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Sample records for selection effects due

  1. SpArcFiRe: morphological selection effects due to reduced visibility of tightly winding arms in distant spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tianrui Rae; Edward English, John; Silva, Pedro; Davis, Darren R.; Hayes, Wayne B.

    2018-03-01

    The Galaxy Zoo project has provided a plethora of valuable morphological data on a large number of galaxies from various surveys, and their team have identified and/or corrected for many biases. Here we study a new bias related to spiral arm pitch angles, which first requires selecting a sample of spiral galaxies that show observable structure. One obvious way is to select galaxies using a threshold in spirality, which we define as the fraction of Galaxy Zoo humans who have reported seeing spiral structure. Using such a threshold, we use the automated tool SpArcFiRe (SPiral ARC FInder and REporter) to measure spiral arm pitch angles. We observe that the mean pitch angle of spiral arms increases linearly with redshift for 0.05 data to provide a spirality for each artificially degraded image. We find that SpARcFiRe's ability to accurately measure pitch angles decreases as the image degrades, but that spirality decreases more quickly in galaxies with tightly wound arms, leading to the selection effect. This new bias means one must be careful in selecting a sample on which to measure spiral structure. Finally, we also include a sensitivity analysis of SpArcFiRe's internal parameters.

  2. Is the male marriage premium due to selection? The effect of shotgun weddings on the return to marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Ginther, Donna; Zavodny, Madeline

    1998-01-01

    In standard cross-sectional wage regressions, married men appear to earn 10 to 20 percent more than comparable never-married men. One proposed explanation for this male marriage premium is that men may be selected into marriage on the basis of characteristics valued by employers as well as by spouses or because they earn high wages. This paper examines the selection hypothesis using a "natural experiment" that may make marital status uncorrelated with earnings ability for some men. We compare...

  3. MODELS SELECTED FOR CALCULATION OF DOSES, HEALTH EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC COSTS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D L; Baker, D A; Droppo, J G; McPherson, R B; Napier, B A; Nieves, L A; Soldat, J K

    1980-05-01

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year.

  4. Failure to thrive and life-threatening complications due to inherited selective cobalamin malabsorption effectively managed in a juvenile Australian shepherd dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ashley J.; Scott, Michael A.; Fyfe, John C.

    2015-01-01

    A juvenile Australian shepherd dog exhibited failure to grow, inappetence, weakness, nonregenerative anemia, neutropenia, and cobalamin deficiency. DNA testing confirmed homozygosity of an amnionless mutation (AMN c.3G > A). Clinical signs resolved with supportive care and parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Inherited selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption requiring lifelong parenteral supplementation should be considered in Australian shepherds, giant schnauzers, border collies, and beagles that fail to thrive. PMID:26483576

  5. Models selected for calculation of doses, health effects and economic costs due to accidental radionuclide releases from nuclear power plants. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Acharya, S.; Baker, D.A.; Droppo, J.G.; McPherson, R.B.

    1980-05-01

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters, and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year. Several remedial actions are considered

  6. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  7. A comparison of due-date selection rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, K.R.; Bertrand, J.W.M.

    1981-01-01

    In sequencing and scheduling models it is usually assumed that due dates represent exogeneous information. In many practical settings, however, due dates can be discretionary, or at least negotiable. Relatively few studies have incorporated discretionary due dates, and even then the rules proposed

  8. Swarming and pattern formation due to selective attraction and repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanczuk, Pawel; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2012-12-06

    We discuss the collective dynamics of self-propelled particles with selective attraction and repulsion interactions. Each particle, or individual, may respond differently to its neighbours depending on the sign of their relative velocity. Thus, it is able to distinguish approaching (coming closer) and retreating (moving away) individuals. This differentiation of the social response is motivated by the response to looming visual stimuli and may be seen as a generalization of the previously proposed escape and pursuit interactions motivated by empirical evidence for cannibalism as a driving force of collective migration in locusts and Mormon crickets. The model can account for different types of behaviour such as pure attraction, pure repulsion or escape and pursuit, depending on the values (signs) of the different response strengths. It provides, in the light of recent experimental results, an interesting alternative to previously proposed models of collective motion with an explicit velocity-alignment interaction. We discuss the derivation of a coarse-grained description of the system dynamics, which allows us to derive analytically the necessary condition for emergence of collective motion. Furthermore, we analyse systematically the onset of collective motion and clustering in numerical simulations of the model for varying interaction strengths. We show that collective motion arises only in a subregion of the parameter space, which is consistent with the analytical prediction and corresponds to an effective escape and/or pursuit response.

  9. Selective modulation of nociceptive processing due to noise distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Yvonne; El-Deredy, Wael; Martínez Montes, Eduardo; Bentley, Deborah E; Jones, Anthony K P

    2008-09-15

    This study investigates the effects of noise distraction on the different components and sources of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) whilst attending to either the spatial component (localisation performance task) or the affective component (unpleasantness rating task) of pain. LEPs elicited by CO2 laser stimulation of the right forearm were recorded from 64 electrodes in 18 consenting healthy volunteers. Subjects reported either pain location or unpleasantness, in the presence and absence of distraction by continuous 85 dBa white noise. Distributed sources of the LEP peaks were identified using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Pain unpleasantness ratings and P2 (430 ms) peak amplitude were significantly reduced by distraction during the unpleasantness task, whereas the localisation ability and the corresponding N1/N2 (310 ms) peak amplitude remained unchanged. Noise distraction (at 310 ms) reduced activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and precuneus during attention to localisation and unpleasantness, respectively. This suggests a complimentary role for these two areas in the control of attention to pain. In contrast, activation of the occipital pole and SII were enhanced by noise during the localisation and unpleasantness task, respectively, suggesting that the presence of noise was associated with increased spatial attentional load. This study has shown selective modulation of affective pain processing by noise distraction, indicated by a reduction in the unpleasantness ratings and P2 peak amplitude and associated activity within the medial pain system. These results show that processing of the affective component of pain can be differentially modulated by top-down processes, providing a potential mechanism for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  11. Fibrinogen Reduction During Selective Plasma Exchange due to Membrane Fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Okado, Tomokazu; Miyamoto, Satoko; Hashimoto, Yurie; Komori, Shigeto; Yamamoto, Motoki; Maeda, Takuma; Itagaki, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Seshima, Hiroshi; Kurashima, Naoki; Iimori, Soichiro; Naito, Shotaro; Sohara, Eisei; Uchida, Shinichi; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2017-06-01

    Fibrinogen is substantially reduced by most plasmapheresis modalities but retained in selective plasma exchange using Evacure EC-4A10 (EC-4A). Although EC-4A's fibrinogen sieving coefficient is 0, a session of selective plasma exchange reduced fibrinogen by approximately 19%. Here, we investigated sieving coefficient in five patients. When the mean processed plasma volume was 1.15 × plasma volume, the mean reduction of fibrinogen during selective plasma exchange was approximately 15%. Fibrinogen sieving coefficient was 0 when the processed plasma volume was 1.0 L, increasing to 0.07 when the processed plasma volume was 3.0 L, with a mean of 0.03 during selective plasma exchange. When fibrinogen sieving coefficient was 0, selective plasma exchange reduced fibrinogen by approximately 10%. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed internal fouling of EC-4A's hollow fiber membrane by substances such as fibrinogen fibrils. Thus, fibrinogen reduction by selective plasma exchange may be predominantly caused by membrane fouling rather than filtration. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  12. Safety at work due to staff qualification and selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, W.

    1980-01-01

    An outline of basic requirements enabling the selection of employees for responsible staff in nuclear power stations. Illustrated further by the example of a model development from skilled worker to head of shift. A short reference will be made to the maintenance of high standards of training. (orig.) [de

  13. Swarming and Pattern Formation due to Selective Attraction and Repulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Romanczuk, Pawel; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the collective dynamics of self-propelled particles with selective attraction and repulsion interactions. Each particle, or individual, may respond differently to its neighbours depending on the sign of their relative velocity. Thus, it is able to distinguish approaching (coming closer) and retreating (moving away) individuals. This differentiation of the social response is motivated by the response to looming visual stimuli and may be seen as a generalization of the previously pro...

  14. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME PARAMETRIC EFFECTS DUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    relationship. (b). The downward recursion of the logarithmic derivative is done in two steps to avoid having to store functions for c nn. > . These higher index functions are not used in subsequent calculations. (c). The scattering coefficient calculation obtains n b and n a from (23) depending on which polarization is selected.

  15. Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons - Climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.

  16. Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R&D Energy Recovery Linac.

  17. Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R and D Energy Recovery Linac.

  18. Can selection explain the protective effects of farming on asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijnand Eduard

    2015-09-01

    No healthy worker selection into farming was observed and changes in asthma prevalence due to early retirement were small. Selection effects are therefore unlikely to explain the protective effects of farming on asthma.

  19. Allele frequency changes due to hitch-hiking in genomic selection programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huiming; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Meuwissen, Theo H E

    2014-01-01

    of inbreeding due to changes in allele frequencies and hitch-hiking. This study aimed at understanding the impact of using long-term genomic selection on changes in allele frequencies, genetic variation and the level of inbreeding. Methods Selection was performed in simulated scenarios with a population of 400......-BLUP, Genomic BLUP and Bayesian Lasso. Changes in allele frequencies at QTL, markers and linked neutral loci were investigated for the different selection criteria and different scenarios, along with the loss of favourable alleles and the rate of inbreeding measured by pedigree and runs of homozygosity. Results...

  20. Radiation dose estimates due to air particulate emissions from selected phosphate industry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.E.; Horton, T.R.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Boysen, G.A.

    1978-06-01

    The EPA Office of Radiation Programs has conducted a series of studies to determine the radiological impact of the phosphate mining and milling industry. This report describes the efforts to estimate the radiation doses due to airborne emissions of particulates from selected phosphate milling operations in Florida. Two wet process phosphoric acid plants and one ore drying facility were selected for this study. The 1976 Annual Operations/Emissions Report, submitted by each facility to the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, and a field survey trip by EPA personnel to each facility were used to develop data for dose calculations. The field survey trip included sampling for stack emissions and ambient air samples collected in the general vicinity of each plant. Population and individual radiation dose estimates are made based on these sources of data

  1. Selective muscle fiber loss and molecular compensation in mitochondrial myopathy due to TK2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Maya R; Villarroya, Joan; García-Arumí, Elena; Castellote, Amparo; Meseguer, Anna; Hirano, Michio; Roig, Manuel

    2008-04-15

    A 12-year-old patient with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome due to TK2 gene mutations has been evaluated serially over the last 10 years. We observed progressive muscle atrophy with selective loss of type 2 muscle fibers and, despite severe depletion of mtDNA, normal activities of respiratory chain (RC) complexes and levels of COX II mitochondrial protein in the remaining muscle fibers. These results indicate that compensatory mechanisms account for the slow progression of the disease. Identification of factors that ameliorate mtDNA depletion may reveal new therapeutic targets for these devastating disorders.

  2. Change in genetic correlation due to selection using animal model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandén, I; Mäntysaari, E A; Mäki-Tanila, A

    1993-01-12

    Monte Carlo simulation and analytical calculations were used to study the effect of selection on genetic correlation between two traits. The simulated breeding program was based on a closed adult multiple ovulation and embryo transfer nucleus breeding scheme. Selection was on an index calculated using multi-trait animal model (AM). Analytical formulae applicable to any evaluation method were derived to predict change in genetic (co)variance due to selection under multi-trait selection using different evaluation methods. Two formulae were investigated, one assuming phenotypic selection and the other based on a recursive two-generation AM selection index. The recursive AM method approximated information due to relatives by a relationship matrix of two generations. Genetic correlation after selection was compared under different levels of initial genetic and environmental correlations with two different selection criteria. Changes in genetic correlation were similar in simulation and analytical predictions. After one round of selection the recursive AM method and the simulation gave similar predictions while the phenotypic selection predicted usually more change in genetic correlation. After several rounds of selection both analytical formulae predicted more change in genetic correlation than the simulation. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Änderung der genetischen Korrelation bei Selektion mit einem Tiermodell Der Selektionseffekt auf die genetische Korrelation zwischen zwei Merkmalen wurde mit Hilfe von Monte Carlo-Simulation und analytischen Berechnungen untersucht. Ein geschlossener Adulter - MOET (Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer) Zuchtplan wurde simuliert. Die Selektion gründete sich auf einen Index, der die Zuchtwertschätzung des Mehrmerkmals-Tiermodells benutzte. Analytische Formeln für die Voraussage der Änderung der genetischen (Ko)varianz unter multivariate Selektion für verschiedene Zuchtwertschätzungsmethode wurden deduziert. Zwei Formeln wurden studiert

  3. Numerical simulation of baseflow modification due to effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical simulation of baseflow modification due to effects of sediment yield. ... Physically-based mathematical modelling affords the opportunity to look at this kind of interaction, which should be simulated by deterministic responses of both water and fluvial processes. In addition to simulating the streamflow and ...

  4. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  5. Lactate as an insidious metabolite due to the Warburg effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, Raymond; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Although oncogenetics remains a critical component of cancer biology and therapeutic research, recent interest has been taken towards the non-genetic features of tumour development and progression, such as cancer metabolism. Specifically, it has been observed that tumour cells are inclined to preferentially undergo glycolysis despite presence of adequate oxygen. First reported by Otto Warburg in the 1920s, and now termed the 'Warburg effect', this aberrant metabolism has become of particular interest due to the prevalence of the fermentation phenotype in a variety of cancers studied. Consequently, this phenotype has proven to play a pivotal role in cancer proliferation. As such Warburg's observations are now being integrated within the modern paradigms of cancer and in this review we explore the role of lactate as an insidious metabolite due to the Warburg effect.

  6. Optical nonlinearity due to thermomechanical effect in the planar and homeotropic nematic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursamad, J.B. [Physics & Optic Engineering Group, University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Phirouznia, A. [Department of Physics, Azerbaijan ShahidMadani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahrai, M. [Research Institue for Applied Physics and Astronomy, Univerity of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    Possibility of observing third thermomechanical (TM) effect in uniform nematic liquid crystals (NLC) with proper selection of boundary conditions on the cell walls is theoretically studied. Absorption of a light wave induces the needed temperature gradient for the TM effect. The molecular director reorientation due to third TM effect and the induced phase shift on the probe beam are calculated. The forth TM coefficient can be measured directly by the method proposed in this work.

  7. Field enhancement due to anomalous skin effect inside a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, G.; Tan, W.

    1996-01-01

    A new method based on Fourier transformation to study the skin effects is presented. Using this method, the field amplitude in plasma is represented in terms of electric conductivity, and the normal and anomalous skin effects are described through one formula by omitting the plasma dispersion or not. The results are in agreement with other publications [e.g., J. P. Matte and K. Aguenaou, Phys. Rev. A 45, 2558 (1992)] for equivalent parameters. But for deeper positions inside a target, which have not been studied by others, it is found that the field amplitude is considerably enhanced due to an anomalous skin effect, even for constant collision frequency. In addition, the skin absorptions and some calculations on an anomalous skin effect for different collision frequencies are also presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Selection effects in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.J.; Gennip, van Yves; Hochs, P.; Nuyens, M.; Palla, L.; Quant, C.; Trapman, P.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic

  9. Fisher's fundamental theorem of inclusive fitness and the change in fitness due to natural selection when conspecifics interact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, P.

    2010-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is fundamental to evolution by natural selection, both in animals and plants. Here, I investigate the consequences of such interactions for response in fitness due to natural selection. I provide quantitative genetic expressions for heritable variance and response in

  10. Effects on vegetable seeds due to non ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acri, G.; Oliva, A.; Falcone, G. [Universita della Calabria, Dipt. di Fisica, Cosenza (Italy); Acri, G.; Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G. [Universita della Calabria, Dipt. di Ecologia, Cosenza (Italy); Bitonti, M.B.; Chiappetta, A. [Universita di Messina, Dipt. di Protezionistica Ambientale, Sanitaria, Sociale ed Industriale, Messina (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Based on the tightly relationship between light and plants growth and development, the present work aims to obtain some further insight into the effects of non ionizing radiation the photo-autotrophic organisms, due to the relevant implications for both scientific knowledge and economical and social effects. In this context, a set of experiments was conducted to investigate the influence of a long-lasting exposition to both RF at 1850 MHz and polarized light source on roots elongation of corn kernels. The radical apparatus was chosen as a sensible parameter and the elongation of the roots was monitored as a function of time. Mitotic index and length of meta-xylem cells were estimated in root apex as an index of cell proliferation and cell expansion activity, respectively. (N.C.)

  11. Effects on vegetable seeds due to non ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acri, G.; Oliva, A.; Falcone, G.; Acri, G.; Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G.; Bitonti, M.B.; Chiappetta, A.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the tightly relationship between light and plants growth and development, the present work aims to obtain some further insight into the effects of non ionizing radiation the photo-autotrophic organisms, due to the relevant implications for both scientific knowledge and economical and social effects. In this context, a set of experiments was conducted to investigate the influence of a long-lasting exposition to both RF at 1850 MHz and polarized light source on roots elongation of corn kernels. The radical apparatus was chosen as a sensible parameter and the elongation of the roots was monitored as a function of time. Mitotic index and length of meta-xylem cells were estimated in root apex as an index of cell proliferation and cell expansion activity, respectively. (N.C.)

  12. Tsunamis effects at coastal sites due to offshore faulting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloh, T.; Striem, H.L.

    1976-07-01

    Unusual waves (tsunamis) triggered by submarine tectonic activity such as a fault displacement in the sea bottom may have considerable effect on a coastal site. The possiblity of such phenomena to occur at the southern coast of Israel due to a series of shore-parallel faults, about twenty kilometers offshore, is examined in this paper. The analysis relates the energy or the momentum imparted to the body of water due to a fault displacement of the sea bottom to the energy or the momentum of he water waves thus created. The faults off the Ashdod coast may cause surface waves with amplitudes of about five metres and periods of about one third of an hour. It is also considered that because of the downward movement of the faulted blocks a recession of the sea level rather than a flooding would be the first and the predominant effect at the shore, and this is in agreement with some historical reports. The analysis here presented might be of interest to those designing coastal power plants. (author)

  13. Readmissions for Selected Infections Due to Medical Care: Expanding the Definition of a Patient Safety Indicator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Brian; Cen, Liyi; Hannan, Edward L

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Patient Safety Indicator that identifies patients with selected infections that result from medical care during hospital inpatient treatment...

  14. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

    2000-11-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

  15. Guidelines for Effective Selective Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Joel D.; Shields, Joyce L.

    Defining selective listening as an intelligence gathering technique that depends on an individual's ability to access, monitor, and report oral messages accurately and to give processing priority to messages of possible intelligence value, this report describes one important application of the technique: overhearing the conversations of others…

  16. SUPPRESSION OF DIELECTRONIC RECOMBINATION DUE TO FINITE DENSITY EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolić, D.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Korista, K. T.; Ferland, G. J.; Badnell, N. R.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a general model for determining density-dependent effective dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients in order to explore finite-density effects on the ionization balance of plasmas. Our model consists of multiplying by a suppression factor those highly-accurate total zero-density DR rate coefficients which have been produced from state-of-the-art theoretical calculations and which have been benchmarked by experiment. The suppression factor is based upon earlier detailed collision-radiative calculations which were made for a wide range of ions at various densities and temperatures, but used a simplified treatment of DR. A general suppression formula is then developed as a function of isoelectronic sequence, charge, density, and temperature. These density-dependent effective DR rate coefficients are then used in the plasma simulation code Cloudy to compute ionization balance curves for both collisionally ionized and photoionized plasmas at very low (n e = 1 cm –3 ) and finite (n e = 10 10 cm –3 ) densities. We find that the denser case is significantly more ionized due to suppression of DR, warranting further studies of density effects on DR by detailed collisional-radiative calculations which utilize state-of-the-art partial DR rate coefficients. This is expected to impact the predictions of the ionization balance in denser cosmic gases such as those found in nova and supernova shells, accretion disks, and the broad emission line regions in active galactic nuclei.

  17. Radiochemical separation and effective dose estimation due to ingestion of 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Z.; Vidic, A.; Deljkic, D.; Sirko, D.; Zovko, E.; Samek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2007. Institute for Public Health of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina-Radiation Protection Centre, within the framework of monitoring of radioactivity of environment carried out measurement of specific activity of 90 Sr content in selected food and water samples. The paper described the methods of measurement and radiochemical separation. Presented results, as average values of specific activity of 90 Sr, were used for estimation of effective dose due to ingestion of 90 Sr for 2007. and 2008. Estimated effective dose for 2007. due to ingestion of 90 Sr for adults was 1,36 μSv and 2,03 μSv for children (10 year old), and for 2008. 0,67 μSv (adults) and 1,01 μSv (children 10 year old). Estimated effective doses for 2007. and 2008. are varied because of different average specific activity radionuclide 90 Sr in selected samples of food, their number, species and origin. (author) [sr

  18. Selection dramatically reduces effective population size in HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittler John E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In HIV-1 evolution, a 100–100,000 fold discrepancy between census size and effective population size (Ne has been noted. Although it is well known that selection can reduce Ne, high in vivo mutation and recombination rates complicate attempts to quantify the effects of selection on HIV-1 effective size. Results We use the inbreeding coefficient and the variance in allele frequency at a linked neutral locus to estimate the reduction in Ne due to selection in the presence of mutation and recombination. With biologically realistic mutation rates, the reduction in Ne due to selection is determined by the strength of selection, i.e., the stronger the selection, the greater the reduction. However, the dependence of Ne on selection can break down if recombination rates are very high (e.g., r ≥ 0.1. With biologically likely recombination rates, our model suggests that recurrent selective sweeps similar to those observed in vivo can reduce within-host HIV-1 effective population sizes by a factor of 300 or more. Conclusion Although other factors, such as unequal viral reproduction rates and limited migration between tissue compartments contribute to reductions in Ne, our model suggests that recurrent selection plays a significant role in reducing HIV-1 effective population sizes in vivo.

  19. Disfluency effects on lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medimorec, Srdan; Young, Torin P; Risko, Evan F

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that introducing a disfluency in the context of written composition (i.e., typing with one hand) can increase lexical sophistication. In the current study, we provide a strong test between two accounts of this phenomenon, one that attributes it to the delay caused by the disfluency and one that attributes it to the disruption of typical finger-to-letter mappings caused by the disfluency. To test between these accounts, we slowed down participants' typewriting by introducing a small delay between keystrokes while individuals wrote essays. Critically, this manipulation did not disrupt typical finger-to-letter mappings. Consistent with the delay-based account, our results demonstrate that the essays written in this less fluent condition were more lexically diverse and used less frequent words. Implications for the temporal dynamics of lexical selection in complex cognitive tasks are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Artificial Selection Response due to Polygenic Adaptation from a Multilocus, Multiallelic Genetic Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Yanjun; Sheng, Zheya; Lillie, Mette; Rönnegård, Lars; Honaker, Christa F; Siegel, Paul B; Carlborg, Örjan

    2017-10-01

    The ability of a population to adapt to changes in their living conditions, whether in nature or captivity, often depends on polymorphisms in multiple genes across the genome. In-depth studies of such polygenic adaptations are difficult in natural populations, but can be approached using the resources provided by artificial selection experiments. Here, we dissect the genetic mechanisms involved in long-term selection responses of the Virginia chicken lines, populations that after 40 generations of divergent selection for 56-day body weight display a 9-fold difference in the selected trait. In the F15 generation of an intercross between the divergent lines, 20 loci explained >60% of the additive genetic variance for the selected trait. We focused particularly on fine-mapping seven major QTL that replicated in this population and found that only two fine-mapped to single, bi-allelic loci; the other five contained linked loci, multiple alleles or were epistatic. This detailed dissection of the polygenic adaptations in the Virginia lines provides a deeper understanding of the range of different genome-wide mechanisms that have been involved in these long-term selection responses. The results illustrate that the genetic architecture of a highly polygenic trait can involve a broad range of genetic mechanisms, and that this can be the case even in a small population bred from founders with limited genetic diversity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Investigation of Triplet Exciplex Dynamics by Magnetic Field Effects due to the Triplet Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, T.; Steiner, Ulrich; Föll, Rudolf E.

    1983-01-01

    A reaction scheme is described allowing for magnetic field effects on the chemical kinetics of triplet reactions due to the selective decay of triplet sublevels. The theoretical treatment of this scheme is outlined on the basis of a stochastic Liouville equation, taking into account the rotational diffusion of molecules in liquid solution. Whereas the exact solution of the general case is obtained by a numerical procedure as described by Pedersen and Freed, an approximate analytical expressio...

  2. Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron

  3. Selective mobility, segregation and neighbourhood effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Boschman

    2015-11-01

    central finding of this thesis is that there is non-random selection of people into neighbourhoods. Individual characteristics such as ethnicity, tenure, household type and income affect residential satisfaction, mobility preferences and behaviour and neighbourhood selection. Because of this non-random selection into neighbourhoods, a correlation found between neighbourhood characteristics and individual outcomes does not prove the existence of a neighbourhood effect. In this thesis I distinguish separate ethnic minority groups which allows me to decompose the causes of ethnic selective mobility. Both ethnic minorities and natives are less satisfied in neighbourhoods with higher shares of (other ethnic minorities, however, ethnic minorities are more satisfied if the share of their own ethnic group in the neighbourhood is higher. Ethnic minorities thus prefer to live among their own ethnic group or close to ethnic specific facilities and these own group effects are found to partly explain why ethnic minorities more often than natives move to minority concentration neighbourhoods. However, not only preferences but also constraints due to housing market characteristics or discrimination cause ethnic minorities to move to ethnic minority concentration neighbourhoods. In addition, ethnic minorities are found to be less successful in realising their desires to leave their neighbourhood. Ethnic residential segregation is thus partly voluntary and partly involuntary.  Besides ethnic selectivity, I also found selectivity in the residential mobility process with regard to household type, tenure and income. Residential mobility is selective with regard to income because higher income households are more successful than lower income households in realising residential preferences, not necessarily because their preferences are different. Household type and tenure are found to affect both residential preferences and the ability to realise these preferences.  Neighbourhood effects can

  4. Selective mutism due to a dog bite trauma in a 4-year-old girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyfantakis Dimitrios

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A child experiencing an event of threatening or catastrophic nature may experience considerable post-traumatic psychological distress. Dog bites present an important public health problem and are a frequent cause of physical trauma in children. Physicians who manage paediatric trauma may not be vigilant of the high risk of psychological stress in children exposed to a physical injury. Case presentation A 4-year-old white girl of Greek origin, with a dog-bite related trauma was admitted to the University Hospital of Crete, Greece, for surgical repair and intravenous antibiotic therapy due to extensive lesions. Exposure to the traumatic event triggered the onset of an unusual psychological response, selective mutism and acute post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusion There is limited literature discussing the psychological effect of dog bites in children. Parents and physicians involved in pediatric physical trauma need to be more familiar with post-traumatic behavioral reactions. Awareness of the potential development of such reactions may result in early detection and effective management of children at risk.

  5. Selective mutism due to a dog bite trauma in a 4-year-old girl: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction A child experiencing an event of threatening or catastrophic nature may experience considerable post-traumatic psychological distress. Dog bites present an important public health problem and are a frequent cause of physical trauma in children. Physicians who manage paediatric trauma may not be vigilant of the high risk of psychological stress in children exposed to a physical injury. Case presentation A 4-year-old white girl of Greek origin, with a dog-bite related trauma was admitted to the University Hospital of Crete, Greece, for surgical repair and intravenous antibiotic therapy due to extensive lesions. Exposure to the traumatic event triggered the onset of an unusual psychological response, selective mutism and acute post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusion There is limited literature discussing the psychological effect of dog bites in children. Parents and physicians involved in pediatric physical trauma need to be more familiar with post-traumatic behavioral reactions. Awareness of the potential development of such reactions may result in early detection and effective management of children at risk. PMID:19946578

  6. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma ... pling of self-generated magnetic field with the laser wave field. This is ... To describe fully ionized plasma where the interac-.

  7. Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Choi, Seongsoo; Holm, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The role of education in the process of socioeconomic attainment is a topic of long standing interest to sociologists and economists. Recently there has been growing interest not only in estimating the average causal effect of education on outcomes such as earnings, but also in estimating how...... causal effects might vary over individuals or groups. In this paper we point out one of the under-appreciated hazards of seeking to estimate heterogeneous causal effects: conventional selection bias (that is, selection on baseline differences) can easily be mistaken for heterogeneity of causal effects....... This might lead us to find heterogeneous effects when the true effect is homogenous, or to wrongly estimate not only the magnitude but also the sign of heterogeneous effects. We apply a test for the robustness of heterogeneous causal effects in the face of varying degrees and patterns of selection bias...

  8. KTP laser selective vaporization of the prostate in the management of urinary retention due to BPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, M. W.; Nseyo, Unyime O.

    2003-06-01

    High-powered photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) is a relatively new addition in the armamentarium against bladder outlet obstruction due to BPH. With BPH, the prostate undergoes stromal and epithelial hyperplasia, particularly in the transitional zone, mediated by dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This periurethral enlargement can compress the prostatic urethra leading to bladder outlet obstruction and eventually urinary retention. Treatment of uncomplicated symptomatic BPH has evolved from the standard transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to multiple medical therapies and the putative minimally invasive surgical procedures. These include microwave ablation, needle ablation, balloon dilation, stents, as well as fluid based thermo-therapy, ultrasound therapy and cryotherapy. Different forms of lasers have been applied to treat BPH with variable short and long term benefits of urinary symptoms. However, the controversy remains about each laser regarding its technical applicability and efficacy.

  9. Non-additive Effects in Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Varona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, genomic selection has become a standard in the genetic evaluation of livestock populations. However, most procedures for the implementation of genomic selection only consider the additive effects associated with SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers used to calculate the prediction of the breeding values of candidates for selection. Nevertheless, the availability of estimates of non-additive effects is of interest because: (i they contribute to an increase in the accuracy of the prediction of breeding values and the genetic response; (ii they allow the definition of mate allocation procedures between candidates for selection; and (iii they can be used to enhance non-additive genetic variation through the definition of appropriate crossbreeding or purebred breeding schemes. This study presents a review of methods for the incorporation of non-additive genetic effects into genomic selection procedures and their potential applications in the prediction of future performance, mate allocation, crossbreeding, and purebred selection. The work concludes with a brief outline of some ideas for future lines of that may help the standard inclusion of non-additive effects in genomic selection.

  10. The selective value of computed tomography of the brain in Cerebritis due to systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylis, N.B.; Altman, R.D.; Ostrov, S.; Quencer, R.

    1982-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and steroid effects on the brain were measured by computed tomography (CT). Of 14 patients with SLE cerebritis, 10 (71%) had marked cortical atrophy and 4 (29%) minimal atrophy. None were normal by CT. Controls included 22 patients with SLE without cerebritis receiving cortiocosteroids; this group had normal CT scans in 16 (73%) and minimal cortical atrophy in the remaining 6 (27%). Follow-up CT on 5 patients with cerebritis was unchanged. CT of the brain is a minimally invasive technique for documenting SLE cerebritis. CT may also help differentiate cerebritis from the neuropsychiatric side effects of corticosteroids

  11. Near-Field Spectral Effects due to Electromagnetic Surface Excitations

    OpenAIRE

    Shchegrov , Andrei ,; Joulain , Karl; Carminati , Rémi; Greffet , Jean-Jacques

    2000-01-01

    International audience; We demonstrate theoretically that the spectra of electromagnetic emission of surface systems can display remarkable differences in the near and the far zones. The spectral changes occur due to the loss of evanescent modes and are especially pronounced for systems which support surface waves. PACS numbers: 78.20. – e, 05.40. – a, 44.40. + a, 87.64.Xx Spectroscopy of electromagnetic radiation is perhaps the most powerful exploration tool employed in natural sciences: ast...

  12. Activity concentration and AACED due to 40K in some selected medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, K.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The activity concentrations in soil and medicinal plants, soil to plant transfer factors (TF), and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose (AACED) of 40 K in prominent medicinal plants of Malnad Kerala were estimated. The range of activity concentrations were 144.15 - 558.99 and 405.87 - 2990.75 Bq kg -1 in soil and medicinal plants respectively. The TF was found to vary from 2.34 to 14.84, whereas AACED varied in the range 2.51 - 18.54 mSv y -1 . The study may help to form the database and safety regulations connected with 40 K activity in medicinal plants. (author)

  13. Bias due to selective dichotomization of multilevel exposure classes in risk analysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    General equations are developed for odds and risk ratio calculation in risk analysis studies with multiple exposure metrics, specifically for the four-level Wertheimer-Leeper (WL) code used in electromagnetic field (EMF) health studies. For an m-level code there are m-1 ways of categorizing subjects as exposed or unexposed: this dichotomization may be biased to maximize (or minimize) the risk parameter. This result is illustrated using Monte-Carlo simulation of health data. Results vary depending on the dichotomy used: indications of increased risk, decreased risk, window effects and inverse window effects are obtained, reflecting the range of conflicting results found in present-day EMF research. These results stress the need for care in the presentation and interpretation of health data in risk studies, especially where the exposure classification system is arbitrarily modifiable. This indication is especially urgent in the EMF field in view of recent proposals to base new epidemiological studies on subjectively modified WL codes. 8 refs., 7 tabs

  14. Selection bias in population-based cancer case-control studies due to incomplete sampling frame coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew C; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E; Nieto, F Javier; Newcomb, Polly A; Palta, Mari

    2012-06-01

    Increasing numbers of individuals are choosing to opt out of population-based sampling frames due to privacy concerns. This is especially a problem in the selection of controls for case-control studies, as the cases often arise from relatively complete population-based registries, whereas control selection requires a sampling frame. If opt out is also related to risk factors, bias can arise. We linked breast cancer cases who reported having a valid driver's license from the 2004-2008 Wisconsin women's health study (N = 2,988) with a master list of licensed drivers from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WDOT). This master list excludes Wisconsin drivers that requested their information not be sold by the state. Multivariate-adjusted selection probability ratios (SPR) were calculated to estimate potential bias when using this driver's license sampling frame to select controls. A total of 962 cases (32%) had opted out of the WDOT sampling frame. Cases age <40 (SPR = 0.90), income either unreported (SPR = 0.89) or greater than $50,000 (SPR = 0.94), lower parity (SPR = 0.96 per one-child decrease), and hormone use (SPR = 0.93) were significantly less likely to be covered by the WDOT sampling frame (α = 0.05 level). Our results indicate the potential for selection bias due to differential opt out between various demographic and behavioral subgroups of controls. As selection bias may differ by exposure and study base, the assessment of potential bias needs to be ongoing. SPRs can be used to predict the direction of bias when cases and controls stem from different sampling frames in population-based case-control studies.

  15. Modification of the isotope effect due to pair breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbotte, J.P.; Greeson, M.; Perez-Gonzalez, A.

    1991-01-01

    We have calculated the effect of pair breaking on the isotope-effect coefficient (β) of a superconductor. We find that, as the pair-breaking scattering rate is increased, β also increases in absolute value. Values of β much larger than the canonical value of 1/2 can easily be achieved even in models where the electron-phonon interaction contributes only a very small amount to the value of the intrinsic critical temperature

  16. Side effects due to irradiation of patients with mammary carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberg, G [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Strahlentherapeutische Klinik; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Klinische Strahlenbiologie)

    1976-09-01

    The essay gives a brief survey of possible side effects occurring in irradiating patients with carinomas of the breast. Special attention is paid to difficulties concerning differential diagnosis and occurring in differentiating radiation reactions from secondary blastomas in the skeleton system. The problems concerning lymphatic oedema in the arm, and changes in the lungs and the effects of radiotherapy on the haematopoictic system are dealt with.

  17. [Silvicultural treatments and their selection effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, G

    1973-01-01

    Selection can be defined in terms of its observable consequences as the non random differential reproduction of genotypes (Lerner 1958). In the forest stands we are selecting during the improvements-fellings and reproduction treatments the individuals surpassing in growth or in production of first-class timber. However the silvicultural treatments taken in forest stands guarantee a permanent increase of forest production only in such cases, if they have been taken with respect to the principles of directional (dynamic) selection. These principles require that the trees determined for further growing and for forest regeneration are selected by their hereditary properties, i.e. by their genotypes.For making this selection feasible, our study deals with the genetic parameters and gives some examples of the application of the response, the selection differential, the heritability in the narrow and in the broad sense, as well as of the genetic and genotypic gain. On the strength of this parameter we have the possibility to estimate the economic success of several silvicultural treatments in forest stands.The mentioned examples demonstrate that the selection measures of a higher intensity will be manifested in a higher selection differential, in a higher genetic and genotypic gain and that the mentioned measures show more distinct effects in the variable populations - in natural forest - than in the population characteristic by a smaller variability, e.g. in many uniform artificially established stands.The examples of influences of different selection on the genotypes composition of population prove that genetics instructs us to differentiate the different genotypes of the same species and gives us at the same time a new criterions for evaluating selectional treatments. These criterions from economic point of view is necessary to consider in silviculture as advantageous even for the reason that we can judge from these criterions the genetical composition of forest stands

  18. Reactivity effects due to beryllium poisoning of BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalcheva, S.; Ponsard, B.; Koonen, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates the impact of the poisoning of the beryllium reflector on reactivity variations of the Belgian MTR BR2 in SCK.CEN. Detailed calculations by MCNP-4C of reactivity effects caused by strong neutron absorbers 3 He and 6 Li during reactor operation history are presented. The importance of beryllium poisoning for the accuracy of reactivity predictions is discussed. (authors)

  19. Reynolds number effects on mixing due to topological chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Spencer A; Warrier, Sangeeta

    2016-03-01

    Topological chaos has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate fluid mixing. While this theory can guarantee a lower bound on the stretching rate of certain material lines, it does not indicate what fraction of the fluid actually participates in this minimally mandated mixing. Indeed, the area in which effective mixing takes place depends on physical parameters such as the Reynolds number. To help clarify this dependency, we numerically simulate the effects of a batch stirring device on a 2D incompressible Newtonian fluid in the laminar regime. In particular, we calculate the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field for three different stirring protocols, one topologically complex (pseudo-Anosov) and two simple (finite-order), over a range of viscosities. After extracting appropriate measures indicative of both the amount of mixing and the area of effective mixing from the FTLE field, we see a clearly defined Reynolds number range in which the relative efficacy of the pseudo-Anosov protocol over the finite-order protocols justifies the application of topological chaos. More unexpectedly, we see that while the measures of effective mixing area increase with increasing Reynolds number for the finite-order protocols, they actually exhibit non-monotonic behavior for the pseudo-Anosov protocol.

  20. Ageing effects on image sensors due to terrestrial cosmic radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nampoothiri, G.G.; Horemans, M.L.R.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the “ageing” effect on image sensors introduced by neutrons present in natural (terrestrial) cosmic environment. The results obtained at sea level are corroborated for the first time with accelerated neutron beam tests and for various image sensor operation conditions. The results reveal

  1. Thyroid cancer due to biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvão, T.; Castro, N.; Teixeira, D.; Matuo, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is considered the most common in the region of the head and neck. It can be caused by spontaneous mutations, but also by ionizing radiation. The effect of ionizing radiation on the thyroid has been studied for several decades. The exact cause of the cancer is not known, but people with certain risk factors are more vulnerable, such as exposure to radiation, family history and age over 40 years. The thyroid is susceptible to the effects of radiation and is involved in the field of diagnostic or therapeutic irradiation, and may present functional and structural changes. Radiation can act in different ways, such as inhibiting or activating specific functions of the follicular epithelium, reducing the number of functioning follicles, altering vascularization or vascular permeability and inducing immune reactions. These morphological and histological changes may be related to the development of thyroid cancer

  2. Annual effective dose due to natural radioactivity in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Savithri, P.; Srivastava, S.K.; Balbudhe, A.Y.; Vishwa Prasad, K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity concentration in drinking water supply in and round Hyderabad, Secunderabad was determined. The observed gross alpha activity found in water samples vary from 0.027±0.014 Bq/L to 0.042±0.015 Bq/L with average 0.035 Bq/L while beta activity in all the samples are less than 0.076 Bq/l. Contributions of the drinking water samples to total annual effective dose equivalent from 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 26 Ra, 210 Po, 232 Th, 228 Th 210 Pb and 228 Ra are 1.14, 1.24, 5.30, 7.07, 30.3, 5.81, 1.82, 38.3 and 38.3 μSvy -1 for adults. The results indicate that the annual effective doses are below the WHO recommended reference level for α and β in food and drinking samples. (author)

  3. Effective dose equivalents from external radiation due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkin, V.G.; Debedev, O.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Parkhomenko, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized data on measurements of individual dose of external γ-sources in 1987-1990 of population of western areas of Bryansk region were presented. Type of distribution of effective dose equivalent, its significance for various professional and social groups of population depending on the type of the house was discussed. Dependences connecting surface soil activity in the populated locality with average dose of external radiation sources were presented. Tendency of dose variation in 1987-1990 was shown

  4. Lattice Effects Due to High Currents in PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.-J.; Smith, H.; Turner, J.L.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The very high beam currents in the PEP-II B-Factory have caused many expected and unexpected effects: Synchrotron light fans move the beam pipe and cause dispersion; higher order modes cause excessive heating, e-clouds around the positron beam blow up its beam size. Here we describe an effect where the measured dispersion of the beam in the Low Energy Ring (LER) is different at high and at low beam currents. The dispersion was iteratively lowered by making anti-symmetric orbit bumps in many sextupole duplets, checking each time with a dispersion measurement where a dispersive kick is generated. This can be done parasitically during collisions. It was a surprise when checking the low current characterization data that there is a change. Subsequent high and low current measurements confirmed the effect. One source was believed to be located far away from any synchrotron radiation in the middle of a straight (PR12), away from sextupoles and skew quadrupoles and created a dispersion wave of about 70 mm at high current while at low current it is negligible

  5. Experimental Verification Of Secondary Effect Due To Prestressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažma Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe an experimental program at Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Department of concrete structures and bridges and its results. This experimental program was focused on two main subjects. The first one, which is also the topic of this article was an analysis of prestressing effects on the statically indeterminate structures, where the redundancy had been changed up to the kinematic mechanism development. The second topic was an analysis of behaviour of the prestressing units with different bond.

  6. Tune-shift with amplitude due to nonlinear kinematic effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, W

    1999-01-01

    Tracking studies of the Muon Collider 50 on 50 GeV collider ring show that the on-momentum dynamic aperture is limited to around 10 sigma even with the chromaticity sextupoles turned off. Numerical results from the normal form algorithm show that the tune-shift with amplitude is surprisingly large. Both analytical and numerical results are presented to show that nonlinear kinematic effect originated from the large angles of particles in the interaction region is responsible for the large tune-shift which in turn limits the dynamic aperture. A comparative study of the LHC collider ring is also presented to demonstrate the difference between the two machines. (14 refs).

  7. Characterization of selection effects on broiler lines using DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selection for body weight on the genetic variability and diversity in broiler lines. Two paternal broiler lines (LL and LLc were used. LL line was selected for 12 generations for growth and carcass and reproduction characteristics. The LLc line was established from LL line in 1985 and mated at random. Blood samples from six chickens per line were collected and used for molecular analysis. Also, a DNA pool was made for each line to compare effects between lines. Data were analyzed considering the collected information on the presence or absence of DNA bands. Band sharing scores were calculated using the DICE coefficient. The pattern of the 21 most representative bands was used. DNA fingerprinting (DFP showed 90.48 % of polymorphism bands for both lines. Difference between lines was not due to the presence or absence of bands, but to the frequency of such bands in each genotype. Considering that both lines had the same genetic background, changes on band frequency were probably due to selection. Selection for body weight had an effect on the band frequency as evaluated by DFP, and for this reason this technique could be used as a tool in the selection process. Results also suggest that bands 4, 5 and 19 were linked to body weight traits, and bands 9, 10, 12, 13 and 21 were linked to reproductive traits such as egg production.

  8. Induced prismatic effects due to poorly fitting spectacle frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Moodley

    2011-12-01

    toms were reported by 50% of subjects experiencing base-out, 0% base-in and 47% vertical induced prismatic effects.  However, no correlation existed between those subjects experiencing induced prism and symptoms reported.  Prism adaptation may account for some participants being asymptomatic.  Sixty three percent of subjects were not aware of the importance of properly fitted spectacle frames.  Proper optical dispensing with associated patient education is necessary to achieve optimal optical benefits of spectacles and careful attention should be given to this aspect by practitioners.  It is recommended that patients return periodically to their optometrists to have the frame alignment assessed and the fit modified if necessary. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(4 168-174

  9. Structural Effects of Reinforced Concrete Beam Due to Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hamidun Mohd; Idris, Nur'ain; Noor, Nurazuwa Md; Sarpin, Norliana; Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete is one of the main issues among construction stakeholders. The main consequences of steel corrosion include loss of cross section of steel area, generation of expansive pressure which caused cracking of concrete, spalling and delaminating of the concrete cover. Thus, it reduces the bond strength between the steel reinforcing bar and concrete, and deteriorating the strength of the structure. The objective of this study is to investigate the structural effects of corrosion damage on the performance of reinforced concrete beam. A series of corroded reinforced concrete beam with a corrosion rate of 0%, 20% and 40% of rebar corrosion is used in parametric study to assess the influence of different level of corrosion rate to the structural performance. As a result, the used of interface element in the finite element modelling predicted the worst case of corrosion analysis since cracks is induced and generate at this surface. On the other hand, a positive linear relationship was sketched between the increase of expansive pressure and the corrosion rate. Meanwhile, the gradient of the graph is decreased with the increase of steel bar diameter. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of the structure where the higher corrosion rate generates a higher stress concentration at the mid span of the beam. This study could predict the residual strength of reinforced concrete beam under the corrosion using the finite element analysis. The experimental validation is needed on the next stage to investigate the quantitative relation between the corrosion rate and its influence on the mechanical properties.

  10. Giant Faraday effect due to Pauli exclusion principle in 3D topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Hari P; Leuenberger, Michael N

    2014-02-26

    Experiments using ARPES, which is based on the photoelectric effect, show that the surface states in 3D topological insulators (TI) are helical. Here we consider Weyl interface fermions due to band inversion in narrow-bandgap semiconductors, such as Pb1-xSnxTe. The positive and negative energy solutions can be identified by means of opposite helicity in terms of the spin helicity operator in 3D TI as ĥ(TI) = (1/ |p|_ |) β (σ|_ x p|_ ) · z^, where β is a Dirac matrix and z^ points perpendicular to the interface. Using the 3D Dirac equation and bandstructure calculations we show that the transitions between positive and negative energy solutions, giving rise to electron-hole pairs, obey strict optical selection rules. In order to demonstrate the consequences of these selection rules, we consider the Faraday effect due to the Pauli exclusion principle in a pump-probe setup using a 3D TI double interface of a PbTe/Pb₀.₃₁Sn₀.₆₉Te/PbTe heterostructure. For that we calculate the optical conductivity tensor of this heterostructure, which we use to solve Maxwell's equations. The Faraday rotation angle exhibits oscillations as a function of probe wavelength and thickness of the heterostructure. The maxima in the Faraday rotation angle are of the order of mrds.

  11. Effectiveness of Selected Communication Media on Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waterfalls, historical relics, captivating beaches, rock out-crops, rolling lulls coupled with hospitable and culturally active people that are capable of making tourism a delight in Nigeria. The study therefore assessed the effectiveness of selected communication media on awareness creation towards tourism for rural ...

  12. Effects on Performance and Work Quality due to Low Frequency Ventilation Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waye, K.; Rylander, R.; Benton, S.; Leventhall, H. G.

    1997-08-01

    A pilot study was carried out to assess method evaluating effects of low frequency noise on performance. Of special interest was to study objective and subjective effects over time. Two ventilation noises were used, one of a predominantly mid frequency character and the other of a predominantly low frequency character. Both had an NC value of 35. For the study, 50 students were recruited and 30 selected on the basis of subjective reports of pressure on the eardrum after exposure to a low frequency noise. Of these, 14 randomly selected subjects aged 21 and 34 took part. The subjects performed three computerized cognitive tests in the mid frequency or the low frequency noise condition alternatively. Tests I and II were performed together with a secondary task.Questionnaires were used to evaluate subjective symptoms, effects on mood and estimated interference with the test results due to temperature, light and noise. The results showed that the subjective estimations of noise interference with performance were higher for the low frequency noise (psocial orientation (pstudied. The results further indicate that the NC curves do not fully assess the negative effects of low frequency noise on work performance.

  13. Nanoparticle separation based on size-dependent aggregation of nanoparticles due to the critical Casimir effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Stan, Gheorghe; Liu, Yun

    2018-02-21

    Nanoparticles typically have an inherent wide size distribution that may affect the performance and reliability of many nanomaterials. Because the synthesis and purification of nanoparticles with desirable sizes are crucial to the applications of nanoparticles in various fields including medicine, biology, health care, and energy, there is a great need to search for more efficient and generic methods for size-selective nanoparticle purification/separation. Here we propose and conclusively demonstrate the effectiveness of a size-selective particle purification/separation method based on the critical Casimir force. The critical Casimir force is a generic interaction between colloidal particles near the solvent critical point and has been extensively studied in the past several decades due to its importance in reversibly controlling the aggregation and stability of colloidal particles. Combining multiple experimental techniques, we found that the critical Casimir force-induced aggregation depends on relative particle sizes in a system with larger ones aggregating first and the smaller ones remaining in solution. Based on this observation, a new size-dependent nanoparticle purification/separation method is proposed and demonstrated to be very efficient in purifying commercial silica nanoparticles in the lutidine/water binary solvent. Due to the ubiquity of the critical Casimir force for many colloidal particles in binary solvents, this method might be applicable to many types of colloidal particles.

  14. Relay selection from an effective capacity perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we consider a cooperative network where multiple relay nodes having different modulation capabilities assist the end-to-end communication between a source and its destination. Firstly, we evaluate the effective capacity (EC) performance of the network under study. According to the analysis, an EC-based relay selection criterion is proposed. Based on the proposed selection rule and half-duplex decode-and-forward protocol, the activated relays cooperatively help with the packet transmission from the source. At the destination, packet combining is taken into account to improve the quality of service. Compared to the popular scheme, opportunistic relay selection, numerical results are provided to prove the validity and advantages of our proposed scheme in certain scenarios. Moreover, the analysis presented herein offers a convenient tool to the relaying transmission design, specifically on which relay selection scheme should be used as well as how to choose the receiving strategy between with and without packet combining at the destination. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Human health and pollution due to solid waste incinetators (SWI: a selection of two recent well conducted studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gennaro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Incinerators reduce the volume of visible waste, turning it into ashes and smoke which can cause local and global environmental pollution due to particulate matter (PM, dioxins, furans, hydrochloric acid, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sulfur and nitrogen dioxides. In order to describe cancers and non-neoplastic diseases in populations exposed to incinerator pollution, the scientific literature available since 1987 has been selected on the basis of the best epidemiological evidences. In Italy, women who lived for at least 5 years in areas that were likely to be the most polluted by heavy metals, showed increased risk of death from all causes (relative risk, RR=1.17-1.54. In France, an incidence study found increases in all cancer risks both in males (RR=1.06 who resided in areas where dioxin pollution was estimated to be higher than it was in the referent areas (less dioxin polluted.

  16. Bias due to sample selection in propensity score matching for a supportive housing program evaluation in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Little is known about influences of sample selection on estimation in propensity score matching. The purpose of the study was to assess potential selection bias using one-to-one greedy matching versus optimal full matching as part of an evaluation of supportive housing in New York City (NYC. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Data came from administrative data for 2 groups of applicants who were eligible for an NYC supportive housing program in 2007-09, including chronically homeless adults with a substance use disorder and young adults aging out of foster care. We evaluated the 2 matching methods in their ability to balance covariates and represent the original population, and in how those methods affected outcomes related to Medicaid expenditures. RESULTS: In the population with a substance use disorder, only optimal full matching performed well in balancing covariates, whereas both methods created representative populations. In the young adult population, both methods balanced covariates effectively, but only optimal full matching created representative populations. In the young adult population, the impact of the program on Medicaid expenditures was attenuated when one-to-one greedy matching was used, compared with optimal full matching. CONCLUSION: Given covariate balancing with both methods, attenuated program impacts in the young adult population indicated that one-to-one greedy matching introduced selection bias.

