WorldWideScience

Sample records for selection dinner packages

  1. Waste package materials selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Fish, R.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  2. The last SPR dinner awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce

    1992-03-01

    Because the Solar-Planetary Relationships section of AGU has officially changed its name to Space Physics and Aeronomy (SPA), the December 10, 1991, section dinner award ceremony at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco was the last of the series. Presumably an SPA dinner award series will be started under President-elect Andy Nagy.We have followed our tradition of recognizing the special talents of section members at the annual dinner. This year we had eight awardees. These awards are given in fun and are intended to be humorous. The selection committee defining the awards (the awards are changed regularly to keep people from trying to win one) and selecting the awardees will have to remain anonymous. (The committee is similar to Skull and Bones, but we are politically correct in that we allow women as members.)

  3. Feature Selection with the Boruta Package

    OpenAIRE

    Kursa, Miron B.; Rudnicki, Witold R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a R package Boruta, implementing a novel feature selection algorithm for finding emph{all relevant variables}. The algorithm is designed as a wrapper around a Random Forest classification algorithm. It iteratively removes the features which are proved by a statistical test to be less relevant than random probes. The Boruta package provides a convenient interface to the algorithm. The short description of the algorithm and examples of its application are presented.

  4. Feature Selection with the Boruta Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron B. Kursa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a R package Boruta, implementing a novel feature selection algorithm for finding emph{all relevant variables}. The algorithm is designed as a wrapper around a Random Forest classification algorithm. It iteratively removes the features which are proved by a statistical test to be less relevant than random probes. The Boruta package provides a convenient interface to the algorithm. The short description of the algorithm and examples of its application are presented.

  5. Feature selection toolbox software package

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2002), s. 487-492 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/01/0981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : pattern recognition * feature selection * loating search algorithms Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.409, year: 2002

  6. Who is cooking dinner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Hach, Sara

    2015-01-01

    on almost identical questionnaires centering on the previous day’s eating as reported by the individuals: this included foods eaten, the social context of its consumption and details of who had prepared the food. We make use of a sub-sample encompassing respondents from two-adult households who ate dinner...... developments in the gendering of cooking dinners in multi-person households. The analysis is based on two surveys from a project investigating changes in meal patterns in the Nordic countries. Individuals from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were interviewed in 1997 (n = 4823) and 2012 (n = 8242) based...

  7. Family Dinners. For Parents Particularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Helen Altman

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that family dinners deserve attention as a positive contributor to children's well-being. Maintains that family dinners give stability to a potentially confusing day, present a place for children to express themselves, and provide children's first community. Includes ideas for helping families identify their own dinner patterns and…

  8. A business dinner problem

    OpenAIRE

    Estanislao, Alejandra; Meunier, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    We are given suppliers and customers, and a set of tables. Every evening of the forthcoming days, there will be a dinner. Each customer must eat with each supplier exactly once, but two suppliers may meet at most once at a table. The number of customers and the number of suppliers who can sit together at a table are bounded above by fixed parameters. What is the minimum number of evenings to be scheduled in order to reach this objective? This question was submitted by a firm to the Junior com...

  9. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  10. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannicke Borch Myhre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective: To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design: Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results: Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E% from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion: Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes.

  11. Workplace Factors Associated with Family Dinner Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Poteat, Laura F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between workplace factors and family dinners. We examined two aspects of the family dinner, the frequency that the entire family typically has dinner together each week and the frequency that children eat fast food for dinner. Participants were 220 parents who worked at least 20 h a week and had at least one…

  12. Package selection for moisture protection for solid, oral drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Kenneth C; MacDonald, Bruce C

    2010-11-01

    This review describes how best to select the appropriate packaging options for solid, oral drug products based on both chemical and physical stability, with respect to moisture protection. This process combines an accounting for the initial moisture content of dosage form components, moisture transfer into (out of) packaging based on a moisture vapor transfer rate (MVTR), and equilibration between drug products and desiccants based on their moisture sorption isotherms to provide an estimate of the instantaneous relative humidity (RH) within the packaging. This time-based RH is calculationally combined with a moisture-sensitive Arrhenius equation (determined using the accelerated stability assessment program, ASAP) to predict the drug product's chemical stability over time as a function of storage conditions and packaging options. While physical stability of dosage forms with respect to moisture has been less well documented, a process is recommended based on the threshold RH at which changes (e.g., dosage form dissolution, tablet hardness, drug form) become problematic. The overall process described allows packaging to be determined for a drug product scientifically, with the effect of any changes to storage conditions or packaging to be explicitly accounted for. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  13. ERG review of waste package container materials selection and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.P.; Perrin, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The October 1984 meeting of the ERG reviewed the waste package container materials selection and corrosion. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by the ERG

  14. Extended shortest path selection for package routing of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Bing-Hong; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Xing-Yi

    The routing strategy plays a very important role in complex networks such as Internet system and Peer-to-Peer networks. However, most of the previous work concentrates only on the path selection, e.g. Flooding and Random Walk, or finding the shortest path (SP) and rarely considering the local load information such as SP and Distance Vector Routing. Flow-based Routing mainly considers load balance and still cannot achieve best optimization. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel dynamic routing strategy on complex network by incorporating the local load information into SP algorithm to enhance the traffic flow routing optimization. It was found that the flow in a network is greatly affected by the waiting time of the network, so we should not consider only choosing optimized path for package transformation but also consider node congestion. As a result, the packages should be transmitted with a global optimized path with smaller congestion and relatively short distance. Analysis work and simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm can largely enhance the network flow with the maximum throughput within an acceptable calculating time. The detailed analysis of the algorithm will also be provided for explaining the efficiency.

  15. Materials selection for a transport packaging of Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Debora H.S.; Lucchesi, Raquel F.; Mancini, Victor A.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Fiore, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive isotopes used in nuclear medicine for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of diseases or dysfunctions. Currently, the most important radionuclide for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes is technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), a product of the radioactive decay of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). The aim of this work was the materials selection that can enable the manufacture of a package for Mo-99 transport with the aid of CES EduPack program and the methodology developed by Ashby. The ESTAR program was used to check the occurrence of Bremsstrahlung and the XCOM program was used to calculate the attenuation coefficient of gamma radiation from some of the selected materials for the shield; after, the thickness required for radiation shielding was calculated. From the results, the materials selected as potential candidates for the manufacture of the shielding were the tungsten alloys. Related to the thermal insulation and the impact protection, woods, plywoods and particle boards stand out. With regard to internal and external coatings, the selected materials focus on groups of steels and nickel alloys. (author)

  16. Secondary Waste Form Down Selection Data Package – Ceramicrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-08-31

    As part of high-level waste pretreatment and immobilized low activity waste processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility. Currently, four waste forms are being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. These waste forms are Cast Stone, Ceramicrete, DuraLith, and Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer. The preferred alternative will be down selected from these four waste forms. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing data packages to support the down selection process. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. The information included will be based on information available in the open literature and from data obtained from testing currently underway. This data package is for the Ceramicrete waste form. Ceramicrete is a relatively new engineering material developed at Argonne National Laboratory to treat radioactive and hazardous waste streams (e.g., Wagh 2004; Wagh et al. 1999a, 2003; Singh et al. 2000). This cement-like waste form can be used to treat solids, liquids, and sludges by chemical immobilization, microencapsulation, and/or macroencapsulation. The Ceramicrete technology is based on chemical reaction between phosphate anions and metal cations to form a strong, dense, durable, low porosity matrix that immobilizes hazardous and radioactive contaminants as insoluble phosphates and microencapsulates insoluble radioactive components and other constituents that do not form phosphates. Ceramicrete is a type of phosphate-bonded ceramic, which are also known as chemically bonded phosphate ceramics. The Ceramicrete

  17. cis and trans requirements for the selective packaging of adenovirus type 5 DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Gräble, M; Hearing, P

    1992-01-01

    Polar packaging of adenovirus DNA into virions is dependent on the presence of cis-acting sequences at the left end of the viral genome. Our previous analyses demonstrated that the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) packaging domain (nucleotides 194 to 358) is composed of at least five elements that are functionally redundant. A repeated sequence, termed the A repeat, was associated with packaging function. Here we report a more detailed analysis of the requirements for the selective packaging of Ad5 DN...

  18. Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is duty of the seller to pack the goods in a manner which assures their safe arrival and enables their handling in transit and at the place of destination. The problem of packing is relevant in two main respects. First of all the buyer is in certain circumstances entitled to refuse acceptance of the goods if they are not properly packed. Second, the package is relevant to calculation of price and freight based on weight. In the case of export trade, the package should conform to the legislation in the country of destination. The impact of package on environment is regulated by environment protection regulation of Republic if Serbia.

  19. Qualitative Description of College Students' Dinner Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brita; Brown, Lora Beth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discover how college students conduct dinner groups and perceptions of the benefits and difficulties of participation. Design: Qualitative study conducted with 7 focus groups. Setting and Participants: A university campus, with 36 students participating in dinner groups, defined as a group of 3 people or more cooking for one another…

  20. ASH structure alignment package: Sensitivity and selectivity in domain classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Hiroyuki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structure alignment methods offer the possibility of measuring distant evolutionary relationships between proteins that are not visible by sequence-based analysis. However, the question of how structural differences and similarities ought to be quantified in this regard remains open. In this study we construct a training set of sequence-unique CATH and SCOP domains, from which we develop a scoring function that can reliably identify domains with the same CATH topology and SCOP fold classification. The score is implemented in the ASH structure alignment package, for which the source code and a web service are freely available from the PDBj website http://www.pdbj.org/ASH/. Results The new ASH score shows increased selectivity and sensitivity compared with values reported for several popular programs using the same test set of 4,298,905 structure pairs, yielding an area of .96 under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. In addition, weak sequence homologies between similar domains are revealed that could not be detected by BLAST sequence alignment. Also, a subset of domain pairs is identified that exhibit high similarity, even though their CATH and SCOP classification differs. Finally, we show that the ranking of alignment programs based solely on geometric measures depends on the choice of the quality measure. Conclusion ASH shows high selectivity and sensitivity with regard to domain classification, an important step in defining distantly related protein sequence families. Moreover, the CPU cost per alignment is competitive with the fastest programs, making ASH a practical option for large-scale structure classification studies.

  1. Evaluation and selection of open-source EMR software packages based on integrated AHP and TOPSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Kiah, M L M; Hussain, Muzammil; Abdulnabi, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Evaluating and selecting software packages that meet the requirements of an organization are difficult aspects of software engineering process. Selecting the wrong open-source EMR software package can be costly and may adversely affect business processes and functioning of the organization. This study aims to evaluate and select open-source EMR software packages based on multi-criteria decision-making. A hands-on study was performed and a set of open-source EMR software packages were implemented locally on separate virtual machines to examine the systems more closely. Several measures as evaluation basis were specified, and the systems were selected based a set of metric outcomes using Integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS. The experimental results showed that GNUmed and OpenEMR software can provide better basis on ranking score records than other open-source EMR software packages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early dinner reduces nocturnal gastric acidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Duroux, P; Bauerfeind, P; Emde, C; Koelz, H R; Blum, A L

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether eating food at different times has differential effects on intragastric pH. Experiments were done in 23 healthy volunteers (12 men). Intragastric acidity was monitored by ambulatory 22 hour pH-metry. Composition of meals was standardised: breakfast and lunch at 7 am and 12 noon respectively, and dinner at 6 or 9 pm, in random order. The time of going to bed and getting up was also standardised. With early dinner nocturnal pH was higher, than with late dinner (pH me...

  3. Product design and development for dinner chair of Kansei Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Sirichai Yodwangjai

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the customer’s perception and product properties. The semantic differential method was employed to examine the relationship between customer’s perception and product properties. Fifty-six dinner chairs are selected from website, magazine and publishing and 10 SD words. The product properties divided 8 groups and 34 sub-groups. The new model created base on Quantification Theory Type 1. The research results show 3 high perceptions: comfortable, soft and modern. The r...

  4. ShapeSelectForest: a new r package for modeling landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Meyer; Xiyue Liao; Gretchen Moisen; Elizabeth Freeman

    2015-01-01

    We present a new R package called ShapeSelectForest recently posted to the Comprehensive R Archival Network. The package was developed to fit nonparametric shape-restricted regression splines to time series of Landsat imagery for the purpose of modeling, mapping, and monitoring annual forest disturbance dynamics over nearly three decades. For each pixel and spectral...

  5. A multi-criteria decision making approach for the selection of a flexible packaging equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Ciprian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible packaging is one of the fastest growing segments of the packaging industry, combining paper, plastic film and aluminum foil to deliver a broad array of products for food and beverage, personal care products, and pharmaceutical industries. In order to preserve the quality and safety of the product contained in them, there are currently a variety of flexible packaging equipment options available. However their relative costs and performance differ. This study proposes an application of a ranking methodology to assess a selection of the most suitable flexible packaging equipment. The adequate criteria in the selection of equipment have been identified, and the considered options are assessed, considering the decision maker’s preferences and existing constraints. The options are ranked in terms of their suitability for selecting equipment by using the Electre III method. The results obtained from the simulation experiment highlight the effectiveness of the model in outranking different options in the process of equipment selection.

  6. gamboostLSS: An R Package for Model Building and Variable Selection in the GAMLSS Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hofner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Generalized additive models for location, scale and shape are a flexible class of regression models that allow to model multiple parameters of a distribution function, such as the mean and the standard deviation, simultaneously. With the R package gamboostLSS, we provide a boosting method to fit these models. Variable selection and model choice are naturally available within this regularized regression framework. To introduce and illustrate the R package gamboostLSS and its infrastructure, we use a data set on stunted growth in India. In addition to the specification and application of the model itself, we present a variety of convenience functions, including methods for tuning parameter selection, prediction and visualization of results. The package gamboostLSS is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN at https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=gamboostLSS.

  7. gamboostLSS: An R Package for Model Building and Variable Selection in the GAMLSS Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hofner, Benjamin; Mayr, Andreas; Schmid, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Generalized additive models for location, scale and shape are a flexible class of regression models that allow to model multiple parameters of a distribution function, such as the mean and the standard deviation, simultaneously. With the R package gamboostLSS, we provide a boosting method to fit these models. Variable selection and model choice are naturally available within this regularized regression framework. To introduce and illustrate the R package gamboostLSS and its infrastructure, we...

  8. Product design and development for dinner chair of Kansei Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichai Yodwangjai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the customer’s perception and product properties. The semantic differential method was employed to examine the relationship between customer’s perception and product properties. Fifty-six dinner chairs are selected from website, magazine and publishing and 10 SD words. The product properties divided 8 groups and 34 sub-groups. The new model created base on Quantification Theory Type 1. The research results show 3 high perceptions: comfortable, soft and modern. The research is expected to help support the designer to design a new model that satisfied the customer’s perception.

  9. Selection of barrier metals for a waste package in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; McCright, R.D.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1983-10-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is planning a repository at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site for isolation of high-level nuclear waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing designs for an engineered barrier system containing several barriers such as the waste form, a canister and/or an overpack, packing, and near field host rock. In this paper we address the selection of metal containment barriers. 13 references, 4 tables

  10. Selection of barrier metals for a waste package in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; McCright, R.D.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) project under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is planning a repository at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site for isolation of high-level nuclear waste. LLNL is developing designs for an engineered barrier system containing several barriers such as the waste form, a canister and/or an overpack, packing, and near field host rock. The selection of metal containment barriers is addressed. 13 references

  11. Overeating, late dinner, and perceived stress in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akiko; Sakurazawa, Hirofumi; Fujita, Takanori; Akamatsu, Rie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relationships among overeating at dinner, dinner time, perceived stress, and strategies for coping with stress among Japanese workers. In December 2012, 255 male Japanese workers at a leasing company completed a questionnaire about overeating (score range: 5-20), dinner time, perceived stress, and strategies for coping with stress. Each worker was sent an email with a link to a website, where their answers were collected. Relationships among overeating, dinner time, perceived stress, and stress-related coping strategies were investigated using two-way analysis of variance. The analyses of cross-sectional data revealed no differences in the overeating scores among those who ate dinner before 21:00 according to their level of perceived stress. However, those who ate dinner after 21:00 and reported feeling stressed tended to overeat at dinner (F(1, 237)=5.62, p=0.019). Additionally, those with perceived stress engaged in emotional expression involving others, and those without perceived stress tended to seek help to solve their problems and change their mood. We found no significant interactions involving the items related to strategies for coping with stress. This study found that overeating at dinner was related to dinner time and perceived stress. Additionally, the combination of a late dinner time and perceived stress reinforced overeating at dinner. The results of this study do not identify a coping strategy to prevent overeating. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Evaluation and selection of VOCs treatment technologies in packaging and printing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Chun-Lei; Nie, Lei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in urban air pollution. Activities of industries including the packaging and printing industries are regarded as the major sources. How to select the suitable treating techniques is the major problem for emission control. In this article, based on the VOCs emission characteristics of the packaging and printing industry and the existing treatment technologies, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model, an evaluation system for VOCs selection was established and all the technologies used for treatment were assessed. It showed that the priority selection was in the following order: Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption > Granular Carbon Adsorption-Desorption > Thermal Combustion > Regenerative Combustion > Catalytic combustion > Rotary adsorption-concentration and combustion > Granular Carbon adsorption-concentration and combustion. Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption was selected as the best available technology due to its highest weight among those technologies.

  13. An RNA Domain Imparts Specificity and Selectivity to a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During assembly, double-stranded DNA viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, utilize a powerful molecular motor to package their genomic DNA into a preformed viral capsid. An integral component of the packaging motor in the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ϕ29 is a viral genome-encoded pentameric ring of RNA (prohead RNA [pRNA]). pRNA is a 174-base transcript comprised of two domains, domains I and II. Early studies initially isolated a 120-base form (domain I only) that retains high biological activity in vitro; hence, no function could be assigned to domain II. Here we define a role for this domain in the packaging process. DNA packaging using restriction digests of ϕ29 DNA showed that motors with the 174-base pRNA supported the correct polarity of DNA packaging, selectively packaging the DNA left end. In contrast, motors containing the 120-base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. The presence of domain II also provides selectivity in competition assays with genomes from related phages. Furthermore, motors with the 174-base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the 120-base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events. These results show that domain II imparts specificity and stringency to the motor during the packaging initiation events that precede DNA translocation. Heteromeric rings of pRNA demonstrated that one or two copies of domain II were sufficient to impart this selectivity/stringency. Although ϕ29 differs from other double-stranded DNA phages in having an RNA motor component, the function provided by pRNA is carried on the motor protein components in other phages. IMPORTANCE During virus assembly, genome packaging involves the delivery of newly synthesized viral nucleic acid into a protein shell. In the double-stranded DNA phages and herpesviruses, this is accomplished by a powerful

  14. An RNA Domain Imparts Specificity and Selectivity to a Viral DNA Packaging Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2015-12-01

    During assembly, double-stranded DNA viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, utilize a powerful molecular motor to package their genomic DNA into a preformed viral capsid. An integral component of the packaging motor in the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ϕ29 is a viral genome-encoded pentameric ring of RNA (prohead RNA [pRNA]). pRNA is a 174-base transcript comprised of two domains, domains I and II. Early studies initially isolated a 120-base form (domain I only) that retains high biological activity in vitro; hence, no function could be assigned to domain II. Here we define a role for this domain in the packaging process. DNA packaging using restriction digests of ϕ29 DNA showed that motors with the 174-base pRNA supported the correct polarity of DNA packaging, selectively packaging the DNA left end. In contrast, motors containing the 120-base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. The presence of domain II also provides selectivity in competition assays with genomes from related phages. Furthermore, motors with the 174-base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the 120-base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events. These results show that domain II imparts specificity and stringency to the motor during the packaging initiation events that precede DNA translocation. Heteromeric rings of pRNA demonstrated that one or two copies of domain II were sufficient to impart this selectivity/stringency. Although ϕ29 differs from other double-stranded DNA phages in having an RNA motor component, the function provided by pRNA is carried on the motor protein components in other phages. During virus assembly, genome packaging involves the delivery of newly synthesized viral nucleic acid into a protein shell. In the double-stranded DNA phages and herpesviruses, this is accomplished by a powerful molecular motor

  15. The Application and Evaluation of Modified Atmosphere Packaging in Selected Minimally Processed Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Aine, (Thesis)

    2003-01-01

    The central aim of this study was to optimise the processing and storage of selected vegetable within the parameters of extended shelf life, time/temperature relationships and sensory quality. The vegetables were selected on the basis of the results of a survey of the Irish vegetable industry. The current literature in the field of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the Irish vegetable industry was reviewed. The current state and future requirements of the Irish vegetable industry was in...

  16. Preliminary selection criteria for the Yucca Mountain Project waste package container material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for construction of a geologic repository for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Nuclear Waste Management Project (NWMP) has the responsibility for design, testing, and performance analysis of the waste packages. The design is performed in an iterative manner in three sequential phases (conceptual design, advanced conceptual design, and license application design). An important input to the start of the advanced conceptual design is the selection of the material for the waste containers. The container material is referred to as the 'metal barrier' portion of the waste package, and is the responsibility of the Metal Barrier Selection and Testing task at LLNL. The selection will consist of several steps. First, preliminary, material-independent selection criteria will be established based on the performance goals for the container. Second, a variety of engineering materials will be evaluated against these criteria in a screening process to identify candidate materials. Third, information will be obtained on the performance of the candidate materials, and final selection criteria and quantitative weighting factors will be established based on the waste package design requirements. Finally, the candidate materials will be ranked against these criteria to determine whether they meet the mandated performance requirements, and to provide a comparative score to choose the material for advanced conceptual design activities. This document sets forth the preliminary container material selection criteria to be used in screening candidate materials. 5 refs

  17. Overeating at dinner time among Japanese workers: Is overeating related to stress response and late dinner times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akiko; Sakurazawa, Hirofumi; Fujita, Takanori; Akamatsu, Rie

    2016-06-01

    There are several known risk factors for overeating, including negative feelings and hunger. It was hypothesized that overtime work is associated with stress responses and later dinner times, leading to longer periods of time without eating, and that this, in turn, leads to a strong experience of hunger and consequent overeating at dinner. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among overeating at dinner, stress responses (e.g., fatigue, anxiety, and depression), and dinner times in Japanese male workers. In December 2012, 255 Japanese male workers at a leasing company completed a self-report questionnaire about overeating at dinner, psychological stress responses, physical stress responses, and dinner times. Each worker was sent an email with a link to the questionnaire website, where his answers were collected. Relationships between overeating at dinner and lifestyle issues were investigated using multiple linear regression analysis treating overeating as a dependent variable. Factors related to overeating at dinner included psychological stress response (β = 0.251 p overeating at dinner is related to dinner time in men and to stress responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Restaurant Forty One Dinner Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Restaurant Forty One

    2017-01-01

    This is fine-dining without the stuffiness. The restaurant can host up to 52 guests in the front and main room, with an additional two private dining rooms (with both catering for up to 10 guests each). Tasting menus and special requests are willingly accommodated, and wine tastings and dinner evenings are always available. Our welcoming team are proud to have recently hosted US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on her visit to Dublin. They now await your visit. “Exquisite works of art, and ...

  19. A multi-criteria decision making approach for supplier selection in the flexible packaging industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Ciprian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The supplier selection problem represents one of the most important components of the supply chain management. This article presents a multiple criteria decision making analysis contributing to the selection of the most convenient supplier in the flexible packaging industry. Due to the fact that in today's supply chain management, the performance of potential suppliers is evaluated against multiple criteria rather than taking into account only the cost factor, the appropriate criteria in the supplier selection have been identified, and the considered variants are assessed, considering the decision maker’s preferences and existing constraints. The variants are ranked in terms of their suitability for selecting a supplier with the use of Electre III method. The results obtained from the simulation experiment suggest that this methodology is a feasible decision support model.

  20. High School Dinner Theatre: A Fun Way to Raise Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Harvey

    Citing the success of commercial dinner theatres, this guide is designed to persuade high school drama teachers to try the idea and also to answer questions and help solve problems for those producing a dinner theatre for the first time. The six chapters cover choosing the place, the menu, and the play; ticket sales; advertising and publicity; and…

  1. GGRaSP: A R-package for selecting representative genomes using Gaussian mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas H; Brinkac, Lauren M; Sutton, Granger; Fouts, Derrick E

    2018-04-14

    The vast number of available sequenced bacterial genomes occasionally exceeds the facilities of comparative genomic methods or is dominated by a single outbreak strain, and thus a diverse and representative subset is required. Generation of the reduced subset currently requires a priori supervised clustering and sequence-only selection of medoid genomic sequences, independent of any additional genome metrics or strain attributes. The GGRaSP R-package described below generates a reduced subset of genomes that prioritizes maintaining genomes of interest to the user as well as minimizing the loss of genetic variation. The package also allows for unsupervised clustering by modeling the genomic relationships using a Gaussian Mixture Model to select an appropriate cluster threshold. We demonstrate the capabilities of GGRaSP by generating a reduced list of 315 genomes from a genomic dataset of 4600 Escherichia coli genomes, prioritizing selection by type strain and by genome completeness. GGRaSP is available at https://github.com/JCVenterInstitute/ggrasp/. tclarke@jcvi.org. Supplementary data are available at the GitHub site.

  2. What's for dinner? Types of food served at family dinner differ across parent and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Berge, Jerica

    2014-01-01

    To examine the types of food served at family dinner in the homes of adolescents and correlations with parent and family sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors and meal-specific variables. A cross-sectional population-based survey completed by mail or telephone by parents participating in Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) in 2009-2010. Homes of families with adolescents in Minneapolis/St. Paul urban area, MN, USA. Participants included 1923 parents/guardians (90·8% female; 68·5% from ethnic/racial minorities) of adolescents who participated in EAT 2010. Less than a third (28%) of parents reported serving a green salad at family dinner on a regular basis, but 70% reported regularly serving vegetables (other than potatoes). About one-fifth (21%) of families had fast food at family dinners two or more times per week. Variables from within the sociodemographic domain (low educational attainment) psychosocial domain (high work-life stress, depressive symptoms, low family functioning) and meal-specific domain (low value of family meals, low enjoyment of cooking, low meal planning, high food purchasing barriers and fewer hours in food preparation) were associated with lower healthfulness of foods served at family dinners, in analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. There is a need for interventions to improve the healthfulness of food served at family meals. Interventions need to be suitable for parents with low levels of education; take parent and family psychosocial factors into account; promote more positive attitudes toward family meals; and provide skills to make it easier to plan and prepare healthful family meals.

  3. Single-Molecule FISH Reveals Non-selective Packaging of Rift Valley Fever Virus Genome Segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Wichgers Schreur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bunyavirus genome comprises a small (S, medium (M, and large (L RNA segment of negative polarity. Although genome segmentation confers evolutionary advantages by enabling genome reassortment events with related viruses, genome segmentation also complicates genome replication and packaging. Accumulating evidence suggests that genomes of viruses with eight or more genome segments are incorporated into virions by highly selective processes. Remarkably, little is known about the genome packaging process of the tri-segmented bunyaviruses. Here, we evaluated, by single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the intracellular spatio-temporal distribution and replication kinetics of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV genome and determined the segment composition of mature virions. The results reveal that the RVFV genome segments start to replicate near the site of infection before spreading and replicating throughout the cytoplasm followed by translocation to the virion assembly site at the Golgi network. Despite the average intracellular S, M and L genome segments approached a 1:1:1 ratio, major differences in genome segment ratios were observed among cells. We also observed a significant amount of cells lacking evidence of M-segment replication. Analysis of two-segmented replicons and four-segmented viruses subsequently confirmed the previous notion that Golgi recruitment is mediated by the Gn glycoprotein. The absence of colocalization of the different segments in the cytoplasm and the successful rescue of a tri-segmented variant with a codon shuffled M-segment suggested that inter-segment interactions are unlikely to drive the copackaging of the different segments into a single virion. The latter was confirmed by direct visualization of RNPs inside mature virions which showed that the majority of virions lack one or more genome segments. Altogether, this study suggests that RVFV genome packaging is a non-selective process.

  4. Fruit and vegetable availability and selection: federal food package revisions, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M; Campbell, Richard T; Block, Daniel; Chavez, Noel; Krauss, Ramona C; Strode, Steven; Armbruster, James

    2012-10-01

    With nearly 49,000 authorized retailers nationwide, a policy change that added fruits and vegetables (FV) to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food packages in 2009 had the potential to expand neighborhood FV availability. This study examined changes in availability and selection of commonly consumed and culturally specific FV at authorized retailers (WIC vendors) before and after implementation of the revised WIC food packages. Quasi-experimental, one-group design with two pre-policy observations and one post-policy observation. Trained observers assessed a list of fresh, frozen, and canned FV at each vendor in seven northern Illinois counties. Eight indices of FV availability and selection were derived. Multiple regression estimated relationships. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011. Overall, availability and selection of commonly consumed fresh FV and availability of African-American culturally specific fresh FV improved after implementation of the new policy. Modest improvements in the overall availability of canned low-sodium vegetables and frozen FV were observed. Changes differed by vendor type (large vendor, small vendor, and pharmacy). Changes in availability or selection did not differ by neighborhood characteristics (population density, median household income, racial/ethnic composition). Expansion of WIC foods was associated with small positive externalities on the food environment. Larger subsidies to create more demand and more-substantial stocking requirements for retailers may yield significantly larger improvements and thus warrant further investigation. Approaches targeting rural, low-income, and racial/ethnic minority neighborhoods also may be needed. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Meta-Statistics for Variable Selection: The R Package BioMark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wehrens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker identification is an ever more important topic in the life sciences. With the advent of measurement methodologies based on microarrays and mass spectrometry, thousands of variables are routinely being measured on complex biological samples. Often, the question is what makes two groups of samples different. Classical hypothesis testing suffers from the multiple testing problem; however, correcting for this often leads to a lack of power. In addition, choosing α cutoff levels remains somewhat arbitrary. Also in a regression context, a model depending on few but relevant variables will be more accurate and precise, and easier to interpret biologically.We propose an R package, BioMark, implementing two meta-statistics for variable selection. The first, higher criticism, presents a data-dependent selection threshold for significance, instead of a cookbook value of α = 0.05. It is applicable in all cases where two groups are compared. The second, stability selection, is more general, and can also be applied in a regression context. This approach uses repeated subsampling of the data in order to assess the variability of the model coefficients and selects those that remain consistently important. It is shown using experimental spike-in data from the field of metabolomics that both approaches work well with real data. BioMark also contains functionality for simulating data with specific characteristics for algorithm development and testing.

