutants in pomoid fruits, with special emphasis on apple, was realized by gamma-ray treatment of dormant scions subsequently propagated on a rootstoch in the nursery. The aim was to obtain compacts, presuming the feasibility of selecting compact shoots formed by the irradiated scions in the first vegetative generation and also assuming that chance of finding (e.g. fruit mutants) would be thus increased rather than lessened. Selection was carried out on one-season old shoots, formed on the same material for two or three seasons, by using a cut-back at the end of the first and second season. The procedure was highly effective. Moderate exposures, resulting in 60% survival gave high mutation frequencies. Buds 6-10 on the primary shoot gave higher frequencies of recognizable mutations than either buds 1-5 or 11-15. Preliminary results seem to indicate that, at least in some apple cultivars, there is opportunity to obtain compact growth types with good biological characteristics. 8 refs. (author)

  16. Development of a marker assisted selection program for cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R J; Kuhn, D N; Brown, J S; Olano, C T; Phillips-Mora, W; Amores, F M; Motamayor, J C

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Production of cacao in tropical America has been severely affected by fungal pathogens causing diseases known as witches' broom (WB, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa), frosty pod (FP, caused by M. roreri) and black pod (BP, caused by Phytophthora spp.). BP is pan-tropical and causes losses in all producing areas. WB is found in South America and parts of the Caribbean, while FP is found in Central America and parts of South America. Together, these diseases were responsible for over 700 million US dollars in losses in 2001 (4). Commercial cacao production in West Africa and South Asia are not yet affected by WB and FP, but cacao grown in these regions is susceptible to both. With the goal of providing new disease resistant cultivars the USDA-ARS and Mars, Inc. have developed a marker assisted selection (MAS) program. Quantitative trait loci have been identified for resistance to WB, FP, and BP. The potential usefulness of these markers in identifying resistant individuals has been confirmed in an experimental F(1) family in Ecuador.

  17. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2018-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  18. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  19. Filling the toolbox of precision breeding methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant breeding has
    resulted in numerous
    high-quality crop
    varieties being
    cultivated nowadays.
    Breeding based on
    crossing and selection
    remains an important
    and ongoing activity for
    crop improvement, but
    needs innovation to be
    able to address

  20. Timing, Nest Site Selection and Multiple Breeding in House Martins: Age-Related Variation and the Preference for Self-Built Mud Nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Almost all accounts of the reproductive biology of House Martins Delichon urbicum are based on studies of birds breeding in artificial nests that are monitored every few days. Here, I provide a study on House Martins using self-built mud nests at a single colony in Gaast, The Netherlands (225 nest

  1. Timing, nest site selection and multiple breeding in House Martins : age-related variation and the preference for self-built mud nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Almost all accounts of the reproductive biology of House Martins Delichon urbicum are based on studies of birds breeding in artificial nests that are monitored every few days. Here, I provide a study on House Martins using self-built mud nests at a single colony in Gaast, The Netherlands (225 nest

  2. Development of selective photoionization spectroscopy technology - Development of a computer program to calculate selective ionization of atoms with multistep processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Soon; Nam, Baek Il [Myongji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    We have developed computer programs to calculate 2-and 3-step selective resonant multiphoton ionization of atoms. Autoionization resonances in the final continuum can be put into account via B-Spline basis set method. 8 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  3. Breeding graft-compatible Douglas-fir rootstocks (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Copes

    1999-01-01

    A study encompassing 24 years was conducted to determine if a breeding program could produce highly graft-compatible rootstocks. Twenty-seven trees of apparent high graft compatibility were selected and crossed to produce 226 control-pollinated families. Seedlings were grown, field planted, and grafted with test scions. Graft unions from field tests were evaluated...

  4. Advances in genome editing for improved animal breeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Ahmad Bhat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries, the traits for production and disease resistance are being targeted while improving the genetic merit of domestic animals, using conventional breeding programs such as inbreeding, outbreeding, or introduction of marker-assisted selection. The arrival of new scientific concepts, such as cloning and genome engineering, has added a new and promising research dimension to the existing animal breeding programs. Development of genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats systems begun a fresh era of genome editing, through which any change in the genome, including specific DNA sequence or indels, can be made with unprecedented precision and specificity. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity of intensification in the frequency of desirable alleles in an animal population through gene-edited individuals more rapidly than conventional breeding. The specific research is evolving swiftly with a focus on improvement of economically important animal species or their traits all of which form an important subject of this review. It also discusses the hurdles to commercialization of these techniques despite several patent applications owing to the ambiguous legal status of genome-editing methods on account of their disputed classification. Nonetheless, barring ethical concerns gene-editing entailing economically important genes offers a tremendous potential for breeding animals with desirable traits.