  17. Field Observation of Soil Displacements Resulting Due Unsupported Excavation and Its Effects on Proposed Adjacent Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Nasir Al-Jorany

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil movement resulting due unsupported excavation nearby axially loaded piles imposes significant structural troubles on geotechnical engineers especially for piles that are not designed to account for loss of lateral confinement. In this study the field excavation works of 7.0 m deep open tunnel was continuously followed up by the authors. The work is related to the project of developing the Army canal in the east of Baghdad city in Iraq. A number of selected points around the field excavation are installed on the ground surface at different horizontal distance. The elevation and coordinates of points are recorded during 23 days with excavation progress period. The field excavation process was numerically simulated by using the finite element package PLAXIS 3D foundation. The obtained analysis results regarding the displacements of the selected points are compared with the field observation for verification purpose. Moreover, finite element analysis of axially loaded piles that are presumed to be existed at the locations of the observation points is carried out to study the effect of excavation on full scale piles behaviors. The field observation monitored an upward movement and positive lateral ground movement for shallow excavation depth. Later on and as the excavation process went deeper, a downward movement and negative lateral ground movement are noticed. The analyses results are in general well agreed with the monitored values of soil displacements at the selected points. It is found also that there are obvious effects of the nearby excavation on the presumed piles in terms of displacements and bending moments.

  18. The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a first analysis of solid cancer incidence (selected sites) due to test-related radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, B I; Rosenson, R I; Abylkassimova, Z N

    1998-10-01

    Since 1956, cancer incidences have been analysed in several rayons of the Semipalatinsk oblast, with cross-sectional analyses being conducted every 5 years. Data on different tumor localizations were recorded within a heavily contaminated so-called main area of nine villages (estimated average effective equivalent dose about 2000 mSv) and a so-called control area (estimated average effective equivalent dose about 70 mSv), each including approximately 10000 persons. Up to 1970, the excess cancer incidence in the exposed villages was observed to have increased; after 1970, a decrease was noted, followed by a second increase in the late 1980s. The main sites of excess cancer included the esophagus, stomach, and liver. Up to 1970, the esophagus cancer incidence was predominant, but it decreased thereafter, while the incidence of stomach and liver cancers increased. The second peak of excess cancer rates was mainly due to lung, breast, and thyroid carcinomas.

  19. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to aid selectivity practice.

  20. The effect of friend selection on social influences in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogdon, Justin G; Allaire, Benjamin T

    2014-12-01

    We present an agent-based model of weight choice and peer selection that simulates the effect of peer selection on social multipliers for weight loss interventions. The model generates social clustering around weight through two mechanisms: a causal link from others' weight to an individual's weight and the propensity to select peers based on weight. We simulated weight loss interventions and tried to identify intervention targets that maximized the spillover of weight loss from intervention participants to nonparticipants. Social multipliers increase with the number of intervention participants' friends. For example, when friend selection was based on a variable exogenous to weight, the weight lost among non-participants increased by 23% (14.3lb vs. 11.6lb) when targeting the most popular obese. Holding constant the number of participants' friends, multipliers increase with increased weight clustering due to selection, up to a point. For example, among the most popular obese, social multipliers when matching on a characteristic correlated with weight (1.189) were higher than when matching on the exogenous characteristic (1.168) and when matching on weight (1.180). Increased weight clustering also implies more obese "friends of friends" of participants, who reduce social multipliers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural Model of the Effect of Psychological Capital on Success with Due to the Mediating Role of Commitment and Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    M Golparvar; Z Mirzaie

    2016-01-01

    This research was administered with the aim of investigating structural model of the effect of psychological capital on career success with due to the mediating role of satisfaction and commitment among employees of Telecom Company. Research statistical population was male and female employees of Telecom in Isfahan city, who among them two hundred and eighty five persons were selected using convenience sampling. Research instruments were Nguyen et al. Psychological Capital questionnaire, Nabi...

  2. Effect of efferent activation on binaural frequency selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Kordus, Monika; Drga, Vit; Yasin, Ifat

    2017-07-01

    Binaural notched-noise experiments indicate a reduced frequency selectivity of the binaural system compared to monaural processing. The present study investigates how auditory efferent activation (via the medial olivocochlear system) affects binaural frequency selectivity in normal-hearing listeners. Thresholds were measured for a 1-kHz signal embedded in a diotic notched-noise masker for various notch widths. The signal was either presented in phase (diotic) or in antiphase (dichotic), gated with the noise. Stimulus duration was 25 ms, in order to avoid efferent activation due to the masker or the signal. A bandpass-filtered noise precursor was presented prior to the masker and signal stimuli to activate the efferent system. The silent interval between the precursor and the masker-signal complex was 50 ms. For comparison, thresholds for detectability of the masked signal were also measured in a baseline condition without the precursor and, in addition, without the masker. On average, the results of the baseline condition indicate an effectively wider binaural filter, as expected. For both signal phases, the addition of the precursor results in effectively wider filters, which is in agreement with the hypothesis that cochlear gain is reduced due to the presence of the precursor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of radiation dose due to fluoroscopic procedures in patients at some selected facilities in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyasi, E.

    2013-07-01

    Radiation doses to 182 adults patients who underwent barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow, myelogram, hysterosalpingography and urethrogram examination collectively at facilities A and B were investigated. Radiation dose was measured using kerma-area-product (KAP) meter. From the KAP readings, patient's data and other relevant information from the control console, effective dose and selective organ doses were estimated using Monte Carlo program software (PCXMC version 1.5). Quality control tests performed on the two fluoroscopy machines were found to be within the acceptance criteria. Mean effective doses were found to be 8.45 ± 0.38mSv, 7.628 ± 0.42 mSv, 1.46 ± 0.13 mSv, 2.02 ± 0.16 mSv, 0.32 ± 0.03 mSv for barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow, myelogram and urethrogram examinations respectively at Facility A. At Facility B the mean effective dose were found to be 4.12 ± 0.15 mSv, 1.83 ± 0.10 mSv, 0.81 ± 0.04 mSv, 0.53 ± 0.036 mSv and 0.27 ± 0.01 mSv for barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow, myelogram, hysterosalpingography and urethrogram examination respectively. Thymus received the highest organ dose of 29.19± 2.07mGy during barium meal studies at Facility A of all the procedures in the two hospitals. Magnitude of organ doses was observed to to be in relation with the closeness to or in the direction of the primary beam of radiation. Organ and effective doses from Facility A were relatively higher than those from Facility B in comparison by a factor of a about 2 with the exception of the barium meal examination at Facility A which was by a factor of about 4. The measured KAP readings fro the two facilities were below the international accepted reference levels with the exception of barium meal examination at Facility A which recorded a higher value of 25.96 ± 1.83 Gy.cm 2 as compared to ICRP (2001) reference value of 25 Gy.cm 2 . Longer radiation beam on time, high number of radiographs taken per patient, wide exposure beam area on

  4. Effect of intratympanic dexamethasone, memantine and piracetam on cellular apoptosis due to cisplatin ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topdag, M; Iseri, M; Gelenli, E; Yardimoglu, M; Yazir, Y; Ulubil, S A; Topdag, D O; Ustundag, E

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the literature on the prevention and treatment of ototoxicity due to various drugs and chemicals. This study compared the histological effects of intratympanic dexamethasone, memantine and piracetam on cellular apoptosis due to cisplatin ototoxicity, in 36 rats. Dexamethasone and memantine had significant effects on the stria vascularis, organ of Corti and spiral ganglion (p piracetam decreased the apoptosis rate, this effect was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Dexamethasone and memantine were found superior to piracetam in reducing apoptosis due to cisplatin ototoxicity. Further studies of this subject are needed, incorporating electron microscopy and auditory brainstem response testing.

  5. Can selection explain the protective effects of farming on asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijnand Eduard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [i][/i]Introduction and objective. Reduced asthma and allergy risks in farmers have been ascribed to microbial exposures. However, selection may also play a role and this was assessed in two Scandinavian farming populations. Materials and methods. Asthma prevalence in 739 Danish farming students was compared to that of 1,105 siblings. 8,482 Norwegian farmers were also compared with 349 early retired farmers. Results. The prevalence of ever-asthma was 5.4% in farming students and 5.2% in siblings (OR 1.1; 95%CI 0.73–1.7. Current asthma in farmers was 3.0% compared to 6.3% in farmers who had retired early (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1–2.9. Adjustments for early retirement increased the asthma prevalence by 0.3–0.6%. Farmers who had changed production were more likely to have asthma (OR 9.8, 95% CI 6.0–16. Conclusions. No healthy worker selection into farming was observed and changes in asthma prevalence due to early retirement were small. Selection effects are therefore unlikely to explain the protective effects of farming on asthma.

  6. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  7. The partner selection process : steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duysters, G.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  8. Potential Settlement Due to Seismic Effects in the Residential Area of Ilgin (Konya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ozdemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilgin lies on newly formed, loose, granular deposits, and there is a substantial risk for surface liquefaction and foundation settlements due to the seismic effects resulting from groundwater close to the surface. This study evaluates potential settlement due to seismic effects in the residential areas of Ilgin using the Standard Penetration Test (SPT performed on 45 geotechnical bores. In Turkey, where earthquakes occur frequently, the selection of residential areas is of great importance. In this research, the number of settlements was calculated considering an earthquake having a Local Magnitude of 6 (i.e., ML ≥ 6.0 and a ≥ 0.4 g under a 0.4 g seismic force, and a potential settlement map of the residential area was prepared. The amount of settlement exceeds 20 cm at locations near Ilgin Lake and in the northern section of Ilgin residential areas; downtown, the settlement ranges from 10-20 cm. The settlements presented here exceed the allowable threshold limits for structures constructed using adobe and brick in this district. Thus, improvements to minimize earthquake-induced damages are required for structures in Ilgin. Moreover, the selection of new residential areas, along with the proper design of the structures before construction, should be examined further to avoid ground liquefaction and structure damage due to settlement.    Resumen La localidad de Ilgin está ubicada sobre depósitos recién formados, granulares y no compactos, por lo que existe un riesgo sustancial de licuefacción de la superficie y la creación de asentamientos o deslizamientos debido a los efectos sísmicos resultantes del agua subterránea poco profunda. Este artículo evalúa el potencial de asentamiento debido a los efectos sísmicos en las áreas residenciales de Ilgin a través del Ensayo de Penetración Estándar (SPT, en inglés realizado en 45 perforaciones geotécnicas. En Turquía, donde los terremotos ocurren frecuentemente, la selección de

  9. Relay selection from an effective capacity perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Ma, Hao; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    proposed scheme in certain scenarios. Moreover, the analysis presented herein offers a convenient tool to the relaying transmission design, specifically on which relay selection scheme should be used as well as how to choose the receiving strategy between

  10. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Adedokun, Adeniyi Jimmy; Abiodun O. Folawewo, Abiodun O.

    2017-01-01

    Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM) technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to a...

  11. Effectiveness of Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Embolic Stroke due to Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva P. Sontineni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the role of thrombolytic therapy in acute embolic stroke due to infective endocarditis. Design. Case report. Setting. University hospital. Patient. A 70-year-old male presented with acute onset aphasia and hemiparesis due to infective endocarditis. His head computerized tomographic scan revealed left parietal sulcal effacement. He was given intravenous tissue plasminogen activator with significant resolution of the neurologic deficits without complications. Main Outcome Measures. Physical examination, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, radiologic examination results. Conclusions. Thrombolytic therapy in selected cases of stroke due to infective endocarditis manifesting as major neurologic deficits can be considered as an option after careful consideration of risks and benefits. The basis for such favorable response rests in the presence of fibrin as a major constituent of the vegetation. The risk of precipitating hemorrhage with thrombolytic therapy especially with large infarcts and mycotic aneurysms should be weighed against the benefits of averting a major neurologic deficit.

  12. Neural effects of cognitive control load on auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Merav; Humphries, Colin; Verber, Matthew; Liebenthal, Einat; Binder, Jeffrey R; Mangalathu, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2014-08-01

    Whether and how working memory disrupts or alters auditory selective attention is unclear. We compared simultaneous event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses associated with task-irrelevant sounds across high and low working memory load in a dichotic-listening paradigm. Participants performed n-back tasks (1-back, 2-back) in one ear (Attend ear) while ignoring task-irrelevant speech sounds in the other ear (Ignore ear). The effects of working memory load on selective attention were observed at 130-210ms, with higher load resulting in greater irrelevant syllable-related activation in localizer-defined regions in auditory cortex. The interaction between memory load and presence of irrelevant information revealed stronger activations primarily in frontal and parietal areas due to presence of irrelevant information in the higher memory load. Joint independent component analysis of ERP and fMRI data revealed that the ERP component in the N1 time-range is associated with activity in superior temporal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate a dynamic relationship between working memory load and auditory selective attention, in agreement with the load model of attention and the idea of common neural resources for memory and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selecting sex: the effect of preferring sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese

    2011-11-01

    Son preference remains common in countries from East Asia through South Asia to the Middle East and North Africa. Where sex selective technology and abortion are readily available, such as in China, South Korea and India, this has led to a marked excess in male births. Worst excesses are seen in parts of rural China where there are 140 male births for every 100 female. This leads to large numbers of unmarriageable men. Concerns about the consequences centre around the propensity to aggression and violence of these men with increased levels of crime and antisocial behaviour, threatening societal stability and security. But recent studies do not support these assumptions, but rather suggest that these men are marginalised, lonely, withdrawn and prone to psychological problems. Measures to reduce sex selection should include enforcement of existing legislation on sex-selection, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of late abortion and gender imbalance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effective Dose Equivalent To The Cypriot Population Due To Natural Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital (Cyprus)

    1994-12-31

    A study was initiated by the Biomedical Research Foundation, two years ago, to estimate the various natural radiation components that contribute to the Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population. The present study has shown that the contribution due to cosmic radiation is estimated to be less than 270 microSiverts per annum, while that due to airborne Rn-222 concentration in Cypriot houses is estimated to be less then 330 microSieverts per annum. The contribution due to terrestrial gamma radiations, which is currently under investigation, is so far estimated to be around 108 microSieverts per annum. Therefore the EDE to the Cypriot population due to natural radiation is likely to be around 700 microSieverts per annum, not taking into account the internal exposure due to other naturally occuring radionuclides. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs.

  15. Higher Education: Reputational Effects, Distorted Signaling and Propitious Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Savitskaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the authors attempt to underpin the hypothesis that under certain conditions a propitious selection may take place on the higher education market. It is a phenomenon when brand universities automatically reproduce their positive reputation without improving the quality of teaching due to influx of talented entrants. The authors apply econometric modelling and regression analysis based on survey of first-year students from Moscow to demonstrate that graduates with high USE marks really prefer to choose among brand universities; moreover, they appreciate a possibility to obtain a prestigious diploma even more than that of acquiring a particular profession. However, entrants do not possess full information about the quality of teaching in a particular university. The analysis presented in the paper shows that university rankings do not contribute to overcoming of this information asymmetry, since they transmit distorted signals caused by the methodology of ranking. The rankings, first of all, accentuate academic activity of teachers rather than educational process and interaction with students. For this reason, higher schools often adopt such a strategy to meet the ranking criteria as much as possible; they also tend to improve namely these indicators disregarding the other to become a leader. As a result, brand universities may surpass ordinary universities not due to rendering educational services of higher quality but due to selection of best entrants and peer-effects. These factors allow them to have excellent graduates, thus maintain positive reputation in employers’ opinion and simultaneously raise the brand value by advancing in a ranking.

  16. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, K.D.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER's overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  17. Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected vegetables: okra fruit ( Abelmoshcus esculentus ), fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis ), African spinach ( Amarantus viridis ), and scent leaf ( Ocumum gratissimum.

  18. Effects of selected bioactive food compounds on human white adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, Christel; Wilhelm, Uta; Mandrup, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that intake of specific bioactive compounds may have beneficial clinical effects on adipose tissue partly due to their anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. With the overall aim to contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms of selecte...... uptake albeit only with the combination of DHA and AC. Taken together, our results may link the reported health benefits of the selected bioactives on metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia to effects on white adipocytes....

  19. Clinical applications of selected binaural effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffsinger, D

    1982-01-01

    Examination was made of the behaviors exhibited on selected binaural tasks by 556 persons with diagnosed peripheral hearing loss or central nervous system damage. The tasks used included loudness balancing (LB), intracranial midline imaging (MI), masking level differences (MLD), and binaural beats (BB). The methods used were chosen for their clinical utility. Loudness balancing and midline imaging were of the most diagnostic value when hearing loss was present. Masking level differences were best at detecting pathology which did not produce hearing loss. None of the techniques were sensitive to cortical damage.

  20. A Bayesian random effects discrete-choice model for resource selection: Population-level selection inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.L.; Johnson, D.; Griffith, B.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling the probability of use of land units characterized by discrete and continuous measures, we present a Bayesian random-effects model to assess resource selection. This model provides simultaneous estimation of both individual- and population-level selection. Deviance information criterion (DIC), a Bayesian alternative to AIC that is sample-size specific, is used for model selection. Aerial radiolocation data from 76 adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and calf pairs during 1 year on an Arctic coastal plain calving ground were used to illustrate models and assess population-level selection of landscape attributes, as well as individual heterogeneity of selection. Landscape attributes included elevation, NDVI (a measure of forage greenness), and land cover-type classification. Results from the first of a 2-stage model-selection procedure indicated that there is substantial heterogeneity among cow-calf pairs with respect to selection of the landscape attributes. In the second stage, selection of models with heterogeneity included indicated that at the population-level, NDVI and land cover class were significant attributes for selection of different landscapes by pairs on the calving ground. Population-level selection coefficients indicate that the pairs generally select landscapes with higher levels of NDVI, but the relationship is quadratic. The highest rate of selection occurs at values of NDVI less than the maximum observed. Results for land cover-class selections coefficients indicate that wet sedge, moist sedge, herbaceous tussock tundra, and shrub tussock tundra are selected at approximately the same rate, while alpine and sparsely vegetated landscapes are selected at a lower rate. Furthermore, the variability in selection by individual caribou for moist sedge and sparsely vegetated landscapes is large relative to the variability in selection of other land cover types. The example analysis illustrates that, while sometimes computationally intense, a

  1. Lineage extinction and replacement in dengue type 1 virus populations are due to stochastic events rather than to natural selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing Myat Thu; Lowry, Kym; Jiang Limin; Thaung Hlaing; Holmes, Edward C.; Aaskov, John

    2005-01-01

    Between 1996 and 1998, two clades (B and C; genotype I) of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) appeared in Myanmar (Burma) that were new to that location. Between 1998 and 2000, a third clade (A; genotype III) of DENV-1, which had been circulating at that locality for at least 25 years, became extinct. These changes preceded the largest outbreak of dengue recorded in Myanmar, in 2001, in which more than 95% of viruses recovered from patients were DENV-1, but where the incidence of severe disease was much less than in previous years. Phylogenetic analyses of viral genomes indicated that the two new clades of DENV-1 did not arise from the, now extinct, clade A viruses nor was the extinction of this clade due to differences in the fitness of the viral populations. Since the extinction occurred during an inter-epidemic period, we suggest that it was due to a stochastic event attributable to the low rate of virus transmission in this interval

  2. Modelling of the indirect radiation effect due to background aerosols in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols and greenhouse gases are the two most important contributors to the anthropogenic climate change. The indirect aerosol effect is simulated in this study. The effects of black carbon are investigated. Usually, models use measured aerosol data as input, and their predictions are compared to cloud parameters measured independently from the aerosol measurements. The model developed in this study uses simultaneously measured values for the aerosol and the subsequent cloud. This way, more realistic predictions for the indirect aerosol effect can be expected. The model uses data from an earlier intensive measurement campaign at an Austrian background site. The aerosol and cloud data are taken from the FWF project P 131 43 - CHE and had been collected in 2000 at a measurement site on a mountain in the proximity of Vienna (Rax, 1680 m a.s.l.). The simulation model consists of two parts, a cloud droplet growth model and a radiative model. The growth model for cloud droplets computes the cloud droplet distribution originating from a measured aerosol distribution. The calculated cloud droplet size distributions that are used for further calculations are selected according to the measured liquid water content of the real-world cloud. The radiative model then computes the radiative forcing using the calculated cloud droplet size distribution. The cloud model is a cloud parcel model which describes an ascending air parcel containing the droplets. Turbulent diffusion (important for stratiform clouds) is realized through a simple approach. The model includes nucleation, condensation, coagulation and radiative effects. Because of radiative heating/cooling of the cloud droplets the temperature and the critical super-saturation of the droplets can change. For radiative transfer calculations, the radiative transfer code of the public domain program 'Streamer' was adapted for this study. 'Streamer' accounts for scattering and absorption of radiation in the whole spectral region

  3. Study of physio-psychological effects on traffic wardens due to traffic noise pollution; exposure-effect relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabraiz, Shamas; Ahmad, Saeed; Shehzadi, Iffat; Asif, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution has increased to alarming extent in most of the urban areas in Pakistan. It is assumed even more perilous than air and water pollution due to its direct acute and chronic physio-psychological effects. The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the psychological and physiological effects caused by traffic noise on traffic wardens and to find relation type between exposure time and effect. Three wardens check posts near roads were selected for survey in Taxila and Islamabad cities of Pakistan. Survey conducted included noise measurements at aforementioned check posts for one month and Performa based interviews of traffic wardens. Analysis of results showed that noise levels varied between 85-106 dB hence violating OSHA regulations. Major psychological effects found in wardens were aggravated depression 58%, stress 65%, public conflict 71%, irritation and annoyance 54%, behavioral affects 59% and speech interference 56%. Physiological effects found were hypertension 87%, muscle tension 64%, exhaustion 48%, low performance levels 55%, concentration loss 93%, hearing impairment 69%, headache 74% and cardiovascular issue 71%. Relation between exposure time and effects were evaluated by using simple regression test in excel. Percentage of psychological and physiological effects in wardens varied with the exposure time; aggravated depression (R(2) = 0.946, P = 0.133), stress suffering (R(2) = 0.014, P = 0.173), public conflict (R(2) = 0.946, P = 0.133), irritation and annoyance (R(2) = 0.371, P = 0.137), behavioral affects (R(2) = 0.596, P = 0.0616) and speech interference (R(2) = 0.355, P = 0.445), hypertension (R(2) = 0.96, P = 0.00095) and cardiovascular issue (R(2) = 0.775, P = 0.044).

  4. Ergodization of magnetic surfaces due to finite beta effect in a helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takaya.

    1989-04-01

    Breaking of magnetic surfaces due to finite beta effect in a l=2 heliotron/torsatron configuration is studied by using a newly developed three dimensional equilibrium code. Breaking can be suppressed by a larger aspect ratio configuration, shaping of magnetic surface (inward shift or prolate shape), pitch modulation of helical coils, or pressure profile control. (author)

  5. The effect of selection on genetic parameter estimates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at ... A simulation study was carried out to investigate the effect of selection on the estimation of genetic ... The model contained a fixed effect, random genetic and random.

  6. K-selection, α-selection, effectiveness, and tolerance in competition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    selection, effectiveness, and tolerance in ... Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, P.O. Box No. 6436, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064, India; Poornaprajna ...

  7. Retrospective Study to Compare Selective Decongestive Devascularization and Gastrosplenic Shunt versus Splenectomy with Pericardial Devascularization for the Treatment of Patients with Esophagogastric Varices Due to Cirrhotic Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haili; He, Qikuan; Dai, Ninggao; Ye, Ruifan; Zhang, Qiyu

    2017-06-08

    BACKGROUND For patients with esophagogastric varices secondary to portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, portosystemic shunts and devascularization have become the most commonly used treatment methods. We have developed a novel surgical approach for the treatment of patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension, selective decongestive devascularization, and shunt of the gastrosplenic region (SDDS-GSR). This aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of SDDS-GSR with splenectomy with pericardial devascularization (SPD). MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study was undertaken between 2006 and 2013 and included 110 patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension, 34 of whom underwent SDDS-GSR; 76 patients underwent SPD. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate clinical outcomes, mortality, the incidence of re-bleeding, encephalopathy, and portal venous system thrombosis (PVST). RESULTS Postoperatively portal venous pressure decreased by 20% in both groups. The long-term incidence of re-bleeding and PVST was significantly lower in the SDDS-GSR group compared with the SPD group (P=0.018 and P=0.039, respectively). CONCLUSIONS This preliminary retrospective study has shown that SDDS-GSR was an effective treatment for patients with esophagogastric varices secondary to portal hypertension that may be used as a first-line treatment to prevent variceal bleeding and lower the incidence of PVST.

  8. Sterilizing radiation effects on selected polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiens, W.E.

    1979-03-01

    The mechanism of radiation effects and their industrial applications are discussed for the following classes of polymers: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, films and fibers, and adhesives/coatings/potting compounds. 35 references, 3 tables

  9. Effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) on the gut resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Elena; Gonzalez, Teresita Bello; Versluis, Dennis; Oostdijk, Evelien A N; Ogilvie, Lesley A; van Mourik, Maaike S M; Oosterink, Els; van Passel, Mark W J; Smidt, Hauke; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; de Been, Mark; Jones, Brian V; Willems, Rob J L; Bonten, Marc J M; van Schaik, Willem

    2014-08-01

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) is an infection prevention measure for critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) that aims to eradicate opportunistic pathogens from the oropharynx and intestines, while sparing the anaerobic flora, by the application of non-absorbable antibiotics. Selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria is still a major concern for SDD. We therefore studied the impact of SDD on the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (i.e. the resistome) by culture-independent approaches. We evaluated the impact of SDD on the gut microbiota and resistome in a single ICU patient during and after an ICU stay by several metagenomic approaches. We also determined by quantitative PCR the relative abundance of two common aminoglycoside resistance genes in longitudinally collected samples from 12 additional ICU patients who received SDD. The patient microbiota was highly dynamic during the hospital stay. The abundance of antibiotic resistance genes more than doubled during SDD use, mainly due to a 6.7-fold increase in aminoglycoside resistance genes, in particular aph(2″)-Ib and an aadE-like gene. We show that aph(2″)-Ib is harboured by anaerobic gut commensals and is associated with mobile genetic elements. In longitudinal samples of 12 ICU patients, the dynamics of these two genes ranged from a ∼10(4) fold increase to a ∼10(-10) fold decrease in relative abundance during SDD. ICU hospitalization and the simultaneous application of SDD has large, but highly individualized, effects on the gut resistome of ICU patients. Selection for transferable antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic commensal bacteria could impact the risk of transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to opportunistic pathogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Refraction in the lower troposphere: Higher order image distortion effects due to refractive profile curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel J.

    be applied to characterize the refractive effects. To help with the time-lapse image refraction analysis process, a second order ray trace scheme has been developed. The ray trace is based on existing lens system tracing procedures, but is adapted for use with the atmospheric refractivity profile. The standard practice of ray tracing uses linear approximations through each element to obtain a ray path, however, the method described in this dissertation uses a quadratic correction term in order to more accurately and efficiently simulate the curvature of rays as they propagate through a gradient refractive index medium such as the atmosphere. Although a variety of finite element solutions have been implemented to describe ray trajectories in nonlinear refractive mediums, the new ray tracer described here is much easier to implement and provides quick, intuitive results. The method is tested against exact analytical ray height solutions for known profiles and was found to give nearly identical results. The ray trace was then applied to real atmospheric data and was found to give plausible results. The tay trace gives a visual aid in understanding the physical path the light takes in traversing the potential field. This will be beneficial in linking optical data to weather model data in an effort to develop a forecasting model for refraction. By selecting the correct boundary and initial conditions, we are able to model rays through the profile. Understanding the system will ultimately help in later analysis. A primary objective of this dissertation is to expand on the work mentioned above on image dislocation and consider the effects of towering (stretching) and stooping (compression) in the imagery. These effects can be explained as a type of lensing by the atmosphere due to nonlinear gradients. To achieve towering and stooping, a curved vertical index profile is required. Where a positive lensing action by the medium causes some ray focusing, back projection from at

  11. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest...

  12. Antitrypanosomal and haematological effects of selected Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies to determine the effect of some Nigerian Medicinal plants on some haematological parameters of rats infected with T. b. brucei was carried out. The plants investigated and the dose levels per kilogram body weights used are fresh Momordica balsamina pulp (150mg); fresh Aloe vera pulp (1ml); aqueous extracts of ...

  13. Selection bias and the Rubin-Ford effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.A.; Joseph, R.D.; Collins, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    We have re-examined the 'Rubin-Ford effect', and more recent claims of galaxy streaming from the same galaxy sample, to investigate the impact of selection effects on these results. A 'Monte Carlo'-type analysis was applied to simulate the selection procedure used to obtain this sample, and a strong bias was identified, resulting in apparent velocity flows at 600-800 km s -1 . Thus the 'Rubin-Ford effect' and the associated galaxy streaming are spurious effects resulting from the method of sample selection. (author)

  14. Selective loss of mouse embryos due to the expression of transgenic major histocompatibility class I molecules early in embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aït-Azzouzene, D; Langkopf, A; Cohen, J; Bleux, C; Gendron, M C; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, C

    1998-05-01

    Among the numerous hypotheses proposed to explain the absence of fetal rejection by the mother in mammals, it has been suggested that regulation of expression of the polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) at the fetal-maternal interface plays a major role. In addition to a lack of MHC gene expression in the placenta throughout gestation, the absence of polymorphic MHC molecules on the early embryo, as well as their low level of expression after midgestation, could contribute to this important biologic phenomenon. In order to test this hypothesis, we have produced transgenic mice able to express polymorphic MHC class I molecules early in embryogenesis. We have placed the MHC class la gene H-2Kb under the control of a housekeeping gene promoter, the hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG) gene minimal promoter. This construct has been tested for functionality after transfection into mouse fibroblast L cells. The analysis of three founder transgenic mice and their progeny suggested that fetoplacental units that could express the H-2Kb heavy chains are unable to survive in utero beyond midgestation. We have shown further that a much higher resorption rate, on days 11 to 13 of embryonic development, is observed among transgenic embryos developing from eggs microinjected at the one-cell stage with the pHMG-Kb construct than in control embryos. This lethality is not due to immune phenomena, since it is observed in histocompatible combinations between mother and fetus. These results are discussed in the context of what is currently known about the regulation of MHC expression at the fetal-maternal interface and in various transgenic mouse models.

  15. Temperature effects on loss of prestress due to relaxation of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appa Rao, G.; Yamini Sreevalli, I.; Meher Prasad, A.; Reddy, G.R.; Prabhakar, G.

    2007-01-01

    Prestressed concrete is used in general civil engineering applications and in nuclear power plants for a number of structures such as containments, reactor pressure vessels, missile shield members, reactor cavity walls etc. Loss of prestress in containment structures is a serious concern for the longevity rather than serviceability. Loss of prestress higher than the initially designed values has been reported by various agencies at a number of nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containment structures. At present the codes specify the prestress losses in Nuclear Power Plant Containment (NPPC) structures for 50 years. However there is a continuous effort to improve the life of NPPC particularly for a design life of 100 years. The long-term losses are mainly due to relaxation of prestressing cables, creep and shrinkage of concrete. The loss of prestress due to relaxation of prestressing cables is considered to be severe due to temperature effects. In this paper an effort has been made to understand the loss of prestress due to relaxation of steel at different temperatures namely 20 degC, 25 degC, 30 degC, 35 degC, 40 degC and 45 degC and the results up to 1000 hrs to estimate the losses over longer life of structures. The initial prestress was maintained at 0.70 times guaranteed ultimate tensile strength (GUTS) of cables. The prestressing loss due to relaxation of prestressing cables increases as the temperature increases. (author)

  16. Effectiveness of a multifactorial handwashing program to reduce school absenteeism due to acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor-Martínez, Ernestina; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco; Martínez-López, Jose Miguel; Garrido-Fernández, Pablo; Santisteban-Martínez, Joaquin; Seijas-Vazquez, Maria Luisa; Campos-Fernandez, Maria Amparo; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common diseases among children and an important cause of school absenteeism. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizers for the prevention of school absenteeism due to AGE. A randomized, controlled and open study of a sample of 1341 children between 4 and 12 years of age, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow up (academic year). The experimental group (EG) washed their hands with soap and water, complementing this with the use of a hand sanitizer, and the control group (CG) followed the usual handwashing procedure. Absenteeism rates due GI were compared between the 2 groups through the multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Percent days absent in both groups were compared with a Z-test. 446 cases of school absenteeism due to AGE were registered. The school children from the EG had a 36% lower risk of absenteeism due to AGE (IRR: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.78) and a decrease in absenteeism of 0.13 episodes/child/academic year (0.27 of EG vs 0.40 CG/episodes/child/academic year, P absenteeism cases due to AGE.

  17. The effect of Berberine preparation on diarrheal symptoms due to Linac irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiasa, Tsuyoshi; Mitao, Satoshi; Tanaka, Motofumi; Matsubayashi, Shigeru; Kato, Koji

    1979-01-01

    Kyoberine, a preparation made from berberine, was administered in 20 cases of malignant tumors (16 cases of cervical carcinoma, 2 cases of corpus uteri carcinoma, and 2 cases of ovarian carcinoma) in which diarrhea was an acute symptom resulting from Linac irradiation. Diarrhea occurred frequently in the patients who received 1600 - 2000 rad. In regard to the characteristics of the feces, this drug was remarkably effective in 25% of the patients and effective in 65% total effectiveness, 90%. In regard to the frequency of diarrhea, it was remarkably effective in 30% of the patients and effective in 60% total effectiveness, 90%. A comprehensive assessment of the effect on the characteristics of the feces and the frequency of diarrhea revealed the drug to be remarkably effective in 7 cases (35%) and effective in 11 (55%). After serial administration of the drug, recurrence of diarrhea was noted only in one case out of 18 in which the drug was effective. Examinations of body weight, peripheral blood, the liver, the kidneys, and electrolytes revealed no side effects. This drug had an excellent effect on diarrhea due to Linac irradiation. Because of its depressant action on peristaltic reflexes and its anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative actions, it is hoped that it can be used to prevent radiation injuries. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Effective time management – selected issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Olejniczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberations included in this article contain the basic issues related to the subject of time management. As we know, people who waste their time the most, most complain about the lack of the time. We should treat our time, time of our co-workers, and friends as a valuable, but limited wealth. Principles of effective time management can be applied in any scientific and research institutions, companies or corporations. The benefits of a good and effective time management will be felt not only by ourselves but also by our friends and family. Detailed formulation of objectives, identification and elimination of time wasters and postponing work on later (Procrastination, using methods of time management and systematic control will allow for efficient use of time. A good plan is the basis for optimal and meaningful use of time.

  19. Stresses and strains in pavement structures due to the effect of temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilar Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At its absolute amount, stresses due to the effect of temperature in the pavement structures, especially those rigid, are often of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from vehicles' load, but it happens that due to such impact many slabs become cracked before the road is handed over into operation. The temperature stresses which occur in pavement structures include stresses due to bending and buckling, stresses due to friction and hidden stresses. Stresses caused by the influence of temperature in the pavement structure during the day are generally below the strength of the component materials so they do not cause the consequences for structure. However, appearance of residual stresses and their accumulation after a sufficiently long period of time may lead to failure in structure, i.e. thermal fatigue. The paper presents the effects of temperature changes on the pavement structures in the physical and mechanical terms, and the manner in which the temperature is taken into account during the design of pavement structures.

  20. Climate change due to greenhouse effects in China as simulated by a regional climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, X.J.; Zhao, Z.C.; Ding, Y.H.; Huang, R.H.; Giorgi, F. [National Climate Centre, Beijing (China)

    2001-07-01

    Impacts of greenhouse effects (2 x CO{sub 2}) upon climate change over China as simulated by a regional climate model over China (RegCM / China) have been investigated. The model was based on RegCM2 and was nested to a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model (CSIRO R21L9 AOGCM model). Results of the control run (1 x CO{sub 2}) indicated that simulations of surface air temperature and precipitation in China by RegCM are much better than that by the global coupled model because of a higher resolution. Results of sensitive experiment by RegCM with 2 x CO{sub 2} showed that the surface air temperature over China might increase remarkably due to greenhouse effect, especially in winter season and in North China. Precipitation might also increase in most parts of China due to the CO{sub 2} doubling.

  1. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M.; Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Brown, Andrew; Valebona, Fabio B.; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Ingberman, Aline B.G.; Nalin, Marcelo; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Penteado Neto, Renato A.; Marchi, Mary Rosa R. de; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP"E"S"R) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP"E"S"R results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100 cm"−"1 and 1600 cm"−"1 indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. - Highlights: • PM emission from biodiesel burning may be more harmful to human health than diesel. • Euro V (SCR) engine fuelled with B5 and B20 tested in a bench dynamometer • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to access the oxidative potential of PM emission

  2. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Brown, Andrew [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Valebona, Fabio B.; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Ingberman, Aline B.G. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Nalin, Marcelo [LAVIE - Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Penteado Neto, Renato A. [Vehicle Emissions Laboratory, Institute of Technology for Development (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Marchi, Mary Rosa R. de [Analytical Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N. [Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Pauliquevis, Theotonio [Department of Natural and Earth Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema (Brazil); Godoi, Ana Flavia L. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP{sup ESR}) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP{sup ESR} results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100 cm{sup −1} and 1600 cm{sup −1} indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. - Highlights: • PM emission from biodiesel burning may be more harmful to human health than diesel. • Euro V (SCR) engine fuelled with B5 and B20 tested in a bench dynamometer • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to access the oxidative potential of

  3. Mis-estimation and bias of hyperpolarized apparent diffusion coefficient measurements due to slice profile effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeremy W; Milshteyn, Eugene; Marco-Rius, Irene; Ohliger, Michael; Vigneron, Daniel B; Larson, Peder E Z

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the impact of slice profile effects on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping of hyperpolarized (HP) substrates. Slice profile effects were simulated using a Gaussian radiofrequency (RF) pulse with a variety of flip angle schedules and b-value ordering schemes. A long T 1 water phantom was used to validate the simulation results, and ADC mapping of HP [ 13 C, 15 N 2 ]urea was performed on the murine liver to assess these effects in vivo. Slice profile effects result in excess signal after repeated RF pulses, causing bias in HP measurements. The largest error occurs for metabolites with small ADCs, resulting in up to 10-fold overestimation for metabolites that are in more-restricted environments. A mixed b-value scheme substantially reduces this bias, whereas scaling the slice-select gradient can mitigate it completely. In vivo, the liver ADC of hyperpolarized [ 13 C, 15 N 2 ]urea is nearly 70% lower (0.99 ± 0.22 vs 1.69 ± 0.21 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s) when slice-select gradient scaling is used. Slice profile effects can lead to bias in HP ADC measurements. A mixed b-value ordering scheme can reduce this bias compared to sequential b-value ordering. Slice-select gradient scaling can also correct for this deviation, minimizing bias and providing more-precise ADC measurements of HP substrates. Magn Reson Med 78:1087-1092, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. The Effect of Units Lost Due to Deterioration in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ) Model

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model and its variations have received much attention from researchers. Recently, there has been an investigation into an EOQ model incorporating effect of units lost due to deterioration in infinite planning horizon with crisp decision environment. Accounting for holding and ordering cost, as has traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment are investigated which are not precisely known and defined on a ...

  5. Modelling the negative effects of landscape fragmentation on habitat selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape fragmentation constrains movement of animals between habitat patches. Fragmentation may, therefore, limit the possibilities to explore and select the best habitat patches, and some animals may have to cope with low-quality patches due to these movement constraints. If so, these individuals

  6. Qualitative models of magnetic field accelerated propagation in a plasma due to the Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Cherepanov, K.V.

    2000-01-01

    Two qualitatively new models of accelerated magnetic field propagation (relative to normal diffusion) in a plasma due to the Hall effect are developed within the frames of the electron magnetic hydrodynamics. The first model is based on a simple hydrodynamic approach, which, in particular, reproduces the number of known theoretical results. The second one makes it possible to obtain exact analytical description of the basic characteristics of the magnetic field accelerated propagation in a inhomogeneous iso-thermic plasma, namely, the magnetic field front and its effective width [ru

  7. Shielding effect of snow cover on indoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1988-01-01

    Many people in the world live in high latitude region where it snows frequently in winter. When snow covers the ground, it considerably reduces the external exposure from the radiation sources in the ground. Therefore, the evaluation of snow effect on exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation is necessary to obtain the population dose as well as the absorbed dose in air in snowy regions. Especially the shielding effect on indoor exposure is essentially important in the assessment of population dose since most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. The snow effect, however, has been rather neglected or assumed to be the same both indoors and outdoors in the population dose calculation. Snow has been recognized only as a cause of temporal variation of outdoor exposure rate due firstly to radon daughters deposition with snow fall and secondly to the shielding effect of snow cover. This paper describes an approach to the evaluation of shielding effect of snow cover on exposure and introduces population dose calculation as numerical example for the people who live in wooden houses in Japan

  8. Enhancement of transport properties of a Brownian particle due to quantum effects: Smoluchowski limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: By invoking physically motivated coordinate transformation into quantum Smoluchowski equation, we have presented a transparent treatment for the determination of the effective diffusion coefficient and current of a quantum Brownian particle. Substantial enhancement in the efficiency of the diffusive transport is envisaged due to the quantum correction effects. Highlights:: ► Transport of a quantum Brownian particle in a periodic potential has been addressed. ► Governing quantum Smoluchowski equation (QSE) includes state dependent diffusion. ► A coordinate transformation is used to recast QSE with constant diffusion. ► Transport properties increases in comparison to the corresponding classical result. ► This enhancement is purely a quantum effect. - Abstract: The transport property of a quantum Brownian particle that interacts strongly with a bath (in which a typical damping constant by far exceeds a characteristic frequency of the isolated system) under the influence of a tilted periodic potential has been studied by solving quantum Smoluchowski equation (QSE). By invoking physically motivated coordinate transformation into QSE, we have presented a transparent treatment for the determination of the effective diffusion coefficient of a quantum Brownian particle and the current (the average stationary velocity). Substantial enhancement in the efficiency of the diffusive transport is envisaged due to the quantum correction effects only if the bath temperature hovers around an appropriate range of intermediate values. Our findings also confirm the results obtained in the classical cases.

  9. Selection effects and database screening in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, R.W.J.; Sjerps, M.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that it is, in principle, not difficult to deal with selection effects in forensic science. If a suspect is selected through a process that is related to the forensic evidence, then the strength of the evidence will be compensated by very small prior odds. No further correction is

  10. Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect on farmers living standard in Bauchi local government area, Bauchi state, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ... Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of 82 rice growers from these villages. The data ...

  11. Indoor air pollution (PM2.5) due to secondhand smoke in selected hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Taj, Tahir; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Fatmi, Zafar; Lee, Kiyoung; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-09-01

    To determine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) levels at various hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at various locations in Karachi, during July 2009. Sampling was performed at 20 enclosed public places, including hospitality (restaurants and cafés) and entertainment (snooker/billiard clubs and gaming zones) venues. PM(2.5) levels were measured using an aerosol monitor. All entertainment venues had higher indoor PM(2.5) levels as compared to the immediate outdoors. The indoor PM(2.5) levels ranged from 25 to 390 μg/m(3) and the outdoor PM(2.5) levels ranged from 18 to 96 μg/m(3). The overall mean indoor PM(2.5) level was 138.8 μg/m(3) (± 112.8). Among the four types of venues, the highest mean indoor PM(2.5) level was reported from snooker/billiard clubs: 264.7 μg/m(3) (± 85.4) and the lowest from restaurants: 66.4 μg/m(3) (± 57.6) while the indoor/outdoor ratio ranged from 0.97 to 10.2, highest being at the snooker/billiard clubs. The smoking density ranged from 0.21 to 0.57, highest being at gaming zones. The indoor PM(2.5) concentration and smoking density were not significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.113; p = 0.636). This study demonstrates unacceptably high levels of PM(2.5) exposure associated with secondhand smoke (SHS) at various entertainment venues of Karachi even after 8 years since the promulgation of smoke-free ordinance (2002) in Pakistan; however, better compliance may be evident at hospitality venues. The results of this study call for effective implementation and enforcement of smoke-free environment at public places in the country.

  12. Risk estimates of stochastic effects due to exposure to radiation - a stochastic harm index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Y.G.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of exposure to low level radiation on the survival probability and life expectancy were investigated. The 1977 vital statistics of Jewish males in Israel were used as a baseline, mainly the data on normalized survival probability and life expectation as functions of age. Assumed effects of exposure were superposed on these data and the net differences calculated. It was found that the realistic rate effects of exposure to radiation are generally less than calculated by multiplying the collective dose by the risk factor. The effects are strongly age-dependent, decreasing sharply with age at exposure. The assumed harm due to exposure can be more than offset by improvements in medical care and safety. (H.K.)

  13. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C; Brown, Andrew; Valebona, Fabio B; Silva, Thiago O B; Ingberman, Aline B G; Nalin, Marcelo; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Penteado Neto, Renato A; de Marchi, Mary Rosa R; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Godoi, Ana Flavia L

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP(ESR)) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP(ESR) results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100cm(-1) and 1600cm(-1) indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 382 Effectiveness of Selected Communication Media on Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Effectiveness of Selected Communication Media on Tourism ... communication is a means to education vis-à-vis education is a means .... Strategies in Extention. ... Marketing Profile Among Rural Households in South Eastern.

  15. Assessment of radiological risk parameters associated with some selected rivers around oil mineral producing sites in Abia State, Nigeria due to gross alpha and beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enyinna, Paschal Ikenna; Uzochukwu, Francis C.

    2016-01-01

    The study of gross alpha and beta radiation in environmental components and water bodies in particular is very crucial to the environmental, radiation and medical Physicist as this helps to promote good water quality and environmental hygiene. This research work understudied the radiological risk parameters due to gross alpha and beta radiations associated with three selected rivers around crude oil production sites in Abia State, Nigeria. Gross alpha and beta activities were computed for the three rivers based on analytical measurements carried out using a well-calibrated IN-20 model gas-flow proportional counter. Radiological risk parameters were computed from the activity concentrations which included; annual effective dose equivalent of radiation from ingested water (AEDE), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR). The mean of the total AEDE due to the sum of alpha and beta radiations for the three rivers are 0.868 ± 0.221 mSv/y, 1.008 ± 0.156 mSv/y, and 0.917 ± 0.214 mSv/y; and are above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limit of 0.1 mSv/y. The mean of the total AGDE are 4.048 ± 1.063 mSv/y, 4.756 ± 0.739 mSv/y, and 4.295 ± 1.026 mSv/y; and are above the world average limit of 0.3 mSv/y. The mean of the total ELCR are (3.038 ± 0.774) X 10"-"3, (3.529 ± 0.547) X 10"-"3, and (3.210 ± 0.748) X 10"-"3; and are above the world average limit of 0.29 X 10"-"3. Most values of ELCR computed in this work are >6.0 X 10"-"4 estimated to be the risk of fatal and weighted nonfatal health conditions over a lifetime (70 years) derived from the radiation dose of 0.1 mSv/y (WHO permissible limit for drinking water). Drinking water from these surveyed sources could impact negatively on the end users. (author)

  16. Analysis of ringing effects due to magnetic core materials in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu Gaunkar, N.; Bouda, N. R. Y.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Hadimani, R. L.; Mina, M.; Jiles, D. C.; Bulu, I.; Ganesan, K.; Song, Y. Q.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents investigations and detailed analysis of ringing in a non-resonant pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit. Ringing is a commonly observed phenomenon in high power switching circuits. The oscillations described as ringing impede measurements in pulsed NMR systems. It is therefore desirable that those oscillations decay fast. It is often assumed that one of the causes behind ringing is the role of the magnetic core used in the antenna (acting as an inductive load). We will demonstrate that an LRC subcircuit is also set-up due to the inductive load and needs to be considered due to its parasitic effects. It is observed that the parasitics associated with the inductive load become important at certain frequencies. The output response can be related to the response of an under-damped circuit and to the magnetic core material. This research work demonstrates and discusses ways of controlling ringing by considering interrelationships between different contributing factors

  17. Risk Reduction Effects Due to the Start Time Extension of EDGs in OPR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho-Gon; Yang, Joon-Eon; Hwang, Mee-Jeong

    2006-01-01

    Under the condition that the ECCS rule in Korea will be revised based on the new U.S. 10 CFR 50.46, the risk impact due to the EDG start time extension is analyzed in the present study. This paper is composed of 6 sections. In the section 2, the LOCA break size that cannot be mitigable under the condition of extended EDG start time is obtained from the thermal hydraulic analysis. The section 3 discusses the frequency of the immitigable LOCA and the probability of the LOOP given a LOCA. In the section 4, the effect of the EDG start time extension on its failure probability is discussed with a qualitative manner. Finally, the whole risk change due to the EDG start time extension is calculated in the section 5 with the conclusions given in the section 6

  18. Analysis of ringing effects due to magnetic core materials in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu Gaunkar, N., E-mail: neelampg@iastate.edu; Bouda, N. R. Y.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Hadimani, R. L.; Mina, M.; Jiles, D. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Bulu, I.; Ganesan, K.; Song, Y. Q. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This work presents investigations and detailed analysis of ringing in a non-resonant pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit. Ringing is a commonly observed phenomenon in high power switching circuits. The oscillations described as ringing impede measurements in pulsed NMR systems. It is therefore desirable that those oscillations decay fast. It is often assumed that one of the causes behind ringing is the role of the magnetic core used in the antenna (acting as an inductive load). We will demonstrate that an LRC subcircuit is also set-up due to the inductive load and needs to be considered due to its parasitic effects. It is observed that the parasitics associated with the inductive load become important at certain frequencies. The output response can be related to the response of an under-damped circuit and to the magnetic core material. This research work demonstrates and discusses ways of controlling ringing by considering interrelationships between different contributing factors.

  19. Enhancement of Transistor-to-Transistor Variability Due to Total Dose Effects in 65-nm MOSFETs

    CERN Document Server

    Gerardin, S; Cornale, D; Ding, L; Mattiazzo, S; Paccagnella, A; Faccio, F; Michelis, S

    2015-01-01

    We studied device-to-device variations as a function of total dose in MOSFETs, using specially designed test structures and procedures aimed at maximizing matching between transistors. Degradation in nMOSFETs is less severe than in pMOSFETs and does not show any clear increase in sample-to-sample variability due to the exposure. At doses smaller than 1 Mrad( SiO2) variability in pMOSFETs is also practically unaffected, whereas at very high doses-in excess of tens of Mrad( SiO2)-variability in the on-current is enhanced in a way not correlated to pre-rad variability. The phenomenon is likely due to the impact of random dopant fluctuations on total ionizing dose effects.

  20. Gauge invariance of color confinement due to the dual Meissner effect caused by Abelian monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tsuneo; Hasegawa, Masayasu; Ishiguro, Katsuya; Koma, Yoshiaki; Sekido, Toru

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of non-Abelian color confinement is studied in SU(2) lattice gauge theory in terms of the Abelian fields and monopoles extracted from non-Abelian link variables without adopting gauge fixing. First, the static quark-antiquark potential and force are computed with the Abelian and monopole Polyakov loop correlators, and the resulting string tensions are found to be identical to the non-Abelian string tension. These potentials also show the scaling behavior with respect to the change of lattice spacing. Second, the profile of the color-electric field between a quark and an antiquark is investigated with the Abelian and monopole Wilson loops. The color-electric field is squeezed into a flux tube due to monopole supercurrent with the same Abelian color direction. The parameters corresponding to the penetration and coherence lengths show the scaling behavior, and the ratio of these lengths, i.e., the Ginzburg-Landau parameter, indicates that the vacuum type is near the border of the type 1 and type 2 (dual) superconductors. These results are summarized in which the Abelian fundamental charge defined in an arbitrary color direction is confined inside a hadronic state by the dual Meissner effect. As the color-neutral state in any Abelian color direction corresponds to the physical color-singlet state, this effect explains non-Abelian color confinement and supports the existence of a gauge-invariant mechanism of color confinement due to the dual Meissner effect caused by Abelian monopoles.

  1. Optimization of Artificial Neural Network using Evolutionary Programming for Prediction of Cascading Collapse Occurrence due to the Hidden Failure Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N. H.; Salim, N. A.; Othman, M. M.; Yasin, Z. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the Evolutionary Programming (EP) which proposed to optimize the training parameters for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in predicting cascading collapse occurrence due to the effect of protection system hidden failure. The data has been collected from the probability of hidden failure model simulation from the historical data. The training parameters of multilayer-feedforward with backpropagation has been optimized with objective function to minimize the Mean Square Error (MSE). The optimal training parameters consists of the momentum rate, learning rate and number of neurons in first hidden layer and second hidden layer is selected in EP-ANN. The IEEE 14 bus system has been tested as a case study to validate the propose technique. The results show the reliable prediction of performance validated through MSE and Correlation Coefficient (R).