  6. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian P T; Ogilvie, David

    2015-09-14

    Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children.2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. We applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies for inclusion and

  7. The Relationship between Frequency of Family Dinner and Adolescent Problem Behaviors after Adjusting for Other Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bisakha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. Methods: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary…

  8. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children. 2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. Data collection and

  9. Ridge Regression and Other Kernels for Genomic Selection with R Package rrBLUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Endelman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many important traits in plant breeding are polygenic and therefore recalcitrant to traditional marker-assisted selection. Genomic selection addresses this complexity by including all markers in the prediction model. A key method for the genomic prediction of breeding values is ridge regression (RR, which is equivalent to best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP when the genetic covariance between lines is proportional to their similarity in genotype space. This additive model can be broadened to include epistatic effects by using other kernels, such as the Gaussian, which represent inner products in a complex feature space. To facilitate the use of RR and nonadditive kernels in plant breeding, a new software package for R called rrBLUP has been developed. At its core is a fast maximum-likelihood algorithm for mixed models with a single variance component besides the residual error, which allows for efficient prediction with unreplicated training data. Use of the rrBLUP software is demonstrated through several examples, including the identification of optimal crosses based on superior progeny value. In cross-validation tests, the prediction accuracy with nonadditive kernels was significantly higher than RR for wheat ( L. grain yield but equivalent for several maize ( L. traits.

  10. Dinner rituals that correlate with child and adult BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; van Kleef, Ellen

    2014-05-01

    What predicts whether a child will be at risk for obesity? Whereas past research has focused on foods, eating habits, feeding styles, and family meal patterns, this study departs from a food-centric approach to examine how various dinner rituals might influence the BMIs of children and adults. In this study of 190 parents (BMI = 29.1 ± 7.2) and 148 children (BMI = 20.3 ± 4.4), the relationship between their BMIs and everyday family dinner rituals was examined using both correlation and regression analysis (controlled for educational level of parents). Families who frequently ate dinner in the kitchen or dining room had significantly lower BMIs for both adults (r = -0.31) and children (r = -0.24) compared to families who ate elsewhere. Additionally, helping cook dinner was associated with higher BMI for girls (r = 0.26), and remaining at the table until everyone is finished with eating was associated with lower BMI for boys (r = -0.31). Dinner tables may be one place where social support and family involvement meet-both of which relate to the BMI of children as well as parents. Family meals and their rituals might be an underappreciated battleground to fight obesity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  11. License Application Design Selection Feature Report: Waste Package Self Shielding Design Feature 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    In the Viability Assessment (VA) reference design, handling of waste packages (WPs) in the emplacement drifts is performed remotely, and human access to the drifts is precluded when WPs are present. This report will investigate the feasibility of using a self-shielded WP design to reduce the radiation levels in the emplacement drifts to a point that, when coupled with ventilation, will create an acceptable environment for human access. This provides the benefit of allowing human entry to emplacement drifts to perform maintenance on ground support and instrumentation, and carry out performance confirmation activities. More direct human control of WP handling and emplacement operations would also be possible. However, these potential benefits must be weighed against the cost of implementation, and potential impacts on pre- and post-closure performance of the repository and WPs. The first section of this report will provide background information on previous investigations of the self-shielded WP design feature, summarize the objective and scope of this document, and provide quality assurance and software information. A shielding performance and cost study that includes several candidate shield materials will then be performed in the subsequent section to allow selection of two self-shielded WP design options for further evaluation. Finally, the remaining sections will evaluate the impacts of the two WP self-shielding options on the repository design, operations, safety, cost, and long-term performance of the WPs with respect to the VA reference design

  12. An essential hospital package for South Africa--selection criteria, costs and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, N

    1999-07-01

    In 1995 the Committee of Enquiry into National Health Insurance (NHI) recommended that formally employed individuals and their employers be required to fund at least a minimum package of hospital cover for workers and their dependents. This has recently been echoed in a Department of Health policy paper on social health insurance. This research aims to define and cost a minimum package of essential hospital care for competing (public and private) health insurers in South Africa. CRITERIA FOR PACKAGE DEFINITION: Based on the objectives implict in the NHI Committee report, the following criteria were used to define the essential package: (i) the extent to which there was another appropriate responsible party who should pay for treatment; (ii) the degree of discretion in deciding whether or not to provide treatment (roughly equivalent to 'urgency'); and (iii) the cost and effectiveness of treatment. On the basis of the above criteria, 396 out of 598 possible interventions were included in the package. Using local mine hospital and private sector utilisation rates and mine hospital cost data, it was estimated that the essential inpatient package would cost around R502 per enrollee per year, using 1998 prices, for a working age population and their dependents. Age-sex standardised outpatient care costs in the mine hospital population studied were estimated at R183 per person per year. It was therefore estimated that the total inpatient and outpatient hospital package would cost around R685 per person per year. The results presented in this paper are intended to inform the process of defining a national essential hospital benefit package. Assuming that contributions were proportionally related to income, and that costs should not exceed 6% of wages, the package should be affordable to all of those earning above R20,000 per year. Significant additional work is required, firstly at a technical level to assess the appropriateness of the prioritization approach used here

  13. Remember when mom wanted you home for dinner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmyer, C

    2001-02-01

    Limited information exists about the relationship between family dinner and the quality of children's diets. However, several studies suggest that foods obtained at home have more fiber, calcium, and iron, and less total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium than foods obtained away from home. The results of a recent study confirm and extend these observations by showing beneficial effects of family dinner on the diet quality of children ages 9 to 14. Nutritionists and health educators should look for ways to encourage families to increase the number of meals eaten together to improve the eating patterns of children.

  14. Examinations of Selected Thermal Properties of Packages of SiC Schottky Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisewski Damian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the study of thermal properties of packages of silicon carbide Schottky diodes. In the paper the packaging process of Schottky diodes, the measuring method of thermal parameters, as well as the results of measurements are presented. The measured waveforms of transient thermal impedance of the examined diodes are compared with the waveforms of this parameter measured for commercially available Schottky diodes.

  15. Nuclear waste transportation package testing: A review of selected programs in the United States and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snedeker, D.F.

    1990-12-01

    This report provides an overview of some recent nuclear waste transportation package development programs. This information is intended to aid the State of Nevada in its review of US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear waste transportation programs. This report addresses cask testing programs in the United Kingdom and selected 1/4 and full scale testing in the US. Facilities that can provide cask testing services, both in the US and to a limited extent abroad, are identified. The costs for different type test programs are identified as a means to estimate costs for future test programs. Not addressed is the public impact such testing might have in providing an increased sense of safety or confidence. The British test program was apparently quite successful in demonstrating safety to the public at the time. There is no US test effort that is similar in scope for direct comparison. Also addressed are lessons learned from testing programs and areas that may merit possible future integrated examination. Areas that may require further examination are both technical and institutional. This report provides information which, when combined with other sources of information will enable the State of Nevada to assess the following areas: feasibility of full scale testing; costs of full scale tests; potential benefits of testing; limits that full scale testing impose; and disadvantages of emphasis on testing vs analytical solutions. This assessment will then allow the state to comment on DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) plans for the development and licensing of new shipping cask designs. These plans currently expect contractors to perform engineering testing for materials development, quarter scale model testing to validate analytical assessments and full scale prototype testing of operational features. DOE currently plans no full scale or extra-regulatory destructive testing to aid in cask licensing. 1 tab

  16. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or...

  17. Dinner Rituals That Correlate with Child and Adult BMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.; Kleef, van E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: What predicts whether a child will be at risk for obesity? Whereas past research has focused on foods, eating habits, feeding styles, and family meal patterns, this study departs from a food-centric approach to examine how various dinner rituals might influence the BMIs of children and

  18. Proposal of guidelines for selecting optimum options in packagings and transportation systems of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, T.; Abe, H.; Fukuda, S.

    1983-01-01

    Type and size of spent fuel shipping packagings and packaging transport ships in spent fuel transport system would have been determined separately in response to technical requirements etc. of reactor sites and reprocessing plants. However, since more and more spent fuel will be generated from world's nuclear power plants and will be transported much frequently to reprocessing plants or storage facilities, the current spent fuel transport system will have to be necessarily reexamined from the operational and economical aspects or an optimum transport system may have to be newly determined in the near future. In the literature, a variety of options are found, particularly of spent fuel packagings. This paper listed and classified options of spent fuel packagings and packaging transport ships in the transportation systems of spent fuel on the basis of literature surveys. These options were discussed from viewpoints of designers and users and compared in terms of transport efficiency. Finally, one way to determine an optimum transport system of spent fuel was indicated considering the total transport system in the light of safety, operational efficiency and economy

  19. Selecting the best bank that offered Islamic personal loan package by using consistent fuzzy preference relations (CFPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Sarudin, Ezzah Suraya; Hamid, Fairus; Shamsuddin, Nor Diyana Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    There are various thoughts and opinions when it comes to how people think of their selected banks. Therefore, to choose the best bank with a good personal loan package can be a bit tricky especially for first time customer. This research offers a guide in choosing the right bank for applying personal loan package by highlighting the important criteria that applicants should take into consideration. In order to cater the problem above, we used Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations (CFPR). Based on expert and public opinions, the important criteria in selecting an Islamic personal loan package are interest rate, tenure of loan, processing period and security of the loan. We developed questionnaire with the criteria mention earlier and distributed it among academic staffs and non academic staffs at Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences (FSKM), UiTM Shah Alam. Based on the questionnaire, we found that four banks have been selected for multiple reasons. Before we could determine the best bank, calculations are divided into 2 phases which are criteria weights determination and ranking of alternatives. We implemented these phases to get the aggregation result and to obtain the ranking in descending order. As a result, our objectives have been achieved. As a conclusion, CFPR can help others in the decision making process.

  20. Incentives Packages and Employees’ Attitudes to Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitive society, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way in determining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of incentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive research method was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaires which were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected government parastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematic sampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentage supported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningful manner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packages and employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied with the present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates that there is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable and independent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers should endeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  1. Avoiding a Din at Dinner or, Teaching Students to Argue for Themselves: Year 13 Plan a Historians' Dinner Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Keeley

    2012-01-01

    Keeley Richards secured a fundamental shift in some of her Year 13 students' ability to argue. She did it by getting them to engage more fully with the practice of argument itself, as enacted by four historians. At the centre of her lesson sequence was an original activity: the historians' dinner party. Richards uses this activity to point to…

  2. Orchestrating the Selection and Packaging of Genomic RNA by Retroviruses: An Ensemble of Viral and Host Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddis Maldonado, Rebecca J.; Parent, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious retrovirus particles contain two copies of unspliced viral RNA that serve as the viral genome. Unspliced retroviral RNA is transcribed in the nucleus by the host RNA polymerase II and has three potential fates: (1) it can be spliced into subgenomic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for the translation of viral proteins; or it can remain unspliced to serve as either (2) the mRNA for the translation of Gag and Gag–Pol; or (3) the genomic RNA (gRNA) that is packaged into virions. The Gag structural protein recognizes and binds the unspliced viral RNA to select it as a genome, which is selected in preference to spliced viral RNAs and cellular RNAs. In this review, we summarize the current state of understanding about how retroviral packaging is orchestrated within the cell and explore potential new mechanisms based on recent discoveries in the field. We discuss the cis-acting elements in the unspliced viral RNA and the properties of the Gag protein that are required for their interaction. In addition, we discuss the role of host factors in influencing the fate of the newly transcribed viral RNA, current models for how retroviruses distinguish unspliced viral mRNA from viral genomic RNA, and the possible subcellular sites of genomic RNA dimerization and selection by Gag. Although this review centers primarily on the wealth of data available for the alpharetrovirus Rous sarcoma virus, in which a discrete RNA packaging sequence has been identified, we have also summarized the cis- and trans-acting factors as well as the mechanisms governing gRNA packaging of other retroviruses for comparison. PMID:27657110

  3. Single-Molecule FISH Reveals Non-selective Packaging of Rift Valley Fever Virus Genome Segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.; Kortekaas, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The bunyavirus genome comprises a small (S), medium (M), and large (L) RNA segment of negative polarity. Although genome segmentation confers evolutionary advantages by enabling genome reassortment events with related viruses, genome segmentation also complicates genome replication and packaging.

  4. The relationship between frequency of family dinner and adolescent problem behaviors after adjusting for other family characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bisakha

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. Methods: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary variable of interest is self-reported FFD in a typical week. Problem behaviors studied are substance-use, physical violence, property-destruction, ...

  5. The Famous Women Dinner Service: In Conversation with Contemporary Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Chicago

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This conversation between Judy Chicago, The Women’s Art League, and Hana Leaper, filmed by Jonathan Law at the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art, Brooklyn Museum, will be published in early 2018. The participants will discuss the Famous Women Dinner Service in relation to contemporary artworks, focusing on The Dinner Party (Judy Chicago, 1974–79 and Vagina China (The Women’s Art League, 2016–present. Questions explored will include: the role of hospitality and domesticity in feminist art projects; the evolution of iconography as it relates to aesthetic freedom and the visibility of women and their bodies; the strategies of shared authorship and collective practice; and what each of the artworks discussed offers their respective eras in terms of confronting taboos associated with women and their histories.

  6. Incentives Packages And Employees’ Attitudes To Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitivesociety, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way indetermining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect ofincentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive researchmethod was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaireswhich were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected governmentparastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematicsampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentagesupported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningfulmanner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packagesand employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied withthe present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates thatthere is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable andindependent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers shouldendeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earnemployees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  7. What’s for dinner? Types of food served at family dinner differ across parent and family characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Berge, Jerica

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the types of food served at family dinner in the homes of adolescents and correlations with parent and family sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and meal-specific variables. Design A cross-sectional population-based survey completed by mail or telephone by parents participating in Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) in 2009–2010. Setting Homes of families with adolescents in Minneapolis/St Paul urban area. Subjects Participants included 1,923 parents/guardians (90.8% female; 68.5% from ethnic/racial minorities) of adolescents who participated in EAT 2010. Results Less than a third (28%) of parents reported serving a green salad at family dinner on a regular basis, but 70% reported regularly serving vegetables (other than potatoes). About one-fifth (21%) of families had fast food at family dinners two or more times a week. Variables from within the sociodemographic domain (low educational attainment); psychosocial domain (high work-life stress, depressive symptoms, low family functioning); and meal-specific domain (low value of family meals, low enjoyment of cooking, low meal planning, high food purchasing barriers, and fewer hours in food preparation) were associated with lower healthfulness of foods served at family dinners, in analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions There is a need for interventions to improve the healthfulness of food served at family meals. Interventions need to be suitable for parents with low levels of education; take parent and family psychosocial factors into account; promote more positive attitudes toward family meals; and provide skills to make it easier to plan and prepare healthful family meals. PMID:23083836

  8. Simple method for the selection of the appropriate food simulant for the evaluation of a specific food/packaging interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Muñoz, P; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of the extent of food/packaging interactions is essential to provide assurance of food quality and shelf life, especially in migration and sorption processes that commonly reach equilibrium during the lifetime of a commercial packaged foodstuff. The limits of sorption and migration must be measured in the presence of the specific food or an appropriate food simulant. The partition equilibrium of food aroma compounds between plastic films and foods or food simulants (K(A,P/L) has been characterized. Two polymers (LLDPE and PET), three organic compounds (ethyl caproate, hexanal and 2-phenylethanol), four food products with varying fat content (milk cream, mayonnaise, margarine and oil) and three simulants (ethanol 95%, n-heptane and isooctane) were selectedfor study. The results show the effect of the aroma compound volatility, and polarity, as well as its compatibility with the polymer and the food or food simulant. Equilibrium constants for the organic compound between the polymers and a gaseous phase (K(A,P/V)) as well as between the food (or food simulant) and a gaseous phase (K(A,L/V)) were also determined. An approach is presented to estimate K(A,P/V) from the binary equilibrium constants K(A,P/V) and K(A,L/V). Calculated results were shown to describe experimental data very well and indicated that compatibility between the aroma and the food or food simulant is the main contributing factor to the partition equilibrium describing the extent of food/packaging interactions. Therefore, the measurement of liquid/vapour equilibrium can be regarded as a powerful tool to compare the effectiveness of food simulants as substitutes of a particular food product and can be used as a guide for the selection of the appropriate simulant.

  9. Effect of packaging type during postmortem aging and degree of doneness on pork chop sensory traits of loins selected to vary in color and marbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klehm, B J; King, D A; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2018-05-04

    The objective was to determine the interactions between packaging type and degree of doneness on sensory traits of pork loins classified based on the newly proposed USDA quality grades. A total of 144 loins were selected from 2 groups of pigs (lean growth or meat quality production focus) to represent as much variation in visual color and marbling as possible. Selection was achieved with a VQG grading camera. The ventral surface of the loins was evaluated for loin quality traits at 1 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem loins were sliced into 28-mm-thick chops. Chop within each loin was randomly assigned to either individual vacuum packages or to individual Styrofoam trays and overwrapped in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) oxygen permeable film. Overwrapped PVC packages were then placed in bulk packages and flushed with a gas mixture that contained approximately 0.4% carbon monoxide, 30% carbon dioxide, and 80% nitrogen. Vacuum-packaged chops were aged until 14 d postmortem. Chops packaged in PVC overwrap were aged until 9 d postmortem in the bulk packages, then placed on simulated retail display until 14 d postmortem. Chops from each packaging type were cooked to an internal temperature of either 63 °C or 71 °C for the evaluation of slice shear force (SSF) or for evaluation of tenderness, juiciness, and flavor by a trained panel. Data were analyzed as split-split plot design with production focus of the pigs, proposed USDA quality grade, packaging type, and degree of doneness as fixed effects. While there were main effect differences between production focuses, there were no interactions with production focus. There were also no 3-way (P ≥ 0.19) interactions and only one 2-way interaction among quality grade, packaging type, or degree of doneness. There were no differences in sensory tenderness (P = 0.30), juiciness (P = 0.49), flavor (P = 0.89), SSF (P = 0.13), or cook loss (P = 0.06) among USDA quality grades. There were no differences in sensory tenderness (P = 0

  10. Cooking Dinner at Home--From the Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    It is well past quitting time, but you are still stuck in the office. Your spouse left work over an hour ago, but is caught in bumper-to-bumper traffic. As a result, neither of you were available to pick up your daughter on time from her soccer game. If your son hadn't gotten detention at school today, which also made him late for work, he could have picked her up. The next thing you know, it is already 8:30 at night, and your family members are finally all together under the same roof. No one has had a bite to eat since lunch, and dinner certainly isn't going to cook itself, or is it? For those who are all too familiar with this situation, it might be time to welcome the oven of the future into your homes: the ConnectIo Intelligent Oven, brought to you by TMIO, LLC, of Cleveland. Applying the same remote command and control concepts that NASA uses to run experiments on the International Space Station (ISS), ConnectIo allows its owners to cook dinner from the road, via a cell phone, personal digital assistant, or Internet connection.

  11. The Famous Women Dinner Service: A Critical Introduction and Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most exciting and unexpected objects in the 2014 Tate Britain exhibition Kenneth Clark: Looking for Civilization was a prototype plate by Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant for a dinner service commissioned by Clark in 1932. The completed set of 50 plates, which feature portraits of “famous women” throughout history, survived wartime bombing and several moves of house by the Clark family, but for the past 30 years its whereabouts had been unknown to art historians. In spring 2017, prompted by the Vanessa Bell monographic exhibition at Dulwich Picture Gallery, the owner of the dinner service contacted Piano Nobile art gallery. It soon emerged that not only was the set intact, but that the plates themselves, hand-painted on Wedgwood blanks, have been preserved in their original condition. This Look First feature offers the first opportunity for close scholarly examination of a culturally and visually potent art object. The feature uses photography, archival materials, and film to explore the process of creating the set and its place in the history of art. The present article includes a catalogue with biographical entries for each of the women featured in the set, together with source images and preparatory materials. The article text establishes where this playful, yet ground-breaking work fits within the artists’ oeuvres, and within a feminist history of art. Further materials expanding the feature’s reach, including a filmed discussion with the artist Judy Chicago, will be released in early 2018.

  12. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  13. Scarab/Saffron Development Project Case study: Material Selection Criteria for the Monoethylene Glycol Recovery Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, A.M.; Habib, S.; Shinaishin, A.

    2004-01-01

    MEG Recovery Unit for Scarab/Saffron development project is the first application in gas production. The Mono Ethylene Glycol Recovery Unit (MEG) recovers MEG from Water/MEG stream and removes salts and other contaminants. MEG Recovery Unit Equipment Design Criteria were designed for two parallel trains A and B, each train is capable to treat 500 bbl MEG, 1500 bbl water and 9 ton salt. The MEG unit is a combination of two unit operations; MEG Recovery unit is normally applicable in the oil and gas industries that is applying distillation technique, while the new technology is salt treatment and handling. The MEG Unit material selection is made to be suitable for the entire design life which is 25 years, the materials for MEG Recovery Unit have been selected among the available corrosion resistance alloys, where requested by the service and ambient conditions. Therefore all. the parts of the MEG unit that are in saline service are in either (2205 duplex, AISI 316L) and in Inconel alloy 625 related to operating temperature. This case study focused at Inconel alloy 625, which is selected for salt service and their operation problem occurred during the construction and operating conditions

  14. Acute and chronic effects of dinner with alcoholic beverages on nitric oxide metabolites in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The present study investigated the acute and chronic effect of dinner with alcoholic beverages on serum nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, namely nitrate and nitrite (NOx), in 11 healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men. 2. In a randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over trial, subjects consumed dinner with

  15. Mould Design and Material selection for Film Insert Moulding of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhner, Timo; Senkbeil, S.; Olesen, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mould design for an injection moulding (IM) process for the production of a methanol container for the use in small, passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) systems, which are intended to be used in behind-the-ear hearing aid systems. One of the crucial properties...... for the production of containers with different venting area and location of the venting holes and the use of different membrane thicknesses by using the same mould. Mould design and material selection are presented....

  16. Using social marketing to understand the family dinner with working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; DeBate, Rita D; Walvoord, Ashley G; Melton, Stephanie T; Himmelgreen, David; Allen, Tammy D; McDermott, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    The family dinner is a valued tradition that affords opportunities for social interaction and attachment, as well as sharing events of the day, role modeling, connectedness, and problem solving. Guided by the social-marketing framework, this study explored factors associated with the frequency of the family dinner among working mothers with children ages 8-11 years. A qualitative design was used, employing focus groups and Atlas-ti software for thematic analysis. Lack of time, cost, and exhaustion/lack of energy emerged as barriers. Working mothers indicated that a youth-based organization operating as a community partner could increase the frequency of the family dinner by helping with homework completion during after-school care, thereby providing mothers with the time necessary to prepare dinner. This research identified both community partners and working mothers as valued resources for prevention strategies. Interventions developed to increase family dinner frequency should emphasize the perceived value while decreasing the costs/barriers.

  17. Family dinner frequency, settings and sources, and body weight in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobal, Jeffery; Hanson, Karla

    2014-07-01

    Contemporary families and food systems are both becoming more dynamic and complex, and current associations between adult family meals and body mass index (BMI) are not well understood. This investigation took a new approach by examining diverse settings and sources of food for family dinners in relationship to BMI in a cross-sectional nationally representative survey of 360 US adults age 18-85 living with family members. In this sample, 89% of adults ate family dinners at least 5 days per week and almost all ate family dinners cooked and eaten at home. About half of these adults also ate family dinners at restaurants, fast food places, or ate takeout food at home, and less common were family dinners at homes of relatives or friends. Family dinners eaten at fast food places, but not other settings or sources, were significantly associated with higher BMI. Overall, adult family dinners were commonplace, usually involved home cooking, and when at fast food places may be related with higher adult body weights. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. When's dinner? Does timing of dinner affect the cardiometabolic risk profiles of South-Asian Canadians at risk for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, S K; Tang, T S

    2017-04-01

    To explore the relationship between the time dinner is consumed (dinnertime or timing of dinner) and cardiometabolic risk factors among South-Asian Canadians at risk for diabetes. We recruited 432 South-Asian adults affiliated with Sikh and Hindu Temples in Metro Vancouver. Participants deemed to be at risk of diabetes underwent a clinical and behavioural assessment. Dinnertime was measured via self-report. Clinical endpoints included HbA 1c , apolipoprotein, blood pressure, weight, BMI and waist circumference. The mean age of participants was 65 years and 59% were male. Dinnertime was categorized into three groups: early (before 18:00 h); average (18:00 to 20:00 h); and late (later than 20:00 h). Among the participants, 19% (n = 79), 44% (n = 187) and 37% (n = 157) reported early, average and late dinnertimes, respectively. Significant differences were found for dinnertime groups and years of residence in Canada, gender and employment. Compared with the early dinnertime group, the late dinnertime group lived in Canada for a shorter duration, comprised a higher proportion of males (66 vs 48%; P = 0.01) and were currently employed (37 vs 22%; P = 0.02). With regard to clinical endpoints, compared with the early dinnertime group, the late dinnertime group had lower systolic blood pressure (135.9 vs 131.7 mmHg; P = 0.03). After controlling for demographic characteristics, this difference was diminished. No significant differences were found between dinnertime and HbA 1c , apolipoprotein, diastolic blood pressure, weight, BMI and waist circumference. Findings suggest that, among this sample of South-Asian Canadians at risk of Type 2 diabetes, there was no association between timing of the evening meal and cardiometabolic profiles. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  19. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case-control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time 55 years old.

  20. Effects of eating dinner alone on overweight in Japanese adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Takako; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Yoshimoto, Takahiko; Matoba, Masaaki; Sunaga, Yuma; Hoshino, Hiromi; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2018-02-07

    The decrease in the frequency of family meals among Asian youth is often lamented. In Japan, adolescents who eat breakfast alone might have an unhealthy diet, which increases the risk of overweight or obese. However, there are few studies on the relationship between eating dinner alone and overweight in Japanese adolescents. Here, we investigated if eating dinner alone is associated with being overweight in Japanese adolescents of each sex. The participants consisted of 890 seventh graders (12-13 years of age) from the junior high schools of Ina, Japan who were recruited from 2011 to 2012. Information about eating dinner alone was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire, which was given to each participant. The participants were classified into the following three groups: does not eat alone, eats alone 1-2 times/week, or eats alone ≥3 times/week. A logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between eating dinner alone and being overweight. The height and weight of each participant were measured. Childhood overweight status was defined using the body mass index cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. When compared with girls who did not eat dinner alone, a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) was observed among girls who ate dinner alone ≥1 time/week (adjusted OR = 2.78; 95% confidence interval = 1.21-6.38). In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between eating dinner alone and being overweight among boys. The present study found that eating dinner alone is associated with being overweight among adolescent girls in this community in Japan. Therefore, reducing the frequency of eating dinner alone might contribute to decreasing the risk for becoming overweight or obese among adolescent girls.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of water vapor sorption isotherms and mechanical properties of selected paper-based food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of 3 selected paper-based packaging materials, that is, vegetable parchment (VP) paper, Kraft paper, and solid-bleached-sulfate (SBS) paperboard, were determined at 3 different temperatures (25, 40, and 50 degrees C). The GAB isotherm model was found to fit adequately for describing experimental adsorption isotherm data for the paper samples. The monolayer moisture content of the paper samples decreased with increase in temperature, which is in the range of 0.0345 to 0.0246, 0.0301 to 0.0238, and 0.0318 to 0.0243 g water/g solid for the MG paper, the Kraft paper, and the SBS paperboard, respectively. The net isosteric heats of sorption (q(st)) for the paper samples decreased exponentially with increase in moisture content after reaching the maximum values of 18.51, 27.39, and 26.80 kJ/mol for the VP paper, the Kraft paper, and the SBS paperboard, respectively, at low-moisture content. The differential enthalpy and entropy of 3 paper samples showed compensation phenomenon with the isokinetic temperature of 399.7 K indicating that water vapor had been adsorbed onto the paper samples with the same mechanism. Depending on the paper material, tensile strength of paper samples was affected by moisture content.

  2. In situ corrosion studies on selected high level waste packaging materials under simulated disposal conditions in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to qualify corrosion resistant materials for high level waste (HLW) packagings acting as a long-term barrier in a rock salt repository, the corrosion behavior of preselected materials is being investigated in laboratory-scale and in-situ experiments. This work reports about in-situ corrosion experiments on unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, and iron-base alloys, as nodular cast iron, Ni-Resist D4 and Si-cast iron, under simulated disposal conditions. The results of the investigations can be summarized as follows: (1) all materials investigated exhibited high resistance to corrosion under the conditions prevailing in the Brine Migration Test; (2) all materials and above all the materials with passivating oxide layers such as Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 which may corrode selectively already in the presence of minor amounts of brine had been resistant with respect to any type of local corrosion attack; the gamma-radiation of 3 · 10 2 Gy/h did not exert an influence on the corrosion behavior of the materials

  3. Design of lightweight insulation packages for sports cars, component design, material selection and adoption of surrounding properties during the development of the new porsche Carrera Coupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, C. [Porsche (F.) AG, Weissach (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Creating a proper insulation package for sports cars means to take into account not only an effective reduction of noise, but also weight optimisation, most possible reduction of package volume and to apply a suitable filter function to create sound. The Carrera's predecessor is a class leading vehicle concerning the weight of the damping and insulation package. Is it possible to improve its performance and shift targets positively? Is it time to exchange existing isolation components by absorption systems? The task for the new development was to style a lightweight trim package which offers a weight and a cost reduction at the same time. The layout considers the special requirements of a high performance sports car and combines the demand for long term rides with a very sporty response behaviour when driving at physical limits. The decision process of material selection is also strongly influenced by realised and expected changes in the design of the power train, chassis, body structure and interior trim components. The question arises if it is possible to regard all the changing noise components in the interior noise sound layout and wait for a final validation of the insulation and trim package until the very end of the development period. (orig.)