  5. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  6. Parameters in the estimation of the most suitable F2 population size in conventional maize (Zea mays L. breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delić Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to observe differences among four sizes of the F2 populations (100, 200, 300 and 500 plants on the basis of test-crosses for grain yield according to the average values of the populations, genetic and phenotypic variances, genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations and broad-sense heritability. The values of genetic variance did not significantly differ over population sizes according to all possible comparisons, including the comparison of values obtained for the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, the values of broadsense heritability (67.8%-69% did not significantly vary over different F2 population sizes. Genetic variability of the observed progenies, as a principal prerequisite of successful selection, was at the satisfactory level in all population sizes.

  7. Exploring Heuristic Action Selection in Agent Programming (extended abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.; Pasman, W.

    2008-01-01

    Rational agents programmed in agent programming languages derive their choice of action from their beliefs and goals. One of the main benefits of such programming languages is that they facilitate a highlevel and conceptually elegant specification of agent behaviour. Qualitative concepts alone,

  8. Portfolio selection problem: a comparison of fuzzy goal programming and linear physical programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusun Kucukbay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Investors have limited budget and they try to maximize their return with minimum risk. Therefore this study aims to deal with the portfolio selection problem. In the study two criteria are considered which are expected return, and risk. In this respect, linear physical programming (LPP technique is applied on Bist 100 stocks to be able to find out the optimum portfolio. The analysis covers the period April 2009- March 2015. This period is divided into two; April 2009-March 2014 and April 2014 – March 2015. April 2009-March 2014 period is used as data to find an optimal solution. April 2014-March 2015 period is used to test the real performance of portfolios. The performance of the obtained portfolio is compared with that obtained from fuzzy goal programming (FGP. Then the performances of both method, LPP and FGP are compared with BIST 100 in terms of their Sharpe Indexes. The findings reveal that LPP for portfolio selection problem is a good alternative to FGP.

  9. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in four South African Sanga cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sithembile Olga Makina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies. This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47 and Bonsmara breeds (n=46, using Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29 as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40-60 kb in Angus (0.21 and Holstein (0.21 and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20. This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r2 ≥ 0.20 would require about 30,000 -50,000 SNPs. However, r2 ≥ 0.20 extended only up to 10-20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20-40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for genome-wide association studies in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne=95 (Nguni, Ne=87 (Drakensberger, Ne=77 (Bonsmara and Ne=41 (Afrikaner. Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa.

  10. Genetic profile of scrapie codons 146, 211 and 222 in the PRNP gene locus in three breeds of dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouraki, Sotiria; Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Alexandri, Panoraia; Boukouvala, Evridiki; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Banos, Georgios; Arsenos, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Polymorphisms at PRNP gene locus have been associated with resistance against classical scrapie in goats. Genetic selection on this gene within appropriate breeding programs may contribute to the control of the disease. The present study characterized the genetic profile of codons 146, 211 and 222 in three dairy goat breeds in Greece. A total of 766 dairy goats from seven farms were used. Animals belonged to two indigenous Greek, Eghoria (n = 264) and Skopelos (n = 287) and a foreign breed, Damascus (n = 215). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples from individual animals. Polymorphisms were detected in these codons using Real-Time PCR analysis and four different Custom TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays. Genotypic, allelic and haplotypic frequencies were calculated based on individual animal genotypes. Chi-square tests were used to examine Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state and compare genotypic distribution across breeds. Genetic distances among the three breeds, and between these and 30 breeds reared in other countries were estimated based on haplotypic frequencies using fixation index FST with Arlequin v3.1 software; a Neighbor-Joining tree was created using PHYLIP package v3.695. Level of statistical significance was set at P = 0.01. All scrapie resistance-associated alleles (146S, 146D, 211Q and 222K) were detected in the studied population. Significant frequency differences were observed between the indigenous Greek and Damascus breeds. Alleles 222K and 146S had the highest frequency in the two indigenous and the Damascus breed, respectively (ca. 6.0%). The studied breeds shared similar haplotypic frequencies with most South Italian and Turkish breeds but differed significantly from North-Western European, Far East and some USA goat breeds. Results suggest there is adequate variation in the PRNP gene locus to support breeding programs for enhanced scrapie resistance in goats reared in Greece. Genetic comparisons among goat breeds indicate that separate

  11. Breed and selection line differences in the temperament of beef cattle - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16426

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The temperament of four beef cattle breeds were measured using a flight time test (FT and a behavior score test (BST. FT was defined as the time taken by animals to cross a distance of 2 m after weight scale. The BST used a visual assessment of cattle behavior in which the results of four categories defined the score: movements, breathing intensity, vocalization and kicking. FT and BST coefficients of heritability were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood, considering half siblings. Caracu presented a lower BST value than the other breeds. Nellore presented intermediate results, followed by Guzerat and Gyr with similar and higher means (p p= -0.36; p s = -0.63; p Bos indicus cattle.  