  2. Probabilistic analysis of the torsional effects on the tall building resistance due to earthquake even

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the accidental torsional effect of reinforced concrete tall buildings due to earthquake even. The core-column structural system was considered with various configurations in plane. The methodology of the seismic analysis of the building structures in Eurocode 8 and JCSS 2000 is discussed. The possibilities of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the extensive and robust tasks in FEM is presented. The influence of the various input parameters (material, geometry, soil, masses and others) is considered. The deterministic and probability analysis of the seismic resistance of the structure was calculated in the ANSYS program.

  3. Study of the effects of radiation on prevention of gynaecomastia due to oestrogen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterfall, N B; Glaser, M G [Charing Cross Group of Hospitals, London (UK)

    1979-09-01

    A study of the effects of irradiation in prevention of gynaecomastia due to oestrogen therapy for carcinoma is reported. Twenty patients were treated with oestrogens without radiotherapy, of these 17 developed gynaecomastia. Twenty-seven patients were treated with radiotherapy prior to oestrogens, of these only 3 developed gynaecomastia. Previous studies have shown similar results but have used larger doses of irradiation and recommended a delay of 1 month between radiotherapy and treatment. In this study a low dose of radiation was used and oestrogens were started immediately after radiotherapy.

  4. Renormalization of effective mass in self-assembled quantum dots due to electron-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, A; Korkusinski, M; Hawrylak, P; Wasilewski, Z R; Potemski, M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic-field dispersion of the multiexcitons related to the p shell of a single quantum dot (QD) is analysed in this work. The reduced cyclotron effective mass of carriers is determined from the energy splitting between the p + - and p − - related multiexcitonic emission lines. The reduced mass in the occupied QD was found to be larger than the mass related to the QD's single particle structure. The apparent increase of the reduced mass with increasing excitonic occupation of the dot is related to the mass renoralization due to electron-electron interactions within a multiexcitonic droplet

  5. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Sasse

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  6. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Laura K; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  7. Numerical modeling of persian gulf salinity variations due to tidal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh Yazdi, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical modeling of salinity changes in marine environment of Persian Gulf is investigated in this paper. Computer simulation of the problem is performed by the solution of a convection-diffusion equation for salinity concentration coupled with the hydrodynamic equations. The hydrodynamic equations consist of shallow water equations of continuity and motion in horizontal plane. The effects of rain and evaporations are considered in the continuity equation and the effects of bed slope and friction, as well as Coriolis effects are considered in two equations of motion. The cell vertex finite volume method is applied for solving the governing equations on triangular unstructured meshes. Using unstructured meshes provides great flexibility for modeling the flow problems in arbitrary and complex geo metrics, such as Persia Gulf domain. The results of evaporation and Coriolis effects, as well as imposing river and tidal boundary conditions to the hydrodynamic model of Persian Gulf (considering variable topology rough bed) are compared with predictions of Admiralty Tide Table, Which are obtained from the harmonic analysis. The performance of the developed computer model is demonstrated by simulation of salinity changes due to inflow effects and diffusion effects as well as computed currents

  8. Distributions of Mutational Effects and the Estimation of Directional Selection in Divergent Lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Briton; Rutter, Matthew T; Fenster, Charles B; Symonds, V Vaughan; Ungerer, Mark C; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2017-08-01

    Mutations are crucial to evolution, providing the ultimate source of variation on which natural selection acts. Due to their key role, the distribution of mutational effects on quantitative traits is a key component to any inference regarding historical selection on phenotypic traits. In this paper, we expand on a previously developed test for selection that could be conducted assuming a Gaussian mutation effect distribution by developing approaches to also incorporate any of a family of heavy-tailed Laplace distributions of mutational effects. We apply the test to detect directional natural selection on five traits along the divergence of Columbia and Landsberg lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana , constituting the first test for natural selection in any organism using quantitative trait locus and mutation accumulation data to quantify the intensity of directional selection on a phenotypic trait. We demonstrate that the results of the test for selection can depend on the mutation effect distribution specified. Using the distributions exhibiting the best fit to mutation accumulation data, we infer that natural directional selection caused divergence in the rosette diameter and trichome density traits of the Columbia and Landsberg lineages. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Estimation of organ and effective dose due to Compton backscatter security scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate organ and effective radiation doses due to backscatter security scanners using Monte Carlo simulations and a voxelized phantom set. Methods: Voxelized phantoms of male and female adults and children were used with the GEANT4 toolkit to simulate a backscatter security scan. The backscatter system was modeled based on specifications available in the literature. The simulations modeled a 50 kVp spectrum with 1.0 mm-aluminum-equivalent filtration and a previously measured exposure of approximately 4.6 μR at 30 cm from the source. Photons and secondary interactions were tracked from the source until they reached zero kinetic energy or exited from the simulation’s boundaries. The energy deposited in the phantoms’ respective organs was tallied and used to calculate total organ dose and total effective dose for frontal, rear, and full scans with subjects located 30 and 75 cm from the source. Results: For a full screen, all phantoms’ total effective doses were below the established 0.25 μSv standard, with an estimated maximum total effective dose of 0.07 μSv for full screen of a male child. The estimated maximum organ dose due to a full screen was 1.03 μGy, deposited in the adipose tissue of the male child phantom when located 30 cm from the source. All organ dose estimates had a coefficient of variation of less than 3% for a frontal scan and less than 11% for a rear scan. Conclusions: Backscatter security scanners deposit dose in organs beyond the skin. The effective dose is below recommended standards set by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) assuming the system provides a maximum exposure of approximately 4.6 μR at 30 cm.

  10. Effects on fatigue life of gate valves due to higher torque switch settings during operability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richins, W.D.; Snow, S.D.; Miller, G.K.; Russell, M.J.; Ware, A.G.

    1995-12-01

    Some motor operated valves now have higher torque switch settings due to regulatory requirements to ensure valve operability with appropriate margins at design basis conditions. Verifying operability with these settings imposes higher stem loads during periodic inservice testing. These higher test loads increase stresses in the various valve internal parts which may in turn increase the fatigue usage factors. This increased fatigue is judged to be a concern primarily in the valve disks, seats, yokes, stems, and stem nuts. Although the motor operators may also have significantly increased loading, they are being evaluated by the manufacturers and are beyond the scope of this study. Two gate valves representative of both relatively weak and strong valves commonly used in commercial nuclear applications were selected for fatigue analyses. Detailed dimensional and test data were available for both valves from previous studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Finite element models were developed to estimate maximum stresses in the internal parts of the valves and to identity the critical areas within the valves where fatigue may be a concern. Loads were estimated using industry standard equations for calculating torque switch settings prior and subsequent to the testing requirements of USNRC Generic Letter 89--10. Test data were used to determine both; (1) the overshoot load between torque switch trip and final seating of the disk during valve closing and (2) the stem thrust required to open the valves. The ranges of peak stresses thus determined were then used to estimate the increase in the fatigue usage factors due to the higher stem thrust loads. The usages that would be accumulated by 100 base cycles plus one or eight test cycles per year over 40 and 60 years of operation were calculated

  11. Effective dose due to environmental γ-ray for the people of Akita prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junsuke; Watarai, Jiro; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2001-01-01

    Environmental γ-ray doses were measured in Akita prefecture by a NaI(Tl) scintillation surveymeter. The numbers of measurement site were 207 on pavement, 45 on unpaved ground, nine in concrete buildings and nine in wooden houses. The results of measurements, which were subtracted for background (cosmic ray and self-irradiation of the surveymeter), were 31 nSv/h (effective dose rate) on pavement, 27 nSv/h on unpaved ground, 65 nSv/h in the concrete buildings and 34 nSv/h in the wooden houses. The effective dose rate due to environmental γ-ray for the people of Akita prefecture was estimated taking into account of seasonal change of the dose rate at one site and occupancy factor in the prefecture. The outdoor and indoor dose rates were estimated to be 0.03 mSv/y and 0.33 mSv/y, respectively. (author)

  12. Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic capacitor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk

    2017-03-20

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the Atlantic is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The 'charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and 'discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the early 1990s, a warmer Atlantic due to the positive phase of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the Atlantic capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events.

  13. Effects of macroeconomic trends on social security spending due to sickness and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Jansson, Bjarne

    2004-11-01

    We analyzed the relationship between macroeconomic conditions, measured as unemployment rate and social security spending, from 4 social security schemes and total spending due to sickness and disability. We obtained aggregated panel data from 13 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries for 1980-1996. We used regression analysis and fixed effect models to examine spending on sickness benefits, disability pensions, occupational-injury benefits, survivor's pensions, and total spending. A decline in unemployment increased sickness benefits spending and reduced disability pension spending. These effects reversed direction after 4 years of unemployment. Inclusion of mortality rate as an additional variable in the analysis did not affect the findings. Macroeconomic conditions influence some reimbursements from social security schemes but not total spending.

  14. Large persistent photochromic effect due to DX centers in AlSb doped with selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becla, P.; Witt, A.G.

    1995-04-01

    A large photochromic effect has been observed in bulk AlSb crystals doped with Se. Illumination with light of energy higher than 1 eV leads to an increase of the absorption coefficient in the spectral range 0.1 to 1.6 eV. The enhanced absorption is persistent at temperatures below about K. The effect is a manifestation of a DX-like bistability of Se donors. The illumination transfers the from the DX center to a metastable hydrogenic level. The increased absorption with peaks around 0.2 eV and 0.5 is due to photoionization from the donor level to X l and X 3 minima of the conduction band

  15. Stochastic health effects assessment due to short-term external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Raskob, W.; Merkle, M.; Ninkovic, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The new model for calculation of stochastic health effects is presented in this paper. The exposure pathways which are briefly considered are the short-term external exposure due to passage of the radioactive cloud (cloudshine) and the short-term external exposure due to radioactive material deposited on skin and clothes (skin contamination). The quantitative assessment of stochastic effects is expressed in numbers of deaths, which are given as a functions of the time at the accident, and age at death, what on the other side enables estimation of the number of deaths within the specified range of the time/age parameters. That means the model calculates the number of deaths within one particular year, summed up over all ages at deaths, or vice versa, it finds the number of deaths within the specified range of ages at death, summed up over all observation times. Results presented in this paper are implemented in the module LATEHEAL, which is incorporated in RODOS, a new European system for decision support for nuclear emergencies. (author)

  16. Selective effect of physical fatigue on motor imagery accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Di Rienzo

    Full Text Available While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001 were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r=0.64; p<0.05 was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to

  17. Effect of Host Media on Microbial Influenced Corrosion due to Desulfotomaculum nigrificans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Suman; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, Ajay K.

    2013-04-01

    This article reports about the tests carried to investigate microbial-induced corrosion on stainless steels due to sulfate-reducing bacteria sp. Desulfotomaculum nigrificans in different host media. Stainless steel 304L, 316L, and 2205 were selected for the test. Modified Baar's media (BM), sodium chloride solution, and artificial sea water (SW) were used as test solutions in anaerobic conditions. Electrochemical polarization and immersion test were performed to estimate the extent of corrosion rate and pitting on stainless steels. SEM/EDS were used to study the details inside/outside pits formed on the corroded samples. Biofilm formed on corroded coupons was analyzed for its components by UV/Visible spectroscopy. Corrosion attack on the test samples was observed maximum in case of exposure to SW followed by NaCl solution, both having sulfide and chloride whereas stainless steel exposed to BM, having sulfide, showed minimum attack. Tendency of extracellular polymeric substances to bind metal ions is observed to be responsible for governing the extent of corrosion attack.

  18. EFFECT OF SODIUM PHOSPHATES ON SELECTED FOOD GRADE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect in vitro of selected sodium phosphates (under the corporate names Hexa 68, Hexa 70, Trikrystal, FST, Pyro 52, KPS, Didi on selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Seven different concentrations of each phosphate were used. Sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phosphates was observed in broth supplemented with salts. In vitro was showed a negative effect of various phosphates on growth of selected gram-positive bacteria. Orthophosphates and diphosphates (pyrophosphates did not have significant inhibitory effect on tested bacteria at neutral pH. With the exception of phosphate Trikrystal has not been found in vitro significant inhibitory effects on gram-negative bacteria.doi:10.5219/141

  19. Direct radiative effect due to brownness in organic carbon aerosols generated from biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, T.D.; Sahu, S.K.; Tiwari, M.; Pandit, G.G.

    2016-01-01

    We report the enhancement in the direct radiative effect due the presence of Brown carbon (BrC) as a part of organic carbon aerosols. The optical properties of organic carbon aerosols generated from pyrolytic combustion of mango tree wood (Magnifera Indica) and dung cake at different temperatures were considered. Mie codes were used to calculate absorption and scattering coefficients coupled with experimentally derived imaginary complex refractive index. The direct radiative effect (DRE) for sampled organic carbon aerosols was estimated using a wavelength dependent radiative transfer equation. The BrC DRE was estimated taking virtually non absorbing organic aerosols as reference. The BrC DRE from wood and dung cake was compared at different combustion temperatures and conditions. The BrC contributed positively to the direct top of the atmosphere radiative effect. Dung cake generated BrC aerosols were found to be strongly light absorbing as compared to BrC from wood combustion. It was noted that radiative effects of BrC from wood depended on its generation temperature and conditions. For BrC aerosols from dung cake such strong dependence was not observed. The average BrC aerosol DRE values were 1.53±0.76 W g"−"1 and 17.84±6.45 W g"−"1 for wood and dung cake respectively. The DRE contribution of BrC aerosols came mainly (67–90%) from visible light absorption though they exhibited strong absorption in shorter wavelengths of the UV–visible spectrum. - Highlights: • Biomass fuels (wood and dung cake) were studied for brown carbon direct radiative effects. • Model calculations predicted positive contribution of Brown carbon aerosols to organic carbon direct radiative effect. • Average direct radiative values for brown carbon from dung cake were higher compare to wood. • The visible light absorption played major role in brown carbon contribution (67–90 %) to total direct radiative effect.

  20. Estimation of health damage due to emission of air pollutants by cars: the canyon effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, J.V. [Ecole des Mines, Centre d' Energetique, Paris, 75 (France); Rabl, A.

    1999-07-01

    Since current epidemiological evidence suggests that air pollution has harmful effects even at typical ambient concentrations and the dispersion is significant over hundreds to thousands of km, the estimation of total health damage involves consideration of local and regional effects. In recent years, several estimates have been published of health damage due to air pollution from cars, in particular by Delucchi et al of UC Davis and by the ExternE Project of the European Commission. To capture the geographic extent of pollutant dispersion, local and regional models have been used in combination. The present paper addresses a potentially significant contribution of the total damage, not yet taken into account in these studies: the increased concentration of pollutants inside urban street canyons. This canyon effect is appreciable only for primary pollutants, the time constants for the formation of secondary pollutants being long compared to the residence time in the canyon. We assumed linearity of incremental health impact with incremental concentration, in view of the lack of epidemiological evidence for no-effect thresholds or significant deviations from linearity at typical ambient concentrations; therefore, only long term average concentrations matter. We use the FLUENT software to model the dispersion inside a street canyon for a wide range of rectangular geometries and wind velocities. Our results suggest that the canyon effect is of marginal significance for total damages, the contribution of the canyon effect being roughly 10 to 20% of the total. The relative importance of the canyon effect is, of course, highly variable with local conditions; it could be much smaller but it is unlikely to add more than 100% to the flat terrain estimate. (Author)

  1. Effect of repeated administration of Damiana on selected kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of repeated oral administration of Damiana, an aphrodisiac, on selected renal function indices of male rats for 20 days was investigated. Male rats were orally administered with appropriate volume corresponding to human therapeutic dose of 3.6mg/kg body weight of diamiana at 24hour intervals. The effects on ...

  2. Adaptive memory: Is the animacy effect on memory due to emotional arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Martin J; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Röer, Jan P

    2018-05-07

    Animate entities are often better remembered than inanimate ones. The proximal mechanisms underlying this animacy effect on recall are unclear. In two experiments, we tested whether the animacy effect is due to emotional arousal. Experiment 1 revealed that translations of the animate words used in the pioneering study of Nairne et al. (Psychological science, 24, 2099-2105, 2013) were perceived as being more arousing than translations of the inanimate words, suggesting that animacy might have been confounded with arousal in previous studies. In Experiment 2, new word lists were created in which the animate and inanimate words were matched on arousal (amongst several other dimensions), and participants were required to reproduce the animate and inanimate words in a free recall task. There was a tendency towards better memory for arousing items, but robust animacy effects were obtained even though animate and inanimate words were matched on arousal. Thus, while arousal may contribute to the animacy effect when it is not carefully controlled for, it cannot explain the memory advantage of animate items.

  3. Generation and maintenance of low effective pressures due to fluid flow in fractured rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagash, D.; Brantut, N.; Schubnel, A.; Bhat, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    The pore fluid pressure is expected to increase with increasing depth in the crust, primarily due to gravity forces. Because direct measurements are impossible beyond a few kilometers depths, the pore pressure gradient is often assumed to be linear (e.g., hydrostatic). However, a number of processes can severely modify the fluid pressure distribution in the crust. Here, we investigate the effect of fluid flow coupled to nonlinear permeability-effective pressure relationship. We performed a set of laboratory fluid flow experiments on thermally cracked Westerly granite at confining pressures up to 200 MPa and pore fluid pressures up to 120 MPa. Fluid flow was generated by imposing very strong pore pressure differences, up to 120 MPa, between the ends of the sample. The vertical fluid pressure distribution inside the sample was inferred by a set of 8 radial strain gauges, and an array of 10 P- and S-wave transducers. When the effective stress is kept near zero at one end of the sample and maintained high at the other end, the steady-state pore pressure profile is nonlinear. The effective stress, as inferred from the strain gauge array, remains close to zero through 2/3 of the sample, and increases sharply near the drained end of the sample. The ultrasonic data are used to build a vertical P- and S-wave velocity structure. The wave velocity profiles are consistent with a nonlinear relationship between wave velocity and effective pressure, as expected in thermally cracked granite. Taken together, our experimental data confirm the theoretical prediction that near zero effective stress can be generated through significant sections of rocks as a response to an imposed fluid flow. This has strong implications for the state of stress of the Earth's crust, especially around major continental transform faults that act as conduits for deep volatiles.

  4. The Effect of Units Lost Due to Deterioration in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ model and its variations have received much attention from researchers. Recently, there has been an investigation into an EOQ model incorporating effect of units lost due to deterioration in infinite planning horizon with crisp decision environment. Accounting for holding and ordering cost, as has traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment are investigated which are not precisely known and defined on a bounded interval of real numbers. The question is how reliable are the EOQ models when items stocked deteriorate one time. This paper introduces Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ model in which it assumes that units lost due to deterioration is included in the objective function to properly model the problem in finite planning horizon. The numerical analysis shows that an appropriate fuzzy policy can benefit the retailer and that is significant, especially for deteriorating items is shown to be superior to that of crisp decision making. A computational algorithm using LINGO 13.0 and MATLAB (R2009a software are developed to find the optimal solution. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied and managerial insights are drawn which shows the influence of key model parameters.

  5. Multiaxial Stress-Strain Modeling and Effect of Additional Hardening due to Nonproportional Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashed, G.; Ghajar, R.; Farrahi, G.

    2007-01-01

    Most engineering components are subjected to multiaxial rather than uniaxial cyclic loading, which causes multiaxial fatigue. The pre-requisite to predict the fatigue life of such components is to determine the multiaxial stress strain relationship. In this paper the multiaxial cyclic stress-strain model under proportional loading is derived using the modified power law stress-strain relationship. The equivalent strain amplitude consisted of the normal strain excursion and maximum shear strain amplitude is used in the proportional model to include the additional hardening effect due to nonproportional loading. Therefore a new multiaxial cyclic stress-strain relationship is devised for out of phase nonproportional loading. The model is applied to the nonproportional loading case and the results are compared with the other researchers' experimental data published in the literature, which are in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The relationship presented here is convenient for the engineering applications

  6. Orbital Kondo effect due to assisted hopping: Superconductivity, mass enhancement in Cooper oxides with apical oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadowski, A.; Penc, K.; Zimanyi, G.

    1991-07-01

    Orbital Kondo effect is treated in a model, where additional to the conduction band there are localized orbitals with energy not very far from the Fermi energy. If the hopping between the conduction band and the localized heavy orbitals depends on the occupation of the conduction band orbital then orbital Kondo correlation occurs. The assisted hopping vertex is enhanced due to the Coulomb interaction between the heavy orbital and the conduction band. The enhanced hopping results in mass enhancement and attractive interaction in the conduction band. The superconductivity transition temperature is calculated. The models of this type can be applied to the high-T c superconductors where the non-bonding oxygen orbitals of the apical oxygens play the role of heavy orbitals. For an essential range of the parameters the T c obtained is about 100K. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs

  7. Mechanical effects associated with surface loading of dry rock due to glaciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahi, K.K.; Hunter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Many scenarios of interest for a repository in the Pasco Basin begin with glaciation. Loading and unloading of joints and fractures due to the weight of ice sheets could affect the hydrologic properties of the host rock and surrounding units. Scoping calculations performed using two-dimensional numerical models with simplifying assumptions predict stress changes and uplift or subsidence caused by an advancing glacier. The magnitudes of surface uplift and subsidence predicted by the study agree well with previous independent predictions. Peak stress unloading near the repository horizon is a small fraction of the ambient stress. Any resultant aperture increase is likewise small. Based on the results of this study, mechanical loading caused by a glacier is expected to have a minimal effect on rock permeability, assuming that the excess compressive loads do not crush the rock. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Effect of Poultry Litter Treatment (PLT) on death due to ascites in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzich, M; Quarles, C; Goodwin, M A; Brown, J

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of Poultry Litter Treatment (PLT) on levels of litter moisture, litter nitrogen, atmospheric ammonia, and death due to ascites. Data were collected from chicks raised in containment conditions that resembled commercial settings. The ascites death rate (5.9%) in broiler chicks on PLT-treated litter was significantly (chi 2 = 15.5, df = 1, P = 0.0001) lower than that (31.5%) in broiler chicks raised on untreated litter. Likewise, atmospheric ammonia levels in pens that had been treated with PLT were significantly (P litter moisture and litter nitrogen levels were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments at any sample interval.

  9. Crack growth retardation due to micro-roughness: a mechanism for overload effects in fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, S.

    1982-01-01

    A new mechanism for fatigue crack growth retardation following an overload is presented in this paper, based on a micro-roughness model. It is reasoned, with the aid of extensive experimental evidence available in the literature, that retardation following an overload is governed by the micromechanisms of near-threshold crack growth. This model is found to rationalize a number of hitherto unexplained experimental observations. Moreover, the present arguments, which suggest that plasticity-induced crack closure is not likely to be the primary mechanism for retardation following single overloads, do not exclude the role of residual stresses or blunting, but provide further mechanistic basis to account for the inconsistencies in the previous models. Additional sources of prolonged retardation, in terms of crack closure due to corrosion debris formed in moist environments, are suggested. It is pointed out that such environmental effects could play an important role in post-overload crack growth in certain alloy systems

  10. Enhancement of First Wall Damage in Iter Type Tokamak due to Lenr Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Andrei G.; Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    In recent experiments with pulsed periodic high current (J ~ 300-500 mA/cm2) D2-glow discharge at deuteron energies as low as 0.8-2.45 keV a large DD-reaction yield has been obtained. Thick target yield measurement show unusually high DD-reaction enhancement (at Ed = 1 keV the yield is about nine orders of magnitude larger than that deduced from standard Bosch and Halle extrapolation of DD-reaction cross-section to lower energies) The results obtained in these LENR experiments with glow discharge suggest nonnegligible edge plasma effects in the ITER TOKAMAK that were previously ignored. In the case of the ITER DT plasma core, we here estimate the DT reaction yield at the metal edge due to plasma ion bombardment of the first wall and/or divertor materials.

  11. Enhancement of first wall damage in ITER type tokamak due to LENR effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, Andrei G.; Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2006-01-01

    In recent experiments with pulsed periodic high current (J - 300-500 mA/cm 2 ) D 2 -glow discharge at deuteron energies as low as 0.8-2.45 keV a large DD-reaction yield has been obtained. Thick target yield measurement show unusually high DD-reaction enhancement (at E d =1 keV the yield is about nine orders of magnitude larger than that deduced from standard Bosch and Halle extrapolation of DD-reaction cross-section to lower energies). The results obtained in these LENR experiments with glow discharge suggest nonnegligible edge plasma effects in the ITER TOKAMAK that were previously ignored. In the case of the ITER DT plasma core, we here estimate the DT reaction yield at the metal edge due to plasma ion bombardment of the first wall and/or divertor materials. (author)

  12. Asymmetric magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwires due to bias current: Effect of torsional stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buznikov, N.A.; Antonov, A.S.; Granovsky, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of torsional stress on the asymmetric magnetoimpedance in a glass-coated negative magnetostrictive amorphous microwire due to bias current is studied theoretically. The longitudinal and off-diagonal impedance components are found assuming a simplified spatial distribution of the magnetoelastic anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the field dependence of the impedance components is attributed to the combination of the circular magnetic field produced by the bias current and a helical anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the magnetoimpedance and the low-field hysteresis are analyzed as a function of the bias current and torsional stress. It is shown that the application of torsional stress significantly changes the value of the bias current required to suppress the hysteresis effect. The results obtained may be useful for applications in magnetic-field and stress sensors. - Highlights: • Effects of torsional stress on magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwire are studied. • Asymmetry in magnetoimpedance is analyzed as a function of bias current and stress. • Torsional stress changes the anisotropy and effects on the microwire impedance. • Field-dependence of impedance is anhysteretic when bias current exceeds threshold value. • Threshold bias current can be tuned by the application of torsional stress

  13. Asymmetric magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwires due to bias current: Effect of torsional stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buznikov, N.A., E-mail: n_buznikov@mail.ru [Scientific-Research Institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technologies – GAZPROM VNIIGAZ, Razvilka, Leninsky District, Moscow Region 142717 (Russian Federation); Antonov, A.S. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A.B. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    The influence of torsional stress on the asymmetric magnetoimpedance in a glass-coated negative magnetostrictive amorphous microwire due to bias current is studied theoretically. The longitudinal and off-diagonal impedance components are found assuming a simplified spatial distribution of the magnetoelastic anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the field dependence of the impedance components is attributed to the combination of the circular magnetic field produced by the bias current and a helical anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the magnetoimpedance and the low-field hysteresis are analyzed as a function of the bias current and torsional stress. It is shown that the application of torsional stress significantly changes the value of the bias current required to suppress the hysteresis effect. The results obtained may be useful for applications in magnetic-field and stress sensors. - Highlights: • Effects of torsional stress on magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwire are studied. • Asymmetry in magnetoimpedance is analyzed as a function of bias current and stress. • Torsional stress changes the anisotropy and effects on the microwire impedance. • Field-dependence of impedance is anhysteretic when bias current exceeds threshold value. • Threshold bias current can be tuned by the application of torsional stress.

  14. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  15. Estimation of effective dose from the atmospheric nuclear tests due to the intake of marine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masanao

    2008-01-01

    The worldwide environmental protection is required by the public. A long-term environmental assessment from nuclear fuel cycle facilities to the aquatic environment also becomes more important to understand long-term risk of nuclear energy. Evaluation of long-term risk including not only in Japan but also in neighboring countries is considered to be necessary in order to develop sustainable nuclear power industry. The author successfully simulated the distribution of radionuclides in seawater and seabed sediment produced by atmospheric nuclear tests using LAMER (Long-term Assessment ModEl of Radionuclides in the oceans). A part of the LAMER calculated the advection-diffusion-scavenging processes for radionuclides in the oceans and the Japan Sea in cooperate with Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) and was validated. The author is challenging to calculate probabilistic effective dose suggested by ICRP from intake of marine products due to atmospheric nuclear tests using the Monte Carlo method in the other part of LAMER. Depending on the deviation of each parameter, the 95th percentile of the probabilistic effective dose was from one third to two thirds of the 95th percentile of the deterministic effective dose in proforma calculation. It means that probabilistic assessment can contribute to the design and optimisation of a nuclear fuel cycle facility. (author)

  16. Reinforced concrete bridges: effects due to corrosion and concrete young modulus variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. C. Mendes

    Full Text Available Most of the Brazilian bridges of federal road network are made of reinforced concrete and are more than 30 years old, with little information about the mechanical properties of their constitutive materials. Along the service life of these bridges much modification occurred on vehicles load and geometry and in design standard. Many of them show signs of concrete and steel deterioration and their stability conditions are unknown. With the aim of contributing to the structural evaluation of reinforced concrete bridges it was decided to analyze the stresses in reinforced concrete bridge sections to verify the effects due to reinforcement corrosion and variation of the concrete Young modulus on the stress distribution regarding several load patterns and cracking effects in a representative bridge of the Brazilian road network with different longitudinal reinforcement taxes and two concrete Young modulus, Ec and 0.5Ec, and with different percentage of reinforcement corrosion. The analysis considered two finite element models: frame and shell elements as well as solid elements. The results indicate that these variation effects are more significant in reinforcement bars than in concrete.

  17. The effect of eflornithine 13.9% cream on the bother and discomfort due to hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joseph; Caro, J Jaime; Caro, Graciela; Garfield, Frances; Huber, Ferdinand; Zhou, Wenjiong; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Shander, Douglas; Schrode, Kathy

    2007-09-01

    Although unwanted facial hair often leads to anxiety and avoidance of social situations, evaluation of treatment outcomes in clinical trials has relied largely on measures external to the patient such as the extent of hair growth or an expert physician's assessment, neglecting to include patient reported outcomes (PRO). To assess the level of bother caused by a dermatological condition (hirsutism) and changes brought on by treatment, the instrument ESTEEM was developed by expanding the Bother Assessment in Skin Conditions (BASC) scale to six questions to cover the discomfort felt in four social situations and bother due to removing facial hair. Each question elicits responses on a visual analog scale. Women participating in two randomized clinical trials evaluated a new treatment (eflornithine 13.9% cream). Analyses examined the level of bother at each visit, the changes with treatment, the correlations with the Physician's Global Assessment, and the effect size. Hirsutism bothers patients considerably. The mean for overall bother was 89% and the mean discomfort in social situations exceeded 80% in nearly all cases. Treatment led to significant reductions in bother on all six items with effect sizes ranging from 0.46 to 1.62. Eflornithine is an effective treatment for unwanted facial hair in women, as reported by the patients. ESTEEM addresses the specific concerns of women with hirsutism.

  18. Quantifying the climate impacts of albedo changes due to biofuel production: a comparison with biogeochemical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Malina, Robert; Staples, Mark D; Wolfe, Philip J; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H

    2014-01-01

    Lifecycle analysis is a tool widely used to evaluate the climate impact of greenhouse gas emissions attributable to the production and use of biofuels. In this paper we employ an augmented lifecycle framework that includes climate impacts from changes in surface albedo due to land use change. We consider eleven land-use change scenarios for the cultivation of biomass for middle distillate fuel production, and compare our results to previous estimates of lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for the same set of land-use change scenarios in terms of CO 2 e per unit of fuel energy. We find that two of the land-use change scenarios considered demonstrate a warming effect due to changes in surface albedo, compared to conventional fuel, the largest of which is for replacement of desert land with salicornia cultivation. This corresponds to 222 gCO 2 e/MJ, equivalent to 3890% and 247% of the lifecycle GHG emissions of fuels derived from salicornia and crude oil, respectively. Nine of the land-use change scenarios considered demonstrate a cooling effect, the largest of which is for the replacement of tropical rainforests with soybean cultivation. This corresponds to − 161 gCO 2 e/MJ, or − 28% and − 178% of the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of fuels derived from soybean and crude oil, respectively. These results indicate that changes in surface albedo have the potential to dominate the climate impact of biofuels, and we conclude that accounting for changes in surface albedo is necessary for a complete assessment of the aggregate climate impacts of biofuel production and use. (paper)

  19. Quantifying the climate impacts of albedo changes due to biofuel production: a comparison with biogeochemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Malina, Robert; Staples, Mark D.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Lifecycle analysis is a tool widely used to evaluate the climate impact of greenhouse gas emissions attributable to the production and use of biofuels. In this paper we employ an augmented lifecycle framework that includes climate impacts from changes in surface albedo due to land use change. We consider eleven land-use change scenarios for the cultivation of biomass for middle distillate fuel production, and compare our results to previous estimates of lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for the same set of land-use change scenarios in terms of CO2e per unit of fuel energy. We find that two of the land-use change scenarios considered demonstrate a warming effect due to changes in surface albedo, compared to conventional fuel, the largest of which is for replacement of desert land with salicornia cultivation. This corresponds to 222 gCO2e/MJ, equivalent to 3890% and 247% of the lifecycle GHG emissions of fuels derived from salicornia and crude oil, respectively. Nine of the land-use change scenarios considered demonstrate a cooling effect, the largest of which is for the replacement of tropical rainforests with soybean cultivation. This corresponds to - 161 gCO2e/MJ, or - 28% and - 178% of the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of fuels derived from soybean and crude oil, respectively. These results indicate that changes in surface albedo have the potential to dominate the climate impact of biofuels, and we conclude that accounting for changes in surface albedo is necessary for a complete assessment of the aggregate climate impacts of biofuel production and use.

  20. Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure: Modification by dietary supplementation of jaggery in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nrashant; Kumar, D.; Lal, Kewal; Raisuddin, S.; Sahu, Anand P.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of villages of eastern India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are exposed to arsenic mainly through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water they are compelled to depend on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas and situation is compounded by the lack of proper nutrition. The hypothesis that the deleterious health effects of arsenic can be prevented by modification of dietary factors with the availability of an affordable and indigenous functional food jaggery (sugarcane juice) has been tested in the present study. Jaggery contains polyphenols, vitamin C, carotene and other biologically active components. Arsenic as sodium-m-arsenite at low (0.05 ppm) and high (5 ppm) doses was orally administered to Swiss male albino mice, alone and in combination with jaggery feeding (250 mg/mice), consecutively for 180 days. The serum levels of total antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were substantially reduced in arsenic-exposed groups, while supplementation of jaggery enhanced their levels in combined treatment groups. The serum levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in arsenic-exposed groups, while in the arsenic-exposed and jaggery supplemented groups their levels were normal. The comet assay in bone marrow cells showed the genotoxic effects of arsenic, whereas combination with jaggery feeding lessened the DNA damage. Histopathologically, the lung of arsenic-exposed mice showed the necrosis and degenerative changes in bronchiolar epithelium with emphysema and thickening of alveolar septa which was effectively antagonized by jaggery feeding. These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic.

  1. Long-term effects of early parental loss due to divorce on the HPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Miki; Peleg, Ido; Koren, Danny; Aner, Hamotal; Klein, Ehud

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of divorce and early separation from one parent on HPA axis reactivity, in young adults without psychopathology. Participants were 44 young subjects, 22 whose parents divorced before they reached age 10, and 22 controls. Psychiatric symptomatology was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), family perceived stress by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and bonding by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Assessment of HPA axis function included baseline morning cortisol and ACTH and cortisol response to a CRH stimulation test. No baseline or stimulated group differences were observed for ACTH. Cortisol levels were consistently but insignificantly lower in the divorce group throughout the CRH stimulation reaching statistical significance only at 5 min (p<0.03). Group by time effect reached a trend level (p<0.06). A correlation was found between psychiatric symptomatology and PBI scores; however, both parameters did not correlate with HPA axis activity. A significant correlation was found between DAS scores and ACTH. A regression model revealed a contributing effect for both family stress and child-parent bonding to stimulated ACTH levels. These preliminary findings suggest that even in the absence of adult psychopathology, a history of childhood separation from one parent due to divorce may lead to detectable, albeit mild, long-term alterations in HPA axis activity. Furthermore, they suggest that level of stress at home and parental bonding are important determinants of this effect. It is likely that divorce has significant and sustained effects on children's HPA axis only in the context of a traumatic separation.

  2. Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure: modification by dietary supplementation of jaggery in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nrashant; Kumar, D; Lal, Kewal; Raisuddin, S; Sahu, Anand P

    2010-02-01

    Populations of villages of eastern India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are exposed to arsenic mainly through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water they are compelled to depend on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas and situation is compounded by the lack of proper nutrition. The hypothesis that the deleterious health effects of arsenic can be prevented by modification of dietary factors with the availability of an affordable and indigenous functional food jaggery (sugarcane juice) has been tested in the present study. Jaggery contains polyphenols, vitamin C, carotene and other biologically active components. Arsenic as sodium-m-arsenite at low (0.05 ppm) and high (5 ppm) doses was orally administered to Swiss male albino mice, alone and in combination with jaggery feeding (250 mg/mice), consecutively for 180 days. The serum levels of total antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were substantially reduced in arsenic-exposed groups, while supplementation of jaggery enhanced their levels in combined treatment groups. The serum levels of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased in arsenic-exposed groups, while in the arsenic-exposed and jaggery supplemented groups their levels were normal. The comet assay in bone marrow cells showed the genotoxic effects of arsenic, whereas combination with jaggery feeding lessened the DNA damage. Histopathologically, the lung of arsenic-exposed mice showed the necrosis and degenerative changes in bronchiolar epithelium with emphysema and thickening of alveolar septa which was effectively antagonized by jaggery feeding. These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural Model of the Effect of Psychological Capital on Success with Due to the Mediating Role of Commitment and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Golparvar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was administered with the aim of investigating structural model of the effect of psychological capital on career success with due to the mediating role of satisfaction and commitment among employees of Telecom Company. Research statistical population was male and female employees of Telecom in Isfahan city, who among them two hundred and eighty five persons were selected using convenience sampling. Research instruments were Nguyen et al. Psychological Capital questionnaire, Nabi Job Success (career success Questionnaire, Spector Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and Speier and Venkatesh Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results of structural equation modeling revealed thatin aseriesof sequential relationships, there is a significant effect from psychological capital also on job satisfaction and organizational commitment and there is a significant effect also from job satisfaction and organizational commitment on job success (career success. The results also showed that psychological capital impact on career success was indirectly through job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Overall, the results of this study showed that job satisfaction and organizational commitment were mediating variables in the relationship between psychological capital and career success.

  4. elative age effect in the selection process of handball players of the regional selection teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gómez López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of age on adolescent handball players of the regional selection teams. To do this, data of sex and date of birth of 84 youth players from different regional selection teams in the 2015-2016 season were analyzed, performing comparisons and differences being studied by χ2 and Z tests and the Bonferroni method. The analysis of results by quarter and half of birth revealed no statistically significant differences in gender and category. It seems to confirm that there is not relative age effect in the analyzed Teams. Whereupon, seems to confirm that in handball base, all young people participate, regardless of the degree of maturity submit.

  5. Theory and Simulations of Incomplete Reconnection During Sawteeth Due to Diamagnetic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidler, Matthew Thomas

    Tokamaks use magnetic fields to confine plasmas to achieve fusion; they are the leading approach proposed for the widespread production of fusion energy. The sawtooth crash in tokamaks limits the core temperature, adversely impacts confinement, and seeds disruptions. Adequate knowledge of the physics governing the sawtooth crash and a predictive capability of its ramifications has been elusive, including an understanding of incomplete reconnection, i.e., why sawteeth often cease prematurely before processing all available magnetic flux. In this dissertation, we introduce a model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes resulting from increasing diamagnetic effects in the nonlinear phase of magnetic reconnection. Physically, the reconnection inflow self-consistently convects the high pressure core of a tokamak toward the q=1 rational surface, thereby increasing the pressure gradient at the reconnection site. If the pressure gradient at the rational surface becomes large enough due to the self-consistent evolution, incomplete reconnection will occur due to diamagnetic effects becoming large enough to suppress reconnection. Predictions of this model are borne out in large-scale proof-of-principle two-fluid simulations of reconnection in a 2D slab geometry and are also consistent with data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST). Additionally, we present simulations from the 3D extended-MHD code M3D-C1 used to study the sawtooth crash in a 3D toroidal geometry for resistive-MHD and two-fluid models. This is the first study in a 3D tokamak geometry to show that the inclusion of two-fluid physics in the model equations is essential for recovering timescales more closely in line with experimental results compared to resistive-MHD and contrast the dynamics in the two models. We use a novel approach to sample the data in the plane of reconnection perpendicular to the (m,n)=(1,1) mode to carefully assess the reconnection physics. Using local measures of

  6. Effects of Mode of Target Task Selection on Learning about Plants in a Mobile Learning Environment: Effortful Manual Selection versus Effortless QR-Code Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of effortless selection of target plants using quick respond (QR) code technology to effortful manual search and selection of target plants on learning about plants in a mobile device supported learning environment. In addition, it was investigated whether the effectiveness of the 2 selection methods was…

  7. Seasonal variability of rocky reef fish assemblages: Detecting functional and structural changes due to fishing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Sofia; Pais, Miguel Pessanha; Costa, Maria José; Cabral, Henrique Nogueira

    2013-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of seasonal variation on the stability of fish-based metrics and their capability to detect changes in fish assemblages, which is yet poorly understood despite the general idea that guilds are more resilient to natural variability than species abundances. Three zones subject to different levels of fishing pressure inside the Arrábida Marine Protected Area (MPA) were sampled seasonally. The results showed differences between warm (summer and autumn) and cold (winter and spring) seasons, with the autumn clearly standing out. In general, the values of the metrics density of juveniles, density of invertebrate feeders and density of omnivores increased in warm seasons, which can be attributed to differences in recruitment patterns, spawning migrations and feeding activity among seasons. The density of generalist/opportunistic individuals was sensitive to the effect of fishing, with higher values at zones with the lowest level of protection, while the density of individuals with high commercial value only responded to fishing in the autumn, due to a cumulative result of both juveniles and adults abundances during this season. Overall, this study showed that seasonal variability affects structural and functional features of the fish assemblage and that might influence the detection of changes as a result of anthropogenic pressures. The choice of a specific season, during warm sea conditions after the spawning period (July-October), seems to be more adequate to assess changes on rocky-reef fish assemblages.

  8. Effect of combined loading due to bending and internal pressure on pipe flaw evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki; Sakai, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    Considering a rational maintenance rule of Light Water Reactor piping, reliable flaw evaluation criteria are essential to determine how a detected flaw is detrimental to continuous plant operation. Ductile fracture is one of the dominant failure modes to be considered for carbon steel piping, and can be analyzed by the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Some analytical efforts have been provided as flaw evaluation criteria using load correction factors such like the Z-factors in the JSME codes on fitness-for-service for nuclear power plants or the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section XI. The present correction factors were conventionally determined taken conservatism and simplicity into account, however, the effect of internal pressure which would be an important factor under an actual plant condition was not adequately considered. Recently, a J-estimation scheme, 'LBB. ENGC' for ductile fracture analysis of circumferentially through-wall-cracked pipes subjected combined loading was newly developed to have a better prediction with more realistic manner. This method is explicitly incorporated the contribution of both bending and tension due to internal pressure by means of the scheme compatible with an arbitrary combined loading history. In this paper, the effect of internal pressure on the flaw evaluation criteria was investigated using the new J-estimation scheme. A correction factor based on the new J-estimation scheme was compared with the present correction factors, and the predictability of the current flaw evaluation criteria was quantitatively evaluated in consideration of internal pressure. (author)

  9. Effect of prolotherapy on hemiplegic shoulder pain due to rotator cuff tendinopathy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Kesikburun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolotherapy on pain and shoulder range of motion in stroke patients with hemiplegic shoulder pain due to rotator cuff tendinopathy. Material and Methods: The data of 10 patients (mean age, 64.2+/-11.6 years who had a history stroke of more than six months and underwent prolotherapy treatment were collected retrospectively. The treatment included 3 sessions of dextrose pr olotherapy injections applied to rotator cuff tendon. Visual analogue scale pain scores and shoulder range of motions measured at baseline and two weeks later after end of the treatment were assessed. Results: Visual analogue scale shoulder pain scores of the patients decreased from 8.2+/-1.1 at baseline to 4.8+/-1.9 after prolotherapy The degrees of shoulder flexion and abduction increased significantly after the treatment. Conclusion: Preliminary results in this pilot study suggested the beneficial effect of proloterapi in the treatmentof hemiplegicshoulderpain. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 13-18

  10. THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND BLUE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IS NOT DUE TO PROJECTION EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  11. The Size Difference between Red and Blue Globular Clusters is not due to Projection Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  12. The Effective Dose Due to Radionuclides Intake Via Ingestion in Poland in 1986-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: One of the pathways of radiation exposure in humans is consumption of contaminated food. The composition of an average diet is diversified for various groups within the population and depends on age, sex, consumption habit and performed work. To asses the dose obtained by people due to ingestion of contaminated food, the activity of main products of Polish diet has been analysed for period 1986 - 1999. The samples of milk, meat, vegetables, fruit and cereals were collected all over the territory of Poland to determine the activity of caesium isotopes. In the first two-year after the Chernobyl accident the differences in contamination were observed in various regions. Later on the differences were less pronounced except in milk and meat. The calculation of an average annual intake of caesium isotopes was based on statistical data consumption and contamination of certain product important in daily diet. Annual intake of caesium was different among regions. Mean annual effective dose related to the ingestion of contaminated food of 137 Cs was assessed on 54μSv in 1986 and 28μSv in 1987 and of 134 Cs on 34μSv and 13μSv respectively. In next years the dose was diminishing and from 1993 the average annual effective dose from 137 Cs has been on level 6-7 μSv. (author)

  13. Temperature effects on the electrohydrodynamic and electrokinetic behaviour of ion-selective nanochannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Jeffery A; Benneker, Anne M; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2016-01-01

    A non-isothermal formulation of the Poisson–Nernst–Planck with Navier–Stokes equations is used to study the influence of heating effects in the form of Joule heating and viscous dissipation and imposed temperature gradients on a microchannel/nanochannel system. The system is solved numerically under various cases in order to determine the influence of temperature-related effects on ion-selectivity, flux and fluid flow profiles, as well as coupling between these phenomena. It is demonstrated that for a larger reservoir system, the effects of Joule heating and viscous dissipation only become relevant for higher salt concentrations and electric field strengths than are compatible with ion-selectivity due to Debye layer overlap. More interestingly, it is shown that using different temperature reservoirs can have a strong influence on ion-selectivity, as well as the induced electrohydrodynamic flows. (paper)

  14. Local impact effects on concrete target due to missile: An empirical and numerical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Rajiv; Banerjee, Sauvik; Singh, R.K.; Banerji, Pradipta

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Local impact effect of hard missile on reinforced concrete targets has been studied. • Review of empirical formulation for predicting local response carried out. • Numerical simulation of experimental test of Kojima (1991) carried out. • Divergence of FE results with those obtained using emperical formulations. • Close match of numerical simulation results with experimental data. - Abstract: Concrete containment walls and internal concrete barrier walls of a Nuclear Power Plant safety related structures are often required to be designed for externally and internally generated missiles. Potential missiles include external extreme wind generated missiles, aircraft crash and internal accident generated missiles such as impact due to turbine blade failure and steel pipe missiles resulting from pipe break. The objective of the present paper is to compare local missile impact effects on reinforced concrete target using available empirical formulations with those obtained using LS-DYNA numerical simulation. The use of numerical simulations for capturing the transient structural response has become increasingly used for structural design against impact loads. They overcome the limits of applicability of the empirical formulae and also provide information on stress and deformation fields, which may be used to improve the resistance of the concrete. Finite element (FE) analyses of an experimental impact problem reported by Kojima (1991) are carried out that are able to capture the missile impact effects; in terms of local and global damage. The continuous surface cap model has been used for modelling concrete behaviour. A range of missile velocity has been considered to simulate local missile impact phenomenon and modes of failure and to capture the concrete response from elastic to plastic fracture. A comparison is then made between the empirical formulations, numerical simulation results, and available experimental results of slab impact tests

  15. Effect of balance exercise on selected kinematic gait variables in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of balance exercise on some selected kinematic gait parameters in patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. Forty subjects (18 men and 22 women) participated in the study.They were divided into two groups: Group 1 (experimental) that was treated with balance exercises, ...

  16. Effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on the in vitro methane production and microbial diversity. The plants include multi-purpose trees; Pterocarpus santallinoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbek, Albizia saman, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, ...

  17. The effects of s-triazines on selected marine macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewey, S.A.; Nummela, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    Although s-triazines have been used as herbicides for many years, their use and that of other herbicides and fungicides, in antifouling compounds is only fairly recent. The Hamble estuary, Hampshire UK has been identified as one such site. Investigations were conducted into the effects of s-triazines on selected marine macroalgae, local to that area

  18. The effects of carbonated alcoholic herbal beverage on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Carbonated Alcoholic herbal beverages (CAHB) are a menace in our society as the drink is grossly abused; this study is therefore aimed at investigating the Histomorphological, selected hepatorenal function indices and some hematological parameters effects induced by a Carbonated Alcoholic Herbal Beverage that ...

  19. Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma and Bacillus isolates on growth of dry bean and biological control of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off. ... Greenhouse trials showed that combined inoculations of T. atroviride strain 6 and B. subtilis B69 gave the highest growth promotion of bean in terms of ...

  20. Effect of animal manures on selected soil chemical properties (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of animal manures on selected soil properties were studied in the laboratory. Manures of Rabbit (RBM), Swine (SWM), Poultry (POM), Goat, (GTM) and Cow (COM) were added at 10, 20, 30 and 40 t/ha to an acidic Ultisol. The amended soils were incubated at 70% water holding capacity for 3 weeks.

  1. Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX). Selected data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1992-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains selected data sets compiled by the participants of the Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX) workshop on atmospheric temperature. The data sets include surface, upper air, and/or satellite-derived measurements of temperature, solar irradiance, clouds, greenhouse gases, fluxes, albedo, aerosols, ozone, and water vapor, along with Southern Oscillation Indices and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation statistics.

  2. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we investigated whether stress caused by artificial bidirectional selection for body size has any effect on the levels of FA of different morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae. The realised heritability (h2) was higher in low-line females and high-line males, which suggests an asymmetrical response to ...

  3. Effect of Thermo-extrusion Process Parameters on Selected Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Thermo-extrusion Process Parameters on Selected Quality Attributes of Meat Analogue from Mucuna Bean Seed Flour. ... Nigerian Food Journal ... The product functional responses with coefficients of determination (R2) ranging between 0.658 and 0.894 were most affected by changes in barrel temperature and ...

  4. Effects of selected coping strategies on impediment oriented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of selected coping strategies on the impediment oriented academic stress of the visually impaired pupils in Oji- River School for the Blind, Enugu State. The study is a quasi-Experimental design involving two treatment groups and one control group. Twenty visually impaired ...

  5. The effect of exchange rate devaluation on selected agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exchange rate devaluation on selected agricultural export commodities in Nigeria. ... The overall results confirmed that in most cases, the lagged values of exchange rate devaluation had a significant and positive relationship with agricultural export commodities but of a higher magnitude in the Total agricultural ...

  6. To study the effects of groundwater contamination in Kasur due to Nallah Rohi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghumman, A.R.; Shamim, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater contamination is a worldwide known problem. Pakistan, being a developing country, is also facing the problem created by groundwater pollution. Disposal of domestic wastes and agricultural treatments has been reported to be a considerable factor for causing the pollution, especially the groundwater contamination. In the rural areas of Pakistan, latrines and septic tanks have become common because of the advancement in the living standards. All of the domestic wastes is disposed off into the ponds or nearby passing streams. In the similar fashion, drains in the big and well developed cities of Pakistan lead the domestic waste, along with the industrial waste, into the passing by streams, canals and rivers. All of such disposed off waste is untreated because of the lack of legislation and its improper implementation. The contaminated water affects the health of human beings and also destroys the crops when this water is used for irrigation. So this paper deals with the effects and condition of the disposal of the harmful chemicals, which ultimately through seepage reach the groundwater and make it hazardous. Also, the lateral distances of the contaminated groundwater were found out. For experimentation, major city of Kasur which is in the vicinity of Nullah Rohi, was selected. All the wastes including both the industrial as well as domestic, of the whole area, is disposed off into the Nullah. The percolation of the harmful chemicals and its mixing with groundwater has resulted in the hazardous effects on the inhabitants of the area on the irrigation land as well. So the water in the vicinity, at different locations was tested and the degree of contamination and the lateral distances of contaminated water were also worked out. (author)

  7. Neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucny, Jason; Olincy, Ann; Eichman, Lindsay S; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-06-01

    Although the attention-enhancing effects of nicotine have been behaviorally and neurophysiologically well-documented, its localized functional effects during selective attention are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention in healthy human nonsmokers. We hypothesized to observe significant effects of nicotine in attention-associated brain areas, driven by nicotine-induced increases in activity as a function of increasing task demands. A single-blind, prospective, randomized crossover design was used to examine neuronal response associated with a go/no-go task after 7 mg nicotine or placebo patch administration in 20 individuals who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The task design included two levels of difficulty (ordered vs. random stimuli) and two levels of auditory distraction (silence vs. noise). Significant treatment × difficulty × distraction interaction effects on neuronal response were observed in the hippocampus, ventral parietal cortex, and anterior cingulate. In contrast to our hypothesis, U and inverted U-shaped dependencies were observed between the effects of nicotine on response and task demands, depending on the brain area. These results suggest that nicotine may differentially affect neuronal response depending on task conditions. These results have important theoretical implications for understanding how cholinergic tone may influence the neurobiology of selective attention.