  4. Radioactive waste packages stored at the Aube facility for low-intermediate activity wastes. A selective and controlled storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The waste package is the first barrier designed to protect the man and the environment from the radioactivity contained in wastes. Its design is thus particularly stringent and controlled. This brochure describes the different types of packages for low to intermediate activity wastes like those received and stored at the Aube facility, and also the system implemented by the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) and by waste producers to safely control each step of the design and fabrication of these packages. (J.S.)

  5. Effects of eating dinner alone on overweight in Japanese adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Shirasawa, Takako; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Yoshimoto, Takahiko; Matoba, Masaaki; Sunaga, Yuma; Hoshino, Hiromi; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2018-01-01

    Background The decrease in the frequency of family meals among Asian youth is often lamented. In Japan, adolescents who eat breakfast alone might have an unhealthy diet, which increases the risk of overweight or obese. However, there are few studies on the relationship between eating dinner alone and overweight in Japanese adolescents. Here, we investigated if eating dinner alone is associated with being overweight in Japanese adolescents of each sex. Methods The participants consisted of 890...

  6. Characterizing dinner meals served and consumed by low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Stuff, Janice E; Hughes, Sheryl O; Liu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A dinner meal is consumed by approximately 95% of preschool children, yet few studies have characterized the dinner meal within a broader environmental context. The primary goal of this study was to identify the average quantities of foods served and consumed at the dinner meal by preschool children. A secondary goal was to look at factors that influenced the total amounts of food and energy consumed among preschoolers at the dinner meal. Food intake at a family dinner meal was measured using digital photography in African-American and Hispanic-American preschool children (n = 231). Pictorial records were converted to gram and energy estimates of food served and consumed; grams were converted to kilocalories for each food using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional software. Foods were categorized by groups/subgroups. Comparison of means and coefficient of variation was examined overall and by food groups for food grams (and energy) served, consumed, and wasted. The relationship of mother/child characteristics to amounts served and consumed were analyzed by regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Plate waste was high; 30% of the foods served to the child at the dinner meal were not consumed. The amounts of food and beverage served and consumed varied within and among the food groups studied. The proportion of children served a major food group at the dinner meal varied considerably: 44% fruit/juice, 97% vegetables, 99% grains, 97% meats, 74% dairy, 66% sweetened beverages, 92% fat and oils, and 40% sweets and sugars. The amount of food served was positively associated with the amount consumed (p dinner meal was positively associated with energy intake consumed (p < 0.0001). Plate waste and variation in amounts served and consumed was substantial. The amount of food served was positively associated with the amount of food consumed by preschool children.

  7. Selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals. Volume III. User's manual for the multi-attribute utility package (MAUP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, M.; Turnage, J.J.; Husseiny, A.A.; Ritzman, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The computer program which was developed to apply the multi-attribute utility (MAU) methodology to the selection of LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. An overview of the MAU method is presented, followed by a description of the steps incorporated in developing individual modules for use in the multi-attribute utility package (MAUP). Each module is described complete with usage information and an example of computer output

  8. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  9. Effect of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microflora of vacuum-packaged ground pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehioba, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microbiology of refrigerated, vacuum-packaged ground pork were studied. Low-dose gamma radiation reduced the numbers of naturally occurring mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and anaerobes. The effect of low-dose radiation on the populations of lactic acid bacteria was minimal. On storage of the irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork at 5 0 C, there was a partial bacterial recovery, suggesting sublethal bacterial injury due to irradiation. When 10 7 CFU/g of meat is taken to be the level beyond which the meat would be considered spoiled, uninoculated, vacuum-packaged ground pork treated with 1 kGy (100 krad) of gamma radiation had 3.5 more days of shelf-life in terms of psychrotrophic total counts. In relation to anaerobic bacterial numbers, meat shelf-life was extended 2.5 days, while the shelf-life of meat was extended 1 day in terms of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Irradiation prolonged shelf-life in inoculated (10 5 CFU/g) meat for 1.0-1.5 days. Addition of 0.4% sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) contributed 2 additional days to inoculated, irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork shelf-life. However, SAPP had no added effect on naturally occurring microflora. Irradiation greatly decreased the numbers of gram-negative microorganisms, resulting in predominance of the gram-positive, nonsporeforming Lactobacillus and coryneform bacteria

  10. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  11. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  12. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

  13. Survey of waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste/spent fuel in selected foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the waste package strategies for seven western countries with active nuclear power programs that are pursuing disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level wastes in deep geologic rock formations. Information, current as of January 1989, is given on the leading waste package concepts for Belgium, Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All but two of the countries surveyed (France and the UK) have developed design concepts for their repositories, but none of the countries has developed its final waste repository or package concept. Waste package concepts are under study in all the countries surveyed, except the UK. Most of the countries have not yet developed a reference concept and are considering several concepts. Most of the information presented in this report is for the current reference or leading concepts. All canisters for the wastes are cylindrical, and are made of metal (stainless steel, mild steel, titanium, or copper). The canister concepts have relatively thin walls, except those for spent fuel in Sweden and Germany. Diagrams are presented for the reference or leading concepts for canisters for the countries surveyed. The expected lifetimes of the conceptual canisters in their respective disposal environment are typically 500 to 1,000 years, with Sweden's copper canister expected to last as long as one million years. Overpack containers that would contain the canisters are being considered in some of the countries. All of the countries surveyed, except one (Germany) are currently planning to utilize a buffer material (typically bentonite) surrounding the disposal package in the repository. Most of the countries surveyed plan to limit the maximum temperature in the buffer material to about 100 degree C. 52 refs., 9 figs

  14. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  15. High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Daniela; Barnea, Maayan; Wainstein, Julio; Froy, Oren

    2013-12-01

    Few studies examined the association between time-of-day of nutrient intake and the metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to compare a weight loss diet with high caloric intake during breakfast to an isocaloric diet with high caloric intake at dinner. Overweight and obese women (BMI 32.4 ± 1.8 kg/m(2) ) with metabolic syndrome were randomized into two isocaloric (~1400 kcal) weight loss groups, a breakfast (BF) (700 kcal breakfast, 500 kcal lunch, 200 kcal dinner) or a dinner (D) group (200 kcal breakfast, 500 kcal lunch, 700 kcal dinner) for 12 weeks. The BF group showed greater weight loss and waist circumference reduction. Although fasting glucose, insulin, and ghrelin were reduced in both groups, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR decreased significantly to a greater extent in the BF group. Mean triglyceride levels decreased by 33.6% in the BF group, but increased by 14.6% in the D group. Oral glucose tolerance test led to a greater decrease of glucose and insulin in the BF group. In response to meal challenges, the overall daily glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and mean hunger scores were significantly lower, whereas mean satiety scores were significantly higher in the BF group. High-calorie breakfast with reduced intake at dinner is beneficial and might be a useful alternative for the management of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  17. Science on a salad plate?: Thinking about the representation of natural history in the Canadian Historic Dinner Service project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Keri

    2008-01-01

    The Women's Art Association of Canada marked the 400th anniversary of John Cabot's "discovery" of Canada (celebrated in 1897) through the production of the "Canadian Historic Dinner Service." The high-profile project, which resulted in a set of hand-painted porcelain dinnerware, was a celebration not only of nation-building, but also of the natural history of the country. Visual reference material provided to the women selected to create the individual pieces included photographs, natural history texts, and illustrations that W.H. Bartlett produced for Canadian Scenery earlier in the century. This article explores this visual reinterpretation of Canada's natural history in order to raise questions about how a recontextualization of scientific material shapes narratives of nation and nature in the 'New World'.

  18. Do family dinners reduce the risk for early adolescent substance use? A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P; Warnick, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The risks of early adolescent substance use on health and well-being are well documented. In recent years, several experts have claimed that a simple preventive measure for these behaviors is for families to share evening meals. In this study, we use data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (n = 5,419) to estimate propensity score models designed to match on a set of covariates and predict early adolescent substance use frequency and initiation. The results indicate that family dinners are not generally associated with alcohol or cigarette use or with drug use initiation. However, a continuous measure of family dinners is modestly associated with marijuana frequency, thus suggesting a potential causal impact. These results show that family dinners may help prevent one form of substance use in the short term but do not generally affect substance use initiation or alcohol and cigarette use.

  19. Eating Dinner Away from Home: Perspectives of Middle- to High-Income Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M.; Crosby, Lori E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand barriers and facilitators for preparing and eating dinner at home in families who report eating dinner away from home ≥3 per week. Cross-sectional, mixed methods (focus groups, questionnaires) study. Twenty-seven parents with a child 3–10 years-old who reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times per week from a pediatric medical center in the Midwest participated. The key concepts analytic framework guided focus group analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize parent demographics, anthropometrics, attitudes and confidence toward cooking, perceptions of dinner costs and portions, and parent and child dinners. Parents reported confidence in cooking a home prepared meal, but that eating away from home was reinforcing because it provided quality family time and diminished barriers such as picky eating and perceived costs. Home cooking was also hindered by early school lunch and after-school sports as children were not hungry or home at the typical dinner hour and parents did not want to cook after 8pm. Parents estimated preparing and eating a meal at home took significantly more time than driving and eating out (80.7 minutes vs. 30.3 minutes, peating out, interventions should address family factors (e.g., time management, quality time) and child behavior (e.g., picky eating). Innovative interventions that include experiential cooking opportunities that incorporate time management, address picky eating and enthusiasm for cooking with education on decreasing costs may be particularly beneficial for middle- to high-income families. PMID:26386299

  20. DaMiRseq-an R/Bioconductor package for data mining of RNA-Seq data: normalization, feature selection and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Mattia; Colombo, Gualtiero I; Piacentini, Luca

    2018-04-15

    RNA-Seq is becoming the technique of choice for high-throughput transcriptome profiling, which, besides class comparison for differential expression, promises to be an effective and powerful tool for biomarker discovery. However, a systematic analysis of high-dimensional genomic data is a demanding task for such a purpose. DaMiRseq offers an organized, flexible and convenient framework to remove noise and bias, select the most informative features and perform accurate classification. DaMiRseq is developed for the R environment (R ≥ 3.4) and is released under GPL (≥2) License. The package runs on Windows, Linux and Macintosh operating systems and is freely available to non-commercial users at the Bioconductor open-source, open-development software project repository (https://bioconductor.org/packages/DaMiRseq/). In compliance with Bioconductor standards, the authors ensure stable package maintenance through software and documentation updates. luca.piacentini@ccfm.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.; Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 10 7 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  2. Conformity of package inserts information to regulatory requirements among selected branded and generic medicinal products circulating on the East African market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillo, Hiiti B; Masota, Nelson E; Kisoma, Sunday; Rago, Lembit; Mgoyela, Veronica; Kaale, Eliangiringa A

    2018-01-01

    Availability of correct and adequate information about medicines is an important aspect in ensuring rational use of medicines and hence facilitating safety and expected efficacy of medicines during therapy. Package inserts have proven to be a good source of information to the prescribers and patients whereby they have been useful in highlighting important information pertaining proper use and handling of the medicines. The present study was aimed at establishing the extent to which package inserts of medicines circulating on the markets of the East African Community (EAC) Partner States conform to medicines information requirements as established in the harmonized guidelines as well as national guidelines. A total of 99 package inserts from six (6) types of medicines namely Albendazole, Artemether/Lumefantrine (ALu), Ciprofloxacin, Paracetamol, Amoxicillin and Metronidazole were purposefully collected from three EAC Partner States: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The medicines were selected based on their indications as first line treatments, high rates of utilization within the medicines supply system and their positions in treatment of diseases of public importance across EAC Partner States. The inserts were evaluated on the availability of information regarding fifteen (15) parameters as extracted from the EAC harmonized guidelines for registration of medicines. Moreover, comparisons were made between the percentage conformity of the branded versus generic products, markets from which the samples were collected, origin of the manufacturer and type of medicine. Majority (93.9-100%) of the medicines' package inserts highly conformed to the inclusion of the information regarding the description and composition of the medications, indications, dosage and methods of administration, warnings and precautions, contraindications and storage conditions. However, the information on handling and disposal, container package description, excipients used, clinical pharmacology of

  3. The Influence of Darwin on Evolutionary Algorithms from "Dinner with Darwin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbye, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The "Dinner with Darwin" event held at the National Association of Biology Teachers Conference over several successive years represented an innovative forum for exploring the ways that the work of Charles Darwin has had an impact in fields quite far removed from biology. Through a wide-ranging discussion by panel participants, drawn from a number…

  4. Assessing Causality and Persistence in Associations between Family Dinners and Adolescent Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Meier, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents who share meals with their parents score better on a range of well-being indicators. Using 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N = 17,977), the authors assessed the causal nature of these associations and the extent to which they persist into adulthood. They examined links between family dinners and…

  5. Corrosion testing of selected packaging materials for disposal of high-level waste glass in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.; Fiehn, B.; Halm, G.

    1990-05-01

    In previous corrosion studies performed in salt brines, unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 have proved to be the most promising materials for long-term resistant packagings to be used in heat-generating waste (vitrified HLW, spent fuel) disposal in rock-salt formations. To characterise the corrosion behaviour of these materials in more detail, further in-depth laboratory-scale and in-situ corrosion studies have been performed in the present study. Besides the above-mentioned materials, also some in-situ investigations of the iron-base materials Ni-Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron have been carried out in order to complete the results available to date. (orig.) [de

  6. Criteria definition and approaches in green supplier selection – a case study for raw material and packaging of food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Banaeian; Hossein Mobli; Izabela Ewa Nielsen; Mahmoud Omid

    2015-01-01

    This paper formulates an integrated framework for deciding about the green supplier selection criteria in food supply chain and also proposes different methods that account for single and multiple sourcing of supplier selection. Green supplier selection relies on green criteria, so determination of suitable set of criteria will affect decision-maker results directly. In this research, an operational model including combination of general and environmental criteria is introduced for green supp...

  7. Packaging microservices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Thrane, Dan Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit. For the f......We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit...

  8. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  9. Examining the feasibility of implementing behavioural economics strategies that encourage home dinner vegetable intake among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Swenson, Alison; Rendahl, Aaron; Vickers, Zata; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Reicks, Marla

    2017-06-01

    To examine the feasibility of implementing nine behavioural economics-informed strategies, or 'nudges', that aimed to encourage home dinner vegetable intake among low-income children. Caregivers were assigned six of nine strategies and implemented one new strategy per week (i.e. 6 weeks) during three dinner meals. Caregivers recorded child dinner vegetable intake on the nights of strategy implementation and rated the level of difficulty for assigned strategies. Baseline data on home vegetable availability and child vegetable liking were collected to assess overall strategy feasibility. Participants' homes in a large Midwestern metropolitan area, USA. Low-income caregiver/child (aged 9-12 years) dyads (n 39). Pairwise comparisons showed that child dinner vegetable intake for the strategy 'Serve at least two vegetables with dinner meals' was greater than intake for each of two other strategies: 'Pair vegetables with other foods the child likes' and 'Eat dinner together with an adult(s) modelling vegetable consumption'. Overall, caregivers' mean rating of difficulty for implementing strategies was 2·6 (1='not difficult', 10='very difficult'). Households had a mean of ten different types of vegetables available. Children reported a rating ≥5 for seventeen types of vegetable on a labelled hedonic scale (1='hate it', 5-6='it's okay', 10='like it a lot'). Behavioural economics-informed strategies are feasible to implement during dinner meals, with some strategies differing by how much they influence vegetable intake among low-income children in the home.

  10. Word Length Selection Method for Controller Implementation on FPGAs Using the VHDL-2008 Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urriza I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a word length selection method for the implementation of digital controllers in both fixed-point and floating-point hardware on FPGAs. This method uses the new types defined in the VHDL-2008 fixed-point and floating-point packages. These packages allow customizing the word length of fixed and floating point representations and shorten the design cycle simplifying the design of arithmetic operations. The method performs bit-true simulations in order to determine the word length to represent the constant coefficients and the internal signals of the digital controller while maintaining the control system specifications. A mixed-signal simulation tool is used to simulate the closed loop system as a whole in order to analyze the impact of the quantization effects and loop delays on the control system performance. The method is applied to implement a digital controller for a switching power converter. The digital circuit is implemented on an FPGA, and the simulations are experimentally verified.

  11. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on selected chemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and carp (Cyprinus carpio cuts freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jelena A.

    2014-01-01

    vacuum was established during the whole period of investigation (p < 0,001, while in carp cuts samples packaged in vacuum the increase in pH value (p < 0,05 was established up to 7th day of testing. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that gas mixture consisting of 60% CO2 and 40% N2 was the most suitable for packaging of fresh trout and carp cuts in terms of selected chemical parameters, such as TVB-N and pH. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31011 i br. TR 31075

  12. Associations between nine family dinner frequency measures and child weight, dietary and psychosocial outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Friend, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Family meal frequency has been consistently and significantly associated with positive youth dietary and psychosocial outcomes but less consistently associated with weight outcomes. Family meal frequency measurement has varied widely and it is unclear how this variation may impact relationships with youth weight, dietary, and psychosocial outcomes. Objective This study assesses how five parent/caregiver-reported and four child-reported family dinner frequency measures correlate with each other and are associated with health-related outcomes. Design/Participants This secondary, cross-sectional analysis uses baseline, parent/caregiver (n=160) and 8–12 year old child (n=160) data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus trial (collected 2011–2012). Data were obtained from objective measurements, dietary recall interviews, and psychosocial surveys. Outcome measures Outcomes included child body mass index z-scores (BMIz), fruit, vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010 [HEI-2010]), family connectedness, and meal conversations. Statistical analyses performed Pearson correlations and general linear models were used to assess associations between family dinner frequency measures and outcomes. Results All family dinner frequency measures had comparable means and were correlated within and across parent/caregiver- and child-reporters (r=0.17–0.94, pdinner frequency measures were significantly associated with BMIz scores and 100% were significantly associated with fruit/vegetable intake and HEI-2010. In adjusted models, most significant associations with dietary and psychosocial outcomes remained but associations with child BMIz remained significant only for parent/caregiver- (β±SE= −0.07±0.03; pdinner frequency measures asking about ‘sitting and eating’ dinner. Conclusions In spite of phrasing variations in family dinner frequency measures (e.g., which family members

  13. Eating dinner away from home: Perspectives of middle-to high-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M; Crosby, Lori E; Stark, Lori J

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to understand barriers and facilitators for preparing and eating dinner at home in families who report eating dinner away from home ≥3 times per week. Cross-sectional, mixed methods (focus groups, questionnaires) study. Twenty-seven parents with a child 3-10 years-old who reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times per week from a pediatric medical center in the Midwest participated. The key concepts analytic framework guided focus group analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize parent demographics, anthropometrics, attitudes and confidence toward cooking, perceptions of dinner costs and portions, and parent and child dinners. Parents reported confidence in cooking a home prepared meal, but that eating away from home was reinforcing because it provided quality family time and diminished barriers such as picky eating and perceived costs. Home cooking was also hindered by early school lunch and after-school sports as children were not hungry or home at the typical dinner hour and parents did not want to cook after 8pm. Parents estimated preparing and eating a meal at home took significantly more time than driving and eating out (80.7 min vs. 30.3 min, p < 0.001). Parents significantly (F (3, 104) = 8.80, p < 0.001) overestimated the cost of home-prepared meals compared to take-out and frozen meals. Portion size was also overestimated for a protein serving. Findings are limited to predominantly married, female parents whom are highly educated and working. To reduce eating out, interventions should address family factors (e.g., time management, quality time) and child behavior (e.g., picky eating). Innovative interventions that include experiential cooking opportunities that incorporate time management, address picky eating and enthusiasm for cooking with education on decreasing costs may be particularly beneficial for middle-to high-income families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation in Associations Between Family Dinners and Adolescent Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ann; Musick, Kelly

    2014-02-01

    Empirical evidence and conventional wisdom suggest that family dinners are associated with positive outcomes for youth. Recent research using fixed-effects models as a more stringent test of causality suggests a more limited role of family meals in protecting children from risk. Estimates of average effects, however, may mask important variation in the link between family meals and well-being; in particular, family meals may be more or less helpful based on the quality of family relationships. Using 2 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health ( N = 17,977), this study extended recent work to find that family dinners have little benefit when parent-child relationships are weak but contribute to fewer depressive symptoms and less delinquency among adolescents when family relationships are strong. The findings highlight the importance of attending to variation when assessing what helps and what hurts in families.

  15. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially-diverse urban youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Growth curve models examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5 year period among a population of racially-diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p family dinner frequency was positively associated with adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores over time (p families with teenagers may enhance parent-child communication and ultimately promote healthy adolescent development by making family dinner a priority. Additionally, the communication benefits of family dinner at the beginning of 6th grade may be protective through 8th grade. PMID:20545399

  16. Cyberbullying victimization and mental health in adolescents and the moderating role of family dinners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Napoletano, Anthony; Saul, Grace; Dirks, Melanie A; Craig, Wendy; Poteat, V Paul; Holt, Melissa; Koenig, Brian W

    2014-11-01

    This study presents evidence that cyberbullying victimization relates to internalizing, externalizing, and substance use problems in adolescents and that the frequency of family dinners attenuate these associations. To examine the unique association between cyberbullying victimization and adolescent mental health (after controlling differences in involvement in traditional, face-to-face bullying) and to explore the potential moderating role of family contact in this association. This cross-sectional, observational study used survey data on 18,834 students (aged 12-18 years) from 49 schools in a Midwestern US state. Logistic regression analysis tested associations between cyberbullying victimization and the likelihood of mental health and substance use problems. Negative binomial regression analysis tested direct and synergistic contributions of cyberbullying victimization and family dinners on the rates of mental health and substance use problems. Frequency of cyberbullying victimization during the previous 12 months; victimization by traditional (face-to-face) bullying; and perpetration of traditional bullying. Five internalizing mental health problems (anxiety, depression, self-harm, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt), 2 externalizing problems (fighting and vandalism), and 4 substance use problems (frequent alcohol use, frequent binge drinking, prescription drug misuse, and over-the-counter drug misuse). About one-fifth (18.6%) of the sample experienced cyberbullying during the previous 12 months. The frequency of cyberbullying positively related to all 11 internalizing, externalizing, and substance use problems (odds ratios from 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7-3.8] to 4.5 [95% CI, 3.0-6.6]). However, victimization related more closely to rates of problems in adolescents that had fewer family dinners. Cyberbullying relates to mental health and substance use problems in adolescents, even after their involvement in face-to-face bullying is taken into account. Although

  17. Family dinner meal frequency and adolescent development: relationships with developmental assets and high-risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Mellin, Alison; Leffert, Nancy; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone A

    2006-09-01

    To examine associations between family meal frequency and developmental assets and high-risk behaviors among a national sample of adolescents. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 99,462 sixth to 12th grade students from public and alternative schools in 213 cities and 25 states across the United States. Logistic regression analyses tested differences in assets and high-risk behaviors by family dinner frequency. Consistent positive associations were found between the frequency of family dinners and all developmental assets, including both external (e.g., support, boundaries and expectations; odds ratio [OR] 2.1-3.7) and internal assets (e.g., commitment to learning, positive values, social competencies, and positive identity; OR 1.8-2.6); relationships were attenuated, but remained significant after adjusting for demographics and general family communication and support. Consistent inverse relationships were found between the frequency of family dinners and all high-risk behaviors measured (i.e., substance use, sexual activity, depression/suicide, antisocial behaviors, violence, school problems, binge eating/purging, and excessive weight loss; OR .36-.58), relationships were attenuated, but remained significant after adjusting for demographics and family factors. The findings of the present study suggest that the frequency of family dinner is an external developmental asset or protective factor that may curtail high-risk behaviors among youth. Creative and realistic strategies for enhancing and supporting family meals, given the context within which different families live, should be explored to promote healthy adolescent development. Family rituals such as regular mealtimes may ease the stress of daily living in the fast-paced families of today's society.

  18. Recurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease correlated with a short dinner-to-bedtime interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae Hoon; Kang, Ho Suk; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Jin, Choon Jo

    2014-04-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be classified into erosive reflux disease (ERD) and nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (NERD). We aimed to compare the recurrence rates of ERD and NERD and determine the risk factors related to the recurrence. This prospective study comprised 337 consecutive adults who completed questionnaires on their GERD symptoms, height, weight, sleeping position, dinner time, and bedtime. During upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, the presence of a hiatal hernia and mucosal breaks in the low esophagus, esophageal length (the distance between the Z-line and the incisors), and the esophageal length-to-height ratio were recorded. Recurrence was diagnosed when the patient required additional proton pump inhibitor medication after initial recovery with 4-8 weeks of treatment. Recurrence was experienced by 47 (26.0%) of 181 GERD patients. The recurrence rate did not differ between the 48 ERD (27.1%) and 133 NERD (25.6%) patients (P = 0.849). Of the various factors studied, recurrence was found to be correlated with a dinner-to-bedtime interval of less than 3 h (P = 0.002), globus sensation (P = 0.031), and old age (P = 0.047). Logistic regression analysis revealed that a short interval between dinner and bedtime was the only factor significantly related to the recurrence (P = 0.002). Both ERD and NERD patients who sleep within 3 h after eating have a higher risk of GERD recurrence. Our findings highlight the impact of a short dinner-to-bedtime interval on the recurrence of GERD (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: KCT0000134). © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. ASSESSING CAUSALITY AND PERSISTENCE IN ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN FAMILY DINNERS AND ADOLESCENT WELL-BEING

    OpenAIRE

    Musick, Kelly; Meier, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents who share meals with their parents score better on a range of well-being indicators. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N = 17,977), we assessed the causal nature of these associations and the extent to which they persist into adulthood. We examined links between family dinners and adolescent mental health, substance use, and delinquency at wave 1, accounting for detailed measures of the family environment to test whether family meals simpl...

  20. Variation in Associations Between Family Dinners and Adolescent Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Ann; Musick, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence and conventional wisdom suggest that family dinners are associated with positive outcomes for youth. Recent research using fixed-effects models as a more stringent test of causality suggests a more limited role of family meals in protecting children from risk. Estimates of average effects, however, may mask important variation in the link between family meals and well-being; in particular, family meals may be more or less helpful based on the quality of family relationships...

  1. House Restaurant at The Cliff House Sample Tasting Dinner Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    House Restaurant at the Cliff House

    2017-01-01

    Our award winning, Michelin star restaurant at The Cliff House Hotel, Ireland, brings foodies from all over the world to this seaside village in West Waterford. Both our main House Restaurant as well as our easy, unpretentious bar food honour the great Irish produce of Waterford, Cork and the Irish Sea. House Restaurant operates for dinner Wednesday - Saturday inclusive in Winter and Tuesday - Saturday inclusive in Summer, opening Sunday nights on bank holiday weekends. Bar Restaurant is o...

  2. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially-diverse urban youth

    OpenAIRE

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Growth curve models examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5 year period among a population of racially-diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p < .0001), family dinner frequency was positively associa...

  3. Construction of adeno-associated virus packaging plasmids and cells that directly select for AAV helper functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteway, Alistair; Deru, Wale; Prentice, H Grant; Anderson, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV) has promise for use as a gene therapy vector. Potential problems in the production of rAAV stocks are both the limited amount of recombinant virus that is produced by traditional methods and the possibility of wild-type replication competent adeno-associated virus (wtAAV) contamination. The presence of these contaminants is largely dependent upon the helper plasmid used. Whilst wtAAV is not a pathogen, the presence of these contaminants is undesirable as they may affect experiments concerning the biology of rAAV. Additionally as protocols using rAAV with altered tropism are becoming more prevalent, it is important that no recombination be permitted that may cause the creation of a replication competent AAV with modified (targeting) capsids. Many experimental protocols require the generation of large amounts of high titre rAAV stocks. We describe the production of several AAV helper plasmids and cell lines designed to achieve this goal. These plasmids possess split AAV rep and cap genes to eliminate the production of wtAAV and they possess a selection mechanism which is operatively linked to expression from the AAV cap gene. This allows positive selection of those cells expressing the highest level of the structural capsid proteins and therefore those cells which yield the highest amount of rAAV.

  4. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  5. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  6. Prevalence and patterns of cooking dinner at home in the USA: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Long, Judith A; Harhay, Michael O; Polsky, Daniel E; Feudtner, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To measure the prevalence of cooking dinner at home in the USA and test whether home dinner preparation habits are associated with socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, country of birth and family structure. Cross-sectional analysis. The primary outcome, self-reported frequency of cooking dinner at home, was divided into three categories: 0-1 dinners cooked per week ('never'), 2-5 ('sometimes') and 6-7 ('always'). We used bivariable and multivariable regression analyses to test for associations between frequency of cooking dinner at home and factors of interest. The 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample consisted of 10 149 participants. Americans reported cooking an average of five dinners per week; 8 % never, 43 % sometimes and 49 % always cooked dinner at home. Lower household wealth and educational attainment were associated with a higher likelihood of either always or never cooking dinner at home, whereas wealthier, more educated households were more likely to sometimes cook dinner at home (P cooked the fewest dinners at home (mean = 4·4, 95 % CI 4·2, 4·6). Households with foreign-born reference persons cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·8, 95 % CI 5·7, 6·0) than households with US-born reference persons (mean = 4·9, 95 % CI 4·7, 5·1). Households with dependants cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·2, 95 % CI 5·1, 5·4) than households without dependants (mean = 4·6, 95 % CI 4·3, 5·0). Home dinner preparation habits varied substantially with socio-economic status and race/ethnicity, associations that likely will have implications for designing and appropriately tailoring interventions to improve home food preparation practices and promote healthy eating.