  12. Genetic characterization of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) breeding and hybrid lines with different geographic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdui, Emilia M; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Paşca, Ioan; Pop, Iulia F; Erler, Silvio; Schlüns, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori L. comprises a large number of geographical breeds and hybrid lines. Knowing the genetic structure of those may provide information to improve the conservation of commercial lines by estimating inbreeding over generations and the consequences of excessive use of those lineages. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity of seven breeds and eight hybrid lines from Eastern Europe and Asia using highly polymorphic microsatellites markers to determine its genetical impact on their use in global breeding programs. No consistent pattern of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found for most breed and hybrids; and the absence of a linkage disequilibrium also suggests that the strains are in equilibrium. A principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear separation of two silkworm breeds from the rest: one (IBV) originated from India and the other one (RG90) from Romania/Japan. The tendency of the other breeds from different geographic origins to cluster together in a general mix might be due to similar selection pressures (climate and anthropogenic factors) in different geographic locations. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the different silkworm breeds but not the hybrids according to their geographic origin and confirmed the pattern found in the principal coordinate analysis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. 76 FR 62312 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... interested individuals to obtain specific regulatory guidance and information on standards concerning biosafety and biosecurity issues related to the Federal Select Agent Program. CDC, APHIS, and CJIS...

  14. A Value-Added Approach to Selecting the Best Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dorothy M.; Kiang, Melody; Fisher, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Although numerous studies rank master of business administration (MBA) programs, prospective students' selection of the best MBA program is a formidable task. In this study, the authors used a linear-programming-based model called data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate MBA programs. The DEA model connects costs to benefits to evaluate the…

  15. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  16. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  17. genetic polymorphism in eight breeds of Algeria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amal Djaout

    2018-05-23

    May 23, 2018 ... 3Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 .... the implementation of future breeding plans in terms of ..... control policies based on selecting rams of resistant geno-.

  18. Breeding for mechanised sesame production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, D.F.; Imrie, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction of sesame germplasm from Myanmar and Mexico was not satisfactory for successful development of the Australian sesame industry. Therefore, a national breeding programme was undertaken by CSIRO and the Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries (NTDPIF). The main traits considered for selection were latitudinal adaptation, temperature response, growth habit, determinacy, palatability, capsules per leaf axil, seed shattering and seed dormancy. The CSIRO breeding efforts started in 1989 with a hybridization programme using germplasm from Japan, Mexico, Myanmar, Rep. of Korea and Venezuela. This programme resulted in selection in the F 6 generation of branched types released under the names 'Beech's choice' and 'Aussie Gold'. The NTDPIF sesame breeding programme started in 1993 with hybridization of introductions. The Mexican cultivar 'Yori 77' was selected for release, and after several years of intraline selection the uniculm cultivar 'Edith' was released in 1996. Further breeding continues to improve seed retention and resistance to charcoal rot. (author)

  19. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  20. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  1. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  2. Genetic resources in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, wheat and rice are the most important cereals grown in the world. It is predicted that by 2025 maize is likely to become the crop with the greatest production globally. Conservation of maize germplasm provides the main resources for increased food and feed production. Conservation in gene banks (ex-situ is dominant strategy for maize conservation. More than 130 000 maize accessions, e.g. about 40% of total number, are stored in ten largest gene banks worldwide and Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP gene bank, with about 6000 accessions, is among them. Organized collecting missions started in 1961. in the former Yugoslavian territory, and up today, more than 2000 local maize landraces were stored. Pre-breeding activities that refer to identification of desirable traits from unadapted germplasm within genebank, result in materials expected to be included in breeding programs. Successful examples are LAMP, GEM and GENRES projects. At the end of XX century, at MRIZP genebank two pre-breeding activities were undertaken: eco-core and elite-core collections were created and landraces fulfilled particular criteria were chosen. In the last decade, MRIZP genebank collection was used for identification of sources for drought tolerance and improved grain quality. According to agronomic traits and general combining ability, two mini-core collections were created and included in commercial breeding programs.

  3. Between a rock and a hard place: habitat selection in female-calf humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae Pairs on the Hawaiian breeding grounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cartwright

    Full Text Available The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (<20 m and regions within 2 km of the shoreline. Preferred regions for female-calf pairs comprised water depths between 40-60 m, regions of rugged bottom topography and regions that lay between 4 and 6 km from a small boat harbor (Lahaina Harbor that fell within the study area. In contrast to other humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap.

  4. Participatory plant breeding and organic agriculture: A synergistic model for organic variety development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.