  8. Valley-selective optical Stark effect probed by Kerr rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMountain, Trevor; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Stanev, Teodor K.; Hersam, Mark C.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control distinct states is at the heart of emerging quantum technologies. The valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers is a promising degree of freedom for such control, with the optical Stark effect allowing for valley-selective manipulation of energy levels in WS2 and WSe2 using ultrafast optical pulses. Despite these advances, understanding of valley-sensitive optical Stark shifts in TMDCs has been limited by reflectance-based detection methods where the signal is small and prone to background effects. More sensitive polarization-based spectroscopy is required to better probe ultrafast Stark shifts for all-optical manipulation of valley energy levels. Here, we show time-resolved Kerr rotation to be a more sensitive probe of the valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer TMDCs. Compared to the established time-resolved reflectance methods, Kerr rotation is less sensitive to background effects. Kerr rotation provides a fivefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the Stark effect optical signal and a more precise estimate of the energy shift. This increased sensitivity allows for observation of an optical Stark shift in monolayer MoS2 that exhibits both valley and energy selectivity, demonstrating the promise of this method for investigating this effect in other layered materials and heterostructures.

  9. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kassa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  10. Effective new chemicals to prevent corrosion due to chlorine in power plant superheaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martti Aho; Pasi Vainikka; Raili Taipale; Patrik Yrjas [VTT, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2008-05-15

    Firing or co-firing of biomass in efficient power plants can lead to high-temperature corrosion of superheaters due to condensation of alkali chlorides into superheater deposits. Corrosion can be prevented if a significant portion of the alkali chlorides present in the flue gases is destroyed before reaching the superheaters. The alkali capturing power of aluminium and ferric sulphates was determined in a pilot-scale fluidised bed (FB) reactor. The reagents were added in solution, through a spraying nozzle, to the upper part of the freeboard. Both reagents, at economical dosages, fast and effectively destroyed the alkali chlorides by producing sufficient SO{sub 3} for the sulphation. Both the mass flow rate and type of sulphate affected the sulphation ability. Thus, the cation, too, plays a role in the reaction. The required chemical dosage is not directly proportional to the S{sub reagent}/Cl{sub 2fuel} ratio because alkali chlorides must compete with calcium and magnesium oxides and probably also with alkali oxides for the available SO{sub 3}. 17 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A modeling study of effective radiative forcing and climate response due to increased methane concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An atmospheric general circulation model BCC_AGCM2.0 and observation data from ARIS were used to calculate the effective radiative forcing (ERF due to increased methane concentration since pre-industrial times and its impacts on climate. The ERF of methane from 1750 to 2011 was 0.46 W m−2 by taking it as a well-mixed greenhouse gas, and the inhomogeneity of methane increased its ERF by about 0.02 W m−2. The change of methane concentration since pre-industrial led to an increase of 0.31 °C in global mean surface air temperature and 0.02 mm d−1 in global mean precipitation. The warming was prominent over the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (with a maximum increase exceeding 1.4 °C. The precipitation notably increased (maximum increase of 1.8 mm d−1 over the ocean between 10°N and 20°N and significantly decreased (maximum decrease >–0.6 mm d−1 between 10°S and 10°N. These changes caused a northward movement of precipitation cell in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ. Cloud cover significantly increased (by approximately 4% in the high latitudes in both hemispheres, and sharply decreased (by approximately 3% in tropical areas.

  12. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis.

  13. Health Effects Due to Radionuclides Content of Solid Minerals within Port of Richards Bay, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Masok

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite and analyzed for 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 235U, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy. Rutile was found to be the most radioactive mineral ore within the facility with 210Pb concentration of 759.00 ± 106.00 Bq·kg−1. Effective annual dose rate in (mSv·y−1 delivered to different organs of the body: testes, bone marrow, whole body, lungs and ovaries from mineral ores were such that dose from mineral ores decreased in the order coal > rutile > rock phosphate > hematite > zircon. The organs with the highest received dose rate were the testes and this received dose was from coal. However, all of the calculated absorbed dose rates to organs of the body were below the maximum permissible safety limits.

  14. General observation of the memory effect in metal-insulator-ITO structures due to indium diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Xu, Huihua; Zhao, Ni; Wang, Yu; Rogach, Andrey L; Shen, Yingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices based on metal oxides, organic molecules and inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) have been studied extensively in recent years. Different memory switching mechanisms have been proposed and shown to be closely related to the device architectures. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of an ITO/active layer/InGa structure can yield nonvolatile resistive memory behavior in a variety of active materials, including polymers, organic small molecules, and colloidal NCs. Through the electrode material and thickness-dependent study, we show that the ON state of the devices is associated with filamentary conduction induced by indium diffusion from the ITO electrode, occurring mostly within around 40–50 nm from the ITO/active layer interface. A negative differential resistance (NDR) regime is observed during transition from the ON to OFF state, and is explained by the space charge limited current (SCLC) effect due to hole injection at the ITO/active layer interface. Our study reveals the impact of indium diffusion at the ITO/active layer interface, an important factor that should be taken into consideration when designing thin printed RRAM devices. (paper)

  15. Bias Errors due to Leakage Effects When Estimating Frequency Response Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Josefsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency response functions are often utilized to characterize a system's dynamic response. For a wide range of engineering applications, it is desirable to determine frequency response functions for a system under stochastic excitation. In practice, the measurement data is contaminated by noise and some form of averaging is needed in order to obtain a consistent estimator. With Welch's method, the discrete Fourier transform is used and the data is segmented into smaller blocks so that averaging can be performed when estimating the spectrum. However, this segmentation introduces leakage effects. As a result, the estimated frequency response function suffers from both systematic (bias and random errors due to leakage. In this paper the bias error in the H1 and H2-estimate is studied and a new method is proposed to derive an approximate expression for the relative bias error at the resonance frequency with different window functions. The method is based on using a sum of real exponentials to describe the window's deterministic autocorrelation function. Simple expressions are derived for a rectangular window and a Hanning window. The theoretical expressions are verified with numerical simulations and a very good agreement is found between the results from the proposed bias expressions and the empirical results.

  16. Effect on thermoluminescence parameters of biotite mineral due to thermal quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, J.M.; Wary, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL) at room temperature X-ray irradiated natural biotite in form of micro-grain powder was studied under various heating rates. TSL peaks showed at temperatures 393 K, 399.6 K, 403.5 K, 404.5 K, 406.9 K at their respective heating rates 2 K/s, 4 K/s, 6 K/s, 8 K/s and 10 K/s. The effect of thermal quenching on thermoluminescence parameters such as peak maximum temperature, peak area, FWHM, geometrical symmetry factor, the activation energy were investigated. From the symmetry factor it is clear that the TL glow curve follows the first order kinetics for the lowest heating rate, but as the heating rate increases it defers from the first order. The activation energies for each heating rates were calculated by using Chen peak shape methods for general order kinetics and found to be decreased for higher heating rates. When activation energy is calculated by variable heating rate method it is observed that the method overestimated the value of activation energy and pre-exponential frequency factor significantly due to thermal quenching. - Highlights: ► Biotite is a common mineral with chemical formula K(Mg,Fe) 3 AlSi 3 O 10 (F,OH) 2 . ► Structural, compositional and elemental analysis of biotite is carried out. ► TSL of X-ray irradiated natural biotite was studied under various heating rates. ► The effect of thermal quenching on TL parameters has been investigated.

  17. Effect of combined loading due to bending and internal pressure on pipe flaw evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki; Sakai, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Considering a rule for the rationalization of maintenance of Light Water Reactor piping, reliable flaw evaluation criteria are essential for determining how a detected flaw will be detrimental to continuous plant operation. Ductile fracture is one of the dominant failure modes that must be considered for carbon steel piping and can be analyzed by elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Some analytical efforts have provided various flaw evaluation criteria using load correction factors, such as the Z-factors in the JSME codes on fitness-for-service for nuclear power plants and the section XI of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. The present Z-factors were conventionally determined, taking conservativity and simplicity into account; however, the effect of internal pressure, which is an important factor under actual plant conditions, was not adequately considered. Recently, a J-estimation scheme, LBB.ENGC for the ductile fracture analysis of circumferentially through-wall-cracked pipes subjected to combined loading was developed for more accurate prediction under more realistic conditions. This method explicitly incorporates the contributions of both bending and tension due to internal pressure by means of a scheme that is compatible with an arbitrary combined-loading history. In this study, the effect of internal pressure on the flaw evaluation criteria was investigated using the new J-estimation scheme. The Z-factor obtained in this study was compared with the presently used Z-factors, and the predictability of the current flaw evaluation criteria was quantitatively evaluated in consideration of the internal pressure. (author)

  18. Effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio due to a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Fischer, U.; Dies, J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports results of MCNP-5 calculations, with the nuclear data library FENDL-2.1, to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) due to a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna integrated in the blanket of a DEMO fusion power reactor. A preliminary design of the antenna with a reference configuration of the DEMO reactor was used together with a parametric analysis for different parameters that strongly affect the TBR. These are the type of breeding blanket (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed, Helium Cooled Lithium Lead and Water Cooled Lithium Lead), the covering ratio of the straps of the antenna (the ratio between the surface of all the straps and the projected surface of the antenna slot: 0.49, 0.72 and 0.94), the antenna radial thickness (20 cm and 40 cm), the thickness of the straps (2 cm, 4 cm and a double layer of 0.2 cm plus 2.5 cm with the composition of the First Wall), and finally the poloidal position of the antenna (0°, which is the equatorial port, 40° and 90°, which is the upper port). For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidaly at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m and a total First Wall surface of 67 m"2, the reduction of the TBR is −0.35% for a HCPB blanket concept, −0.53% for a HCLL blanket concept and −0.51% for a WCLL blanket concept. In all cases covered by the parametric analysis, the loss of TBR remains below 0.61%. Such a distributed ICRF antenna has thus only a marginal effect on the TBR for a DEMO reactor.

  19. Effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio due to a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A., E-mail: albert.garcia.hp@gmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Dies, J. [Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    This thesis reports results of MCNP-5 calculations, with the nuclear data library FENDL-2.1, to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) due to a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna integrated in the blanket of a DEMO fusion power reactor. A preliminary design of the antenna with a reference configuration of the DEMO reactor was used together with a parametric analysis for different parameters that strongly affect the TBR. These are the type of breeding blanket (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed, Helium Cooled Lithium Lead and Water Cooled Lithium Lead), the covering ratio of the straps of the antenna (the ratio between the surface of all the straps and the projected surface of the antenna slot: 0.49, 0.72 and 0.94), the antenna radial thickness (20 cm and 40 cm), the thickness of the straps (2 cm, 4 cm and a double layer of 0.2 cm plus 2.5 cm with the composition of the First Wall), and finally the poloidal position of the antenna (0°, which is the equatorial port, 40° and 90°, which is the upper port). For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidaly at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m and a total First Wall surface of 67 m{sup 2}, the reduction of the TBR is −0.35% for a HCPB blanket concept, −0.53% for a HCLL blanket concept and −0.51% for a WCLL blanket concept. In all cases covered by the parametric analysis, the loss of TBR remains below 0.61%. Such a distributed ICRF antenna has thus only a marginal effect on the TBR for a DEMO reactor.

  20. Evaluation for committed effective dose due to dietary foods by the intake for Japanese adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Explained are the internal exposure (IE) in Japanese adults due to the ordinary intake of food and the committed effective dose (CED) derived from it, which can be the basic reference data for estimating CED at emergency like the recent Fukushima Disaster. IE lasts as long as radioactive substances exist in the body and its health risk is assessed throughout the lifetime, 50 years in adult and in children until their age of 70 years, by CED based on consideration of the physical and biological halftimes of radionuclides involved. CED (mSv) is calculated by an equation given in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Pub. 72, using radioactivity level (Bq/kg), intake (kg/y) and age-dependent dose coefficient (mSv/Bq). Japan MEXT in its homepage (http://www.kankyo-hoshano.go.jp/) publishes the states of environmental radioactivity levels including those of daily Japanese food. The food survey of yearly changes of radioactivity level (Bq/man/day) indicates that, when compared with the level in 2009, it is two times higher in 1970s due to old in-atmospheric nuclear experiments, and is decreased gradually with a temporary peak around 1986 by Chernobyl accident. Studies on certain natural and artificial radioisotopes in 240 kinds of current food in 1989-2005 reveal that Po-210 level in fishes and shellfishes is particularly higher than others like St-90, Cs-137, Rd-226, Pb-210 and so on. CED in adults is calculated from yearly intake of foods (kg/y), their radioactivity (Bq/y) and the coefficient above, to be 0.80 mSv, and 0.98 mSv when the contribution of K-40 is taken in calculation. The proportion of the contribution in the latter estimated CED accounts for 74% (0.73 mSv) by Po-210 and for 18% (0.18 mSv) by K-40, which is conceivably derived from intake of more seafood by Japanese than other people in the world (average 0.070 and 0.17 mSv, respectively). (T.T.)

  1. Unscheduled load flow effect due to large variation in the distributed generation in a subtransmission network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mujahidul

    A sustainable energy delivery infrastructure implies the safe and reliable accommodation of large scale penetration of renewable sources in the power grid. In this dissertation it is assumed there will be no significant change in the power transmission and distribution structure currently in place; except in the operating strategy and regulatory policy. That is to say, with the same old structure, the path towards unveiling a high penetration of switching power converters in the power system will be challenging. Some of the dimensions of this challenge are power quality degradation, frequent false trips due to power system imbalance, and losses due to a large neutral current. The ultimate result is the reduced life of many power distribution components - transformers, switches and sophisticated loads. Numerous ancillary services are being developed and offered by the utility operators to mitigate these problems. These services will likely raise the system's operational cost, not only from the utility operators' end, but also reflected on the Independent System Operators and by the Regional Transmission Operators (RTO) due to an unforeseen backlash of frequent variation in the load-side generation or distributed generation. The North American transmission grid is an interconnected system similar to a large electrical circuit. This circuit was not planned but designed over 100 years. The natural laws of physics govern the power flow among loads and generators except where control mechanisms are installed. The control mechanism has not matured enough to withstand the high penetration of variable generators at uncontrolled distribution ends. Unlike a radial distribution system, mesh or loop networks can alleviate complex channels for real and reactive power flow. Significant variation in real power injection and absorption on the distribution side can emerge as a bias signal on the routing reactive power in some physical links or channels that are not distinguishable

  2. Effects of smoking history on selective attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Constanze; Hahn, Eric; Dettling, Michael; Güntürkün, Onur; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2012-03-01

    Smoking prevalence is highly elevated in schizophrenia compared to the general population and to other psychiatric populations. Evidence suggests that smoking may lead to improvements of schizophrenia-associated attention deficits; however, large-scale studies on this important issue are scarce. We examined whether sustained, selective, and executive attention processes are differentially modulated by long-term nicotine consumption in 104 schizophrenia patients and 104 carefully matched healthy controls. A significant interaction of 'smoking status' × 'diagnostic group' was obtained for the domain of selective attention. Smoking was significantly associated with a detrimental conflict effect in controls, while the opposite effect was revealed for schizophrenia patients. Likewise, a positive correlation between a cumulative measure of nicotine consumption and conflict effect in controls and a negative correlation in patients were found. These results provide evidence for specific directional effects of smoking on conflict processing that critically dissociate with diagnosis. The data supports the self-medication hypothesis of smoking in schizophrenia and suggests selective attention as a specific cognitive domain targeted by nicotine consumption. A potential mechanistic model explaining these findings is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshikar, Eric D; Duarte, Audrey; Hertzog, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences). Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator). It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences) for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness) of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  4. Five-Year-Olds’ Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection: A Computational Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A.; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning. This prediction was confirmed with an empirical study that we conducted with 72 5- to 6-year-old children. The results showed that 17% of the answers were correct and 83% of the answers were wrong. In line with our prediction, 65% of the wrong answers were based on a first-order ToM strategy, while only 29% of them were based on a zero-order strategy (the remaining 6% of subjects did not provide any answer). Based on our instance-based learning model, we propose that when children get feedback “Wrong,” they explicitly revise their strategy to a higher level instead of implicitly selecting one of the available ToM strategies. Moreover, we predict that children’s failures are due to lack of experience and that with exposure to second-order false belief reasoning, children can revise their wrong first-order reasoning strategy to a correct second-order reasoning strategy. PMID:28293206

  5. Five-Year-Olds' Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection: A Computational Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning. This prediction was confirmed with an empirical study that we conducted with 72 5- to 6-year-old children. The results showed that 17% of the answers were correct and 83% of the answers were wrong. In line with our prediction, 65% of the wrong answers were based on a first-order ToM strategy, while only 29% of them were based on a zero-order strategy (the remaining 6% of subjects did not provide any answer). Based on our instance-based learning model, we propose that when children get feedback "Wrong," they explicitly revise their strategy to a higher level instead of implicitly selecting one of the available ToM strategies. Moreover, we predict that children's failures are due to lack of experience and that with exposure to second-order false belief reasoning, children can revise their wrong first-order reasoning strategy to a correct second-order reasoning strategy.

  6. Introduction: Challenges to Effectiveness in Intelligence due to the Need for Transparency and Accountability in Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruneau, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    .... This is due to the tension between the requirement of intelligence agencies to work to some extent in secret and the requirement of democratic government for accountability, necessitating transparency...

  7. Investigations of surface-tension effects due to small-scale complex boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiansheng

    In this Ph.D. dissertation, we have investigated some important surface-tension phenomena including capillarity, wetting, and wicking. We mainly focus on the geometric aspects of these problems, and to learn about how structures affect properties. . In the first project (Chapter 2), we used numerical simulations and experiments to study the meniscus of a fluid confined in capillaries with complicated cross-sectional geometries. In the simulations, we computed the three-dimensional shapes of the menisci formed in polygonal and star-shaped capillaries with sharp or rounded corners. Height variations across the menisci were used to quantify the effect of surface tension. Analytical solutions were derived for all the cases where the cross-sectional geometry was a regular polygon or a regular star-shape. Power indices that characterize the effects of corner rounding were extracted from simulation results. These findings can serve as guide for fabrications of unconventional three-dimensional structures in Capillary Force Lithography experiments. Experimental demonstrations of the working principle was also performed. Although quantitative matching between simulation and experimental results was not achieved due to the limitation of material properties, clear qualitative trends were observed and interesting three-dimensional nano-structures were produced. A second project (Chapter 3) focused on developing techniques to produce three-dimensional hierarchically structured superhydrophobic surfaces with high aspect ratios. We experimented with two different high-throughput electron-beam-lithography processes featuring single and dual electron-beam exposures. After a surface modification procedure with a hydrophobic silane, the structured surfaces exhibited two distinct superhydrophobic behaviors---high and low adhesion. While both types of superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited very high (approximately 160° water advancing contact angles, the water receding contact angles on

  8. The effects of advertisement location and familiarity on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Tanja Lund; Rodway, Paul

    2010-06-01

    This study comprised two experiments to examine the distracting effects of advertisement familiarity, location, and onset on the performance of a selective attention task. In Exp. 1, familiar advertisements presented in peripheral vision disrupted selective attention when the attention task was more demanding, suggesting that the distracting effect of advertisements is a product of task demands and advertisement familiarity and location. In Exp. 2, the onset of the advertisement shortly before, or after, the attention task captured attention and disrupted attentional performance. The onset of the advertisement before the attention task reduced target response time without an increase in errors and therefore facilitated performance. Despite being instructed to ignore the advertisements, the participants were able to recall a substantial proportion of the familiar advertisements. Implications for the presentation of advertisements during human-computer interaction were discussed.

  9. Exploiting Confinement Effects to Tune Selectivity in Cyclooctane Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva

    2017-08-24

    The mechanism of cyclooctane metathesis using confinement effect strategies in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is discussed by catalytic experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. WMe6 was immobilized inside the pores of a series of MSNs having the same structure but different pore diameters (60, 30 and 25 Å). Experiments in cyclooctane metathesis suggest that confinement effects observed in smaller pores (30 and 25 Å) improve selectivity towards the dimeric cyclohexadecane. In contrast, in larger pores (60 Å) a broad product distribution dominated by ring contracted cycloalkanes was found. The catalytic cycle and potential side reactions occurring at [(≡SiO-)WMe5] were examined with DFT calculations. Analysis of the geometries for the key reaction intermediates allowed to rationalize the impact of a confined environment on the enhanced selectivity towards the dimeric product in smaller pores, while in large pores the ring contracted products are favored.

  10. Simulation of hydrodynamic effects of salt rejection due to permafrost. Hydrogeological numerical model of density-driven mixing, at a regional scale, due to a high salinity pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Svensson, Urban; Follin, Sven

    2006-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to support the safety assessment of the investigated candidate sites concerning hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical issues related to permafrost. However, a more specific objective of the study is to improve the assessment of processes in relation to permafrost scenarios. The model is based on a mathematical model that includes Darcy velocities, mass conservation, matrix diffusion, and salinity distribution. Gravitational effects are thus fully accounted for. A regional groundwater flow model (POM v1.1, Simpevarp) was used as basis for the simulations. The main results of the model include salinity distributions in time. The general conclusion is that density-driven mixing processes are contained within more permeable deformation zones and that these processes are fast as compared with preliminary permafrost growth rates. The results of the simulation suggest that a repository volume in the rock mass in-between the deterministic deformation zones, approximately 150 m below the permafrost will not experience a high salinity situation due to the salt rejection process

  11. The mere exposure effect is modulated by selective attention but not visual awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2013-10-18

    Repeated exposures to an object will lead to an enhancement of evaluation toward that object. Although this mere exposure effect may occur when the objects are presented subliminally, the role of conscious perception per se on evaluation has never been examined. Here we use a binocular rivalry paradigm to investigate whether a variance in conscious perceptual duration of faces has an effect on their subsequent evaluation, and how selective attention and memory interact with this effect. Our results show that face evaluation is positively biased by selective attention but not affected by visual awareness. Furthermore, this effect is not due to participants recalling which face had been attended to. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective effects of cholinergic modulation on task performance during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Maura L; Pietrini, Pietro; Haxby, James V; Drevets, Wayne C

    2008-03-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmitter system is critically linked to cognitive functions including attention. The current studies were designed to evaluate the effect of a cholinergic agonist and an antagonist on performance during a selective visual attention task where the inherent salience of attended/unattended stimuli was modulated. Two randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover studies were performed, one (n=9) with the anticholinesterase physostigmine (1.0 mg/h), and the other (n=30) with the anticholinergic scopolamine (0.4 mc/kg). During the task, two double-exposure pictures of faces and houses were presented side by side. Subjects were cued to attend to either the face or the house component of the stimuli, and were instructed to perform a matching task with the two exemplars from the attended category. The cue changed every 4-7 trials to instruct subjects to shift attention from one stimulus component to the other. During placebo in both studies, reaction time (RT) associated with the first trial following a cued shift in attention was longer than RT associated with later trials (pattention to houses condition (pattention to faces. Scopolamine increased RT relative to placebo selectively during trials greater than one (pattention to faces condition (pselective attention (ie trials greater than 1). Moreover, effects of cholinergic manipulation depend on the selective attention condition (ie faces vs houses), which may suggest that cholinergic activity interacts with stimulus salience. The findings are discussed within the context of the role of acetylcholine both in stimulus processing and stimulus salience, and in establishing attention biases through top-down and bottom-up mechanisms of attention.

  13. Selected indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of marketing communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the evaluation of marketing activity in each institution most often refers to marketing communications and therefore promotional activities of the company. Whereas measuring the effectiveness of marketing communications results, we can use many tools-indicators, the use of which will track the progress and assess the effectiveness of our institution run by marketing communications. With a view to implementing effective marketing strategy we must be able to measure our success. In this article, has been made a review of selected indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing communications. Cited indicators are commonly used. According to the authors, each institution should create its own set of indicators by which the effects of its operations will be best measured.

  14. OBSERVATIONAL SELECTION EFFECTS AND THE M-σ RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueltekin, Kayhan; Richstone, Douglas O.; Tremaine, Scott; Loeb, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    We examine the possibility that the observed relation between black hole mass and host-galaxy stellar velocity dispersion (the M-σ relation) is biased by an observational selection effect, the difficulty of detecting a black hole whose sphere of influence is smaller than the telescope resolution. In particular, we critically investigate recent claims that the M-σ relation only represents the upper limit to a broad distribution of black hole masses in galaxies of a given velocity dispersion. We find that this hypothesis can be rejected at a high confidence level, at least for the early-type galaxies with relatively high velocity dispersions (median 268 km s -1 ) that comprise most of our sample. We also describe a general procedure for incorporating observational selection effects in estimates of the properties of the M-σ relation. Applying this procedure we find results that are consistent with earlier estimates that did not account for selection effects, although with larger error bars. In particular, (1) the width of the M-σ relation is not significantly increased, (2) the slope and normalization of the M-σ relation are not significantly changed, and (3) most or all luminous early-type galaxies contain central black holes at zero redshift. Our results may not apply to late-type or small galaxies, which are not well represented in our sample.

  15. Effective traffic features selection algorithm for cyber-attacks samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihong; Liu, Fangzheng; Du, Zhenyu

    2018-05-01

    By studying the defense scheme of Network attacks, this paper propose an effective traffic features selection algorithm based on k-means++ clustering to deal with the problem of high dimensionality of traffic features which extracted from cyber-attacks samples. Firstly, this algorithm divide the original feature set into attack traffic feature set and background traffic feature set by the clustering. Then, we calculates the variation of clustering performance after removing a certain feature. Finally, evaluating the degree of distinctiveness of the feature vector according to the result. Among them, the effective feature vector is whose degree of distinctiveness exceeds the set threshold. The purpose of this paper is to select out the effective features from the extracted original feature set. In this way, it can reduce the dimensionality of the features so as to reduce the space-time overhead of subsequent detection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and it has some advantages over other selection algorithms.

  16. Disentangling the effects of demography and selection in human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajich, Jason E; Hahn, Matthew W

    2005-01-01

    Demographic events affect all genes in a genome, whereas natural selection has only local effects. Using publicly available data from 151 loci sequenced in both European-American and African-American populations, we attempt to distinguish the effects of demography and selection. To analyze large sets of population genetic data such as this one, we introduce "Perlymorphism," a Unix-based suite of analysis tools. Our analyses show that the demographic histories of human populations can account for a large proportion of effects on the level and frequency of variation across the genome. The African-American population shows both a higher level of nucleotide diversity and more negative values of Tajima's D statistic than does a European-American population. Using coalescent simulations, we show that the significantly negative values of the D statistic in African-Americans and the positive values in European-Americans are well explained by relatively simple models of population admixture and bottleneck, respectively. Working within these nonequilibrium frameworks, we are still able to show deviations from neutral expectations at a number of loci, including ABO and TRPV6. In addition, we show that the frequency spectrum of mutations--corrected for levels of polymorphism--is correlated with recombination rate only in European-Americans. These results are consistent with repeated selective sweeps in non-African populations, in agreement with recent reports using microsatellite data.

  17. Effects of selection for cooperation and attention in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklósi Ádám

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that the functional similarities in the socio-cognitive behaviour of dogs and humans emerged as a consequence of comparable environmental selection pressures. Here we use a novel approach to account for the facilitating effect of domestication in dogs and reveal that selection for two factors under genetic influence (visual cooperation and focused attention may have led independently to increased comprehension of human communicational cues. Method In Study 1, we observed the performance of three groups of dogs in utilizing the human pointing gesture in a two-way object choice test. We compared breeds selected to work while visually separated from human partners (N = 30, 21 breeds, clustered as independent worker group, with those selected to work in close cooperation and continuous visual contact with human partners (N = 30, 22 breeds, clustered as cooperative worker group, and with a group of mongrels (N = 30. Secondly, it has been reported that, in dogs, selective breeding to produce an abnormal shortening of the skull is associated with a more pronounced area centralis (location of greatest visual acuity. In Study 2, breeds with high cephalic index and more frontally placed eyes (brachycephalic breeds, N = 25, 14 breeds were compared with breeds with low cephalic index and laterally placed eyes (dolichocephalic breeds, N = 25, 14 breeds. Results In Study 1, cooperative workers were significantly more successful in utilizing the human pointing gesture than both the independent workers and the mongrels. In study 2, we found that brachycephalic dogs performed significantly better than dolichocephalic breeds. Discussion After controlling for environmental factors, we have provided evidence that at least two independent phenotypic traits with certain genetic variability affect the ability of dogs to rely on human visual cues. This finding should caution researchers against making simple generalizations

  18. ALGORITHM OF SELECTION EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS FOR REPROFILING OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENEJLJUK A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem.Non-compliance requirements of today's industrial enterprises, which were built during the Soviet period, as well as significant technical progress, economic reform and transition to market principles of performance evaluation leading to necessity to change their target and functionality. The technical condition of many industrial buildings in Ukraine allows to exploit them for decades.Redesigning manufacturing enterprises allows not only to reduce the cost of construction, but also to obtain new facilities in the city. Despite the large number of industrial buildings that have lost their effectiveness and relevance, as well as a significant investor interest in these objects, the scope of redevelopment in the construction remains unexplored. Analysis researches on the topic. The problem of reconstruction of industrial buildings considered in Topchy D. [3], Travin V. [9], as well as in the work of other scientists. However, there are no rules in regulatory documents and system studies for improving the organization of the reconstruction of buildings at realigning. The purpose of this work is the development an algorithm of actions for selection of effective organizational decisions at the planning stage of a reprofiling project of industrial buildings. The proposed algorithm allows you to select an effective organizational and technological solution for the re-profiling of industrial buildings, taking into account features of the building, its location, its state of structures and existing restrictions. The most effective organizational solution allows realize the reprofiling project of an industrial building in the most possible short terms and with the lowest possible use of material resources, taking into account the available features and restrictions. Conclusion. Each object has a number of unique features that necessary for considering at choosing an effective reprofiling variant. The developed algorithm for selecting

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Flood risk in Urban Areas due to Combined Effects of Extreme Precipitation and Sea Surges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A. N.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    Climate change will impact the hydrological cycle greatly and lead to increases in flood hazards due to both pluvial and fluvial floods as well as sea surges in many regions. The impacts of the individual effects are analysed for a catchment in Greater Copenhagen. Based on both the present...... surges. Presently the most important hazard is due to extreme precipitation. However, due to climate change impacts the future most important hazard is due to sea surges. The increase in probability of floods is substantial over a 70 year horizon and actions must be taken to decrease either the hazards...

  20. Selective attention and recognition: effects of congruency on episodic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Tamara M; D'Angelo, Maria C; MacLellan, Ellen; Milliken, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Recent research on cognitive control has focused on the learning consequences of high selective attention demands in selective attention tasks (e.g., Botvinick, Cognit Affect Behav Neurosci 7(4):356-366, 2007; Verguts and Notebaert, Psychol Rev 115(2):518-525, 2008). The current study extends these ideas by examining the influence of selective attention demands on remembering. In Experiment 1, participants read aloud the red word in a pair of red and green spatially interleaved words. Half of the items were congruent (the interleaved words had the same identity), and the other half were incongruent (the interleaved words had different identities). Following the naming phase, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. In this test phase, recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 2, context was only partially reinstated at test, and again recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 3, all of the items contained two different words, but in one condition the words were presented close together and interleaved, while in the other condition the two words were spatially separated. Recognition memory was better for the interleaved than for the separated items. This result rules out an interpretation of the congruency effects on recognition in Experiments 1 and 2 that hinges on stronger relational encoding for items that have two different words. Together, the results support the view that selective attention demands for incongruent items lead to encoding that improves recognition.

  1. Dispersion of pollutants, environmental externalities due to a pulverized coal power plant and their effect on the cost of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnowska, Lucyna; Frangopoulos, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion systems generate pollution that causes damages to the environment and the society. The objective of this work is to study the dispersion of pollutants and assess the environmental and social cost due to pollution from such a system. For this purpose, a pulverized coal power plant is selected. Using thermodynamic principles combined with empirical techniques, the quantities of pollutants emitted by the plant are estimated. Then, using the EcoSenseWeb software, which is based on the results of the ExternE project, the external environmental cost (externalities) of pollution is assessed. The plant is considered as located in four different cities in Poland and the externalities are calculated for each city separately. It is shown that the external environmental cost has a strong influence on the unit cost of electricity. In addition, the dispersion of pollutants is presented for the plant located in Olsztyn city. Furthermore, the plant is considered as located near the capitals of European countries and the environmental externalities are calculated for each city. The neighboring countries that are strongly affected by the plant in each particular city are identified. The sensitivity of the unit cost of electricity to certain important parameters is investigated. -- Highlights: ► The external cost of pollution has a significant impact on the cost of electricity. ► The results depend on the particular plant, location and level (local-global). ► Externalities make the installation of abatement equipment economical. ► The source location of emissions has a significant effect on the external cost. ► The transboundary pollution has a strong effect on the environmental cost.

  2. Ductility improvement due to martensite α' decomposition in porous Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by selective laser melting for orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallica-Leva, E; Caram, R; Jardini, A L; Fogagnolo, J B

    2016-02-01

    Ti-6Al-4V parts obtained by selective laser melting typically have an acicular α' martensitic microstructure whose ductility is low. Thus, post-heat treatments are useful for increasing ductility. In this work, the effects of sub-β-transus heat treatments on the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V parts with porous structures are correlated with martensite α' phase decomposition. The precipitation of β phase and the gradual transformation of α' into α phase by the diffusion of excess vanadium from α' to β phase are proposed to be the main events of martensite α' phase decomposition in parts fabricated by selective laser melting. The heat treatment performed at 650°C for 1h produced no microstructural changes, but the samples treated for at the same temperature 2h showed a fine precipitation of β phase along the α' needle boundaries. The heat treatment performed at 800°C for 1 or 2h produced a fine α+β microstructure, in which β phase are present as particles fewer in number and larger in size, when compared with the ones present in the sample heat-treated at 650°C for 2h. Heat-treatment of the parts at 800°C for 2h proved to be the best condition, which improved the ductility of the samples while only slightly reducing their strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Can epidemiological studies discern subtle neurological effects due to perinatal exposure to PCBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegal, R F

    1996-01-01

    What conclusions can be drawn concerning the potential neurological effects of perinatal exposure to either PCBs, or PCBs and other fish-borne contaminants? First, by their very nature epidemiological studies are limited in their ability to detect subtle associations--including possible links between exposure to low levels of environmental contaminants and disease. As stated by Dr. Schantz, both Rogan and the Jacobsons report small changes in motor and cognitive behavior--typically less than one-half of a standard deviation--and only in the most highly exposed children. Given these small changes in CNS function, the substantive criticisms of Paneth (including the Jacobsons' choice to employ a random, rather than matched, control sample and the related fact that fish-eating mothers differed from non-fish-eating mothers on several important characteristics) and similar "generic" concerns raised by Taubes, a critical reader must question both the validity of the findings from the Michigan study and the reasons for discrepancies in results between the Jacobson and Rogan studies. Are the differences in neurobehavioral effects reported by the Jacobsons and colleagues, and Rogan and colleagues, due to the presence of confounders, exposure to different neurotoxicants, or subtle differences in methodologies? At present it is not possible to answer these questions. Nevertheless, certain commonalities exist between the Rogan and Jacobson studies, and most recently, the study conducted by Daly and colleagues in New York. All of these studies report alterations in the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, suggesting that exposure to environmental contaminants (including PCBs) may induce subtle, transient alterations in maturation of the human CNS. Secondly, because contaminated fish contain a large number of putative developmental neurotoxicants (e.g., methyl-mercury, p,p'-DDE, PCBs, and pesticides), I am pessimistic that additional studies of human populations

  4. Effect of selection and gamma-irradiation on fecundity in Tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.P.; Raheja, K.L.; Verma, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the joint effect of selection and gamma irradiation on a polygenic trait like egg production in Tribolium castaneum, a 3 x 3 x 2 fractorial experiment with 3 levels of selection, viz. O, high (S 1 ), and low (S 2 ); 3 levels of irradiation, viz. 0,1 1500R (R 1 ) 2300R(R 2 ); and 2 replicates with 24 females in each cell, was set up. The data were collected on 721 females of parental generation subjected to selection and radiation and the subsequent progeny generation. A significant divergence of 11.6 eggs were observed due to high and low selection methods. There was no difference between control and R 1 radiation dose. The R 2 radiation dose depressed the egg production of the progeny significantly. There was a linear decrease in egg number in the progeny with an increase in dose level of radiation in parents; this is indicative of significant number of gene mutations effecting a quantitative trait like egg production. It is suggested that reduction in fecundity in the progeny of parents subjected to gamma-irradiation can possibly arise due to either (i) molecular rearrangement at a point on the chromosome leading to gene mutation or (ii) chromosome breakage with subsequent rearrangement of gene position or both. (author)

  5. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Load kick-back effects due to activation of demand response in view of distribution grid operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2014-01-01

    . The paper has shown how aggregated consumption dynamics introduce new peaks in the system due to the synchronous behaviors of a portfolio of homogeneous DSRs, which is instructed by the flexibility management system. This dynamic effect is recognized as load kick-back effect. The impact of load kick......-back effects onto the distribution grid is analysed in this paper by establishing scenarios based on the estimation of DSR penetration levels from the system operator. The results indicate some risks that the activation of demand response may create critical peaks in the local grid due to kick-back effects....

  7. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with

  8. 77 FR 55896 - Notice of Release Effecting Federal Grant Assurance Obligations Due to Airport Layout Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Grant Assurance Obligations Due to Airport Layout Plan Revision at Mather Airport, Sacramento, CA AGENCY... Airport Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95837. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In accordance with the Wendell H. Ford... Mather Airport, Sacramento, California, which will provide for a release from the Grant Agreement...

  9. Effects of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetta, Antonella; de Hert, Paul; Wright, D.; Kreissl, R.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the impact of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence, key values and principles of a democratic order. It illustrates how they are implemented and enforced in contemporary surveillance societies, while referring to European law and

  10. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Symptoms of Gastroenteritis Due to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Alicia Hsin-Ming; Haggerty, Thomas Dean; de Martel, Catherine; Leung, Cynthia Wai-Mun; Parsonnet, Julie

    Helicobacter pylori can cause hypochlorhydria in some hosts and predispose to diarrheal infections. We tested the hypothesis that chronic H. pylori infection increases the risk of diarrheal illness due to an acid-sensitive organism: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). After testing healthy

  11. METHODS OF SELECTING THE EFFECTIVE MODELS OF BUILDINGS REPROFILING PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Иванович МЕНЕЙЛЮК

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the important task of project management in reprofiling of buildings. It is expedient to pay attention to selecting effective engineering solutions to reduce the duration and cost reduction at the project management in the construction industry. This article presents a methodology for the selection of efficient organizational and technical solutions for the reconstruction of buildings reprofiling. The method is based on a compilation of project variants in the program Microsoft Project and experimental statistical analysis using the program COMPEX. The introduction of this technique in the realigning of buildings allows choosing efficient models of projects, depending on the given constraints. Also, this technique can be used for various construction projects.

  12. Effects of spatial and selective attention on basic multisensory integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Blurton, Steven Paul; Hughes, F.

    2011-01-01

    underlying the RSE. We investigated the role of spatial and selective attention on the RSE in audiovisual redundant signals tasks. In Experiment 1, stimuli were presented either centrally (narrow attentional focus) or at 1 of 3 unpredictable locations (wide focus). The RSE was accurately described...... task) or to central stimuli only (selective attention task). The RSE was consistent with task-specific coactivation models; accumulation of evidence, however, differed between the 2 tasks....... by a coactivation model assuming linear superposition of modality-specific activation. Effects of spatial attention were explained by a shift of the evidence criterion. In Experiment 2, stimuli were presented at 3 locations; participants had to respond either to all signals regardless of location (simple response...

  13. Effect of Additives on the Selectivity and Reactivity of Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi-Ru; Wu, Qi; Lin, Xian-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Enzymes have been widely used as efficient, eco-friendly, and biodegradable catalysts in organic chemistry due to their mild reaction conditions and high selectivity and efficiency. In recent years, the catalytic promiscuity of many enzymes in unnatural reactions has been revealed and studied by chemists and biochemists, which has expanded the application potential of enzymes. To enhance the selectivity and activity of enzymes in their natural or promiscuous reactions, many methods have been recommended, such as protein engineering, process engineering, and media engineering. Among them, the additive approach is very attractive because of its simplicity to use and high efficiency. In this paper, we will review the recent developments about the applications of additives to improve the catalytic performances of enzymes in their natural and promiscuous reactions. These additives include water, organic bases, water mimics, cosolvents, crown ethers, salts, surfactants, and some particular molecular additives. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effective Feature Selection for Classification of Promoter Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouser K

    Full Text Available Exploring novel computational methods in making sense of biological data has not only been a necessity, but also productive. A part of this trend is the search for more efficient in silico methods/tools for analysis of promoters, which are parts of DNA sequences that are involved in regulation of expression of genes into other functional molecules. Promoter regions vary greatly in their function based on the sequence of nucleotides and the arrangement of protein-binding short-regions called motifs. In fact, the regulatory nature of the promoters seems to be largely driven by the selective presence and/or the arrangement of these motifs. Here, we explore computational classification of promoter sequences based on the pattern of motif distributions, as such classification can pave a new way of functional analysis of promoters and to discover the functionally crucial motifs. We make use of Position Specific Motif Matrix (PSMM features for exploring the possibility of accurately classifying promoter sequences using some of the popular classification techniques. The classification results on the complete feature set are low, perhaps due to the huge number of features. We propose two ways of reducing features. Our test results show improvement in the classification output after the reduction of features. The results also show that decision trees outperform SVM (Support Vector Machine, KNN (K Nearest Neighbor and ensemble classifier LibD3C, particularly with reduced features. The proposed feature selection methods outperform some of the popular feature transformation methods such as PCA and SVD. Also, the methods proposed are as accurate as MRMR (feature selection method but much faster than MRMR. Such methods could be useful to categorize new promoters and explore regulatory mechanisms of gene expressions in complex eukaryotic species.

  15. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Leshikar

    Full Text Available Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator. It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  16. Annual mean effective dose of Slovak population due to natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.

    2006-01-01

    volume of the samples. For the typical building materials of Slovak construction industry has been estimated the average volume activity (brick: 40 K: 660.1 Bq.kg-1, 226 Ra: 63.5 Bq.kg-1, 232 Th: 71.3 Bq.kg-1, A ekv : 216.3 Bq.kg-1; concrete: 40 K: 322.6 Bq.kg-1, 226 Ra: 46.1 Bq.kg-1, 232 Th: 29.0 Bq.kg-1, A ekv : 216,3 Bq.kg-1). Indoor radiation exposure of the population due to external exposure from natural radionuclides has been determined for a standard room (5 x 5 x 2.8 m) and for assuming that the mean occupancy indoors is 80%. Using a special calculation model there was received the annual mean effective dose from natural radionuclides in two typical Slovak dwellings for brick houses: 0.87 mSv.y-1 and for houses from concrete panels: 0.31 mSv.y-1. (author)

  17. Atmospheric pollution due to mobile sources and effects on human health in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Kagawa, J

    1994-01-01

    Following the rapid economic growth after World War II, diseases associated with environmental pollution frequently occurred due to delayed implementation of countermeasures against environmental pollution. These diseases are exemplified by Minamata disease, Itai-itai disease, chronic arsenic poisoning, and Yokkaichi asthma. After multiple episodes of these pollution-related diseases were experienced, the government and the private sector made joint efforts to reduce environmental pollution. ...

  18. Effect of horizontal displacements due to ocean tide loading on the determination of polar motion and UT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Haas, Rüdiger

    We show the influence of horizontal displacements due to ocean tide loading on the determination of polar motion and UT1 (PMU) on the daily and subdaily timescale. So called ‘virtual PMU variations’ due to modelling errors of ocean tide loading are predicted for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) networks. This leads to errors of subdaily determination of PMU. The predicted effects are confirmed by the analysis of geodetic VLBI observations.

  19. Fast Flux Depressions Due to Nonelastic Effects in Lead and Bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, James Paul

    2002-01-01

    The problem of neutrons from a 14 MeV source slowing down in heavy Pb and Bi moderators is examined. Careful Monte Carlo simulations show a very deep flux depression immediately below the source energy. This flux depression is the result of the small energy loss in elastic scattering, in competition with the far more dramatic loss due to nonelastic events such as inelastic scatter and (n; 2n) reactions. A simple analytical model recovers the essential qualitative features of the Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  20. Effects on the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background due to intergalactic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    A model for intergalactic dust composed of graphite grains is presented. The model is examined in the context of the Rayleigh approximation for results due to long-wavelength scattering and absorption by the grains. The temperature of the scattering grains as a function of redshift is found, based on reasonable assumptions of the density of optical wavelength radiation in the universe. Mechanisms for aligning the grains on a scale large enough to produce polarization in the microwave region are discussed. The results are used to predict features that may be present in the observed cosmic microwave background radiation spectrum

  1. Selective hydrogenation of citral over supported Pt catalysts: insight into support effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofeng [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (United States); Hu, Weiming; Deng, Baolin [University of Missouri, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Liang, Xinhua, E-mail: liangxin@mst.edu [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highly dispersed platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited on various substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at 300 °C. The substrates included multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silica gel (SiO{sub 2}), commercial γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ALD-prepared porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles (ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The results of TEM analysis showed that ~1.3 nm Pt NPs were highly dispersed on all different supports. All catalysts were used for the reaction of selective hydrogenation of citral to unsaturated alcohols (UA), geraniol, and nerol. Both the structure and acidity of supports affected the activity and selectivity of Pt catalysts. Pt/SiO{sub 2} showed the highest activity due to the strong acidity of SiO{sub 2} and the conversion of citral reached 82% after 12 h with a selectivity of 58% of UA. Pt/MWCNTs showed the highest selectivity of UA, which reached 65% with a conversion of 38% due to its unique structure and electronic effect. The cycling experiments indicated that Pt/MWCNTs and Pt/ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were more stable than Pt/SiO{sub 2}, as a result of the different interactions between the Pt NPs and the supports.

  2. Severity of explicit memory impairment due to Alzheimer's disease improves effectiveness of implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra; Slowik, Agnieszka; Krzywoszanski, Lukasz; Herzog-Krzywoszanska, Radosława; Szczudlik, Andrzej

    2008-04-01

    Consistent evidence from human and experimental animals studies indicates that memory is organized into two relatively independent systems with different functions and brain mechanisms. The explicit memory system, dependent on the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe structures, refers to conscious knowledge acquisition and intentional recollection of previous experiences. The implicit memory system, dependent on the striatum, refers to learning of complex information without awareness or intention. The functioning of implicit memory can be observed in progressive, gradual improvement across many trials in performance on implicit learning tasks. The influence of explicit memory on implicit memory has not been precisely identified yet. According to data from some studies, explicit memory seems to exhibit no influence on implicit memory,whereas the other studies indicate that explicit memory may inhibit or facilitate implicit memory. The analysis of performance on implicit learning tasks in patients with different severity of explicit memory impairment due to Alzheimer's disease allows one to identify the potential influence of the explicit memory system on the implicit memory system. 51 patients with explicit memory impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 36 healthy controls were tested. Explicit memory was examined by means of a battery of neuropsychological tests. Implicit habit learning was examined on probabilistic classification task (weather prediction task). Patients with moderate explicit memory impairment performed the implicit task significantly better than those with mild AD and controls. Results of our study support the hypothesis of competition between the implicit and explicit memory systems in humans.

  3. Soil Microbial Community Changes in Wooded Mountain Pastures due to Simulated Effects of Cattle Grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, F.; Hamelin, J.; Gillet, F.; Gobat, J.M.; Buttler, A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of cattle activity on pastures can be subdivided into three categories of disturbances: herbage removal, dunging and trampling. The objective of this study was to assess separately or in combination the effect of these factors on the potential activities of soil microbial communities and

  4. Flow shear stabilization of rotating plasmas due to the Coriolis effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, J. W.; de Blank, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    A radially decreasing toroidal rotation frequency can have a stabilizing effect on nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. We show that this is a consequence of the Coriolis effect that induces a restoring pressure gradient force when plasma is perturbed radially. In a rotating

  5. Flow shear stabilization of rotating plasmas due to the Coriolis effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Haverkort (Willem); H.J. de Blank

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractA radially decreasing toroidal rotation frequency can have a stabilizing effect on nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. We show that this is a consequence of the Coriolis effect that induces a restoring pressure gradient force when plasma is perturbed radially. In a

  6. The effects of calorie information on food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girz, L; Polivy, J; Herman, C P; Lee, H

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effects of calorie labeling on food selection and intake in dieters and non-dieters, and to explore whether expectations about food healthfulness moderate these effects. Participants were presented with a menu containing two items, a salad and a pasta dish. The menu had (a) no calorie information, (b) information that the salad was low in calories and the pasta was high in calories, (c) information that the salad was high in calories and the pasta was low in calories or (d) information that both were high in calories (study 2 only). Calorie labels influenced food selection for dieters, but not for non-dieters. Dieters were more likely to order salad when the salad was labeled as low in calories and more likely to order pasta, even high-calorie pasta, when the salad was labeled as high in calories. Participants who chose high-calorie foods over low-calorie foods did not eat less in response to calorie information, although non-dieters reduced their intake somewhat when calorie labels were put in the context of recommended daily calories. The results suggest that the rush to provide calorie information may not prove to be the best approach to fighting the obesity epidemic.

  7. Bacteriostatic effect of simvastatin on selected oral streptococci in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene J Whitaker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objective: Simvastatin is a widely used cholesterol-lowering drug, which has been found to have a number of pleiotropic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of simvastatin against selected oral streptococci as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Methods: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus salivarius were the test microorganisms. The serial dilution method was used to determine the MIC of simvastatin against these organisms. The MIC was defined as the lowest concentration of simvastatin that completely inhibited growth of the test organisms. Results: The data indicate that simvastatin inhibits the growth of the test organisms, with MIC's ranging from 7.8 to 15.6 μg/ml. Conclusions: Simvastatin has MIC's against the selected bacteria that compare favorably with reported values for topical agents such as essential oil, chlorhexidine gluconate, and triclosan. The levels of simvastatin required to inhibit bacterial growth of oral bacteria exceed the reported levels of the drug found in plasma or crevicular fluid of patients who are treated with this cholesterol-lowering drug. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate the potential use of simvastatin as a novel antiplaque agent that could be used in local drug delivery to the oral cavity of those patients who are prescribed this cholesterol-lowering drug.

  8. Selection effects on GRB spectral-energy correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, Lara; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental selection effects can act upon the estimates of the peak energy E peak obs , the fluence F and the peak flux P of GRBs. If this were the case, then the correlations involving the corresponding rest frame quantities (i.e. E peak , E obs and the peak luminosity L iso ) would be questioned. We estimated, as a function of E peak obs , the minimum peak flux necessary to trigger a GRB and the minimum fluence a burst must have to determine the value of E peak obs by considering different instruments (BATSE, Swift, BeppoSAX). We find that the latter dominates over the former. We then study the E peak obs -fluence (and flux) correlation in the observer plane. GRBs with redshift show well defined E peak obs -F and E peak obs -P correlations: in this planes the selection effects are present, but do not determine the found correlations. This is not true for Swift GRBs with redshift, for which the spectral analysis threshold does affect their distribution in the observer planes. Extending the sample to GRBs without z, we still find a significant E peak obs -F correlation, although with a larger scatter than that defined by GRBs with redshift. We find that 6% are outliers of the Amati correlation. The E peak obs -P correlation of GRBs with or without redshift is the same and no outlier is found among bursts without redshift.