  7. RASPLAV package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The RASPLAV package for investigation of post-accident mass transport and heat transfer processes is presented. The package performs three dimensional thermal conduction calculations in space nonuniform and temperature dependent conductivities and variable heat sources, taking into account phase transformations. The processes of free-moving bulk material, mixing of melting fuel due to advection and dissolution, and also evaporation/adsorption are modelled. Two-dimensional hydrodynamics with self-consistent heat transfer are also performed. The paper briefly traces the ways the solution procedures are carried out in the program package and outlines the major results of the simulation of reactor vessel melting after a core meltdown. The theoretical analysis and the calculations in this case were carried out in order to define the possibility of localization of the zone reminders. The interactions between the reminders and the concrete are simulated and evaluation of the interaction parameters is carried out. 4 refs. (R.Ts)

  8. Packaging-radiation disinfestation relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highland, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept essentially insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent reinfestation, but there are certain requirements that must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect-light construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behavior traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages and the ability of insects to climb on various packaging materials. Some successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of packages insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect-resistant packages for radiation disinfested foods. The latter factors include biological and physical environments, length of storage periods, stresses on packages during shipment, types of storage facilities, governmental regulations, health requirements, and others

  9. Are large dinners associated with excess weight, and does eating a smaller dinner achieve greater weight loss? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mackenzie; Caterson, Ian D; Madigan, Claire D

    2017-10-01

    There are suggestions that large evening meals are associated with greater BMI. This study reviewed systematically the association between evening energy intake and weight in adults and aimed to determine whether reducing evening intake achieves weight loss. Databases searched were MEDLINE, PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science, Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials, EMBASE and SCOPUS. Eligible observational studies investigated the relationship between BMI and evening energy intake. Eligible intervention trials compared weight change between groups where the proportion of evening intake was manipulated. Evening intake was defined as energy consumed during a certain time - for example 18.00-21.00 hours - or self-defined meal slots - that is 'dinner'. The search yielded 121 full texts that were reviewed for eligibility by two independent reviewers. In all, ten observational studies and eight clinical trials were included in the systematic review with four and five included in the meta-analyses, respectively. Four observational studies showed a positive association between large evening intake and BMI, five showed no association and one showed an inverse relationship. The meta-analysis of observational studies showed a non-significant trend between BMI and evening intake (P=0·06). The meta-analysis of intervention trials showed no difference in weight change between small and large dinner groups (-0·89 kg; 95 % CI -2·52, 0·75, P=0·29). This analysis was limited by significant heterogeneity, and many trials had an unknown or high risk of bias. Recommendations to reduce evening intake for weight loss cannot be substantiated by clinical evidence, and more well-controlled intervention trials are needed.

  10. Home food environment factors associated with the presence of fruit and vegetables at dinner: A direct observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Tate, Allan D; Draxten, Michelle L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Berge, Jerica M

    2016-01-01

    Little research exists about the factors influencing the foods available at family meals. This study examines the home food environment factors contributing to the presence of fruit and vegetables at family meals. Home food inventory (HFI) and survey data were collected from low-income, minority families (n = 120) with children 6-12 years old. Observations from video-recorded family dinner meals, totaling 800 videos, were used to measure the frequency at which fruit and vegetables were served. Multiple regression was used to investigate how the fruit and vegetables in the HFI and other home food environment factors were related to the number of days fruit and vegetables were served at dinner during the observation period. Availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables in the home were each found to be significantly associated with the presence of fruits and vegetables at family dinners. Of the fruit and vegetable categories (i.e., fresh, canned, or frozen), having fresh fruit and vegetables available in the home was found to be most strongly associated with serving fruit and vegetables at dinner, respectively. Higher parent intake of vegetables was associated with the presence of vegetables at dinners, and parent meal planning was associated with the presence of fruit at dinners. Increasing the availability and accessibility of fresh fruit and vegetables in the home may be an effective approach to increasing the presence of fruits and vegetables at family dinners, especially among low-income, minority households. It is also essential to understand why families are not using all fruits and vegetables (e.g., canned and frozen) available in the home for family meals. Family meals are a place to promote the increased presence of both fruit and vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Family Dinner Frequency is Inversely Related to Mental Disorders and Obesity in Adolescents: the CASPIAN-III Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-04-01

    Family dinner is a proxy of family connectedness that may affect mental health. The present study aimed to examine the associations of frequency of family dinner with mental disorders and obesity in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian adolescents. A total of 5528 Iranians adolescents aged 10-18 years were enrolled in 2009-2010 in the third survey of a national surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable disease (CASPIAN-III) study. The frequency of family dinner meal was assessed. Mental health assessments were done as part of the World Health Organization-Global School-based Student Health Survey. The odds of having mental disorders and obesity were assessed by logistic regression. No significant difference was found in dietary intake between family dinner consumers (≥5 times (night)/wk) and skippers (dinner consumers had lower odds for all types of mental disorders (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.47-0.64), anxiety (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.4-0.54), insomnia (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.53-0.7), and confusion (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6-0.86), as well as the body mass index- z score (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.73-0.84). The current study showed an inverse relationship between the frequency of family dinner consuming and mental disorders and obesity in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian adolescents. Such simple recommendations for consuming family dinner for families may be feasible, sustainable, and effective for health promotion and disease prevention.

  12. Association between post-dinner dietary intakes and nocturnal hypoglycemic risk in adult patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Katherine; Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Strychar, Irene; Leroux, Catherine; Gingras, Véronique; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2014-12-01

    To describe (i) current bedtime nutritional practices and (ii) the association between post-dinner dietary intake and the occurrence of non-severe nocturnal hypoglycemia (NH) in real-life conditions among adult patients with type 1 diabetes using insulin analogs. One hundred adults (median [interquartile range]: age 46.4 [36.0-55.8] years, HbA1c 7.9 [7.3-8.6] % (63 [56-70] mmol/mol)) using multiple daily injections (n=67) or insulin pump (n=33) wore a blinded continuous glucose monitoring system and completed a food diary for 72-h. NH occurred on 28% of 282 nights analyzed. (i) Patients reported post-dinner dietary intakes on 63% of the evenings. They injected rapid-acting insulin boluses on 64 occasions (23% of 282 evenings). These insulin boluses were mostly injected with (n=37) dietary intakes. (ii) Post-dinner dietary intake was not associated with NH occurrence in univariate analyses. In multivariate analyses, the injection of rapid-acting insulin modulated the association between post-dinner dietary intake and NH: with insulin, post-dinner carbohydrate intake was positively associated with NH (odds ratio (OR): 1.16 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.04-1.29] per 5g increase, p=0.008); without insulin, post-dinner protein intake was inversely associated with NH occurrence (OR [95% CI]: 0.88 [0.78-1.00] per 2g increase, p=0.048). NH remains frequent in adults with type 1 diabetes. There is a complex relationship between post-dinner dietary intake and NH occurrence, including the significant role of nutrient content and rapid-acting insulin injection that requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  14. Late-night-dinner is associated with poor glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes: The KAMOGAWA-DM cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Ushigome, Emi; Miki, Akane; Okamura, Takuro; Matsugasumi, Masako; Fukuda, Takuya; Majima, Saori; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Senmaru, Takafumi; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Tanaka, Muhei; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Fukui, Michiaki

    2018-04-26

    Skipping breakfast or irregular breakfast is associated with poor glycemic control. However, a relationship between the timing of dinner and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes remains indefinite. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between late-night-dinner and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. We performed questionnaire survey for lifestyle factors in this cross-sectional study. We defined having dinner later than eight pm as late-night-dinner. We examined the differences in clinical and metabolic parameters between those who have late-night-dinner and those who do not have. We also examined the relationship between late-night-dinner and HbA1c, using multiple regression analysis. Ninety-five people (23.2%) had a late-night-dinner, among 409 people with type 2 diabetes. Metabolic parameters (mean (SD) or median (interquartile range)) of people with late-night-dinner were worse than those of without, including body mass index (BMI) (24.4 (4.0) vs. 23.2 (3.4) kg/m 2 , p = 0.006), triglycerides (1.5 (1.1-2.1) vs. 1.2 (0.8-1.7) mmol/L, p dinner (standardized regression coefficient = 0.13, p = 0.028) was associated with hemoglobin A1c after adjusting for age, BMI, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, exercise, alcohol, snacking after dinner, nighttime sleep duration, time from dinner to bedtime, skipping breakfast, and medication for diabetes. Late-night-dinner is independently associated with poor glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes.

  15. The relationship between breakfast, lunch and dinner eating pattern and hemodialysis sessions, quality of life, depression and appetite in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between eating pattern (regular breakfast, lunch and dinner) and dialysis sessions, laboratory and sociodemographic characteristics in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In this cross-sectional study eating patterns, sociodemographic, laboratory and clinical parameters, depressive symptoms, quality of life, cognitive function and appetite status were assessed. Eighty-two HD patients on morning session and 60 patients on midday HD session schedules were included. Ten patients had only breakfast, 17 patients had only lunch, 26 patients had only dinner, 5 patients had breakfast and lunch but not dinner, 28 patients had breakfast and dinner but not lunch, 29 patients had lunch and dinner but not breakfast, and 19 patients had neither breakfast, nor lunch, nor dinner. In the whole group, only 8 patients reported that they had regularly eaten breakfast, lunch or dinner in all days of the week. Midday HD session, better appetite, and higher income were independently associated with having breakfast. Morning HD session, better appetite score, and higher income were independently associated with having lunch. Morning session versus midday session, nPNA, presence of hypertension, and the Mental Component Summary Score of SF-36 were independently associated with having dinner. The majority of HD patients eat one or two meals per day. Having breakfast (or lunch) is associated with midday dialysis session (or morning dialysis session, respectively), better appetite, and satisfactory income. Eating dinner was associated with morning dialysis session, hypertension, higher protein intake and higher SF-36 mental component summary score.

  16. Is one's usual dinner companion associated with greater odds of depression? Using data from the 2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Support from one's family has been reported to have a positive effect on depression severity. Hence, family dinnertimes, when whole family can gather together, can be effective to depression by providing support from family. We investigate the association between the dinner companion and depression, and the differences in this association by gender, living arrangement and household composition. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014 data. A total of 4,181 individuals were included. We classified participants by their dinner companions as follows: dinner with family, dinner with others and eating alone. Depression was measured by using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association. Those who ate dinner alone (odds ratio (OR): 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.25) had higher depression rate compared to those who had dinner with family. The subgroup analysis indicated that men, those who live with others and those living in a second-generation household who ate dinner alone had greater odds of having depressive symptoms. Those who usually eat dinner alone have greater odds of developing depression compared to those who have dinner with their family. As such, family dinnertimes may help to alleviate depressive moods. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-01-01

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository

  18. Council dinner

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Jean Teillac (President of the Council) gives the speech. The occasion was the end-of-term of Leon Van Hove and John Adams as Research and Executive Director-General, respectively, to be succeeded by Herwig Schopper. The venue was the Hotel Beau-Rivage in Geneva. Beside Jean Teillac are (on the left) G.H. Stafford and Mme Van Hove, (on the right) Mme Schopper.

  19. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially diverse urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Pasch, Keryn E; Stigler, Melissa H; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L; Komro, Kelli A

    2010-06-01

    We examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication using growth curve models conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5-year period among a population of racially diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4,750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p parent-child communication scores over time (p parent-child communication and ultimately promote healthy adolescent development by making family dinner a priority. In addition, the communication benefits of family dinner at the beginning of sixth grade may be protective through eighth grade. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Was Frozen Mammoth or Giant Ground Sloth Served for Dinner at The Explorers Club?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Glass

    Full Text Available Accounts of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius preserved so well in ice that their meat is still edible have a long history of intriguing the public and influencing paleontological thought on Quaternary extinctions and climate, with some scientists resorting to catastrophism to explain the instantaneous freezing necessary to preserve edible meat. Famously, members of The Explorers Club purportedly dined on frozen mammoth from Alaska, USA, in 1951. This event, well received by the press and general public, became an enduring legend for the Club and popularized the notorious annual tradition of serving rare and exotic food at Club dinners that continues to this day. The Yale Peabody Museum holds a sample of meat preserved from the 1951 meal, interestingly labeled as a South American giant ground sloth (Megatherium, not mammoth. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene and studied archival material to verify its identity, which if genuine, would extend the range of Megatherium over 600% and alter our views on ground sloth evolution. Our results indicate that the meat was not mammoth or Megatherium but green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas. The prehistoric dinner was likely an elaborate publicity stunt. Our study emphasizes the value of museums collecting and curating voucher specimens, particularly those used for evidence of extraordinary claims.

  1. Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using χ2-test or t-test. RESULTS The group that had more frequent family dinners (≥ 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (≤ 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P eating only what he or she likes (P dinners also consumed healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P eating behaviors (e.g., eating fatty foods, salty foods, sweets, etc.) were not significantly different by the frequency of family dinners. CONCLUSIONS Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals. PMID:25489408

  2. Lively package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country

  3. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  4. COP 20 in Lima: a tense rehearsal dinner where everyone ended up eating at the same table. Climate Brief no. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Romain; Deheza, Mariana; Cochran, Ian; Leguet, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    COP20 in Lima was expected to put the negotiations on track to get an ambitious global agreement in Paris in December 2015. As a 'rehearsal dinner' for Paris Climate 2015, COP20 managed to keep and strengthen the hopes for a 'wedding' of interests with all parties sharing a table. COP 20 achieved its two key objectives: defining a framework - even if only indicative - for the submission of the countries' Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), and a preview of the components of the draft negotiating text that will be discussed throughout 2015 on the way to Paris. Perhaps the most valuable input may be COP20's treatment - or rather the absence - of the Annex I/non-Annex I differentiation. This marks a watershed moment in negotiations where all countries recognize the need to contribute to climate action. 2014 was a relatively productive year marked by Europe's engagement through the Energy Climate Package 2030, the US-China agreement and the capitalization of the Green Climate Fund. Nevertheless, many unsolved critical issues remain on the negotiator's plate to ensure the strong commitments necessary in Paris to reach the ambitious long-term 2 deg. C target. (authors)

  5. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  6. Economic tour package model using heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syariza Abdul; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Bakar, Engku Muhammad Nazri Engku Abu

    2014-07-01

    A tour-package is a prearranged tour that includes products and services such as food, activities, accommodation, and transportation, which are sold at a single price. Since the competitiveness within tourism industry is very high, many of the tour agents try to provide attractive tour-packages in order to meet tourist satisfaction as much as possible. Some of the criteria that are considered by the tourist are the number of places to be visited and the cost of the tour-packages. Previous studies indicate that tourists tend to choose economical tour-packages and aiming to visit as many places as they can cover. Thus, this study proposed tour-package model using heuristic approach. The aim is to find economical tour-packages and at the same time to propose as many places as possible to be visited by tourist in a given geographical area particularly in Langkawi Island. The proposed model considers only one starting point where the tour starts and ends at an identified hotel. This study covers 31 most attractive places in Langkawi Island from various categories of tourist attractions. Besides, the allocation of period for lunch and dinner are included in the proposed itineraries where it covers 11 popular restaurants around Langkawi Island. In developing the itinerary, the proposed heuristic approach considers time window for each site (hotel/restaurant/place) so that it represents real world implementation. We present three itineraries with different time constraints (1-day, 2-day and 3-day tour-package). The aim of economic model is to minimize the tour-package cost as much as possible by considering entrance fee of each visited place. We compare the proposed model with our uneconomic model from our previous study. The uneconomic model has no limitation to the cost with the aim to maximize the number of places to be visited. Comparison between the uneconomic and economic itinerary has shown that the proposed model have successfully achieved the objective that

  7. A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakalniskiene, J.; Falkenhorst, G.; Lisby, M.

    2009-01-01

    , which affected around 200 Students and teachers after a high-school dinner in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark, November 2006. A retrospective cohort study showed that consumption of pasta salad with pesto was associated with an increased risk of illness (attack rate 59.4%; risk ratio 2.6, 95% confidence...

  8. 76 FR 41691 - Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port.... This zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie during the BGSU Football Gridiron... Purpose On July 25, 2011, Bowling Green State University will hold its BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf...

  9. Associations between company at dinner and daily diet quality in Dutch men and women from the NQplus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van L.; Geelen, M.M.E.E.; Hooft Van Huysduynen, E.J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Consuming the evening meal in the company of others has been associated with overall diet quality. Nevertheless, studies on the association between type of company at dinner and diet quality in adults are scarce.
    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dutch men (n = 895) and women (n = 845)

  10. Accountability in Family Discourse: Socialization into Norms and Standards and Negotiation of Responsibility in Italian Dinner Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterponi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article explores morality as situated activity and approaches the discursive practice of accountability in Italian family dinner conversations as an avenue for understanding the construction of moral behaviour in everyday interpersonal interaction. The article focuses in particular on "vicarious" accounts, namely accounts, or…

  11. Technology transfer packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizon, G.A.; Bleasdale, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is firmly established in many developed countries'energy policies and is being adopted by emerging nations as an attractive way of gaining energy self sufficiency. The early users of nuclear power had to develop the technology that they needed, which now, through increasing world wide experience, has been rationalised to meet demanding economic and environmental pressures. These justifiable pressures, can lead to existing suppliers of nuclear services to consider changing to more appropriate technologies and for new suppliers to consider licensing proven technology rather then incurring the cost of developing new alternatives. The transfer of technology, under license, is made more straight forward if the owner conveniently groups appropriate technology into packages. This paper gives examples of 'Technology Packages' and suggests criteria for the specification, selection and contractual requirements to ensure successful licensing

  12. Best Practice in Policy Package Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Florian; Vesela, Jirina; Vencl, Vaclav

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable focuses on the identification and analysis of best practice examples of policy package design. For this purpose a methodology is developed that allows the systematic analysis of both national and EU policy packages. Eight packages were selected and analysed, highlighting...... the factors which supported the design and implementation process in each case. The results of the analysis show which factors led to these cases to be considered best practice. In addition, factors are identified which are not yet part of the generic policy packaging framework presented in earlier OPTIC...... Deliverables. The consideration of these factors will help to further improve the framework in the subsequent work packages....

  13. Higher energy intake at dinner decreases parasympathetic activity during nighttime sleep in menstruating women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yuki; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tanaka, Izumi; Kanehara, Rieko; Kato, Misao; Hatta, Naoko; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari

    2018-06-09

    Previous studies have found more frequent increases in dietary intake and nonrestorative nocturnal sleep during the luteal phase than in the follicular phase, but few studies have investigated how increased energy intake at dinner influences sleep by considering the correlation between female hormone and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. This study examined the effects of energy intake at dinner on ANS activity during nighttime sleep in order to evaluate restorative sleep in healthy women. We also examined whether ANS activity is associated with female hormone dynamics. Twenty-four healthy collegiate women participated in this randomized crossover trial. Each was assigned to receive a High Energy Dinner (HED) or Low Energy Dinner (LED) treatment. Energy ratios of each test meal (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) to total energy intake were 1:1:2 and 1:2:1 for HED and LED treatments, respectively. Each participant wore an ECG recorder before dinner and removed it upon waking the next morning. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was used to calculate low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and total spectral power (TP). Cardiac sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous system activity were evaluated as LF/HF and HF/TP, respectively. Mean HF/TP for the entire sleeping period was lower with HED treatment compared to LED treatment (41.7 ± 11.4 vs. 45.0 ± 12.13, P = .034). Intergroup comparisons of the initial 3-h sleeping period revealed that LF/HF (0.87 ± 0.82 vs. 0.66 ± 0.82, P = .013) and HF/TP (45.6 ± 13.9 vs. 51.5 ± 11.8, P = .002) were higher and lower, respectively, with HED treatment compared to LED treatment. Progesterone levels were positively correlated with LF/HF with LED treatment, and negatively correlated with HF/TP with both HED and LED treatments. Higher energy intake at dinner increases and decreases SNS and PNS activities, respectively, resulting in nonrestorative nocturnal

  14. RNA-protein interactions in plant disease: hackers at the dinner table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Pietro D

    2015-09-01

    Plants are the source of most of our food, whether directly or as feed for the animals we eat. Our dinner table is a trophic level we share with the microbes that also feed on the primary photosynthetic producers. Microbes that enter into close interactions with plants need to evade or suppress detection and host immunity to access nutrients. They do this by deploying molecular tools - effectors - which target host processes. The mode of action of effector proteins in these events is varied and complex. Recent data from diverse systems indicate that RNA-interacting proteins and RNA itself are delivered by eukaryotic microbes, such as fungi and oomycetes, to host plants and contribute to the establishment of successful interactions. This is evidence that pathogenic microbes can interfere with the host software. We are beginning to see that pathogenic microbes are capable of hacking into the plants' immunity programs. © 2015 The Author. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Multi-pathogen waterborne disease outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdarevic, F; Jones, R C; Weaver, K N; Black, S R; Ritger, K A; Guichard, F; Dombroski, P; Emanuel, B P; Miller, L; Gerber, S I

    2012-04-01

    We report an outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on Lake Michigan. This took place on the same day as heavy rainfall, which resulted in 42·4 billion liters of rainwater and storm runoff containing highly diluted sewage being released into the lake. Of 72 cruise participants, 41 (57%) reported gastroenteritis. Stool specimens were positive for Shigella sonnei (n=3), Giardia (n=3), and Cryptosporidium (n=2). Ice consumption was associated with illness (risk ratio 2·2, P=0·011). S. sonnei was isolated from a swab obtained from the one of the boat's ice bins. Environmental inspection revealed conditions and equipment that could have contributed to lake water contaminating the hose used to load potable water onto the boat. Knowledge of water holding and distribution systems on boats, and of potential risks associated with flooding and the release of diluted sewage into large bodies of water, is crucial for public health guidance regarding recreational cruises.

  16. Botanical perspectives on health peppermint: more than just an after-dinner mint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirling, L I; Daniels, I R

    2001-03-01

    Throughout history different species of mint have been used across the globe for their varying properties, both medicinal and culinary. Today, the commercial sales of mints are expanding each year--and at the end of a large meal after-dinner mints are frequently served. But why do we take them? Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is usually taken after a meal for its ability to reduce indigestion and colonic spasms by reducing the gastrocolic reflex. It is a naturally occurring hybrid cross between water mint (M. aquatica) and spearmint (M. spicata) and is best known for its role as a popular flavouring agent. Less well recognised is peppermint's potential role in the management of numerous other medical conditions including certain procedures, e.g. colonoscopy. With the growing popularity of herbal remedies, among both the public and medical practitioners, it would seem that now is an opportune time to consider further what peppermint has to offer the world of medicine.

  17. Eating fruits and vegetables. An ethnographic study of American and French family dinners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Morgenstern, Aliyah; Peters, Chloe; Beaupoil, Pauline; Caët, Stéphanie; Debras, Camille; le Mené, Marine

    2015-06-01

    The French eat more fruits and vegetables than Americans and have lower rates of childhood obesity. This ethnographic study compares various aspects of meal environment in sixteen households in LA, California and Paris, France, and offers insights on the relationship between local practices and preferences and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our analysis of video-recorded naturalist data reveals that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to the cultural organization of dinner--what, when and how food is served--and to local beliefs about children's eating practices. We also found that the French model for dinnertime prioritizes the eating of fruits and vegetables more than the American model does. We propose that local eating models should be taken into account in research on childhood obesity and in prevention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Children’s Cultural Learning in Everyday Family Life Exemplified at the Dinner Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane

    2017-01-01

    through participant observations in their everyday activities in two families (Hedegaard & Fleer. 2013. Play, learning and children’s development. Everyday life in families and transition to school. New York: Cambridge University Press). The family members in the two families got an instant camera...... the setting and directly from parents and siblings. Children’s also put demands on the setting and its participants and how these are met leads to children’s development of new forms of social interaction, new motive orientation, and competences. The argument builds on a research project following children...... and were asked to take photos of what were important for them. In this chapter, the focus is on how demands and motives influence both parents and children at the dinner setting....

  19. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Package in Supplementing Teaching of Selected Concepts in High School Chemistry: Writing Formulas and Balancing Chemical Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Camille L.

    Four classes of high school chemistry students (N=108) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups to investigate the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction (CAI) package during a unit on writing/naming of chemical formulas and balancing equations. Students in the experimental group received drill, review, and reinforcement…

  20. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Sigal; Eliraz, Abraham; Kaplan, Sara; Voet, Hillary; Fink, Gershon; Kima, Tzadok; Madar, Zecharia

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner on anthropometric, hunger/satiety, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters. Hormonal secretions were also evaluated. Seventy-eight police officers (BMI >30) were randomly assigned to experimental (carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner) or control weight loss diets for 6 months. On day 0, 7, 90, and 180 blood samples and hunger scores were collected every 4 h from 0800 to 2000 hours. Anthropometric measurements were collected throughout the study. Greater weight loss, abdominal circumference, and body fat mass reductions were observed in the experimental diet in comparison to controls. Hunger scores were lower and greater improvements in fasting glucose, average daily insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), T-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed in comparison to controls. The experimental diet modified daily leptin and adiponectin concentrations compared to those observed at baseline and to a control diet. A simple dietary manipulation of carbohydrate distribution appears to have additional benefits when compared to a conventional weight loss diet in individuals suffering from obesity. It might also be beneficial for individuals suffering from insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Further research is required to confirm and clarify the mechanisms by which this relatively simple diet approach enhances satiety, leads to better anthropometric outcomes, and achieves improved metabolic response, compared to a more conventional dietary approach.

  1. Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun; Kim, Kyung Won

    2014-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using χ(2)-test or t-test. The group that had more frequent family dinners (≥ 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (≤ 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P eating only what he or she likes (P healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P eating behaviors (e.g., eating fatty foods, salty foods, sweets, etc.) were not significantly different by the frequency of family dinners. Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals.

  2. Science packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  3. Thermal Management of Power Semiconductor Packages - Matching Cooling Technologies with Packaging Technologies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Moreno, G.

    2010-04-27

    Heat removal for power semiconductor devices is critical for robust operation. Because there are different packaging options, different thermal management technologies, and a range of applications, there is a need for a methodology to match cooling technologies and package configurations to target applications. To meet this need, a methodology was developed to compare the sensitivity of cooling technologies on the overall package thermal performance over a range of power semiconductor packaging configurations. The results provide insight into the trade-offs associated with cooling technologies and package configurations. The approach provides a method for comparing new developments in power semiconductor packages and identifying potential thermal control technologies for the package. The results can help users select the appropriate combination of packaging configuration and cooling technology for the desired application.

  4. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection of the best active modified atmosphere packaging with ethylene and moisture scavengers to maintain quality of guava during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Sanchita Biswas; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2018-07-01

    In modified atmosphere packaging of guava, moisture scavenger (MS) sachet containing 30-50 g of coarse silica gel and ethylene scavenger (ES) sachet containing 0-4 g of potassium permanganate was added as per central composite rotatable design. The headspace O 2 and CO 2 of the packages were studied at 4, 8 and 12 °C for 30 days and thereafter the guava were left for two days to ripen at 30 °C. After that the chilling injuries, percentage acceptable guava, peel color and pulp texture was analyzed. After two days ripening at 30 °C the samples with 3 g ES and 46 g MS registered higher L ∗ , lower a ∗ value & firmness (16.65 N), lowest chilling injury score. About 95% of guava was found acceptable in this treatment with 1.89-2.79% reducing sugar, 0.95-1.1% titrable acidity, 59% and 46.61% retention of total phenols and ascorbic acid respectively, resulting 32 days shelf-life of guava. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kutsuma, Ayano; Nakajima, Kei; Suwa, Kaname

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE) was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria), and proteinur...

  7. Guess who's not coming to dinner? Evaluating online restaurant reservations for disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsoesie, Elaine O; Buckeridge, David L; Brownstein, John S

    2014-01-22

    Alternative data sources are used increasingly to augment traditional public health surveillance systems. Examples include over-the-counter medication sales and school absenteeism. We sought to determine if an increase in restaurant table availabilities was associated with an increase in disease incidence, specifically influenza-like illness (ILI). Restaurant table availability was monitored using OpenTable, an online restaurant table reservation site. A daily search was performed for restaurants with available tables for 2 at the hour and at half past the hour for 22 distinct times: between 11:00 am-3:30 pm for lunch and between 6:00-11:30 PM for dinner. In the United States, we examined table availability for restaurants in Boston, Atlanta, Baltimore, and Miami. For Mexico, we studied table availabilities in Cancun, Mexico City, Puebla, Monterrey, and Guadalajara. Time series of restaurant use was compared with Google Flu Trends and ILI at the state and national levels for the United States and Mexico using the cross-correlation function. Differences in restaurant use were observed across sampling times and regions. We also noted similarities in time series trends between data on influenza activity and restaurant use. In some settings, significant correlations greater than 70% were noted between data on restaurant use and ILI trends. This study introduces and demonstrates the potential value of restaurant use data for event surveillance.

  8. Capsaicin increases sensation of fullness in energy balance, and decreases desire to eat after dinner in negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-06-01

    Addition of capsaicin (CAPS) to the diet has been shown to increase satiety; therefore, CAPS is of interest for anti-obesity therapy. We investigated the effects of CAPS on appetite profile and ad libitum energy intake in relation to energy balance. Fifteen subjects (seven women and eight men, age: 29.7 ± 10.8yrs, BMI: 23.3 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) underwent four conditions in a randomized crossover design in 36 hour sessions in a respiration chamber; they received 100% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions "100%Control" and "100%CAPS", and 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions "75%Control" and "75%CAPS", followed by an ad libitum dinner. In the 100%CAPS and 75%CAPS conditions, CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units) with every meal. Satiety (P dinner desire to eat, satiety and fullness did not differ between 75%CAPS and 100%Control, while desire to eat was higher (P dinner, capsaicin prevents the effects of the negative energy balance on desire to eat. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. [Alkaline phosphatase activity in blood group B or O secretors is fluctuated by the dinner intake of previous night].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Makoto; Harajiri, Sanae; Tabata, Shiori; Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Muramoto, Yoshimi; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2013-04-01

    We previously reported that two intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) isoforms, high molecular mass IAP (HIAP) and normal molecular mass IAP (NIAP), appear in healthy serum with our Triton-PAGE method for determination of ALP isozymes. In addition, HIAP is chiefly present in blood group B or O secretors, and a large amount of NIAP is secreted into the circulation after high-fat meal in blood group B or O secretors. In the present paper, we investigated the relationship between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in early morning with the patient in a fasted state and the dinner intake of previous night. Two types of dinner were prepared; a low-fat meal (520 kcal), and a high-fat meal (1,040 kcal). Subjects ate the 2 types of dinner on different days. The mean ALP activities at 14 h after high-fat meal ingestion in blood group B or O secretors (n=14) from JSCC and IFCC methods were 8.8% and 5.2% higher than those at 14 h after low-fat meal ingestion in blood group B or O secretors, respectively. The increases in ALP activity between after high-fat meal and low-fat meal were nearly identical to the increases in NIAP activity. These results suggest that a high-fat meal is more likely to affect ALP activity at the early morning with the patient in a fasted state in blood group B or O secretors.