  5. ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs - Selected indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking states’ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...

  6. ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs - Selected indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking states’ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...

  7. Genome-wide association mapping for yield and other agronomic traits in an elite breeding population of tropical rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Spindel, Jennifer E; Lalusin, Antonio; Borromeo, Teresita; Gregorio, Glenn; Hernandez, Jose; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; McCouch, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) are frequently used to detect QTL in diverse collections of crop germplasm, based on historic recombination events and linkage disequilibrium across the genome. Generally, diversity panels genotyped with high density SNP panels are utilized in order to assay a wide range of alleles and haplotypes and to monitor recombination breakpoints across the genome. By contrast, GWAS have not generally been performed in breeding populations. In this study we performed association mapping for 19 agronomic traits including yield and yield components in a breeding population of elite irrigated tropical rice breeding lines so that the results would be more directly applicable to breeding than those from a diversity panel. The population was genotyped with 71,710 SNPs using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and GWAS performed with the explicit goal of expediting selection in the breeding program. Using this breeding panel we identified 52 QTL for 11 agronomic traits, including large effect QTLs for flowering time and grain length/grain width/grain-length-breadth ratio. We also identified haplotypes that can be used to select plants in our population for short stature (plant height), early flowering time, and high yield, and thus demonstrate the utility of association mapping in breeding populations for informing breeding decisions. We conclude by exploring how the newly identified significant SNPs and insights into the genetic architecture of these quantitative traits can be leveraged to build genomic-assisted selection models.

  8. High genetic diversity and demographic history of captive Siamese and Saltwater crocodiles suggest the first step toward the establishment of a breeding and reintroduction program in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorravis Lapbenjakul

    Full Text Available The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis and Saltwater crocodile (C. porosus are two of the most endangered animals in Thailand. Their numbers have been reduced severely by hunting and habitat fragmentation. A reintroduction plan involving captive-bred populations that are used commercially is important and necessary as a conservation strategy to aid in the recovery of wild populations. Here, the genetic diversity and population structure of 69 individual crocodiles, mostly members of captive populations, were analyzed using both mitochondrial D-loop DNA and microsatellite markers. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.924-0.971 and the mean expected heterozygosity across 22 microsatellite loci was 0.578-0.701 for the two species. This agreed with the star-like shaped topology of the haplotype network, which suggests a high level of genetic diversity. The mean ratio of the number of alleles to the allelic range (M ratio for the populations of both species was considerably lower than the threshold of 0.68, which was interpreted as indicative of a historical genetic bottleneck. Microsatellite markers provided evidence of introgression for three individual crocodiles, which suggest that hybridization might have occurred between C. siamensis and C. porosus. D-loop sequence analysis detected bi-directional hybridization between male and female individuals of the parent species. Therefore, identification of genetically non-hybrid and hybrid individuals is important for long-term conservation management. Relatedness values were low within the captive populations, which supported their genetic integrity and the viability of a breeding and reintroduction management plan. This work constitutes the first step in establishing an appropriate source population from a scientifically managed perspective for an in situ/ex situ conservation program and reintroduction of crocodile individuals to the wild in Thailand.

  9. Which individuals to choose to update the reference population? Minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in animal genomic selection programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eynard, Sonia E.; Croiseau, Pascal; Laloë, Denis; Fritz, Sebastien; Calus, Mario P.L.; Restoux, Gwendal

    2018-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a

  10. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  11. Genomic-based-breeding tools for tropical maize improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, Thammineni; Hindu, Vemuri; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar

    2017-12-01

    Maize has traditionally been the main staple diet in the Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and widely grown by millions of resource poor small scale farmers. Approximately, 35.4 million hectares are sown to tropical maize, constituting around 59% of the developing worlds. Tropical maize encounters tremendous challenges besides poor agro-climatic situations with average yields recorded <3 tones/hectare that is far less than the average of developed countries. On the contrary to poor yields, the demand for maize as food, feed, and fuel is continuously increasing in these regions. Heterosis breeding introduced in early 90 s improved maize yields significantly, but genetic gains is still a mirage, particularly for crop growing under marginal environments. Application of molecular markers has accelerated the pace of maize breeding to some extent. The availability of array of sequencing and genotyping technologies offers unrivalled service to improve precision in maize-breeding programs through modern approaches such as genomic selection, genome-wide association studies, bulk segregant analysis-based sequencing approaches, etc. Superior alleles underlying complex traits can easily be identified and introgressed efficiently using these sequence-based approaches. Integration of genomic tools and techniques with advanced genetic resources such as nested association mapping and backcross nested association mapping could certainly address the genetic issues in maize improvement programs in developing countries. Huge diversity in tropical maize and its inherent capacity for doubled haploid technology offers advantage to apply the next generation genomic tools for accelerating production in marginal environments of tropical and subtropical world. Precision in phenotyping is the key for success of any molecular-breeding approach. This article reviews genomic technologies and their application to improve agronomic traits in tropical maize breeding has been reviewed in