  9. Gamma-ray Burst Prompt Correlations: Selection and Instrumental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Amati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The prompt emission mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) even after several decades remains a mystery. However, it is believed that correlations between observable GRB properties, given their huge luminosity/radiated energy and redshift distribution extending up to at least z ≈ 9, are promising possible cosmological tools. They also may help to discriminate among the most plausible theoretical models. Nowadays, the objective is to make GRBs standard candles, similar to supernovae (SNe) Ia, through well-established and robust correlations. However, differently from SNe Ia, GRBs span over several order of magnitude in their energetics, hence they cannot yet be considered standard candles. Additionally, being observed at very large distances, their physical properties are affected by selection biases, the so-called Malmquist bias or Eddington effect. We describe the state of the art on how GRB prompt correlations are corrected for these selection biases to employ them as redshift estimators and cosmological tools. We stress that only after an appropriate evaluation and correction for these effects, GRB correlations can be used to discriminate among the theoretical models of prompt emission, to estimate the cosmological parameters and to serve as distance indicators via redshift estimation.

  10. Lateralized goal framing: how selective presentation impacts message effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Michael; Seta, John J

    2012-11-01

    We tested whether framing a message as a gain or loss would alter its effectiveness by using a dichotic listening procedure to selectively present a health related message to the left or right hemisphere. A significant goal framing effect (losses > gains) was found when right, but not left, hemisphere processing was initially enhanced. The results support the position that the contextual processing style of the right hemisphere is especially sensitive to the associative implications of the frame. We discussed the implications of these findings for goal framing research, and the valence hypothesis. We also discussed how these findings converge with prior valence framing research and how they can be of potential use to health care providers.

  11. New selection effect of statistical investigations of supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allakhverdiev, A.O.; Gusejnov, O.Kh.; Kasumov, F.K.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of H2 regions on the parameters of Supernova remnants (SNR) is investigated. It has been shown that the projection of such regions on the SNRs leads to local changes of morphological structure of young shell-type SNRs and considerable distortions of integral parameters of evolved shell-type SNRs (with D > 10 pc) and plerions, up to their complete undetectability on the background of classical and gigantic H2 regions. A new selection effect, in fact, arises from these factors connected with additional limitations made by the real structure of the interstellar medium on the statistical investigations of SNRs. The influence of this effect on the statistical completeness of objects has been estimated

  12. New selection effect in statistical investigations of supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, A. O.; Guseinov, O. Kh.; Kasumov, F. K.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of H II regions on the parameters of supernova remnants (SNR) is investigated. It has been shown that the projection of such regions on the SNRs leads to: a) local changes of morphological structure of young shell-type SNRs and b) considerable distortions of integral parameters of evolved shell-type SNRs (with D > 10 pc) and plerions, up to their complete undetectability on the background of classical and gigantic H II regions. A new selection effect, in fact, arises from these factors connected with additional limitations made by the real structure of the interstellar medium on the statistical investigations of SNRs. The influence of this effect on the statistical completeness of objects has been estimated.

  13. The effect of stress on men's food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Debra A; Saito, Shin; Gonzalez, Johanie

    2007-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of stress on food choice among men. Two groups of men were given either solvable (no-stress) or unsolvable (stress) anagrams to solve. Four bowls of snack foods-two healthy (peanuts and grapes) and two unhealthy (potato chips and M&M chocolate candies)-were available and subjects were invited to snack on them. Men in the no-stress group ate significantly more of the unhealthy foods than did men in the stress group. This finding is quite different from that found with women [Zellner et al. (2006). Food selection changes under stress. Physiology & Behavior, 87, 789-793]. Women tended to eat more grapes when not stressed than when stressed and more M&Ms when stressed than when not stressed. Thus, the effect of stress level on food choice is different for men and women.

  14. Physiologic Effect of Stent Therapy for Inferior Vena Cava Obstruction Due to Malignant Liver Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kazushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Hisashi; Kimura, Masashi; Yamada, Katsuya; Sato, Morio; Juri, Masanobu

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To understand systemic the influence of stent therapy for inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction due to advanced liver tumor. Methods. Seven patients with symptomatic IVC obstruction due to advanced primary (n 4) or secondary (n = 3) liver tumor were subjected to stent therapy. Enrollment criteria included high IVC pressure over 15 mmHg and the presence of edema and ascites. Z-stents were deployed using coaxial sheath technique via femoral venous puncture. Physiologic and hematobiochemical parameters were analyzed. Results. All procedures were successful, and the stents remained patent until patient death. Promptly after stent placement, the IVC flow recovered, and the venous blood pressure in the IVC below the obstruction level showed a significant decrease from 20.8 ± 1.2 mmHg (mean ± SE) to 10.7 ± 0.7 mmHg (p 0.6) with the urine volume increase, and with the decreased volume of edema and ascites. The urine volume increase correlated well with the decrement of edema, but not with that of ascites. Improvements for various durations in the levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, fibrinogen, and platelet count were found (p < 0.05). These hematobiochemical changes were well correlated with each other and with the decrement of ascites. Two patients showed a low blood sodium level of 128.5 mEq/l after intensive natriuresis, and one of them died on day 21 with hepatic failure, which was interpreted as maladaptation aggravation. The mean survival time was 94.1 ± 34.1 days (mean ± SD), ranging from 21 to 140 days after stent treatment. Conclusion. The stent therapy for IVC obstruction due to malignant liver tumors was followed by a series of physiologic and hematobiochemical consequences, most of them favorable but some possibly unfavorable. Rational interpretations and predictions of sequelae based on physiologic science including cardiology, hepatology, and nephrology would facilitate the best management of stent therapy for

  15. Reactivity effect of spent fuel due to spatial distributions for coolant temperature and burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Yamane, Y. [Nagoya Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Suyama, K. [OECD/NEA, Paris (France); Mochizuki, H. [Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We investigated the reactivity effect of spent fuel caused by the spatial distributions of coolant temperature and burnup by using the integrated burnup calculation code system SWAT. The reactivity effect which arises from taking account of the spatial coolant temperature distribution increases as the average burnup increases, and reaches the maximum value of 0.69%{delta}k/k at 50 GWd/tU when the burnup distribution is concurrently considered. When the burnup distribution is ignored, the reactivity effect decreases by approximately one-third. (author)

  16. Experimental investigation of zero phase shift effects for Coriolis flowmeters due to pipe imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enz, Stephanie; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Neumeyer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    mass as well as temperature changes could be causes contributing to a time-varying measured zero shift, as observed with some commercial CFMs. The conducted experimental tests of the theoretically based hypotheses have shown that simple mathematical models and approximate analysis allow general......, the flexural vibrations of two bent, parallel, non-fluid-conveying pipes are studied experimentally, employing an industrial CFM. Special attention has been paid on the phase shift in the case of zero mass flow, i.e. the zero shift, caused by various imperfections to the ‘‘perfect’’ CFM, i.e. non-uniform pipe...... damping and mass, and on ambient temperature changes. Experimental observations confirm the hypothesis that asymmetry in the axial distribution of damping will induce zero shifts similar to the phase shifts due to fluid flow. Axially symmetrically distributed damping was observed to influence phase shift...

  17. Methylene Blue Is Effective to Reverse Refractory Hemodynamic Instability due to Dimethoate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Youssefi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion:MB treatment was effective to reverse hypotension and restore hemodynamic instability caused by dimethoate poisoning. This index case may pave way to further investigation of MB therapy for OP-induced hemodynamic instabilities.

  18. Local effects in thin elastic shell due to thermal and mechanical loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, S.

    1987-01-01

    For a thick cylinder (1/15)<(h/rm)<(1/3) the local effect is represented by the same field. When the local effect is negligible the Love-Kirchhoff solution is valid for a thick cylinder. A shear effect shell theory may give for a thin cylinder a large error compared to the exact 3D solution on a thermal shock. The Love-Kirchhoff solution is generally not valid in the vicinity of a clamped or simply supported edge. A finite element program of thin shell with shear effect or thick shell ist not really reliable. A combination of 3D local solution and Love-Kirchhoff global solution through a transition zone may replace a complete 3D solution for not very thick structures. (orig./GL)

  19. Selective bilateral internal iliac artery embolization for controlling refractory hematuria due to the metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mokhtari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC may lead to gross hematuria. However, the metastasis of head and neck cutaneous SCC to the urinary bladder has not been described in literature. Nowadays, noninvasive methods such as embolization, are considered as an appropriate choice for controlling life-threatening hematuria in patients with high operative risk. However, few reports exist on the effectiveness of this approach in managing the hematuria secondary to metastatic bladder SCC. Here we report a case of bladder SCC originating from the forehead cutaneous SCC. An 83-year-old man, a known case of forehead cutaneous SCC with distant metastasis, referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of hematuria. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic urinary bladder SCC. Angiography and embolization were undertaken and resulted in complete alleviation of the symptoms. The recurrence of hematuria or embolization-related complications were not observed during 3-month follow-up. Selective embolization of the bilateral internal iliac artery is a safe and efficient procedure for controlling severe hematuria in patients with primary or metastatic bladder SCC.

  20. Drift of the center of motion for a charged particle due to radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ares De Parga, G.; Mares, R. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Zacatenco (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica, Escuela de Fisica y Matematica

    1999-10-01

    Through parametrization of the relativistic Larmor formula, one can find the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. Simultaneously, there exists a drift of the center of curvature for the same. This effect is quantitatively compared with the predictions by other equations of motion, such as Dirac, Mo-Papas, Herrera, Bonnor and Cardirola and the one recently obtained by Hartemann and others. The paper proposes an experiment to verify the predicted effect, both qualitative and quantitative.

  1. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalizations due to gastroenteritis: a descriptive epidemiological study from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, C; Liebert, U G

    2018-04-10

    Rotavirus infections are common causes of infant hospitalization. The present study examined the effectiveness of anti-rotavirus vaccination in preventing rotavirus-related hospitalizations in Germany, following its state and nationwide introductions in 2008 and 2013, respectively. During 15 consecutive seasons 9557 stool samples of hospitalized children of 5 years and younger with acute gastroenteritis were screened for rotavirus A. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were assessed after vaccine introduction. Vaccine effectiveness was determined by comparison of rotavirus incidence in pre-vaccine and post-vaccine cohorts. The herd effect was calculated as the difference between the observed reduction of rotavirus-related hospitalizations and the expected direct vaccine effect. The number of rotavirus-related hospitalizations declined after vaccine introduction. Approximately 26% (503/1955) of prevented cases could be attributed to the herd effect. Human rotaviruses of genotypes G3P[8], G1P[8], G9P[8], G4P[8], G2P[4] and G12P[8] were most frequent. Uncommon genotypes remained rare. The direct, indirect, total and overall vaccine effectiveness was 86% (95% confidence interval (CI) 83.2-89.1%), 48% (95% CI 42.8-52.6%), 93% (95% CI 91.3-94.3%) and 69% (95% CI 66.5-72.0%), respectively. There was no significant difference in vaccine-type or in genotype-specific vaccine effectiveness. Anti-rotavirus vaccination efficiently reduced rotavirus-related hospitalizations in Germany in the past decade. The vaccines analysed in this article provide a broadly heterologous and long-lasting protection. The herd effect substantially contributed to the observed drop in the number of incidences of severe rotavirus infections. Presumably, constant high vaccine coverage will lead to a continued upward trend in the overall vaccine efficiency. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Drift of the center of motion for a charged particle due to radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares De Parga, G.; Mares, R.

    1999-01-01

    Through parametrization of the relativistic Larmor formula, one can find the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. Simultaneously, there exists a drift of the center of curvature for the same. This effect is quantitatively compared with the predictions by other equations of motion, such as Dirac, Mo-Papas, Herrera, Bonnor and Cardirola and the one recently obtained by Hartemann and others. The paper proposes an experiment to verify the predicted effect, both qualitative and quantitative

  3. Memory for faces with emotional expressions in Alzheimer's disease and healthy older participants: positivity effect is not only due to familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Alina-Alexandra; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Delphin-Combe, Floriane; Cloarec, Morgane; Chainay, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Young individuals better memorize initially seen faces with emotional rather than neutral expressions. Healthy older participants and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients show better memory for faces with positive expressions. The socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that this positivity effect in memory reflects a general age-related preference for positive stimuli, subserving emotion regulation. Another explanation might be that older participants use compensatory strategies, often considering happy faces as previously seen. The question about the existence of this effect in tasks not permitting such compensatory strategies is still open. Thus, we compared the performance of healthy participants and AD patients for positive, neutral, and negative faces in such tasks. Healthy older participants and AD patients showed a positivity effect in memory, but there was no difference between emotional and neutral faces in young participants. Our results suggest that the positivity effect in memory is not entirely due to the sense of familiarity for smiling faces.

  4. A simple solution for reducing artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, M.; Lowry, M.; Gibbs, P.; Pickles, M.; Turnbull, L.W.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of imaging obtained at high magnetic field strengths can be degraded by various artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects, which leads to loss of signal. Various methods have been described and used to improve the quality of the image affected by such artefacts. In this article, we describe the construction and use of a simple solution that can be used to diminish artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical imaging at 3 T field strength and thereby improve the diagnostic quality of the images obtained

  5. Laser-induced fluorescences due to quadrupole moment transition and Stark effect in a He glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hisashi; Takiyama, Ken; Kimura, Masahiko; Yamasaki, Motokuni; Fujita, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiatsu; Kawasaki, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    The electric quadrupole moment transition and the Stark effect are investigated in a He hollow cathode discharge with laser-induced fluorescence method. It is shown that the forbidden transition from 2 1 S to 3 1 D in the negative glow is dominantly due to the quadrupole moment transition. This absorption coefficient is obtained from the laser-induced fluorescence intensity measurement in which the collisional transfers are taken into account. The result agrees with the theoretical coefficient. In the cathode dark space the fluorescence due to the Stark effect is also observed. Spatial distribution of the fluorescence is discussed, compared with the electric field distribution in the dark space. (author)

  6. A simple solution for reducing artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivas, M. [Department of Radiology (Yorkshire Deanery-East), Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: aprilsreenivas@hotmail.com; Lowry, M. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Gibbs, P. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Pickles, M. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Turnbull, L.W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    The quality of imaging obtained at high magnetic field strengths can be degraded by various artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects, which leads to loss of signal. Various methods have been described and used to improve the quality of the image affected by such artefacts. In this article, we describe the construction and use of a simple solution that can be used to diminish artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical imaging at 3 T field strength and thereby improve the diagnostic quality of the images obtained.

  7. The effects of predictor method factors on selection outcomes: A modular approach to personnel selection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Sackett, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Past reviews and meta-analyses typically conceptualized and examined selection procedures as holistic entities. We draw on the product design literature to propose a modular approach as a complementary perspective to conceptualizing selection procedures. A modular approach means that a product is broken down into its key underlying components. Therefore, we start by presenting a modular framework that identifies the important measurement components of selection procedures. Next, we adopt this modular lens for reviewing the available evidence regarding each of these components in terms of affecting validity, subgroup differences, and applicant perceptions, as well as for identifying new research directions. As a complement to the historical focus on holistic selection procedures, we posit that the theoretical contributions of a modular approach include improved insight into the isolated workings of the different components underlying selection procedures and greater theoretical connectivity among different selection procedures and their literatures. We also outline how organizations can put a modular approach into operation to increase the variety in selection procedures and to enhance the flexibility in designing them. Overall, we believe that a modular perspective on selection procedures will provide the impetus for programmatic and theory-driven research on the different measurement components of selection procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination in intensive care unit patients: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, E.A.; Wit, G.A. de; Bakker, M; Smet, A.M. de; Bonten, M.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Voss, A.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine costs and effects of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) as compared with standard care (ie, no SDD/SOD (SC)) from a healthcare perspective in Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). DESIGN: A post hoc analysis of a

  9. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination in intensive care unit patients : a cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; de Wit, G. A.; Bakker, Marina; de Smet, Anne-Marie; Bonten, M. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine costs and effects of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) as compared with standard care (ie, no SDD/SOD (SC)) from a healthcare perspective in Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Design: A post hoc analysis of a

  10. Coupled hydrological-mechanical effects due to excavation of underground openings in unsaturated fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazer, P.

    1985-01-01

    One of the effects of excavating an underground opening in fractured rocks is a modification of the state of the stress in the rock mass in the vicinity of the opening. This effect causes changes in the geometry of the cross sections of the fracture planes, which in turn results in modification of the hydrologic properties of the fractures of the rock mass. The significance of the orientation of the fractures and their stiffness on the extent of the modification of the hydrologic properties as a result of excavation of underground openings is demonstrated. A conceptual model is presented to illustrate the complexity of the coupled hydrological-mechanical phenomena in the unsaturated zone. This conceptual model is used to develop an investigative program to assess the extent of the effect at a proposed repository site for storing high-level nuclear wastes

  11. Satellite drag effects due to uplifted oxygen neutrals during super magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2017-12-01

    During intense magnetic storms, prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) through E × B forces near the magnetic equator uplift the dayside ionosphere. This effect has been called the dayside super-fountain effect. Ion-neutral drag forces between the upward moving O+ (oxygen ions) and oxygen neutrals will elevate the oxygen atoms to higher altitudes. This paper gives a linear calculation indicating how serious the effect may be during an 1859-type (Carrington) superstorm. It is concluded that the oxygen neutral densities produced at low-Earth-orbiting (LEO) satellite altitudes may be sufficiently high to present severe satellite drag. It is estimated that with a prompt penetrating electric field of ˜ 20 mV m-1 turned on for 20 min, the O atoms and O+ ions are uplifted to 850 km where they produce about 40-times-greater satellite drag per unit mass than normal. Stronger electric fields will presumably lead to greater uplifted mass.

  12. Environmental induced renormalization effects in quantum Hall edge states due to 1/f noise and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, A; Ferraro, D; Sassetti, M; Carrega, M; Magnoli, N

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general mechanism for the renormalization of the tunnelling exponents in edge states of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Mutual effects of the coupling with out-of-equilibrium 1/f noise and dissipation are considered for both the Laughlin sequence and the composite co- and counter-propagating edge states with Abelian or non-Abelian statistics. For states with counter-propagating modes, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed mechanism in the so-called disorder-dominated phase. Prototypes of these states, such as ν = 2/3 and ν = 5/2, are discussed in detail, and the rich phenomenology induced by the presence of a noisy environment is presented. The proposed mechanism could help justify the strong renormalizations reported in many experimental observations carried out at low temperatures. We show how environmental effects could affect the relevance of the tunnelling excitations, leading to important implications, in particular for the ν = 5/2 case. (paper)

  13. Clarifying Cutting and Sewing Processes with Due Windows Using an Effective Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hwa Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting and sewing process is a traditional flow shop scheduling problem in the real world. This two-stage flexible flow shop is often commonly associated with manufacturing in the fashion and textiles industry. Many investigations have demonstrated that the ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm is effective and efficient for solving scheduling problems. This work applies a novel effective ant colony optimization (EACO algorithm to solve two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problems and thereby minimize earliness, tardiness, and makespan. Computational results reveal that for both small and large problems, EACO is more effective and robust than both the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm and the ACO algorithm. Importantly, this work demonstrates that EACO can solve complex scheduling problems in an acceptable period of time.

  14. Global characteristics of zonal flows due to the effect of finite bandwidth in drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, K.; Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The spectral effect of the zonal flow (ZF) on its generation is investigated based on the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima turbulence model. It is found that the effect of finite ZF bandwidth qualitatively changes the characteristics of ZF instability. A spatially localized (namely, global) nonlinear ZF state with an enhanced, unique growth rate for all spectral components is created under a given turbulent fluctuation. It is identified that such state originates from the successive cross couplings among Fourier components of the ZF and turbulence spectra through the sideband modulation. Furthermore, it is observed that the growth rate of the global ZF is determined not only by the spectral distribution and amplitudes of turbulent pumps as usual, but also statistically by the turbulence structure, namely, their probabilistic initial phase factors. A ten-wave coupling model of the ZF modulation instability involving the essential effect of the ZF spectrum is developed to clarify the basic features of the global nonlinear ZF state.

  15. A simple method for principal strata effects when the outcome has been truncated due to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yasutaka; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2011-04-01

    In randomized trials with follow-up, outcomes such as quality of life may be undefined for individuals who die before the follow-up is complete. In such settings, restricting analysis to those who survive can give rise to biased outcome comparisons. An alternative approach is to consider the "principal strata effect" or "survivor average causal effect" (SACE), defined as the effect of treatment on the outcome among the subpopulation that would have survived under either treatment arm. The authors describe a very simple technique that can be used to assess the SACE. They give both a sensitivity analysis technique and conditions under which a crude comparison provides a conservative estimate of the SACE. The method is illustrated using data from the ARDSnet (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network) clinical trial comparing low-volume ventilation and traditional ventilation methods for individuals with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  16. Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

  17. The detection of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Robert A.; Unninayar, Sushel

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is accepted as an undisputed fact from both theoretical and observational considerations. In Earth's atmosphere, the primary greenhouse gas is water vapor. The specific concern today is that increasing concentrations of anthropogenically introduced greenhouse gases will, sooner or later, irreversibly alter the climate of Earth. Detecting climate change has been complicated by uncertainties in historical observations and measurements. Thus, the primary concern for the GEDEX project is how can climate change and enhanced greenhouse effects be unambiguously detected and quantified. Specifically examined are the areas of: Earth surface temperature; the free atmosphere (850 millibars and above); space-based measurements; measurement uncertainties; and modeling the observed temperature record.

  18. The detection of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, R.A.; Unninayar, S.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is accepted as an undisputed fact from both theoretical and observational considerations. In Earth's atmosphere, the primary greenhouse gas is water vapor. The specific concern today is that increasing concentrations of anthropogenically introduced greenhouse gases will, sooner or later, irreversibly alter the climate of Earth. Detecting climate change has been complicated by uncertainties in historical observations and measurements. Thus, the primary concern for the GEDEX project is how can climate change and enhanced greenhouse effects be unambiguously detected and quantified. Specifically examined are the areas of: Earth surface temperature; the free atmosphere (850 millibars and above); space-based measurements; measurement uncertainties; and modeling the observed temperature record

  19. Frame-dragging effect in the field of non rotating body due to unit gravimagnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriglazov, Alexei A.; Ramírez, Walberto Guzmán

    2018-04-01

    Nonminimal spin-gravity interaction through unit gravimagnetic moment leads to modified Mathisson-Papapetrou-Tulczyjew-Dixon equations with improved behavior in the ultrarelativistic limit. We present exact Hamiltonian of the resulting theory and compute an effective 1/c2-Hamiltonian and leading post-Newtonian corrections to the trajectory and spin. Gravimagnetic moment causes the same precession of spin S as a fictitious rotation of the central body with angular momentum J = M/m S. So the modified equations imply a number of qualitatively new effects, that could be used to test experimentally, whether a rotating body in general relativity has null or unit gravimagnetic moment.

  20. Effective DNA Inhibitors of Cathepsin G by In Vitro Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Barbara; Vianini, Elena; Lucatello, Lorena; Sissi, Claudia; Moltrasio, Danilo; Pescador, Rodolfo; Porta, Roberto; Palumbo, Manlio

    2008-01-01

    Cathepsin G (CatG) is a chymotrypsin-like protease released upon degranulation of neutrophils. In several inflammatory and ischaemic diseases the impaired balance between CatG and its physiological inhibitors leads to tissue destruction and platelet aggregation. Inhibitors of CatG are suitable for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and procoagulant conditions. DNA released upon the death of neutrophils at injury sites binds CatG. Moreover, short DNA fragments are more inhibitory than genomic DNA. Defibrotide, a single stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide with antithrombotic effect is also a potent CatG inhibitor. Given the above experimental evidences we employed a selection protocol to assess whether DNA inhibition of CatG may be ascribed to specific sequences present in defibrotide DNA. A Selex protocol was applied to identify the single-stranded DNA sequences exhibiting the highest affinity for CatG, the diversity of a combinatorial pool of oligodeoxyribonucleotides being a good representation of the complexity found in defibrotide. Biophysical and biochemical studies confirmed that the selected sequences bind tightly to the target enzyme and also efficiently inhibit its catalytic activity. Sequence analysis carried out to unveil a motif responsible for CatG recognition showed a recurrence of alternating TG repeats in the selected CatG binders, adopting an extended conformation that grants maximal interaction with the highly charged protein surface. This unprecedented finding is validated by our results showing high affinity and inhibition of CatG by specific DNA sequences of variable length designed to maximally reduce pairing/folding interactions. PMID:19325843

  1. Effective DNA Inhibitors of Cathepsin G by In Vitro Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlio Palumbo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cathepsin G (CatG is a chymotrypsin-like protease released upon degranulation of neutrophils. In several inflammatory and ischaemic diseases the impaired balance between CatG and its physiological inhibitors leads to tissue destruction and platelet aggregation. Inhibitors of CatG are suitable for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and procoagulant conditions. DNA released upon the death of neutrophils at injury sites binds CatG. Moreover, short DNA fragments are more inhibitory than genomic DNA. Defibrotide, a single stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide with antithrombotic effect is also a potent CatG inhibitor. Given the above experimental evidences we employed a selection protocol to assess whether DNA inhibition of CatG may be ascribed to specific sequences present in defibrotide DNA. A Selex protocol was applied to identify the single-stranded DNA sequences exhibiting the highest affinity for CatG, the diversity of a combinatorial pool of oligodeoxyribonucleotides being a good representation of the complexity found in defibrotide. Biophysical and biochemical studies confirmed that the selected sequences bind tightly to the target enzyme and also efficiently inhibit its catalytic activity. Sequence analysis carried out to unveil a motif responsible for CatG recognition showed a recurrence of alternating TG repeats in the selected CatG binders, adopting an extended conformation that grants maximal interaction with the highly charged protein surface. This unprecedented finding is validated by our results showing high affinity and inhibition of CatG by specific DNA sequences of variable length designed to maximally reduce pairing/folding interactions.

  2. Modeling ambipolar potential formation due to ICRF heating effects on electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.W.; Callen, J.D.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1985-08-01

    A mechanism for the potential bump observed near the region of ICRF heating in the endplugs of the Phaedrus tandem mirror experiment is investigated by numerical simulation of electron orbits in a simple mirror geometry. Given initial magnetic and ambipolar potential wells that trap the electrons, the ''near field'' parallel electric field E-tilde/sub z/e/sup -iωt/, which is localized near and due to the ICRF heating, tends to eject electrons from the region where E-tilde/sub z/ is nonzero. This depletion of the local electron population causes a local increase in the ambipolar potential. The rate at which the electrons are ejected, (dn/dt), is calculated from the electron orbit computation for a given potential well depth. The rate at which passing particles ''fill in'' the potential well can also be calculated. An estimate of how large the bump in the ambipolar potential becomes is obtained by finding the well depth at which (dn/dt) approximately equals the ''filling'' rate. For Phaedrus parameters (n 0 approx. = 4.0 x 10 12 cm -3 , T/sub e/ = 20 eV, E-tilde/sub z/ approx. = 1.0 V/cm) the electron pumping rate balances the ''filling'' rate at a potential well depth of approximately 40 V, consistent with experimental results

  3. Study of dosimetric effects due to metallic heterogeneity of tissue expanders in post-mastectomy radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetta, Debora M.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Rosa, Luiz A.R. da

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In each year approximately 20% of the new cases of cancer in women are breast cancers. Despite the increase in the use of breast-conserving treatment, some women still require mastectomy as their primary surgical management. A large part of these women, whom undergo a mastectomy, realize a breast reconstruction afterwards. The most common options for reconstruction include autogenous tissue techniques and tissue expansion followed by breast implant placement. Many trials have demonstrated a survival benefit associated with post-mastectomy radiotherapy mainly if the treatment starts right after the mastectomy. In such case patients whom were realizing the breast reconstruction using tissue expanders can be irradiated using this. These patients posses a material with high atomic number within the irradiated area, so this metallic port becomes an heterogeneity which can modify the calculated doses distribution for the treatment. The study was due through the quantification of the relative transmission of 6MV and 15MV radiotherapy beam, making use of computer simulations with Monte Carlo method implemented by the MCNPX code. The results show that the presence of this metallic heterogeneity changes the transmission of the beam, causing a reduction up to 13% in the geometric shadowed region. According to dosimetric protocols, which recommend that the reduction in the dose should be bellow of 5%, the difference found in the study could be significant. (author)

  4. Chaos induced by quantum effect due to breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Chaos in the multimode nonadiabatic system constructed by Heller [J. Chem. Phys. >92, 1718 (1990)], which consists of two diabatic two-dimensional harmonic potentials with the Condon coupling, is studied. A thorough investigation is carried out by scanning the magnitudes of the Condon coupling and the Duschinsky angle. To elucidate mechanisms that can cause chaos in this quantum system, the statistical properties of the energy levels and eigenfunctions of the system are investigated. We find an evidence in terms of the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution of energy levels and other measures that a certain class of chaos is purely induced by the nonadiabatic interaction due to breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Since the nonadiabatic transition can induce repeated bifurcation and merging of a wave packet around the region of quasicrossing between two potential surfaces, and since this interaction does not have a counterpart in the lower adiabatic system, the present chaos deserves being called 'nonadiabatic chaos.' Another type of chaos in a nonadiabatic system was previously identified [D. M. Leitner et al., J. Chem. Phys. >104, 434 (1996)] that reflects the inherent chaos of a corresponding adiabatic potential. We present a comparative study to establish the similarity and difference between these kinds of chaos

  5. Stopping of magnetic collapse due to residual plasma effect in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasorov, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the external plasma of a divergent current shell of a plasma pinch is discussed. Even a small amount of plasma is shown to be sufficiently enough for principal change in dynamics of late stages of sausage-type instability development in a Z-pinch

  6. Effect of physiological factors on dose due to organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the understanding of the effect of age, anatomical and physiological data on the doses in order to prescribe dose coefficient for radionuclides. The published data on OBT dose fraction after acute or chronic intakes of HTO are evaluated to examine the variation of OBT dose with the age and physiology of occupational workers. (author)

  7. Pb nanoprecipitates in Al: Magic-shape effects due to elastic strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, J.C.; Leoard, F.; Johnson, Erik

    2007-01-01

    We present a theory for size-dependent shapes of Pb nanoprecipitates in Al, introducing the concept of "magic shapes," i.e., shapes having near-zero homogeneous elastic strains. Our quantitative atomistic calculations of edge energies show their effect on precipitate shape to be negligible, thus...

  8. Incidence and impact: The regional variation of poverty effects due to fossil fuel subsidy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentschler, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Since fossil fuel subsidy reforms can induce significant distributional shifts and price shocks, effective compensation and social protection programs are crucial. Based on the statistical simulation model by Araar and Verme (2012), this study estimates the regional variability of direct welfare effects of removing fuel subsidies in Nigeria. Uncompensated subsidy removal is estimated to increase the national poverty rate by 3–4% on average. However, uniform cash compensation that appears effective at the national average, is found to fail to mitigate price shocks in 16 of 37 states – thus putting livelihoods (and public support for reforms) at risk. States that are estimated to incur the largest welfare shocks, coincide with hotspots of civil unrest following Nigeria's 2012 subsidy reform attempt. The study illustrates how regionally disaggregated compensation can be revenue neutral, and maintain or reduce pre-reform poverty rates in all states. Overall, it highlights the importance of understanding differences in vulnerability, and designing tailored social protection schemes which ensure public support for subsidy reforms. - Highlights: •Fossil fuel subsidy reforms can induce significant distributional shifts and price shocks. •There is significant regional variation of a reform's effects on poverty rates. •Compensation is key to protect livelihoods and win public support for reform. •Compensation schemes must be carefully tailored to account for regional variation.

  9. Effect of infliximab on renal injury due to methotrexate in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Aynur; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Kalkan, Yildiray; Cure, Erkan; Tumkaya, Levent; Sahin, Osman Zikrullah; Yuce, Suleyman; Kizilkaya, Bayram; Pergel, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    Methotrexate, an antagonist of folic acid used in the treatment of many cancers and inflammatory diseases, is associated with side effects that limit its usage. Infliximab has been reported to have a protective effect against nephrotoxicity induced by some drugs and ischemic reperfusion. We aimed to investigate whether infliximab has a protective effect against methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity. We administered methotrexate at a dose of 20 mg/kg as a single intraperitoneal injection in 10 rats (methotrexate group). Another group of 10 rats received a single dose of infliximab, 7 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (infliximab group). The methotrexate and infliximab group received a similar single injection of infliximab 72 hours prior to methotrexate injection. After 72 hours a single dose of methotrexate, 20 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally. Five days after methotrexate injection, blood samples were collected and the kidney tissues were removed for biochemical and histological examination. The methotrexate group had significantly higher tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (P = .008), interleukin-1β (P = .04), nitric oxide (P < .001), and adenosine deaminase (P < .001) than the methotrexate and infliximab group after the 5-day study. The methotrexate group also had significantly higher total histological scores (P < .001) and carbonic anhydrase-II activity (P < .001) when compared to the methotrexate and infliximab group. Infliximab has a strong protective effect against methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity by suppressing cytokines release. It may decrease methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity by regulating carbonic anhydrase-II enzyme activities and slowing down purine metabolism.

  10. Evaluation for committed effective dose due to dietary foods by the intake for Japanese adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Tomoko; Sanada, Tetsuya; Kashiwara, Yoko; Morimoto, Takao; Sato, Kaneaki

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity levels in 137 foods commonly consumed daily in Japan were evaluated to determine the committed effective dose in the Japanese adults. The levels of radioactivity for 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu were ND-5.2 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-0.18 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-3.9 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-45 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-120 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-9.9 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-19 Bq/kg fresh weight and ND-0.010 Bq/kg fresh weight, respectively. The committed effective dose was estimated to be 0.80 mSv from the intake of the foods. The effective dose was greater than the world mean value for adults of 0.12 mSv by natural radioactive elements in the uranium and thorium series from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 because of the large contribution from 210 Po in seafood. (author)

  11. Effects of Platycodin D on Reflux Esophagitis due to Modulation of Antioxidant Defense Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The effects of platycodin D (PD pretreatment were examined in reflux esophagitis (RE induced rats. Methods. Sham, control, and omeprazole (OMP group were pretreated with distilled water or OMP as a reference, respectively, and PD pretreated groups were given 3 different PD doses once a day for 7 days. One hour after last pretreatment, RE was induced by ligation of the forestomach and pylorus. At 8 h after operation, all animals were sacrificed. Results. PD showed significant dose-dependent reduction of gastric secretion, myeloperoxidase activity, and RE lesion areas of esophagus and stomach mucosa. There was a reduction of lipid peroxidation in 2 doses of PD groups and elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in all PD groups. Gastric hexose and sialic acid were significantly increased in PD groups, while collagen was reduced. Plasma histamine levels were significantly reduced in all PD groups, but not in the OMP group. Total invasive lesion sizes of esophagus and gastric fundus were significantly decreased in all PD groups. Thicknesses in esophagus of all PD groups were significantly decreased and thicknesses of funds were significantly increased except lowest PD dose. Conclusions. Therapeutic effects of PD on the esophageal and gastric lesions were shown in RE induced rats dose-dependently. The PD pretreatment had significant antioxidant effects with regulation of histamine levels. This study provides useful information regarding the effectiveness of the drug for RE and further novel drug discovery using natural herbal products.

  12. Meta-analysis of recent studies on patients admitted to hospital due to adverse drug effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atiqi, R.; Cleophas, T. J.; van Bommel, E.; Zwinderman, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    The use of drugs has expanded during the previous decade. However, earlier studies oil patients admitted for adverse drugs effects (ADEs) have been heterogeneous. The objectives of this Study were to assess the number of recent admissions to hospital Clue to ADEs and to assess the degree of

  13. Assessing the indirect effects due to natural hazards on a mesoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Schwarze, R.

    2009-04-01

    Measuring indirect economic costs and other effects from natural hazards, especially floods in alpine and other mountainous regions, are a necessary part of a comprehensive economic assessment. Their omission seriously affects the relative economic benefits of structural or non structural measures of flood defence. Surpassing controversial, IO-model-based economic estimates, analysing indirect economic effects lead to the key question of identifying and evaluating the drivers of indirect economic effects and resilience to system effects in the regional economy, i.e. at the meso-level. This investigation takes place for the catastrophic floods in summer 2005 in the provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Austria, which caused an estimated € 670 Mio direct loss on private and public assets and severe interruptions in lifeline services. The paper starts out with differentiating the concept of indirect economic costs from direct costs, examing different temporal (short vs. long-term) and spatial (macro-, meso- vs. microeconomic) system boundaries. It surveys common theories of economic resilience and vulnerability at the regional economy level. Indirect effects at the regional economy level can be defined as interferences of the economic exchange of goods and services triggered by breakdowns of transport lines and critical production inputs. The extent and persistence of indirect effects of natural hazards is not only by parameters of the extreme event, such as duration and amplitude of the flood, but much more by resilience parameters of the regional economy such as size of enterprises, the network structure (linkages) of the regional economy, availability of insurance and relief funds, and the stock of inventory. These effects can only be dissected by means of expert judgement and event studies. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted among business practioneers, members of chamber of commerce, civil protection agencies to identify and scale the drivers of

  14. Solidifier effectiveness : variation due to oil composition, oil thickness and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, B.; Fingas, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provided an overview of solidifier types and composition. Solidifiers are a class of spill treating agents that offer an effective means to convert a liquid oil into a solid material. They are used as a treatment option for oil spills on water. This paper also reported on recent laboratory studies that consist of 4 components: (1) a qualitative examination of the characteristics of the interaction of a broad range of solidifier products with a standard oil to evaluate reaction rate, states of solidification, and the impact of dosage, (2) a comparison of a smaller subset of solidifiers on the standard oil at lower temperatures, (3) solidifier treatment on a range of oils of varying physical properties and composition to assess the potential scope of application, and (4) the treatment of a series of small-scale oil layers of varying thickness to determine the significance of oil thickness on solidifier effectiveness and recovery. This paper also reviewed solidifier chemistry with particular reference to polymer sorbents; cross-linking agents; and cross-linking agents and polymeric sorbents combined. Toxicity is also an important issue regarding solidifiers. The aquatic toxicity of solidifiers is low and not measurable as the products are not water-soluble. There have not been any studies on the effects of the solidifier or the treated oil on surface feeders and shoreline wildlife that may come into contact with the products. It was concluded that oil composition may play a major role in solidifier effectiveness. The effectiveness of solidifiers is also inhibited at reduced temperatures, increased viscosity and density of the oil. 25 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix

  15. Effective selection of transgenic papaya plants with the PMI/Man selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; McCafferty, Heather; Albert, Henrik H; Moore, Paul H

    2005-09-01

    The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogenic calli have little or no PMI activity and cannot utilize Man as a carbon source; however, when calli were transformed with a pmi gene, the PMI activity was greatly increased and they could utilize Man as efficiently as sucrose. Plants regenerated from selected callus lines also exhibited PMI activity but at a lower specific activity level. Our transformation efficiency with Man selection was higher than that reported using antibiotic selection or with a visual marker. For papaya, the PMI/Man selection system for producing transgenic plants is a highly efficient addition to previously published methods for selection and may facilitate the stacking of multiple transgenes of interest. Additionally, since the PMI/Man selection system does not involve antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes, its use might reduce environmental concerns about the potential flow of those genes into related plant populations.

  16. The end-state comfort effect in bimanual grip selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Mark G; Stodden, David F; Lehman, Davana M

    2003-03-01

    During a unimanual grip selection task in which people pick up a lightweight dowel and place one end against targets at variable heights, the choice of hand grip (overhand vs. underhand) typically depends on the perception of how comfortable the arm will be at the end of the movement: an end-state comfort effect. The two experiments reported here extend this work to bimanual tasks. In each experiment, 26 right-handed participants used their left and right hands to simultaneously pick up two wooden dowels and place either the right or left end against a series of 14 targets ranging from 14 to 210 cm above the floor. These tasks were performed in systematic ascending and descending orders in Experiment 1 and in random order in Expiment 2. Results were generally consistent with predictions of end-state comfort in that, for the extreme highest and lowest targets, participants tended to select opposite grips with each hand. Taken together, our findings are consistent with the concept of constraint hierarchies within a posture-based motion-planning model.

  17. Vapor pressure lowering effects due to salinity and suction pressure in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, A. [Aquater S.p.A., Pisa (Italy); Calore, C. [Istituto Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche-CNR, Pisa (Italy); Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The equation-of-state module able to handle saline brines with non-condensible gas, developed for the TOUGH2 simulator, has been improved to include vapor pressure lowering (VPL) due to suction pressure as represented by Kelvin`s equation. In this equation the effects of salt are considered whereas those of non-condensible gas have currently been neglected. Numerical simulations of fluid production from tight matrix blocks have been performed to evaluate the impact of VPL effects due to salinity and suction pressure on the depletion behaviour of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. Previous studies performed neglected VPL due to suction pressure showed that for initial NaCl mass fractions above threshold values, {open_quotes}sealing{close_quotes} of the block occurs and large amounts of liquid fluid may not be recovered. On the other hand, below the threshold value the matrix block dries out due to fluid production. The inclusion of VPL due to suction pressure does not allow complete vaporization of the liquid phase. As a result, the threshold NaCl concentration above which sealing of the matrix block occurs is increased. Above the {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes} NaCl concentration, block depletion behaviour with and without the VPL due to suction pressure is almost identical, as liquid phase saturation remains high even after long production times. As the VPL due to suction pressure depends mainly on capillary pressure, the shape of capillary pressure functions used in numerical simulations is important in determining VPL effects on block depletion.

  18. Effect of case management on neonatal mortality due to sepsis and pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Robert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year almost one million newborns die from infections, mostly in low-income countries. Timely case management would save many lives but the relative mortality effect of varying strategies is unknown. We have estimated the effect of providing oral, or injectable antibiotics at home or in first-level facilities, and of in-patient hospital care on neonatal mortality from pneumonia and sepsis for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted systematic searches of multiple databases to identify relevant studies with mortality data. Standardized abstraction tables were used and study quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. Meta-analyses were undertaken where appropriate. For interventions with biological plausibility but low quality evidence, a Delphi process was undertaken to estimate effectiveness. Results Searches of 2876 titles identified 7 studies. Among these, 4 evaluated oral antibiotics for neonatal pneumonia in non-randomised, concurrently controlled designs. Meta-analysis suggested reductions in all-cause neonatal mortality (RR 0.75 95% CI 0.64- 0.89; 4 studies and neonatal pneumonia-specific mortality (RR 0.58 95% CI 0.41- 0.82; 3 studies. Two studies (1 RCT, 1 observational study, evaluated community-based neonatal care packages including injectable antibiotics and reported mortality reductions of 44% (RR= 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.77 and 34% (RR =0.66, 95% CI 0.47-0.93, but the interpretation of these results is complicated by co-interventions. A third, clinic-based, study reported a case-fatality ratio of 3.3% among neonates treated with injectable antibiotics as outpatients. No studies were identified evaluating injectable antibiotics alone for neonatal pneumonia. Delphi consensus (median from 20 respondents effects on sepsis-specific mortality were 30% reduction for oral antibiotics, 65% for injectable antibiotics and 75% for injectable antibiotics on pneumonia-specific mortality. No trials were

  19. Reconsidering examining cannabis subtypes together due to opposing effects on brain, cognition and behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Ewing, Sarah W. Feeldstein

    Cannabis use represents a major public health issue throughout the globe. Yet, we still lack the most fundamental of knowledge on long-term effects of cannabis on neural, cognitive, and behavioral function. Part of this stems from how cannabis has been measured. To this end, most empirical...... examinations of cannabis have historically consolidated all types of cannabis collectively. However, this approach misses a fundamental fact about how different cannabinoids operate. Here we address the contrasting properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and their opposing effects...... on a wide array of health function. In addition, we address the increase in cannabis potency throughout the past two decades and how that impacts generalizability of early data on current public health. We put forth the urgent need for future research to disaggregate examination of THC from CBD, along...

  20. Aspects of radiation effects due to visual display units at work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.

    1988-01-01

    The introduction and acceptance of video display units at work have led to a huge flood of information, rumours, and half-truths about those units. As the population became increasingly sensitized to 'radioactive radiation', there was, and in part still is, a tendency to consider particularly effects of unclear origin, first of all ionizing radiation and later on also non-ionizing radiation, as the main threat from video display units at work. Such important issuses as ergonomics, stress load, visual stress load, and social hygiene are often effaced by the question for 'the radiation load from visual display units'. The paper is an attempt to deal with aspects of radiation effects of visual display units at work. The discussion also extends to hazards, respectively the 'radiation environment', at the site of the visual display unit. (orig./DG) [de

  1. Length-scale effect due to periodic variation of geometrically necessary dislocation densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oztop, M. S.; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Strain gradient plasticity theories have been successful in predicting qualitative aspects of the length scale effect, most notably the increase in yield strength and hardness as the size of the deforming volume decreases. However new experimental methodologies enabled by recent developments...... of high spatial resolution diffraction methods in a scanning electron microscope give a much more quantitative understanding of plastic deformation at small length scales. Specifically, geometrically necessary dislocation densities (GND) can now be measured and provide detailed information about...... the microstructure of deformed metals in addition to the size effect. Recent GND measurements have revealed a distribution of length scales that evolves within a metal undergoing plastic deformation. Furthermore, these experiments have shown an accumulation of GND densities in cell walls as well as a variation...

  2. Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.

    2007-01-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. (orig.) [de

  3. Computation of electromagnetic effects in a tokamak due to a plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    To model the consequences of a plasma disruption in a tokamak one must combine a code that computes the detailed MHD behavior of the plasma with one that treats the three-dimensional features of the conducting toroidal components around the plasma. The NET (Next European Torus) Team have undertaken a treatment of electromagnetic effects from plasma disruptions using both open loop and closed loop integration of codes. In America, workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory have looked at plasma disruption effects on the ITER blanket using the codes TSC and EDDYNET. Results show how the forces on a blanket segment depend on the number and size of the segments and on the gap between them. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Selection and application of effective LNAPL recovery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) such as gasoline, diesel, fuel oil and lubricating oil resulting from historical or catastrophic releases, is present at numerous industrial and hazardous waste sites. Initiating LNAPL removal is the first step in remediating impacted groundwater with the LNAPL recovery process having a profound effect on the ability to cost effectively achieve site closure. In many cases, LNAPL recovery precedes full-scale groundwater design activities or even final site characterization due to regulatory compliance issues. Therefore, the timely and effective implementation of a LNAPL recovery system can result in reduced project costs by mitigating further plume migration, achieving maximum volume of recoverable hydrocarbons, eliminating the source area associated with dissolved phase contamination, and allowing comprehensive groundwater remediation to be employed sooner. Effective LNAPL recovery systems begin with evaluating a number of site-specific parameters to quantify the physical characteristics of the type of LNAPL to be recovered, the hydrogeological environment, LNAPL, plume geometry, and the specified client or regulatory cleanup goals. These parameters are discussed along with their significance in developing a conceptual understanding of the site

  5. The conversion of exposures due to radon into the effective dose: the epidemiological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, T.R. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The risks and dose conversion coefficients for residential and occupational exposures due to radon were determined with applying the epidemiological risk models to ICRP representative populations. The dose conversion coefficient for residential radon was estimated with a value of 1.6 mSv year{sup -1} per 100 Bq m{sup -3} (3.6 mSv per WLM), which is significantly lower than the corresponding value derived from the biokinetic and dosimetric models. The dose conversion coefficient for occupational exposures with applying the risk models for miners was estimated with a value of 14 mSv per WLM, which is in good accordance with the results of the dosimetric models. To resolve the discrepancy regarding residential radon, the ICRP approaches for the determination of risks and doses were reviewed. It could be shown that ICRP overestimates the risk for lung cancer caused by residential radon. This can be attributed to a wrong population weighting of the radon-induced risks in its epidemiological approach. With the approach in this work, the average risks for lung cancer were determined, taking into account the age-specific risk contributions of all individuals in the population. As a result, a lower risk coefficient for residential radon was obtained. The results from the ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric models for both, the occupationally exposed working age population and the whole population exposed to residential radon, can be brought in better accordance with the corresponding results of the epidemiological approach, if the respective relative radiation detriments and a radiation-weighting factor for alpha particles of about ten are used. (orig.)

  6. The conversion of exposures due to radon into the effective dose: the epidemiological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.

    2017-01-01

    The risks and dose conversion coefficients for residential and occupational exposures due to radon were determined with applying the epidemiological risk models to ICRP representative populations. The dose conversion coefficient for residential radon was estimated with a value of 1.6 mSv year -1 per 100 Bq m -3 (3.6 mSv per WLM), which is significantly lower than the corresponding value derived from the biokinetic and dosimetric models. The dose conversion coefficient for occupational exposures with applying the risk models for miners was estimated with a value of 14 mSv per WLM, which is in good accordance with the results of the dosimetric models. To resolve the discrepancy regarding residential radon, the ICRP approaches for the determination of risks and doses were reviewed. It could be shown that ICRP overestimates the risk for lung cancer caused by residential radon. This can be attributed to a wrong population weighting of the radon-induced risks in its epidemiological approach. With the approach in this work, the average risks for lung cancer were determined, taking into account the age-specific risk contributions of all individuals in the population. As a result, a lower risk coefficient for residential radon was obtained. The results from the ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric models for both, the occupationally exposed working age population and the whole population exposed to residential radon, can be brought in better accordance with the corresponding results of the epidemiological approach, if the respective relative radiation detriments and a radiation-weighting factor for alpha particles of about ten are used. (orig.)

  7. Dose rate effect on material aging due to radiation. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Shin-ichi (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)); Hayakawa, Chikara; Takeya, Chikashi

    1982-12-01

    Although many reports have been presented on the radiation aging of the organic materials for electric cables, those have been based on the experiments carried out at high dose rate near 1 x 10/sup 6/ rad/h, assuming that aging effect depends on only radiation dose. Therefore, to investigate the aging behaviour in low dose rate range is an important subject to predict their practical life time. In this report, the results of having investigated the aging behaviour of six types of materials are described, (polyethylene for general insulation purpose, chemically cross-linked polyethylene, fire-retardant chemically cross-linked polyethylene, fire-retardant ethylene-propylene rubber, fire-retardant chloro-sulfonated polyethylene for sheaths, and fire-retardant, low hydrochloric acid, special heat-resistant vinyl for insulation purpose or chloroclean). They were irradiated with /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-ray at the dose from 5 x 10/sup 3/ to 1 x 10/sup 6/ rad/h, and their deterioration was tested for the items of elongation, tensile strength, resistivity, dielectric tangent and gel fraction. The aging mechanism and dose rate effect were also considered. The dose rate effect appeared or did not appear depending on the types of materials and also their properties. The materials that showed the dose rate effect included the typical ones whose characteristics degraded with the decreasing dose rate, and the peculiar ones whose deterioration of characteristics did not appear constantly. Aging mechanism may vary in the case of high dose rate and low dose rate. Also, if the life time at respective dose rate in relatively higher dose rate region is clarified, the life time in low dose rate region may possibly be predicted.

  8. Active Thrust on an Inclined Retaining Wall with Inclined Cohesionless Backfill due to Surcharge Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaikar, D. M.; Pandey, S. R.; Dixit, Jagabandhu

    2012-01-01

    A method based on the application of Kötter’s equation is proposed for the complete analysis of active thrust on an inclined wall with inclined cohesionless backfill under surcharge effect. Coulomb’s failure mechanism is considered in the analysis. The point of application of active thrust is determined from the condition of moment equilibrium. The coefficient of active pressure and the point of application of the active thrust are computed and presented in nondimensional form. One distinguis...

  9. Effective dose to immuno-PET patients due to metastable impurities in cyclotron produced zirconium-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Alzimami, Khalid; Ma, Andy K.; Alghamdi, Ali; Al Jammaz, Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Immuno-PET is a nuclear medicine technique that combines positron emission tommography (PET) with radio-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for tumor characterization and therapy. Zirconium-89 (89Zr) is an emerging radionuclide for immuno-PET imaging. Its long half-life (78.4 h) gives ample time for the production, the administering and the patient uptake of the tagged radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the nuclides will remain in the tumor cells after the mAbs are catabolized so that time series studies are possible without incurring further administration of radiopharmarceuticals. 89Zr can be produced in medical cyclotrons by bombarding an yttrium-89 (89Y) target with a proton beam through the 89Y(p,n)89Zr reaction. In this study, we estimated the effective dose to the head and neck cancer patients undergoing 89Zr-based immune-PET procedures. The production of 89Zr and the impurities from proton irradiation of the 89Y target in a cyclotron was calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the nuclear reaction code TALYS. The cumulated activities of the Zr isotopes were derived from real patient data in literature and the effective doses were estimated using the MIRD specific absorbed fraction formalism. The estimated effective dose from 89Zr is 0.5±0.2 mSv/MBq. The highest organ dose is 1.8±0.2 mSv/MBq in the liver. These values are in agreement with those reported in literature. The effective dose from 89mZr is about 0.2-0.3% of the 89Zr dose in the worst case. Since the ratio of 89mZr to 89Zr depends on the cooling time as well as the irradiation details, contaminant dose estimation is an important aspect in optimizing the cyclotron irradiation geometry, energy and time.