  10. Changes in Serum TSH and T4 Levels after Switching the Levothyroxine Administration Time from before Breakfast to before Dinner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Levothyroxine is commonly used in the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine is most often administered in the morning, on an empty stomach, in order to increase its oral absorption. However, many patients have difficulties taking levothyroxine in the morning. Aim. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of changing levothyroxine administration time from before breakfast to before dinner on the serum levels of TSH and T4. Subjects and Methods. Fifty patients between 18 and 75 years old with hypothyroidism were included in the study and were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received two tablets per day (one levothyroxine tablet and one placebo tablet 30 minutes before breakfast and 1 hour before dinner. After two months, the administration time for the tablets was changed for each group, and the new schedule was continued for a further two-month period. The serum TSH and T4 levels were measured before and after treatment in each group. Results. Changing the levothyroxine administration time resulted in 1.47 ± 0.51 µIU/mL increase in TSH level (p=0.001 and 0.35 ± 1.05 µg/dL decrease in T4 level (p=0.3. Conclusions. Changing the levothyroxine administration time from before breakfast to before dinner reduced the therapeutic efficacy of levothyroxine.

  11. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  12. Emotional climate, feeding practices, and feeding styles: an observational analysis of the dinner meal in Head Start families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Sharon K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies conducted with ethnically diverse, low-income samples have found that parents with indulgent feeding styles had children with a higher weight status. Indulgent parents are those who are responsive to their child's emotional states but have problems setting appropriate boundaries with their child. Because the processes through which styles impact child weight are poorly understood, the aim of this study was to observe differences in the emotional climate created by parents (including affect, tone of voice, and gestures and behavioral feeding practices among those reporting different feeding styles on the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. A secondary aim was to examine differences on child weight status across the feeding styles. Methods Participants were 177 Head Start families from Houston, Texas (45% African-American; 55% Hispanic. Using an observational approach, the relationship between the observed emotional climate of the meal, behavioral feeding practices, and self-reported parent feeding styles were examined. Mean age of the children was 4.4 years (SD = 0.7 equally distributed across gender. Families were observed on 3 separate dinner occasions. Heights and weight were measured on the parents and children. Results Parents with self-reported indulgent feeding styles made fewer demands on their children to eat during dinner and showed lower levels of negative affect and intrusiveness. Surprisingly, these parents also showed higher levels of emotional detachment with their children during dinner. Hispanic boys with indulgent parents had significantly higher BMI z scores compared to Hispanic boys in the other three feeding style groups. No other differences were found on child weight status. Conclusions Results suggest that the emotional climate created by indulgent parents during dinner and their lack of demands on their children to eat may play an important role in how young children become

  13. Emotional climate, feeding practices, and feeding styles: an observational analysis of the dinner meal in Head Start families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hall, Sharon K; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2011-06-10

    A number of studies conducted with ethnically diverse, low-income samples have found that parents with indulgent feeding styles had children with a higher weight status. Indulgent parents are those who are responsive to their child's emotional states but have problems setting appropriate boundaries with their child. Because the processes through which styles impact child weight are poorly understood, the aim of this study was to observe differences in the emotional climate created by parents (including affect, tone of voice, and gestures) and behavioral feeding practices among those reporting different feeding styles on the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. A secondary aim was to examine differences on child weight status across the feeding styles. Participants were 177 Head Start families from Houston, Texas (45% African-American; 55% Hispanic). Using an observational approach, the relationship between the observed emotional climate of the meal, behavioral feeding practices, and self-reported parent feeding styles were examined. Mean age of the children was 4.4 years (SD = 0.7) equally distributed across gender. Families were observed on 3 separate dinner occasions. Heights and weight were measured on the parents and children. Parents with self-reported indulgent feeding styles made fewer demands on their children to eat during dinner and showed lower levels of negative affect and intrusiveness. Surprisingly, these parents also showed higher levels of emotional detachment with their children during dinner. Hispanic boys with indulgent parents had significantly higher BMI z scores compared to Hispanic boys in the other three feeding style groups. No other differences were found on child weight status. Results suggest that the emotional climate created by indulgent parents during dinner and their lack of demands on their children to eat may play an important role in how young children become overweight. Numerous observed emotional climate and behavioral

  14. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Waste package performance allocation system study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memory, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Package Performance Allocation system study was performed in order to provide a technical basis for the selection of the waste package period of substantially complete containment and its resultant contribution to the overall total system performance. This study began with a reference case based on the current Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) baseline design and added a number of alternative designs. The waste package designs were selected from the designs being considered in detail during Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). The waste packages considered were multi-barrier packages with a 0.95 cm Alloy 825 inner barrier and a 10, 20, or 45 cm thick carbon steel outer barrier. The waste package capacities varied from 6 to 12 to 21 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The vertical borehole and in-drift emplacement modes were also considered, as were thermal loadings of 25, 57, and 114 kW/acre. The repository cost analysis indicated that the 21 PWR in-drift emplacement mode option with the 10 cm and 20 cm outer barrier thicknesses are the least expensive and that the 12 PWR in-drift case has approximately the same cost as the 6 PWR vertical borehole. It was also found that the cost increase from the 10 cm outer barrier waste package to the 20 cm waste package was less per centimeter than the increase from the 20 cm outer barrier waste package to the 45 cm outer barrier waste package. However, the repository cost was nearly linear with the outer barrier thickness for the 21 PWR in-drift case. Finally, corrosion rate estimates are provided and the relationship of repository cost versus waste package lifetime is discussed as is cumulative radionuclide release from the waste package and to the accessible environment for time periods of 10,000 years and 100,000 years

  16. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  17. Packaged mode multiplexer based on silicon photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Snyder, B.; Raz, O.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Chen, X.

    2012-01-01

    A silicon photonics based mode multiplexer is proposed. Four chirped grating couplers structure can support all 6 channels in a two-mode fiber and realize LP01 and LP11 mode selective exciting. The packaged device is tested.

  18. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  19. Creative Thinking Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  20. Away-from-home family dinner sources and associations with weight status, body composition and related biomarkers of chronic disease among adolescents and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbakhsh, Kian; Lytle, Leslie; Hearst, Mary O.; Dengel, Donald R.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Kubik, Martha Y.

    2011-01-01

    Information regarding associations between types of away-from-home family meal sources and obesity and other chronic diseases could help guide dietitians. The present study describes the purchase frequency of away-from-home food sources for family dinner (fast food, other restaurant purchases, home delivery, and take-out foods) and associations with weight status and percent body fat among adolescents (n=723) and parents (n=723) and related biomarkers of chronic disease among adolescents (n=367). A cross-sectional study design was used with baseline parent surveys and anthropometry/fasting blood samples from two community-based obesity studies (2006–2008) in Minnesota. Logistic regression and general linear modeling assessed associations between frequency of family dinner sources (weekly versus none in past week) and outcomes (parent and adolescent overweight/obesity and percent body fat; adolescent metabolic risk cluster z-score (MRC), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin and systolic blood pressure. Models accounted for clustering and adjusted for study allocation, baseline meal frequency and demographic characteristics. The odds of overweight/obesity were significantly greater when families reported at least one away-from-home dinner purchase in the past week (OR=1.2–2.6). Mean percent body fat, MRC z-scores and insulin levels were significantly greater with weekly purchases of family dinner from fast food restaurants (p’s < .05). Mean percent body fat, MRC z-scores and HDL levels were significantly higher for families who purchased weekly family dinner from take-out sources (p’s < .05). Although frequent family dinners may be beneficial for adolescents, the source of dinners is likely as important in maintaining a healthy weight. Interventions should focus on encouragement of healthful family meals. PMID:22117665

  1. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  2. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  3. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  4. Corrosion behaviour of selected high-level waste packaging materials under gamma irradiation and in-situ disposal conditions in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1988-07-01

    Corrosion studies performed until now on a number of materials have shown that unalloyed steels, Hastelloy C4 and Ti 99.8-Pd are the most promising materials for a long-term resistant packaging to be used in high-level waste (HLW) canister disposal in rock salt formations. To characterize their corrosion behaviour in more detail, additional studies have been performed. The influence has been examined which is exerted by the gamma dose rate (1 Gy/h to 100 Gy/h) on the corrosion of three preselected steels and Hastelloy C4 at 90 0 C in a salt brine (Q-brine) rich in MgCl 2 , i.e., conditions relevant to accident scenarios in a repository. In addition, in-situ corrosion experiments have been carried out in the Asse salt mine at elevated temperatures (120 0 C to 210 0 C) in the absence and in the presence of a gamma radiation field of 3 x 10 2 Gy/h, within the framework of the German/US Brine Migration Test. Under the test conditions the gamma radiation did not exert a significant influence on the corrosion of the steels investigated, whereas Hastelloy C4, exposed to dose rates of 10 Gy/h and 100 Gy/h, underwent pitting and crevice corrosion (20 μm/a at the maximum).The low amounts of migrated salt brine (140 ml after 900 days) in the in-situ- experiment did not produce noticeable corrosion of the materials. (orig./RB) [de

  5. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  6. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  8. Investigating the effect of aesthetic aspect of packaging and its dimensions on purchase intention through packaging preference

    OpenAIRE

    Abolghasem Ebrahimi; Sayed Moslem Alavi; Mehdi Najafi Seyahroodi

    2015-01-01

    Companies in the era of quality convergence of products are bound to differentiation. As a differentiating tool, Packaging can be a troubleshooter in this field. One of the ways of differentiation is to consider aesthetic aspect of packaging. According to this fact, current survey has studied the impact of aesthetic aspect of packaging on purchase intention of goods through packaging preference. A sample consisted of 384 customers of the big food stores in Shiraz is selected. To test the vali...

  9. What's Being Served for Dinner? An Exploratory Investigation of the Associations between the Healthfulness of Family Meals and Child Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Tate, Allan D; Draxten, Michelle L; Rowley, Seth S; Schulte, Anna K; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Richard F; Berge, Jerica M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the healthfulness of foods offered at family meals or the relationship between the food's healthfulness and child overall dietary intake. This exploratory study uses a newly developed Healthfulness of Meal Index to examine the association between the healthfulness of foods served at family dinners and child dietary intake. Direct observational, cross-sectional study. Primarily low-income, minority families (n=120) video recorded 8 days of family dinners and completed a corresponding meal screener. Dietary recalls were completed on the target child (6 to 12 years old). The Healthfulness of Meal Index was used to measure meal healthfulness and included component scores for whole fruit, 100% juice, vegetables, dark green vegetables, dairy, protein, added sugars, and high-sodium foods. Child dietary intake measured by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models estimated the association between the healthfulness of foods served at dinner meals and overall child HEI. The majority of coded meals included foods from protein and high-sodium components; more than half included foods from dairy and vegetable components. Nearly half of the meals had an added-sugar component food (eg, soda or dessert). Few meals served foods from fruit, 100% juice, or dark green vegetable components. Many components served at family dinner meals were significantly associated with child daily intake of those same foods (ie, dark green vegetable, non-dark green vegetables, dairy, and added sugars). The Healthfulness of Meal Index total score was significantly associated with child HEI score. This study represents the first report of a new methodology to collect data of foods served at family dinners. Results indicated a significant association between the majority of components served at family dinner meals and child overall dietary intake. Validation of the Healthfulness of Meal Index and video-recorded family meal methodology is needed to strengthen these

  10. What’s Being Served for Dinner?: An Exploratory Investigation of the Associations between the Healthfulness of Family Meals and Child Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C.; Tate, Allan D.; Draxten, Michelle L.; Rowley, Seth S.; Schulte, Anna K.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Richard F.; Berge, Jerica M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the healthfulness of foods offered at family meals or the relationship between the food’s healthfulness and child overall dietary intake. Objective This exploratory study uses a newly-developed Healthfulness of Meal (HOM) index to examine the association between the healthfulness of foods served at family dinners and child dietary intake. Design Direct observational, cross-sectional study. Participants/setting Primarily low-income, minority families (n=120) video-recorded 8 days of family dinners and completed a corresponding meal screener. Dietary recalls were completed on the target child (6–12 years old). The HOM index was used to measure meal healthfulness and included component scores for whole fruit, 100% juice, vegetables, dark green vegetables, dairy, protein, added sugars, and high sodium foods. Main outcome measures Child dietary intake measured by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Statistical analyses performed Linear regression models estimated the association between the foods served at dinner meals and overall child dietary intake. Results The majority of coded meals included foods from protein and high sodium components; over half included foods from dairy and vegetable components. Nearly half of the meals had an added sugar component food (e.g., soda, dessert). Few meals served foods from fruit, 100% juice, or dark green vegetable components. Many components served at family dinner meals were significantly associated with child daily intake of those same foods (i.e., dark green, non-dark green vegetables, dairy, and added sugars). The HOM index total score was significantly associated with child HEI score. Conclusions This study represents the first report of a new methodology to collect data of foods served at family dinners. Results indicated a significant association between the majority of components served at family dinner meals and child overall dietary intake. Validation of the HOM index and video

  11. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  12. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  13. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  14. Development of waste packages for tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop nuclear waste packages that meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's requirements for a licensed repository in tuff at the Nevada Test Site. Selected accomplishments for FY82 are: (1) Selection, collection of rock, and characterization of suitable outcrops (for lab experiments); (2) Rock-water interactions (Bullfrog Tuff); (3) Corrosion tests of ferrous metals; (4) Thermal modeling of waste package in host rock; (5) Preliminary fabrication tests of alternate backfills (crushed tuff); (6) Reviewed Westinghouse conceptual waste package designs for tuff and began modification for unsaturated zone; and (7) Waste Package Codes (BARIER and WAPPA) now running on our computer. Brief discussions are presented for rock-water interactions, corrosion tests of ferrous metals, and thermal and radionuclide migration modelling

  15. MARS software package status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirej, I.L.; Talanov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The MARS software package is intended for simulating the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades and the secondary neutrons and muons transport in the heterogeneous medium of arbitrary complexity in the magnetic fields presence. The inclusive approach to describing the particle production in the nuclear and electromagnetic interactions and by the unstable particles decay is realized in the package. The MARS software package was actively applied for solving various radiation physical problems [ru

  16. Thawed chilled Barents Sea cod fillets in modified atmosphere packaging-application of multivariate data analysis to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Guldager, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice for production of thawed chilled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod (Gadus morhua) fillets. The effect of frozen storage temperature (-20 and -30 C), frozen storage period (3, 6, 9 and 12 mo) and chill...... storage periods up to 21 d at 2 C were evaluated for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod fillets. Sensory, chemical, microbiological and physical quality attributes were evaluated and multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least- squares regression) applied for identification of key...... storage was low for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod and this fish raw material seemed the more appropriate for production of thawed chilled MAP products. Frozen storage inactivation of the spoilage bacteria of Photobacterium phosphorcum was modest in Barnets Sea cod, possibly due to high trimethylamine oxide...

  17. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  18. The ZOOM minimization package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  19. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  20. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  1. In-situ corrosion studies on selected high-level waste packaging materials under simulated disposal conditions in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzkopf, W.; Smailos, E.; Koester, R.

    1988-01-01

    This work reports about in situ corrosion experiments on unalloyed steels, Ti 99,8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, and iron-base alloys, as modular cast iron, Ni-Resist D4 and Si-cast iron, under simulated disposal conditions. The experiments were carried out in the frame of the German/US Brine Migration Test in heated tubed boreholes in the Asse salt mine at T = 150 0 C to 210 0 C, both in the absence and in the presence of a γ-radiation field of 3x10 2 Gy/h (Co-60 source). In addition, the material used to protect the tubing from corrosion (Inconel 600) as well as the backfill material for the annular gap (Al 2 O 3 spheres) were investigated for possible corrosion attack. All materials investigate exhibited high resistance to corrosion under the conditions prevailing in the Brine Migration Test. All material specimens corroded at much lower rates than determined in the previous laboratory-scale tests. All materials and above all the materials with passivating oxide layers such as Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 which may corrode selectively already in the presence of minor amounts of brine had been resistant with respect to any type of local corrosion attack. The γ-radiation of 3x10 2 Gy/h did not exert an influence on the corrosion behaviour of the materials. No corrosion attacks were observed on the Al 2 O 3 spheres. In the case of Inconel 600 traces of sulphur were detected probably resulting from the reaction of Ni with H 2 S to NiS. Measurable general and local corrosion, however, have not been observed. (orig./IHOE) [de

  2. A program to develop packages for long-lived ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Tanabe, H.; Kataoka, S.; Yoshida, T.; Takei, A.; Nakamori, Y.; Sugimoto, M.; Kanno, T.

    2001-01-01

    TRU waste packages development has been conducted from 1998 by RWMC and industries in Japan to establish configuration which comply with the TRU waste disposal concept. 5 waste package concepts were selected through comparison study among over 20 proposals. Those 5 packages are two concrete container types and three metal container types. They were chosen from the view points of engineering feasibility and prospected advantages for repository performance. In this paper, overview of the development plan is introduced, and the design concepts of those 5 waste packages and the results of functional tests for some packages are shown. (author)

  3. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  4. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  5. NRF TRIGA packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reg-sign) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask's small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads

  6. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  7. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  8. The BINSYN Program Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Linnell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The BINSYN program package, recently expanded to calculate synthetic spectra of cataclysmic variables, is being further extended to include synthetic photometry of ordinary binary stars in addition to binary stars with optically thick accretion disks. The package includes a capability for differentials correction optimization of eclipsing binary systems using synthetic photometry.

  9. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-01-01

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described

  10. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  11. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments at wipp.ws for approval

  12. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  13. Associations between family dinner frequency and specific food behaviors among grade six, seven, and eight students from Ontario and Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-05-01

    Family dinner frequency has recently been associated in the literature with improved dietary profiles and healthy body weight in children and adolescents. However, it is not known whether family dinners are associated with other commonly reported food behaviors (fast food and soft drink consumption, breakfast skipping, and dieting) and attitudes (body weight concerns and self-efficacy for healthy eating) among Canadian students in grades 6, 7, and 8. A total of 3223 participants from Northern Ontario (Porcupine Region), Southern Ontario (Peel Region, Region of Waterloo, Toronto District), and Nova Scotia completed the Food Behavior Questionnaire during the 2005-2006 academic school year. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to determine the associations between family dinner frequency and food behaviors and attitudes. Higher family dinner frequency was significantly associated with less soft drink consumption, consuming breakfast on the day of the survey, the absence of a high body weight concern, having higher self-efficacy for healthy eating when at home with family, and during social times with friends. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of these associations when planning family based healthy eating strategies.

  14. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  15. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  16. A Food Handler-Associated, Foodborne Norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012-Outbreak Following a Wedding Dinner, Austria, October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritschnik, Sabine; Kanitz, Elisabeth Eva; Simons, Erica; Höhne, Marina; Neumann, Heidelinde; Allerberger, Franz; Schmid, Daniela; Lederer, Ingeborg

    2013-09-12

    On October 12, 2012, the provincial public health directorate of Salzburg reported a suspected norovirus (NV) outbreak among guests of a wedding-reception. The investigation aimed to confirm the causative agent, to identify the mode of transmission and to implement appropriate preventive measures. A probable outbreak case was defined as a wedding guest with diarrhoea or vomiting with disease onset from 7 to 10 October 2012 and who consumed food at the wedding dinner prepared by a hotel in the province Salzburg on 6 October 2012. A confirmed outbreak case fulfilled the criteria of a probable outbreak case and had a laboratory-confirmed NV infection. We conducted a cohort-investigation among the wedding guests. The case definitions were fulfilled in 26 wedding guests (25 %) including 2 confirmed cases. Females were 3.2 times more likely to develop disease (95 % CI 1.4-7.2) as compared to males. A mushroom dish was found to be associated with disease risk among females (risk ratio 2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.3). Two of 2 tested case-patients and 6 of 14 kitchen workers tested were positive for NV GII.4 Sydney. One kitchen staff-member worked during the wedding dinner despite diarrhoea. No food safety training was documented for the employees and the kitchen staff's restroom was lacking operational facilities for hand hygiene. We report the first investigated outbreak due to GII.4 Sydney, which was likely due to a symptomatic kitchen worker. Gender-specific eating behaviour may have posed female guests at higher risk of NV infection.

  17. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  18. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  19. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  20. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO 2 . The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  2. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  3. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  4. Application of active packaging systems in probiotic foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The packaging of the product has an important role in the protection of the stability of the final product. The use of active packaging system is due to play an increasingly important role by offering numerous and innovative solutions for extending the shelf-life or improve food quality and safety. Methods: On the basis of broad review of the current state of the art in world literature, application of packaging systems in probiotics foods was discussed. Results: In this study presented research and development in packaging systems for probiotics foods, using suitable materials with combine passive with active packaging solutions. Conclusion: Active packages with incorporated oxygen barrier materials or films with selective permeability properties also have potential applications in the packaging of probiotic food products. This is a broad field of research for scientists and industry.

  5. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  6. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  7. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  8. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  9. BCRA R Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCRA is an R package that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  10. Bipartite structure and functional independence of adenovirus type 5 packaging elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, S I; Hearing, P

    1997-01-01

    Selectivity and polarity of adenovirus type 5 DNA packaging are believed to be directed by an interaction of putative packaging factors with the cis-acting adenovirus packaging domain located within the genomic left end (nucleotides 194 to 380). In previous studies, this packaging domain was mutationally dissected into at least seven functional elements called A repeats. These elements, albeit redundant in function, exhibit differences in the ability to support viral packaging, with elements ...

  11. The ENSDF Java Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations

  12. Energy and packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustead, I; Hancock, G F

    1981-01-01

    Information is given on the energy and raw materials required in the production and use of containers used to package beer, cider, and carbonated soft drinks in the United Kingdom. Topics covered include: methodology of energy analysis, primary and secondary fuels, transport, packaging materials, including glass, aluminum, iron, steel, and tinplate, container production, including plastic bottles, distribution of empty containers, filling and packing, distribution, and disposal. (LEW)

  13. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  14. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  15. Cooperation of an RNA Packaging Signal and a Viral Envelope Protein in Coronavirus RNA Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Krishna; Makino, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    Murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) produces a genome-length mRNA, mRNA 1, and six or seven species of subgenomic mRNAs in infected cells. Among these mRNAs, only mRNA 1 is efficiently packaged into MHV particles. MHV N protein binds to all MHV mRNAs, whereas envelope M protein interacts only with mRNA 1. This M protein-mRNA 1 interaction most probably determines the selective packaging of mRNA 1 into MHV particles. A short cis-acting MHV RNA packaging signal is necessary and suffi...

  16. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  17. Radioactive waste packages stored at the Aube facility for low-intermediate activity wastes. A selective and controlled storage; Les colis de dechets radioactifs stockes au centre de stockage FMA de l'Aube. Une stockage selectif et maitrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The waste package is the first barrier designed to protect the man and the environment from the radioactivity contained in wastes. Its design is thus particularly stringent and controlled. This brochure describes the different types of packages for low to intermediate activity wastes like those received and stored at the Aube facility, and also the system implemented by the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) and by waste producers to safely control each step of the design and fabrication of these packages. (J.S.)

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  20. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these

  1. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the 'RH-TRU 72-B cask') and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous

  2. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment: 2001 Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided

  3. Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying, procuring, and using. Procurement and use of packaging using HM-181 regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document addresses procurement of nonbulk packaging used for nonradioactive, hazardous materials that are transported by highway. The basic procedure is the same when making shipments by other modes. However, other sections of the regulations may affect the packaging requirements when shipping by other modes. The variation in requirements is extensive when air transportation is selected. A packaging engineer or transportation specialist should be contacted for guidance wen transport is by a mode other than highway

  4. Application of GA package in functional packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, D. A.; Noskova, E. E.; Kapulin, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The approach to application program for the task of configuration of the elements of the commutation circuit for design of the radio-electronic equipment on the basis of the genetic algorithm is offered. The efficiency of the used approach for commutation circuits with different characteristics for computer-aided design on radio-electronic manufacturing is shown. The prototype of the computer-aided design subsystem on the basis of a package GA for R with a set of the general functions for optimization of multivariate models is programmed.

  5. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  6. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  7. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  8. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  9. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  10. Nucleocapsid-Independent Specific Viral RNA Packaging via Viral Envelope Protein and Viral RNA Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Krishna; Chen, Chun-Jen; Maeda, Junko; Makino, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    For any of the enveloped RNA viruses studied to date, recognition of a specific RNA packaging signal by the virus's nucleocapsid (N) protein is the first step described in the process of viral RNA packaging. In the murine coronavirus a selective interaction between the viral transmembrane envelope protein M and the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, composed of N protein and viral RNA containing a short cis-acting RNA element, the packaging signal, determines the selective RNA packaging into vi...

  11. Development of Specifications for Radioactive Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide guidelines for the development of waste package specifications that comply with waste acceptance requirements for storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It will assist waste generators and waste package producers in selecting the most significant parameters and in developing and implementing specifications for each individual type of waste and waste package. This publication also identifies and reviews the activities and technical provisions that are necessary to meet safety requirements; in particular, selection of the significant safety parameters and preparation of specifications for waste forms, waste containers and waste packages using proven approaches, methods and technologies. This report provides guidance using a systematic, stepwise approach, integrating the technical, organizational and administrative factors that need to be considered at each step of planning and implementing waste package design, fabrication, approval, quality assurance and control. The report reflects the considerable experience and knowledge that has been accumulated in the IAEA Member States and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the safe management of radioactive waste

  12. Development of Specifications for Radioactive Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    The main objective of this publication is to provide guidelines for the development of waste package specifications that comply with waste acceptance requirements for storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It will assist waste generators and waste package producers in selecting the most significant parameters and in developing and implementing specifications for each individual type of waste and waste package. This publication also identifies and reviews the activities and technical provisions that are necessary to meet safety requirements; in particular, selection of the significant safety parameters and preparation of specifications for waste forms, waste containers and waste packages using proven approaches, methods and technologies. This report provides guidance using a systematic, stepwise approach, integrating the technical, organizational and administrative factors that need to be considered at each step of planning and implementing waste package design, fabrication, approval, quality assurance and control. The report reflects the considerable experience and knowledge that has been accumulated in the IAEA Member States and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the safe management of radioactive waste.

  13. Welding robot package; Arc yosetsu robot package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Yaskawa Electric Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the conventional high-speed welding robot, the welding current was controlled mainly for reducing the spatters during short circuits and for stabilizing the beads by the periodic short circuits. However, an increase of deposition amount in response to the speed is required for the high-speed welding. Large-current low-spatter welding current region control was added. Units were integrated into a package by which the arc length is kept in short without dispersion of arc length for welding without defects such as undercut and unequal beads. In automobile industry, use of aluminum parts is extended for the light weight. The welding is very difficult, and automation is not so progressing in spite of the poor environment. Buckling of welding wire is easy to occur, and supply of wire is obstructed by the deposition of chipped powders on the torch cable, which stay within the contact chip resulting in the deposition. Dislocation of locus is easy to occur at the corner of rectangular pipe during the welding. By improving these troubles, an aluminum MIG welding robot package has been developed. 13 figs.

  14. 10 CFR 60.143 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... repository operations area, the environment of the waste packages selected for the waste package monitoring program shall be representative of the environment in which the wastes are to be emplaced. (c) The waste...

  15. 10 CFR 63.134 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....134 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A... geologic repository operations area, the environment of the waste packages selected for the waste package monitoring program must be representative of the environment in which the wastes are to be emplaced. (c) The...

  16. 16 CFR 1700.20 - Testing procedure for special packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... packages shall be tested at room temperature. (2) Child test—(i) Test subjects—(A) Selection criteria. Use... be done in a location that is familiar to the children, for example, their customary nursery school... temperature. 3. Reclosable packages shall be opened and properly resecured one time (or more if appropriate...

  17. Eating breakfast and dinner together as a family: associations with sociodemographic characteristics and implications for diet quality and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; MacLehose, Rich; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Berge, Jerica M; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that adolescents who frequently share evening meals with their families experience more positive health outcomes, including diets of higher nutritional quality. However, little is known about families eating together at breakfast. This study examined sociodemographic differences in family meal frequencies in a population-based adolescent sample. In addition, this study examined associations of family breakfast meal frequency with dietary quality and weight status. Cross-sectional data from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) included anthropometric assessments and classroom-administered surveys completed in 2009-2010. Participants included 2,793 middle and high school students (53.2% girls, mean age=14.4 years) from Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, public schools. Usual dietary intake was self-reported on a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, family dinner frequency, family functioning, and family cohesion were used to examine associations of family breakfast frequency with dietary quality and weight status. On average, adolescents reported having family breakfast meals 1.5 times (standard deviation=2.1) and family dinner meals 4.1 times (standard deviation=2.6) in the past week. There were racial/ethnic differences in family breakfast frequency, with the highest frequencies reported by adolescents of black, Hispanic, Native American, and mixed race/ethnicity. Family breakfast frequency was also positively associated with male sex, younger age, and living in a two-parent household. Family breakfast frequency was associated with several markers of better diet quality (such as higher intake of fruit, whole grains, and fiber) and lower risk for overweight/obesity. For example, adolescents who reported seven family breakfasts in the past week consumed an average of 0.37 additional daily fruit servings compared with adolescents who never had a family breakfast meal

  18. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zheng; Stough, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W e using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated

  19. Waste package characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented.

  20. Waste package characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented

  1. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  2. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-01-01

    requirements of the YMP. Four waste package configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology during the licensing process. These four configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor absorber plate waste package (21-PWRAP), the 44-boiling water reactor waste package (44-BWR), the 5 defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal short waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Short), and the naval canistered SNF long waste package (Naval SNF Long). Design work for the other six waste packages will be completed at a later date using the same design methodology. These include the 24-boiling water reactor waste package (24-BWR), the 21-pressurized water reactor control rod waste package (21-PWRCR), the 12-pressurized water reactor waste package (12-PWR), the 5 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal long waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Long), the 2 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal waste package (2-MC012-DHLW), and the naval canistered SNF short waste package (Naval SNF Short). This report is only part of the complete design description. Other reports related to the design include the design reports, the waste package system description documents, manufacturing specifications, and numerous documents for the many detailed calculations. The relationships between this report and other design documents are shown in Figure 1

  3. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    and operational requirements of the YMP. Four waste package configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology during the licensing process. These four configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor absorber plate waste package (21-PWRAP), the 44-boiling water reactor waste package (44-BWR), the 5 defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal short waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Short), and the naval canistered SNF long waste package (Naval SNF Long). Design work for the other six waste packages will be completed at a later date using the same design methodology. These include the 24-boiling water reactor waste package (24-BWR), the 21-pressurized water reactor control rod waste package (21-PWRCR), the 12-pressurized water reactor waste package (12-PWR), the 5 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal long waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Long), the 2 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal waste package (2-MC012-DHLW), and the naval canistered SNF short waste package (Naval SNF Short). This report is only part of the complete design description. Other reports related to the design include the design reports, the waste package system description documents, manufacturing specifications, and numerous documents for the many detailed calculations. The relationships between this report and other design documents are shown in Figure 1.