  12. The breed prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigen 1.1 in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa and its significance in selection of canine blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Van der Merwe

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The blood group antigen Dog Erythrocyte Antigen (DEA 1.1 is clinically the most important canine blood group as DEA 1.1 antibodies are capable of causing acute haemolytic, potentially life-threatening transfusion reactions. Dogs do not have naturally occurring antibodies to DEA 1.1 but are rapidly sensitised by the first incompatible transfusion. The prevalence of DEA 1.1 in the general dog population is estimated at 42-46 %. Canine blood donors registered with the Onderstepoort Animal Blood Bank (n = 93 as well as potential donors (n = 140 were typed for DEA 1.1 using a monoclonal antibody card kit. All dogs came from the Onderstepoort area, near Pretoria, Gauteng province, South Africa. Overall prevalence of DEA 1.1 was 47 %. Prevalence was 47 % in purebred dogs and 48 % in mongrels. Distinct breed differences were noted with less than 20 % of German shepherd dogs and Boxers and greater than 75 % of Rottweilers, Great Danes, St Bernards and Dalmations testing DEA 1.1 positive. Knowledge of local breed differences will increase effectiveness of blood donor recruitment.

  13. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  14. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  15. Tolerance of Septoria nodorum Berk. in wheat: inheritance and potential in breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossati, A.; Broennimann, A.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations in the genetics of tolerance towards Septoria nodorum Berk. in wheat showed that this tolerance is inherited polygenically and mainly additively. This has to be considered when breeding for tolerance. Crosses should be carried out between parents of the highest possible tolerance. Breeding for tolerance is carried out in two different manners: Conventional breeding and with the use of mutation techniques. The conventional breeding program can be divided into three steps: The choice of the parents, the selection in the narrow sense (F 2 - F 5 ) and the evaluation of the tolerant lines (F 6 till about F 9 ). When producing mutants with tolerance towards Septoria nodorum, another cultivar is treated every year in order to enlarge the genetical basis for selection. 7 cultivars have been treated since 1967. Some tolerant lines could be selected from most of the cultivars used for this treatment. The efficiency of the mutation and selection techniques used is discussed in the case of the cultivar Fermo. Besides the real improvement of tolerance the selection was accompanied in general also by an increase in plant height and grain size. But some tolerant mutants were also found which did not show these side effects. Furthermore, some mutants were selected in which the progress of infection is slowed down. (author)

  16. Comparison of analyses of the QTLMAS XIII common dataset. I: genomic selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Coster, A.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Genomic selection, the use of markers across the whole genome, receives increasing amounts of attention and is having more and more impact on breeding programs. Development of statistical and computational methods to estimate breeding values based on markers is a very active area of

  17. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program: Selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and from the operation of DOE facilities. The program has been divided into seven general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 380 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliograhpy is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by national laboratory and by year. Multi-authored studies are indicated only once, according to the main supporting laboratory.

  18. Analysis of transient fuel failure mechanisms: selected ANL programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitrich, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical programs at Argonne National Laboratory related to fuel pin failure mechanisms in fast-reactor accident transients are described. The studies include transient fuel pin mechanics, mechanics of unclad fuel, and mechanical effects concerning potential fuel failure propagation. (U.S.).

  19. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  20. Selection on Optimal Haploid Value Increases Genetic Gain and Preserves More Genetic Diversity Relative to Genomic Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Daetwyler, Hans D.; Hayden, Matthew J.; Spangenberg, German C.; Hayes, Ben J.

    2015-01-01

    Doubled haploids are routinely created and phenotypically selected in plant breeding programs to accelerate the breeding cycle. Genomic selection, which makes use of both phenotypes and genotypes, has been shown to further improve genetic gain through prediction of performance before or without phenotypic characterization of novel germplasm. Additional opportunities exist to combine genomic prediction methods with the creation of doubled haploids. Here we propose an extension to genomic selec...

  1. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  2. Genetic Map of Mango: A Tool for Mango Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Kuhn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica is an economically and nutritionally important tropical/subtropical tree fruit crop. Most of the current commercial cultivars are selections rather than the products of breeding programs. To improve the efficiency of mango breeding, molecular markers have been used to create a consensus genetic map that identifies all 20 linkage groups in seven mapping populations. Polyembryony is an important mango trait, used for clonal propagation of cultivars and rootstocks. In polyembryonic mango cultivars, in addition to a zygotic embryo, several apomictic embryos develop from maternal tissue surrounding the fertilized egg cell. This trait has been associated with linkage group 8 in our consensus genetic map and has been validated in two of the seven mapping populations. In addition, we have observed a significant association between trait and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for the vegetative trait of branch habit and the fruit traits of bloom, ground skin color, blush intensity, beak shape, and pulp color.