  10. Ratios between effective doses for tomographic and mathematician models due to internal exposure of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F.R.A.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H.J.; Santos, A.M.; Loureiro, E.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of new and sophisticated Monte Carlo codes and tomographic human phantoms or voxels motivated the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to revise the traditional models of exposure, which have been used to calculate effective dose coefficients for organs and tissues based on mathematician phantoms known as MIRD5. This paper shows the results of calculations using tomographic phantoms MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAX (Female Adult voXel), recently developed by the authors as well as with the phantoms ADAM and EVA, of specific genres, type MIRD5, coupled to the EGS4 Monte Carlo and MCNP4C codes, for internal exposure with photons of energies between 10 keV and 4 MeV to several organs sources. Effective Doses for both models, tomographic and mathematician, will be compared separately as a function of the Monte Carlo code replacement, of compositions of human tissues and the anatomy reproduced through tomographs. The results indicate that for photon internal exposure, the use of models of exposure based in voxel, increases the values of effective doses up to 70% for some organs sources considered in this study, when compared with the corresponding results obtained with phantoms of MIRD-5 type

  11. Improved simulation of Antarctic sea ice due to the radiative effects of falling snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.-L. F.; Richardson, Mark; Hong, Yulan; Lee, Wei-Liang; Wang, Yi-Hui; Yu, Jia-Yuh; Fetzer, Eric; Stephens, Graeme; Liu, Yinghui

    2017-08-01

    Southern Ocean sea-ice cover exerts critical control on local albedo and Antarctic precipitation, but simulated Antarctic sea-ice concentration commonly disagrees with observations. Here we show that the radiative effects of precipitating ice (falling snow) contribute substantially to this discrepancy. Many models exclude these radiative effects, so they underestimate both shortwave albedo and downward longwave radiation. Using two simulations with the climate model CESM1, we show that including falling-snow radiative effects improves the simulations relative to cloud properties from CloudSat-CALIPSO, radiation from CERES-EBAF and sea-ice concentration from passive microwave sensors. From 50-70°S, the simulated sea-ice-area bias is reduced by 2.12 × 106 km2 (55%) in winter and by 1.17 × 106 km2 (39%) in summer, mainly because increased wintertime longwave heating restricts sea-ice growth and so reduces summer albedo. Improved Antarctic sea-ice simulations will increase confidence in projected Antarctic sea level contributions and changes in global warming driven by long-term changes in Southern Ocean feedbacks.

  12. Hormonal contraception and physiology: a research-based theory of discontinuation due to side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J; Ringheim, Karin

    2005-03-01

    Side effects influence the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives. Counseling the client about the management of side effects is a principal approach advocated for increasing continuation. Evidence of a biological basis for variation in women's tolerance of hormonal contraceptives argues, however, that greater attention should be given to altering the product rather than principally attempting to alter a woman's ability to deal with the product. Discontinuation rates for hormonal contraceptives, largely attributable to side effects and health concerns, are high in nearly all less-developed countries for which Demographic and Health Survey data are available. Oral contraceptives appear to be particularly problematic for Latin American women, most notably in Bolivia. Clinical trials suggest substantial variation in the physiological response to exogenous hormones, and new evidence confirms the hypothesis that the normal hormonal profiles of Bolivian women are significantly lower than those of women in the United States. These findings suggest a need for more population-specific physiological research linked to analyses of the possible association between endogenous hormone differences and contraceptive continuation. Appropriately adjusting the level of the steroid delivered may benefit women's health and improve the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives.

  13. Satellite drag effects due to uplifted oxygen neutrals during super magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Lakhina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During intense magnetic storms, prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs through E  ×  B forces near the magnetic equator uplift the dayside ionosphere. This effect has been called the dayside super-fountain effect. Ion-neutral drag forces between the upward moving O+ (oxygen ions and oxygen neutrals will elevate the oxygen atoms to higher altitudes. This paper gives a linear calculation indicating how serious the effect may be during an 1859-type (Carrington superstorm. It is concluded that the oxygen neutral densities produced at low-Earth-orbiting (LEO satellite altitudes may be sufficiently high to present severe satellite drag. It is estimated that with a prompt penetrating electric field of ∼ 20 mV m−1 turned on for 20 min, the O atoms and O+ ions are uplifted to 850 km where they produce about 40-times-greater satellite drag per unit mass than normal. Stronger electric fields will presumably lead to greater uplifted mass.

  14. Finite-volume effects due to spatially non-local operators arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Hansen, Maxwell T.; Monahan, Christopher J.

    Spatially non-local matrix elements are useful lattice-QCD observables in a variety of contexts, for example in determining hadron structure. To quote credible estimates of the systematic uncertainties in these calculations, one must understand, among other things, the size of the finite-volume effects when such matrix elements are extracted from numerical lattice calculations. In this work, we estimate finite-volume effects for matrix elements of non-local operators, composed of two currents displaced in a spatial direction by a distance $\\xi$. We find that the finite-volume corrections depend on the details of the matrix element. If the external state is the lightest degree of freedom in the theory, e.g.~the pion in QCD, then the volume corrections scale as $ e^{-m_\\pi (L- \\xi)} $, where $m_\\pi$ is the mass of the light state. For heavier external states the usual $e^{- m_\\pi L}$ form is recovered, but with a polynomial prefactor of the form $L^m/|L - \\xi|^n$ that can lead to enhanced volume effects. These ...

  15. Is the phonological similarity effect in working memory due to proactive interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J; Quinlan, Philip T

    2018-04-12

    Immediate serial recall of verbal material is highly sensitive to impairment attributable to phonological similarity. Although this has traditionally been interpreted as a within-sequence similarity effect, Engle (2007) proposed an interpretation based on interference from prior sequences, a phenomenon analogous to that found in the Peterson short-term memory (STM) task. We use the method of serial reconstruction to test this in an experiment contrasting the standard paradigm in which successive sequences are drawn from the same set of phonologically similar or dissimilar words and one in which the vowel sound on which similarity is based is switched from trial to trial, a manipulation analogous to that producing release from PI in the Peterson task. A substantial similarity effect occurs under both conditions although there is a small advantage from switching across similar sequences. There is, however, no evidence for the suggestion that the similarity effect will be absent from the very first sequence tested. Our results support the within-sequence similarity rather than a between-list PI interpretation. Reasons for the contrast with the classic Peterson short-term forgetting task are briefly discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.

  17. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  18. Systemic Effects of Hypothermia due to Hypothalamic Dysfunction after Resection of a Craniopharyngioma : Case Report and Review of Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vetten, L.; Bocca, Gianni

    Objective With this case report, we aim to improve recognition of the systemic effects of hypothermia due to hypothalamic dysfunctioning. We present a patient who developed temperature dysregulation after surgery for craniopharyngioma. He suffered from several episodes of hypothermia associated with

  19. Acute respiratory effects and biomarkers of inflammation due to welding-derived nanoparticle aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Katrin; Isaxon, Christina; Andersson, Ulla B K; Assarsson, Eva; Axmon, Anna; Stockfelt, Leo; Gudmundsson, Anders; Jönsson, Bo A G; Kåredal, Monica; Löndahl, Jakob; Pagels, Joakim; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats; Nielsen, Jörn

    2017-07-01

    Welders are exposed to airborne particles from the welding environment and often develop symptoms work-related from the airways. A large fraction of the particles from welding are in the nano-size range. In this study we investigate if the welders' airways are affected by exposure to particles derived from gas metal arc welding in mild steel in levels corresponding to a normal welding day. In an exposure chamber, 11 welders with and 10 welders without work-related symptoms from the lower airways and 11 non-welders without symptoms, were exposed to welding fumes (1 mg/m 3 ) and to filtered air, respectively, in a double-blind manner. Symptoms from eyes and upper and lower airways and lung function were registered. Blood and nasal lavage (NL) were sampled before, immediately after and the morning after exposure for analysis of markers of oxidative stress. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for analysis of leukotriene B4 (LT-B4) was sampled before, during and immediately after exposure. No adverse effects of welding exposure were found regarding symptoms and lung function. However, EBC LT-B4 decreased significantly in all participants after welding exposure compared to filtered air. NL IL-6 increased immediately after exposure in the two non-symptomatic groups and blood neutrophils tended to increase in the symptomatic welder group. The morning after, neutrophils and serum IL-8 had decreased in all three groups after welding exposure. Remarkably, the symptomatic welder group had a tenfold higher level of EBC LT-B4 compared to the two groups without symptoms. Despite no clinical adverse effects at welding, changes in inflammatory markers may indicate subclinical effects even at exposure below the present Swedish threshold limit (8 h TWA respirable dust).

  20. Physiological effects of autotoxicity due to DHAP stress on Picea schrenkiana regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    Full Text Available Picea Schrenkiana as one of the most important zonal vegetation was an endemic species in Middle Asia. Natural regeneration of P. Schrenkiana is a long existing problem troubling scientists. The autotoxicity of 3,4-dihydroxy-acetophenone (DHAP was found to be a causative factor causing the failure of P. Schrenkiana natural regeneration. The effects of concentrations of DHAP treatment on the viability of root cell, activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of P. Schrenkiana phytohormones were performed to disclose the physiological mechanism of DHAP autotoxicity. It was observed that high concentration of DHAP could inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth, but had a hormesis at low concentrations. Analyses showed that the root cells significantly lost their viability treated with high DHAP. The enzymes activities of seedlings were significantly stimulated by the treatment of 0.5 mM DHAP to give a transient increase and then decrease as DHAP concentration increased to 1.0 mM except for GR (glutathione reductase in which DHAP treatment had little effect on its activity. Comparing with the control, an increase in the levels of phytohormones ZT (zeatin, GA3 (gibberellic acid and IAA (indole acetic acid was induced by the treatment of DHAP at low concentrations (0.1-0.25 mM, but the significant deficiency was found treated by high concentrations (0.5-1.0 mM. In addition, the ABA (abscisic acid level increased in all experimental observations. These results suggested that DHAP significantly affected indices of growth and physiology, and provided some new information about different effect in P. Schrenkiana treated with DHAP.

  1. Rupture Dynamics along Thrust Dipping Fault: Inertia Effects due to Free Surface Wave Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J. P.; Scala, A.; Festa, G.

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamic interaction between free surface and up-dip, in-plane rupture propagation along thrust faults, under linear slip-weakening friction. With reference to shallow along-dip rupture propagation during large subduction earthquakes, we consider here low dip-angle fault configurations with fixed strength excess and depth-increasing initial stress. In this configuration, the rupture undergoes a break of symmetry with slip-induced normal stress perturbations triggered by the interaction with reflected waves from the free surface. We found that both body-waves - behind the crack front - and surface waves - at the crack front - can trigger inertial effects. When waves interact with the rupture before this latter reaches its asymptotic speed, the rupture can accelerate toward the asymptotic speed faster than in the unbounded symmetric case, as a result of these inertial effects. Moreover, wave interaction at the crack front also affects the slip rate generating large ground motion on the hanging wall. Imposing the same initial normal stress, frictional strength and stress drop while varying the static friction coefficient we found that the break of symmetry makes the rupture dynamics dependent on the absolute value of friction. The higher the friction the stronger the inertial effect both in terms of rupture acceleration and slip amount. When the contact condition allows the fault interface to open close to the free surface, the length of the opening zone is shown to depend on the propagation length, the initial normal stress and the static friction coefficient. These new results are shown to agree with analytical results of rupture propagation in bounded media, and open new perspectives for understanding the shallow rupture of large subduction earthquakes and tsunami sources.

  2. Flow effects due to valve and piston motion in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow regime identification depending on the valve lift during the exhaust stroke. • Analysis of the valve motion effect onto the flow development in the exhaust port. • Physical interpretation of commonly used discharge and flow coefficient formulations. • Illustration of flow effects in junction regions with pulsatile flow. - Abstract: Performance optimization regarding e.g. exhaust valve strategies in an internal combustion engine is often performed based on one-dimensional simulation investigation. Commonly, a discharge coefficient is used to describe the flow behavior in complex geometries, such as the exhaust port. This discharge coefficient for an exhaust port is obtained by laboratory experiments at fixed valve lifts, room temperatures, and low total pressure drops. The present study investigates the consequences of the valve and piston motion onto the energy losses and the discharge coefficient. Therefore, Large Eddy Simulations are performed in a realistic internal combustion geometry using three different modeling strategies, i.e. fixed valve lift and fixed piston, moving piston and fixed valve lift, and moving piston and moving valve, to estimate the energy losses. The differences in the flow field development with the different modeling approaches is delineated and the dynamic effects onto the primary quantities, e.g. discharge coefficient, are quantified. Considering the motion of piston and valves leads to negative total pressure losses during the exhaust cycle, which cannot be observed at fixed valve lifts. Additionally, the induced flow structures develop differently when valve motion is taken into consideration, which leads to a significant disparity of mass flow rates evolving through the two individual valve ports. However, accounting for piston motion and limited valve motion, leads to a minor discharge coefficient alteration of about one to two percent

  3. Flow effects due to pulsation in an internal combustion engine exhaust port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semlitsch, Bernhard; Wang, Yue; Mihăescu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using POD analysis to identify large coherent flow structures in a complex geometry. • Flow field alters significant for constant and pulsating boundary conditions. • The discharge coefficient of the exhaust port decreases 2% with flow pulsation. • Pulsation causes a pumping mechanism due to a phase shift of pressure and momentum. - Abstract: In an internal combustion engine, the residual energy remaining after combustion in the exhaust gasses can be partially recovered by a downstream arranged device. The exhaust port represents the passage guiding the exhaust gasses from the combustion chamber to the energy recovering device, e.g. a turbocharger. Thus, energy losses in the course of transmission shall be reduced as much as possible. However, in one-dimensional engine models used for engine design, the exhaust port is reduced to its discharge coefficient, which is commonly measured under constant inflow conditions neglecting engine-like flow pulsation. In this present study, the influence of different boundary conditions on the energy losses and flow development during the exhaust stroke are analyzed numerically regarding two cases, i.e. using simple constant and pulsating boundary conditions. The compressible flow in an exhaust port geometry of a truck engine is investigated using three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The results contrast the importance of applying engine-like boundary conditions in order to estimate accurately the flow induced losses and the discharge coefficient of the exhaust port. The instantaneous flow field alters significantly when pulsating boundary conditions are applied. Thus, the induced losses by the unsteady flow motion and the secondary flow motion are increased with inflow pulsations. The discharge coefficient decreased about 2% with flow pulsation. A modal flow decomposition method, i.e. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), is used to analyze the coherent structures induced with the particular

  4. Growth, physiological, biochemical and productive changes in peas due to gamma radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajkov, G.; Ivanov, K.; Antonov, M.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations concerning the mechanism of the stimulating effect of low doses of gamma radiation on peas were made in 1971-1983. Results showed that: a) gamma radiation with 1000 R enhanced the level and activity of indolyl auxines gibberellins and in the seeds, causing specific changes in catalase and peroxidase activity; b) the content of crude protein and essential aminoacids was raised; c) grain yield increased by 16% as compared to the control; d) the dose 1000 R proved to be the optimal one

  5. Enhanced Nonadiabaticity in Vortex Cores due to the Emergent Hall Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bisig, André

    2017-01-04

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study, investigating the origin of the enhanced nonadiabaticity of magnetic vortex cores. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is used to image the vortex core gyration dynamically to measure the nonadiabaticity with high precision, including a high confidence upper bound. We show theoretically, that the large nonadiabaticity parameter observed experimentally can be explained by the presence of local spin currents arising from a texture induced emergent Hall effect. This study demonstrates that the magnetic damping α and nonadiabaticity parameter β are very sensitive to the topology of the magnetic textures, resulting in an enhanced ratio (β/α>1) in magnetic vortex cores or Skyrmions.

  6. Climate change due to the greenhouse effect and its implications for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulme, M.; Wigley, T.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, F.; Ding, Y.; Leemans, R.; Markham, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the greenhouse effect, past climate changes, and forecasts. The implications for China, and for policies are discussed. Over China, warming has been greater (nearly 1.0[degree]C since the last century) than over the rest of the planet. It is also more pronounced in winter. Climatic change would have a substantial impact on natural vegetation in China. By 2050, large changes in cropping systems would occur. Sea level rise is likely to affect some densely populated areas. 14 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Estimation of health effects due to elevated radiation exposure levels in structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Cross, F.T.; Denham, D.H.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings were used as landfill for many years in the United States before the health risk associated with such use was recognized. Occupants of buildings erected on or adjacent to contaminated landfills may experience radiation exposures sufficient to warrant remedial action. Estimates of the cost-effectiveness of the remedial measures may be provided using a combination of occupancy data, appropriate risk coefficients and projected costs. This effort is in support of decisions by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct remedial action at such locations. The methods used in this project, with examples of their application, will be presented in this paper

  8. Analytical calculation of dE/dx cluster-charge loss due to threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Dunn, J.

    1997-01-01

    This letter presents a simple analytical approximation which allows one to estimate the effect of ADC threshold on the measured cluster-charge size as used for dE/dx determinations. The idea is to gain some intuitive understanding of the cluster-charge loss and not to replace more accurate simulations. The method is applied to the multiple sampling measurements of energy loss in the main time projection chambers (TPCs) of the NA49 experiment at CERN SPS. The calculations are in reasonable agreement with data. (orig.)

  9. Broadening of ICRH produced fast ion profiles due to orbit effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.-G.; Porcelli, F.

    1991-01-01

    In the JET tokamak, minority ions accelerated by ICRH reach energies in the MeV range. Near the plasma magnetic axis, the standard trapped particle ''banana'' orbit is distorted into a ''potato'' or ''fat banana'' orbit. The zero banana width approximation which is used in most Fokker-Planck calculations of velocity distributions of resonating ions is often not valid in JET. The inclusion of finite banana width effects will, in general, lead to a lowering of the averaged tail energy and a broadening of pressure profiles, power transfer profiles etc. A model for calculating orbit broadened profiles is presented. (Author)

  10. Enhancement of Continuous Variable Entanglement in Four-Wave Mixing due to Atomic Memory Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Zhu, Zhu; Xiang-Ming, Hu; Fei, Wang; Jing-Yan, Li

    2010-01-01

    We explore the effects of atomic memory on quantum correlations of two-mode light fields from four-wave mixing. A three-level atomic system in Λ configuration is considered, in which the atomic relaxation times are comparable to or longer than the cavity relaxation times and thus there exists the atomic memory. The quantum correlation spectrum in the output is calculated without the adiabatic elimination of atomic variables. It is shown that the continuous variable entanglement is enhanced over a wide range of the normalized detuning in the intermediate and bad cavity cases compared with the good cavity case. In some situations more significant enhancement occurs at sidebands

  11. Enhanced Nonadiabaticity in Vortex Cores due to the Emergent Hall Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bisig, André ; Akosa, Collins Ashu; Moon, Jung-Hwan; Rhensius, Jan; Moutafis, Christoforos; von Bieren, Arndt; Heidler, Jakoba; Kiliani, Gillian; Kammerer, Matthias; Curcic, Michael; Weigand, Markus; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel; Stoll, Hermann; Schü tz, Gisela; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien; Klä ui, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study, investigating the origin of the enhanced nonadiabaticity of magnetic vortex cores. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is used to image the vortex core gyration dynamically to measure the nonadiabaticity with high precision, including a high confidence upper bound. We show theoretically, that the large nonadiabaticity parameter observed experimentally can be explained by the presence of local spin currents arising from a texture induced emergent Hall effect. This study demonstrates that the magnetic damping α and nonadiabaticity parameter β are very sensitive to the topology of the magnetic textures, resulting in an enhanced ratio (β/α>1) in magnetic vortex cores or Skyrmions.

  12. Biological effects on human health due to radiofrequency/microwave exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the methods and results of nine cohort studies dealing with the biological effects on human health from exposure to radiofrequencies/microwaves, published between 1980 and 2002. The size of the cohorts varied between 304 (3,362 person years) and nearly 200,000 persons (2.7 million......, however, inconsistent. The most important limitations of the studies were the lack of measurements referring to past and current exposures and, thus, the unknown details on actual exposure, the use of possibly biased data as well as the lack of adjustment for potential confounders and the use of indirect...

  13. Estimation of committed effective dose due to tritium in ground water in some places of Maharashtra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.J.; Bhade, S.P.D.; Kolekar, R.V.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study Tritium concentration in well and bore well water samples were analyzed for the samples collected from the villages of Pune, Kolhapur and Ratnagiri. The activity concentration ranged from 0.55 - 3.66 Bq L -1 . The associated age-dependant dose from water ingestion in the study area was estimated. The effective committed dose recorded for different age classes is negligible compared to World Health Organization and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency dose guidelines. The Minimum Detectable Activity achieved was 1.5 Bq L -1 for a total counting time of 500 minutes. (author)

  14. Reasons between effective doses for tomographic and mathematical models due to external exposition by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H.J.; Yoriyaz, H.; Lima, F.R.A.; Loureiro, E.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of Monte Carlo codes and new and sophisticated tomographic human models, or based on voxel, motivated the ICRP to propose a revision of the traditional exposition models, which have been used to calculate doses on organs and tissues using mathematical phantoms MIRD-type 5. This article presents calculations made with tomographic phantoms MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAX (Female Adult voXel), recently developed and also, for comparison, with ADAM and Eve mathematician phantoms. All models were coupled to the EGS4 and MCNP4 codes for full body external irradiation by photons. It were simulated expositions AP, PA and rotational for energies varying between 10 keV and 10 MeV. The effective calculated doses were compared separately to evaluate: the replacement of the Monte Carlo code; the composition of the tissues and the replacement of tomographic phantoms by mathematical ones. Effective doses calculated results indicate that for external exposures by photons to introduce models based on voxels can cause a reduction of about 10% to the energies considered in this study

  15. The effect of channel height on bubble nucleation in superhydrophobic microchannels due to subcritical heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Adam; Maynes, Daniel; Crockett, Julie; Iverson, Brian

    2017-11-01

    This work experimentally investigates the effects of heating on laminar flow in high aspect ratio superhydrophobic (SH) microchannels. When water that is saturated with dissolved air is used, the unwetted cavities of the SH surfaces act as nucleation sites and air effervesces out of solution onto the surfaces. The microchannels consist of a rib/cavity structured SH surface, that is heated, and a glass surface that is utilized for flow visualization. Two channel heights of nominally 183 and 366 μm are considered. The friction factor-Reynolds product (fRe) is obtained via pressure drop and volumetric flow rate measurements and the temperature profile along the channel is obtained via thermocouples embedded in an aluminum block below the SH surface. Five surface types/configurations are investigated: smooth hydrophilic, smooth hydrophobic, SH with ribs perpendicular to the flow, SH with ribs parallel to the flow, and SH with both ribs parallel to the flow and sparse ribs perpendicular to the flow. Depending on the surface type/configuration, large bubbles can form and adversely affect fRe and lead to higher temperatures along the channel. Once bubbles grow large enough, they are expelled from the channel. The channel size greatly effects the residence time of the bubbles and consequently fRe and the channel temperature. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Grant No. CBET-1235881) and the Utah NASA Space Grant Consortium (NASA Grant NNX15A124H).

  16. Magnetic sheath effect on the gross and net erosion rates due to impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet, N.; Pégourié, B.; Martin, C.; Gunn, J. P.; Bufferand, H.; Roubin, P.

    2016-02-01

    Simulations of impurity trajectories in deuterium plasmas in the vicinity of the surface are performed by taking into account the magnetic sheath in conditions relevant for ITER and WEST. We show that the magnetic sheath has a strong effect on the average impact angle of impurities in divertor conditions and that it can lead to an increase of ≈ 60% at the gross erosion maximum for neon (Ne+4) compared to the case when only the cyclotron motion is considered. The evaluation of the net erosion has been undertaken by retaining local redeposition of tungsten (W). We investigate how it is affected by the sheath magnetic potential profile. The largest effect is however observed when an energy distribution is considered. In this case the number of particles that manage to exit the sheath is larger as it is dominated by the more energetic particles. The comparison with other work is also discussed. The application to a scenario of the WEST project is finally performed, which exhibits a moderate, however non negligible, erosion of the plasma facing components.

  17. Pipeline's natural frequency response due to internal pressure effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Andre L.L.; Guevara Junior, Nestor O. [Suporte - Consultoria e Projetos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galgoul, Nelson S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Antonio C.; Coelho, Fabio M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2009-12-19

    A few years ago, a discussion about how internal pressure is treated in submarine pipelines has taken place. Galgoul et al (2004) have pointed out the conservatism of the latest recommendations for pipeline free-span evaluations associated to the way the axial force is considered in the determination of the pipeline natural frequency. Fyrileiv and Collberg (2005) have also discussed this point in defense of the effective axial force concept and its use in the natural frequency determination. In order to contribute to this aspect, an experimental test has been performed with a fully embedded pipeline which was pressurized. The main object consists in showing that the pipe is under tension (and not under compression) and, as a consequence, it is the authors' intention to prove that the natural frequency increases instead of reducing when the internal pressure is incremented. In addition to the test, a finite element model has been presented where this internal pressure effect is taken into account as it actually is (and not as an axial force) in order to show the real behavior of the wall stresses. Static analyses, as well as modal and transient analysis have been performed in order to compare theoretical results with the experimental test conducted. (author)

  18. Investigation the effects of metallic substrate surfaces due to ion-plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulaev, V.M.; Taran, V.S.; Timoshenko, A.I.; Gasilin, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    It has been found correlation between modification effects and duration of ion-plasma cleaning the substrate surface with titanium ions. Experiments were carried out using serial vacuum-arc equipment ''Bulat-6'' at the stationary mode in non-filtered titanium plasma, which contained considerable quantity of evaporated material droplets. The polished cylinder substrates (diameter and height 9,14,20 mm) have been treated. The substrates were manufactured of stainless steel 12X18H10T and non-oxygen copper M00b. The substrates surface roughness after ion-plasma treatment has been investigated with electron microscope JEOL JSM-840 and optic interference non-contact profilograph- profilometer ''Micron-alpha''. According obtained results the surface of copper and stainless steel substrates has been treated to intensive modification, i.e. substrate surface after treatment significantly differs from initial one. During final ion-plasma treatment a number of effects occur: purification from surface oxides is accompanied with metallic surface ''contamination'' by the cathode material macrodroplets, surface micromelting accompanied by roughness increase, the surface layer annealing with noticeable decrease of hardness.

  19. Stress in film/substrate system due to diffusion and thermal misfit effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Shanshan; Xuan Fuzhen; Wang Zhengdong; Tu Shantung

    2009-01-01

    The stress in film/substrate systems has been analysed taking into consideration the coupling effects of diffusion and thermal misfit within the framework of Fick's second law. The solution of diffusion-induced stress in a film/substrate system involving the thermal misfit stress feedback is developed. The effects of modulus ratios, diffusivity ratios, thickness ratios of the substrate and the film and the partial molar volume of the diffusing component on the stress distribution in the film/substrate system are then discussed with the help of the finite difference method. Results indicate that the stresses in the film/substrate system vary with diffusion time. Diffusion enhances the magnitudes of film stress when the thermal misfit stress is compressive in the film. Furthermore, the absolute values of stress in the film increase with the increasing modulus ratios of the substrate and film, while they reduce with the increasing partial molar volume of the diffusing component and the diffusivity ratio of the substrate and the film.

  20. Histopathological changes due to the effect of selenium in experimental cockerels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.A Latheef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Selenium usually acts as an antioxidant at optimal levels in the body and increased levels are toxic. In this study an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of an optimum dose (0.14 mg of selenium on histopathological changes in experimental hypercholesterolemia in cockerels. Methods: The effect of selenium (0.14 mg was investigated on histopathological changes in four tissues namely liver, kidney, heart, and descending aorta in cockerel animal model. Animals were either fed with stock diet (group C, stock diet with cholesterol (group CH, stock diet with selenium (group Se, stock diet, selenium and cholesterol (group CH+Se for six months. Animals were sacrified and the tissues were isolated and subjected to histopathological study. Results: Xanthochromatic collections in liver were observed in group CH; hydropic degeneration in group Se and lobular disarray, hydropic degeneration and kuppfer cell hyperplasia in group CH+Se were observed. In kidney, mild mononuclear infiltration was observed in interstitium in groups CH, Se and CH+Se. myocyte disruption, and mononuclear infiltration in group CH and c0 H+Se, and disruption of muscle bundles with vascular congestion in group Se were observed. Smooth muscle proliferation in the media of blood vessel was observed in groups CH, Se and CH+Se. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that the optimum dose of (140 ΅g/day feeding induced atherogenesis by inflammation and smooth muscle proliferation in cockerels with experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemia.

  1. Unusual motions due to nonlinear effects in a driven vibrating string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2005-09-01

    Usual nonlinear effects observed in a sinusoidally driven vibrating string include generation of motion perpendicular to the driving plane, sudden jumps of amplitude and associated hysteresis, and generation of higher harmonics. In addition, under some conditions, there can be a rich variety of unusual, very complex motions of a point on the string, the pattern of which, together with associated harmonic (and sometimes subharmonic) content, can change dramatically with a slight change in driving frequency or sometimes with constant driving frequency and force. Intrinsic string asymmetries can also have a profound effect on the behavior. In a brass harpsichord string (wire) such asymmetries can cause a small splitting of each natural frequency of free vibration into two closely spaced frequencies (relative separation ~0.2% to 2%, strongly dependent on tension.) The two frequency components are associated, respectively, with the transverse motion along two orthogonal characteristic wire axes. Emphasis will be on display of optically detected unusual motion patterns of a point on the string, including an example of a pattern period of 10 s when driving at 50 Hz. See R. J. Hanson et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 400-412 (2005) for a more complete treatment.

  2. Genotoxic Effects Due to Exposure to Chromium and Nickel Among Electroplating Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Safty, Amal Mohamed Kamal; Samir, Aisha Mohamed; Mekkawy, Mona Kamal; Fouad, Marwa Mohamed

    Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed. Laboratory investigations included measurement of serum chromium, nickel, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei were measured in buccal cells. In exposed workers, serum chromium ranged from 0.09 to 7.20 µg/L, serum nickel ranged from 1.20 to 28.00 µg/L, serum 8-OHdG ranged from 1.09 to12.60 ng/mL, and these results were statistically significantly increased compared to nonexposed group ( P electroplating industry are at risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

  3. Single beam collective effects in FCC-ee due to beam coupling impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, Eleonora; Persichelli, Serena; Zobov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider study, hosted by CERN to design post-LHC particle accelerator options in a worldwide context, is focused on proton-proton high-energy and electron-positron high-luminosity frontier machines. This new accelerator complex represents a great challenge under several aspects, which involve R&D on beam dynamics and new technologies. One very critical point in this context is represented by collective effects, generated by the interaction of the beam with self-induced electromagnetic fields, called wake fields, which could produce beam instabilities, thus reducing the machines performance and limiting the maximum stored current. It is therefore very important to be able to predict these effects and to study in detail potential solutions to counteract them. In this paper the resistive wall and some other important geometrical sources of impedance for the FCC electron-positron accelerator are identified and evaluated, and their impact on the beam dynamics, which in some cases could lea...

  4. Single beam collective effects in FCC-ee due to beam coupling impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider study, hosted by CERN to design post-LHC particle accelerator options in a worldwide context, is focused on proton-proton high-energy and electron-positron high-luminosity frontier machines. This new accelerator complex represents a great challenge under several aspects, which involve R&D on beam dynamics and new technologies. One very critical point in this context is represented by collective effects, generated by the interaction of the beam with self-induced electromagnetic fields, called wake fields, which could produce beam instabilities, thus reducing the machines performance and limiting the maximum stored current. It is therefore very important to be able to predict these effects and to study in detail potential solutions to counteract them. In this paper the resistive wall and some other important geometrical sources of impedance for the FCC electron-positron accelera- tor are identified and evaluated, and their impact on the beam dynamics, which in some cases could l...

  5. Mobility overestimation due to gated contacts in organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Emily G.; Basham, James I.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Gundlach, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Parameters used to describe the electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors, such as mobility and threshold voltage, are commonly extracted from measured current–voltage characteristics and interpreted by using the classical metal oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor model. However, in recent reports of devices with ultra-high mobility (>40 cm2 V−1 s−1), the device characteristics deviate from this idealized model and show an abrupt turn-on in the drain current when measured as a function of gate voltage. In order to investigate this phenomenon, here we report on single crystal rubrene transistors intentionally fabricated to exhibit an abrupt turn-on. We disentangle the channel properties from the contact resistance by using impedance spectroscopy and show that the current in such devices is governed by a gate bias dependence of the contact resistance. As a result, extracted mobility values from d.c. current–voltage characterization are overestimated by one order of magnitude or more. PMID:26961271

  6. Physicochemical effects on uncontaminated kaolinite due to electrokinetic treatment using inert electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaki, Christina; Rogers, Christopher D F; Boardman, David I

    2008-07-01

    To determine the consequences of applying electrokinetics to clay soils, in terms of mechanisms acting and resulting effects on the clay, tests were conducted in which an electrical gradient was applied across controlled specimens of English China Clay (ECC) using 'inert' electrodes and a 'Reverse Osmosis' water feed to the electrodes (i.e., to mimic electrokinetic stabilisation without the stabiliser added or electrokinetic remediation without the contaminant being present). The specimens in which electromigration was induced over time periods of 3, 7, 14 and 28 days were subsequently tested for Atterberg Limits, undrained shear strength using a hand shear vane, water content, pH, conductivity and zeta potential. Water flowed through the system from anode to cathode and directly affected the undrained shear strength of the clay. Acid and alkali fronts were created around the anode and cathode, respectively, causing changes in the pH, conductivity and zeta potential of the soil. Variations in zeta potential were linked to flocculation and dispersion of the soil particles, thus raising or depressing the Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit, and influencing the undrained shear strength. Initial weakening around the anode and cathode was replaced by a regain of strength at the anode once acidic conditions had been created, while highly alkaline conditions at the cathode induced a marked improvement in strength. A novel means of indicating strength improvement by chemical means, i.e., free from water content effects, is presented to assist in interpretation of the results.

  7. Disruptive coloration in woodland camouflage: evaluation of camouflage effectiveness due to minor disruptive patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, Gorm K.; Heinrich, Daniela H.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from an observer based photosimulation study of generic camouflage patterns, intended for military uniforms, where three near-identical patterns have been compared. All the patterns were prepared with similar effective color, but were different in how the individual pattern patches were distributed throughout the target. We did this in order to test if high contrast (black) patches along the outline of the target would enhance the survivability when exposed to human observers. In the recent years it has been shown that disruptive coloration in the form of high contrast patches are capable of disturbing an observer by creating false edges of the target and consequently enhance target survivability. This effect has been shown in different forms in the Animal Kingdom, but not to the same extent in camouflaged military targets. The three patterns in this study were i) with no disruptive preference, ii) with a disruptive patch along the outline of the head and iii) with a disruptive patch on the outline of one of the shoulders. We used a high number of human observers to assess the three targets in 16 natural (woodland) backgrounds by showing images of one of the targets at the time on a high definition pc screen. We found that the two patterns that were thought to have a minor disruptive preference to the remaining pattern were more difficult to detect in some (though not all) of the 16 scenes and were also better in overall performance when all the scenes were accounted for.

  8. Protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage due to UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhicheng; Zhao Hongguang; Du Xiang; Li Yanbo; Guo Wei; Gong Shouliang; Xiao Jian; Yao Chongshun; Li Xiaokun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage exposed to UVB and its mechanism, and to provide the experimental basis for the protection of skin damage exposed to UVB. Methods: The skin of guinea pigs was exposed to UVB (28.38 J/cm 2 · 30 d) to establish the oxidative damage model. The skin erythema and the rough were observed during the experiment; the thickness of epiderm and the number of fibroblast were observed under light microscope after the experiment. The activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC and the contain of MDA in the supernate of skin homogenate were detected with biochemical methods. Results: The epiderm in UVB exposure group and blank group thickened, but that in protective group weren't observed; the number of fibroblast in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, while that in protective group increased, but that in control group didn't. The content of MDA in the supemate of skin homogenate in UVB exposure group and blank group increased, but that in protective group deceased, and the activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, but those in protective group increased, and control group had no change. Conclusions: Oleum curcumae wenchowensis has the protective effects on skin damage exposed to UVB, which may be mediated by increasing the contain of antioxidases and eliminating the flee radical. (authors)

  9. The relationship of music preferences and the selected risk-taking and autodestructive behaviour among teenage girls subject to inpatient stay due to mental condition – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krajewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, related to the crisis of identity, attempts to separate from the family and rebellion against the reality result in the youth to be particularly susceptible to the impact of peers. Identification with the group is most often based on common interests, one of which being music. The aim of the pilot study was to assess the relationship of autodestructive and  antisocial behaviour and  music preferences of  girls subject to  inpatient stay due to  mental problems. Material and methods: Own questionnaire was used concerning music preferences, consisting of the following genres: metal, rock, pop, jazz, hip-hop, reggae, film music, sung poetry, electronic music. The studied group comprised of 26 girls diagnosed with mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, eating disorders and behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. Exclusion criteria were the remaining diagnostic categories, especially active psychotic process and mental retardation as well as lack of understanding of the questionnaire questions or not being familiar with basic types of music. Among the patients aged 13–18 subject to inpatient stay at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź in the period 2013–2014 and consented to the study, the incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse, taking psychoactive substances and the presence of antisocial disorders were assessed. Questionnaire verification was carried out in a group of 30 people tested with a test–retest method with a two-week break; reliability was obtained: 0.89–1. Analysis was carried out with the use of Statistica 9.1 programme. Results: Among the teenage girls subject to inpatient stay, music preferences were not related in a statistically significant manner (p > 0.05 with a greater incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse and contact with psychoactive

  10. Ecotoxicological effects of selected cyanobacterial secondary metabolites a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, C.; Pflugmacher, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are one of the most diverse groups of gram-negative photosynthetic prokaryotes. Many of them are able to produce a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites. These cyanobacterial toxins can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). Cyanobacterial blooms are hazardous due to this production of secondary metabolites and endotoxins, which could be toxic to animals and plants. Many of the freshwater cyanobacterial blooms include species of the toxigenic genera Microcystis, Anabaena, or Plankthotrix. These compounds differ in mechanisms of uptake, affected organs, and molecular mode of action. In this review, the main focus is the aquatic environment and the effects of these toxins to the organisms living there. Some basic toxic mechanisms will be discussed in comparison to the mammalian system

  11. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, D R; Verdonck, P; Brown, I G

    2002-01-01

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) code. We find film contamination of order 10-4 - 10-3, and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long-lasting.

  12. Effective equivalent dose in the critical group due to release of radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, John W.A. dos; Varandas, Luciana R.; Souza, Denise N.; Souza, Cristiano B.F.; Lima, Sandro Leonardo N.; Mattos, Marcos Fernando M.; Moraes, Jose Adenildo T.

    2005-01-01

    To ensure that the emissions of radioactive material by liquid and gaseous pathways are below applicable limits it is necessary to evaluate the effective equivalent dose in the critical group, which is a magnitude that takes into consideration the modeling used and the terms radioactive activity source. The calculation of this dose considers each radionuclide released by the activity of Nuclear plant, liquid and gaseous by, and the sum of the values obtained is controlled so that this dose does not exceed the goals of the regulatory body, the CNEN and the goals established by the Nuclear power plant. To hit these targets various controls are used such as: controls for effluent monitors instrumentation, environmental monitoring programs, effluent release controls and dose calculation in the environment. According to the findings, it is concluded that during the period of operation of the plants, this dose is below of the required limits

  13. Temperature effects on He bubbles production due to cascades in α-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Zu, X.T.; Xiao, H.Y.; Gao, F.; Liu, K.Z.; Heinisch, H.L.; Kurtz, R.J.; Yang, S.Z.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of irradiation temperature on the formation of He-vacancy clusters by displacement cascades in α-Fe are investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The irradiation temperatures of 100 and 600 K are considered for primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy, E p , from 500 eV to 20 keV. The concentration of He in Fe varies from 1 to 5 at.%. We find that the number of Frenkel pairs (N F ) at 600 K is slightly lower than that at 100 K for the same He concentration and E p , but the number of He-vacancy clusters increases with increasing temperature for the same He concentration and energy recoils. However, the mean size of He-vacancy clusters is independent on temperature. The mechanisms of He bubble nucleation in displacement cascades at different temperatures are discussed in detail

  14. [Influence of mechanical effect due to MRI-magnet on tattoo seal and eye makeup].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Yuta; Miyati, Tosiaki; Ueda, Jousei; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Hamaguchi, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2008-05-20

    The purpose of our study was to assess the mechanical effect on tattoo seals and eye makeup caused by a spatial magnetic gradient in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Seven kinds of tattoo seals and three kinds of eye makeup, i.e., mascara, eye shadow, and eyeliner were used. On a 3.0-Tesla MRI, we determined these deflection angles according to a method established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) at the position that produced the greatest magnetically induced deflection. Eighty-five percent of the tattoo seals showed deflection angles greater than 45 degrees of the ASTM guidelines, and the mascara and eye shadow showed over 40 degrees. This was because these contained ferromagnetic pigments such as an iron oxide, but those translational forces were very small owing to slight mass. However, it is desirable that these should be removed before MRI examination to prevent secondary problems.

  15. Basilar artery angulation and vertigo due to the hemodynamic effect of dominant vertebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Murat; Yaman, Mehmet; Eser, Olcay; Songur, Ahmet; Ozen, Oguz A

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral arteries form the basilar artery at the pontobulbar junction. The vertebral artery may have dominancy in one of them. The branches of basilar arteries supply blood for the vestibular nuclei and its connections. Vertigo is seen generally in the upper middle aged patients. Vertigo can be observed in dolichoectasia of basilar artery such as angulation and elongation, because of the diminished blood supply and changed hemodynamic factors of vestibular nuclei and its connections. We hypothesized that angulation or elongation of basilar artery can be estimated according to the unilateral vertebral artery dominant hypertensive patients. The basilar artery can angulate from the dominant side of vertebral artery to the recessive side. These angulation and elongation can effect the hemodynamic factors in absence of growing collateral arteries. So, the vertigo attacks may occur in these patients.

  16. Numerical Study of Focusing Effects of Microwaves inside Wood Due to Timber Ring Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Sanchez-Montero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the detailed calculation of microwave propagation inside raw timber in cylindrical configurations. Two different approaches have been used. The first one uses an exact formulation and analytical approximations in order to explore the electromagnetic field distribution inside dry wood. The introduction of conductivity in the exact model makes it so complex that the equations are unsuitable for analytical manipulation. In order to further explore the effect of moisture in cylindrical wood structures, a full scale numerical simulation using commercial software has been performed. The results show that for microwave frequencies in the 3 GHz range and for typical wood parameters, a cylindrical log behaves as a kind of Fresnel lens. This work has important applications in microwave treatment and sensing of wood.

  17. Influence of mechanical effect due to MRI-magnet on tattoo seal and eye makeup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Yuta; Ueda, Jousei; Miyati, Tosiaki; Hamaguchi, Takashi; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the mechanical effect on tattoo seals and eye makeup caused by a spatial magnetic gradient in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Seven kinds of tattoo seals and three kinds of eye makeup, i.e., mascara, eye shadow, and eyeliner were used. On a 3.0-Tesla MRI, we determined these deflection angles according to a method established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) at the position that produced the greatest magnetically induced deflection. Eighty-five percent of the tattoo seals showed deflection angles greater than 45 degrees of the ASTM guidelines, and the mascara and eye shadow showed over 40 degrees. This was because these contained ferromagnetic pigments such as an iron oxide, but those translational forces were very small owing to slight mass. However, it is desirable that these should be removed before MRI examination to prevent secondary problems. (author)

  18. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, D.R.; Salvadori, M.C.; Verdonck, P.; Brown, I.G.

    2002-01-01

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the stopping and range of ions in matter code. We find film contamination of the order of 10 -4 -10 -3 , and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long lasting

  19. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, D.R.; Salvadori, M.C.; Verdonck, P.; Brown, I.G.

    2002-08-13

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) code. We find film contamination of order 10-4 - 10-3, and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long-lasting.

  20. Prolonged hypoglycemic effect in diabetic dogs due to subcutaneous administration of insulin in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, R.W.; Patel, H.M.; Parsons, J.A.; Ryman, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    The biologic action of insulin entrapped in liposomes (phospholipid vesicles) has been investigated following subcutaneous injection to dogs made diabetic with a combination of alloxan and streptozotocin. The fate of the liposomally entrapped material was determined by injecting rats subcutaneously with either 125 I-insulin or the labeled polysaccharide 14 C-inulin, incorporated in liposomes labeled with 3 H-cholesterol. Injection of liposome insulin (0.75 U/kg) to five diabetic dogs resulted in a mean (+/- SEM) blood glucose fall from 16.4 +/- 0.8 to 2.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/L. The glucose level had still not returned to baseline after 24 h and, correspondingly, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) could still be detected in frozen and thawed plasma 24 h after injection. In contrast, the hypoglycemic effect of the same dose of free insulin with or without empty liposomes virtually ended within 8 h and IRI levels returned to baseline by 3 h after injection. In experiments on rats with liposomally entrapped 125 I-insulin or 14 C-inulin the proportion of the injected dose of tracer recoverable by excision of the injection site remained constant after about 1 h and 70% of the dose was still fixed in subcutaneous tissue for at least 5 h thereafter. When the plasma collected 3 h after subcutaneous injection of labeled liposomes containing 125 I-insulin was passed through a column of Sepharose 6B, 50-75% of the 125 I-activity was found in the fractions associated with intact liposomes. One possibility for the persistence of the hypoglycemic effect and of measurable IRI following injection of liposome insulin could be the presence of intact liposomes in the circulation for many hours after adsorption had ceased

  1. Cardiotoxic (Arrhythmogenic) Effects of 1,1-Difluoroethane Due to Electrolyte Imbalance and Cardiomyocyte Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kaushal; Barletta, Michael; Wurpel, John

    2017-06-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of chemical vapors to attain euphoric effects. Many common household products are abused by inhalation and one is 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE), which is a halogenated hydrocarbon used in refrigeration, dust-off spray, and airbrush painting. Although many human DFE abuse cases have been studied, the etiology and mechanism of sudden death is still unknown. In this study, an animal model was used to simulate the human conditions of DFE inhalation abuse that results in sudden death.Current research targets mechanistic studies involving electrolyte changes and cardiomyocyte damage after DFE administration in vivo. To investigate these changes, Sprague Dawley rats (N = 6) were exposed to 30 seconds of 20 L/min of DFE in multiple doses. Isoflurane acted as a control. Two additional groups, epinephrine and epinephrine + DFE, were included to simulate the clinical condition of DFE abuse. Plasma sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels were measured, followed by lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and cardiac troponin I levels. In addition, oxidative stress markers were also evaluated in all animal groups. Electrolyte levels showed a significant rise in plasma potassium and magnesium levels for the treated groups. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and cardiac troponin I levels in DFE and epinephrine + DFE administered rats were significantly elevated as compared with control. Some oxidative stress makers were also elevated significantly in treatment groups. Furthermore, histopathological analysis showed hyperemia/congestion in treated rats.These results support cardiotoxic effects indicating that DFE results in fatal arrhythmias, and the study can be important during clinical cases involving inhalant abuse.

  2. Thermal Response of Cooled Silicon Nitride Plate Due to Thermal Conductivity Effects Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Bhatt, Ramakrishna

    2003-01-01

    Lightweight, strong, tough high-temperature materials are required to complement efficiency improvements for next-generation gas turbine engines that can operate with minimum cooling. Because of their low density, high-temperature strength, and high thermal conductivity, ceramics are being investigated as materials to replace the nickelbase superalloys that are currently used for engine hot-section components. Ceramic structures can withstand higher operating temperatures and a harsh combustion environment. In addition, their low densities relative to metals help reduce component mass (ref. 1). To complement the effectiveness of the ceramics and their applicability for turbine engine applications, a parametric study using the finite element method is being carried out. The NASA Glenn Research Center remains very active in conducting and supporting a variety of research activities related to ceramic matrix composites through both experimental and analytical efforts (ref. 1). The objectives of this work are to develop manufacturing technology, develop a thermal and environmental barrier coating (TBC/EBC), develop an analytical modeling capability to predict thermomechanical stresses, and perform a minimal burner rig test on silicon nitride (Si3N4) and SiC/SiC turbine nozzle vanes under simulated engine conditions. Moreover, we intend to generate a detailed database of the material s property characteristics and their effects on structural response. We expect to offer a wide range of data since the modeling will account for other variables, such as cooling channel geometry and spacing. Comprehensive analyses have begun on a plate specimen with Si3N4 cooling holes.

  3. Multidimensional effects of voice therapy in patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Camila Barbosa; Silveira, Paula Angélica Lorenzon; Guedes, Renata Lígia Vieira; Gonçalves, Aline Nogueira; Slobodticov, Luciana Dall'Agnol Siqueira; Angelis, Elisabete Carrara-de

    2017-08-24

    Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis may demonstrate different degrees of voice perturbation depending on the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. Understanding the effectiveness of voice therapy in this population may be an important coefficient to define the therapeutic approach. To evaluate the voice therapy effectiveness in the short, medium and long-term in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and determine the risk factors for voice rehabilitation failure. Prospective study with 61 patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis enrolled. Each subject had voice therapy with an experienced speech pathologist twice a week. A multidimensional assessment protocol was used pre-treatment and in three different times after voice treatment initiation: short-term (1-3 months), medium-term (4-6 months) and long-term (12 months); it included videoendoscopy, maximum phonation time, GRBASI scale, acoustic voice analysis and the portuguese version of the voice handicap index. Multiple comparisons for GRBASI scale and VHI revealed statistically significant differences, except between medium and long term (pvocal improvement over time with stabilization results after 6 months (medium term). From the 28 patients with permanent unilateral vocal fold paralysis, 18 (69.2%) reached complete glottal closure following vocal therapy (p=0.001). The logistic regression method indicated that the Jitter entered the final model as a risk factor for partial improvement. For every unit of increased jitter, there was an increase of 0.1% (1.001) of the chance for partial improvement, which means an increase on no full improvement chance during rehabilitation. Vocal rehabilitation improves perceptual and acoustic voice parameters and voice handicap index, besides favor glottal closure in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The results were also permanent during the period of 1 year. The Jitter value, when elevated, is a risk factor for the voice therapy

  4. Experimental and analytical comparison of constraint effects due to biaxial loading and shallow-flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theiss, T.J.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    A program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for the assessment of crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels has been initiated in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. The focus of studies described herein is on the evaluation of a micromechanical scaling model based on critical stressed volumes for quantifying crack-tip constraint through applications to experimental data. Data were utilized from single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens and HSST-developed cruciform beam specimens that were tested in HSST shallow-crack and biaxial testing programs. Shallow-crack effects and far-field tensile out-of-plane biaxial loading have been identified as constraint issues that influence both fracture toughness and the extent of the toughness scatter band. Results from applications indicate that the micromechanical scaling model can be used successfully to interpret experimental data from the shallow- and deep-crack SENB specimen tests. When applied to the uniaxially and biaxially loaded cruciform specimens, the two methodologies showed some promising features, but also raised several questions concerning the interpretation of constraint conditions in the specimen based on near-tip stress fields. Crack-tip constraint analyses of the shallow-crack cruciform specimen based on near-tip stress fields. Crack-tip constraint analyses of the shallow-crack cruciform specimen subjected to uniaxial or biaxial loading conditions are shown to represent a significant challenge for these methodologies. Unresolved issued identified from these analyses require resolution as part of a validation process for biaxial loading applications

  5. SiPM optical crosstalk amplification due to scintillator crystal: effects on timing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gola, Alberto; Ferri, Alessandro; Tarolli, Alessandro; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    For a given photon detection efficiency (PDE), the primary, Poisson distributed, dark count rate of the detector (DCR 0 ) is one of the most limiting factors affecting the timing resolution of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) in the scintillation light readout. If the effects of DCR 0  are removed through a suitable baseline compensation algorithm or by cooling, it is possible to clearly observe another phenomenon that limits the PDE, and thus the timing resolution of the detector. It is caused by the optical crosstalk of the SiPM, which is significantly increased by the presence of the scintillator. In this paper, we describe this phenomenon, which is also easily observed from the reverse I–V curve of the device, and we relate it to the measured coincidence resolving time in 511 keV γ-ray measurements. We discuss its consequences on the SiPM design and, in particular, we observe that there is an optimal cell size, dependent on both SiPM and crystal parameters, that maximizes the PDE in presence of optical crosstalk. Finally, we report on a crosstalk simulator developed to study the phenomenon and we compare the simulation results obtained for different SiPM technologies, featuring different approaches to the reduction of the crosstalk. (paper)

  6. Albumin receptor effect may be due to a surface-induced conformational change in albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.G.; Burrington, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether equilibrium binding between albumin and hepatocytes involves a cell surface receptor for albumin, we incubated freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with 125 I-albumin and determined the amount of albumin associated with the cells as a function of the total albumin concentration. The resulting two-phase binding curve showed the rat albumin-hepatocyte interaction to consist of a saturable binding interaction with a dissociation constant of 1.1 microM and 2 X 10(6) sites/cell in addition to a weak, nonsaturable binding interaction. However, the saturable binding of albumin to hepatocytes did not appear to result from the presence of an albumin receptor on the cell surface; the interaction was the same for different species of albumin, for chemically modified albumins, and for fragments of albumin representing mutually exclusive domains of the molecule. The saturable binding was, instead, found to involve a subpopulation of albumin with an enhanced affinity for the cell surface. We show that this subpopulation of albumin is generated upon contact with either solid surfaces or cell surfaces and can be transferred from one surface to another. We propose that the two-phase Scatchard binding curve and the ''albumin receptor effect'' reflect two populations of albumin that bind to the cell surface with different affinities rather than one population of albumin that binds to two classes of binding sites

  7. Intrinsic Paramagnetic Meissner Effect Due to s-Wave Odd-Frequency Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Bernardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1933, Meissner and Ochsenfeld reported the expulsion of magnetic flux—the diamagnetic Meissner effect—from the interior of superconducting lead. This discovery was crucial in formulating the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS theory of superconductivity. In exotic superconducting systems BCS theory does not strictly apply. A classical example is a superconductor-magnet hybrid system where magnetic ordering breaks time-reversal symmetry of the superconducting condensate and results in the stabilization of an odd-frequency superconducting state. It has been predicted that under appropriate conditions, odd-frequency superconductivity should manifest in the Meissner state as fluctuations in the sign of the magnetic susceptibility, meaning that the superconductivity can either repel (diamagnetic or attract (paramagnetic external magnetic flux. Here, we report local probe measurements of faint magnetic fields in a Au/Ho/Nb trilayer system using low-energy muons, where antiferromagnetic Ho (4.5 nm breaks time-reversal symmetry of the proximity-induced pair correlations in Au. From depth-resolved measurements below the superconducting transition of Nb, we observe a local enhancement of the magnetic field in Au that exceeds the externally applied field, thus proving the existence of an intrinsic paramagnetic Meissner effect arising from an odd-frequency superconducting state.