  4. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  5. Nirex - The complete package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, N.A.; Rarok, M.

    2002-01-01

    Through continuous interaction with its customers, Nirex had identified the need for a comprehensive range of waste containers, reflecting the variety of wastes and operational undertakings. The current range consists of five standard containers. Standardisation is introduced across all waste packages to enable the safe and efficient operation of future waste management facilities. The practical lessons learned during the development of standard containers are in turn reflected in the container design work that Nirex has undertaken. They are also fed into the advice given to customers during evaluation of waste packaging proposals. (author)

  6. Ada Namelist Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  7. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  8. Eating carbohydrate mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner within a covert hypocaloric diet influences morning glucose homeostasis in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Raquel Duarte Moreira; de Oliveira, Fernanda Cristina Esteves; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, María Angeles; Martínez, José Alfredo; Bressan, Josefina

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of two dietary patterns in which carbohydrates and proteins were eaten mostly at lunch or dinner on body weight and composition, energy metabolism, and biochemical markers in overweight/obese men. Fifty-eight men (30.0 ± 7.4 years; 30.8 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) followed a covert hypocaloric balanced diet (-10 % of daily energy requirements) during 8 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: control diet (CT); diurnal carbohydrate/nocturnal protein (DCNP); and nocturnal carbohydrate/diurnal protein (NCDP). Main analyzed outcomes were weight loss, body composition, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and glucose/lipid profile. In all groups, a significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and fat mass (kg and %) was verified, without differences between groups. Interestingly, within group analyses showed that the fat-free mass (kg) significantly decreased in NCDP and in CT after 8-week intervention, but not in DCNP. A detrimental increase in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was verified only in DCNP, while NCDP and CT groups presented a non-significant reduction. Moreover, significant differences between DCNP and the other groups were detected for fasting insulin and HOMAIR. After the adjustments, NCDP presented a significantly higher DIT and energy expenditure after lunch, compared with DCNP, but after dinner, there were no differences among groups. Eating carbohydrates mostly at dinner and protein mostly at lunch within a hypocaloric balanced diet had similar effect on body composition and biochemical markers, but higher effect on DIT compared with control diet. Moreover, eating carbohydrates mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner had a deleterious impact on glucose homeostasis.

  9. Stevens Institute SYS-625 Final Paper: Busy Parents Need Extremely Fast, Quality Home-Cooked Dinners That Their Kids Will Eat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Carol A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-30

    This study provides a modern take on an age-old need: busy parents need extremely fast, high quality home-cooked dinners that their kids will eat. In the past decade, the number of choices that parents have for filling this need have proliferated, largely due to technological advances. Our study proposes to leverage this technology in building a system geared toward decreasing whining in kids and increasing the sanity of their parents.

  10. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  11. Kinematics Simulation Analysis of Packaging Robot with Joint Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. W.; Meng, W. J.; Wang, L. Q.; Cui, G. H.

    2018-03-01

    Considering the influence of joint clearance on the motion error, repeated positioning accuracy and overall position of the machine, this paper presents simulation analysis of a packaging robot — 2 degrees of freedom(DOF) planar parallel robot based on the characteristics of high precision and fast speed of packaging equipment. The motion constraint equation of the mechanism is established, and the analysis and simulation of the motion error are carried out in the case of turning the revolute clearance. The simulation results show that the size of the joint clearance will affect the movement accuracy and packaging efficiency of the packaging robot. The analysis provides a reference point of view for the packaging equipment design and selection criteria and has a great significance on the packaging industry automation.

  12. Power Electronic Packaging Design, Assembly Process, Reliability and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronic Packaging presents an in-depth overview of power electronic packaging design, assembly,reliability and modeling. Since there is a drastic difference between IC fabrication and power electronic packaging, the book systematically introduces typical power electronic packaging design, assembly, reliability and failure analysis and material selection so readers can clearly understand each task's unique characteristics. Power electronic packaging is one of the fastest growing segments in the power electronic industry, due to the rapid growth of power integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, especially for applications like portable, consumer, home, computing and automotive electronics. This book also covers how advances in both semiconductor content and power advanced package design have helped cause advances in power device capability in recent years. The author extrapolates the most recent trends in the book's areas of focus to highlight where further improvement in materials and techniques can d...

  13. The impact of packaging transparency on product attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sabo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of different levels of packaging transparency on the evaluation of attractiveness of a product within the packaging, in relation to whether it is a healthy or unhealthy product. Consumer preferences during buying decision process were also investigated. The study was conducted by two methods. The first one was related to consumer preferences and was based on a choice task, while the other one was related to packaging attractiveness and was based on subjective evaluation expressed through the Likert scale. Eight samples of packaging were used. They differed according to product type (healthy and unhealthy, and the level of transparency (fully transparent packaging, packaging with two windows, packaging with one window and non-transparent packaging. According to the results, consumers tend to ignore non-transparent packaging, regardless the product healthiness. The findings indicate the importance of thoughtful selection of packaging structure and its material in design process and launching the food products on the retail market.

  14. When dinner is dangerous: toxic frogs elicit species-specific responses from a generalist snake predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ben; Shine, Richard

    2007-12-01

    In arms races between predators and prey, some evolved tactics are unbeatable by the other player. For example, many types of prey are inedible because they have evolved chemical defenses. In this case, prey death removes any selective advantage of toxicity to the prey but not the selective advantage to a predator of being able to consume the prey. In the absence of effective selection for postmortem persistence of the toxicity then, some chemical defenses probably break down rapidly after prey death. If so, predators can overcome the toxic defense simply by waiting for that breakdown before consuming the prey. Floodplain death adders (Acanthophis praelongus) are highly venomous frog-eating elapid snakes native to northern Australia. Some of the frogs they eat are nontoxic (Litoria nasuta), others produce gluelike mucus when seized by a predator (Limnodynastes convexiusculus), and one species (Litoria dahlii) is dangerously toxic to snakes. Both the glue and the toxin degrade within about 20 min of prey death. Adders deal with these prey types in different and highly stereotyped ways: they consume nontoxic frogs directly but envenomate and release the other taxa, waiting until the chemical defense loses its potency before consuming the prey.

  15. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  16. ROBATEL RS 24 packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robatel, M.; Bochard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The ROBATEL RS 24 packaging for light-water reactor fuel assemblies is discussed. The cask uses a strength frame of carbon steel sheets, lead gamma ray shielding, neutron shielding of aluminous concrete, a thermal protection system for the gamma shielding, and a natural convection thermal transfer system

  17. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  18. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  19. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  20. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast

  1. Packaging LLW and ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.; Owen, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Low level waste (LLW) accounts for 70-80% by volume of all radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. It has low specific activity, negligible actinide content and requires little, if any, shielding to protect workers. Volume reduction for LLW of high volume but low density may be achieved by incineration and compaction as appropriate, before packaging for disposal by near surface burial. Intermediate level waste (ILW) is treated and packed to convert it into a stable form to minimize any release of activity and make handling easier. The matrix chosen for immobilization, usually cement, polymers or bitumen, depends on the nature of the waste and the acceptance criteria of the disposal facility. The special case of LLW and ILW which will arise from reactor decommissioning is discussed. Packaging methods adopted by individual countries are reviewed. The range of costs involved for packaging ILW is indicated. There is no international consensus on the performance required from packaged waste to ensure its suitability both for interim storage and final disposal. (UK)

  2. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  3. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests

  4. Printer Graphics Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  5. Type B drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998

  6. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  7. Nuclear waste package design for the Vadose zone in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Gregg, D.W.; Russell, E.W.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the selection and analysis of conceptual waste package designs that will be used by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada Site. The design requirements that the waste packages are required to meet are listed. Concept drawings for the reference designs and one alternative package design are shown. Four metal alloys; 304L SS, 321 SS, 316L SS and Incoloy 825 have been selected for candidate canister/overpack materials, and 1020 carbon steel has been selected as the reference metal for the borehole liners. A summary of the results of technical and economic analysis supporting the selection of the conceptual waste package designs is included. Post-closure containment and release rates are not discussed in this paper. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  8. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  9. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  10. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-01-01

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The current in-package

  11. RNA Encapsidation and Packaging in the Phleboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Hornak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae represents the largest family of segmented RNA viruses, which infect a staggering diversity of plants, animals, and insects. Within the family Bunyaviridae, the Phlebovirus genus includes several important human and animal pathogens, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, Uukuniemi virus (UUKV, and the sandfly fever viruses. The phleboviruses have small tripartite RNA genomes that encode a repertoire of 5–7 proteins. These few proteins accomplish the daunting task of recognizing and specifically packaging a tri-segment complement of viral genomic RNA in the midst of an abundance of host components. The critical nucleation events that eventually lead to virion production begin early on in the host cytoplasm as the first strands of nascent viral RNA (vRNA are synthesized. The interaction between the vRNA and the viral nucleocapsid (N protein effectively protects and masks the RNA from the host, and also forms the ribonucleoprotein (RNP architecture that mediates downstream interactions and drives virion formation. Although the mechanism by which all three genomic counterparts are selectively co-packaged is not completely understood, we are beginning to understand the hierarchy of interactions that begins with N-RNA packaging and culminates in RNP packaging into new virus particles. In this review we focus on recent progress that highlights the molecular basis of RNA genome packaging in the phleboviruses.

  12. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging

  13. Dual Use Packaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  14. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  15. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryter, John Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramaiyan, Kannan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  16. Fair Package Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  17. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  18. Package materials, waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The schedules for waste package development for the various host rocks were presented. The waste form subtask activities were reviewed, with the papers focusing on high-level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel. The following ten papers were presented: (1) Waste Package Development Approach; (2) Borosilicate Glass as a Matrix for Savannah River Plant Waste; (3) Development of Alternative High-Level Waste Forms; (4) Overview of the Transuranic Waste Management Program; (5) Assessment of the Impacts of Spent Fuel Disassembly - Alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System; (6) Reactions of Spent Fuel and Reprocessing Waste Forms with Water in the Presence of Basalt; (7) Spent Fuel Stabilizer Screening Studies; (8) Chemical Interactions of Shale Rock, Prototype Waste Forms, and Prototype Canister Metals in a Simulated Wet Repository Environment; (9) Impact of Fission Gas and Volatiles on Spent Fuel During Geologic Disposal; and (10) Spent Fuel Assembly Decay Heat Measurement and Analysis

  19. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR (section) 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  20. Irradiation of packaged food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  1. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  2. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  3. The CASA Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    CASA is the standard science data analysis package for ALMA and VLA but it can also be used for the analysis of data from other observatories. In this talk, I will give an overview of the structure and features of CASA, who develops it, and the present status and plans, and then show typical analysis workflows for ALMA data with special emphasis on the handling of single dish data and its combination with interferometric data.

  4. The Ettention software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  5. The Ettention software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Dahmen@dfki.de [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marsalek, Lukas [Eyen SE, Na Nivách 1043/16, 141 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marniok, Nico [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Turoňová, Beata [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); IMPRS-CS, Max-Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E 1.4, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Bogachev, Sviatoslav [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Slusallek, Philipp [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  6. Standard Guide for Packaging Materials for Foods to Be Irradiated

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides a format to assist producers and users of food packaging materials in selecting materials that have the desirable characteristics for their intended use and comply with applicable standards or government authorizations. It outlines parameters that should be considered when selecting food-contact packaging materials intended for use during irradiation of prepackaged foods and it examines the criteria for fitness for their use. 1.2 This guide identifies known regulations and regulatory frameworks worldwide pertaining to packaging materials for holding foods during irradiation; but it does not address all regulatory issues associated with the selection and use of packaging materials for foods to be irradiated. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to determine the pertinent regulatory issues in each country where foods are to be irradiated and where irradiated foods are distributed. 1.3 This guide does not address all of the food safety issues associated with the synergisti...

  7. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... "User‐friendly Packaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  8. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  9. Magnetic Dinner Salads: The Role of Biogenic Magnetite in Cryopreservation for Common Food Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, T. M.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Kobayashi, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Biogenically-precipitated magnetite has been found in organisms ranging from Bacteria, single-celled protists, and many of the animal phyla, where its major function is navigation and magnetoreception. To date there is but a single report of biogenic magnetite in plants (essentially, magnetoferritin), and that is in common grass (Festuca species, from Gajdardziska-Josifovska et. al. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2001/0013/0863). Recent developments in cryopreservation suggest that ~ 1 mT, ~ 10 Hz oscillating magnetic fields can drastically reduce ice nucleation during freezing, promote supercooling, and minimize cellular damage in living tissues (e.g., Kaku et al., doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2012.02.001). Kobayashi & Kirschvink (2014, doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2013.12.002) suggest that biogenic magnetite crystals could be the nucleating site for damaging ice crystals, and that they would be driven magneto-mechanically to rotate in those oscillating fields which could inhibit the ice crystal nucleation process. This prompted our investigation into the magnetite content of ordinary fruit and vegetable food products, as knowledge of the natural levels of biogenic magnetite in the human food supply could guide the selection of which foods might work for this type of cryopreservation. Our study involved a range of common foods including avocados, bananas, garlic, and apples. Samples were prepared in a clean lab environment kept free of contaminant particles, and subjected to a variety of standard rock-magnetic tests including IRM and ARM acquisition, and the corresponding Af demagnetization, on a standard 2G™ SRM. Results are consistent with moderately interacting single-domain magnetite (see figure), with moderate inter-particle interaction effects. Typical magnetite concentrations in these samples are in the range of .1 to 1 ng/g for room temperature samples, increasing to the range of 1-10 ng/g when measured frozen (to inhibit thermal rotation of small particles and clumps). If

  10. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  11. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  12. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  13. Packaging - Materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  14. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.

  15. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  16. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.; Cruse, J.M.

    1991-02-01

    To provide uniform packaging of hazardous materials on an international level, the United Nations has developed packaging recommendations that have been implemented worldwide. The United Nations packaging recommendations are performance oriented, allowing for a wide variety of package materials and systems. As a result of this international standard, efforts in the United States are being directed toward use of performance-oriented packaging and elimination of specification (designed) packaging. This presentation will focus on trends, design evaluation, and performance testing of radioactive material packaging. The impacts of US Department of Transportation Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A on specification and low-specific activity radioactive material packaging requirements are briefly discussed. The US Department of Energy's program for evaluating radioactive material packings per US Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A requirements, is used as the basis for discussing low-activity packaging performance test requirements. High-activity package testing requirements are presented with examples of testing performed at the Hanford Site that is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Segmentation and packaging reactor vessels internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucau, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text follows: With more than 25 years of experience in the development of reactor vessel internals and reactor vessel segmentation and packaging technology, Westinghouse has accumulated significant know-how in the reactor dismantling market. The primary challenges of a segmentation and packaging project are to separate the highly activated materials from the less-activated materials and package them into appropriate containers for disposal. Since disposal cost is a key factor, it is important to plan and optimize waste segmentation and packaging. The choice of the optimum cutting technology is also important for a successful project implementation and depends on some specific constraints. Detailed 3-D modeling is the basis for tooling design and provides invaluable support in determining the optimum strategy for component cutting and disposal in waste containers, taking account of the radiological and packaging constraints. The usual method is to start at the end of the process, by evaluating handling of the containers, the waste disposal requirements, what type and size of containers are available for the different disposal options, and working backwards to select a cutting method and finally the cut geometry required. The 3-D models can include intelligent data such as weight, center of gravity, curie content, etc, for each segmented piece, which is very useful when comparing various cutting, handling and packaging options. The detailed 3-D analyses and thorough characterization assessment can draw the attention to material potentially subject to clearance, either directly or after certain period of decay, to allow recycling and further disposal cost reduction. Westinghouse has developed a variety of special cutting and handling tools, support fixtures, service bridges, water filtration systems, video-monitoring systems and customized rigging, all of which are required for a successful reactor vessel internals

  18. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  19. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A 2 s) and is a type B packaging

  20. Beneficial effect of high energy intake at lunch rather than dinner on weight loss in healthy obese women in a weight-loss program: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2016-10-01

    The association between the time of nutrient intake and health has been described in a few studies. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the relation between high energy intakes at lunch compared with at dinner on weight loss in overweight and obese subjects. We compared the effect of high energy intake at lunch with that at dinner on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in women during a weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 80; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 27-35; age: 18-45 y] were asked to eat either a main meal at lunch (LM) or a main meal at dinner (DM) for 12 wk while in a weight-loss program. A total of 80 participants were randomly assigned to one of 2 intervention groups. Sixty-nine subjects (86%) completed the trial (34 subjects in the DM group, and 35 subjects in the LM group). Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups. A significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over 12 wk in both groups. Compared with the DM group, the LM group had greater mean ± SD reductions in weight (LM: -5.85 ± 1.96 kg; DM: -4.35 ± 1.98 kg; P = 0.003), BMI (LM: 2.27± 0.76; DM: 1.68 ± 0.76; P = 0.003), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (LM: -0.66 ± 0.33; DM: -0.46 ± 0.24; P = 0.001), and fasting insulin (LM: -2.01 ± 1.10 mIU/mL; DM: -1.16 ± 0.72 mIU/mL; P dinner may result in favorable changes in weight loss in overweight and obese women after a weight-loss program of 12 wk. The consumption may also offer clinical benefits to improve insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02399280. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. THE SOFTWARE PACKAGE FOR DATA STREAM SCRAMBLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kadiev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. It is proposed a software package for multivariate stepwise transformation of the text flow in order to increase resistance to protect against unauthorized access, and a package to restore the converted text. The basis of the proposals: the formation of nxn-array from the elements of a data flow, preliminary transposition of the array elements to form an array, each row and each column of which includes one and one only element from each row and each column of the source array, following reading on the options selected by the user.Package for direct conversion includes: a module for forming an array from the input flow; transposition module of array elements according to the scheme of Latin squares; reading module of rows or columns of the array to one of the following algorithms: sequential reading; reading of rows or columns with even indices and then odd ones;reading the row or column with odd indices, and then the even; reading at random route, which is generated by the program; reading at the route determined by the user.Package for restoring of the original message by the inverse transform comprises: a channel array forming module from the data flow; recovery module from the channel array - the array of Latin square type; the original array module; the original message restoring module. 

  2. HPLOT: the graphics interface package for the HBOOK histogramming package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, H.

    1978-01-01

    The subroutine package HPLOT described in this report, enables the CERN histogramming package HBOOK to produce high-quality pictures by means of high-resolution devices such as plotters. HPLOT can be implemented on any scientific computing system with a Fortran IV compiler and can be interfaced with any graphics package; spectral routines in addition to the basic ones enable users to embellish their histograms. Examples are also given of the use of HPLOT as a graphics package for plotting simple pictures without histograms. (Auth.)

  3. The Ettention software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  5. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  6. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  7. Packaging supplier inspection guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.; Gregg, R.E.; Kido, C.; Boyle, C.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is document is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportations packaging suppliers, where suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users, or owners of transportation packaging. This document can be used during an inspection to determine regulatory compliance within the requirements of 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Subpart H (10 CFR 71.101--71.135). The guidance described in this document provides a framework for an inspection. It provides the inspector with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts presented here to meet the needs of the particular facility being inspected. The guide was developed to ensure a structured and consistent approach for inspections. The method treats each activity at a supplier facility as a separate entity (or functional element), and combines the activities within the framework of an ''inspection tree.'' The method separates each functional element into several areas of performance and then identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to be used to qualitatively rate each area. This document was developed to serve as a field manual to facilitate the work of inspectors. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. Tamper indicating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  9. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  10. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-06100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-11-07

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-06100. This package was selected for examination based on several characteristics: - This was the first destructively examined package in which the fiberboard assembly was fabricated from softwood fiberboard. - The package contained a relatively high heat load to contribute to internal temperature, which is a key environmental factor for fiberboard degradation. - The package has been stored in the middle or top of a storage array since its receipt in K- Area, positions that would contribute to increased service temperatures. No significant changes were observed for attributes that were measured during both field surveillance and destructive examination. Except for the axial gap, all observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. The axial gap met the 1 inch maximum criterion during field surveillance, but was just over the criterion during SRNL measurements. When re-measured at a later date, it again met the criterion. The bottom of the lower fiberboard assembly and the drum interior had two small stains at matching locations, suggestive of water intrusion. However, the fiberboard assembly did not contain any current evidence of excess moisture. No evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. Despite exposure to the elevated temperatures of this higher-then-average wattage package, properties of the fiberboard and O-rings are consistent with those of new packages.

  11. Delahunt Dinner Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Delahunt

    2017-01-01

    “After liquids came solids,” and our aim is to provide the best seasonal, local produce in a relaxed and welcoming setting. In keeping with the buildings Victorian origins, our menus are influenced by traditional and often overlooked cookery techniques. Home curing and smoking, slow cooked braises, savoury puddings and pies, pickles, preserves, traditional desserts and bread-making are some of our specialties.
 Championing small local producers is an essential part of our ethos. Our Head C...

  12. International Dinner / Gerli Punison

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punison, Gerli

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna ülikooli ajaloo instituudis toimunud üritusest, mille käigus said Eestisse õppima tulnud välistudengid tutvuda kohalike traditsioonidega, proovida siinseid toite ning omakorda tutvustada enda maa tavasid ja rahvusroogi

  13. Oliver Heaviside's "Dinner"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorello, Giulio; Sinigaglia, Corrado

    In the following pages we begin, in the first chapter, with a reappraisal of some ideas of Edouard Le Roy about mathematical experience, mainly in relation with the history of complex numbers. In the second chapter we discuss in some detail the i-story, and we draw a comparison between "Imaginary Quantity" and Operational Calculus from the perspective of Heaviside's conceptions of the growth of mathematics. In the third chapter we reconstruct the δ-story, i.e. the Heaviside calculus leading to the constitution of a new mathematical object, the so-called Dirac's δ-function. Finally, in the last chapter, we bring together methodological and historical considerations in order to support Lakatos' idea of quasi-empiricism in mathematics.

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on food packaging materials and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welle, F.; Franz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Tests have shown that ionizing radiation induces a characteristic smell in the packaging laminates which also affects the simulated foods used, which however were relatively neutral in flavour, so that the tests represent the worst case. The paper explains that due to the various additives used in the production of the plastic packaging materials, the same types of polymers may react differently to the ionizing radiation, so that the results obtained from the tests are not suitable for general application. It is recommended to very carefully select the suitable packaging material for given foods and intended irradiation processes. Aspects of particular importance are discusses. (orig./CB) [de

  15. K east encapsulation packager modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Supporting Document analyzes a proposal for reducing the under-packager volume to decrease the amount of fissile material that could accumulate there. The analysis shows that restricting the under packager volume to no more than 4080 in 3 will assure that if accumulated fissile material beneath the packager is added to the worst-case mass of fissile material in the discharge chute, a k eff of 0.98 will not be exceeded

  16. System issues for multichip packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Maurice G.; Hartley, Neil

    1991-04-01

    It is now generally recognised that the performance of an electronic system is governed by the choice of packaging technology. Never before have the technical and financial implications of a packaging technology choice been more critical and never before has technology interdependence or industry globalisation made the choice more difficult. This paper is aimed at examining the choices available and the system issues resulting from the move from single chip to multichip packaging.

  17. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  18. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H 2 O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  19. Packaging of control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, K.; Kobal, M.; Saje, N.; Zagar, A.; Sabjan, R.; Di Maio, F.; Stepanov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Control system software consists of several parts - the core of the control system, drivers for integration of devices, configuration for user interfaces, alarm system, etc. Once the software is developed and configured, it must be installed to computers where it runs. Usually, it is installed on an operating system whose services it needs, and also in some cases dynamically links with the libraries it provides. Operating system can be quite complex itself - for example, a typical Linux distribution consists of several thousand packages. To manage this complexity, we have decided to rely on Red Hat Package Management system (RPM) to package control system software, and also ensure it is properly installed (i.e., that dependencies are also installed, and that scripts are run after installation if any additional actions need to be performed). As dozens of RPM packages need to be prepared, we are reducing the amount of effort and improving consistency between packages through a Maven-based infrastructure that assists in packaging (e.g., automated generation of RPM SPEC files, including automated identification of dependencies). So far, we have used it to package EPICS, Control System Studio (CSS) and several device drivers. We perform extensive testing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5, but we have also verified that packaging works on CentOS and Scientific Linux. In this article, we describe in greater detail the systematic system of packaging we are using, and its particular application for the ITER CODAC Core System. (authors)

  20. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  1. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents

  2. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  3. ORNL's DCAL software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has released its Dose and Risk Calculation software, DCAL. DCAL, developed with the support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, consists of a series of computational modules, driven in either an interactive or a batch mode for computation of dose and risk coefficients from intakes of radionuclides or exposure to radionuclides in environmental media. The software package includes extensive libraries of biokinetic and dosimetric data that represent the current state of the art. The software has unique capability for addressing intakes of radionuclides by non-adults. DCAL runs as 32-bit extended DOS and console applications under Windows 98/NT/2000/XP. It is intended for users familiar with the basic elements of computational radiation dosimetry. Components of DCAL have been used to prepare U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Reports 12 and 13 and several publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  4. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  5. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  6. Awareness and Use of Nutrition Information on Labels of Packaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The awareness and use of nutrition information on labels of packaged food snacks by commuters on Aba Road – Port Harcourt was investigated. Methodology: Purposive sampling was used to select two (2) heavy traffic zones among others from the road. Simple random sampling was used to select 200 ...

  7. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Kutsuma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria, and proteinuria in a cross-sectional study of 60,800 Japanese adults aged 20–75 years. A total of 14,068 subjects (23.1% skipped breakfast, of whom approximately half (52.8% skipped breakfast alone (without LNDE. The percentages of subjects who skipped breakfast showed a J-shaped relationship with body mass index (BMI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE (n = 6,645 was significantly associated with MetS and proteinuria, even after adjusting for relevant confounders (odds ratio (95% CI, 1.17 (1.08–1.28, P=0.0003, and 1.37 (1.24–1.52, P<0.0001, resp.. Skipping breakfast alone and LNDE alone were not associated with MetS and proteinuria, respectively. In conclusion, habitual breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE may represent poorer eating behavior than skipping breakfast alone, associated with MetS, asymptomatic proteinuria, obesity, and low body weight in the general Japanese population.

  8. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuma, Ayano; Nakajima, Kei; Suwa, Kaname

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE) was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria), and proteinuria in a cross-sectional study of 60,800 Japanese adults aged 20-75 years. A total of 14,068 subjects (23.1%) skipped breakfast, of whom approximately half (52.8%) skipped breakfast alone (without LNDE). The percentages of subjects who skipped breakfast showed a J-shaped relationship with body mass index (BMI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE (n = 6,645) was significantly associated with MetS and proteinuria, even after adjusting for relevant confounders (odds ratio (95% CI), 1.17 (1.08-1.28), P = 0.0003, and 1.37 (1.24-1.52), P < 0.0001, resp.). Skipping breakfast alone and LNDE alone were not associated with MetS and proteinuria, respectively. In conclusion, habitual breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE may represent poorer eating behavior than skipping breakfast alone, associated with MetS, asymptomatic proteinuria, obesity, and low body weight in the general Japanese population.

  9. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  10. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  11. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  12. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  13. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed pursuant...

  14. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions. (a) Package size limitation. Due to the toxicity associated with fluoride active ingredients, the... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package size...

  15. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO 2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO 2 , plants' response to elevated CO 2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  16. Recycling of Polymer-Based Multilayer Packaging: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaiser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based multilayer packaging materials are commonly used in order to combine the respective performance of different polymers. By this approach, the tailored functionality of packaging concepts is created to sufficiently protect sensitive food products and thus obtain extended shelf life. However, because of their poor recyclability, most multilayers are usually incinerated or landfilled, counteracting the efforts towards a circular economy and crude oil independency. This review depicts the current state of the European multilayer packaging market and sketches the current end-of-life situation of postconsumer multilayer packaging waste in Germany. In the main section, a general overview of the state of research about material recycling of different multilayer packaging systems is provided. It is divided into two subsections, whereby one describes methods to achieve a separation of the different components, either by delamination or the selective dissolution–reprecipitation technique, and the other describes methods to achieve recycling by compatibilization of nonmiscible polymer types. While compatibilization methods and the technique of dissolution–reprecipitation are already extensively studied, the delamination of packaging has not been investigated systematically. All the presented options are able to recycle multilayer packaging, but also have drawbacks like a limited scope or a high expenditure of energy.