  3. Optimal selection for shielding materials by fuzzy linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Y.; Miura, N.; Sugasawa, S.

    1996-01-01

    An application of fuzzy linear programming methods to optimization of a radiation shield is presented. The main purpose of the present study is the choice of materials and the search of the ratio of mixture-component as the first stage of the methodology on optimum shielding design according to individual requirements of nuclear reactor, reprocessing facility, shipping cask installing spent fuel, ect. The characteristic values for the shield optimization may be considered their cost, spatial space, weight and some shielding qualities such as activation rate and total dose rate for neutron and gamma ray (includes secondary gamma ray). This new approach can reduce huge combination calculations for conventional two-valued logic approaches to representative single shielding calculation by group-wised optimization parameters determined in advance. Using the fuzzy linear programming method, possibilities for reducing radiation effects attainable in optimal compositions hydrated, lead- and boron-contained materials are investigated

  4. Geothermal Reservoir Technology Research Program: Abstracts of selected research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    Research projects are described in the following areas: geothermal exploration, mapping reservoir properties and reservoir monitoring, and well testing, simulation, and predicting reservoir performance. The objectives, technical approach, and project status of each project are presented. The background, research results, and future plans for each project are discussed. The names, addresses, and telephone and telefax numbers are given for the DOE program manager and the principal investigators. (MHR)

  5. A computational approach to animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y; Moore, Cristopher; Saia, Jared

    2007-02-07

    We propose a computational model of mating strategies for controlled animal breeding programs. A mating strategy in a controlled breeding program is a heuristic with some optimization criteria as a goal. Thus, it is appropriate to use the computational tools available for analysis of optimization heuristics. In this paper, we propose the first discrete model of the controlled animal breeding problem and analyse heuristics for two possible objectives: (1) breeding for maximum diversity and (2) breeding a target individual. These two goals are representative of conservation biology and agricultural livestock management, respectively. We evaluate several mating strategies and provide upper and lower bounds for the expected number of matings. While the population parameters may vary and can change the actual number of matings for a particular strategy, the order of magnitude of the number of expected matings and the relative competitiveness of the mating heuristics remains the same. Thus, our simple discrete model of the animal breeding problem provides a novel viable and robust approach to designing and comparing breeding strategies in captive populations.

  6. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  8. Analysis of genetic diversity among rapeseed cultivars and breeding lines by srap and ssr molecular markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, S.A.; Tian, H.

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity is very important for developing new rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. The genetic diversity among 77 rapeseed accessions, including 22 varieties and 55 advanced breeding lines were analyzed by 47 sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and 56 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. A total of 270 SRAP and 194 SSR polymorphic fragments were detected with an average of 5.74 and 3.46 for SRAP and SSR primer, respectively. The cluster analysis grouped the 77 accessions into five major clusters. Cluster I contained spring and winter type varieties from Czech Republic and semi-winter varieties and their respective breeding lines from China. The 16 elite breeding lines discovered in Cluster II, III, IV and V indicated higher genetic distance than accessions in Cluster I. The principal component analysis and structure analysis exhibited similar results to the cluster analysis. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that genetic diversity of the selected breeding lines was comparable to the rapeseed varieties, and variation among varieties and lines was significant. The diverse and unique group of 16 elite breeding lines detected in this study can be utilized in the future breeding program as a source for development of commercial varieties with more desirable characters. (author)

  9. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  10. Adverse Selection in the Children’s Health Insurance Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Morrisey PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether new enrollees in the Alabama Children’s Health Insurance Program have different claims experience from renewing enrollees who do not have a lapse in coverage and from continuing enrollees. The analysis compared health services utilization in the first month of enrollment for new enrollees (who had not been in the program for at least 12 months with utilization among continuing enrollees. A second analysis compared first-month utilization of those who renew immediately with those who waited at least 2 months to renew. A 2-part model estimated the probability of usage and then the extent of usage conditional on any utilization. Claims data for 826 866 child-years over the period from 1999 to 2012 were used. New enrollees annually constituted a stable 40% share of participants. Among those enrolled in the program, 13.5% renewed on time and 86.5% of enrollees were late to renew their enrollment. In the multivariate 2-part models, controlling for age, gender, race, income eligibility category, and year, new enrollees had overall first-month claims experience that was nearly $29 less than continuing enrollees. This was driven by lower ambulatory use. Late renewals had overall first-month claims experience that was $10 less than immediate renewals. However, controlling for the presence of chronic health conditions, there was no statistically meaningful difference in the first-month claims experience of late and early renewals. Thus, differences in claims experience between new and continuing enrollees and between early and late renewals are small, with greater spending found among continuing and early renewing participants. Higher claims experience by early renewals is attributable to having chronic health conditions.