  8. Two percolation thresholds due to geometrical effects: experimental and simulated results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettelblad, B; Martensson, E; Oenneby, C; Gaefvert, U; Gustafsson, A

    2003-01-01

    The electrical properties of a mixture of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber and silicon carbide (SiC) have been measured as a function of filler concentration. It was found that mixtures containing angular SiC grains have a conductivity that displays not one, but two percolation thresholds. Different types of contacts between the conducting particles, being represented by edge and face connections, respectively, can explain the phenomenon. The two percolation thresholds are obtained at volume fractions of about 0.25 and 0.40, respectively. These values are higher than those predicted by theory, which can be explained by dispersion effects with only one phase being granular and the other being continuous. The value of the conductivity at the central plateau was found to be close to the geometric mean of the limiting conductivities at low and high concentrations. This is in good agreement with theory. With rounded SiC grains only one threshold is obtained, which is consistent with only one type of contact. The concentration dependence of the conductivity was simulated using a three-dimensional impedance network model that incorporates both edge and face contacts. The double-threshold behaviour also appears in the calculations. By dispersing the conducting particles more evenly than random, the thresholds are shifted towards higher concentrations as observed in the experiments

  9. Structural changes in PVDF fibers due to electrospinning and its effect on biological function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaraju, Sita M; Wu, Siliang; Jaffe, Michael; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) is being investigated as a potential scaffold for bone tissue engineering because of its proven biocompatibility and piezoelectric property, wherein it can generate electrical activity when mechanically deformed. In this study, PVDF scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning using different voltages (12–30 kV), evaluated for the presence of the piezoelectric β-crystal phase and its effect on biological function. Electrospun PVDF was compared with unprocessed/raw PVDF, films and melt-spun fibers for the presence of the piezoelectric β-phase using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on scaffolds electrospun at 12 and 25 kV (PVDF-12 kV and PVDF-25 kV, respectively) and compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). Electrospinning PVDF resulted in the formation of the piezoelectric β-phase with the highest β-phase fraction of 72% for electrospun PVDF at 25 kV. MSCs cultured on both the scaffolds were well attached as indicated by a spread morphology. Cells on PVDF-25 kV scaffolds had the greatest alkaline phosphatase activity and early mineralization by day 10 as compared to TCP and PVDF-12 kV. The results demonstrate the potential for the use of PVDF scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  10. Plant selection and soil legacy enhance long-term biodiversity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra; Flynn, Dan F B; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Petermann, Jana S; Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Plant-plant and plant-soil interactions can help maintain plant diversity and ecosystem functions. Changes in these interactions may underlie experimentally observed increases in biodiversity effects over time via the selection of genotypes adapted to low or high plant diversity. Little is known, however, about such community-history effects and particularly the role of plant-soil interactions in this process. Soil-legacy effects may occur if co-evolved interactions with soil communities either positively or negatively modify plant biodiversity effects. We tested how plant selection and soil legacy influence biodiversity effects on productivity, and whether such effects increase the resistance of the communities to invasion by weeds. We used two plant selection treatments: parental plants growing in monoculture or in mixture over 8 yr in a grassland biodiversity experiment in the field, which we term monoculture types and mixture types. The two soil-legacy treatments used in this study were neutral soil inoculated with live or sterilized soil inocula collected from the same plots in the biodiversity experiment. For each of the four factorial combinations, seedlings of eight species were grown in monocultures or four-species mixtures in pots in an experimental garden over 15 weeks. Soil legacy (live inoculum) strongly increased biodiversity complementarity effects for communities of mixture types, and to a significantly weaker extent for communities of monoculture types. This may be attributed to negative plant-soil feedbacks suffered by mixture types in monocultures, whereas monoculture types had positive plant-soil feedbacks, in both monocultures and mixtures. Monocultures of mixture types were most strongly invaded by weeds, presumably due to increased pathogen susceptibility, reduced biomass, and altered plant-soil interactions of mixture types. These results show that biodiversity effects in experimental grassland communities can be modified by the evolution of

  11. Protective Effects of Selected Botanical Agents on Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jam Jolly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a serious health problem affecting more than 200 million elderly people worldwide. The early symptoms of this disease are hardly detectable. It causes progressive bone loss, which ultimately renders the patients susceptible to fractures. Osteoporosis must be prevented because the associated fragility fractures result in high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Many plants used in herbal medicine contain bioactive compounds possessing skeletal protective effects. This paper explores the anti-osteoporotic properties of selected herbal plants, including their actions on osteoblasts (bone forming cells, osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells, and bone remodelling. Some of the herbal plant families included in this review are Berberidaceae, Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Labiatae, Simaroubaceaea, and Myrsinaceae. Their active constituents, mechanisms of action, and pharmaceutical applications were discussed. The literature shows that very few herbal plants have undergone human clinical trials to evaluate their pharmacological effects on bone to date. Therefore, more intensive research should be performed on these plants to validate their anti-osteoporotic properties so that they can complement the currently available conventional drugs in the battle against osteoporosis.

  12. Selected bibliography on deuterium isotope effects and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Donde, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in using deuterium and heavy water not only in nuclear industry but also in various fields of basic as well as applied research in physics, chemistry and biology. As a result, the literature is being enriched with a large number of research papers and technical reports published each year. Thus, to enable the scientists to have an easy reference to these works, an endeavour has been made in this selected bibliography, to enlist the publications related to these fields. Since the interest is concerned mainly with heavy water production processes, deuterium isotope effects etc., several aspects (e.g. nuclear) of deuterium have not been covered here. The material in this bibliography which cites 2388 references has been classified under six broad headings, viz. (1) Production of heavy water, (2) Study of deuterium isotope effects, (3) Analysis and Properties of heavy water, (4) Laser Separation of deuterium, (5) Isotopic exchange reactions, and (6) Miscellaneous. The sources of information used for this compilation are chemical abstracts, nuclear science abstracts, INIS Atomindex and also some scattered search through journals and reports available in the B.A.R.C. library. However, in spite of sincere attempts for a wide coverage, no claim is being made towards the exhaustiveness of this bibliography. (author)

  13. Effects of primary selective laser trabeculoplasty on anterior segment parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven Yilmaz, Suzan; Palamar, Melis; Yusifov, Emil; Ates, Halil; Egrilmez, Sait; Yagci, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) on the main numerical parameters of anterior segment with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS Pentacam measurements of 45 eyes of 25 (15 females and 10 males) patients (12 with OHT, 13 with POAG) before and after SLT were obtained. Measurements were taken before and 1 and 3mo after SLT. Pentacam parameters were compared between OHT and POAG patients, and age groups (60y and older, and younger than 60y). RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 57.8±13.9 (range 20-77y). Twelve patients (48%) were younger than 60y, while 13 patients (52%) were 60y and older. Measurements of pre-SLT and post-SLT 1mo were significantly different for the parameters of central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber volume (ACV) (P0.05). CONCLUSION SLT leads to significant increase in CCT and decrease in ACV at the 1st month of the procedure. Effects of SLT on these anterior segment parameters, especially for CCT that interferes IOP measurement, should be considered to ensure accurate clinical interpretation. PMID:26558208

  14. Enhanced Effects of Flood Disasters Due to Hillside Development in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsien Teng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Taiwan government has established a number of flood control facilities such as dikes, pumping stations and drainage systems to effectively reduce downstream flooding. However, with continued development and urbanization of catchment areas, the original designs of most flood control facilities have become outdated. Hillside lands in the upper and middle reaches of river basins have undergone urban development through unsound engineering practices, paving the way for heavy downstream flooding. Therefore, proper river basin management should include both upstream and downstream sides. The main purpose of the paper is to simulate non-urban inundation areas with various degrees of development (0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 60%, over two different return periods of 25 years and 200 years, for intensive rainfall events in the Shi-Chi District, Taiwan. Through hydrological analysis and numerical simulations of inundation, quantitative data on inundation potential have been established based on the land development conditions along the hillsides on the upper and middle reaches of the Keelung River Basin. The simulated results show that the increase in the extent of land development in the upper reaches causes an increase in the area and depth of inundation, resulting in an increased risk of flooding in downstream areas. If the land-use policy makers in the upper reaches of the river basin’s hillsides do not properly manage the land development, the risk of flooding in downstream areas will increase. In such an event, the policy makers should first review the situation to understand the problem with the consideration of this study. Thus, proper development and flood mitigation in hillsides can be established.

  15. Fructose effect to enhance liver glycogen deposition is due to inhibition of glycogenolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, J.; Kaslow, H.; Bergman, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of fructose on glycogen degradation was examined by measuring flux of [ 14 C] from prelabeled glycogen in perfused rat livers. During 2 h refeeding of fasted rats hepatic glycogen was labeled by injection of [U 14 C] galactose (0.1 mg and 0.02 μCi/g of body weight). Refed livers were perfused for 30 min with glucose only (10 mM) and for 60 min with glucose (10 mM) without (n=5) or with fructose (1, 2, 10 mM; n=5 for each). With fructose, label production immediately declined and remained suppressed through the end of perfusion (P < 0.05). Suppression was dose-dependent: steady state label production was suppressed 45, 64, and 72% by 1, 2, and 10 mM fructose (P < 0.0001), without significant changes in glycogen synthase or phosphorylase. These results suggest the existence of allosteric inhibition of phosphorylase in the presence of fructose. Fructose 1-phosphate (F1P) accumulated in proportion to fructose (0.11 +/- 0.01 without fructose, 0.86 +/- 0.03, 1.81 +/- 0.18, and 8.23 +/- 0.6 μmoles/g of liver with 1, 2, and 10 mM fructose. Maximum inhibition of phosphorylase was 82%; FIP concentration for half inhibition was 0.57 μmoles/g of liver, well within the concentration of F1P attained in refeeding. Fructose enhances net glycogen synthesis in liver by suppressing glycogenolysis and the suppression is presumably caused by allosteric inhibition of phosphorylase by F1P

  16. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria Cristina Franco de

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  17. Protective effect of L-Cysteine upon leukopenic syndrome due to radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingu, K; Matsuura, K [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Bussaka, Y

    1981-08-01

    L-Cysteine, glutathione, inosine, and cepharanthin are the agents which have been widely used to prevent and treat the leukopenic syndrome following radiotherapy. Among these, the efficacy of inosine has been demonstrated in a double-blind comparative study. A double-blind controlled study of L-Cysteine compared to inosine and lactose-placebo was performed. Patients designated to receive radiotherapy for cancer of the lung, breast and uterine cervix were randomly allocated to 3 groups; namely, those to receive L-Cysteine 480 mg TID (CG group), inosine 1,800 mg TID (IN group) and placebo capsules (PL group) for 6 to 7 weeks. Among 159 cases, 152 were subjected to statistical analyses, and the latter consisted of 54 CG, 52 IN and 46 PL subjects. Any discrepancies among these 3 groups concerning sex, age, disease, WBC count, radiation procedure, or combined use of carcinostatics were negligible. According to the life-table analysis, the cumulative rates for the 3 groups were compared with respect to maintenance of WBC counts higher than 4,000/mm/sup 3/. Maintenance was best in the CG group, intermediate in the IN, and poorest in the PL group, the difference between CG and PL being statistically significant at the 5% level. Similar results were obtained in separate analyses of strata with and without concomitant carcinostatics. Furthermore, nearly the same results were obtained as those in the life-table analyses when data concerning efficacy and clinical usefulness as judged by physicians were analyzed. The present study indicates that the oral administration of L-Cysteine is safe and effective in preventing and treating leukopenic complications associated with radiotherapy.

  18. Maternal and individual effects in selection of bed sites and their consequences for fawn survival at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moorter, Bram; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; McLoughlin, Philip D; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Boyce, Mark S

    2009-03-01

    We examined the relationship between survival of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) fawns at Trois Fontaines, Champagne-Ardennes, France, and factors related to bed-site selection (predator avoidance and thermoregulation) and maternal food resources (forage availability in the maternal home range). Previous studies have demonstrated that at small scales, the young of large herbivores select bed sites independently from their mothers, although this selection takes place within the limits of their mother's home range. Fawn survival was influenced largely by the availability of good bed sites within the maternal home range, not by the fawn's selection of bed sites; however, selection for thermal cover when selecting bed sites positively influenced survival of young fawns. Typical features of a good home range included close proximity to habitat edges, which is related to forage accessibility for roe deer. The availability of bed sites changed as fawns aged, probably due to an increased mobility of the fawn or a different use of the home range by the mother; sites offering high concealment and thermal protection became less available in favor of areas with higher forage accessibility. Despite the minor influence of bed-site selection on survival, roe deer fawns strongly selected their bed sites according to several environmental factors linked to predator avoidance and thermoregulation. Fawns selected for sites providing concealment, light penetration, and avoided signs of wild boar (Sus scrofa) activity. Avoidance of sites with high light penetration by young fawns positively affected their survival, confirming a negative effect on thermoregulation due to reduced thermal cover. Selection for light penetration by older fawns was less clear. We discuss these results in the context of cross-generational effects in habitat selection across multiple scales, and the potential influence of the 'ghost of predation past'.

  19. Surface behaviour of first-wall materials due to the synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.; Moreno, D.; Solovioff, G.; Eliezer, D.

    1994-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate changes in surface morphology due to helium implantation and hydrogen charging. Pure polycrystalline nickel, OFHC copper and Cu-1.8Be-0.2Co (CAD 172) alloy have been studied. The influence of helium implantation parameters on blister formation and growth was investigated. Hydrogen charging (cathodic or thermal-gas) was found to lower the helium content needed for blistering and surface exfoliation. The effect of heating, carried out after hydrogen charging, was also studied. For the copper samples, hydrogen damage was produced by oxide reduction at the oxide-metal interface. This damage was found to be lower when the sputtering due to helium implantation increased. The CuBe alloy showed a greater hydrogen resistance due to the stability of the surface BeO. ((orig.))

  20. The effects of galantase on radiation enteritis due to radiotherapy in the field of gynecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akitani, Kiyoshi; Ota, Akio; Gomi, Hideki; Taniguchi, Jiro; Hiraiwa, Mikio

    1976-01-01

    Three to 6 g/day of galantase were administered daily to the patients with cancer of the cervix of the uterus and malignant tumor of the ovaries, to compare galantase administered group with non-administered group concerning the findings of stooles and other incidental symptoms, blood pictures, and liver functions. In the patients to whom this drug was administered, no diarrhea was observed with given dose of 1,000 rads, but diarrhea was observed in 46.9% with 3,000 rads, in 9.6% with 4,000 rads, in 11.3% with 5,000 rads. No watery stool was observed. When compared the findings between 6 g galantase administered patients and 3 g administered patients, there was no difference with 1,000 rads, but with 2,000 rads diarrhea was observed in 6.5% of 6 g patients, and in 38.2% of 3 g patients. With 3,000 rads it was observed in 10.8% of 6 g administered and 58.7% of 3 g administered patients. In nonadministered patients diarrhea was observed in 16.8% with 1,000 rads, and in 35.4% including 29.3% of watery stool with 2,000 rads, and with 3,000 rads, in 61.1% including 47.5% of watery stool which needed the administration of antidiarrhoica. As above mentioned, there was a remarkable difference in the incidence of diarrhea between non-administered group (40.7%) and administered group (15.5%). Watery stool was observed only in non-administered patients (26.1%). There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of diarrhea between 6 g administered group and 3 g or non-administered group. This indicated the clinical effectiveness of this drug in these cases. The results of various tests showed slight variation with irradiation doses, but no significant difference was observed between each group. (Kanao, N.)

  1. A perspective multidisciplinary geological approach for mitigation of effects due to the asbestos hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaroli, Gianluca; Rossetti, Federico; Belardi, Girolamo; Billi, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    during rock fragmentation). Accordingly, we are confident that definition of an analytical protocol based on the geological attributes of the asbestos-bearing rocks may constitute a propaedeutical tool to evaluate the asbestos hazard in natural environments. This approach may have important implications for mitigation effects of the asbestos hazard from the medical field to the engineering operations.

  2. Fluence inhomogeneities due to a ripple filter induced Moiré effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbæk, Toke Printz; Brons, Stephan; Naumann, Jakob; Ackermann, Benjamin; Horn, Julian; Latzel, Harald; Scheloske, Stefan; Galonska, Michael; Bassler, Niels; Zink, Klemens; Weber, Uli

    2015-02-07

    At particle therapy facilities with pencil beam scanning, the implementation of a ripple filter (RiFi) broadens the Bragg peak, so fewer energy steps from the accelerator are required for a homogeneous dose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV). However, sharply focusing the scanned pencil beams at the RiFi plane by ion optical settings can lead to a Moiré effect, causing fluence inhomogeneities at the isocenter. This has been experimentally proven at the Heidelberg Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum (HIT), Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Germany. 150 MeV u(-1) carbon-12 ions are used for irradiation with a 3 mm thick RiFi. The beam is focused in front of and as close to the RiFi plane as possible. The pencil beam width is estimated to be 0.78 mm at a 93 mm distance from the RiFi. Radiographic films are used to obtain the fluence profile 30 mm in front of the isocenter, 930 mm from the RiFi. The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT12A is used to determine the RiFi-induced inhomogeneities in the fluence distribution at the isocenter for a similar setup, pencil beam widths at the RiFi plane ranging from σχ(RiFi to 1.2 mm and for scanning step sizes ranging from 1.5 to 3.7 mm. The beam application and monitoring system (BAMS) used at HIT is modelled and simulated. When the width of the pencil beams at the RiFi plane is much smaller than the scanning step size, the resulting inhomogeneous fluence distribution at the RiFi plane interfers with the inhomogeneous RiFi mass distribution and fluence inhomogeneity can be observed at the isocenter as large as an 8% deviation from the mean fluence. The inverse of the fluence ripple period at the isocenter is found to be the difference between the inverse of the RiFi period and the inverse of the scanning step size. We have been able to use MC simulations to reproduce the spacing of the ripple stripes seen in films irradiated at HIT. Our findings clearly indicate that pencil beams sharply focused near the RiFi plane result in

  3. Five-Year-Olds' Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection : A Computational Modeling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false

  4. Phenotypic plasticity and effects of selection on cell division symmetry in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttara N Lele

    Full Text Available Aging has been demonstrated in unicellular organisms and is presumably due to asymmetric distribution of damaged proteins and other components during cell division. Whether the asymmetry-induced aging is inevitable or an adaptive and adaptable response is debated. Although asymmetric division leads to aging and death of some cells, it increases the effective growth rate of the population as shown by theoretical and empirical studies. Mathematical models predict on the other hand, that if the cells divide symmetrically, cellular aging may be delayed or absent, growth rate will be reduced but growth yield will increase at optimum repair rates. Therefore in nutritionally dilute (oligotrophic environments, where growth yield may be more critical for survival, symmetric division may get selected. These predictions have not been empirically tested so far. We report here that Escherichia coli grown in oligotrophic environments had greater morphological and functional symmetry in cell division. Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection appeared to shape cell division time asymmetry but plasticity was lost on prolonged selection. Lineages selected on high nutrient concentration showed greater frequency of presumably old or dead cells. Further, there was a negative correlation between cell division time asymmetry and growth yield but there was no significant correlation between asymmetry and growth rate. The results suggest that cellular aging driven by asymmetric division may not be hardwired but shows substantial plasticity as well as evolvability in response to the nutritional environment.

  5. Effect of antimony oxide on magnesium vanadates for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.T.; Chi, Z.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunghai University, ROC Taichung (Taiwan)

    2001-05-17

    The effect of antimony oxide addition to MgV{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Mg{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} was studied in the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. Significant improvements in sulfur selectivity and yield were observed for the uncalcined mechanical mixtures of magnesium vanadates with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Calcination of the mechanical mixtures resulted in the much stronger synergy in catalytic activity and sulfur selectivity. For the uncalcined samples, XRD, TPR and XPS studies indicated that antimony reduction behaviors in the mechanical mixtures differed very much from those in {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} alone, suggested that their selectivity improvements might be due to the interactions (probably oxygen transfer) between {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} and magnesium vanadates. For the calcined samples, XRD results indicated that their better catalytic performances in H{sub 2}S oxidation were primarily attributed to the formation of VSbO{sub 4} compound from antimony oxide and magnesium vanadates.

  6. Effects of Vitrectomy on Recurrent Macular Edema due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yunoki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effects of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV on recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 eyes of 22 patients who underwent single or multiple IVB injections for macular edema due to BRVO and showed a recurrence of macular edema. All patients then underwent PPV and were followed up for more than 6 months after the surgery with examinations of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT. OCT parameters were central macular thickness (CMT and average retinal thickness in a 1-mm-diameter circular region at the fovea (MRT. Results. Mean BCVA, CRT, and MRT were significantly improved from the baseline after PPV. Greater improvement of BCVA, CRT, and MRT was obtained after 1 month of IVB than after 6 months of PPV. No eyes showed worsening of macular edema after the surgery. Conclusion. PPV improved BCVA and recurrent macular edema due to BRVO, but PPV that was less effective than IVB had been in the same patients. PPV may be one of the treatment options for recurrent macular edema due to BRVO after IVB.

  7. Failure of the inflatable penile prosthesis due to abnormal folding of a low-profile reservoir – A selected case from an overall series and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alejandro Navarrete

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case from a running series of inflatable penile prosthesis failure due to improper folding of the Conceal™ reservoir. The Conceal™ Low-Profile reservoir gained popularity due to claims of improved cosmesis and ease of implantation. As the number of patients receiving this and other low-profile reservoirs increases, it is imperative to review and document any novel complications. While the Conceal™ reservoir may be preferred in ectopic placement, it may be more prone to fluid lockout facilitated by conformational change. Our review did not identify prior reports of improper folding, which we believe is unique to these low-profile reservoirs.

  8. Selected Enzyme Inhibitory Effects of Euphorbia characias Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Fais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of aerial part of Euphorbia characias were examined to check potential inhibitors for three selected enzymes involved in several metabolic disorders. Water and ethanol extracts from leaves and flowers showed in vitro inhibitory activity toward α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase. IC50 values were calculated for all the extracts and the ethanolic extracts were found to exert the best effect. In particular, for the α-glucosidase activity, the extracts resulted to be 100-fold more active than the standard inhibitor. The inhibition mode was investigated by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. E. characias extracts display different inhibition behaviors toward the three enzymes acting as uncompetitive, noncompetitive, and mixed-type inhibitors. Moreover, ethanolic extracts of E. characias showed no cytotoxic activity and exhibited antioxidant capacity in a cellular model. The LC-DAD metabolic profile was also performed and it showed that leaves and flowers extracts contain high levels of quercetin derivatives. The results suggest that E. characias could be a promising source of natural inhibitors of the enzymes involved in carbohydrate uptake disorders and oxidative stress.

  9. Selective effects of weight and inertia on maximum lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontijevic, B; Pazin, N; Kukolj, M; Ugarkovic, D; Jaric, S

    2013-03-01

    A novel loading method (loading ranged from 20% to 80% of 1RM) was applied to explore the selective effects of externally added simulated weight (exerted by stretched rubber bands pulling downward), weight+inertia (external weights added), and inertia (covariation of the weights and the rubber bands pulling upward) on maximum bench press throws. 14 skilled participants revealed a load associated decrease in peak velocity that was the least associated with an increase in weight (42%) and the most associated with weight+inertia (66%). However, the peak lifting force increased markedly with an increase in both weight (151%) and weight+inertia (160%), but not with inertia (13%). As a consequence, the peak power output increased most with weight (59%), weight+inertia revealed a maximum at intermediate loads (23%), while inertia was associated with a gradual decrease in the peak power output (42%). The obtained findings could be of importance for our understanding of mechanical properties of human muscular system when acting against different types of external resistance. Regarding the possible application in standard athletic training and rehabilitation procedures, the results speak in favor of applying extended elastic bands which provide higher movement velocity and muscle power output than the usually applied weights. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Relative age effect and selection of young basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present study was to examine whether influence of relative age effect (RAE exists or not in the selected 13 year old basketball players. Subjects were 20 basketball players (HT=177.35cm±6.73, BW=61.42kg±8.98, average age 13 years and 7 months ±.28, average experience in basketball training 4 years and 6 months ±1.15. Sample was divided in two groups: 11 players born in first half of the year and 9 players born in the second half of the year. One-way ANOVA was used in order to analyze the differences between the two groups of players in set of anthropometric variables (body height, arm span, standing reach height, body weight and percentage of body fat, motor variables (velocity of neuromuscular reaction time, vertical jump, 5 meters sprint, 10 meters sprint, 20 meters sprint, T-test, Zig-zag test, ball throw from sitting position, Sit-ups for 30 seconds and standing forward bend and one functional variable (20-M shuttle run test. Subjects do not differ in applied set of parameters, except in on variable (sit-ups for 30 seconds, p=.040. It was concluded that RAE does not exist in this sample of examinees.

  11. Dissociating action-effect activation and effect-based response selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-05-25

    Anticipated action effects have been shown to govern action selection and initiation, as described in ideomotor theory, and they have also been demonstrated to determine crosstalk between different tasks in multitasking studies. Such effect-based crosstalk was observed not only in a forward manner (with a first task influencing performance in a following second task) but also in a backward manner (the second task influencing the preceding first task), suggesting that action effect codes can become activated prior to a capacity-limited processing stage often denoted as response selection. The process of effect-based response production, by contrast, has been proposed to be capacity-limited. These observations jointly suggest that effect code activation can occur independently of effect-based response production, though this theoretical implication has not been tested directly at present. We tested this hypothesis by employing a dual-task set-up in which we manipulated the ease of effect-based response production (via response-effect compatibility) in an experimental design that allows for observing forward and backward crosstalk. We observed robust crosstalk effects and response-effect compatibility effects alike, but no interaction between both effects. These results indicate that effect activation can occur in parallel for several tasks, independently of effect-based response production, which is confined to one task at a time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. OBSERVATIONAL SELECTION EFFECTS WITH GROUND-BASED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik [LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world; though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  13. Effects of primary selective laser trabeculoplasty on anterior segment parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Guven Yilmaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effects of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT on the main numerical parameters of anterior segment with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG.METHODS: Pentacam measurements of 45 eyes of 25 (15 females and 10 males patients (12 with OHT, 13 with POAG before and after SLT were obtained. Measurements were taken before and 1 and 3mo after SLT. Pentacam parameters were compared between OHT and POAG patients, and age groups (60y and older, and younger than 60y.RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 57.8±13.9 (range 20-77y. Twelve patients (48% were younger than 60y, while 13 patients (52% were 60y and older. Measurements of pre-SLT and post-SLT 1mo were significantly different for the parameters of central corneal thickness (CCT and anterior chamber volume (ACV (P<0.05. These parameters returned back to pre-SLT values at post-SLT 3mo. Decrease of ACV at post-SLT 1mo was significantly higher in younger than 60y group than 60y and older group. There was no statistically significant difference in Pentacam parameters between OHT and POAG patients at pre- and post-treatment measurements (P>0.05.CONCLUSION:SLT leads to significant increase in CCT and decrease in ACV at the 1st month of the procedure. Effects of SLT on these anterior segment parameters, especially for CCT that interferes IOP measurement, should be considered to ensure accurate clinical interpretation.

  14. OBSERVATIONAL SELECTION EFFECTS WITH GROUND-BASED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world; though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  15. Effect of dewatering on seismic performance of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Miura, Kinya; Konami, Takeharu; Hayashi, Taketo; Sato, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Previous research reported that the ground water in the backfill of reinforced soil wall made it deteriorate. According to the damage investigation of Great East Earthquake 2011, the reinforced soil structure due to high ground water level by seismic wave were deformed remarkably. Some of them classified ultimate limit state or restorability limit state. However, more than 90% of reinforced soil structure, which suffered from this earthquake, were classified into no damage condition. Therefore, it is necessary that the seismic behaviors of multi-anchor wall due to seepage flow should be clarified in order to adopt the performance-based design in such reinforced soil structure. In this study, a series of centrifugal shaking table tests were conducted to investigate the seismic behavior of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level. The reinforced drainage pipes were installed into the backfill in order to verify the dewatering effect and additional reinforcement. Furthermore, to check only the dewatering effect, the model tests was carried out with several ground water table that was modeled the case reinforced drainage pipes installed. The test results show unique behavior of reinforced region that moved integrally. This implies that the reinforced region has been behaved as if it became one mass, and this behavior make this structure increase seismic performance. Thus, the effectiveness of dewatering was observed remarkably because of decreasing the inertial force during earthquake.

  16. Effect of selection for lean growth on gonadal development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A primary objective of commercial pig production is lean meat yield in order to satisfy consumer needs. The majority of the commercial pig breeds in South Africa have been selected for high lean growth potential and reduced backfat thickness. There are indications that selection for high lean meat yield may affect the ...

  17. The Effect of Speed Alterations on Tempo Note Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the tempo note preferences of 100 randomly selected college-level musicians using familiar orchestral music as stimuli. Subjects heard selections at increased, decreased, and unaltered tempi. Results showed musicians were not accurate in estimating original tempo and showed consistent preference for faster than actual tempo.…

  18. Response to selection in finite locus models with nonadditive effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Henryon, Mark; Berg, Peer; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Bijma, Piter; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2017-01-01

    Under the finite-locus model in the absence of mutation, the additive genetic variation is expected to decrease when directional selection is acting on a population, according to quantitative-genetic theory. However, some theoretical studies of selection suggest that the level of additive

  19. Evaluation of cytogenetic effects in some occupational groups exposed to mutagenic action due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilinskaya, M.A.; Pilinskij, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    12 persons, that live on territories contaminated by radionuclides and are exposed to additional irradiation due to their occupational activity, are cytogenetic ally examined. The most serious cytogenetic effect was in the group of tractor-drivers from the Polesskoe region of the Kyiv district (average frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations - 2.51 per 100 cells, stable chromosome aberrations - 1.44 per 100 cells), where the density of 137 Cs-contamination ran up to 26 Ci/km 2 . The received data confirm the importance of contribution of the occupational radiation component to genetic effects in the population of areas contaminated after the Chernobyl accident

  20. Estimation of Collective Effective Dose Due to Cosmic Ray Exposures to Members of The Public and to Airline Passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, N.S.; Salah Eldin, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; El Dosoky, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Using UNSCEAR 2000 report to United Nation General Assembly and its appendices, Annual collective dose to Egyptian members of the public (75097301). Was estimated to be 252.5 man Sv , hence the average collective effective dose to air line passenger for 10 million is estimated as 25.25 micro Sievert. Furthermore using hypothetical approach for Egyptian passengers who fly locally, regionally and internationally, the collective dose was estimated to be 252.5 man Sv , hence the average average collective effective dose for Egyptian passenger is due to Aviation is 3.36 micro Sievert

  1. Estimating adverse selection and moral hazard effects with hospital invoices data in a government-controlled healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangping; Nestic, Danijel; Vukina, Tomislav

    2012-08-01

    We use invoices for hospital services from a regional hospital in Croatia to test for adverse selection and moral hazard. There are three categories of patients: with no supplemental insurance, who bought it, and who are entitled to it for free. Our identification procedure relies on the premise that the difference in the observed medical care consumption between the patients who bought the insurance and those entitled to free insurance is caused by pure selection effect, whereas the difference in healthcare consumption between the group that received the free insurance and the group that has no insurance is due to moral hazard. Results show favorable selection for patients in 20- to 30-year-old cohort and significant moral hazard for all age cohorts. The selection effect reverses its sign in older cohorts explained by the differences in risk aversion across cohorts caused by the timing of transition from socialism to market economy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The sunk cost effect across species: A review of persistence in a course of action due to prior investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Paula; Geoffrey White, K

    2016-05-01

    The sunk cost effect is the bias or tendency to persist in a course of action due to prior investments of effort, money or time. At the time of the only review on the sunk cost effect across species (Arkes & Ayton, 1999), research with nonhuman animals had been ecological in its nature, and the findings about the effect of past investments on current choice were inconclusive. However, in the last decade a new line of experimental laboratory-based research has emerged with the promise of revolutionizing the way we approach the study of the sunk cost effect in nonhumans. In the present review we challenge Arkes and Ayton's conclusion that the sunk cost effect is exclusive to humans, and describe evidence for the sunk cost effect in nonhuman animals. By doing so, we also challenge the current explanations for the sunk cost effect in humans, as they are not applicable to nonhumans. We argue that a unified theory is called for, because different independent variables, in particular, investment amount, have the same influence on the sunk cost effect across species. Finally, we suggest possible psychological mechanisms shared across different species, contrast and depreciation, that could explain the sunk cost effect. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Assessing the effect of selection with deltamethrin on biological parameters and detoxifying enzymes in Aedes aegypti (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gonzalez, Leslie C; Briceño, Arelis; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Villanueva-Segura, O Karina; Davila-Barboza, Jesus A; Lopez-Monroy, Beatriz; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Selene M; Contreras-Perera, Yamili; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Flores, Adriana E

    2017-11-01

    Resistance to insecticides through one or several mechanisms has a cost for an insect in various parameters of its biological cycle. The present study evaluated the effect of deltamethrin on detoxifying enzymes and biological parameters in a population of Aedes aegypti selected for 15 generations. The enzyme activities of alpha- and beta-esterases, mixed-function oxidases and glutathione-S-transferases were determined during selection, along with biological parameters. Overexpression of mixed-function oxidases as a mechanism of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin was found. There were decreases in percentages of eggs hatching, pupation and age-specific survival and in total survival at the end of the selection (F 16 ). Although age-specific fecundity was not affected by selection with deltamethrin, total fertility, together with lower survival, significantly affected gross reproduction rate, gradually decreasing due to deltamethrin selection. Similarly, net reproductive rate and intrinsic growth rate were affected by selection. Alterations in life parameters could be due to the accumulation of noxious effects or deleterious genes related to detoxifying enzymes, specifically those coding for mixed-function oxidases, along with the presence of recessive alleles of the V1016I and F1534C mutations, associating deltamethrin resistance with fitness cost in Ae. aegypti. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards: A Structured Expert Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Aspinall, Willy; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-01-01

    transmission routes. These findings are essential for global burden of FBD estimates. While gaps exist, we believe the estimates presented here are the best current source of guidance to support decision makers when allocating resources for control and intervention, and for future research initiatives......., seven other infectious diseases and one chemical (lead). Experts were identified through international networks followed by social network sampling. Final selection of experts was based on their experience including international working experience. Enrolled experts were scored on their ability to judge...

  5. Dark matter as a dynamic effect due to a non-minimal gravitational coupling with matter (I): Analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O; Paramos, J

    2010-01-01

    In this work the phenomenology of models possessing a non-minimal coupling between matter and geometry is discussed, with a particular focus on the possibility of describing the flattening of the galactic rotation curves as a dynamically generated effect derived from this modification to General Relativity. Two possibilities are discussed: firstly, that the observed discrepancy between the measured rotation velocity and the classical prediction is due to a deviation from geodesic motion, due to a non-(covariant) conservation of the energy-momentum tensor; secondly, that even if the principle of energy conservation holds, the dynamical effects arising due to the non-trivial terms in the Einstein equations of motion can give rise to an extra density contribution that may be interpreted as dark matter. In this work, The mechanism of the latter alternative is detailed; a numerical session ascertaining the order of magnitude of the relevant parameters is undertaken in another contribution to this volume, with possible cosmological implications discussed.

  6. Effects of transient soil waterlogging and its importance for rootstock selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morales-Olmedo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under transient waterlogging, a number of transformations in the soil are generated associated with lack of aeration, seriously affecting the root system. Significant progress has been reported on understanding the effects of lack of oxygen on the metabolism of the roots, although few studies have examined changes in the soil. Diverging conclusions about the degree of tolerance exhibited by plants exclude the effects of hypoxia and anoxia on physical-chemical soil properties under plant experiments. This review examines the main changes occurring in soil and roots due to transient soil waterlogging conditions. Parameters such as antioxidant capacity, nutrient uptake dynamics and regeneration and distribution of the root system are relevant for selecting rootstocks tolerant to soil waterlogging.

  7. The December 7, 1988 Armenia earthquake effects on selected power, industrial and commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.D.; Griffin, M.J.; Bragagnolo, L.J.; Yanev, P.I.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed overview of the Armenia earthquake (occurred on December 7, 1988) effects on selected power, industrial and commercial facilities is presented in this paper. It involves geologic and seismology study of the region; description of the design building standards; detailed description of the damaged nuclear and other power plants as well as other industrial facilities. Extensive damage was sustained by the industrial facilities in the epicentral area, the majority due to poor design and construction. The effects on power facilities were much less severe. response time to restore power to the transmission was 2 to 3 days following the earthquake. Power plant equipment without rigorous seismic design performed well. Mechanical equipment, pumps, valves, compressors, and piping all performed with minimal damage, Electrical control equipment if properly anchored performed well without exception

  8. The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Insomnia due to Methadone Maintenance Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Soleimani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep disturbance is a common complaint of patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT. There are limited studies about the effect of different treatments on insomnia due to MMT. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBTI on sleep disorders in patients undergoing MMT. Methods: Twenty-two patients with insomnia due to MMT (aged 18-60 years participated in this randomized double-blind clinical trial. The intervention group received CBTI from a clinical psychologist for 8 weeks, whereas the control group received behavioral placebo therapy (BPT. The duration of individual sessions was 45 minutes, which was conducted once a week. The primary outcome was sleep disturbance assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Results: Eleven patients were assigned to each group. Two groups were matched according to demographic characteristics (age, marital status, education, and daily methadone doses. Although PSQI score was significantly reduced during weeks 5 and 8 after both interventions, there was a significant difference in intervention versus time interaction (P<0.02. The effects of CBTI versus placebo were significantly different (P<0.001. The time course was also significant (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that CBTI is more effective than BPT in overall sleep quality. We recommend further studies, with a larger sample, on CBTI in patients undergoing MMT.

  9. Effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) on the gut resistome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelow, E.; Bello Gonzalez, T.D.G.; Versluis, D.; Oostdijk, E.A.N.; Ogilvie, L.A.; Mourik, van M.S.M.; Oosterink, L.; Passel, van M.W.J.; Smidt, H.; D’Andrea, M.M.; Been, de M.; Jones, B.V.; Willems, R.J.L.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Schaik, W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) is an infection prevention measure for critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) that aims to eradicate opportunistic pathogens from the oropharynx and intestines, while sparing the anaerobic flora, by the application of

  10. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Selected Vranac Wines Against Six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucoside and. Folin - Ciocalteu`s phenol reagent were supplied from Sigma Chemical Co. (St Louis, Mo, USA); used reagents were of analytical quality. Wines samples. Selected Vranac wines from vintage 2009, made from autochthonic Vranac V.

  11. A fracture mechanics method of evaluating structural integrity of a reactor vessel due to thermal shock effects following LOCA condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of knowledge of structural integrity of a reactor vessel due to thermal shock effects, is related to safety and operational requirements in assessing the adequacy and flawless functioing of the nuclear power systems. Followig a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) condition the integrity of the reactor vessel due to a sudden thermal shock induced by actuation of emergency core cooling system (ECCS), must be maintained to ensure safe and orderly shutdown of the reactor and its components. The paper encompasses criteria underlaying a fracture mechanics method of analysis to evaluate structural integrity of a typical 950 MWe PWR vessel as a result of very drastic changes in thermal and mechanical stress levels in the reactor vessel wall. The main object of this investigation therefore consists in assessing the capability of a PWR vessel to withstand the most critical thermal shock without inpairing its ability to conserve vital coolant owing to probable crack propagation. (Auth.)

  12. Random regression models to account for the effect of genotype by environment interaction due to heat stress on the milk yield of Holstein cows under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mário L; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; El Faro, Lenira

    2016-02-01

    The present study had the following objectives: to compare random regression models (RRM) considering the time-dependent (days in milk, DIM) and/or temperature × humidity-dependent (THI) covariate for genetic evaluation; to identify the effect of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) due to heat stress on milk yield; and to quantify the loss of milk yield due to heat stress across lactation of cows under tropical conditions. A total of 937,771 test-day records from 3603 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows obtained between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. An important reduction in milk yield due to heat stress was observed for THI values above 66 (-0.23 kg/day/THI). Three phases of milk yield loss were identified during lactation, the most damaging one at the end of lactation (-0.27 kg/day/THI). Using the most complex RRM, the additive genetic variance could be altered simultaneously as a function of both DIM and THI values. This model could be recommended for the genetic evaluation taking into account the effect of G×E. The response to selection in the comfort zone (THI ≤ 66) is expected to be higher than that obtained in the heat stress zone (THI > 66) of the animals. The genetic correlations between milk yield in the comfort and heat stress zones were less than unity at opposite extremes of the environmental gradient. Thus, the best animals for milk yield in the comfort zone are not necessarily the best in the zone of heat stress and, therefore, G×E due to heat stress should not be neglected in the genetic evaluation.

  13. Treatment of Implant Exposure due to Skin Necroses after Skin Sparing Mastectomy: Initial Experiences Using a Not Selective Random Epigastric Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echazarreta-Gallego, Estíbaliz; Pola-Bandrés, Guillermo; Arribas-Del Amo, María Dolores; Gil-Romea, Ismael; Sousa-Domínguez, Ramón; Güemes-Sánchez, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Breast prostheses exposure is probably the most devastating complication after a skin sparing mastectomy (SSM) and implant-based, one-stage, breast reconstruction. This complication may occur in the immediate post-operative period or in the weeks and even months after the procedure. In most cases, the cause is poor skin coverage of the implant due to skin necrosis. Eight consecutive cases of implant exposure (or risk of exposure) due to skin necrosis in SSM patients over a period of 5 years, all patients were treated using a random epigastric rotation flap, executed by the same medical team. A random epigastric flap (island or conventional rotation flap) was used to cover the skin defect. All the patients completed the procedure and all prostheses were saved; there were no cases of flap necrosis or infection. Cases of skin necrosis after SSM and immediate implant reconstruction, in which the implant is at risk of exposure, can be successfully treated with a random epigastric rotation flap.

  14. Under-reported dosimetry errors due to interplay effects during VMAT dose delivery in extreme hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauer, Tobias; Sothmann, Thilo; Blanck, Oliver; Petersen, Cordula; Werner, René

    2018-06-01

    Radiotherapy of extracranial metastases changed from normofractioned 3D CRT to extreme hypofractionated stereotactic treatment using VMAT beam techniques. Random interaction between tumour motion and dynamically changing beam parameters might result in underdosage of the CTV even for an appropriately dimensioned ITV (interplay effect). This study presents a clinical scenario of extreme hypofractionated stereotactic treatment and analyses the impact of interplay effects on CTV dose coverage. For a thoracic/abdominal phantom with an integrated high-resolution detector array placed on a 4D motion platform, dual-arc treatment plans with homogenous target coverage were created using a common VMAT technique and delivered in a single fraction. CTV underdosage through interplay effects was investigated by comparing dose measurements with and without tumour motion during plan delivery. Our study agrees with previous works that pointed out insignificant interplay effects on target coverage for very regular tumour motion patterns like simple sinusoidal motion. However, we identified and illustrated scenarios that are likely to result in a clinically relevant CTV underdosage. For tumour motion with abnormal variability, target coverage quantified by the CTV area receiving more than 98% of the prescribed dose decreased to 78% compared to 100% at static dose measurement. This study is further proof of considerable influence of interplay effects on VMAT dose delivery in stereotactic radiotherapy. For selected conditions of an exemplary scenario, interplay effects and related motion-induced target underdosage primarily occurred in tumour motion pattern with increased motion variability and VMAT plan delivery using complex MLC dose modulation.

  15. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  16. Ricardian selection

    OpenAIRE

    Finicelli, Andrea; Pagano, Patrizio; Sbracia, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the foundations of the relationship between trade and total factor productivity (TFP) in the Ricardian model. Under general assumptions about the autarky distributions of industry productivities, trade openness raises TFP. This is due to the selection effect of international competition � driven by comparative advantages � which makes "some" high- and "many" low-productivity industries exit the market. We derive a model-based measure of this effect that requires only production...

  17. Effects in the network topology due to node aggregation: Empirical evidence from the domestic maritime transportation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiotas, Dimitrios; Polyzos, Serafeim

    2018-02-01

    This article studies the topological consistency of spatial networks due to node aggregation, examining the changes captured between different network representations that result from nodes' grouping and they refer to the same socioeconomic system. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate what kind of topological information remains unalterable due to node aggregation and, further, to develop a framework for linking the data of an empirical network with data of its socioeconomic environment, when the latter are available for hierarchically higher levels of aggregation, in an effort to promote the interdisciplinary research in the field of complex network analysis. The research question is empirically tested on topological and socioeconomic data extracted from the Greek Maritime Network (GMN) that is modeled as a non-directed multilayer (bilayer) graph consisting of a port-layer, where nodes represent ports, and a prefecture-layer, where nodes represent coastal and insular prefectural groups of ports. The analysis highlights that the connectivity (degree) of the GMN is the most consistent aspect of this multilayer network, which preserves both the topological and the socioeconomic information through node aggregation. In terms of spatial analysis and regional science, such effects illustrate the effectiveness of the prefectural administrative division for the functionality of the Greek maritime transportation system. Overall, this approach proposes a methodological framework that can enjoy further applications about the grouping effects induced on the network topology, providing physical, technical, socioeconomic, strategic or political insights.

  18. The effect of sexual selection on adaptation and extinction under increasing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrett, Jonathan M; Knell, Robert J

    2018-04-25

    Strong sexual selection has been reported to both enhance and hinder the adaptive capacity and persistence of populations when exposed to novel environments. Consequently, how sexual selection influences population adaption and persistence under stress remains widely debated. Here, we present two empirical investigations of the fitness consequences of sexual selection on populations of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, exposed to stable or gradually increasing temperatures. When faced with increasing temperatures, strong sexual selection was associated with both increased fecundity and offspring survival compared with populations experiencing weak sexual selection, suggesting sexual selection acts to drive adaptive evolution by favouring beneficial alleles. Strong sexual selection did not, however, delay extinction when the temperature became excessively high. By manipulating individuals' mating opportunities during fitness assays, we were able to assess the effect of multiple mating independently from the effect of population-level sexual selection, and found that polyandry has a positive effect on both fecundity and offspring survival under increasing temperatures in those populations evolving with weak sexual selection. Within stable temperatures, there were some benefits from strong sexual selection but these were not consistent across the entire experiment, possibly reflecting changing costs and benefits of sexual selection under stabilizing and directional selection. These results indicate that sexual selection can provide a buffer against climate change and increase adaptation rates within a continuously changing environment. These positive effects of sexual selection may, however, be too small to protect populations and delay extinction when environmental changes are relatively rapid. © 2018 The Author(s).

  19. Short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhao, Yuxin; Yang, Sixu; Zhou, Jianding; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Shigong; Yang, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been a major global public health issue. A number of studies have shown various adverse effects of ambient air pollution on cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, we investigated the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room (ER) admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing from 2009 to 2012 using a time-series analysis. A total of 82430 ER cardiovascular admissions were recorded. Different gender (male and female) and age groups (15yrs ≤ age <65 yrs and age ≥ 65 yrs) were also examined by single model and multiple-pollutant model. Three major pollutants (SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 ) had lag effects of 0–2 days on cardiovascular ER admissions. The relative risks (95% CI) of per 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 were 1.008 (0.997–1.020), 1.008(0.999–1.018) and 1.014(1.003–1.024), respectively. The effect was more pronounced in age ≥65 and males in Beijing. We also found the stronger acute effects on the elderly and females at lag 0 than on the younger people and males at lag 2. - Highlights: • Significant associations were found between air pollution and emergency admissions of cardiovascular diseases. • Air pollutants had lag effects on age and gender groups. • Stronger effects of air pollutants were observed for age ≥65 yrs and males. • More acute effects of air pollutants were found for age ≥65 yrs and females. - Air pollutants had significant lag effects on different age and gender groups. The effects were more pronounced in age ≥65 and males in Beijing, China.

  20. Evaluation of effects on integral parameters, due to homogenization of one region of a core-blanket system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, J.T. de

    1982-01-01

    The effects produced on the integral parameters due to the homogenization in the core-blanket inrterface, were evaluated, adopting an 1D diffusion calculation. The calculation for one plane cell with the characteristics of the critical mounting ZPR-6-5, was done using the Hetaire computer code with the Carnaval II data library for 25 energy groups. For the transport calculation the ANISN and RMAT1D computer codes were used. By the homogenization of an interface region, flux values, cross sections and reactivity are obtained for several thicknesses of this region. The results of diffusion calculation are compared with the transport calculation. (E.G.) [pt

  1. New nonlinear optical effect: self-reflection phenomenon due to exciton-biexciton-light interaction in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadzhi, P. I.; Lyakhomskaya, K. D.; Nadkin, L. Y.; Markov, D. A.

    2002-05-01

    The characteristic peculiarities of the self-reflection of a strong electromagnetic wave in a system of coherent excitons and biexcitons due to the exciton-photon interaction and optical exciton-biexciton conversion in semiconductors were investigated as one of the manifestations of nonlinear optical Stark-effect. It was found that a monotonously decreasing standing wave with an exponential decreasing spatial tail is formed in the semiconductor. Under the action of the field of a strong pulse, an optically homogeneous medium is converted, into the medium with distributed feedback. The appearance of the spatially separated narrow pears of the reflective index, extinction and reflection coefficients is predicted.

  2. Modifying effect of age on the association between ambient ozone and nighttime primary care visits due to asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki; Ando, Michiko; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and nighttime primary care visits due to asthma attack. We also investigated the modifying effects of age on this association. A case-crossover study was conducted at a primary care clinic in metropolitan Tokyo. The subjects were 308 children aged 0-14 years and 95 adolescents and adults aged 15-64 years. All subjects made visits to the clinic for an asthma attack at between 7 PM and 12 AM. Data on hourly concentrations of particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter asthma attack in warmer months; the association was greater among preschool children.

  3. A study on the effectiveness of a preventive equipment against the fault due to magpies in overhead distribution line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.M.; Lee, B.S.; Lee, J.B. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This study examines the applicability of a preventive equipment (liquid grass) to the field. The preventive equipment mass produced already is to prevent the fault due to birds-magpies, and is known for the excellent performance within magpies' living quarters. To assess the practicality of the production, it was mounted on the poles on which the magpie can build a nest with ease, thus the durability, emitting effect of a foul odor and evading temper of magpies were assessed. (author). 16 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Estimate of the Effective Dose Equivalent to the Cypriot Population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Procedures in the Public Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital (Cyprus)

    1994-12-31

    The Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures has been estimated from data published by the Government of Cyprus, in its Health and Hospital Statistics Series for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992. The average EDE per patient was estimated to be 3,09, 3,75 and 4,01 microSievert for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, while the per caput EDE was estimated to be 11,75, 15,16 and 17,09 microSieverts for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, from the procedures in the public sector. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs.

  5. Estimate of the Effective Dose Equivalent to the Cypriot Population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Procedures in the Public Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofides, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures has been estimated from data published by the Government of Cyprus, in its Health and Hospital Statistics Series for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992. The average EDE per patient was estimated to be 3,09, 3,75 and 4,01 microSievert for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, while the per caput EDE was estimated to be 11,75, 15,16 and 17,09 microSieverts for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, from the procedures in the public sector. (author)

  6. Effects of Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Constituents on Elderly Hospital Admissions Due to Circulatory and Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Morais Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Various fractions of particulate matter have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associations between concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, PM10 and their chemical constituents (soluble ions with hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory diseases among the elderly in a medium-sized city in Brazil. A time series study was conducted using Poisson regression with generalized additive models adjusted for confounders. Statistically significant associations were identified between PM10 and PM2.5–10 and respiratory diseases. Risks of hospitalization increased by 23.5% (95% CI: 13.5; 34.3 and 12.8% (95% CI: 6.0; 20.0 per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5-10 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 exhibited a significant association with circulatory system diseases, with the risk of hospitalization increasing by 19.6% (95% CI: 6.4; 34.6 per 10 μg/m3. Regarding the chemical species; SO42−, NO3−, NH4+ and K+ exhibited specific patterns of risk, relative to the investigated outcomes. Overall, SO42− in PM2.5–10 and K+ in PM2.5 were associated with increased risk of hospital admissions due to both types of diseases. The results agree with evidence indicating that the risks for different health outcomes vary in relation to the fractions and chemical composition of PM10. Thus, PM10 speciation studies may contribute to the establishment of more selective pollution control policies.

  7. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  8. Analysis of the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior by incorporating multiple self-selection effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Biying; Junyi Zhang; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior might correlate with each other. Besides, due to the existence of self-selection effects, the observed inter-relationship between them might be the spurious result of the fact that some unobserved variables are causing both. These concerns motivate us to (1) consider residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior (for both in-home appliances and out-of-home cars) simultaneously and, (2) explicitly control self-selection effects so as to capture a relatively true effect of land-use policy on household energy consumption behavior. An integrated model termed as joint mixed Multinomial Logit-Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value model is presented here to identify the sensitivity of household energy consumption to land use policy by considering multiple self-selection effects. The model results indicate that land-use policy do play a great role in changing Beijing residents’ energy consumption pattern, while the self-selection effects cannot be ignored when evaluating the effect of land-use policy. Based on the policy scenario design, it is found that increasing recreational facilities and bus lines in the neighborhood can greatly promote household's energy-saving behavior. Additionally, the importance of “soft policy” and package policy is also emphasized in the context of Beijing. - Highlights: ► Representing residential choice and household energy consumption behavior jointly. ► Land use policy is found effective to control the household energy use in Beijing. ► Multiple self-selection effects are posed to get the true effect of land use policy. ► Significant self-selection effects call an attention to the soft policy in Beijing. ► The necessity of package policy on saving Beijing residents’ energy use is confirmed.

  9. The Effect of Divergent Selection on 4-wk BW on the Shape of Growth Curve in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Beyki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term divergent selection on the shape growth curve in different lines of Japanese quail. The Quail lines utilized in this study were two divergently selected for high (HW and low (LW 4-wk body weight during 7 generation and also a control line (C. The Richard function parameters were used to describe growth curves of different lines. The weight at hatch was approximately similar among lines (8.08 g, 7.55 g and 8.76 g for HW, LW and C line respectively. The results of current study indicated that the selected lines (HW & LW were immediately diverged from the C line after hatch. Sexes within each line had no difference in average growth rate, age and body weight at inflection point and adult body weight. However significant differences were found in the growth curve parameters among lines. The results of current study indicated that short term divergent selection for 4-wk BW in Japanese quail can change the growth pattern and the carcass compartments of the selected birds. Therefore to avoid undesirable side effects due to selection in Japanese quails it is recommended to consider the growth pattern changes of the selected birds in the breeding programs

  10. Health-related effects of early part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Kausto, Johanna; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2013-01-01

    Previously we reported that early part-time sick leave enhances return to work (RTW) among employees with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). This paper assesses the health-related effects of this intervention. Patients aged 18-60 years who were unable to perform their regular work due to MSD were randomized to part- or full-time sick leave groups. In the former, workload was reduced by halving working time. Using validated questionnaires, we assessed pain intensity and interference with work and sleep, region-specific disability due to MSD, self-rated general health, health-related quality of life (measured via EuroQol), productivity loss, depression, and sleep disturbance at baseline, 1, 3, 8, 12, and 52 weeks. We analyzed the repeated measures data (171-356 observations) with the generalized estimating equation approach. The intervention (part-time sick leave) and control (full-time sick leave) groups did not differ with regard to pain intensity, pain interference with work and sleep, region-specific disability, productivity loss, depression, or sleep disturbance. The intervention group reported better self-rated general health (adjusted P=0.07) and health-related quality of life (adjusted P=0.02) than the control group. In subgroup analyses, the intervention was more effective among the patients whose current problem began occurring part-time sick leave did not exacerbate pain-related symptoms and functional disability, but improved self-rated general health and health-related quality of life in the early stage of work disability due to MSD.

  11. Development of Program Evaluating the Effects on the Secondary Side of Steam Generator due to Foreign Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yoo Hyun; Nam, Choi Sung

    2005-01-01

    When materials such as metal are into the secondary side of steam generator, they, so called foreign objects, may have influences on the integrity of the steam generator tubes. They cause the tube wear due to the relative motion between the tubes and foreign objects and the tube impact due to flow. The best way to avoid the effects is to remove all the foreign objects. However, it is not easy to remove the foreign materials thoroughly due to their condition such as the location. If the locations of the foreign materials are in the middle of tube bundle and the tube arrangement of the steam generator is the triangle type, the equipment such as FOSAR(Foreign Object Search and Retrieval) can not reach their locations. If the foreign materials stick together with the tubes or tube sheet, they can not be removed. In the case of operating the steam generator with the foreign materials, the licensee must prove that the materials do not affect the tube integrity and do not threaten the pressure boundary with the analytical method. Considering the wear and impact by the foreign materials, KEPRI(Korea Electric Power Research Institute) developed the methodology to evaluate the foreign materials analytically. This methodology was described with a computer program in order to obtain the fast results. The program informs whether the tubes have the structural integrity when the foreign material strikes the tubes. Moreover, this gives us the remaining life of the steam generator tubes. In this paper, the program, which evaluates the effects of the foreign objects in the secondary side of steam generator, is introduced

  12. Inter-element effects correction due to the secondary x-ray fluorescence in pixe analysis technic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchantchane, A.; Benamar, M.A.; Benouali, A.; Azbouche, A.; Tobbeche, S.

    1995-01-01

    For accurate determination of analyte concentration, on must take into account the effect of proton energy decrease and as a consequence a change in ionization cross sections as rthe beam penetrates the sample. Further one must also correct for matrix effects. This phenomena is due to the attenuation of the emerging X-rays from a major elements by a minor element which ha sa high coefficient absorption for this radiation. We present in this paper the work related to the developpement of a computer pragram for the estimation of such correction. We show the importance of this correction as function of the proton incident energy and of the sample type and its composition

  13. External costs due to congestion, accidents, energy consumption and emissions before and into the economic crisis: Pilot study along selected roadways of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriou Matina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the economic crisis, forecasts indicated a continuous increase of traffic in European cities, highlighting the need of a policy to alleviate the external impacts of transport. The crisis, however, generated pressures on all sectors of activity, with transport being an indicative example. The reduction of income and employment, the increased vehicle maintenance and renewal costs and the transport related taxation seem to affect the transport system and its external impacts. Thus, taking for granted that Europe will eventually achieve “sustainable recovery” from the crisis, the current period presents an opportunity for promoting sustainable mobility policies and interventions in the most affected by the crisis European cities. Towards this goal, it is essential to capitalise on contemporary techniques for the monitoring of changes in transport external costs. The purpose of the paper is the development of a methodology for the estimation of external costs due to congestion, air pollution, climate change and accidents, based on road traffic data. The methodology is applied along road arteries in Thessaloniki for the period “before and after” the emergence of the crisis. As a result, an overall decrease in external costs is observed, creating an unforeseen “surplus” for the society during the crisis.

  14. Sustainable school infrastructure through effective innovative building technology selection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a model proposed for the selection Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) and procurement of services supporting the erection of the IBTs that will ensure the construction of a sustainable school...

  15. Bayesian genomic selection: the effect of haplotype lenghts and priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Trine Michelle; Janss, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Breeding values for animals with marker data are estimated using a genomic selection approach where data is analyzed using Bayesian multi-marker association models. Fourteen model scenarios with varying haplotype lengths, hyper parameter and prior distributions were compared to find the scenario ...

  16. Effect of Model Selection on Computed Water Balance Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.; Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Roest, C.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Soil water flow modelling approaches as used in four selected on-farm water management models, namely CROPWAT. FAIDS, CERES and SWAP, are compared through numerical experiments. The soil water simulation approaches used in the first three models are reformulated to incorporate ail evapotranspiration

  17. Analysis of the Effect of Health Education Activities on Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... integrated management of childhood illness have the potential to improve these child ... faecal disposal, etc, all in an attempt to decrease under-five ... sanitation practices and clean water supply are .... random selection of households was done. Interviews .... A multivariate logistic regression analysis was.

  18. Nonstrategic Contributions to Putatively Strategic Effects in Selective Attention Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F.; Blais, Chris; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Proportion compatible manipulations are often used to index strategic processes in selective attention tasks. Here, a subtle confound in proportion compatible manipulations is considered. Specifically, as the proportion of compatible trials increases, the ratio of complete repetitions and complete alternations to partial repetitions increases on…

  19. The effect of Prophylactic knee bracing on selected performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the wearing of a prophylactic knee brace by uninjured rugby players affected the following performance based parameters: speed, agility, strength, proprioception and economy of running. Thirty rugby players were subjected to a selected number of carefully monitored ...

  20. The effect of training frequency on selected physical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were randomly selected into 3 groups of 20 each. Groups A and B served as the training groups while group C formed the control group which remained sedentary, and followed their normal lifestyle. The experimental groups (A & B) initially trained for 12 weeks at a training frequency of 3 times a week. This was ...

  1. Conjunctival effects of a selective nasal pollen provocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callebaut, I.; Spielberg, L.; Hox, V.; Bobic, S.; Jorissen, M.; Stalmans, I.; Scadding, G.; Ceuppens, J. L.; Hellings, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Several clinical and experimental observations suggest that allergen deposition in the nose may partially be responsible for the induction of conjunctival symptoms in allergic rhinitis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the induction of conjunctival symptoms by selective nasal allergen

  2. Estimate of the shielding effect on secondary cancer risk due to cone-beam CT in image-guided radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jiwon; Baek, Taeseong; Yoon, Myonggeun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Donghyun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study evaluated the effect of a simple shielding method using a thin lead sheet on the imaging dose caused by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Reduction of secondary doses from CBCT was measured using a radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter (RPLGD) placed inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The entire body, except for the region scanned by using CBCT, was shielded by wrapping it with a 2-mm lead sheet. Changes in secondary cancer risk due to shielding were calculated using BEIR VII models. Doses to out-of-field organs for head-and-neck, chest, and pelvis scans were decreased 15 ∼ 100%, 23 ∼ 90%, and 23 ∼ 98%, respectively, and the average reductions in lifetime secondary cancer risk due to the 2-mm lead shielding were 1.6, 11.5, and 12.7 persons per 100,000, respectively. These findings suggest that a simple, thin-lead-sheet-based shielding method can effectively decrease secondary doses to out-of-field regions for CBCT, which reduces the lifetime cancer risk on average by 9 per 100,000 patients.

  3. Short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhao, Yuxin; Yang, Sixu; Zhou, Jianding; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Shigong; Yang, Dandan

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air pollution has been a major global public health issue. A number of studies have shown various adverse effects of ambient air pollution on cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, we investigated the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on emergency room (ER) admissions due to cardiovascular causes in Beijing from 2009 to 2012 using a time-series analysis. A total of 82430 ER cardiovascular admissions were recorded. Different gender (male and female) and age groups (15yrs ≤ age pollutant model. Three major pollutants (SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 ) had lag effects of 0-2 days on cardiovascular ER admissions. The relative risks (95% CI) of per 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 were 1.008 (0.997-1.020), 1.008(0.999-1.018) and 1.014(1.003-1.024), respectively. The effect was more pronounced in age ≥65 and males in Beijing. We also found the stronger acute effects on the elderly and females at lag 0 than on the younger people and males at lag 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermal noise due to surface-charge effects within the Debye layer of endogenous structures in dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznanski, Roman R

    2010-02-01

    An assumption commonly used in cable theory is revised by taking into account electrical amplification due to intracellular capacitive effects in passive dendritic cables. A generalized cable equation for a cylindrical volume representation of a dendritic segment is derived from Maxwell's equations under assumptions: (i) the electric-field polarization is restricted longitudinally along the cable length; (ii) extracellular isopotentiality; (iii) quasielectrostatic conditions; and (iv) homogeneous medium with constant conductivity and permittivity. The generalized cable equation is identical to Barenblatt's equation arising in the theory of infiltration in fissured strata with a known analytical solution expressed in terms of a definite integral involving a modified Bessel function and the solution to a linear one-dimensional classical cable equation. Its solution is used to determine the impact of thermal noise on voltage attenuation with distance at any particular time. A regular perturbation expansion for the membrane potential about the linear one-dimensional classical cable equation solution is derived in terms of a Green's function in order to describe the dynamics of free charge within the Debye layer of endogenous structures in passive dendritic cables. The asymptotic value of the first perturbative term is explicitly evaluated for small values of time to predict how the slowly fluctuating (in submillisecond range) electric field attributed to intracellular capacitive effects alters the amplitude of the membrane potential. It was found that capacitive effects are almost negligible for cables with electrotonic lengths L>0.5 , contributes up to 10% of the signal for cables with electrotonic lengths in the range between 0.25due to

  5. On Lack of Robustness in Hydrological Model Development Due to Absence of Guidelines for Selecting Calibration and Evaluation Data: Demonstration for Data-Driven Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feifei; Maier, Holger R.; Wu, Wenyan; Dandy, Graeme C.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Zhang, Tuqiao

    2018-02-01

    Hydrological models are used for a wide variety of engineering purposes, including streamflow forecasting and flood-risk estimation. To develop such models, it is common to allocate the available data to calibration and evaluation data subsets. Surprisingly, the issue of how this allocation can affect model evaluation performance has been largely ignored in the research literature. This paper discusses the evaluation performance bias that can arise from how available data are allocated to calibration and evaluation subsets. As a first step to assessing this issue in a statistically rigorous fashion, we present a comprehensive investigation of the influence of data allocation on the development of data-driven artificial neural network (ANN) models of streamflow. Four well-known formal data splitting methods are applied to 754 catchments from Australia and the U.S. to develop 902,483 ANN models. Results clearly show that the choice of the method used for data allocation has a significant impact on model performance, particularly for runoff data that are more highly skewed, highlighting the importance of considering the impact of data splitting when developing hydrological models. The statistical behavior of the data splitting methods investigated is discussed and guidance is offered on the selection of the most appropriate data splitting methods to achieve representative evaluation performance for streamflow data with different statistical properties. Although our results are obtained for data-driven models, they highlight the fact that this issue is likely to have a significant impact on all types of hydrological models, especially conceptual rainfall-runoff models.

  6. Microstructure and nanomechanical properties of single stalks from diatom Didymosphenia geminata and their change due to adsorption of selected metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgłobicka, Izabela; Chlanda, Adrian; Woźniak, Michał; Łojkowski, Maciej; Szoszkiewicz, Robert; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Wyroba, Elżbieta; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2017-08-01

    We present topographical and nanomechanical characterization of single Didymosphenia geminata stalk. We compared the samples before and after adsorption of metal ions from freshwater samples. Transmission electron microscopy studies of single stalk cross-sections have shown three distinct layers and an additional thin extra coat on the external layer (called "EL"). Using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that topography of single stalks after ionic adsorption differed significantly from topography of pristine stalks. AFM nanoindentation studies in ambient conditions yielded elastic moduli of 214 ± 170 MPa for pristine stalks and 294 ± 108 MPa for stalks after ionic adsorption. Statistical tests showed that those results were significantly different. We conducted only preliminary comparisons between ionic adsorption of several stalks in air and in water. While the stalks with ions were on average stiffer than the pristine stalks in air, they became more compliant than the pristine stalks in water. We also heated the stalks and detected EL softening at 50°C ± 15°C. AFM nanoindentation in air on the softened samples yielded elastic moduli of 26 ± 9 MPa for pristine samples and 43 ± 22 MPa for stalks with absorbed metal ions. Substantial decrease of the EL elastic moduli after heating was expected. Significantly different elastic moduli for the samples after ionic adsorption in both cases (i.e., for heated and nonheated samples), as well as behavior of the stalks immersed in water, point to permanent structural EL changes due to ions. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  7. Effects of dew point on selective oxidation of TRIP steels containing Si, Mn, and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Sang; Choi, Jin-Won; Kang, Namhyun; Cho, Kyung-Mox

    2011-04-01

    The selective oxidation of Si, Mn, and B on TRIP steel surfaces is a widely known phenomenon that occurs during heat treatment. However, the relationship between oxide formation and the annealing factors is not completely understood. This study examines the effect of the annealing conditions (dew point and annealing temperature) on oxide formation. A low dew point of -40 °C leads to the formation of Si-based oxides on the surface. A high dew point of -20 °C changes the oxide type to Mn-based oxides because the formation of Si oxides on the surface is suppressed by internal oxidation. Mn-based oxides exhibit superior wettability due to aluminothermic reduction during galvanizing.

  8. Effects on selective serotonin antagonism on central neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggression and cannibalism in laying hens can differ in intensity and degree due to many factors, including genetics. Behavioral analysis of DeKalb XL (DXL) and high group productivity and survivability (HGPS) strains revealed high and low aggressiveness, respectively. However, the exact genetic me...

  9. Low concentrations of metal mixture exposures have adverse effects on selected biomarkers of Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yologlu, Ertan, E-mail: ertanyologlu82@gmail.com [Adiyaman University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Education, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Ozmen, Murat [Inonu University, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts & Science, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Selected metal mixtures were evaluated for toxicity of safety limit concentrations. • Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used as model test organism. • Combinations of LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 50}/2 caused 100% lethality for some metals. • Metals did not change metallothionein levels in low concentrations. • Selected enzyme activities showed induction after low concentration exposures. - Abstract: Polluted ecosystems may contain mixtures of metals, such that the combinations of metals, even in low concentrations, may cause adverse effects. In the present study, we focused on toxic effects of mixtures of selected metals, the LC{sub 50} values, and also their safety limit in aquatic systems imposed by the European legislation using a model organism. Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used as test organisms. They were exposed to metals or their combinations due to 96-h LC{sub 50} values. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) levels were evaluated. Metallothionein concentrations were also determined. The LC{sub 50}s for Cd, Pb, and Cu were calculated as 5.81 mg AI/L, 123.05 mg AI/L, and 0.85 mg AI/L, respectively. Low lethality ratios were observed with unary exposure of each metal in lower concentrations. Double or triple combinations of LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 50}/2 concentrations caused 100% lethality with Cd + Cu and Pb + Cd + Cu mixtures, while the Pb + Cu mixture also caused high lethal ratios. The selected enzyme activities were significantly affected by metals or mixtures, and dose-related effects were determined. The metallothionein levels generally increased as related to concentration in unary metals and mixtures. Acceptable limit values of unary metals and mixtures did not significantly change metallothionein levels. The results suggest that oxidative stress-related mechanisms are involved in the toxicity induced by selected

  10. Prognosis for stochastic effects from the overbackground irradiation of the Bulgarian population due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Bajrakova, A.

    1990-01-01

    The doses received by the Bulgarian population as a result of the Chernobyl accident rule out the possibility for development of nonstochastic effects; under these irradiation conditions the health injuries can be manifested as stochastic effects. According to the basic prognostic equation of ICRP (Publications 27 and 45) the irradiation associated with the accident would be responsible for 441 cases of cancer with lethal outcome and of 816 cases of curable cancer during the next 50 years, as well as for 68 cases of severe hereditary injuries during the next two generations. This means an increment of the annual case fatality rate from cancer in this country by an average of 0.006% and of the morbidity by 0.02%. Taking into account the inaccuracy admitted in determining the mortality and morbility, the radiation induced cancerogenic effects will remain unprovable within the framework of a generation life duration. The same refers to the radiation-induced genetic effects as well: less than one case annually over a period of 100 years. The Bulgarian population as a whole will lose about 67.10 3 man-days annually for 50 years due to the induction of curable and lethal cancers and about 79.10 3 man-days because of severe hereditary defects. Brief discussion is presented on the expediency of epidemiologic studies and developing screening programs for assessing the sequelaes of the Chernobyl accident for the health of the Bulgarian population. 8 refs

  11. Practical approach to determining charge collected in multi-junction structures due to the ion shunt effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.O.; Bhuva, B.; Kerns, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    In order to design semiconductor devices so that they are resistant to single event upsets, a designer needs to know how much charge would be collected at various junctions in the semiconductor structure. For over a decade researchers have studied the physics of charge collection in semiconductor structures, focusing primarily on the charge collected between the p and n regions of a pn junction by drift and diffusion effects -- a process called funneling. However, when an energetic ion penetrates more than one pn junction, funneling is not the only charge collection mechanism. Simulations and experiments on multi-junction structures have shown dramatic change in the charge collected when an ion penetrates two pn junctions. This charge transport between two regions of like conductivity that are ''bridged'' together by the ion track is called the ion shunt effect -- an effect investigated and experimentally proven by Hauser, et al. and Knudson, et al. This paper will present the algorithms and results of a computer program used to determine the charge collected on silicon semiconductor transistors due to the ion shunt effect. The program is unique because it is quick and simple to use and because it uses a general algorithm to determine an accurate initial electron-hole pair distribution in the ion track

  12. Effects of selective attention on continuous opinions and discrete decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xia-Meng; Liu, Yun; Xiong, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Chao; Ding, Fei; Cheng, Hui

    2010-09-01

    Selective attention describes that individuals have a preference on information according to their involving motivation. Based on achievements of social psychology, we propose an opinion interacting model to improve the modeling of individuals’ interacting behaviors. There are two parameters governing the probability of agents interacting with opponents, i.e. individual relevance and time-openness. It is found that, large individual relevance and large time-openness advance the appearance of large clusters, but large individual relevance and small time-openness favor the lessening of extremism. We also put this new model into application to work out some factor leading to a successful product. Numerical simulations show that selective attention, especially individual relevance, cannot be ignored by launcher firms and information spreaders so as to attain the most successful promotion.

  13. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry in certain morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishalakshi, C; Singh, B N

    2009-06-01

    Variation in the subtle differences between the right and left sides of bilateral characters or fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been considered as an indicator of an organism's ability to cope with genetic and environmental stresses during development. However, due to inconsistency in the results of empirical studies, the relationship between FA and stress has been the subject of intense debate. In this study, we investigated whether stress caused by artificial bidirectional selection for body size has any effect on the levels of FA of different morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae. The realised heritability (h2) was higher in low-line females and high-line males, which suggests an asymmetrical response to selection for body size. Further, the levels of FA were compared across 10 generations of selection in different selection lines in both sexes for sternopleural bristle number, wing length, wing-to-thorax ratio, sex combtooth number and ovariole number. The levels of FA differed significantly among generations and selection lines but did not change markedly with directional selection. However, the levels of FA were higher in the G10 generation (at the end of selection) than G0 (at the start of selection) but lower than the G5 generation in different selection lines, suggesting that the levels of FA are not affected by the inbreeding generated during the course of selection. Also, the levels of FA in the hybrids of high and low lines were signifi cantly lower than the parental selection lines, suggesting that FA is influenced by hybridisation. These results are discussed in the framework of the literature available on FA and its relationship with stress.

  14. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards: A Structured Expert Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Tine; Aspinall, Willy; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie H; Gibb, Herman J; Torgerson, Paul R; Kirk, Martyn D; Angulo, Fred J; Lake, Robin J; Speybroeck, Niko; Hoffmann, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO) to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This estimation is complicated because most of the hazards causing FBD are not transmitted solely by food; most have several potential exposure routes consisting of transmission from animals, by humans, and via environmental routes including water. This paper describes an expert elicitation study conducted by the FERG Source Attribution Task Force to estimate the relative contribution of food to the global burden of diseases commonly transmitted through the consumption of food. We applied structured expert judgment using Cooke's Classical Model to obtain estimates for 14 subregions for the relative contributions of different transmission pathways for eleven diarrheal diseases, seven other infectious diseases and one chemical (lead). Experts were identified through international networks followed by social network sampling. Final selection of experts was based on their experience including international working experience. Enrolled experts were scored on their ability to judge uncertainty accurately and informatively using a series of subject-matter specific 'seed' questions whose answers are unknown to the experts at the time they are interviewed. Trained facilitators elicited the 5th, and 50th and 95th percentile responses to seed questions through telephone interviews. Cooke's Classical Model uses responses to the seed questions to weigh and aggregate expert responses. After this interview, the experts were asked to provide 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile estimates for the 'target' questions regarding disease transmission routes. A total of 72 experts were enrolled in the study. Ten panels were global, meaning that the experts should provide estimates for all 14 subregions, whereas the nine panels were subregional, with experts providing estimates for one or more subregions

  15. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards: A Structured Expert Elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hald

    Full Text Available The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs. This estimation is complicated because most of the hazards causing FBD are not transmitted solely by food; most have several potential exposure routes consisting of transmission from animals, by humans, and via environmental routes including water. This paper describes an expert elicitation study conducted by the FERG Source Attribution Task Force to estimate the relative contribution of food to the global burden of diseases commonly transmitted through the consumption of food.We applied structured expert judgment using Cooke's Classical Model to obtain estimates for 14 subregions for the relative contributions of different transmission pathways for eleven diarrheal diseases, seven other infectious diseases and one chemical (lead. Experts were identified through international networks followed by social network sampling. Final selection of experts was based on their experience including international working experience. Enrolled experts were scored on their ability to judge uncertainty accurately and informatively using a series of subject-matter specific 'seed' questions whose answers are unknown to the experts at the time they are interviewed. Trained facilitators elicited the 5th, and 50th and 95th percentile responses to seed questions through telephone interviews. Cooke's Classical Model uses responses to the seed questions to weigh and aggregate expert responses. After this interview, the experts were asked to provide 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile estimates for the 'target' questions regarding disease transmission routes. A total of 72 experts were enrolled in the study. Ten panels were global, meaning that the experts should provide estimates for all 14 subregions, whereas the nine panels were subregional, with experts providing estimates for one or more

  16. Effects of genomic selection on genetic improvement, inbreeding, and merit of young versus proven bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.; Schrooten, C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic selection has the potential to revolutionize dairy cattle breeding because young animals can be accurately selected as parents, leading to a much shorter generation interval and higher rates of genetic gain. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of genomic selection and reduction

  17. Effect of selective versus non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors on ischemia-reperfusion-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Seham A; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Amin, Entesar F; Ibrahim, Salwa A; Mohammed, Rehab K; Abdelrahman, Aly M

    2015-08-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury represents an important pathological process of liver injury during major hepatic surgery. The role of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced liver injury is not clear. This study investigated the effect of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, versus non-selective, indomethacin, on hepatic IR injury in rats. Hepatic IR was induced in adult male rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: normal control (sham group), IR non-treated group; IR-indomethacin-treated group; and IR-celecoxib-treated group. Liver injury was evaluated by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and a histopathological examination of liver tissues. Hepatic tissue content of oxidative stress parameters glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and the inflammatory marker, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, (TNF-α) were measured. Moreover, the immunohistochemical detection of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and caspase-3 in the hepatic tissue was performed. Celecoxib, but not indomethacin, significantly attenuated hepatic IR injury as evidenced by reduction in serum ALT as well as by improvement in the histopathological scoring. Such effect was associated with attenuation in oxidative stress and TNF-α, along with modulation of immunohistochemical expression of eNOS, iNOS and caspase-3 in the hepatic tissue. The present study concluded that selective COX-2 inhibition (but not non-selective), is hepatoprotective against liver IR injury; indicating a differential role of COX-1 versus COX-2. Modulation of iNOS, eNOS and caspase-3 might participate in the protective effect of selective COX-2-inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility of studies on health effects in western Europe due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl and Recommendations for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.; Kellerer, A.M.; Knox, E.G.; Richardson, S.; Doll, R.; Boice, J.D.; Esteve, J.; Thiessen, J.W.; Silini, G.

    1990-01-01

    The report considers whether studies of health effects related to the radioactive contamination of western Europe caused by the releases from the Chernobyl reactor accident would be useful. The report evaluates the exposure patterns and the dose levels within the European Community, the different health effects that might be induced by such doses, and the likelihood that epidemiological studies could produce scientifically useful information. The report concludes that at the exposure levels experienced in the European Community the study of post-Chernobyl cancer rates in adults and the study of heritable genetic effects in the offspring of those exposed would be unproductive. It also concludes that even a study of childhood cancer following in utero exposure would be unlikely to demonstrate any attributable increase in risk. However, the report recommends that a small epidemiologic survey of childhood cancer be conducted within areas where selected cancer registration was in existence at the time of the Chernobyl accident to check the ability to predict risks from doses of the order received, to contribute to the understanding of the occurrence of childhood leukemia and to allay public anxiety

  19. MESSENGER Spacecraft Phase Scintillation due to Plasma ductting effect on RF beam propagation at Superior Solar Conjunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, N.; Sequeira, H.; Copeland, D.; Menyuk, C.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the evolution of a radio frequency (RF) X-band signal as it propagates through the solar corona turbulence in superior solar conjunction at low Sun-Earth-Probe (SEP) angles.Data that was obtained during several MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENivornment, GEochmeisty, and Ranging) conjunctions reveal a short-term and long-term effect. Amplitude scintillation is evident on a short time scale. Phase scintillations are stronger, but occur over a longer time scale. We examine different possible phenomena in the solar plasma that could be the source of the different time scales of the amplitude and phase scintillations. We propose a theoretical model in which the amplitude scintillations are due to local fluctuations of the index of refraction that scatter the RF signal. These rapidly varying fluctuations randomly attenuate the signal without affecting its phase. By contrast, we propose a model in which phase fluctuations are due to long ducts in the solar plasma, streaming from the sun, that trap some parts of the RF signal. These ducts act as waveguides, changing the phase velocity of the RF beam as it travels a zigzag path inside a duct. When the radiated wave exits from a duct, its phase is changed with respect to the signal that did not pass through the duct, which can lead to destructive interference and carrier suppression. The trapping of the wave is random in nature and can be either a fast or slow process. The predictions of this model are consistent with observations.

  20. [Selective feeding in fish: Effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural odors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumyan, A O; Marusov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural olfactory signals (the food odor, the alarm pheromone) on choice and consumption of food items different in color and taste, and the manifestation of foraging behavior were examined in fish (koi Cyprinus carpio, roach Rutilus rutilus). The agar-agar pellets of red and green color having one of the amino acids (glycine, L-proline, L-alanine; all in concentration of 0.1 M) were simultaneously offered to single fishes in pure water, and in water extract of Chironomidae larvae or in water extract of fish skin. It was found out that odors used have different effects on fish foraging activity and on pellet selection for both pellet choice and consumption. On background of food odor, fish grasped pellets more often than in pure water. The equal choice of red and green pellets in pure water shifted to the preference of red ones in the presence of food odor. Despite the increase in the absolute number of pellets grasped, the relative consumption reduced and was replaced by selective consumption of pellets with glycine regardless of their color. Increasing demand for the food quality, due to the increased feeding motivation in response to food odor, is an important adaptation enhancing selection and consumption of food with more appropriate sensory qualities for fish. Defensive motivation caused by alarm pheromone suppressed predisposition. of fish to feed. Fish grasped pellets several times less often than in pure water and refused most of them. Any changes in the color or taste preferences were absent. Feeding behavior of fish of both species was characterized by repeated intraoral pellet testing, but in koi handling was less typical than in roach. In both species, handling activity was higher in those cases when the pellet was finally rejected. This activity was enhanced also on the background of food odor.

  1. Aging effects on selective attention-related electroencephalographic patterns during face encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, M-P; Rodriguez, C; Jaques, D; Missonnier, P; Emch, J; Millet, P; Gold, G; Giannakopoulos, P; Ibañez, V

    2010-11-24

    Previous electrophysiological studies revealed that human faces elicit an early visual event-related potential (ERP) within the occipito-temporal cortex, the N170 component. Although face perception has been proposed to rely on automatic processing, the impact of selective attention on N170 remains controversial both in young and elderly individuals. Using early visual ERP and alpha power analysis, we assessed the influence of aging on selective attention to faces during delayed-recognition tasks for face and letter stimuli, examining 36 elderly and 20 young adults with preserved cognition. Face recognition performance worsened with age. Aging induced a latency delay of the N1 component for faces and letters, as well as of the face N170 component. Contrasting with letters, ignored faces elicited larger N1 and N170 components than attended faces in both age groups. This counterintuitive attention effect on face processing persisted when scenes replaced letters. In contrast with young, elderly subjects failed to suppress irrelevant letters when attending faces. Whereas attended stimuli induced a parietal alpha band desynchronization within 300-1000 ms post-stimulus with bilateral-to-right distribution for faces and left lateralization for letters, ignored and passively viewed stimuli elicited a central alpha synchronization larger on the right hemisphere. Aging delayed the latency of this alpha synchronization for both face and letter stimuli, and reduced its amplitude for ignored letters. These results suggest that due to their social relevance, human faces may cause paradoxical attention effects on early visual ERP components, but they still undergo classical top-down control as a function of endogenous selective attention. Aging does not affect the face bottom-up alerting mechanism but reduces the top-down suppression of distracting letters, possibly impinging upon face recognition, and more generally delays the top-down suppression of task-irrelevant information

  2. Varying Coefficient Panel Data Model in the Presence of Endogenous Selectivity and Fixed Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Malikov, Emir; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Sun, Yiguo

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a flexible panel data sample selection model in which (i) the outcome equation is permitted to take a semiparametric, varying coefficient form to capture potential parameter heterogeneity in the relationship of interest, (ii) both the outcome and (parametric) selection equations contain unobserved fixed effects and (iii) selection is generalized to a polychotomous case. We propose a two-stage estimator. Given consistent parameter estimates from the selection equation obta...

  3. Poly(4-vinylpyridine) as a reagent with silanol-masking effect for silica and its specific selectivity for PAHs and dinitropyrenes in a reversed phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hirotaka; Fukui, Megumi; Mimaki, Takamasa; Shundo, Atsuomi; Dong, Wei; Derakhshan, Mahnaz; Sakurai, Toshihiko; Takafuji, Makoto; Nagaoka, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that poly(4-vinylpyridine) is applicable as an effective masking reagent for silica to reduce undesirable side effects due to silanol groups. It also shows that this chemical modification brings about unique retention behaviors absolutely different from conventional ODS, which appear in molecular-shape selectivity for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and in selectivity for position isomerism, especially for electron-withdrawing substitution compounds. Separation of 1,6- and 1,8-dinirtopyrenes as carcinogens is also described

  4. Reducing Energy Degradation Due to Back-bombardment Effect with Modulated RF Input in S-band Thermionic RF Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, Toshiteru; Nakai, Yoko; Fukui, Toshio; Zen, Heishun; Kusukame, Kohichi; Okawachi, Norihito; Nakano, Masatsugu; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    Energy degradation due to back-bombardment effect is quite serious to produce high-brightness electron beam with long macro-pulse with thermionic rf gun. To avoid the back-bombardment problem, a laser photo cathode is used at many FEL facilities, but usually it costs high and not easy to operate. Thus we have studied long pulse operation of the rf gun with thermionic cathode, which is inexpensive and easy to operate compared to the photocathode rf gun. In this work, to reduce the energy degradation, we controlled input rf power amplitude by controlling pulse forming network of the power modulator for klystron. We have successfully increased the pulse duration up to 4 μs by increasing the rf power from 7.8 MW to 8.5 MW during the macro pulse.

  5. Comparative clinical study of the effect of LLLT in the immediate and late treatments of hypoesthesia due to surgical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladalardo, Thereza C.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Castanho Garrini, Ana E.; Bologna, Elisangela D.; Takamoto, Marcia; Siqueira, Jose T.; Dias, Pedro; Campos, Roberto A. d. C.

    2002-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of LLLT in 68 patients who presented hypoesthesia due to odontological surgery procedures: dental implant surgeries (N=51); extraction of impacted lower third molars (N=10); endodontics in lower first molars (N=7). Lesions treated within 30 days after the nerve injury had occurred were part of the immediate group, and lesions with more than 30 days from the occurrence of the injury were part of the late group. Treatments were carried out with an infrared diode laser of 40 mW-830nm, continuous wave emission, spot size 3 mm2, and a total dosage of 18 joules per session in a contact mode of application, 20 sessions altogether. The efficacy of laser therapy in peripheral nerve regeneration is also related to the degree of the peripheral nerve lesion, and not only to the lesion duration. LLLT resulted in neurosensory functional improvement in both immediate and late treatments of hypoesthesia.

  6. An Unpredicted Side Effect of Bisphosphonates in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure Due to Multiple Myeloma: Reversible Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış İşak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present a unique case in which the chemotherapeutic agent, i.e., zoledronic acid, deepened the hypocalcemia on the basis of chronic renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma and caused parkinsonism episodes. An 80-year-old female patient, who had been diagnosed as multiple myeloma and had been administered bisphosphonate therapy monthly for six months, was ad¬mitted to our emergency room with two parkinsonism episodes. Low serum calcium levels accompanied parkinsonism symptoms, which subsided with calcium replacement therapy in both episodes. Imaging did not reveal any pathology in the basal ganglia. The fact that the patient was cured both times with calcium replacement suggests that hypocalcemia was the actual cause. This can be interpreted as a unique case, reflecting the reversible functional impairment due to metabolic side effects of a chemotherapeutic agent rather than destructive changes in the basal ganglia.

  7. An Unpredicted Side Effect of Bisphosphonates in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure Due to Multiple Myeloma: Reversible Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış İşak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present a unique case in which the chemotherapeutic agent, i.e., zoledronic acid, deepened the hypocalcemia on the basis of chronic renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma and caused parkinsonism episodes. An 80-year-old female patient, who had been diagnosed as multiple myeloma and had been administered bisphosphonate therapy monthly for six months, was ad¬mitted to our emergency room with two parkinsonism episodes. Low serum calcium levels accompanied parkinsonism symptoms, which subsided with calcium replacement therapy in both episodes. Imaging did not reveal any pathology in the basal ganglia. The fact that the patient was cured both times with calcium replacement suggests that hypocalcemia was the actual cause. This can be interpreted as a unique case, reflecting the reversible functional impairment due to metabolic side effects of a chemotherapeutic agent rather than destructive changes in the basal ganglia

  8. Effect of thermal loading due to laser pulse on thermoelastic porous medium under G-N theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I.A. Othman

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the wave propagation of generalized thermoelastic medium with voids under the effect of thermal loading due to laser pulse with energy dissipation. The material is a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space and heated by a non-Gaussian laser beam with the pulse duration of 0.2 ps. A normal mode method is proposed to analyse the problem and obtain numerical solutions for the displacement components, stresses, temperature distribution and the change in the volume fraction field. The results of the physical quantities have been illustrated graphically by comparison between both types II and III of Green-Naghdi theory for two values of time, as well as with and without void parameters. Keywords: Laser pulse, Voids, Energy dissipation, Green-Naghdi theory, Wave propagation, Thermoelasticity

  9. Evapotranspiration estimates and consequences due to errors in the determination of the net radiation and advective effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.M. de; Leitao, M. de M.V.B.R.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the consequences in the evapotranspiration estimates (ET) during the growing cycle of a peanut crop due to the errors committed in the determination of the radiation balance (Rn), as well as those caused by the advective effects. This research was conducted at the Experimental Station of CODEVASF in an irrigated perimeter located in the city of Rodelas, BA, during the period of September to December of 1996. The results showed that errors of the order of 2.2 MJ m -2 d -1 in the calculation of Rn, and consequently in the estimate of ET, can occur depending on the time considered for the daily total of Rn. It was verified that the surrounding areas of the experimental field, as well as the areas of exposed soil within the field, contributed significantly to the generation of local advection of sensible heat, which resulted in the increase of the evapotranspiration [pt

  10. P2 Asymmetry of Au's M-band Flux and its smoothing effect due to high-Z ablator dopants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongsheng; Zhai, Chuanlei; Ren, Guoli; Gu, Jianfa; Huo, Wenyi; Meng, Xujun; Ye, Wenhua; Lan, Ke; Zhang, Weiyan

    2017-10-01

    X-ray drive asymmetry is one of the main seeds of low-mode implosion asymmetry that blocks further improvement of the nuclear performance of ``high-foot'' experiments on the National Ignition Facility. More particularly, the P2 asymmetry of Au's M-band flux can also severely influence the implosion performance. Here we study the smoothing effect of mid- and/or high-Z dopants in ablator on M-band flux asymmetries, by modeling and comparing the implosion processes of a Ge-doped and a Si-doped ignition capsule driven by x-ray sources with asymmetric M-band flux. As the results, (1) mid- or high-Z dopants absorb M-band flux and re-emit isotropically, helping to smooth M-band flux arriving at the ablation front, therefore reducing the P2 asymmetries of the imploding shell and hot spot; (2) the smoothing effect of Ge-dopant is more remarkable than Si-dopant due to its higher opacity than the latter in Au's M-band; and (3) placing the doped layer at a larger radius in ablator is more efficient. Applying this effect may not be a main measure to reduce the low-mode implosion asymmetry, but might be of significance in some critical situations such as Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments very near the performance cliffs of asymmetric x-ray drives.

  11. Effects of electron-hole generation, transport and trapping in MOSFETs due to γ-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, F.A.S.; Al-Kabbani, A.S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been found to seriously change the electrical properties of solid-state devices, leading to possible systems failure. The ionizing radiation effects on different n-and p-channel MOSFETs have been studied, where the failure mechanism is found to be mainly due to changes in oxide properties and surface effects which occur in the gate oxide and, or, field/oxide regions. As a result, the threshold voltage of the n-channel transistor was shifted from 1.10 to 2.65 V, while the channel mobility for both the n- and p-channel transistors decreases from 4500 and 3100 to 2000 and 1000 m 2 /V·, respectively. Besides, the transconductance drops from 610, 500 and 380 down to 51, 35 and 150 mS for the MFE 201 (n-channel), 3N128 (n-channel) and 3N163 (p-channel) transistors, respectively. Also, the net effect of charge trapping can also be seen as a random, stochastical process represented by global noise parameters. Finally, the gain and noise parameters have been investigated as a function of γ-dose. (Author)

  12. Leg loss in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) due to pyrethroid exposure: Toxic effect or defense by autotomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, E; Cabrera, O L; Avendaño, J; Pardo, R H

    2016-01-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies lose their legs after exposure to pyrethroids. In some insects leg loss helps to defend them from intoxication and predation, a phenomenon known as autotomy. A field observation has shown that sandflies that have lost some legs are still able to blood-feed. The aims of the study were to determine whether leg loss in sandflies, after exposure to deltamethrin, is due to autotomy and to establish the effect of the leg loss on blood-feeding. Two experiments were carried out with Lutzomyia longipalpis: (i) Females were individually exposed to a sublethal time of deltamethrin and mortality and the number of leg loss were recorded; and (ii) Groups of females with complete legs or with 1-3 legs lost due to pyrethroid exposure were offered a blood meal and percentages of blood-fed and fully-fed females were recorded. Most females lost a median of 1 leg within 1-48 h post-exposure to deltamethrin. Mortality (after 24 h) was significantly higher for exposed females with lost legs (31.1%), compared to exposed females with complete legs (7.3%), and there were no differences in mortality between females with complete legs and the control (unexposed females). There were no differences between the three treatments in the percentages of blood-fed and fully-fed females. Leg loss in sandflies is a toxic effect of pyrethroids and there was no evidence of autotomy. The loss of up to three legs after exposure to pyrethroids does not affect blood-feeding behaviour in laboratory and probably also in wild conditions.

  13. Radiological hazards due to naturally occurring radionuclides in the selected building materials used for the construction of dwellings in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S U; Rafique, M; Jabbar, A; Matiullah

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the finding of a study undertaken to determine the naturally occurring radionuclides present in commonly used building materials for dwellings and workplaces in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. A total of 80 samples of building materials were collected from various manufacturers and suppliers of the studied area. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in building samples, and results ranged from minimum values of 9 ± 1, 9 ± 2 and 27 ± 8 Bq kg(-1) to maximum values of 106 ± 5, 133 ± 5 and 914 ± 21 Bq kg(-1) with mean values of 42 ± 3, 48 ± 3 and 376 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From the measured activity concentrations, equivalent radium (Ra(eq)), terrestrial absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated and found to range from 52 ± 7 to 274 ± 15 Bq kg(-1), 23 ± 3 to 130 6 nGy h(-1), 0.15 ± 0.02 to 0.80 ± 0.03 mSv, 0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.2 ± 0.02 to 0.98 ± 0.05, respectively. These results were comparable to the results of similar studies undertaken locally and in other countries. The samples considered were safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard.

  14. Focusing on attention: the effects of working memory capacity and load on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lubna; de Fockert, Jan W

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. In Experiment 1, distractibility from a distractor at a fixed distance from the target was greater when either WML was high or WMC was low, but surprisingly smaller when both WML was high and WMC low. Thus we observed an inverted-U relationship between reductions in WM resources and distractibility. In Experiment 2, we mapped the distribution of spatial attention as a function of WMC and WML, by recording distractibility across several target-to-distractor distances. The pattern of distractor effects across the target-to-distractor distances demonstrated that the distribution of the attentional window becomes dispersed as WM resources are limited. The attentional window was more spread out under high compared to low WML, and for low compared to high WMC individuals, and even more so when the two factors co-occurred (i.e., under high WML in low WMC individuals). The inverted-U pattern of distractibility effects in Experiment 1, replicated in Experiment 2, can thus be explained by differences in the spread of the attentional window as a function of WM resource availability. The current findings show that limitations in WM resources, due to either WML or individual differences in WMC, affect the spatial distribution of attention. The difference in attentional constraining between high and low WMC individuals demonstrated in the current experiments helps characterise the nature of previously established associations between WMC and controlled attention.

  15. Focusing on attention: the effects of working memory capacity and load on selective attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low concurrent working memory load (WML, and in individuals with low (vs. high working memory capacity (WMC. In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, distractibility from a distractor at a fixed distance from the target was greater when either WML was high or WMC was low, but surprisingly smaller when both WML was high and WMC low. Thus we observed an inverted-U relationship between reductions in WM resources and distractibility. In Experiment 2, we mapped the distribution of spatial attention as a function of WMC and WML, by recording distractibility across several target-to-distractor distances. The pattern of distractor effects across the target-to-distractor distances demonstrated that the distribution of the attentional window becomes dispersed as WM resources are limited. The attentional window was more spread out under high compared to low WML, and for low compared to high WMC individuals, and even more so when the two factors co-occurred (i.e., under high WML in low WMC individuals. The inverted-U pattern of distractibility effects in Experiment 1, replicated in Experiment 2, can thus be explained by differences in the spread of the attentional window as a function of WM resource availability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current findings show that limitations in WM resources, due to either WML or individual differences in WMC, affect the spatial distribution of attention. The difference in attentional constraining between high and low WMC individuals demonstrated in the current experiments helps characterise the nature of previously established associations between WMC and controlled

  16. Indoor air quality due to secondhand smoke: Signals from selected hospitality locations in rural and urban areas of Bangalore and Dharwad districts in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Mark J; Nayak, Nayanatara S; Annigeri, Vinod B; Billava, N Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke has compounds that are known as human carcinogens. With every breath of secondhand smoke we inhale thousands of chemicals. The Government of India in the interest of public health has enacted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003, which bans smoking in all the public places including hotels and restaurants. The purpose of this study was to observe and record air pollution in smoke free and smoke observed locations and thereby find out whether the owners/managers of hotels, restaurants, and bars comply with rules of COTPA. The objectives of the study were to measure and compare the level of particulate air pollution from secondhand smoke (PM2.5) in smoking and nonsmoking venues. The study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2010 in Karnataka, India following a nonrandom sample of 79 locations, which included restaurants, bars, cafes, hotels, and tea stalls in two districts. The concentration of PM2.5 was measured using a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. In Karnataka out of the 79 hospitality locations, smoking was observed in 58% places and only 28% had displayed the required "No Smoking" signage. Places where indoor smoking was observed had high levels of air pollution with average 135 PM2.5, which were 3.1 times higher than the average 43 PM2.5 in smoke-free locations and 14 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) target air quality guideline for PM2.5. The average PM2.5 levels in different locations ranged from 11 to 417 μg/m(3) and was lower in the case of apparently compliant designated smoking area (DSR). The patrons and the workers in the hospitality sector continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke despite the enactment of COTPA, which bans smoking in public places. This situation demands stringent measures for effective implementation of the Smoke Free Act and negative response to smoking among civil society.

  17. Friendship selection and influence in bullying and defending: effects of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young adolescents. Via longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), it was tested whether similarity between friends in bullying and defending developed over time due to friends' influence, while controlling for friendship selection processes, and whether there were differences in these processes between children (age 9-10 years; n = 133; 42.9% girls) and young adolescents (age 11-14 years; n = 236; 40.6% girls). Results showed that individuals selected peers as friends who were similar in bullying and became more similar to friends in bullying over time, but only in early adolescence. Moreover, there was marginal support that friends' influence was stronger in young adolescents with higher moral disengagement. In early adolescence, bullying was also indirectly influenced through friends' moral disengagement, with different effects for boys and girls. With regard to defending, young adolescents maintained friendships with peers who were similar in defending, and became more similar to friends in terms of defending over time. These findings suggest important differences between late childhood and early adolescence in socialization processes and indicate that in early adolescence, friends' influence on the development of bullying is partially affected by moral disengagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  19. The Composition Effect of Macroeconomic Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Selected SAARC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish MALIK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the most promising economic variables i.e., foreign direct investment (FDI, exports and financial development on economic growth in selected South Asian Association of Regional Co-corporation (SAARC countries. In addition, this study argued that whether FDI, Exports and financial development fosters or hinder economic growth in SAARC countries, for this purpose, panel data set of selected five SAARC countries namely, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Srilanka considered for empirical consideration over a period of 1975 to 2011. By using two-stage least square (2SLSL technique, empirical evidence on the effects of FDI, exports and financial development on economic growth is mix in terms of apriori expectations. In case of Bangladesh, exports and broad money supply (M2 is the positive and significant contributor to increase economic growth, whereas, M2 increases India’s GDP. FDI is the only significant contributor to increase Pakistan’s economic growth. In case of Nepal and Srilanka, broad money supply increases economic growth, whereas, due to high dependency on imports, exports could not considerably increases economic growth in those regions.

  20. 50 CFR 222.403 - Duration of selection; effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to make the rule effective without a 30-day delay. ... rule for five years, without need for NMFS to include the fishery in the intervening proposed annual... 30-day delay in effective date for implementing observer coverage will follow the annual notification...