  17. Structural dynamics of retroviral genome and the packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Miyake, Ariko; Nomaguchi, Masako; Adachi, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Retroviruses can cause diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, and tumors, but are also used as vectors for human gene therapy. All retroviruses, except foamy viruses, package two copies of unspliced genomic RNA into their progeny viruses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of retroviral genome packaging will aid the design of new anti-retroviral drugs targeting the packaging process and improve the efficacy of retroviral vectors. Retroviral genomes have to be specifically recognized by the cognate nucleocapsid domain of the Gag polyprotein from among an excess of cellular and spliced viral mRNA. Extensive virological and structural studies have revealed how retroviral genomic RNA is selectively packaged into the viral particles. The genomic area responsible for the packaging is generally located in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), and contains dimerization site(s). Recent studies have shown that retroviral genome packaging is modulated by structural changes of RNA at the 5' UTR accompanied by the dimerization. In this review, we focus on three representative retroviruses, Moloney murine leukemia virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2, and describe the molecular mechanism of retroviral genome packaging.

  18. Structural dynamics of retroviral genome and the packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki eMiyazaki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses can cause diseases such as AIDS, leukemia and tumors, but are also used as vectors for human gene therapy. All retroviruses, except foamy viruses, package two copies of unspliced genomic RNA into their progeny viruses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of retroviral genome packaging will aid the design of new anti-retroviral drugs targeting the packaging process and improve the efficacy of retroviral vectors. Retroviral genomes have to be specifically recognized by the cognate nucleocapsid (NC domain of the Gag polyprotein from among an excess of cellular and spliced viral mRNA. Extensive virological and structural studies have revealed how retroviral genomic RNA is selectively packaged into the viral particles. The genomic area responsible for the packaging is generally located in the 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR, and contains dimerization site(s. Recent studies have shown that retroviral genome packaging is modulated by structural changes of RNA at the 5’ UTR accompanied by the dimerization. In this review, we focus on three representative retroviruses, Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and 2 (HIV-2, and describe the molecular mechanism of retroviral genome packaging.

  19. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  20. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  1. Perfume Packaging, Seduction and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Petersson McIntyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gender and cultural sense-making in relation to perfumes and their packaging. Gendered meanings of seduction, choice, consumption and taste are brought to the fore with the use of go-along interviews with consumers in per-fume stores. Meeting luxury packages in this feminized environment made the interviewed women speak of bottles as objects to fall in love with and they de-scribed packages as the active part in an act of seduction where they were expect-ing packages to persuade them into consumption. The interviewed men on the other hand portrayed themselves as active choice-makers and stressed that they were always in control and not seduced by packaging. However, while their ways of explaining their relationship with packaging on the surface seems to confirm cultural generalizations in relation to gender and seduction, the article argues that letting oneself be seduced is no less active than seducing. Based on a combination of actor network theories and theories of gender performativity the article points to the agency of packaging for constructions of gender and understands the inter-viewees as equally animated by the flows of passion which guide their actions.

  2. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Schmitt

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages

  3. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation's hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation's system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations

  4. Book of Knowledge (BOK) for NASA Electronic Packaging Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to update the NASA roadmap on packaging technologies (initially released in 2007) and to present the current trends toward further reducing size and increasing functionality. Due to the breadth of work being performed in the area of microelectronics packaging, this report presents only a number of key packaging technologies detailed in three industry roadmaps for conventional microelectronics and a more recently introduced roadmap for organic and printed electronics applications. The topics for each category were down-selected by reviewing the 2012 reports of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS), the 2013 roadmap reports of the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI), the 2013 roadmap of association connecting electronics industry (IPC), the Organic Printed Electronics Association (OE-A). The report also summarizes the results of numerous articles and websites specifically discussing the trends in microelectronics packaging technologies.

  5. 2015 4th China Academic Conference on Printing and Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2015, 4th China Academic Conference on Printing and Packaging, which was held on October 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, China. The conference was jointly organized by the China Academy of Printing Technology, Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, and Hangzhou Dianzi University. With 3 keynote talks and 200 presented papers on graphic communications, packaging technologies and materials, the conference attracted more than 400 scientists.  These proceedings cover the recent research outcomes on color science and technology, image-processing technology, digital-media technology, printing-engineering technology, packaging-engineering technology etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, materials science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  6. 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Yun; Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie

    2017-01-01

    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology, held on November 25-27, 2016 in Xi’an, China. The conference was jointly organized by China Academy of Printing Technology, Xi’an University of Technology and Stuttgart Media University of Germany. The proceedings cover the recent outcomes on color science and technology, image processing technology, digital media technology, digital process management technology in packaging and packaging etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, material science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  8. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....

  9. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  10. Destructive examination of shipping package 9975-02101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on the components of shipping package 9975-02101 as part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program. This package is one of ten high-wattage packages that were selected for field surveillance in FY15, and was identified to contain several non-conforming conditions. Most of these conditions (mold, stains, drum corrosion, calculated fiberboard dimensions and fiberboard damage) relate to the accumulation of water in the outer and lower portions of the cane fiberboard assembly. In the short term, this causes local but reversible changes in the fiberboard properties. Long-term effects can include the permanent loss of fiberboard properties (thus far observed only in the bottom fiberboard layers) and reduced drum integrity due to corrosion. The observed conditions must be fully evaluated by KAC to ensure the safety function of the package is being maintained. Three of the other nine FY15 high-wattage packages examined in the K-Area Complex showed similar behavior. Corrosion of the overpack drum has been seen primarily in those packages with relatively severe fiberboard degradation. Visual examination of the drums in storage for external corrosion should be considered as a screening tool to identify additional packages with potential fiberboard degradation. Where overpack drum corrosion has been observed, it is typically heaviest adjacent to the stitch welds along the bottom edge. It is possible that changes to the stitch weld design would reduce the degree of corrosion in this area, but would not eliminate it. Several factors can contribute to the concentration of moisture in the fiberboard, including higher than average initial moisture content, higher internal temperature (due to internal heat load and placement with the array of packages), and the creation of additional moisture as the fiberboard begins to degrade.

  11. Packaging the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newson, Roy; Lewis, Meriel

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Traditionally, when the nuclear industry produces a brochure or video programme, the platform of our arguments is reasoned, factual, abstract, far-sighted and convoluted. It is all about things and processes: energy plants, machinery, numbers and percentages. Yet we know that people are interested only in people, in emotions, in reality, and in basic values about next week or next month. And this is probably the biggest incongruity. Our painstaking, in-depth research backed by technical evidence and statistics is no match for the other side's anecdotal speech making. Our perfectly designed graphics cannot compete against those visual cliches that can give instant life to an abstract idea. In the UK, pioneering work for the British Nuclear Forum's, the Nuclear Industry Education Programme (NIEP) breaks through the traditional approach, allowing passion and feeling to stimulate debate. Material about nuclear power produced for young people often promotes knowledge acquisition about particular aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle without conceptual or value change. NIEP materials build on the experience of developing packages that fully meet curriculum objectives, follow educational best practice, and place nuclear power in a real energy context. But they also make a positive contribution to the meaning a young person attaches to a concept such as radiation. Essentially, the materials are in tune with the way young people make sense of their experience of the real world and the issues in it. For further information about AEA Technology's public acceptance programmes, contact: Roy Newson or Meriel Lewis on +44 235 433650, fax +44 235 432123. (author)

  12. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  13. Applications of Active Packaging in Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Göncü

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes on consumer preferences lead to innovations and improvements in new packaging technologies. With these new developments passive packaging technologies aiming to protect food nowadays have left their place to active and intelligent packaging technologies that have other various functions beside protection of food. Active packaging is defined as an innovative packaging type and its usage increases the shelf life of food significantly. Applications of active packaging have begun to be used for packaging of breads. In this study active packaging applications in breads have been reviewed.

  14. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  15. Dual Use Packaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  16. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  17. CompareTests-R package

    Science.gov (United States)

    CompareTests is an R package to estimate agreement and diagnostic accuracy statistics for two diagnostic tests when one is conducted on only a subsample of specimens. A standard test is observed on all specimens.

  18. Packages for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. de.

    1983-01-01

    The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The packages of preliminary design was analysed, by computer, under several conditions arising out of its nature, as well as their conditions descent, dumping and durability in the deep of sea. The designed pressure equalization mechanic and the effect compacting on the package, by prototypes and specific tests, were studied. These prototypes were also submitted to the transport tests of the 'Regulament for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'. Based on results of the testes and the re-evaluation of the preliminary design, final indications and specifications for excuting the package design, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  20. Structural determinants and mechanism of HIV-1 genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Heng, Xiao; Summers, Michael F

    2011-07-22

    Like all retroviruses, the human immunodeficiency virus selectively packages two copies of its unspliced RNA genome, both of which are utilized for strand-transfer-mediated recombination during reverse transcription-a process that enables rapid evolution under environmental and chemotherapeutic pressures. The viral RNA appears to be selected for packaging as a dimer, and there is evidence that dimerization and packaging are mechanistically coupled. Both processes are mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid domains of a small number of assembling viral Gag polyproteins and RNA elements within the 5'-untranslated region of the genome. A number of secondary structures have been predicted for regions of the genome that are responsible for packaging, and high-resolution structures have been determined for a few small RNA fragments and protein-RNA complexes. However, major questions regarding the RNA structures (and potentially the structural changes) that are responsible for dimeric genome selection remain unanswered. Here, we review efforts that have been made to identify the molecular determinants and mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome packaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  2. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    "AliPDU Package" is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  3. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AliPDU Package is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  4. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  5. TRU waste transportation package development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakes, R.G.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Sutherland, S.H.; Duffey, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Inventories of the transuranic wastes buried or stored at various US DOE sites are tabulated. The leading conceptual design of Type-B packaging for contact-handled transuranic waste is the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT), a large metal container comprising inner and outer tubular steel frameworks which are separated by rigid polyurethane foam and sheathed with steel plate. Testing of TRUPACT is reported. The schedule for its development is given. 6 figures

  6. Food Packaging for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén

    2011-01-01

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue. This thesis focuses on the functions of packagin...

  7. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  8. Packagings in the silicon era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Mione, A.; Orsini, A.; Forasassi, G.

    1993-01-01

    ENEA is studying, with the collaboration of the DCMN of the Pisa University, a new packaging to collect wastes in various facilities while proceeding to find a final disposal. Following a survey on the wastes that could be transported in the future, it was agreed to design a packaging able to contain an industrial drum, with a maximum capacity of 220 litres and a total weight less than 4000 N, previously filled with solid wastes in bulk or in a solid binding material. The packaging, to be approved as a Type B in agreement with the IAEA Regulations, will be useful to transport not only radioactive wastes but any kind of dangerous goods and also those not in agreement with the UNO Regulations. The 1/2 scale model of the packaging is formed by two concentric vessels of mild steel obtained by welding commercial shells to cylindrical walls and joined through a flange. The new packaging under development presents features that seem to be proper for its envisaged waste collection main use such as construction simplicity, relatively low cost, time and use endurance, low maintenance requirements. The design analysis and testing program ongoing at present allowed for the preliminary definition of the packaging geometry and confirmed the necessity of further investigations in some key areas as the determination of actual behaviour of the silicon foam, used as energy absorbing/thermal insulating material, in the specific conditions of interest. (J.P.N.)

  9. An empirical study on the relationship of purchasing a chocolate based on its packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is one of popular gifts among people in many societies. Packaging of such product plays an important role on marketing this item and the primary question of this survey is to determine the impact of packaging on better introducing a product. The inference statistical tests show that packaging is an important item in selection of chocolate as a gift. Percentage of chocolate is the most important information on packaging and color of packaging is of paramount significance when customers purchase chocolate for individuals with official relationship. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of chocolates' packaging on purchasing them. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes them among different people. The results are analyzed using some non-parametric tests and they are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that the number of purchased packages within a year, cost of purchasing chocolate within a year, type of relationship of recipients of chocolate as gift, gender of recipient of chocolate as gift, age group of recipient of gift, type of store, nationality of chocolate, significance of packaging in various price ranges, type of packaging, insertion of information on package and color of packaging, are important factors influencing people to buy more.

  10. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2017-08-01

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. NWTS waste package program plan. Volume II. Program logic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This document describes the work planned for developing the technology to design, test and produce packages used for the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in deep geologic repositories. Waste forms considered include spent fuel and high-level waste. The testing and selection effort for barrier materials for radionuclide containment is described. The NWTS waste package program is a design-driven effort; waste package conceptual designs are used as input for preliminary designs, which are upgraded to a final design as materials and testing data become available. Performance assessment models are developed and validated. Milestones and a detailed schedule are given for the waste package development effort. Program logic networks defining work flow, interfaces among the NWTS Projects, and interrelationships of specific activities are presented. Detailed work elements are provided for the Waste Package Program Plan subtasks - design and development, waste form, barrier materials, and performance evaluation - for salt and basalt, host rocks for which the state of waste package knowledge and the corresponding data base are advanced

  12. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect the...

  13. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products...

  14. 76 FR 30551 - Specifications for Packagings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... design qualification test and each periodic retest on a packaging, a test report must be prepared. The... where the design qualification tests are conducted, for as long as the packaging is produced and for at... report; (5) Manufacturer of the packaging; (6) Description of the packaging design type (e.g. dimensions...

  15. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  16. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alstine, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 711 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition2. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of energy (DOE) Order 5480.33 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.94 and 7.10.5

  17. Safety analysis report - packages 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alstine, M.N.

    1997-10-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B( ), 9968 B( ), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 71 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B(), 9968 B(), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.3 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.9 and 7.10

  18. Study of stowage of radioactive materials packagings in accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, G.; Gilles, P.; Phalippou, C.; Pouard, M.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1987-03-01

    The study of transport conditions shows that few data are available on accidental conditions. Two types of accidents are selected and defined by calculations and tests. Sizing of stowage is determined for a frontal shock (35 g deceleration), maintaining the packaging on the vehicle, and side shock rupture of the stowage system for a determined stress. Mathematical formulations are developed [fr

  19. International Inventory of Software Packages in the Information Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Carl, Ed.; Sered, Irina, Ed.

    Designed to provide guidance in selecting appropriate software for library automation, information storage and retrieval, or management of bibliographic databases, this inventory describes 188 computer software packages. The information was obtained through a questionnaire survey of 600 software suppliers and developers who were asked to describe…

  20. Reference waste package environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of ∼230 0 C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment

  1. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two regulatory philosophies, one based on 'specification' packaging standards and the other based on 'performance' packaging standards, currently define the hazmat packaging certification process. A main concern when setting performance standards is determining the appropriate standards necessary to assure adequate public protection. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration. In this project, the current bulk packagings (larger than 2000 gallons) for transporting Materials Extremely Toxic By Inhalation (METBI) are being evaluated and performance standards will be recommended. A computer software system, HazCon, has been developed which can calculate the dispersion of dense, neutral, and buoyant gases. HazCon also has a database of thermodynamic and toxicity data for the METBI materials, a user-friendly menu-driven format for creating input data sets for calculating dispersion of the METBI in the event of an accidental release, and a link between the METBI database and the dense gas dispersion code (which requires thermodynamic properties). The primary output of HazCon is a listing of mass concentrations of the released material at distances downwind from the release point. (J.P.N.)

  2. Nanocellulose in green food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarinho, Fernanda; Sanches Silva, Ana; Vaz, M Fátima; Farinha, José Paulo

    2017-01-26

    The development of packaging materials with new functionalities and lower environmental impact is now an urgent need of our society. On one hand, the shelf-life extension of packaged products can be an answer to the exponential increase of worldwide demand for food. On the other hand, uncertainty of crude oil prices and reserves has imposed the necessity to find raw materials to replace oil-derived polymers. Additionally, consumers' awareness toward environmental issues increasingly pushes industries to look with renewed interest to "green" solutions. In response to these issues, numerous polymers have been exploited to develop biodegradable food packaging materials. Although the use of biopolymers has been limited due to their poor mechanical and barrier properties, these can be enhanced by adding reinforcing nanosized components to form nanocomposites. Cellulose is probably the most used and well-known renewable and sustainable raw material. The mechanical properties, reinforcing capabilities, abundance, low density, and biodegradability of nanosized cellulose make it an ideal candidate for polymer nanocomposites processing. Here we review the potential applications of cellulose based nanocomposites in food packaging materials, highlighting the several types of biopolymers with nanocellulose fillers that have been used to form bio-nanocomposite materials. The trends in nanocellulose packaging applications are also addressed.

  3. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  4. Function Package for Computing Quantum Resource Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a function package for to calculate quantum resource measures and dynamics of open systems. Our package includes common operators and operator lists, frequently-used functions for computing quantum entanglement, quantum correlation, quantum coherence, quantum Fisher information and dynamics in noisy environments. We briefly explain the functions of the package and illustrate how to use the package with several typical examples. We expect that this package is a useful tool for future research and education.

  5. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluisveld, M.A.E.; Worrell, E.

    2013-01-01

    The European Council Directive 94/62/EC for Packaging and Packaging Waste requires that Member States implement packaging waste prevention measures. However, consumption and subsequently packaging waste figures are still growing annually. It suggests that policies to accomplish packaging waste

  6. Radiation sterilization and food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beams offers a number of benefits to be consumer and to the food industry. Low doses can delay fruit ripening while higher doses can reduce or eliminate pathrogenic microorganisms and control insect infestation. However, ionizing radiations are known to have an effect on the plastics used for food packaging, especially PVC and polyethylene. This chapter looks at food irradiation generally, including legislation on the irradiation of food packaging materials. The effect on specific polymers (PVC, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamides and flexible laminates) is then considered. It is concluded that few of the plastics used for food packaging are significantly affected by an overall average dose of 10KGy, the maximum likely for the irradiation of prepackaged food in the United Kingdom. (UK)

  7. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF MANUFACTURING STRATEGY OF PACKAGING PRODUCT-MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip P. Patil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents finding of a survey on manufacturing strategy implementation (MSI adopted by the Indian packaging product manufacturing companies (IPPMC. Though the companies differ in terms of prod uct types (shape, method, content and material of packaging, conversion system, sales volume and sophistication of machinery used, they share common purpose that are used for packaging the product s . With growth in demand for consumer products, packaging f orms basis of differentiating products from competitors. The survey shows emphasis on implementation of manufacturing strategy, key decision areas, identifies competitive priorities, order winners. To get insight, three companies are selected for detailed case studies.

  8. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  9. Industrial packaging and assembly infrastructure for MOEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeren, Henne

    2004-01-01

    , packaging and assembly is from nature application specific and solutions found are not always transferable from one product to another. But designers can often benefit from experience from other and general available technologies. A number of companies offer packaging and assembly services for MEMS/MST and this report give typical examples of those commercial services. The companies range from small start-ups, offering very specialized services, to large semiconductor packaging companies, having production lines for microsystem based products. Selecting the proper packaging method may tip the scales towards a product success or towards a product failure, while it nearly always present s a substantial part of the cost of the product. This is therefore is not a marginal concern, but a crucial part of the product design. The presentation will also address mayor trends and technologies. Finally, the article provides sufficient levels of classification and categorisation for various aspects for the technologies, in specific, and the industry, in general, to provide particularly useful insights into the activities and the developments in this market. With over 50 companies studied and assessed, it provides an up to date account of the state of this business and its future potential.

  10. CRRES microelectronics test package (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, E.G.; Ray, K.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Microelectronics Test Package (MEP) flown on board the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) contained over 60 device types and approximately 400 total devices which were tested for both single event upset (SEU) and total dose (parametric degradation and annealing). A description of the experiment, the method of testing devices, and the structure of data acquisition are presented. Sample flight data are shown. These included SEUs from a GaAs 1 K RAM during the March 1991 solar flare, and a comparison between passive shielding and a specially designed spot shielding package

  11. Project monitoring package (PMP) : A package for project activity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, K.N.; Kannan, A.; Susandhi, R.; Basu, S.

    1987-01-01

    A package for preparing PERT/CPM network diagrams has been written for PDP-11/34. The program uses PLOT-10 library calls for device interfacing. The package is essentially non-interactive in nature, and reads input data in the form of activity description and duration. It calculates the critical path time and performs time scaling of the events. The report gives a brief outline of the logic used, a sample plot and tabular output for reference. An additional facility for performing project activity monitoring has also been implemented. Activity monitoring generally requires various reports such as feed back reports from various group co-ordinators, information report for project co-ordinator and brief periodical reports for management. A package 'DATATRIEVE' (DTR) on PDP-11/34 system is utilized for generating the above mentioned reports. As DTR can also use normal sequential files, an interfacing program has been written which reformats the files accepted by PERT program acceptable to DTR. Various types of reports as generated by DTR are included. However this part of the package is not transportable and can be implemented only on systems having DTR. 6 figures. (author)

  12. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packaging refers to a package that can sense environmental changes, and in turn, informs the users about the changes. These packaging systems contain devices that are capable of sensing and providing information about the functions and properties of the packaged foods. Also, this paper will review intelligent packaging technologies and describe different types of indicators (time-temperature indicators, freshness indicators.

  13. Green Packaging Development. : A way to efficient, effective and more environmental friendly packaging solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Growing pressure on the packaging design to enhance the environmental and logistics performance of a packaging system stresses the packaging designers to search new design strategies that not only fulfill logistics requirements in the supply chain, but also reduce the CO 2emissions during the packaging life cycle. This thesis focuses on the packaging design process and suggests some improvements by considering its logistics performance and CO 2emissions. A Green packaging development model wa...

  14. Color in packaging design : Case: ZheJiang JinSheng packaging Co,Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Cuicui

    2010-01-01

    Color occupies an important position in packaging design, with the improvement of living standard, the higher requirement of color design in packaging. The aim of this thesis was to discuss key issues concerning aesthetics of packaging design. Topics will include an overview of the packaging design, the influence factor of packaging design, and introduce the aesthetics from packaging aspect. This thesis will also identify common problems of the production process, and list the phases of ho...

  15. Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Each May, the Continuing Education Division of the T.J.Watson School of Engineering, Applied Science and Technology at the State University of New York at Binghamton sponsors an Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging in cooperation with local professional societies (IEEE, ASME, SME, IEPS) and UnlPEG (the University-Industry Partnership for Economic Growth.) Each volume of this Electronics Packaging Forum series is based on the the preceding Symposium, with Volume Two based on the 1990 presentations. The Preface to Volume One included a brief definition of the broad scope of the electronics packaging field with some comments on why it has recently assumed such a more prominent priority for research and development. Those remarks will not be repeated here; at this point it is assumed that the reader is a professional in the packaging field, or possibly a student of one of the many academic disciplines which contribute to it. It is worthwhile repeating the series objectives, however, so the reader will be cle...

  16. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  17. The taste of desserts' packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeeke, C J; Peters, M E

    1991-10-01

    This article reports an experiment on expressing the behavioural meaning of designed objects. Can a designer express the taste of a desert in the form of its packaging and can consumers match these forms when tasting the desserts? Analysis of responses of 12 adults indicates positive answers to these questions.

  18. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  19. Improved switch-resistor packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmerski, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Packaging approach makes resistors more accessible and easily identified with specific switches. Failures are repaired more quickly because of improved accessibility. Typical board includes one resistor that acts as circuit breaker, and others are positioned so that their values can be easily measured when switch is operated. Approach saves weight by using less wire and saves valuable panel space.

  20. The packaging of intermediate and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Solid radioactive wastes will generally require some kind of packaging to prepare them for a period of storage followed probably by a land burial. In this Paper the specification of the package is discussed in relation to the properties which will facilitate those two phases of the management of the waste. It is concluded that, by adopting the philosophy of redundant barriers for the disposal phase, a suitable package can be specified for any particular waste product even before the repository site has been selected. Low water flow and an appropriate depth to reduce the risk of accidental re-exposure are the technical site parameters for which particular values will have to be assured at that stage. (author)

  1. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  2. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  3. Nuclear waste package fabricated from concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1987-03-01

    After the United States enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1983, the Department of Energy must design, site, build and operate permanent geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The Department of Energy has recently selected three sites, one being the Hanford Site in the state of Washington. At this particular site, the repository will be located in basalt at a depth of approximately 3000 feet deep. The main concern of this site, is contamination of the groundwater by release of radionuclides from the waste package. The waste package basically has three components: the containment barrier (metal or concrete container, in this study concrete will be considered), the waste form, and other materials (such as packing material, emplacement hole liners, etc.). The containment barriers are the primary waste container structural materials and are intended to provide containment of the nuclear waste up to a thousand years after emplacement. After the containment barriers are breached by groundwater, the packing material (expanding sodium bentonite clay) is expected to provide the primary control of release of radionuclide into the immediate repository environment. The loading conditions on the concrete container (from emplacement to approximately 1000 years), will be twofold; (1) internal heat of the high-level waste which could be up to 400 0 C; (2) external hydrostatic pressure up to 1300 psi after the seepage of groundwater has occurred in the emplacement tunnel. A suggested container is a hollow plain concrete cylinder with both ends capped. 7 refs

  4. The neutron instrument simulation package, NISP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, P.A.; Daemen, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Neutron Instrument Simulation Package (NISP) performs complete source-to-detector simulations of neutron instruments, including neutrons that do not follow the expected path. The original user interface (MC( ) Web) is a web-based application, http://strider.lansce.lanl.gov/NISP/Welcome.html. This report describes in detail the newer standalone Windows version, NISP( ) Win. Instruments are assembled from menu-selected elements, including neutron sources, collimation and transport elements, samples, analyzers, and detectors. Magnetic field regions may also be specified for the propagation of polarized neutrons including spin precession. Either interface writes a geometry file that is used as input to the Monte Carlo engine (MC( ) Run) in the user's computer. Both the interface and the engine rely on a subroutine library, MCLIB. The package is completely open source. New features include capillary optics, temperature dependence of Al and Be, revised source files for ISIS, and visualization of neutron trajectories at run time. Also, a single-crystal sample type has been successfully imported from McStas (with more generalized geometry), demonstrating the capability of including algorithms from other sources, and NISP( ) Win may render the instrument in a virtual reality file. Results are shown for two instruments under development.

  5. Food-packaging interactions influencing quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, J H

    1997-01-01

    Interactions between foods and packaging can be detrimental to quality and/or safety. Changes in product flavour due to aroma sorption and the transfer of undesirable flavours from packaging to foods are important mechanisms of deterioration when foods are packaged in polymer-based materials. Careful consideration must be given to those factors affecting such interactions when selecting packaging materials in order to maximize product quality, safety, and shelf-life while minimizing undesirable changes. Product considerations include sensitivity to flavour and related deteriorations, colour changes, vitamin loss, microbial activity, and amount of flavour available. Storage considerations include temperature, time, and processing method. Polymer considerations include type of polymer and processing method, volume or mass of polymer to product ratio, and whether the interaction is Fickian or non-Fickian. Methodology to determine the extent of such interactions must be developed. Direct interactions between food and packaging are not necessarily detrimental. The same principles governing undesirable interactions can be used to affect desirable outcomes. Examples include films which directly intercept or absorb oxygen, inhibit microorganisms, remove undesirable flavours by sorption, or indicate safety and product shelf-life.

  6. The impact of packaging on product competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Masoumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to detect important factors, which are influencing competitive advantage. The proposed model of this paper uses sampling technique to measure characteristics of society. There are eight independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including packaging endurance, easy distribution, customer promotion through packaging, packaging structure, packaging as silent advertiser, diversity of packaging, clean and healthy packaging and innovation in packaging. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to either accept or reject all hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper. The population of this study includes all managers and experts who are involved in packaging products. We used simple sampling technique and chooses 300 from a population of 450 people who are considered as the population of this survey. Cronbach alpha was determined as 0.732, which is above the minimum acceptable level. The results confirm that all mentioned factors influence competitiveness, effectively.

  7. GRIP LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) dataset was collected by the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP), which consists of 6 rotating vane type electric field...

  8. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container of apples. ...

  9. Containers and Packaging: Product-Specific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web page provide numbers on the different containers and packaging products in our municipal solid waste. These include containers of all types, such as glass, steel, plastic, aluminum, wood, and other types of packaging

  10. Integrated Approach to Industrial Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobeva, O.

    2017-11-01

    The article reviews studies in the field of industrial packaging design. The major factors which influence technological, ergonomic, economic and ecological features of packaging are established. The main modern trends in packaging design are defined, the principles of marketing communications and their influence on consumers’ consciousness are indicated, and the function of packaging as a transmitter of brand values is specified. Peculiarities of packaging technology and printing techniques in modern printing industry are considered. The role of designers in the stage-by-stage development of the construction, form and graphic design concept of packaging is defined. The examples of authentic packaging are given and the mention of the tetrahedron packaging history is made. At the end of the article, conclusions on the key research aspects are made.

  11. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-03

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  12. 27 CFR 6.93 - Combination packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.93 Combination packaging. The act by an industry member of packaging and distributing distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages in combination...

  13. Multimedia package for LRFD concrete bridge design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This Project developed a Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) multimedia package to provide a practical introduction and an in-depth understanding of the technological advances in the design of concrete bridges. This package can be used to train ...

  14. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Fu, Hui-Chun

    2017-01-01

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures

  15. Transport packages for nuclear material and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The regulations and responsibilities concerning the transport packages of nuclear materials and waste are given in the guide. The approval procedure, control of manufacturing, commissioning of the packaging and the control of use are specified. (13 refs.)

  16. Polymers for Pharmaceutical Packaging and Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel

    materials of interest for pharmaceutical packaging and delivery systems. Confocal fluorescence microscopy studies and stability studies with insulin aspart (AspB28 insulin) were conducted to evaluate the impact of modified PP compared to unmodified PP. In contrast to PEEK, PP did not contain any functional....... In order to decrease the amount of catalyst residual in the modified materials, activator regenerated by electron transfer (ARGET) SI-ATRP was applied in the second experimental round. Two poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA) monomers with 4 and 23 ethylene oxide units in the side chain......Selection of polymer materials which will be exposed to protein drugs in either containers or medical devices is often very challenging due to the demands on the polymers. Suitable polymer materials should comply with requirements like compatibility with proteins, sterilisability, good barrier...