  11. Establishment of an oocyte donor program. Donor screening and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, M M; Collins, R L; Schover, L R

    1991-01-01

    IVF with donated oocytes, followed by embryo placement in the uterus of a recipient who has been primed with exogenous steroids, is a successful treatment for special cases of infertility. Preliminary results indicate that the success rate in this situation is even greater than that usually seen with normal IVF (with placement of the embryos back into the uteri of the women from whom the oocytes were recovered). Although different sources for donated oocytes have been identified, the use of "excess" oocytes from IVF cycles and the attempted collection of oocytes at the time of otherwise indicated pelvic surgery have ethical and practical problems associated with their use. We have herein described the establishment of a successful program relying on anonymous volunteers who go through ovarian stimulation, monitoring, and oocyte recovery procedures solely to donate oocytes. The potential donors go through an exhaustive screening and education process before they are accepted in the program. Psychological evaluation of our potential donors indicated a great degree of turmoil in their backgrounds and a wide variety of motivations for actually participating. Despite the extensive educational and screening process, a substantial percentage of the donors did not complete a donation cycle, having either voluntarily withdrawn or been dropped because of lack of compliance. Further investigation of the psychological aspects of participating in such a program is certainly warranted. The use of donated oocytes to alleviate specific types of infertility is quite successful, but the application of this treatment is likely to be limited by the relative unavailability of suitable oocyte donors.

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  13. HorTILLUS—A Rich and Renewable Source of Induced Mutations for Forward/Reverse Genetics and Pre-breeding Programs in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Szurman-Zubrzycka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes is a strategy used for functional analysis of genes that combines the classical mutagenesis and a rapid, high-throughput identification of mutations within a gene of interest. TILLING has been initially developed as a discovery platform for functional genomics, but soon it has become a valuable tool in development of desired alleles for crop breeding, alternative to transgenic approach. Here we present the HorTILLUS (Hordeum—TILLING—University of Silesia population created for spring barley cultivar “Sebastian” after double-treatment of seeds with two chemical mutagens: sodium azide (NaN3 and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU. The population comprises more than 9,600 M2 plants from which DNA was isolated, seeds harvested, vacuum-packed, and deposited in seed bank. M3 progeny of 3,481 M2 individuals was grown in the field and phenotyped. The screening for mutations was performed for 32 genes related to different aspects of plant growth and development. For each gene fragment, 3,072–6,912 M2 plants were used for mutation identification using LI-COR sequencer. In total, 382 mutations were found in 182.2 Mb screened. The average mutation density in the HorTILLUS, estimated as 1 mutation per 477 kb, is among the highest mutation densities reported for barley. The majority of mutations were G/C to A/T transitions, however about 8% transversions were also detected. Sixty-one percent of mutations found in coding regions were missense, 37.5% silent and 1.1% nonsense. In each gene, the missense mutations with a potential effect on protein function were identified. The HorTILLUS platform is the largest of the TILLING populations reported for barley and best characterized. The population proved to be a useful tool, both in functional genomic studies and in forward selection of barley mutants with required phenotypic changes. We are constantly renewing the HorTILLUS population, which makes it a

  14. Genetic trends for growth in the Gudali and Wakwa cattle breeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    two-breed synthetic beef breed, the Wakwa, from mating the American Brahman to the local Gudali and ... response to selection in the Gudali and a two-breed synthetic Wakwa beef breeds has been done by Ebangi (1999). .... Clay Center.

  15. Selected topics in research program on the IBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luschikov, V.I.; Pikelner, L.B.; Popov, Yu.P.; Frank, I.M.; Sharapov, E.I.; Yazvitskii, Yu.S.

    1979-01-01

    The physical parameters of the IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor and research programs carried out on the reactor are described. Design values for an instantaneous thermal neutron fluxes are: 10 17 and 10 16 cm -2 s -1 inside and from the surface of the moderator respectively. In combination with the heavy current, short pulse injector (electron induction accelerator LIU-30 being under construction now) it will become a unique neutron source for the time-of-flight investigations in the energy range from 10 -7 to 10 6 eV. The characteristics of the complex IBR-2 + LIU-30 are described. The neutron beams are numbered and their use in the condensed matter and applied research is mentioned. The program for the experiments on the IBR-2 connected with nα, nγ and nf cross section measurements as well as neutron cross section study for few nucleon systems are reported. The prospects for nuclear physics research on the LIU-30 nonmultiplying target facility are outlined using as examples the experiments with polarized neutrons and nuclei and some others. The description is illustrated with the results obtained recently on the IBR-30 operating pulsed reactor