  17. The development of a packaging handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    The Packaging Handbook, dealing with the development of packagings designed to carry radioactive material, is being written for DOE's Transportation and Packaging Safety Division. The primary goal of the Handbook is to provide sufficient technical information and guidance to improve the quality of Safety Analysis Reports on Type B Packagings (SARPs) that are submitted to DOE for certification. This paper provides an update on the status of the Handbook

  18. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Dobrucka; Ryszard Cierpiszewski; Andrzej Korzeniowski

    2015-01-01

    Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packa...

  19. 40 CFR 262.30 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Packaging. 262.30 Section 262.30... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.30 Packaging. Before... the waste in accordance with the applicable Department of Transportation regulations on packaging...

  20. 7 CFR 58.640 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 58.640 Section 58.640 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.640 Packaging. The packaging of the semifrozen product shall be done by means which will in...

  1. 9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 354.72 Section 354.72... CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.72 Packaging. No container which bears or may bear any official identification or any abbreviation...

  2. READDATA: a FORTRAN 77 codeword input package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A new codeword input package has been produced as a result of the incompatibility between different dialects of FORTRAN, especially when character variables are passed as parameters. This report is for those who wish to use a codeword input package with FORTRAN 77. The package, called ''Readdata'', attempts to combine the best features of its predecessors such as BINPUT and pseudo-BINPUT. (author)

  3. ICT and the paperboard and packaging industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Ince; Sanna Kallioranta; Richard Vlosky

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the reasons for the development of ICT and e-business systems in the paper and paperboard packaging industry and to discuss future scenarios that may serve to guide forest- sector research in this topical area. The paper and paperboard packaging industry encompasses producers of primary paper and paperboard packaging materials...

  4. 19 CFR 134.53 - Examination packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination packages. 134.53 Section 134.53... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.53 Examination packages. (a) Site of marking—(1) Customs custody. Articles (or containers) in examination packages may be marked by...

  5. Developments in the active packaging of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeiren, L.; Devlieghere, F.; Beest, M. van; Kruijf, N. de; Debevere, J.

    1999-01-01

    Active packaging is one of the innovative food packaging concepts that has been introduced as a response to the continuous changes in current consumer demands and market trends. Major active packaging techniques are concerned with substances that absorb oxygen, ethylene, moisture, carbon dioxide,

  6. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of section..., from the packaging supplier under whose brand name and firm name the material is marketed to the... distinguishing brand name or code designation appearing on the packaging material shipping container; must...

  7. 7 CFR 905.140 - Gift packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift packages. 905.140 Section 905.140 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.140 Gift packages. Any handler..., ship any varieties for the following purpose and types of shipment: (a) To any person gift packages...

  8. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  9. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b...

  10. Best practices and recommendations on policy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fearnley, Nils; Longva, Frode; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2011-01-01

    . This report gives practical and general advice for each of these stages: 1. Define objectives and targets 2. Create an inventory of measures, identify potential primary measures and detect causal relationships 3. Assess policy package 4. Modify package 5. Package implementation 6. Evaluate effects, introduce...

  11. Fire testing for package approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.; Fry, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA Transport Regulations require packaging systems for radioactive material to survive transport accidents without a significant increase in hazard to members of the public. Tests used to demonstrate this include a fire or 'thermal' test which may be a practical demonstration or based on calculations. Work at Winfrith, involving the development of computer models and pool fire techniques, has given an improved understanding of physical processes. This has been used to improve computer models and pool fire techniques. The paper covers the regulatory requirements for fire testing, the basic physics of fires, practical tests, computer modelling and their applications to package design. We have confidence in our ability to predict temperatures and other conditions in accident situations and can illustrate the important features of fires with experimental evidence. (author)

  12. The particle tracking package Kassiopeia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, Stefan [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Collaboration: KATRIN-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Kassiopeia particle tracking framework is an object-oriented software package utilizing modern C++ techniques, written originally to meet the needs of the Katrin collaboration. Kassiopeia's target consists of simulating particle trajectories governed by arbitrarily complex differential equations of motion, continuous physics processes that may in part be modeled as terms perturbing that equation of motion, stochastic processes that occur in flight such as bulk scattering and decay, and potentially stochastic surface processes occurring at interfaces, including transmission and reflection effects. This entire set of computations takes place against the backdrop of a fully-featured geometry package which serves a variety of roles, including initialization of electromagnetic field simulations, gas flow simulations, and the support of state-dependent algorithm-swapping and behavioral changes. Kassiopeia has been well validated and widely used within the Katrin collaboration, playing a primary role in many theses and refereed publications.

  13. Introduction of SCIENCE code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haoliang; Li Jinggang; Zhu Ya'nan; Bai Ning

    2012-01-01

    The SCIENCE code package is a set of neutronics tools based on 2D assembly calculations and 3D core calculations. It is made up of APOLLO2F, SMART and SQUALE and used to perform the nuclear design and loading pattern analysis for the reactors on operation or under construction of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group. The purpose of paper is to briefly present the physical and numerical models used in each computation codes of the SCIENCE code pack age, including the description of the general structure of the code package, the coupling relationship of APOLLO2-F transport lattice code and SMART core nodal code, and the SQUALE code used for processing the core maps. (authors)

  14. Wafer level packaging of MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esashi, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Wafer level packaging plays many important roles for MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems), including cost, yield and reliability. MEMS structures on silicon chips are encapsulated between bonded wafers or by surface micromachining, and electrical interconnections are made from the cavity. Bonding at the interface, such as glass–Si anodic bonding and metal-to-metal bonding, requires electrical interconnection through the lid vias in many cases. On the other hand, lateral electrical interconnections on the surface of the chip are used for bonding with intermediate melting materials, such as low melting point glass and solder. The cavity formed by surface micromachining is made using sacrificial etching, and the openings needed for the sacrificial etching are plugged using deposition sealing methods. Vacuum packaging methods and the structures for electrical feedthrough for the interconnection are discussed in this review. (topical review)

  15. Article I. Multi-platform Automated Software Building and Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A Abad; Gomes Gouveia, V E; Meneses, D; Capannini, F; Aimar, A; Di Meglio, A

    2012-01-01

    One of the major goals of the EMI (European Middleware Initiative) project is the integration of several components of the pre-existing middleware (ARC, gLite, UNICORE and dCache) into a single consistent set of packages with uniform distributions and repositories. Those individual middleware projects have been developed in the last decade by tens of development teams and before EMI were all built and tested using different tools and dedicated services. The software, millions of lines of code, is written in several programming languages and supports multiple platforms. Therefore a viable solution ought to be able to build and test applications on multiple programming languages using common dependencies on all selected platforms. It should, in addition, package the resulting software in formats compatible with the popular Linux distributions, such as Fedora and Debian, and store them in repositories from which all EMI software can be accessed and installed in a uniform way. Despite this highly heterogeneous initial situation, a single common solution, with the aim of quickly automating the integration of the middleware products, had to be selected and implemented in a few months after the beginning of the EMI project. Because of the previous knowledge and the short time available in which to provide this common solution, the ETICS service, where the gLite middleware was already built for years, was selected. This contribution describes how the team in charge of providing a common EMI build and packaging infrastructure to the whole project has developed a homogeneous solution for releasing and packaging the EMI components from the initial set of tools used by the earlier middleware projects. An important element of the presentation is the developers experience and feedback on converging on ETICS and on the on-going work in order to finally add more widely used and supported build and packaging solutions of the Linux platforms

  16. Magnetic Package data quality overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qamili, Enkelejda; Ottavianelli, Giuseppe; Olsen, Nils

    The ESA Swarm satellites, launched in November 2013, carry on-board instuments devoted to measure extremely accurate data necessary to improve our understanding of Earth’s magnetic field. The Swarm instrument package is made by two magnetometers (one vector and one scalar), one Electric field...... Instrument (EFI), one Accelerometer and one GPS reciever. This presentation aims at providing an extensive overview of the magnetic instrument status, magnetic data availability and quality....

  17. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE's mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin

  18. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  19. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko

    1998-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  20. Design/licensing of on-site package for core component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, K.; Chohzuka, T.; Shimura, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Fujiwara, R.; Karigome, S.; Takani, M.

    1993-01-01

    For storage of used core components which are produced from reactors, Tohoku EPCO decided to construct a site bunker at Onagawa site. It was also decided to develop and fabricate one packaging to transport core components from the reactor buildings to the site bunker. The packaging will be used within the power station; therefore, it shall comply with 'The Law for the Business of Electric Power' and relevant Notification. The main requirements of the packaging are as follows: 1) The number of contents, such as channel boxes and control rods, shall be as large as possible. 2) The weight and the outer dimensions of the packaging shall be within the limitation of the reactor building and the site bunker. 3) Materials shall be selected from those which have been already applied for existing packagings and utilized without any problems. 4) It shall be considered during design of trunnions that handling equipment, such as lifting beam, can be used for not only this packaging but also for existing spent fuel packagings. The design of the packaging is completed and has been licensed. The packaging is scheduled to be utilized from November, 1993. (J.P.N.)

  1. Consumers' physiological and verbal responses towards product packages: Could these responses anticipate product choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Inés

    2018-03-03

    Today, it is a priority to predict what consumers will choose at the point of sale where there are more and more competing brands. But what kind of consumers' information can be used for that purpose? This paper compares the power of physiological responses (unconscious responses) and self-report/verbal responses (conscious responses) towards product packages, as a means of predicting product choices. To this end, six different packaging designs were created by combining three different colors (blue, red and black) and two different messages (simple and reinforced). Eighty-three young consumers were exposed to each of the six designs. In one phase of our investigation, unconscious electrodermal activity (EDA) for each participant and each packaging type was recorded. In another phase, conscious verbal opinions for each packaging type were collected in a questionnaire. Our results show that the blue packaging with a reinforced message was most often selected. For this packaging consumers' electrodermal values (unconscious responses) were lower, and verbal opinions (conscious responses) were higher. Thus, both data sets could be used to anticipate product choice. However, for the other five packages, only unconscious responses were related to product choices. In contrast, higher opinions in a questionnaire did not correspond to selection of packages. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Generalized waste package containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a performance assessment strategy to demonstrate compliance with standards and technical requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in geologic repositories. One aspect of this strategy is the development of a unified performance model of the entire geologic repository system. Details of a generalized waste package containment (WPC) model and its relationship with other components of an overall repository model are presented in this paper. The WPC model provides stochastically determined estimates of the distributions of times-to-failure of the barriers of a waste package by various corrosion mechanisms and degradation processes. The model consists of a series of modules which employ various combinations of stochastic (probabilistic) and mechanistic process models, and which are individually designed to reflect the current state of knowledge. The WPC model is designed not only to take account of various site-specific conditions and processes, but also to deal with a wide range of site, repository, and waste package configurations. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Package and Assisted Travel Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ordinary legislative procedure before the European Parliament and the Council, there is a proposal of the European Commission for the adoption of a new directive that would bring the regulation of the contract on organized tours into line with current market development of organized trips. The proposal is intended to regulate the various combinations of travel services that are today offered to passengers, particularly online, which are identical or comparable to the travel services provided in a classic pre-arranged package. The subject of the paper are the provisions of the proposal of the directive which govern the field of application of the proposed directive, in particular the proposed changes regarding the concept of "package" contained in the European Commission proposal and amendments of the European Parliament, as well as the analysis of the proposed new concept of "assisted travel arrangements." The paper also critically refers to the method of targeted maximum harmonization as a proposed new intensity of the harmonization. The conclusion is that, despite the welcome updating of an outdated text of the directive on package travel which is line with the current market needs, the proposed text of the new directive is burdened with technical and complex definitions that could lead to significant difficulties in their transposition into the provisions of national law of the Member States.

  4. Solidified package-storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Masahide

    1998-01-01

    Vitrification products such as high level radioactive liquid wastes are contained in a solidification package. A containing tube for vertically containing the solidification packages in multi-stages is disposed such that it passes through a ceiling slab. A shielding plug for preventing leakage of radiation from the solidification packages is fitted to an upper opening thereof. A lid of the containing tube is fitted above the plug. The lid is a carbon steel plate having a thickness of 10cm or more. A heat insulation layer comprising glass wool or rock wool is formed on the lower surface of the ceiling slab. A radiation shielding layer comprising such as an iron plate is formed on the lower surface of the heat insulation layer. Then, deterioration of the ceiling slug by heat can be prevented by the heat insulation layer even if high temperature cooling air flown from the upper opening of a ventilation tube should reach the lower surface of the ceiling slab. (I.N.)

  5. Radioactive material package seal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 x 10 -7 std cm 3 /s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  7. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report

  8. The environmental effects of taxes on packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroten, A.; Nelissen, D.; Bergsma, G.C.; Blom, M.J.

    2010-08-01

    The results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts of taxes for packages are presented, differentiated for greenhouse gas emissions. The evaluation used a qualitative analysis of information from eighteen depth-interviews with experts in the packaging market, foreign experiences, relevant price elasticities and 'expert guesses'. It appears that tax package so far had a limited effect on the packaging market. For the longer term (ten years) larger, but probably also limited, effects are expected. The environmental impact of packaging tax can be increased if the taxes are substantially increased. [nl

  9. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  10. Perspectives on the Elements of Packaging Design : A Qualitative Study on the Communication of Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Alervall, Viktoria; Saied, Juan Sdiq

    2013-01-01

    Background: In today’s markets almost all products we buy come packaged. We use packaging to protect, contain and identify products. Furthermore if this is executed in a skillful way consumers often choose products based on packaging. The work of a designer and marketer is therefore extremely valuable when it comes to the design of a package. Problem: How are packages used to communicate marketing information? Purpose: The focus of this thesis is to identify differences and similarities of a ...

  11. Migration and sorption phenomena in packaged foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekharan, V; Floros, J D

    1997-10-01

    Rapidly developing analytical capabilities and continuously evolving stringent regulations have made food/package interactions a subject of intense research. This article focuses on: (1) the migration of package components such as oligomers and monomers, processing aids, additives, and residual reactants in to packaged foods, and (2) sorption of food components such as flavors, lipids, and moisture into packages. Principles of diffusion and thermodynamics are utilized to describe the mathematics of migration and sorption. Mathematical models are developed from first principles, and their applicability is illustrated using numerical simulations and published data. Simulations indicate that available models are system (polymer-penetrant) specific. Furthermore, some models best describe the early stages of migration/sorption, whereas others should be used for the late stages of these phenomena. Migration- and/or sorption-related problems with respect to glass, metal, paper-based and polymeric packaging materials are discussed, and their importance is illustrated using published examples. The effects of migrating and absorbed components on food safety, quality, and the environment are presented for various foods and packaging materials. The impact of currently popular packaging techniques such as microwavable, ovenable, and retortable packaging on migration and sorption are discussed with examples. Analytical techniques for investigating migration and sorption phenomena in food packaging are critically reviewed, with special emphasis on the use and characteristics of food-simulating liquids (FSLs). Finally, domestic and international regulations concerning migration in packaged foods, and their impact on food packaging is briefly presented.

  12. Antimicrobial packaging with natural compunds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Packaging problems are an integral part of logistics and the implementation of packaging significantly affects the effectiveness of logistics processes, as a factor which increases the safety and the quality of products being transported. Active packaging is an area of technology needed to meet the requirements of the contemporary consumer. Active packaging creates additional opportunities in systems for packing goods, as well as offering a solution in which the packaging, the product and surroundings interact. Furthermore, active packaging allows packaging to interact with food and the environment and play a dynamic role in food preservation. The main role of antimicrobial packaging is to inhibit the growth of microorganisms that reduce the quality of the packaged product. Methods: The application of natural antimicrobial agents appears to be safe for food products. Also, these compounds have potential applications as a natural preservative in the food packaging industry. This study presents some antibacterial agents, namely chitosan, nisin and pectins. Results and conclusion: Natural substances used in active packaging can eliminate the danger of chemical substances migrating to food.

  13. Overview of the DOE packaging certification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Carlson, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carlson, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kapoor, A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the DOE packaging certification process, which is implemented by the Office of Facility Safety Analysis, under the Assistance Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, for packagings that are not used for weapons and weapons components, nor for naval nuclear propulsion. The overview will emphasize Type B packagings and the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) review that parallels the NRC packaging review. Other important elements in the DOE packaging certification program, such as training, methods development, data bases, and technical assistance, are also emphasized, because they have contributed significantly to the improvement of the certification process since DOE consolidated its packaging certification function in 1985. The paper finishes with a discussion of the roles and functions of the DOE Packaging Safety Review Steering Committee, which is chartered to address issues and concerns of interest to the DOE packaging and transportation safety community. Two articles related to DOE packaging certification were published earlier on the SARP review procedures and the DOE Packaging Review Guide. These articles may be consulted for additional information.

  14. Stowing of radioactive materials package during land transport. Third phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.; Jolys, J.C.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1984-01-01

    Phase 3 of this study is mainly experimental. The study is based on the work performed during 2 former studies: phase 1: definition and analysis of reference accidental conditions, and phase 2: selection of some reference accidents and computation of the deceleration forces. The main goal of the study is to draw up a reference document, giving some guidances for the stowing of packages on conveyances for land transportation. The third phase includes four frontal impact tests. The reference package used is a French IL-37 container weighing about 1.3 t. The first test was performed using a truck, loaded with two IL-37 containers and launched at a speed of 50 km/h against a fixed obstacle. The deceleration curve the behaviour of each package and the behaviour of stowing systems are compared with the theoretical results. Various measurements were made during the test: vehicle impact speed; vehicle deceleration, measured at different points on the frame, package deceleration, displacement of attachment points. The impact was filmed from different angles. The second test was performed in the same impact conditions but with a waggon instead of a truck, and loaded with one container. The front of the waggon was equipped with special shock absorbers to obtain the same deceleration as recorded during the truck impact (first test). In the third test the stowing systems were reinforced by a nylon one in order to obtain information of stowing systems of that type and to increase the energy absorption capacity. In the fourth test in addition to being stowed the package was also chocked. The results obtained have shown that it is possible to maintain a package on a truck platform even during a severe frontal impact

  15. Consignor's part and multimodality of the packages of RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the essential principles of Safety in transport of RAM as it was carried on, until the present days, is that the safety comes firstly from the packaging, and not from a special consideration of the mode of transport or anything else. A natural consequence was that the packaging remains the same, whatever is the used mode of transport, another that the transport mode does not take part, otherly than by its normal safety in the carriage itself in the protection against the radioactive hazard. Some recent actions, nevertheless, could be considered as putting some doubt on the implementation of this principles in the regulations and sometimes on these principles themselves. However, these latter come from the fact that the safety of the transport lays essentially in the hands of the consignor. He is indeed the only one who knows well enough the material and who is able to assess the adequation of the packaging and to warrant it to the Competent Authority when necessary. Besides, the packaging is the only direct grasp he has on the shipment, outside the special case of exclusive use. This situation is not completely incompatible with a new possible graduation of the packaging according to the transport mode, under the condition that this graduation be unidimensional which means the same in every field of testing. The consignor must, then, select the packaging corresponding to the most demanding of the possible modes. It is certainly much more difficult to adapt the mode of transport to the shipped materials themselves. All the transport has then to be in the hands of the consignor. That perhaps, can be relevant to industrial nuclear transport (eg: irradiated fuels, wastes), but not to the carriage of radioactive materials in general, which is the scope of IAEA regulations. (author)

  16. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling...

  17. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  18. Biobased Packaging - Application in Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of growing problems of waste disposal and because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource with diminishing quantities, renewed interest in packaging research is underway to develop and promote the use of “bio-plastics.” In general, compared to conventional plastics derived from petroleum, bio-based polymers have more diverse stereochemistry and architecture of side chains which enable research scientists a greater number of opportunities to customize the properties of the final packaging material. The primary challenge facing the food (Meat industry in producing bio-plastic packaging, currently, is to match the durability of the packaging with product shelf-life. Notable advances in biopolymer production, consumer demand for more environmentally-friendly packaging, and technologies that allow packaging to do more than just encompass the food are driving new and novel research and developments in the area of packaging for muscle foods. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 79-82

  19. Initial specifications for nuclear waste package external dimensions and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    Initial specifications of external dimensions and materials for waste package conceptual designs are given for Defense High Level Waste (DHLW), Commercial High Level Waste (CHLW) and Spent Fuel (SF). The designs have been developed for use in a high-level waste repository sited in a tuff media in the unsaturated zone. Drawings for reference and alternative package conceptual designs are presented for each waste form for both vertical and horizontal emplacement configurations. Four metal alloys: 304L SS, 321 SS, 316L SS and Incoloy 825 are considered for the canister or overpack; 1020 carbon steel was selected for horizontal borehole liners, and a preliminary packing material selection is either compressed tuff or compressed tuff containing iron bearing smectite clay as a binder

  20. System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans

  1. Status of shielding analysis methods for transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Brady, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Shielding analysis methods for transport packages are becoming more important to the cask designer because optimized cask designs with higher payloads can yield doses near the limits set by regulatory authorities. Uncertainty arising from generation of radiation sources, selection of cross-section data, and the radiation transport methodology must be considered. Recent comparison studies using popular US codes illustrate calculational discrepancies arising from each of these areas

  2. System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-08

    The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

  3. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdi, M. R.; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D.; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET

  4. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdi, M. R., E-mail: mrgaldi@unisa.it; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D., E-mail: dalbanese@unisa.it; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L., E-mail: ldimaio@unisa.it [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  5. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, M. R.; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D.; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  6. Qualification of package units; Qualifizierung von Package Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombacher, M.; Walter, U. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The use of package units in pharmaceutical plants is increasing. If they are involved in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and have an influence on the quality of the end product, the user is required to validate the processes used. Parallel to the growing demands with respect to the automation of these units, the importance of PCS equipment has increased and with this the necessity for its qualification. Experience to date shows that the manufacturer's awareness of these requirements can be heightened still further. This paper describes approaches for improving the present situation and should be interpreted not as criticism but as providing an opportunity to increase the knowledge base and work together to define solutions which satisfy the guidelines. (orig.) [German] Der Einsatz von Package Units in Pharma-Anlagen erfaehrt zunehmende Verbreitung. Wenn sie an der Herstellung von Arzneimitteln beteiligt sind und auf die Qualitaet des Endprodukts Einfluss nehmen, unterliegen sie der Validierungspflicht, die der Anwender zu gewaehrleisten hat. Entsprechend den wachsenden Anforderungen an die Automatisierung dieser Einheiten ist auch der Stellenwert der PLT-Ausruestung angestiegen und mit ihm die Notwendigkeit von deren Qualifizierung. Die bisherige Praxis zeigt, dass die Sensbilitaet der Hersteller diesen Anforderungen gegenueber noch besser entwickelt werden kann. Der Beitrag zeigt Wege auf, um die derzeitige Situation zu verbessern und sollte nicht als Kritik sondern als Chance aufgefasst werden, den Wissensstand auszugleichen und gemeinsam zu richtliniengerechten Loesungen zu kommen. (orig.)

  7. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  8. Bridging the Divide between Manual Gating and Bioinformatics with the Bioconductor Package flowFlowJo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Gosink

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In flow cytometry, different cell types are usually selected or “gated” by a series of 1- or 2-dimensional geometric subsets of the measurements made on each cell. This is easily accomplished in commercial flow cytometry packages but it is difficult to work computationally with the results of this process. The ability to retrieve the results and work with both them and the raw data is critical; our experience points to the importance of bioinformatics tools that will allow us to examine gating robustness, combine manual and automated gating, and perform exploratory data analysis. To provide this capability, we have developed a Bioconductor package called flowFlowJo that can import gates defined by the commercial package FlowJo and work with them in a manner consistent with the other flow packages in Bioconductor. We present this package and illustrate some of the ways in which it can be used.

  9. [Energy and macronutrients intake from pre-packaged foods among urban residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguo; Huang, Feifei; Wang, Huijun; Zhai, Feigying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the energy and macronutrients intake from pre-packaged foods among urban residents in China. The adult subjects were selected from 9 cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Shenyang, Harbin, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Changsha, Nanning. The recording method for 7 consecutive days was used to collect pre-packaged foods consumption information. Among subjects, the median intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate from pre-packaged foods were 628. 8kJ/d, 5.0 g/d, 6.7 g/d and 17.0 g/d, respectively. Among consumers, the median intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate from pre-packaged foods were 745. 3 kJ/d, 6. 0 g/d, 7. 7 g/d and 20. 7 g/d, respectively. The energy and macronutrients intake from pre-packaged foods were at low level.

  10. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  11. 49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Large Packaging standards. 178.915 Section... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.915 General Large Packaging standards. (a) Each Large Packaging.... Large Packagings intended for solid hazardous materials must be sift-proof and water-resistant. (b) All...

  12. Assessing Information on Food Packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Smith, Viktor; Zlatev, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    -store decisions and other needs like high quality or low price. This calls for further research. Practical implications: The topic is important for food companies and it might become a priority in managing brand equity, combining consumer preferences, loyalty, and communicative fairness. Originality/value: Using......Purpose: This paper presents an experimental study which aims at assessing the potentially misleading effect of graphic elements on food packaging. We call these elements potentially misleading elements (PMEs) as they can give customers false expectations. They are either (a) highlighted numerical...

  13. Surgical packages for laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Packages′ are in fashion today for most surgical procedures in various corporate hospitals and this has included laparoscopic procedures too. A package system enables the hospitals to get cost settlements done more easily. Also, it is more convenient for the patients who are aware upfront of the charges. The principal disadvantages seems to be for the surgeon, who may face displeasure of the patient, hospital or insurance agencies apart from forfeiting his personal charges if (a he is a novice in laparoscopic surgery and takes extra time to complete a procedure, (b unforeseen problems occur during surgery, or (c new pathologies are discovered on exploration.

  14. PIV Data Validation Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A PIV data validation and post-processing software package was developed to provide semi-automated data validation and data reduction capabilities for Particle Image Velocimetry data sets. The software provides three primary capabilities including (1) removal of spurious vector data, (2) filtering, smoothing, and interpolating of PIV data, and (3) calculations of out-of-plane vorticity, ensemble statistics, and turbulence statistics information. The software runs on an IBM PC/AT host computer working either under Microsoft Windows 3.1 or Windows 95 operating systems.

  15. The Innovative Approaches to Packaging – Comparison Analysis of Intelligent and Active Packaging Perceptions in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loucanova Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has always served a practical function - to hold goods together and protect it when moving toward the customer through distribution channel. Today packaging is also a container for promoting the product and making it easier and safer to use. The sheer importance of packaging functions is still growing and consequently the interest of the company is to access to the packaging more innovative and creative. The paper deals with the innovative approaches to packaging resulting in the creation of packaging with interactive active features in the form of active and intelligent packaging. Using comparative analysis, we monitored the perception of the active packaging functions in comparison to intelligent packaging function among different age categories. We identified the age categories which are most interested in these functions.

  16. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  17. Experimental Approaches to Study Genome Packaging of Influenza A Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Isel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The genome of influenza A viruses (IAV consists of eight single-stranded negative sense viral RNAs (vRNAs encapsidated into viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs. It is now well established that genome packaging (i.e., the incorporation of a set of eight distinct vRNPs into budding viral particles, follows a specific pathway guided by segment-specific cis-acting packaging signals on each vRNA. However, the precise nature and function of the packaging signals, and the mechanisms underlying the assembly of vRNPs into sub-bundles in the cytoplasm and their selective packaging at the viral budding site, remain largely unknown. Here, we review the diverse and complementary methods currently being used to elucidate these aspects of the viral cycle. They range from conventional and competitive reverse genetics, single molecule imaging of vRNPs by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography of budding viral particles, to solely in vitro approaches to investigate vRNA-vRNA interactions at the molecular level.

  18. Compensation packages: a strategic tool for employees’ performance and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Adewale OSIBANJO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rate at which employees in private universities in Nigeria jump from one university to the other is becoming more disturbing and this could be as a result of compensation packages of different universities to attract competent employees. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of compensation packages on employees’ job performance and retention in a selected private University in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria. A model was developed and tested using one hundred and eleven valid questionnaires which were completed by academics and non-academic staff of the university. The collected data were carefully analyzed using simple percentage supported by structural equation modelling to test the hypotheses and relationships that may exist among the variables under consideration. The results showed strong relationship between compensation packages and employees’ performance and retention. The summary of the findings indicates that there is strong correlation between the tested dependent and independent variables (salary, bonus, incentives, allowances, and fringe benefits. However, management and decision makers should endeavour to review compensation packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ satisfaction and prevention of high labour turnover among the members of staff.

  19. Vadose Zone Hydrogeology Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Fayer, Michael J.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nichols, William E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.

    2006-06-01

    This data package documents the technical basis for selecting physical and geochemical parameters and input values that will be used in vadose zone modeling for Hanford assessments. This work was originally conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington, and revised as part of the Characterization of Systems Project managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). This data package describes the geologic framework, the physical, hydrologic, and contaminant transport properties of the geologic materials, and deep drainage (i.e., recharge) estimates, and builds on the general framework developed for the initial assessment conducted using the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Bryce et al. 2002). The general approach for this work was to update and provide incremental improvements over the previous SAC data package completed in 2001. As with the previous SAC data package, much of the data and interpreted information were extracted from existing documents and databases. Every attempt was made to provide traceability to the original source(s) of the data or interpretations.

  20. User Manual for SAHM package for VisTrails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, C.B.; Talbert, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The Software for Assisted Habitat I\\•1odeling (SAHM) has been created to both expedite habitat modeling and help maintain a record of the various input data, pre-and post-processing steps and modeling options incorporated in the construction of a species distribution model. The four main advantages to using the combined VisTrail: SAHM package for species distribution modeling are: 1. formalization and tractable recording of the entire modeling process 2. easier collaboration through a common modeling framework 3. a user-friendly graphical interface to manage file input, model runs, and output 4. extensibility to incorporate future and additional modeling routines and tools. This user manual provides detailed information on each module within the SAHM package, their input, output, common connections, optional arguments, and default settings. This information can also be accessed for individual modules by right clicking on the documentation button for any module in VisTrail or by right clicking on any input or output for a module and selecting view documentation. This user manual is intended to accompany the user guide which provides detailed instructions on how to install the SAHM package within VisTrails and then presents information on the use of the package.