  16. Progress in the evaluation, use in breeding, and genetic analysis of semi-dwarf mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, S.E.; Muir, C.E.; Washington State Univ., Pullman

    1984-01-01

    Breeding for reduced height in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to primarily reduce lodging susceptibility is ongoing in the Washington State University barley breeding program. Two semi-dwarf winter and spring cultivars have been released and a number of advanced lines are being considered for release. Several semi-dwarf sources are utilized, including those from induced mutants in 'Jotun', 'Piroline' and 'Valticky'. In addition, over 200 putative mutants have been selected in the past four years from M 2 sodium azide-treated populations of local cultivars and advanced lines. These are evaluated in the pedigree breeding program and some have been incorporated into male sterile facilitated recurrent selection populations developed for reduced height. The inheritance of dwarfism in one mutant in the cultivar 'Advance' was determined to be controlled by a single recessive gene. (author)

  17. Selection on Optimal Haploid Value Increases Genetic Gain and Preserves More Genetic Diversity Relative to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Hayden, Matthew J; Spangenberg, German C; Hayes, Ben J

    2015-08-01

    Doubled haploids are routinely created and phenotypically selected in plant breeding programs to accelerate the breeding cycle. Genomic selection, which makes use of both phenotypes and genotypes, has been shown to further improve genetic gain through prediction of performance before or without phenotypic characterization of novel germplasm. Additional opportunities exist to combine genomic prediction methods with the creation of doubled haploids. Here we propose an extension to genomic selection, optimal haploid value (OHV) selection, which predicts the best doubled haploid that can be produced from a segregating plant. This method focuses selection on the haplotype and optimizes the breeding program toward its end goal of generating an elite fixed line. We rigorously tested OHV selection breeding programs, using computer simulation, and show that it results in up to 0.6 standard deviations more genetic gain than genomic selection. At the same time, OHV selection preserved a substantially greater amount of genetic diversity in the population than genomic selection, which is important to achieve long-term genetic gain in breeding populations. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Application of Genomic Technologies to the Breeding of Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Maria L; Fernández I Martí, Angel; Ríos, Gabino; Rubio-Cabetas, María J

    2016-01-01

    The recent introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies represents a major revolution in providing new tools for identifying the genes and/or genomic intervals controlling important traits for selection in breeding programs. In perennial fruit trees with long generation times and large sizes of adult plants, the impact of these techniques is even more important. High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have provided complete annotated sequences in many important tree species. Most of the high-throughput genotyping platforms described are being used for studies of genetic diversity and population structure. Dissection of complex traits became possible through the availability of genome sequences along with phenotypic variation data, which allow to elucidate the causative genetic differences that give rise to observed phenotypic variation. Association mapping facilitates the association between genetic markers and phenotype in unstructured and complex populations, identifying molecular markers for assisted selection and breeding. Also, genomic data provide in silico identification and characterization of genes and gene families related to important traits, enabling new tools for molecular marker assisted selection in tree breeding. Deep sequencing of transcriptomes is also a powerful tool for the analysis of precise expression levels of each gene in a sample. It consists in quantifying short cDNA reads, obtained by NGS technologies, in order to compare the entire transcriptomes between genotypes and environmental conditions. The miRNAs are non-coding short RNAs involved in the regulation of different physiological processes, which can be identified by high-throughput sequencing of RNA libraries obtained by reverse transcription of purified short RNAs, and by in silico comparison with known miRNAs from other species. All together, NGS techniques and their applications have increased the resources for plant breeding in tree species, closing the

  19. Intercalibration of selected anthropogenic radionuclides for the GEOTRACES Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenna, Timothy C.; Masqué, Pere; Mas, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    As part of the GEOTRACES Program, six laboratories participated in an intercalibration exercise on several anthropogenic radionuclides of interest. The effort was successful for 239,240Pu activity, 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio, and 137Cs activity measured in filtered seawater samples from the Bermuda...... Atlantic Time Series station (BATS) and a site on the continental slope of the Northeastern U.S. A limited number of analyses were reported for 237Np, 241Am, 90Sr, and 238Pu in filtered seawater. Intercalibration of any of the isotopes of interest in filtered particulate matter was unsuccessful due...... to insufficient size of the samples distributed. Methods used were based on traditional radio-counting techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Although the majority of analyses were performed on samples ≥ 60 L, one lab demonstrated the ability to analyze several of the anthropogenic...

  20. Selecting Television Programs for Language Learning: Investigating Television Programs from the Same Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal…